Acetyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.Choline O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 2.3.1.6.Choline Kinase: An enzyme that is active in the first step of choline phosphoglyceride (lecithin) biosynthesis by catalyzing the phosphorylation of choline to phosphorylcholine in the presence of ATP. Ethanolamine and its methyl and ethyl derivatives can also act as acceptors. EC 2.7.1.32.Histone Acetyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze acyl group transfer from ACETYL-CoA to HISTONES forming CoA and acetyl-histones.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Choline Deficiency: A condition produced by a deficiency of CHOLINE in animals. Choline is known as a lipotropic agent because it has been shown to promote the transport of excess fat from the liver under certain conditions in laboratory animals. Combined deficiency of choline (included in the B vitamin complex) and all other methyl group donors causes liver cirrhosis in some animals. Unlike compounds normally considered as vitamins, choline does not serve as a cofactor in enzymatic reactions. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Acetylation: Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)p300-CBP Transcription Factors: A family of histone acetyltransferases that is structurally-related to CREB-BINDING PROTEIN and to E1A-ASSOCIATED P300 PROTEIN. They function as transcriptional coactivators by bridging between DNA-binding TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and the basal transcription machinery. They also modify transcription factors and CHROMATIN through ACETYLATION.Carnitine O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of O-acetylcarnitine from acetyl-CoA plus carnitine. EC 2.3.1.7.Serine O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-SERINE to COENZYME A and O-acetyl-L-serine, using ACETYL-COA as a donor.N-Terminal Acetyltransferase A: An N-terminal acetyltransferase subtype that consists of the Naa10p catalytic subunit and the Naa15p auxiliary subunit. The structure of this enzyme is conserved between lower and higher eukaryotes. It has specificity for N-terminal SERINE; ALANINE; THREONINE; GLYCINE; VALINE; and CYSTINE residues and acts on nascent peptide chains after the removal of the initiator METHIONINE by METHIONYL AMINOPEPTIDASES.N-Terminal Acetyltransferase E: An N-terminal acetyltransferase subtype that consists of the Naa50p catalytic subunit, and the Naa10p and Naa15p auxiliary subunits. It has specificity for the N-terminal METHIONINE of peptides where the next amino acid in the chain is hydrophobic.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hemicholinium 3: A potent inhibitor of the high affinity uptake system for CHOLINE. It has less effect on the low affinity uptake system. Since choline is one of the components of ACETYLCHOLINE, treatment with hemicholinium can deplete acetylcholine from cholinergic terminals. Hemicholinium 3 is commonly used as a research tool in animal and in vitro experiments.Dihydrolipoyllysine-Residue Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetyltransferase reaction using ACETYL CoA as an acetyl donor and dihydrolipoamide as acceptor to produce COENZYME A (CoA) and S-acetyldihydrolipoamide. It forms the (E2) subunit of the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Acetyl Coenzyme A: Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.Betaine: A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)Escherichia coli O157: A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.Cytidine Diphosphate Choline: Donor of choline in biosynthesis of choline-containing phosphoglycerides.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Choline Dehydrogenase: An enzyme bound to the inner mitochondrial membrane that catalyzes the oxidation of CHOLINE to BETAINE.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Vesicular Acetylcholine Transport Proteins: Vesicular amine transporter proteins that transport the neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE into small SECRETORY VESICLES. Proteins of this family contain 12 transmembrane domains and exchange vesicular PROTONS for cytoplasmic acetylcholine.Cholinergic Fibers: Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.CREB-Binding Protein: A member of the p300-CBP transcription factor family that was initially identified as a binding partner for CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN. Mutations in CREB-binding protein are associated with RUBINSTEIN-TAYBI SYNDROME.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase: An enzyme that transfers methyl groups from O(6)-methylguanine, and other methylated moieties of DNA, to a cysteine residue in itself, thus repairing alkylated DNA in a single-step reaction. EC 2.1.1.63.E1A-Associated p300 Protein: A member of the p300-CBP transcription factors that was originally identified as a binding partner for ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Acetylcholinesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Phosphorylcholine: Calcium and magnesium salts used therapeutically in hepatobiliary dysfunction.Coenzyme AN-Terminal Acetyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from ACETYL COENZYME A, to the N-terminus of a peptide chain.Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex: A multienzyme complex responsible for the formation of ACETYL COENZYME A from pyruvate. The enzyme components are PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE); dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase; and LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to three types of control: inhibited by acetyl-CoA and NADH; influenced by the energy state of the cell; and inhibited when a specific serine residue in the pyruvate decarboxylase is phosphorylated by ATP. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE)-PHOSPHATASE catalyzes reactivation of the complex. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)N-Terminal Acetyltransferase B: An N-terminal acetyltransferase subtype that consists of the Naa20p catalytic subunit and the Naa25p auxiliary subunit. The structure of this enzyme is conserved between YEASTS and HUMAN. It has specificity for the N-terminal METHIONINE of peptides where the next amino acid in the chain is either ASPARTATE; GLUTAMATE; ASPARAGINE; OR GLUTAMINE.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Spermine: A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.PolyaminesRegulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Phosphatidylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyses three sequential METHYLATION reactions for conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine to PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE.Spermidine: A polyamine formed from putrescine. It is found in almost all tissues in association with nucleic acids. It is found as a cation at all pH values, and is thought to help stabilize some membranes and nucleic acid structures. It is a precursor of spermine.Glycerylphosphorylcholine: A component of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES or LECITHINS, in which the two hydroxy groups of GLYCEROL are esterified with fatty acids. (From Stedman, 26th ed) It counteracts the effects of urea on enzymes and other macromolecules.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Ethanolamine: A viscous, hygroscopic amino alcohol with an ammoniacal odor. It is widely distributed in biological tissue and is a component of lecithin. It is used as a surfactant, fluorimetric reagent, and to remove CO2 and H2S from natural gas and other gases.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cysteine Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of cysteine in microorganisms and plants from O-acetyl-L-serine and hydrogen sulfide. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.2.99.8.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Lipotropic Agents: Endogenous factors or drugs that increase the transport and metabolism of LIPIDS including the synthesis of LIPOPROTEINS by the LIVER and their uptake by extrahepatic tissues.Acetyl-CoA C-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of ACETYL COA. Some enzymes called thiolase or thiolase-I have referred to this activity or to the activity of ACETYL-COA C-ACYLTRANSFERASE.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Cholinergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE.Deanol: An antidepressive agent that has also been used in the treatment of movement disorders. The mechanism of action is not well understood.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Chloramphenicol Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.Anacardic Acids: A group of 6-alkyl SALICYLIC ACIDS that are found in ANACARDIUM and known for causing CONTACT DERMATITIS.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Diacylglycerol Cholinephosphotransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of phosphatidylcholines from CDPcholine and 1,2-diacylglycerols. EC 2.7.8.2.Substantia Innominata: Tissue in the BASAL FOREBRAIN inferior to the anterior perforated substance, and anterior to the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and ansa lenticularis. It contains the BASAL NUCLEUS OF MEYNERT.Glucosamine 6-Phosphate N-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyses the reaction of D-glucosamine 6-phosphate with ACETYL-COA to form N-acetylglucosamine 6-phosphate.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Parasympathetic Nervous System: The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.Carnitine: A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.Platelet Activating Factor: A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Histone Deacetylases: Deacetylases that remove N-acetyl groups from amino side chains of the amino acids of HISTONES. The enzyme family can be divided into at least three structurally-defined subclasses. Class I and class II deacetylases utilize a zinc-dependent mechanism. The sirtuin histone deacetylases belong to class III and are NAD-dependent enzymes.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Amino-Acid N-Acetyltransferase: A mitochondrial matrix enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of L-GLUTAMATE to N-acetyl-L-glutamate in the presence of ACETYL-COA.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Sarcosine: An amino acid intermediate in the metabolism of choline.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Biogenic Polyamines: Biogenic amines having more than one amine group. These are long-chain aliphatic compounds that contain multiple amino and/or imino groups. Because of the linear arrangement of positive charge on these molecules, polyamines bind electrostatically to ribosomes, DNA, and RNA.Choline: A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Putrescine: A toxic diamine formed by putrefaction from the decarboxylation of arginine and ornithine.Creatine: An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.Nucleosomes: The repeating structural units of chromatin, each consisting of approximately 200 base pairs of DNA wound around a protein core. This core is composed of the histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4.Ethanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Phosphatidylethanolamines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Euonymus: A plant genus of the family CELASTRACEAE.Septum of Brain: GRAY MATTER structures of the telencephalon and LIMBIC SYSTEM in the brain, but containing widely varying definitions among authors. Included here is the cortical septal area, subcortical SEPTAL NUCLEI, and the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Cholinergic Agents: Any drug used for its actions on cholinergic systems. Included here are agonists and antagonists, drugs that affect the life cycle of ACETYLCHOLINE, and drugs that affect the survival of cholinergic neurons. The term cholinergic agents is sometimes still used in the narrower sense of MUSCARINIC AGONISTS, although most modern texts discourage that usage.Phosphate Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of acetylphosphate from acetyl-CoA and inorganic phosphate. Acetylphosphate serves as a high-energy phosphate compound. EC 2.3.1.8.Inositol: An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Choline-Phosphate Cytidylyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of cytidylate (CMP) to choline phosphate to form CDPcholine. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in the choline pathway for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine. Its activity is increased by glucocorticoids. EC 2.7.7.15.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Geobacillus stearothermophilus: A species of GRAM-POSITIVE ENDOSPORE-FORMING BACTERIA in the family BACILLACEAE, found in soil, hot springs, Arctic waters, ocean sediments, and spoiled food products.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Ornithine Decarboxylase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein, believed to be the rate-limiting compound in the biosynthesis of polyamines. It catalyzes the decarboxylation of ornithine to form putrescine, which is then linked to a propylamine moiety of decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine to form spermidine.Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL-COA to arylamines. It can also catalyze acetyl transfer between arylamines without COENZYME A and has a wide specificity for aromatic amines, including SEROTONIN. However, arylamine N-acetyltransferase should not be confused with the enzyme ARYLALKYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE which is also referred to as SEROTONIN ACETYLTRANSFERASE.Physostigmine: A cholinesterase inhibitor that is rapidly absorbed through membranes. It can be applied topically to the conjunctiva. It also can cross the blood-brain barrier and is used when central nervous system effects are desired, as in the treatment of severe anticholinergic toxicity.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Acetylcarnitine: An acetic acid ester of CARNITINE that facilitates movement of ACETYL COA into the matrices of mammalian MITOCHONDRIA during the oxidation of FATTY ACIDS.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Septum Pellucidum: A triangular double membrane separating the anterior horns of the LATERAL VENTRICLES of the brain. It is situated in the median plane and bounded by the CORPUS CALLOSUM and the body and columns of the FORNIX (BRAIN).Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Betaine-Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: An NAD+ dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of betain aldehyde to BETAINE.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.TritiumOxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Nucleotidyltransferases: A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Nootropic Agents: Drugs used to specifically facilitate learning or memory, particularly to prevent the cognitive deficits associated with dementias. These drugs act by a variety of mechanisms. While no potent nootropic drugs have yet been accepted for general use, several are being actively investigated.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.N-Terminal Acetyltransferase F: An N-terminal acetyltransferase subtype that consists of the Naa60p catalytic subunit. It is found in higher eukayotes and displays a substrate specificity for the N-terminal METHIONINE of peptides where the next amino acid in the chain is either LEUCINE; LYSINE; PHENYALANINE; ISOLEUCINE; or TRYPTOPHANE.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Cholinesterase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.Uridine Diphosphate N-Acetylglucosamine: Serves as the biological precursor of insect chitin, of muramic acid in bacterial cell walls, and of sialic acids in mammalian glycoproteins.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Plumbaginaceae: A plant family of the order Plumbaginales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida of shrubs and herbs. Some members contain ANTHOCYANINS and naphthaquinones.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Kanamycin Kinase: A class of enzymes that inactivate aminocyclitol-aminoglycoside antibiotics (AMINOGLYCOSIDES) by regiospecific PHOSPHORYLATION of the 3' and/or 5' hydroxyl.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Thioctic Acid: An octanoic acid bridged with two sulfurs so that it is sometimes also called a pentanoic acid in some naming schemes. It is biosynthesized by cleavage of LINOLEIC ACID and is a coenzyme of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX). It is used in DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reduction of lipoamide by NADH to yield dihydrolipoamide and NAD+. The enzyme is a component of several MULTIENZYME COMPLEXES.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Thiocholine: A mercaptocholine used as a reagent for the determination of CHOLINESTERASES. It also serves as a highly selective nerve stain.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly: The mechanisms effecting establishment, maintenance, and modification of that specific physical conformation of CHROMATIN determining the transcriptional accessibility or inaccessibility of the DNA.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.TATA Box: A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.Adenovirus E1A Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E1A genome region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in positive regulation of transcription of the early genes of host infection.Aminoglycosides: Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.Hydroxamic Acids: A class of weak acids with the general formula R-CONHOH.Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Naphthylvinylpyridine: 4(1-Naphthylvinyl)pyridine hydrochloride. Cholinesterase inhibitor. Synonym: YuB 25.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome: A chromosomal disorder characterized by MENTAL RETARDATION, broad thumbs, webbing of fingers and toes, beaked nose, short upper lip, pouting lower lip, agenesis of corpus callosum, large foramen magnum, keloid formation, pulmonary stenosis, vertebral anomalies, chest wall anomalies, sleep apnea, and megacolon. The disease has an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance and is associated with deletions of the short arm of chromosome 16 (16p13.3).Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.

