An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of cytidylate (CMP) to choline phosphate to form CDPcholine. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in the choline pathway for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine. Its activity is increased by glucocorticoids. EC 2.7.7.15.
A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.
Cytidine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Calcium and magnesium salts used therapeutically in hepatobiliary dysfunction.
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Donor of choline in biosynthesis of choline-containing phosphoglycerides.
An enzyme that is active in the first step of choline phosphoglyceride (lecithin) biosynthesis by catalyzing the phosphorylation of choline to phosphorylcholine in the presence of ATP. Ethanolamine and its methyl and ethyl derivatives can also act as acceptors. EC 2.7.1.32.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of phosphatidylcholines from CDPcholine and 1,2-diacylglycerols. EC 2.7.8.2.
An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
An enzyme that catalyses three sequential METHYLATION reactions for conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine to PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE.
A condition produced by a deficiency of CHOLINE in animals. Choline is known as a lipotropic agent because it has been shown to promote the transport of excess fat from the liver under certain conditions in laboratory animals. Combined deficiency of choline (included in the B vitamin complex) and all other methyl group donors causes liver cirrhosis in some animals. Unlike compounds normally considered as vitamins, choline does not serve as a cofactor in enzymatic reactions. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 2.3.1.6.
An antidepressive agent that has also been used in the treatment of movement disorders. The mechanism of action is not well understood.
The ester of diacylglycerol with the terminal phosphate of cytidine diphosphate. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine in bacteria.
A viscous, hygroscopic amino alcohol with an ammoniacal odor. It is widely distributed in biological tissue and is a component of lecithin. It is used as a surfactant, fluorimetric reagent, and to remove CO2 and H2S from natural gas and other gases.
An enzyme that forms CMP-acylneuraminic acids, which donate the N-acylneuraminic acid residues to the terminal sugar residue of a ganglioside or glycoprotein. EC 2.7.7.43.
Cytidine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. Synonyms: CRPP; cytidine pyrophosphate.
Enzymes that catalyze the template-directed incorporation of ribonucleotides into an RNA chain. EC 2.7.7.-.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.
An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC 2.3.1.15.
Cytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2', 3' or 5' position.
An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE. Several types of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase exist including phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating varieties and ones that transfer hydrogen to NADP and ones that transfer hydrogen to NAD.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the transfer of phosphoethanolamine from CDP-ethanolamine to diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidylethanolamine (cephalin) and CMP. The enzyme is found in the endoplasmic reticulum. EC 2.7.8.1.
A glycoside obtained from Digitalis purpurea; the aglycone is digitogenin which is bound to five sugars. Digitonin solubilizes lipids, especially in membranes and is used as a tool in cellular biochemistry, and reagent for precipitating cholesterol. It has no cardiac effects.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A potent inhibitor of the high affinity uptake system for CHOLINE. It has less effect on the low affinity uptake system. Since choline is one of the components of ACETYLCHOLINE, treatment with hemicholinium can deplete acetylcholine from cholinergic terminals. Hemicholinium 3 is commonly used as a research tool in animal and in vitro experiments.
A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)
Phospholipids which have an alcohol moiety in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol. They are usually derivatives of phosphoglycerols or phosphatidates. The other two alcohol groups of the glycerol backbone are usually in ester linkage. These compounds are widely distributed in animal tissues.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.
A FENFLURAMINE analog that inhibits serotonin uptake and may provoke release of serotonin. It is used as an appetite depressant and an experimental tool in animal studies.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An enzyme bound to the inner mitochondrial membrane that catalyzes the oxidation of CHOLINE to BETAINE.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
A furanyl adenine found in PLANTS and FUNGI. It has plant growth regulation effects.
A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.
A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.

Cellular responses to excess phospholipid. (1/270)

Phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) is the major membrane phospholipid in mammalian cells, and its synthesis is controlled by the activity of CDP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT). Enforced CCT expression accelerated the rate of PtdCho synthesis. However, the amount of cellular PtdCho did not increase as a result of the turnover of both the choline and glycerol components of PtdCho. Metabolic labeling experiments demonstrated that cells compensated for elevated CCT activity by the degradation of PtdCho to glycerophosphocholine (GPC). Phospholipase D-mediated PtdCho hydrolysis and phosphocholine formation were unaffected. Most of the GPC produced in response to excess phospholipid production was secreted into the medium. Cells also degraded the excess membrane PtdCho to GPC when phospholipid formation was increased by exposure to exogenous lysophosphatidylcholine or lysophosphatidylethanolamine. The replacement of the acyl moiety at the 1-position of PtdCho with a non-hydrolyzable alkyl moiety prevented degradation to GPC. Accumulation of alkylacyl-PtdCho was associated with the inhibition of cell proliferation, demonstrating that alternative pathways of degradation will not substitute. GPC formation was blocked by bromoenol lactone, implicating the calcium-independent phospholipase A2 as a key participant in the response to excess phospholipid. Owing to the fact that PtdCho is biosynthetically converted to PtdEtn, excess PtdCho resulted in overproduction and exit of GPE as well as GPC. Thus, general membrane phospholipid homeostasis is achieved by a balance between the opposing activities of CCT and phospholipase A2.  (+info)

Macrophage-targeted CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (1-314) transgenic mice. (2/270)

CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CT) is a rate-limiting and complexly regulated enzyme in phosphatidylcholine (PC) biosynthesis and is important in the adaptation of macrophages to cholesterol loading. The goal of the present study was to use transgenesis to study the CT reaction in differentiated macrophages in vivo. We successfully created macrophage-targeted transgenic mice that overexpress a truncated form of CT, called CT-314. Sonicated homogenates of peritoneal macrophages overexpressing CT-314 protein demonstrated a two-fold increase in CT activity in vitro compared with homogenates from nontransgenic macrophages. CT-314 macrophages, however, demonstrated no increase in CT activity or PC biosynthesis in vivo. This finding could not be explained simply by intracellular mistargeting of CT-314, by the inability of CT-314 to associate with cellular membranes, or by substrate limitation. To further probe the mechanism, an in vitro assay using intact nuclei was developed in an attempt to preserve interactions between CT, which is primarily a nuclear enzyme in macrophages, and other nuclear molecules. This intact-nuclei assay faithfully reproduced the situation observed in living macrophages, namely, no significant increase in CT activity despite increased CT-314 protein. In contrast, CT activity in sonicated nuclei from CT-314 macrophages was substantially higher than that from nontransgenic macrophages. Thus, a sonication-sensitive interaction between excess CT and one or more nuclear molecules may be responsible for the limitation of CT activity in CT-314 macrophages. These data represent the first report of a CT transgenic animal and the first study of a differentiated cell type with excess CT.  (+info)

Transcriptional activation of the murine CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase gene (Ctpct): combined action of upstream stimulatory and inhibitory cis-acting elements. (3/270)

CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase plays a key role in regulating the rate of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. However, the proximal regulatory elements for the gene (Ctpct) that encode this enzyme and the cognate transcription factors involved have not been characterized. Ctpct promoter activities were deduced from promoter deletion constructs linked to a luciferase reporter and transiently transfected into C3H10T1/2 and McArdle RH7777 cells. Positive regulatory elements were located between -130 and -52 bp from the transcription start site. Basal expression resided downstream between -52 and +38 bp. DNase I protection and electromobility-shift assays indicated that Sp1-related nuclear factors bind to a stimulatory, a possible inhibitory and minimal promoter element. Gel-shift assays confirmed that all three regulatory regions bound Sp1. Sp1 was further implicated when Sp1-deficient Drosophila cells were co-transfected with promoter-reporter constructs and an Sp1 construct. DNase I assays also indicated that the Ap1 binding elements could be occupied in the proximal activator and minimal promoter regions. Gel-shift assays demonstrated that the distal activator region could bind Ap1 and an unknown transcription factor. We conclude that Sp1, Ap1 and an unknown transcription factor have important roles in regulating expression of the Ctpct gene.  (+info)

Enzymatic and cellular characterization of a catalytic fragment of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase alpha. (4/270)

To probe the mechanism of lipid activation of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCTalpha), we have characterized a catalytic fragment of the enzyme that lacks the membrane-binding segment. The kinetic properties of the purified fragment, CCTalpha236, were characterized, as well as the effects of expressing the fragment in cultured cells. CCTalpha236 was truncated after residue 236, which corresponds to the end of the highly conserved catalytic domain. The activity of purified CCTalpha236 was independent of lipids and about 50-fold higher than the activity of wild-type CCTalpha assayed in the absence of lipids, supporting a model in which the membrane-binding segment functions as an inhibitor of the catalytic domain. The kcat/Km values for CCTalpha236 were only slightly lower than those for lipid-activated CCTalpha. The importance of the membrane-binding segment in vivo was tested by expression of CCTalpha236 in CHO58 cells, a cell line that is temperature-sensitive for growth and CCTalpha activity. Expression of wild-type CCTalpha in these cells complemented the defective growth phenotype when the cells were cultured in complete or delipidated fetal bovine serum. Expression of CCTalpha236, however, did not complement the growth phenotype in the absence of serum lipids. These cells were capable of making phosphatidylcholine in the delipidated medium, so the inability of the cells to grow was not due to defective phosphatidylcholine synthesis. Supplementation of the delipidated medium with an unsaturated fatty acid allowed growth of CHO58 cells expressing CCTalpha236. These results indicate that the membrane-binding segment of CCTalpha has an important role in cellular lipid metabolism.  (+info)

Regulation of phosphatidylcholine homeostasis by calcium-independent phospholipase A2. (5/270)

Phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) is the most abundant phospholipid in mammalian cell membranes and is essential for cell viability. The levels of this lipid must be tightly controlled to maintain homeostasis. Therefore, changes in the rate of PtdCho synthesis are generally balanced by changes in PtdCho catabolism and vice versa. It is commonly accepted that the rate of PtdCho synthesis is regulated by CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CT). However, it is not certain if PtdCho mass is regulated by specific catabolic enzyme(s). Our goal is to determine if PtdCho homeostasis is regulated by a phospholipase A2 (PLA2). To this end, we have prepared Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines that overexpress CT. CT activity is 7-10-fold higher in the transfected cells than in parental CHO cells. This increase in CT activity is associated with increases in both PtdCho synthesis and PtdCho catabolism. Glycerophosphocholine is the PtdCho catabolite that accumulates in the transfected cells, which suggests that PtdCho turnover is mediated by a phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Indeed, higher levels of calcium-independent PLA2 activity are measured in the cytosols of the CHO cells that overexpress CT, compared to parental CHO cells. The elevated calcium-independent PLA2 activity is associated with increases in the expression of the 80-kDa calcium-independent PLA2 (iPLA2). Together, these data suggest that the 80-kDa iPLA2 may be modulated in response to changes in PtdCho levels and therefore is involved in the regulation of PtdCho homeostasis in CHO cells.  (+info)

Different effect of simvastatin and atorvastatin on key enzymes involved in VLDL synthesis and catabolism in high fat/cholesterol fed rabbits. (6/270)

The effects of atorvastatin (3 mg kg(-1)) and simvastatin (3 mg kg(-1)) on hepatic enzyme activities involved in very low density lipoprotein metabolism were studied in coconut oil/cholesterol fed rabbits. Plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels increased 19 and 4 fold, respectively, after 7 weeks of feeding. Treatment with statins during the last 4 weeks of feeding abolished the progression of hypercholesterolaemia and reduced plasma triglyceride levels. 3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl Coenzyme A reductase, acylcoenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase, phosphatidate phosphohydrolase and diacylglycerol acyltransferase activities were not affected by drug treatment. Accordingly, hepatic free cholesterol, cholesteryl ester and triglyceride content were not modified. Simvastatin treatment caused an increase (72%) in lipoprotein lipase activity without affecting hepatic lipase activity. Atorvastatin caused a reduction in hepatic phospholipid content and a compensatory increase in CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyl transferase activity. The results presented in this study suggest that, besides the inhibitory effect on 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl Coenzyme A reductase, simvastatin and atorvastatin may have additional effects that contribute to their triglyceride-lowering ability.  (+info)

Shuttling of CTP:Phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase between the nucleus and endoplasmic reticulum accompanies the wave of phosphatidylcholine synthesis during the G(0) --> G(1) transition. (7/270)

The transition from quiescence (G(0)) into the cell division cycle is marked by accelerated phospholipid turnover. We examined the rates of phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis and the activity, membrane affinity, and intracellular localization of the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of PC, CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CT) during this transition. The addition of serum to quiescent IIC9 fibroblasts resulted in a wave of PC synthesis beginning at approximately 10 min, peaking at approximately 3 h with a >10-fold increase in rate, and declining to near basal rates by 10 h. CT activity, monitored in situ, was elevated approximately 3-fold between 1 and 2 h postserum. Neither CT mass nor its phosphorylation state changed during the surge in PC synthesis and CT activity. On the other hand, the ratio of particulate/soluble CT surged and then receded in concert with the wave of PC synthesis. During quiescence, CT was confined to the nucleus, as assessed by indirect immunofluorescence. Within 10 min after serum stimulation, a portion of the CT fluorescence appeared in the cytoplasm, where it intensified until approximately 4 h postserum. Thereafter, the cytoplasmic CT signal waned, while the nuclear signal increased, and by 8 h CT was once again predominantly nuclear. The dynamics of CT's apparent translocation in and out of the nucleus paralleled the wave of PC synthesis and the solubility changes of CT. Cytoplasmic CT co-localized with BiP, a resident endoplasmic reticulum protein, in a double labeling experiment. These data suggest that the wave of PC synthesis that accompanies the G(0) --> G(1) transition is regulated by the coordinated changes in CT activity, membrane affinity, and intracellular distribution. We describe for the first time a redistribution of CT from the nucleus to the ER that correlates with an activation of the enzyme. We propose that this movement is required for the stimulation of PC synthesis during entry into the cell cycle.  (+info)

Distribution of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT) isoforms. Identification of a new CCTbeta splice variant. (8/270)

CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase is a major regulator of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. A single isoform, CCTalpha, has been studied extensively and a second isoform, CCTbeta, was recently identified. We identify and characterize a third cDNA, CCTbeta2, that differs from CCTbeta1 at the carboxyl-terminal end and is predicted to arise as a splice variant of the CCTbeta gene. Like CCTalpha, CCTbeta2 is heavily phosphorylated in vivo, in contrast to CCTbeta1. CCTbeta1 and CCTbeta2 mRNAs were differentially expressed by the human tissues examined, whereas CCTalpha was more uniformly represented. Using isoform-specific antibodies, both CCTbeta1 and CCTbeta2 localized to the endoplasmic reticulum of cells, in contrast to CCTalpha which resided in the nucleus in addition to associating with the endoplasmic reticulum. CCTbeta2 protein has enzymatic activity in vitro and was able to complement the temperature-sensitive cytidylyltransferase defect in CHO58 cells, just as CCTalpha and CCTbeta1 supporting proliferation at the nonpermissive conditions. Overexpression experiments did not reveal discrete physiological functions for the three isoforms that catalyze the same biochemical reaction; however, the differential cellular localization and tissue-specific distribution suggest that CCTbeta1 and CCTbeta2 may play a role that is distinct from ubiquitously expressed CCTalpha.  (+info)