Improvement by nefiracetam of beta-amyloid-(1-42)-induced learning and memory impairments in rats. (1/969)

1. We have previously demonstrated that continuous i.c.v. infusion of amyloid beta-peptide (A beta), the major constituent of senile plaques in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease, results in learning and memory deficits in rats. 2. In the present study, we investigated the effects of nefiracetam [N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-2-(2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinyl) acetamide, DM-9384] on A beta-(1-42)-induced learning and memory deficits in rats. 3. In the A beta-(1-42)-infused rats, spontaneous alternation behaviour in a Y-maze task, spatial reference and working memory in a water maze task, and retention of passive avoidance learning were significantly impaired as compared with A beta-(40-1)-infused control rats. 4. Nefiracetam, at a dose range of 1-10 mg kg(-1), improved learning and memory deficits in the A beta-(1-42)-infused rats when it was administered p.o. 1 h before the behavioural tests. 5. Nefiracetam at a dose of 3 mg kg(-1) p.o. increased the activity of choline acetyltransferase in the hippocampus of A beta-(1-42)-infused rats. 6. Nefiracetam increased dopamine turnover in the cerebral cortex and striatum of A beta-(1-42)-infused rats, but failed to affect the noradrenaline, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid content. 7. These results suggest that nefiracetam may be useful for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease.  (+info)

Establishment and characterization of human neuroblastoma cell lines. (2/969)

Three new tissue culture cell lines, CHP-100, CHP-126, and CHP-134, have been established from explant cultures of human neuroblastoma. The cell lines have been characterized with respect to morphology, chromosomes constitution, growth, neural enzyme content, and their ability to grow in nude mice. The cells grow as dense masses comprised of fibroblast-or neuroblast-like cells with small processes. The cell lines differ in their neural enzyme acitivity. The chromosomal content of the 3 cell lines is near diploid, and all are capable of forming tumors in nude mice. The morphological findings indicate that the cells in culture resemble those found in the tumor, and the enzyme activities are consistent with those of nervous tissue. This the morphological, biochemical, and tumorigenic properties confirm that the 3 cell lines are neoplastic cells of neural origin.  (+info)

Immunohistological studies of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 6-deficient mice show no abnormality of retinal cell organization and ganglion cell maturation. (3/969)

Immature retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) initially show a multistratified dendritic pattern, and, during the postnatal period, these dendrites gradually monostratify into ON and OFF sublaminae. The selective agonist of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR), L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-AP-4), hyperpolarizes ON bipolar cells and reduces glutamate release. On the basis of L-AP-4-evoked inhibitory effects on ON-OFF segregation of developing RGCs, it has been hypothesized that glutamate-mediated synaptic activity is crucial for formation of the ON-OFF network. Gene-targeted ablation of mGluR6 specifically expressed in ON bipolar cells blocks normal ON responses but has been predicted to enhance glutamate release from ON bipolar cells. The mGluR6 knock-out mouse therefore provides a unique opportunity to investigate whether glutamate release and ON responses are important factors in the development of ON-OFF segregation. The combination of several different morphological analyses indicates that ON bipolar cells, as well as several distinct amacrine cells, in mGluR6 knock-out mice are normally distributed and correctly extend their terminals to defined retinal laminae. Importantly, both alpha and delta RGCs in adult mGluR6 knock-out mice are found monostratified into cell type-specific layers. Furthermore, no difference between wild-type and mGluR6 knock-out mice is observed in the maturation and dendritic stratification of developing RGCs. Hence, despite a deficit in normal ON responses, mGluR6 deficiency causes no abnormality in the retinal cellular organization nor in the stratifications of both ON bipolar cells and developing and mature RGCs. Based on these findings, we discuss several possible mechanisms that may underlie ON-OFF segregation of RGCs.  (+info)

A nerve growth factor mimetic TrkA antagonist causes withdrawal of cortical cholinergic boutons in the adult rat. (4/969)

Cholinergic neurons respond to the administration of nerve growth factor (NGF) in vivo with a prominent and selective increase of choline acetyl transferase activity. This suggests the possible involvement of endogenous NGF, acting through its receptor TrkA, in the maintenance of central nervous system cholinergic synapses in the adult rat brain. To test this hypothesis, a small peptide, C(92-96), that blocks NGF-TrkA interactions was delivered stereotactically into the rat cortex over a 2-week period, and its effect and potency were compared with those of an anti-NGF monoclonal antibody (mAb NGF30). Two presynaptic antigenic sites were studied by immunoreactivity, and the number of presynaptic sites was counted by using an image analysis system. Synaptophysin was used as a marker for overall cortical synapses, and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter was used as a marker for cortical cholinergic presynaptic sites. No significant variations in the number of synaptophysin-immunoreactive sites were observed. However, both mAb NGF30 and the TrkA antagonist C(92-96) provoked a significant decrease in the number and size of vesicular acetylcholine transporter-IR sites, with the losses being more marked in the C(92-96) treated rats. These observations support the notion that endogenously produced NGF acting through TrkA receptors is involved in the maintenance of the cholinergic phenotype in the normal, adult rat brain and supports the idea that NGF normally plays a role in the continual remodeling of neural circuits during adulthood. The development of neurotrophin mimetics with antagonistic and eventually agonist action may contribute to therapeutic strategies for central nervous system degeneration and trauma.  (+info)

Mapping the active site in vasoactive intestinal peptide to a core of four amino acids: neuroprotective drug design. (5/969)

The understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to peptide action entails the identification of a core active site. The major 28-aa neuropeptide, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), provides neuroprotection. A lipophilic derivative with a stearyl moiety at the N-terminal and norleucine residue replacing the Met-17 was 100-fold more potent than VIP in promoting neuronal survival, acting at femtomolar-picomolar concentration. To identify the active site in VIP, over 50 related fragments containing an N-terminal stearic acid attachment and an amidated C terminus were designed, synthesized, and tested for neuroprotective properties. Stearyl-Lys-Lys-Tyr-Leu-NH2 (derived from the C terminus of VIP and the related peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide) captured the neurotrophic effects offered by the entire 28-aa parent lipophilic derivative and protected against beta-amyloid toxicity in vitro. Furthermore, the 4-aa lipophilic peptide recognized VIP-binding sites and enhanced choline acetyltransferase activity as well as cognitive functions in Alzheimer's disease-related in vivo models. Biodistribution studies following intranasal administration of radiolabeled peptide demonstrated intact peptide in the brain 30 min after administration. Thus, lipophilic peptide fragments offer bioavailability and stability, providing lead compounds for drug design against neurodegenerative diseases.  (+info)

Millimeter-scale positioning of a nerve-growth-factor source and biological activity in the brain. (6/969)

Toxicity prevents the systemic administration of many therapeutic proteins, and attempts at protein targeting via the circulatory system (i.e., "magic bullets") have failed in all but a few special cases. Direct administration at the target site is a logical alternative, particularly in the central nervous system, but the limits of direct administration have not been defined clearly. Nerve growth factor (NGF) enhances survival of cholinergic neurons and, therefore, has generated considerable interest for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. We tested the effectiveness of local delivery by implanting small polymer pellets that slowly released NGF into the central nervous system of adult rats at controlled distances from a target site containing transplanted fetal cholinergic cells. NGF-releasing implants placed within 1-2 mm of the treatment site enhanced the biological function of cellular targets, whereas identical implants placed approximately 3 mm from the target site of treatment produced no beneficial effect. Effective NGF therapy required millimeter-scale positioning of the NGF source, and efficacy correlated with the spatial distribution of NGF concentration in the tissue; this result suggests that NGF must be delivered within several millimeters of the target to be effective in treating Alzheimer's disease. Because the human brain is divided into functional regions that are typically several centimeters in diameter and often irregular in shape, new methods for sculpting larger-scale drug fields are needed. We illustrate a concept, called pharmacotectonics, in which drug-delivery systems are arranged spatially in tissues to shape concentration fields for potent agents.  (+info)

The induction of apoptosis in HeLa cells by the loss of LBP-p40. (7/969)

To analyze the function of the laminin-binding protein precursor p40 (LBP-p40) in higher eukaryotic cells, plasmid DNA expressing antisense or sense cDNA for p40 under the control of the LacSwitch system was introduced into HeLa cells. Stable transformants were isolated, and the expression of p40 was assayed by Western and Northern blotting. The expression level of p40 was not affected in HeLa cell transformants cultured in 10% serum-supplemented media with the induction of antisense (AS)-p40 with 5 mM IPTG. However, both the protein and message for endogenous p40 in serum-depleted media with 5 mM IPTG were reduced to about 30 - 10% of the expression level in serum-free media without 5 mM IPTG. Colony formation was inhibited with the suppression of p40. AS-p40 clones died in 7 days when cultured in serum-depleted media with 5 mM IPTG, while clones without 5 mM IPTG AS-p40 clones never died, even in serum-depleted media. Additionally, sense (S)-p40 clones and control CAT clones survived more than 2 weeks in serum-free media with 5 mM IPTG. DNA fragmentation assay revealed that cell death induced by the reduction of AS-p40 resulted from apoptosis. Both the inhibition of cell growth and apoptotic cell death were partially rescued by the transfer of the p40 cDNA expression vector to AS-p40 clones. Moreover, the introduction of a synthetic hammerhead ribozyme for LBP-p40 using a fusigenic viral liposome suppressed the message for LBP-p40 even in the presence of 10% serum, and it also induced apoptosis.  (+info)

Egr-1 inhibits apoptosis during the UV response: correlation of cell survival with Egr-1 phosphorylation. (8/969)

UV irradiation of normal or immortalized cells induces a rapid increase in the expression of several transcription factors and is thought to serve a protective function. The human fibrosarcoma cell line, HT1080 clone H4, expresses almost undetectable levels of Egr-1 and does not respond to UV-C irradiation by the induction of Egr-1. The H4 cells are hypersensitive to UV which induces apoptosis and reduces clonogenicity. The introduction of exogenous Egr-1 into H4 (H4E9 and H4E4 cell-lines) confers protection from UV damage as measured by a number of assays. In both NIH3T3 (with inducible Egr-1) and H4E9 (constitutive Egr-1) cells, UV irradiation gave enhanced transactivation of Egr-1 reporters that correlated with phosphorylated Egr-1. Studies using inhibitors indicated that protein kinase-C and tyrosine kinases are involved in the anti-apoptotic effects of Egr-1 after UV damage. This is the first description of a biological effect of phosphorylated Egr-1.  (+info)

*Glutamate decarboxylase

choline→Acetylcholine. anabolism:. *Choline acetyltransferase. catabolism:. *Cholinesterase (Acetylcholinesterase, ...

*Tyrosine hydroxylase

choline→Acetylcholine. anabolism:. *Choline acetyltransferase. catabolism:. *Cholinesterase (Acetylcholinesterase, ...