Administration of dexamethasone to pregnant rats at 19 days gestation increased phosphatidylcholine synthesis (45%) from radioactive choline in type II cells. This enhanced synthesis of phosphatidylcholine was accompanied by an increased conversion of choline phosphate into CDP-choline. Similar results were obtained by incubating organotypic cultures of 19-day-fetal rat lung with cortisol. The increased conversion of choline phosphate into CDP-choline correlated with an enhanced choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase activity (31% after dexamethasone treatment; 47% after cortisol exposure) in the cell homogenates. A similar increase (26% after dexamethasone treatment; 39% after cortisol exposure) was found in the microsomal-associated enzyme. No differences in cytosolic enzyme activity were observed. The specific activity of the microsomal enzyme was 3-4 times that of the cytosolic enzyme. Most of the enzyme activity was located in the microsomal fraction (58-65%). The treatments had no effect ...
CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT) is a key regulatory enzyme in phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) biosynthesis, and in mammals, there are two distinct genes that encode enzymes that catalyze this reaction. This work defines the structures of both the murine CCT genes (Pcyt1a and Pcyt1b) and i …
The cytidylyltransferases are a family of enzymes that utilize cytidine 5â?? triphosphate (CTP) to synthesize molecules that are precursors to membrane phospholipids. There are four well known enzymes: CTP: phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase (ECT), CTP: glycerol-3-phosphate cytidylyltransferase (GCT), 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate cytidylyltransferase synthetase (CMS), and CTP: phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT). Previously, a radioisotope tagging method was employed to study cytidylyltransferase catalysis. Using CCT as a model, a method utilizing high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed to replace the radioisotope scintillation technique. The development of this new HPLC method is cheaper, more efficient, and more accurate than the previously established method. The targets of separation are the substrate CTP and the product cytidine diphosphate-choline (CDP-choline) of the reaction catalyzed by CCT. A solvent system based on previous literature which separated
Nuclear localization of enzymatically active green fluorescent protein-CTP: phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase fusion protein is independent of cell cycle conditions and cell types
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PtdCho is a major component of eukaryotic but not prokaryotic membranes. We demonstrate for the first time that a bacterium can inhibit the de novo synthesis of PtdCho in human cells. Significantly, this inhibition triggers apoptosis. Although inhibition of PtdCho biosynthesis initiates apoptosis in cells exposed to xenobiotics (13-15, 17, 28), in mutant cells with genetic CCT dysfunction (40), or in nutritional choline deprivation (18, 31), the response of human cells to pneumococcus is the first case where this mechanism plays a critical role in pathogenesis.. In the brain, PtdCho has an additional role as a precursor for the biosynthesis of the important neurotransmitter acetylcholine. It is unlikely that acetylcholine deprivation accounts for the observed pneumococcal-induced neuronal cell death because a low level of acetylcholine is not known to be a death signal and PtdCho serves as a reservoir of choline for acetylcholine biosynthesis under conditions of nutritional choline deprivation ...
The thousands of such receptors throughout the body play a fundamental role in the mechanisms of sight, smell and taste, and in regulating heart rate, blood pressure and glucose metabolism. The receptors are by far the most common target for drugs that affect cardiac output, blood pressure and many other physiological functions. Thus, said the researchers, their fundamental discovery could guide pharmaceutical companies in creating a new class of drugs that aim not at blocking the receptors themselves, but at modulating the machinery that regulates them. Such drugs could treat a range of disorders from congestive heart failure to Parkinsons disease, they said ...
Glucocorticoids appear to play an integral role in stimulating surfactant synthesis by activating the rate-regulatory enzyme for phosphatidylcholine synthesis, CTP:cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase (CT). The activity of liver CT, in vitro, has been shown to be inhibited by the sphingomyelin hydrolysis product, sphingosine. In order to investigate the mechanisms by which glucocorticoids alter CT activity, in vivo, we administered betamethasone (1 mg/kg intraperitoneally) sequentially to adult male rats for 5 days. Betamethasone increased CT activity 2-fold relative to control in whole lung. The hormone also increased membrane-bound activity, but did not affect cytosolic enzyme activity. Betamethasone modestly increased CT mRNA as determined by the reverse-transcription PCR and Southern analysis of PCR products, but did not alter the levels of immunoreactive enzyme in lung membranes as demonstrated by Western blotting. The hormone did, however, produce a nearly 3-fold increase in ...
Looking for online definition of phosphatidylethanolamine cytidylyltransferase in the Medical Dictionary? phosphatidylethanolamine cytidylyltransferase explanation free. What is phosphatidylethanolamine cytidylyltransferase? Meaning of phosphatidylethanolamine cytidylyltransferase medical term. What does phosphatidylethanolamine cytidylyltransferase mean?
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Sodium atom in PDB 3oam: Crystal Structure of Cytidylyltransferase From Vibrio Cholerae
He was an almost exact contemporary of Babe Ruth, although Vance pitched mostly in the National League while Ruth was almost always in the American League. Vance was briefly with the New York Yankees in 1918, a couple of years before Ruth got there. He is the only major leaguer remembered as Dazzy, although Monty Swartz, who pitched one game in the majors before Vance was a star, was also nicknamed Dazzy. Vance pitched from 1912-1921 in the minors, winning 133 games. Although he was in the majors briefly in 1915 and 1918, he didnt become a regular until 1922, the year after he had won 21 games with the New Orleans Pelicans. On July 20, 1925, he struck out 17 batters in a game against the St. Louis Cardinals; it would remain the highest total by one pitcher against the Cardinals until Corey Kluber had 18 strikeouts against the Redbirds in 2015. In 1914 Patsy ORourke was quoted as saying that Vance, at the time a youngster, was going to become another Pete Alexander. Following his playing ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Protein families that contain at least one copy of this domain include citrate lyase ligase, pantoate-beta-alanine ligase, glycerol-3-phosphate cytidyltransferase [ (PUBMED:16344011) ], ADP-heptose synthase, phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase, lipopolysaccharide core biosynthesis protein KdtB, the bifunctional protein NadR, archaeal FAD synthase RibL [ (PUBMED:20822113) ], and a number whose function is unknown. Many of these proteins are known to use CTP or ATP and release pyrophosphate. ...
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Linakis, J. G., Bromberg, J. R., Casper, T. C., Chun, T. H., Mello, M. J., Richards, R., Mull, C. C., Shenoi, R. P., Vance, C., Ahmad, F., Bajaj, L., Brown, K. M., Chernick, L. S., Cohen, D. M., Fein, J., Horeczko, T., Levas, M. N., McAninch, B., Monuteaux, M. C., Grupp-Phelan, J. & 5 others, Powell, E. C., Rogers, A., Suffoletto, B., Dean, J. M. & Spirito, A., Mar 1 2019, In : Pediatrics. 143, 3, e20182001.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
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1,2-Didecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine ≥99% (TLC); CAS Number: 3436-44-0; Synonyms: Didecanoyllecithin,3-sn-Phosphatidylcholine, 1,2-didecanoyl,PC,PC(10:0/10:0),(7R)-4-Hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-10-oxo-7-(1-oxodecyl)oxy-3,5,9-trioxa-4-phosphanonadecan-1-aminium 4-oxide, inner salt,1,2-Dicaprinoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine,L-α-Phosphatidylcholine, didecanoyl; find Sigma-Aldrich-P7081 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich
Annie Kennedy Meet my friend, Vance. Vance is a 30-something man, a people person, husband, father, homeowner, accomplished professional with multiple degrees from prestigious universities, and valued community member, friend and employee. ...
COVID-19 has compelled the global research community to push the boundaries of genetic sequencing in virus identification and tracing.
Fisheye Placebo is a Thriller and Sci-fi Canvas Webtoon created by YuumeiArt. 1 Synopsis 2 Characters 2.1 Vance 3 Episodes 4 Navigation Vance just wanted to make the most out of his college experience under a totalitarian regime, and if that meant hacking into the university to assign himself a...
Vance was the shows first openly gay female cast member. She appeared during the 11th season from 1985-86. Vance died of breast cancer in 1994. She was 40.
Organ development is driven by a set of patterned inductive signals. However, how these signals are integrated to coordinate tissue patterning is still poorly understood. Calcium ions (Ca2+) are critical signaling components involved in signal integration and are regulated by a core Ca2+ signaling toolkit. Ca2+ signaling encodes a significant fraction of information in cells through both amplitude and frequency-dependent regulation of transcription factors and key regulatory enzymes. A range …. ...
Organ development is driven by a set of patterned inductive signals. However, how these signals are integrated to coordinate tissue patterning is still poorly understood. Calcium ions (Ca2+) are critical signaling components involved in signal integration and are regulated by a core Ca2+ signaling toolkit. Ca2+ signaling encodes a significant fraction of information in cells through both amplitude and frequency-dependent regulation of transcription factors and key regulatory enzymes. A range …. ...
CTP sintaza (EC 6.3.4.2, UTP-amonijak ligaza, citidin trifosfatna sintetaza, uridin trifosfatna aminaza, citidin 5-trifosfatna sintetaza) je enzim sa sistematskim imenom UTP:amonijak ligaza (formira ADP).[1][2] Ovaj enzim katalizuje sledeću hemijsku reakciju ...
The ability of FtsY to be allosterically regulated by interaction with phospholipids suggests a simple and effective mechanism to spatially regulate protein targeting. The population of free FtsY molecules that are localized to the membrane (Fig. 9 B, step 1) would be pre-organized into the closed/activated conformations and thus more efficient at forming a stable, GTP-dependent SRP-FtsY complex (Fig. 9 B, step 2). This is consistent with the result from a recent study that suggested that membrane-bound FtsY is more efficient at targeting cargo-bound SRP to the membrane (Mircheva et al., 2009), and provides a molecular basis to explain this observation. However, the population of free FtsY molecules in the cytosol exist primarily in the open conformation, in which it quickly forms an early targeting intermediate with cargo-bound SRP (Fig. 9 B, step 3), but the equilibrium for rearrangement of the cargo-SRP-FtsY complex to the closed and activated states is not favorable in the cytosol (Zhang et ...
A - Tilt: 3° - Segments: 1( 32- 43), 2( 45- 60), 3( 78- 91), 4( 95- 106), 5( 130- 147), 6( 150- 167), 7( 189- 210), 8( 221- 238), 9( 267- 285 ...
Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
In connection with the proposed acquisition of Eaton Vance Corp. by Morgan Stanley announced on October 8, 2020, shareholders of certain Eaton Vance mutual funds (each, a
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A conditional-lethal mutant of bacillus subtilis 168 with a thermosensitive glycerol-3-phosphate cytidylyltransferase, an enzyme specific for the synthesis of t
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Dr. Estil A. Vance III specializes in blood and marrow transplantation at Texas Oncolgy and is an expert in the field of oncology-related infections.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lung Surfactant Synthesis: A Ca2+ Dependent Microsomal Phospholipase A2 in the Lung. AU - García, A.. AU - Newkirk, J.D.. AU - Mavis, R.D.. PY - 1975/1/1. Y1 - 1975/1/1. M3 - Article. VL - 64. SP - 128. EP - 135. ER - ...
Well needless to say Vance eventually got a few things out of him and confronted Candace who then had what amounted to another breakdown. Candace went into a residential program for almost a month and when she came out they all went into family counseling. Vance and Candace also went into marriage counseling because Vance was just about ready to leave her at that point for what shed almost caused Cliff to do. Everything got mostly ironed out but you cant take back things like that; they affect you and change you. Cliff is different from his brothers but there are reasons for it. Candace tries but her chemistry and hormones got just too messed up and shes going to be on medication for the rest of her life. She has her good days and her bad ones and a couple of months ago the doctors had to start weaning her off the meds that had worked the best for her and trying other things because of all of the regulations that are changing what can be prescribed and to whom. Cliff … well hes a good boy ...
CHKA - CHKA (untagged)-Human choline kinase alpha (CHKA), transcript variant 1 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
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Galadanci, N. A., Abdullahi, S. U., Vance, L. D., Tabari, M. A., Abubakar, S., Belonwu, R., Salihu, A., Galadanci, A. A., Jibir, B. W., Gambo, S., Suwaid, S., Bello-Manga, H., Neville, K., Kirkham, F., Shyr, Y., Phillips, S., Covert, B. V., Kassim, A. A., Trevathan, E., Jordan, L. C. 及其他2, Aliyu, M. H. & DeBaun, M. R., 2017 十二月 8, 於: Blood Advances. 1, p. 23-25 3 p.. 研究成果: Short survey › 同行評審 ...
Galadanci, N. A., Abdullahi, S. U., Vance, L. D., Tabari, M. A., Abubakar, S., Belonwu, R., Salihu, A., Galadanci, A. A., Jibir, B. W., Gambo, S., Suwaid, S., Bello-Manga, H., Neville, K., Kirkham, F., Shyr, Y., Phillips, S., Covert, B. V., Kassim, A. A., Trevathan, E., Jordan, L. C. 及其他2, Aliyu, M. H. & DeBaun, M. R., 2017 十二月 8, 於: Blood Advances. 1, p. 23-25 3 p.. 研究成果: Short survey › 同行評審 ...
Vance, a former marine and Yale Law School graduate, provides an account of growing up in a poor Rust Belt town that offers a broader, probing look at the ...
November 13, 1944 - April 15, 2010. In loving memory of John Vance Carter, of Santa Barbara, who passed away on Thursday, April 15, 2010. Vance Carter was born to Charles (Nick) and Katherine (Mayer) Carter in Los Angeles, CA, on November 13, 1944. Vance attended Beverly Hills Catholic grammar school. He also attended Woodside Priory in Woodside, CA and graduated from Beverly Hills High School. He attended Foothill College and received his BA from the University of Denver in 1971.. He met his wife Georgine while attending DU and they were married in 1972. Vance became a Chef at Ernies Restaurant in San Francisco in 1971. Later he was the Head Chef at the Duchin Room at the Sun Valley Lodge in Idaho. He opened the Copper Basin Restaurant in Hailey ID in the 80s. He worked for Power Engineers in the 90s, and later created Yummy Foods, Inc. aka Georgines Naturals line of salad dressings.. Vance and Georgine moved to Santa Barbara in 2004 where he worked at the Sandpiper Golf Course and then ...
Courtney B. Vance Celebrity Profile - Check out the latest Courtney B. Vance photo gallery, biography, pics, pictures, interviews, news, forums and blogs at Rotten Tomatoes!
Someday Ill wish upon a star... Our Acid Rainbow iPhone 7 Plus cover is created with an image of sodium citrate (a common food additive) captured with polarized optical microscopy. The perfect science gift for rainbow lovers! Created by Assistant Professor Vance Williams from Simon Fraser University (Canada). Vance?s research ...
2--C--methyl--D--erythritol 4--phosphate cytidylyltransferase (EC 2.7.7.60) / 2--C--methyl--D--erythritol 2,4--cyclodiphosphate synthase (EC 4.6.1.12 ...
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SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for Q9X1B7 (CDSA_THEMA), Phosphatidate cytidylyltransferase. Thermotoga maritima (strain ATCC 43589 / MSB8 / DSM 3109 / JCM 10099)
It might have been better-tactically better-to break with Johnson, he conceded later. But it would have destroyed the Paris peace negotiations. I couldnt do that. I was Vice President. I was obliged to be a member of the team. I consulted with Averell Harriman on September 14 [1968] and urged that he and Cy Vance [Harriman and Cyrus Vance were the U.S. negotiators] agree to a withdrawal of U.S. troops. Harriman was upset. Vance was upset. Johnson was upset. Two of Humphreys ablest advisers, Ted Van Dyk and campaign manager Larry OBrien, told him never mind-he had to turn his back on a policy that no longer had general support and which, moreover, he knew was wrong. It had placed Johnsons chances for renomination in peril, rendered his re-election virtually impossible, and dissuaded him even from running. But despite a partial break, following which his standing in the polls soared, it was not in Humphreys nature to abandon Johnson completely. He stayed aboard the sinking Johnson ship too ...
The findings support a new hypothesis about how the innate immune system distinguishes pathogenic from non-pathogenic microbes, proposed by Portnoy, UC Berkeley colleague Russell Vance, assistant professor of molecular and cell biology, and Ralph Isberg of Tufts University in the July 23 issue of the journal Cell Host & Microbe. They argue that its not only how a pathogen looks that determines how the immune system responds, but also how it acts - where it goes in the cell, what pathways it interferes with, and how disruptive it is.. There are a series of different things that pathogens have to do in order to be pathogenic, so it makes sense for the immune system to try to detect these common patterns, Vance said. We know already that there are surveillance pathways in the cytosol that seem to respond specifically to pathogens and not to non-pathogens.. The findings are most important for creating effective vaccines against pathogens - bacteria, parasites and viruses - that live and hide ...
This Cited by count includes citations to the following articles in Scholar. The ones marked * may be different from the article in the profile ...
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Fosfatidat citidililtransferaza (EC 2.7.7.41, CDP digliceridna pirofosforilaza, CDP-diacilglicerolna sintaza, CDP-diacilgliceridna sintetaza, citidin difosfogliceridna pirofosforilaza, fosfatidat citidiltransferaza, fosfatidinsko kiselinska citidililtransferaza, CTP:1,2-diacilglicerofosfat-citidil transferaza, CTP-diacilglicerol sintetaza, DAG sintetaza, CDP-DG) je enzim sa sistematskim imenom CTP:fosfatidat citidililtransferaza.[1][2][3] Ovaj enzim katalizuje sledeću hemijsku reakciju. ...
Choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase B is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PCYT1B gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89 ... "Entrez Gene: PCYT1B phosphate cytidylyltransferase 1, choline, beta". Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, et al. (2004). "The ... Lykidis A, Baburina I, Jackowski S (1999). "Distribution of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT) isoforms. ... phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase". J Biol Chem. 273 (22): 14022-9. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.22.14022. PMID 9593753. " ...