*Glutamate decarboxylase

choline→Acetylcholine. anabolism:. *Choline acetyltransferase. catabolism:. *Cholinesterase (Acetylcholinesterase, ...

*Transferase

Choline acetyltransferase (also known as ChAT or CAT) is an important enzyme which produces the neurotransmitter acetylcholine ... Strauss WL, Kemper RR, Jayakar P, Kong CF, Hersh LB, Hilt DC, Rabin M (Feb 1991). "Human choline acetyltransferase gene maps to ... "Choline O-Acetyltransferase". GeneCards: The Human Gene Compendium. Weizmann Institute of Science. Retrieved 5 December 2013. ... Maselli RA, Chen D, Mo D, Bowe C, Fenton G, Wollmann RL (Feb 2003). "Choline acetyltransferase mutations in myasthenic syndrome ...

*Acetylcholine

... is synthesized in certain neurons by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase from the compounds choline and acetyl- ... Following the evolution of choline transporters, the abundance of intracellular choline paved the way for choline to become ... which causes dysfunction of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase. This inhibition may lead to acetylcholine deficiency, and can ... Acetylcholine is a choline molecule that has been acetylated at the oxygen atom. Because of the presence of a highly polar, ...

*Vesicular acetylcholine transporter

"Nuclear choline acetyltransferase activates transcription of a high-affinity choline transporter". The Journal of Biological ... This gene is located within the first intron of the choline acetyltransferase gene. PET imaging of the VAChT may provide ... Chireux MA, Le Van Thai A, Weber MJ (Mar 1995). "Human choline acetyltransferase gene: localization of alternative first exons ...

*P19 cell

Differentiated cells also have choline acetyltransferase and acetyl cholinesterase activities. When treated with DMSO, Cardiac ...

*Cholinergic neuron

The problem with this therapy is that choline acetyltransferase is largely blocked by the blood-brain barrier. PTD-ChAT is a ... It is normal in aging for circadian rhythms to deteriorate as choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) fluctuations change in pattern ... Alzheimer's typically involves a decline in the activity of choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase, as well as a ... Cholinergic neurons have significantly reduced choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholine activity, which is correlated to the ...

*Naphthylvinylpyridine

Several NVP derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their ability to inhibit choline acetyltransferase and protect ... Haubrich, DR; Goldberg, ME (1975). "Homovanillic acid concentration in the rat brain: Effect of a choline acetyltransferase ... However, NVP's method of acetylcholine (ACh) antagonism involves inhibiting the enzyme choline acetyltransferase. ... "Synthesis of a naphthylvinylpyridine derivative and its use for affinity chromatography of choline acetyltransferase". ...

*Neuronal lineage marker

There are two key markers in these studies: choline acetyltransferase and tyrosine hydroxylase. Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT ... Choline Acetyltransferase (ChAT) is expressed in cholinergic neurons of both the CNS and PNS. In the CNS, ChAT is expressed in ... "ChAT or Choline Acetyltransferase Antibody". neuromics.com. Retrieved 2014-04-19. Tian, C.; Liu, Q.; Ma, K.; Wang, Y.; Chen, Q ... choline acetyltransferase, parvalbumin, and neurofilament protein. All of these antigens are present in specific neuronal cell ...

*CEBPB

Robert I, Sutter A, Quirin-Stricker C (October 2002). "Synergistic activation of the human choline acetyltransferase gene by c- ... giving rise to substance P and neurokinin A and the choline acetyltransferase responsible for the biosynthesis of the important ...

*Bacopa monnieri

In animals, it also inhibits acetylcholinesterase, activates choline acetyltransferase, and increases cerebral blood flow. ...

*Tricyanoaminopropene

1,1,3 Tricyano-2-amino-1-propene (Triap) stimulates choline acetyltransferase activity in vitro and in vivo. Brain Research. ... It stimulates the action of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase, resulting in increased acetylcholine production. This then ...

*End-plate potential

"Enhanced acetylcholine secretion in neuroblastoma X glioma hybrid NG108-15 cells transfected with rat choline-acetyltransferase ... Acetylcholine is synthesized in the cytoplasm of the neuron from choline and acetyl-CoA. Choline acyltransferase is the enzyme ...

*Tubocurarine chloride

Acetylcholine is produced in the body of the neuron by choline acetyltransferase and transported down the axon to the synaptic ...

*SLC44A1

"Differential expression and regulation of the high-affinity choline transporter CHT1 and choline acetyltransferase in neurons ... "Impaired trafficking of choline transporter-like protein-1 at plasma membrane and inhibition of choline transport in THP-1 ... Choline transporter-like protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC44A1 gene. Cluster of differentiation ... Traiffort E, Ruat M, O'Regan S, Meunier FM (March 2005). "Molecular characterization of the family of choline transporter-like ...

*Hemicholinium-3

... by the action of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). Thus, decreasing the amount of choline available to a neuron will decrease ... Hemicholinium-3 (HC3), also known as hemicholine, is a drug which blocks the reuptake of choline by the high-affinity choline ... The reuptake of choline is the rate limiting step in the synthesis of acetylcholine; hence, hemicholinium-3 decreases the ... Neurons affected by hemicholinium-3 must rely on the transport of choline from the soma (cell body), rather than relying on ...

*Neuromuscular junction disease

... type of congenital myasthenia gravis can affect the junction presynaptically by a mutation in the gene encoding choline acetyl transferase ... This protein is an enzyme that is responsible for catalyzing the reaction that combines acetyl-coenzyime A with choline, ...

*Acetyl-CoA

Choline, in combination with acetyl-CoA, is catalyzed by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase to produce acetylcholine and ... This acetylation is catalyzed by acetyltransferases. This acetylation affects cell growth, mitosis, and apoptosis. Allosteric ...

*Acetylcholine

... is synthesized in certain neurons by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase from the compounds choline and acetyl- ... Following the evolution of choline transporters, the abundance of intracellular choline paved the way for choline to become ... which causes dysfunction of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase. This inhibition may lead to acetylcholine deficiency, and can ... Acetylcholine is a choline molecule that has been acetylated at the oxygen atom. Because of the presence of a highly polar, ...

*Acetylcholinesterase

... by the pre-synaptic neuron and ACh is synthesized by combining with acetyl-CoA through the action of choline acetyltransferase ... The hydrolysis reaction of the carboxyl ester leads to the formation of an acyl-enzyme and free choline. Then, the acyl-enzyme ... AChE is a hydrolase that hydrolyzes choline esters. It has a very high catalytic activity - each molecule of AChE degrades ... It is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of acetylcholine and of some other choline esters that function as ...

*Bifemelane

Egashira, T; Takayama, F; Yamanaka, Y (1996). "Effects of bifemelane on muscarinic receptors and choline acetyltransferase in ...

*Amacrine cell

These amacrine cells are usually characterised by their expression of choline acetyltransferase, or ChAT and are known to play ...

*Synaptosome

Particles containing acetylcholine and its synthesizing enzyme choline acetyltransferase were originally isolated by Hebb and ... Hebb CO, Whittaker VP (1958). "Intracellular distributions of acetylcholine and choline acetylase". J Physiol. 142: 187-96. doi ...

*Nucleus basalis

... of the basal forebrain which has wide projections to the neocortex and is rich in acetylcholine and choline acetyltransferase. ...

*Edinger-Westphal nucleus

... that contain choline acetyltransferase, neurons of the non-preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus contain various neuropeptides ...

*HADHB

acetyltransferases: Acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase. *N-Acetylglutamate synthase. *Choline acetyltransferase. * ...

*List of enzymes

EC 2.3.1 Aminolevulinic acid synthase EC 2.3.1.37 Choline acetyltransferase EC 2.3.1.6 Category:EC 2.3.2 Factor XIII EC 2.3. ...
Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens choline O-acetyltransferase (CHAT), transcript variant S as transfection-ready DNA - 10 µg - OriGene - cdna clones
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Choline acetyltransferase (CAT) catalyzes the biosynthesis of acetylcholine according to the chemical equation: Acetyl-CoA + Choline in equilibrium Acetylcholine + CoA. To demonstrate the neuronal relationship of this enzyme, CAT activity was measured in hearts to which the extrinsic innervation was completely interrupted by extirpation of the heart from a donor animal and transplantation in a heterotopic position into the recipients abdominal cavity. After the animals were killed at 8 days, enzyme activity in the transplanted hearts was measured and compared with that of the recipient. Choline acetyltransferase activity decreased 98% in the right atrium of the transplanted denervated hearts, 94% in the SA node, 87% in the left atrium, 80% in the right ventricle, and about 50% in the interventricular septum and left ventricle. These data show that sectioning the extrinsic parasympathetic innervation to the heart results in variable decreases in CAT activity, a finding which confirms that CAT activity
Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is critical in the modulation of cholesterol and phospholipid transport between cells of different types. Human apoE is a polymorphic protein with three common alleles, APO epsilon 2, APO epsilon 3, and APO epsilon 4. ApoE4 is associated with sporadic and late-onset familial Alzheimer disease (AD). Gene dose was shown to have an effect on risk of developing AD, age of onset, accumulation of senile plaques in the brain, and reduction of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity in the hippocampus of AD subjects. To characterize the possible impact of the apoE4 allele on cholinergic markers in AD, we examined the effect of apoE4 allele copy number on pre- and postsynaptic markers of cholinergic activity. ApoE4 allele copy number showed an inverse relationship with residual brain ChAT activity and nicotinic receptor binding sites in both the hippocampal formation and the temporal cortex of AD subjects. AD cases lacking the apoE4 allele showed ChAT activities close or within ...
Alzheimers disease is the leading cause of dementia and one of the most common diseases of the aging population. It is a chronic brain disease that involves gradual memory loss, decline in the ability to perform routine tasks, disorientation, difficulty in learning, loss of language skills, impairment of judgment, and personality changes in affected individuals. The neurodegenerative nature of the disease eventually leads to the failure of other organ systems and death.. A consistent and marked change in the brains of patients with AD is degeneration of the cholinergic innervation in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex areas. The activity of choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) is significantly reduced in these brain regions, and a linear correlation is seen between the reduction in cortical ChAT activity and the progress of dementia, indicating a progressive loss of cholinergic function.. Receptor selective nicotinic alpha-7 receptor agonists can modulate acetylcholine in selective brain regions ...
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article{58bdbf8b-cb0c-4890-80c3-1b810f44ac8c, abstract = {,p,The intricate balance between dopaminergic and cholinergic neurotransmission in the striatum has been thoroughly difficult to characterize. It was initially described as a seesaw with a competing function of dopamine versus acetylcholine. Recent technical advances however, have brought this view into question suggesting that the two systems work rather in concert with the cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) driving dopamine release. In this study, we have utilized two transgenic Cre-driver rat lines, a choline acetyl transferase ChAT-Cre transgenic rat and a novel double-transgenic tyrosine hydroxylase TH-Cre/ChAT-Cre rat to further elucidate the role of striatal ChIs in normal motor function and in Parkinsons disease. Here we show that selective and reversible activation of ChIs using chemogenetic (DREADD) receptors increases locomotor function in intact rats and potentiate the therapeutic effect of L-DOPA in the rats with lesions of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Acetylcholine and its enzymes in some brain areas of the rat under stress. AU - Fatranská, M.. AU - Budai, D.. AU - Opršalová, Z.. AU - Kvetňanský, R.. PY - 1987/10/20. Y1 - 1987/10/20. N2 - A period of 1 or 24 h of cold stress (5 °C) resulted in a significant decrease of acetylcholine (ACh) concentration in the hypothalamus and hippocampus in rats. In the hippocampus the activity of the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) was significantly increased after 24 h and that of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) after 1 and 24 h exposure to cold, whereas in the hypothalamus, AChE activity was found to be decreased, albeit only after 24 h exposure. Separate investigation of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus under 24 h of cold revealed that the ACh decreased in the dorsal hippocampus only, where no change in ChAT activity was observed. On the other hand, ACh showed no change in the ventral hippocampus where andincrease of ChAT activity was found. Forced swimming for 20 min also induced a ...
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The main reason I added this today is that some of the comment threads basically turn into 2-person chats back and forth. If something like that is going on, it might be good to have an option of "lets take this to chat." More productive for everyone ...
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Wow what a mouth full! Just thought I would start a chat for those of us who would like a bit of support but dont keep up with the other ttc threads. I have joined in the past, but 12mths on am taking things easy and find the other chats - page 80
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Disregard the coachella chat roulette thing. How about TINYCHAT, eh? (basically chat with webcams and/or microphone feeds for anyone in the room..you can even share whats on your desktop). Jgonen started the room tonight. Prolly wont be as big as the regular chatroom on this forum, but why not. There were a few of us in there tonight. http://tinychat.com/coachella
Just a little reminder that we are having chat tonight and please see the last post from els regarding the new chat schedule. Thanks and hope to see you there ...
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I thought General Discussion Forum would be nice place to have a daily chat thread to say hello - and talk about whatever strikes your fancy., team20380board
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VR chat platform AltspaceVR today announced that it is opening support for the Samsung Gear VR, making it the first social chat experience on a mobile VR platform. But rather than gather reporters in person, AltspaceVR CEO Eric Romo presented to… Continue Reading →. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Coordinate expression of vesicular acetylcholine transporter and choline acetyltransferase in sympathetic superior cervical neurones. AU - Misawa, Hidemi. AU - Takahashi, R.. AU - Deguchi, T.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is synthesized by choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and transported into synaptic vesicles by the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). Recently it has been reported that the entire coding region of VAChT mRNA is located in the first intron of the ChAT gene. In this study, ChAT and VAChT mRNAs were analysed in cultured sympathetic neurones. Cholinergic differentiation factor/leukaemia inhibitory factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor induced strong expression of ChAT and VAChT mRNAs in parallel. RT-PCR analysis of ChAT mRNAs revealed that five types of ChAT transcripts which differed in the 5 non coding regions were increased. RT-PCR analysis of VAChT mRNA indicated that the cytokines induced only VAChT mRNA species which ...
We report here the effects of oral micronized estradiol and soy phytoestrogens on uterine weight, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and nerve growth factor (NGF) mRNAs in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of ovariectomized young and retired breeder rats. Within each age category, 15 bilaterally ovariectomized rats were randomized equally into three groups: control (OVX), estradiol (E2), and soy phytoestrogens (SBE).
Woolf, N.J. (1996) The critical role of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons in morphological change and memory encoding A hypothesis. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 66, 258-266.
Several highly selective biochemical markers were used to assess the persistent central cholinergic dysfunction which accompanies administration of the cholinergic neurotoxin ethylcholine mustard aziridinium ion (AF64A). Rats received a single bilateral intracerebroventricular injection of AF64A (3 nmol/3 microliter/side) or vehicle and measurements were carried out in the cerebral cortices, hippocampi and corpora striata at 7 and 21 days postinjection. The drug binding sites of muscarinic cholinergic receptors, as revealed by high-affinity binding of (-)-[3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate (a classical muscarinic antagonist), [3H]pirenzepine (a selective antagonist of the putative M1 muscarinic receptor subclass) and (+)-[3H]cis-methyldioxolane (a potent muscarinic agonist), were not significantly affected by AF64A treatment. As reported previously, activity of the cholinergic synthetic enzyme choline acetyltransferase was reduced markedly (60-65%) in the hippocampi of AF64A-treated rats. A similar ...
Grünblatt, E; Reif, A; Jungwirth, S; Galimberti, D; Weber, H; Scarpini, E; Sauer, C; Wichart, I; Rainer, M K; Huber, K; Danielczyk, W; Tragl, K H; Deckert, J; Fischer, P; Riederer, P (2011). Genetic variation in the choline O-acetyltransferase gene in depression and Alzheimers disease: the VITA and Milano studies. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 45(9):1250-1256.. Renner, T J; Nguyen, T T; Romanos, M; Walitza, S; Röser, C; Reif, A; Schäfer, H; Warnke, A; Gerlach, M; Lesch, K P (2011). No evidence for association between a functional promoter variant of the Norepinephrine Transporter gene SLC6A2 and ADHD in a family-based sample. ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, 3(3):285-289.. Reif, A; Grünblatt, E; Herterich, S; Wichart, I; Rainer, M K; Jungwirth, S; Danielczyk, W; Deckert, J; Tragl, K H; Riederer, P; Fischer, P (2011). Association of a functional NOS1 promoter repeat with Alzheimers disease in the VITA cohort. Journal of Alzheimers Disease, 23(2):327-333.. Reif, A; ...
2005, Estrogenic effects of soy isoflavones on neurons have been observed in various studies. Soy contains numerous phytochemicals including isoflavones, phytic acid, trypsin inhibitors, saponins. Soy isoflavones are referred to as phytoestrogens because they bind to the estrogen receptors and affect estrogen-mediated processes. Soy isoflavones can exert both agonistic and antagonistic estrogenic effects, and have inhibitory effects on tyrosine kinase, topoisomerase and angiogenesis. Soy can affect synthesis of acetylcholine, and neurotrophic factors such as BDNF and nerve growth factor in the brain of the female rat. Frontal cortex choline acetyltransferase mRNA levels and BDNF were significantly higher in rats receiving soy isoflavones. DNA fragmentation was detected in homogenates of brain tissue from rats receiving either dose (2mg/day or 2mg/day) genistein. Daidzein augments nitric oxide (neurotransmitter of the vasodilator nerve) synthesis in the basilar artery and increases contraction ...
BioAssay record AID 51967 submitted by ChEMBL: Compound was tested in vitro for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity (maximal ChAT stimulation) in embryonic rat spinal cord cultures at a concentration of 10 uM.
Title: NGF-Cholinergic Dependency in Brain Aging, MCI and Alzheimers Disease. VOLUME: 4 ISSUE: 4. Author(s):A. C. Cuello, A. Bruno and K.F. S. Bell. Affiliation:Room 1210, 3655 Sir William Osler Promenade, Montreal, QC, H3G 1Y6, Canada.. Keywords:basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, CNS, trophic support system, acetylcholinesterase, amyloid pathology. Abstract: Forebrain cholinergic neurons are highly dependent on nerve growth factor (NGF) for phenotype maintenance. We have established that in addition to "target-derived" NGF neurotrophic stimulation, cholinergic neurons also respond dose-dependently, to intra-parenchymal NGF administration in the somato-dendritic region of the nucleus Basalis [1], thus illustrating the potential of alternative reparative therapies which would by-pass the undesirable effects of diffuse neurotrophin application. Moreover, our lab has also observed that the steady-state number of cortical cholinergic synapses is dependent on continuous NGF supply, as anti-NGF ...