... phosphate cytidylyltransferase 1, choline, alpha". Hunt AN, Normand CS, Postle AD (1990). "CTP:cholinephosphate ... "Fatty acids promote the formation of complexes between choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase and cytidylyltransferase binding ... Choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase A is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PCYT1A gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89 ... 2007). "CHKA and PCYT1A gene polymorphisms, choline intake and spina bifida risk in a California population". BMC Medicine. 4: ...
Sp1 is a negative regulator of PEMT transcription, yet is it is a positive regulator of choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase ... While the CDP-choline pathway, in which choline obtained either by dietary consumption or by metabolism of choline-containing ... PC made via the PEMT pathway can be degraded by phospholipases C/D, resulting in the de novo formation of choline. Thus, the ... This is one of several examples of the reciprocal regulation of PEMT and CT in the PEMT and CDP-choline pathways. Estrogen has ...
These include transferrin receptor, choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase A, RNF168, serine/threonine-protein kinase, nuclear ...
... encoding enzyme Choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase B PIN4: encoding enzyme Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase NIMA- ...
... (EC 2.7.7.15) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction CTP + choline phosphate ... CDP-choline synthetase, choline phosphate cytidylyltransferase, CTP-phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase, CTP:phosphorylcholine ... choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase. Other names in common use include phosphorylcholine transferase, CDP-choline ... CDP-choline where the two substrates of this enzyme are CTP and choline phosphate, and the two products are diphosphate and CDP ...
... n-acylneuraminate cytidylyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.696.445.184 - choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase MeSH D08.811. ... glucose-6-phosphate isomerase MeSH D08.811.399.475.200.550 - mannose-6-phosphate isomerase MeSH D08.811.399.475.200.662 - ... nucleoside-phosphate kinase MeSH D08.811.913.696.900 - transferases (other substituted phosphate groups) MeSH D08.811.913.696. ... UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.696.445.900 - UTP-hexose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase MeSH ...
1-alkenyl-2-acylglycerol choline phosphotransferase Ceramide cholinephosphotransferase Choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase ... Wurtman RJ, Regan M, Ulus I, Yu L (Oct 2000). "Effect of oral CDP-choline on plasma choline and uridine levels in humans". ... This limits the amount of choline available to synthesize phosphatidylcholine. When the availability of choline is low or the ... Citicoline (INN), also known as cytidine diphosphate-choline (CDP-Choline) or cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine is an intermediate ...
... ethanolamine-phosphate cytidylyltransferase EC 2.7.7.15: choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase EC 2.7.7.16: now EC 3.1.27.5 EC ... glucose-1-phosphate cytidylyltransferase EC 2.7.7.34: glucose-1-phosphate guanylyltransferase EC 2.7.7.35: ribose-5-phosphate ... glycerol-3-phosphate cytidylyltransferase EC 2.7.7.40: D-ribitol-5-phosphate cytidylyltransferase EC 2.7.7.41: phosphatidate ... isopentenyl phosphate kinase EC 2.7.4.27: (pyruvate, phosphate dikinase)-phosphate phosphotransferase EC 2.7.4.28: (pyruvate, ...
Choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase (EC 2.7.7.15) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction CTP + choline phosphate ... CDP-choline synthetase, choline phosphate cytidylyltransferase, CTP-phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase, CTP:phosphorylcholine ... choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase. Other names in common use include phosphorylcholine transferase, CDP-choline ... CDP-choline where the two substrates of this enzyme are CTP and choline phosphate, and the two products are diphosphate and CDP ...
Choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase A. Details. Name. Choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase A. Kind. protein. Organism. ... Choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase A. P49585. Details. Drug Relations. Drug Relations. DrugBank ID. Name. Drug group. ... Choline. approved, nutraceutical. unknown. product of. Details. DB00709. Lamivudine. approved, investigational. unknown. ...
... choline phosphate cytidylyltransferase explanation free. What is choline phosphate cytidylyltransferase? Meaning of choline ... phosphate cytidylyltransferase medical term. What does choline phosphate cytidylyltransferase mean? ... Looking for online definition of choline phosphate cytidylyltransferase in the Medical Dictionary? ... choline phosphate cytidylyltransferase. cho·line phos·phate cy·ti·dy·lyl·trans·fer·ase. an enzyme that catalyzes a key step in ...
Choline / metabolism. Choline-Phosphate Cytidylyltransferase. Diglycerides / metabolism. Dogs. Kidney / cytology, drug effects ... 62-49-7/Choline; EC 2.7.7.-/Nucleotidyltransferases; EC 2.7.7.15/Choline-Phosphate Cytidylyltransferase ... Finally, we showed that the inhibitory effect of hexadecylphosphocholine on CTP:choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase ... Hexadecylphosphocholine inhibits translocation of CTP:choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells ...
HMDBP00732 (Choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase B) Metabolite Associations. Displaying metabolite protein links 1 - 25 of ... Choline. 62-49-7. C5H14NO. 104.1708. 104.107539075. Not Available. ... Phosphate. 14265-44-2. H3O4P. 97.9952. 97.976895096. Not Available. ...
... increased conversion of choline phosphate into CDP-choline correlated with an enhanced choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase ... Maternal administration of dexamethasone stimulates choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase in fetal type II cells. M Post ... Maternal administration of dexamethasone stimulates choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase in fetal type II cells ... Maternal administration of dexamethasone stimulates choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase in fetal type II cells ...
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This gene belongs to the cytidylyltransferase family and is involved in the regulation of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. ...
"Molecular cloning and characterization of the gene encoding cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ... Choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase MANPTTGKSSIRAKLSNSSLSNLFKKNKNKRQREETEEQDNEDKDESKNQDENKDTQLTP ... CTP + choline phosphate = diphosphate + CDP- choline. Cellular Location. Membrane.. SMPDB Pathways. Choline metabolism. ...
Phosphatidylcholine synthesis through cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase is dispensable in Leishmania major *Samrat Moitra ... Jasmonate perception by inositol-phosphate-potentiated COI1-JAZ co-receptor *Laura B. Sheard ... Rights & permissionsfor article Phosphatidylcholine synthesis through cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase is dispensable in , ... Rights & permissionsfor article Jasmonate perception by inositol-phosphate-potentiated COI1-JAZ co-receptor . Opens in a new ...
Comprehensive view of all products targeting Phosphate cytidylyltransferase 1 choline alpha (PCYT1A). Includes lead product ... status Publication and contact information Endocrine/metabolic disease Lipodystrophy Phosphate cytidylyltransferase 1 choline-a ...
Choline, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium ... PCYT1B (Phosphate Cytidylyltransferase 1B, Choline) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PCYT1B include Newborn ... Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase activity. An important ... Cloning and characterization of a second human CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase. (PMID: 9593753) Lykidis A … Jackowski S ...
phosphate cytidylyltransferase 1, choline, alpha. Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes.. Open All Close All ... This gene belongs to the cytidylyltransferase family and is involved in the regulation of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. ...
Choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase A. A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H ... Crystal Structure of a Mammalian Cytidylyltransferase. *DOI: ... CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT) interconverts between an inactive soluble and active membrane-bound form in ... CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT) interconverts between an inactive soluble and active membrane-bound form in ... Structural Basis for Autoinhibition of CTP:Phosphocholine Cytidylyltransferase (CCT), the Regulatory Enzyme in ...
choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase. pcyt2. Ethanolamine-phosphate cytidylyltransferase. pemt. phosphatidylethanolamine ... Glycerol-3-phosphate (G-3-P) is first acylated by acyltransferases to phosphatidic acid (PtdOH), which can be transferred into ... For example, it is believed that choline kinase (CK) α enzyme is critical for PtdCho maintenance in most tissues in mammals, ... Effect of body size on growth, survival, and chemical-composition of Atlantic Salmon fed soy lecithin and choline. Prog Fish ...
... choline kinase: CK; CTP: cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase: CT; CDP: diacylglycerol choline and ethanolamine ... ATG: autophagy-related protein; P: phosphate; AMPK: adenosine monophosphate kinase; FIP200: focal adhesion kinase family- ... PC production via the CDP-choline pathway begins with the phosphorylation of choline via choline kinase (CK) to form ... Ethanolamine kinase: EthK; CTP: ethanolaminephosphate; cytidylyltransferase: ET; CDP: diacylglycerol ethanolamine and choline ...