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One group of six male control rats [12 months old] and one group of six male rats of the same age, singularly maintained in a cage, and treated with acetyl-L-carnitine-HCl [(gamma-trimethyl-beta-acetyl-butyrobetaine-HCl: Sigma-Tau code ST200 or ALCAR: 60 mg/kg/day[7]/po)] for six months were tested in the spatial learning/memory Morris mazewater task and for atrophy and cell loss in seven myelo- and cytostructurally defined basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic regions [Freddi et al., 2009]. Coronal sections 25 ?m thick were cut through the BF regions and processed every 200 ?m for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunohistochemistry. The ALCAR-treated rats had significantly shorter exit times on the Morris maze-water task test than the control rats (average ± SD 28.3 ± 12.4 s vs. 61.16 ± 4.67 s; t = 6.07, DOF = 10, P = 0.0001). Degenerative morphological changes in the BF ChAT-positive cells were observed in the substantia innominata pars anterior of the control rats but _disibledevent= 0.319]. In the
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When DArcy Wentworth Thompsons On Growth and Form was published 100 years ago, it raised the question of how biological forms arise during development and across evolution. In light of the advances in molecular and cellular biology since then, a succinct modern view of the question states: how do genes encode geometry? Our new special issue is packed with articles that use mathematical and physical approaches to gain insights into cell and tissue patterning, morphogenesis and dynamics, and that provide a physical framework to capture these processes operating across scales.. Read the Editorial by guest editors Thomas Lecuit and L. Mahadevan, as they provide a perspective on the influence of DArcy Thompsons work and an overview of the articles in this issue.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of the non-neuronal human cholinergic system in lung cancer and mesothelioma. T2 - Possibility of new therapeutic strategies. AU - Trombino, Sonya. AU - Bisio, Alessandra. AU - Catassi, Alessia. AU - Cesario, Alfredo. AU - Falugi, Carla. AU - Russo, Patrizia. PY - 2004/11. Y1 - 2004/11. N2 - Acethlycholine (Ach), one of the most important examples of a neurotransmitter, represents a phylogenetically old molecule, widely distributed from bacteria to humans. The finding that neuronal Ach receptors (nAChRs) are present in non-neuronal cells raised some interesting issues related to their specific activity. In humans, different studies have showed that many lung cancer cells expressed nAchRs and that low concentrations of nicotine blocked the induction of apoptosis in these cells. A recent study presents data that SCLC express a cholinergic autocrine loop that can regulate cell growth. Such work demonstrates that SCLC cells have a cholinergic phenotype and that ACh exerts as an ...
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rs1948 showed nominally significant transmission bias; haploview analyses showed nominally significant transmission bias of rs1948-rs7178270-rs1316971-rs11633223; no evidence of interaction among these 19 cholinergic genes by FITF analysis and FDR correction was ...
please...if you join a chat, you have to jump iin and talk!!! it seems like a cique or private party only because SOME of us come frequently, or have corresponded OFF list and have already developed a deeper relationship...doesnt mean it is closed!!! Sometimes things move fast and furious and if your question is ignored for a few lines,,,,hang in there...sometimes people forget to reset their refresh rate to less than 45 so it seems slow and then all of a sudden a huge rush of messages! Oftenn times, people have come to my chat on sunday night and just sat there...people say hello to the lurker...but they dont jump in...We all assume that that is cuz the person has not reset the refresh rate and no one has said hello So come to the chat...Say hello, re set your fresh rate and JUMP IN!!! they are not closed or private...if you dont get a joke the first time, you will next week...the chats are a way to talk to the people you only know through their posts...communication is a TWO way street...you ...
Max has passed the torch to Martin Rowe and me for handling these weekly live chats. (No comment on it taking two of us to fill his shoes, though I will admit they are at least a 13E.) This weeks chat will be a bit earlier than usual (9am Pacific time) because I will be returning from ARM TechCon and boarding a plane at 10.. Speaking of ARM TechCon, that is the subject of this weeks chat. Lots of activity here in one of the top-tier trade shows in the industry. EETimes will have covered the news announcements, but no one can cover everything. Heres a chance to discuss the show as a whole, put the announcements into perspective, and share what you found on the show floor (or ask those who were there what they saw).. Come join us at 9am Pacific for a live chat wrapping up ARM TechCon!. ...
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Recent reports have brought back the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase in the mainstream research in dementia and the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Here we report, a specific strategy for the design of novel ChAT ligands based on molecular docking, Hologram Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (HQSAR) and lead optimization. Molecular docking was performed on a series of ChAT inhibitors to decipher the molecular fingerprint of their interaction with the active site of ChAT. Then robust statistical fragment HQSAR models were developed. A library of novel ligands was generated based on the pharmacophoric and shape similarity scoring function, and evaluated in silico for their molecular interactions with ChAT. Ten of the top scoring invented compounds are reported here. We confirmed the activity of alpha-NETA, the only commercially available ChAT inhibitor, and one of the seed compounds in our model, using a new simple colorimetric ChAT assay (IC50 similar ...
A unilateral ibotenic acid lesion was placed in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis of 3- and 18-month-old rats. In the lesioned aging rats, the number of choline acetyltransferase-immunoreactive neurons of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis was markedly reduced in the ipsilateral side and to a lesser extent in the contralateral side. Twenty-one days after the lesion, the activity of choline acetyltransferase in the ipsilateral cortex was reduced by 40% in both groups of rats and by 24% in the contralateral frontal cortex of the aging rats. Intracerebroventricular administration of nerve growth factor (10 micrograms twice a week) to aging lesioned rats for 3 weeks after surgery resulted in a complete recovery in the number of choline acetyltransferase-immunoreactive neurons in the nucleus basalis of both sides, and choline acetyltransferase activity in the contralateral cortex, with little effect on the ipsilateral cortex. No potentiation was seen after the concurrent administration of GM1 ...
The mechanism underlying a hypercholinergic state in Parkinsons disease (PD) remains uncertain. Here, we show that disruption of the K(v)1 channel-mediated function causes hyperexcitability of striatal cholinergic interneurons in a mouse model of PD. Specifically, our data reveal that Kv1 channels containing K(v)1.3 subunits contribute significantly to the orphan potassium current known as I-sAHP in striatal cholinergic interneurons. Typically, this Kv1 current provides negative feedback to depolarization that limits burst firing and slows the tonic activity of cholinergic interneurons. However, such inhibitory control of cholinergic interneuron excitability by K(v)1.3-mediated current is markedly diminished in the parkinsonian striatum, suggesting that targeting Kv1.3 subunits and their regulatory pathways may have therapeutic potential in PD therapy. These studies reveal unexpected roles of Kv1.3 subunit-containing channels in the regulation of firing patterns of striatal cholinergic ...
Within the cortex, nerve growth factor (NGF) mediates the innervation of cholinergic neurons during development, maintains cholinergic corticopetal projections during adulthood and modulates cholinergic function through phenotypic control of the cholinergic gene locus. Recent studies suggest NGF may also play an important role in cortical plasticity in adulthood. Previously, NGF-producing cells have been shown to colocalize with GABAergic cell markers within the hippocampus, striatum, and basal forebrain. Classification of cells producing NGF in the cortex is lacking, however, and cholinergic corticopetal projections have been shown to innervate both pyramidal and GABAergic neurons in the cortex. In order to clarify potential trophic interactions between cortical neurons and cholinergic projections, we used double-fluorescent immunohistochemistry to classify NGF-expressing cells in several cortical regions, including the prefrontal cortex, primary motor cortex, parietal cortex and temporal cortex. Our
Authors. Stéphanie Bauché, Seana ORegan, Yoshiteru Azuma, Fanny Laffargue, Grace McMacken, Damien Sternberg, Guy Brochier, Céline Buon, Nassima Bouzidi, Ana Topf, Emmanuelle Lacène, Ganaelle Remerand, Anne-Marie Beaufrere, Céline Pebrel-Richard, Julien Thevenon, Salima El Chehadeh-Djebbar, Laurence Faivre, Yannis Duffourd, Federica Ricci1, Tiziana Mongini, Chiara Fiorillo, Guja Astrea, Carmen Magdalena Burloiu, Niculina Butoianu, Carmen Sandu, Laurent Servais, Gisèle Bonne, Isabelle Nelson, Isabelle Desguerre, Marie-Christine Nougues, Benoit Bœuf, Norma Romero, Jocelyn Laporte, Anne Boland, Doris Lechner, Jean-François Deleuze, Bertrand Fontaine, Laure Strochlic, Hanns Lochmuller, Bruno Eymard, Michèle Mayer, Sophie Nicole. Journal. American Journal of Human Genetics, volume 99, pages 1-9 Publication date. September 2016. Abstract. The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is one of the best-studied cholinergic synapses. Inherited defects of peripheral neurotransmission result in congenital ...
To investigate the distribution of nitrergic and cholinergic innervation in rabbit, pig, and human upper urinary tract, (UUT) whole-mount preparations and frozen sections were stained with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-diaphorase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) histochemistry. NADPH-diaphorase and AChE staining demonstrated two neuronal plexuses in the submucous and muscular layer of the UUT in all three species. The presence of nitrergic and cholinergic neuronal networks in the normal UUT suggests that autonomic innervation may play an important role in the transmission of ureteral peristalsis.. ...
Abstract: Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) are believed to be one of the first cell types to be affected in all forms of AD, and their dysfunction is clinically correlated with impaired short-term memory formation and retrieval. We present an optimized in vitro protocol to generate human BFCNs from iPSCs, using cell lines from presenilin 2 (PSEN2) mutation carriers and controls. As expected, cell lines harboring the PSEN2N141I mutation displayed an increase in the Aβ42/40 in iPSC-derived BFCNs. Neurons derived from PSEN2N141I lines generated fewer maximum number of spikes in response to a square depolarizing current injection. The height of the first action potential at rheobase current injection was also significantly decreased in PSEN2N141I BFCNs. CRISPR/Cas9 correction of the PSEN2 point mutation abolished the electrophysiological deficit, restoring both the maximal number of spikes and spike height to the levels recorded in controls. Increased Aβ42/40 was also normalized ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cholinergic neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus regulate mouse brown adipose tissue metabolism. AU - Jeong, Jae Hoon. AU - Lee, Dong Kun. AU - Blouet, Clemence. AU - Ruiz, Henry H.. AU - Buettner, Christoph. AU - Chua, Jr., Streamson C.. AU - Schwartz, Gary J.. AU - Jo, Young-Hwan. PY - 2015/6/1. Y1 - 2015/6/1. N2 - Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is critical in maintaining body temperature. The dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) integrates cutaneous thermosensory signals and regulates adaptive thermogenesis. Here, we study the function and synaptic connectivity of input from DMH cholinergic neurons to sympathetic premotor neurons in the raphe pallidus (Rpa). Methods: In order to selectively manipulate DMH cholinergic neuron activity, we generated transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin fused to yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) in cholinergic neurons (choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-Cre::ChR2-YFP) with the Cre-LoxP technique. In addition, we used an adeno-associated ...