The CDP-choline pathway only contributes to net PC synthesis if exogenous choline is present. In its absence, this pathway ... recycles choline from PC turnover and may contribute to maintaining the proper PC species composition. ... Catalyzes the final step in the CDP-choline route leading to phosphatidylcholin (PC). Preferentially uses CDP- ... Choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase (PCT1). *Cholinephosphotransferase 1 (CPT1), Choline/ethanolaminephosphotransferase 1 ( ...
... clinicaltrials.gov The purpose of this study is to determine if choline bitartrate can be administered daily to children with ... Choline-phosphate Cytidylyltransferase. An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of cytidylate (CMP) to choline phosphate to form ... Choline Deficiency. A condition produced by a deficiency of CHOLINE in animals. Choline is known as a lipotropic agent because ... Choline is an important nutrient during development. However, there are limited data on dietary choline intake and status in ...
Choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase B is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PCYT1B gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89 ... "Entrez Gene: PCYT1B phosphate cytidylyltransferase 1, choline, beta". Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, et al. (2004). "The ... Lykidis A, Baburina I, Jackowski S (1999). "Distribution of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT) isoforms. ... phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase". J Biol Chem. 273 (22): 14022-9. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.22.14022. PMID 9593753. " ...
... choline, alpha isoform (,i,Pcyt1a,/i,) and may be useful in generating conditional mutations for studying atherosclerosis. ... These "CT alpha flox" mutant mice carry a loxP site-flanked allele of phosphate cytidylyltransferase 1, choline, alpha isoform ... no CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase alpha produced. (MGI Ref ID J:65639)*increased free cholesterol load leads to ... no CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase alpha produced. (MGI Ref ID J:65639)*severely reduced conversion of free cholesterol ...
EC 2.7.7.14/Ethanolamine-phosphate cytidylyltransferase; EC 2.7.7.15/Choline-Phosphate Cytidylyltransferase ... Choline-Phosphate Cytidylyltransferase / metabolism. Cricetinae. Cricetulus. G2 Phase / physiology. Humans. Kinetics. ... Radiolabeled choline and ethanolamine were rapidly incorporated into cells maintained at G2/M phase with nocodazole, and the ...
ethanolamine-phosphate cytidylyltransferase [EC:2.7.7.14]. K00968 choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase [EC:2.7.7.15]. ... 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate cytidylyltransferase [EC:2.7.7.60]. K00992 N-acetyl-alpha-D-muramate 1-phosphate ... ribitol-5-phosphate 2-dehydrogenase (NADP+) / D-ribitol-5-phosphate cytidylyltransferase [EC:1.1.1.405 2.7.7.40]. ... UDP-GlcNAc:undecaprenyl-phosphate/decaprenyl-phosphate GlcNAc-1-phosphate transferase [EC:2.7.8.33 2.7.8.35]. ...
Compound: Choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase. Species: Plasmodium falciparum (isolate 3D7) [TaxId:36329]. Gene: PF3D7_ ... Compound: Choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase. Species: Plasmodium falciparum (isolate 3D7) [TaxId:36329]. Gene: PF3D7_ ... Compound: Choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase. Species: Plasmodium falciparum (isolate 3D7) [TaxId:36329]. Gene: PF3D7_ ... Compound: Choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase. Species: Plasmodium falciparum (isolate 3D7) [TaxId:36329]. Gene: PF3D7_ ...
mouse beta isoform CTP phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase: a CCT protein with a unique amino acid terminus that arises from an ... Subscribe to New Research on mouse beta isoform CTP phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase a CCT protein with a unique amino acid ...
Choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase activity. Specific Function. Controls phosphatidylcholine synthesis.. Gene Name. PCYT1B ... cholines (CHEBI:15354) / Pesticides (C00114) / a small molecule (CHOLINE) Targets. Details1. Choline-phosphate ... Choline bitartrate (55 mg/1) + Choline bitartrate (55 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium ... Choline bitartrate (55 mg/1) + Choline bitartrate (55 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium ...
An enzyme that is active in the first step of choline phosphoglyceride (lecithin) biosynthesis by catalyzing the ... phosphorylation of choline to phosphorylcholine in the presence of ATP. Ethanolamine and its methyl and ethyl derivatives can ... Choline (Choline Chloride) 2. Choline-Phosphate Cytidylyltransferase 3. Small Interfering RNA (siRNA) ... Choline Phosphokinase; Choline Transphosphatase, ATP; Kinase, Choline; Phosphokinase, Choline; Transphosphatase, ATP Choline; ...
Choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase B. Q9Y5K3 PCYT1B. Xp22.11. Enzyme. Not Available. HMDBP00755. Choline-phosphate ... cytidylyltransferase A. P49585 PCYT1A. 3q29. Enzyme. Not Available. HMDBP00770. Phosphatidylcholine:ceramide ...
Choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase B. Q9Y5K3 PCYT1B. Xp22.11. Enzyme. Not Available. HMDBP00755. Choline-phosphate ... Choline/ethanolamine kinase. Q9Y259 CHKB. 22q13.33. Enzyme. Not Available. HMDBP00778. Choline kinase alpha. P35790 CHKA. ... cytidylyltransferase A. P49585 PCYT1A. 3q29. Enzyme. Not Available. HMDBP00776. Sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase. P17405 SMPD1. ...
Choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase B Aliases:. Not Available. RefSeq:. NM_173151. Ensembl:. ENSRNOG00000012358 ...
Choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase A Show on y-axis - References (HTP + LTP). References (LTP). References (HTP). ...
  • Indication Target/marker/pathway Summary Licensing status Publication and contact information Endocrine/metabolic disease Lipodystrophy Phosphate cytidylyltransferase 1 choline-a (PCYT1A) Biochemical and cell-based studies identified PCYT1A mutants that could be targeted to treat congenital lipodystrophies. (biocentury.com)
  • These "CT alpha flox" mutant mice carry a loxP site-flanked allele of phosphate cytidylyltransferase 1, choline, alpha isoform ( Pcyt1a ) and may be useful in generating conditional mutations for studying atherosclerosis. (jax.org)
  • This study investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in human choline kinase A (CHKA) gene and CTP:phosphocholine cytidylytransferase (PCYT1A) gene were risk factors for spina bifida. (cdc.gov)
  • PCYT1A encodes choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase A, an enzyme involved in converting phosphocholine into cytidine diphosphate-choline, an intermediate in phosphatidylcholine synthesis. (ctgt.net)
  • CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT) interconverts between an inactive soluble and active membrane-bound form in response to changes in membrane lipid composition. (rcsb.org)
  • Distribution of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT) isoforms. (wikipedia.org)
  • To determine if decreased hepatic PC/PE could predict survival after hepatectomy, we used mouse models lacking key enzymes in PC biosynthesis, namely, phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase and hepatic-specific CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase α. (nih.gov)
  • CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT) is a key regulatory enzyme in phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) biosynthesis, and in mammals, there are two distinct genes that encode enzymes that catalyze this reaction. (nih.gov)
  • CG1049: The gene CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase 1 is referred to in FlyBase by the symbol Dmel\Cct1 (CG1049, FBgn0041342). (ncbs.res.in)
  • PCYT1B (Phosphate Cytidylyltransferase 1B, Choline) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase B is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PCYT1B gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase (EC 2.7.7.15) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction CTP + choline phosphate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } diphosphate + CDP-choline where the two substrates of this enzyme are CTP and choline phosphate, and the two products are diphosphate and CDP-choline. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the presence of 50 mumol/liter hexadecylphosphocholine, there was a translocation of CTP:choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase (EC 22.7.7.15) activity from the membranes to the cytosol of the cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Choline is an essential nutrient and it is also a methyl donor critical for the maintenance of cell membrane integrity and methyl metabolism. (cdc.gov)
  • Perturbations in choline metabolism in vitro have been shown to induce NTDs in mouse embryos. (cdc.gov)
  • 31 P and 1 H MRS were used to determine total cellular metabolite concentrations and 13 C MRS was used to probe the metabolism of [1,2- 13 C]-choline. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Isoform 1]: Catalyzes the key rate-limiting step in the CDP-choline pathway for phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. (genecards.org)
  • Since we recently demonstrated that hexadecylphosphocholine also inhibits protein kinase C in vitro, [methyl-3H]choline labeling experiments were repeated with phorbol ester-desensitized cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the cytidylyltransferase family. (genecards.org)
  • The findings, which were published this week online ahead of print by the journal Cancer, focus on a protein called Choline phosphate cytidylyltransferase-α CCT-α or CCTα, an "antigen" that prompts the immune system to produce antibodies against it. (redorbit.com)