Coordinate expression of vesicular acetylcholine transporter and choline acetyltransferase in sympathetic superior cervical...Coordinate expression of vesicular acetylcholine transporter and choline acetyltransferase in sympathetic superior cervical...

Misawa H, Takahashi R, Deguchi T. Coordinate expression of vesicular acetylcholine transporter and choline acetyltransferase in ... keywords = "Choline acetyltransferase, Cholinergic differentiation factor, Ciliary neurotrophic factor, Inhibitory factor, ... The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is synthesized by choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and transported into synaptic vesicles by ... N2 - The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is synthesized by choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and transported into synaptic ...
more infohttps://keio.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/coordinate-expression-of-vesicular-acetylcholine-transporter-and-

Choline acetyltransferase - WikipediaCholine acetyltransferase - Wikipedia

In humans, the choline acetyltransferase enzyme is encoded by the CHAT gene. Choline acetyltransferase was first described by ... Choline Acetyltransferase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular Biology ... Choline acetyltransferase (commonly abbreviated as ChAT, but sometimes CAT) is a transferase enzyme responsible for the ... Oda Y (2000). "Choline acetyltransferase: the structure, distribution and pathologic changes in the central nervous system". ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Choline_acetyltransferase

Choline Acetyltransferase peptide (736-748) (ab45678) | AbcamCholine Acetyltransferase peptide (736-748) (ab45678) | Abcam

Buy our Choline Acetyltransferase peptide (736-748). Ab45678 is a blocking peptide for ab27484 and has been validated in BL. ... Choline Acetyltransferase peptide (736-748). See all Choline Acetyltransferase proteins and peptides. ... Catalyzes the reversible synthesis of acetylcholine (ACh) from acetyl CoA and choline at cholinergic synapses. ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/choline-acetyltransferase-peptide-736-748-ab45678.html

Choline Acetyltransferase peptide (736-748) (ab45678) ReferencesCholine Acetyltransferase peptide (736-748) (ab45678) References

References for Abcams Choline Acetyltransferase peptide (736-748) (ab45678). Please let us know if you have used this product ...
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Roles of neurotransmitter in synapse formation: development of neuromuscular junctions lacking choline acetyltransferase.  -...Roles of neurotransmitter in synapse formation: development of neuromuscular junctions lacking choline acetyltransferase. -...