  • This phosphocholine transferase activity used CDP-choline as a substrate and required a conserved histidine residue located in the FIC domain of the AnkX protein. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • The CDP-choline pathway only contributes to net PC synthesis if exogenous choline is present. (uniprot.org)
  • In its absence, this pathway recycles choline from PC turnover and may contribute to maintaining the proper PC species composition. (uniprot.org)
  • It is the rate-limiting enzyme in the choline pathway for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Polymorphic variants of genes involved in choline pathway and the risk of intrauterine fetal death. (cdc.gov)
  • Administration of dexamethasone to pregnant rats at 19 days gestation increased phosphatidylcholine synthesis (45%) from radioactive choline in type II cells. (biochemj.org)
  • This enhanced synthesis of phosphatidylcholine was accompanied by an increased conversion of choline phosphate into CDP-choline. (biochemj.org)
  • NO alone only transiently suppressed the PC synthesis as a result of lower activity of cytidylyltransferase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Citicoline, also called CDP-choline , is an essential intermediate in the synthesis of the structural phospholipids of cell membranes and has been studied extensively for its neuroprotective effects following head trauma. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • to 181 ± 10% of control, P = 0.001) associated with an increase in expression of choline transporter SLC44A1 and an elevation in the de novo synthesis of PC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • an enzyme that catalyzes a key step in lecithin biosynthesis: CTP + phosphocholine ⇄ pyrophosphate + CDP-choline. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This gene belongs to the cytidylyltransferase family and is involved in the regulation of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. (nih.gov)
  • Donor of choline in biosynthesis of choline-containing phosphoglycerides. (bioportfolio.com)
  • An enzyme that is active in the first step of choline phosphoglyceride (lecithin) biosynthesis by catalyzing the phosphorylation of choline to phosphorylcholine in the presence of ATP. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Last, choline/ethanolaminephosphotransferase catalyzes phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis from CDP-choline. (pathbank.org)
  • sn-1,2-diacylglycerol choline- and ethanolaminephosphotransferases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (uniprot.org)
  • Regulatory insights from studies employing null and chimeric sn-1,2-diacylglycerol choline- and ethanolaminephosphotransferases. (uniprot.org)
  • PCs can also synthesized by the addition of choline to CDP-activated 1,2-diacylglycerol. (hmdb.ca)
  • Other phospholipids involved in choline biosynthetic pathways such as CDP-choline , choline alphoscerate and phosphatidylserine clearly enhanced ACh availability or release and provided a modest improvement of cognitive dysfunction in AD, these effects being more pronounced with choline alphoscerate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The detection by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of abnormal levels of choline phospholipid metabolites in tumor cells and tissues (reviewed in refs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These results, taken collectively, are interpreted to indicate that the active form of cytidylyltransferase in type II cells is the membrane-bound enzyme and that cytidylyltransferase activation in type II cells from fetal rat lung after maternal glucocorticoid administration occurs by binding of inactive cytosolic enzyme to endoplasmic reticulum. (biochemj.org)
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of varied maternal choline intake on maternal/fetal biomarkers of choline status, genomic expression and metabolomic profiling. (bioportfolio.com)
  • First, the cytosol-localized enzyme choline/ethanolamine kinase catalyzes choline to convert to phosphocholine. (pathbank.org)
  • Plasma concentrations of choline and its metabolites might serve as biomarkers for the health outcomes of several pathological states such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In the present study, we analyzed the concentrations of phosphatidylcholine metabolites, activities of phosphocholine-producing enzymes, and uptake of [methyl- 14 C]choline in human epithelial ovarian carcinoma cell lines (EOC) compared with normal or immortalized ovary epithelial cells (EONT). (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, clinical application of imaging methods based on detection of choline metabolites awaits further elucidation of the relationships between specific biochemical features and tumor progression in vitro and in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Choline Is an Intracellular Messenger Linking Extracellular Stimuli to IP-Evoked Ca Signals through Sigma-1 Receptors. (bioportfolio.com)
  • 1 H MRSI can be used in the clinical setting to detect levels of total choline-containing metabolite (t-Cho, composed of intracellular choline, PC and GPC). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, there was no evidence for a difference between the choline uptake of control and hexadecylphosphocholine-treated cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Hexadecylphosphocholine inhibits translocation of CTP:choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Radiolabeled choline and ethanolamine were rapidly incorporated into cells maintained at G2/M phase with nocodazole, and the rates of incorporation were similar to those obtained in cells allowed to progress into the G1 phase. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Citicoline is the generic name for CDP-choline (choline cytidine 5'-pyrophosphate), an organic molecule produced endogenously and found in all living cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Substantially modified 1 H MRS spectral profiles have, in fact, been reported in the 3.20 to 3.24 ppm region (typical of trimethylammonium head groups of phosphatidylcholine precursors and catabolites, such as phosphocholine, glycerophosphocholine, and free choline) in malignant transformation of human mammary ( 12 , 13 ) and prostate epithelial cells ( 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase activity . (genecards.org)
  • In this study we have demonstrated the activity of a choline phosphate cytidylyltransferase in cell free extracts of Streptococcus pneumoniae. (pianolarge.ml)
  • A condition produced by a deficiency of CHOLINE in animals. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Combined deficiency of choline (included in the B vitamin complex) and all other methyl group donors causes liver cirrhosis in some animals. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Maternal choline. (bioportfolio.com)
  • These gene-only effects were not substantially modified by analytic consideration to maternal periconceptional choline intake. (cdc.gov)
  • Major virulence determinants such as capsular polysaccharide, pneumolysin, and choline-binding proteins have clearly established roles in pathogenesis ( 18 ). (asm.org)
  • Choline supplementation to the diet increased hepatic PC/PE in Pemt(-/-) mice with NAFLD, decreased inflammation, and increased the survival rate after partial hepatectomy. (nih.gov)
  • Cytidine triphosphate, also known as 5'-CTP or H4CTP, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as pentose phosphates. (ymdb.ca)
  • These are carbohydrate derivatives containing a pentose substituted by one or more phosphate groups. (ymdb.ca)
  • belongs to the class of organic compounds known as pentose phosphates. (ymdb.ca)
  • It was identified by MALDI-TOF-MS followed by database search on MASCOT server as human phosphate cytidylyltransferase 1, beta. (omicsonline.org)
  • Molecular weight of this novel CaOx crystal growth inhibitor from human renal stone matrix is also the same as that of human phosphate cytidylyltransferase 1, choline, beta. (omicsonline.org)
  • Human phosphate cytidylyltransferase 1, choline, beta is a novel CaOx crystal growth inhibitor. (omicsonline.org)
  • The objective of this study is to determine the effects of consuming either 3 eggs per day as compared to a daily choline supplement (choline bitartrate, 397.5 mg choline/day) on plasma co. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is CTP:choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular cloning and characterization of the gene encoding cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (ymdb.ca)
  • Lung CTP:choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase: activation of cytosolic species by unsaturated fatty acid. (pitt.edu)
  • As a consequence of inhibition, the [methyl-3H]choline incorporation into the phosphocholine pool was increased time-dependently. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Choline is an essential vitamin and as a methyl donor is critically needed to support the normal metabo. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Catalyzes the final step in the CDP-choline route leading to phosphatidylcholin (PC). (uniprot.org)
  • An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of cytidylate (CMP) to choline phosphate to form CDPcholine. (bioportfolio.com)
  • An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Second, choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase, localized to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, catalyzes phosphocholine to convert to CDP-choline. (pathbank.org)
  • Effect of choline supplementation on neurological, cognitive and behavioral outcomes in offspring arising from alcohol exposure during development: A quantitative systematic review of clinical and preclinical studies. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Choline supplementation may serve as a potential therapy to prevent the progression of NAFLD and to improve postoperative outcome after liver surgery. (nih.gov)