Roles of neurotransmitter in synapse formation: development of neuromuscular junctions lacking choline acetyltransferase.. ... is completely and specifically blocked by mutation of the neurotransmitter-synthesizing enzyme choline acetyltransferase. Nerve ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12441053?dopt=Abstract

Choline acetyltransferase mutations cause myasthenic syndrome associated with episodic apnea in humans. | Sigma-AldrichCholine acetyltransferase mutations cause myasthenic syndrome associated with episodic apnea in humans. | Sigma-Aldrich

Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT; EC ) catalyzes the reversible synthesis of acetylcholine (ACh) from acetyl CoA and choline at ... Choline acetyltransferase mutations cause myasthenic syndrome associated with episodic apnea in humans.. [K Ohno, A Tsujino, J ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/11172068

Differential effects of insulin on choline acetyltransferase and glutamic acid decarboxylase activities in neuron-rich striatal...Differential effects of insulin on choline acetyltransferase and glutamic acid decarboxylase activities in neuron-rich striatal...

Differential effects of insulin on choline acetyltransferase and glutamic acid decarboxylase activities in neuron-rich striatal ... and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in neuron-rich cultures prepared from embryonic day 15 rat striatum. Insulin (5 micrograms ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1629717?dopt=Abstract

Graft-induced Recovery of Inhibitory Avoidance Conditioning in Striatal Lesioned Rats is Related to Choline Acetyltransferase...Graft-induced Recovery of Inhibitory Avoidance Conditioning in Striatal Lesioned Rats is Related to Choline Acetyltransferase...

Choline acetyltransferase and glutamate decarboxylase activities, as well as dopamine content, were measured in the grafted ... Graft-induced Recovery of Inhibitory Avoidance Conditioning in Striatal Lesioned Rats is Related to Choline Acetyltransferase ... Striatal grafts showed levels of choline acetyltransferase activity similar to the control group. Moreover, a positive ... correlation was found between the choline acetyltransferase activity and the behavioral recovery. In contrast, both glutamate ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/1994/564026/abs/

The kinetic properties of human placental choline acetyltransferase | Biochemical JournalThe kinetic properties of human placental choline acetyltransferase | Biochemical Journal

The kinetic properties of human placental choline acetyltransferase Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... The kinetic properties of human placental choline acetyltransferase. D Morris, C O Hebb ...
more infohttp://www.biochemj.org/content/121/1/20P.2

ChAT (Choline Acetyltransferase) AntibodyChAT (Choline Acetyltransferase) Antibody

Choline Acetyltransferase) antibody. ChAT serves as a specific marker for cholinergic neurons in both peripheral and central ... Murine choline-O-acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.6) is a 71,721 dalton protein(640 amino acids) expressed in cholinergic neurons of ... ChAT is the enzyme responsible for synthesis of acetylcholine from acetyl-coenzyme A and choline. ...
more infohttps://www.neuromics.com/MO20019

Frontiers | Soluble Aβ42 Acts as Allosteric Activator of the Core Cholinergic Enzyme Choline Acetyltransferase | Frontiers in...Frontiers | Soluble Aβ42 Acts as Allosteric Activator of the Core Cholinergic Enzyme Choline Acetyltransferase | Frontiers in...

Aβ42 allosterically enhances the catalytic rate of the core-cholinergic enzyme choline acetyltransferases (ChAT), responsible ... Aβ42 allosterically enhances the catalytic rate of the core-cholinergic enzyme choline acetyltransferases (ChAT), responsible ... homeostasis either by allosteric activation of ACh-degrading cholinesterases or by inhibiting the high-affinity choline uptake ... homeostasis either by allosteric activation of ACh-degrading cholinesterases or by inhibiting the high-affinity choline uptake ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnmol.2018.00327/full

ChAT or Choline Acetyltransferase AntibodyChAT or Choline Acetyltransferase Antibody

Choline Acetyltransferase) antibody. ChAT serves as a specific marker for cholinergic neurons in both peripheral and central ... Murine choline-O-acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.6) is a 71,721 dalton protein(640 amino acids) expressed in cholinergic neurons of ... ChAT is the enzyme responsible for synthesis of acetylcholine from acetyl-coenzyme A and choline. ...
more infohttps://www.neuromics.com/CH23000

Synaptic Soluble and Membrane-Bound Choline Acetyltransferase as a Marker of Cholinergic Function In Vitro and In Vivo |...Synaptic Soluble and Membrane-Bound Choline Acetyltransferase as a Marker of Cholinergic Function In Vitro and In Vivo |...

Synaptic Soluble and Membrane-Bound Choline Acetyltransferase as a Marker of Cholinergic Function In Vitro and In Vivo , ... Synaptic Soluble and Membrane-Bound Choline Acetyltransferase as a Marker of Cholinergic Function In Vitro and In Vivo. By E.I ...
more infohttps://www.intechopen.com/books/neurochemistry/synaptic-soluble-and-membrane-bound-choline-acetyltransferase-as-a-marker-of-cholinergic-function-in/

AID 51965 - Compound was tested in vitro for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity (maximal ChAT stimulation) in embryonic...AID 51965 - Compound was tested in vitro for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity (maximal ChAT stimulation) in embryonic...

Compound was tested in vitro for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity (maximal ChAT stimulation) in embryonic rat spinal ...
more infohttps://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioassay/51965

Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens choline O-acetyltransferase (CHAT), transcript variant S as transfection-ready DNA -...Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens choline O-acetyltransferase (CHAT), transcript variant S as transfection-ready DNA -...

Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens choline O-acetyltransferase (CHAT), transcript variant S as transfection-ready DNA - ... home , products , origene , myc-ddk-tagged orf clone of homo sapiens choline o-acetyltransferase (chat), transcript variant s ... Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens choline O-acetyltransferase (CHAT), transcript variant S as transfection-ready DNA - ... Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens choline O-acetyltransferase (CHAT), transcript variant S as transfection-ready DNA ...
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AID 51967 - Compound was tested in vitro for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity (maximal ChAT stimulation) in embryonic...AID 51967 - Compound was tested in vitro for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity (maximal ChAT stimulation) in embryonic...

Compound was tested in vitro for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity (maximal ChAT stimulation) in embryonic rat spinal ...
more infohttps://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioassay/51967

choline O-acetyltransferase | Acetylcholine turnover | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGYcholine O-acetyltransferase | Acetylcholine turnover | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY

choline O-acetyltransferase - Acetylcholine turnover. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology ... Acetylcholine turnover: choline O-acetyltransferase. Last modified on 18/09/2015. Accessed on 19/02/2018. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to ... GtoImmuPdb view: OFF : Currently no data for choline O-acetyltransferase in GtoImmuPdb ... choline O-acetyltransferase Mouse. -. 641. 14 B. Chat choline acetyltransferase Rat. -. 640. 16p16. Chat choline O- ...
more infohttp://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/ObjectDisplayForward?objectId=2480&familyId=765&familyType=ENZYME

ChAT elisa kit | Mouse Choline acetyltransferase ELISA Kit-AAC37590.1ChAT elisa kit | Mouse Choline acetyltransferase ELISA Kit-AAC37590.1

Mouse Choline acetyltransferase ELISA Kit-AAC37590.1 (MBS724080) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits ... choline O-acetyltransferase; choline acetylase; acetyl CoA:choline O-acetyltransferase UniProt Protein Name Choline O- ... ChAT elisa kit :: Mouse Choline acetyltransferase ELISA Kit. Catalog #. MBS724080 .mycenter { display: block; margin-left: auto ... Molecular Function: choline O-acetyltransferase activity. Biological Process: synaptic transmission; rhythmic behavior; ...
more infohttps://www.mybiosource.com/prods/ELISA-Kit/Mouse/Choline-acetyltransferase/ChAT/datasheet.php?products_id=724080

CHAT elisa kit | Plant Choline Acetyltransferase (CHAT) ELISA Kit-AAC37590.1CHAT elisa kit | Plant Choline Acetyltransferase (CHAT) ELISA Kit-AAC37590.1

Plant Choline Acetyltransferase (CHAT) ELISA Kit-AAC37590.1 (MBS9371997) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits ... Molecular Function: choline O-acetyltransferase activity. Biological Process: neurotransmitter secretion; phosphatidylcholine ... Kit for analyzing the presence of the Choline Acetyltransferase (CHAT) ELISA Kit target analytes in biological samples. The ... CHAT: an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible synthesis of acetylcholine (ACh) from acetyl CoA and choline at cholinergic ...
more infohttps://www.mybiosource.com/prods/ELISA-Kit/Plant/Choline-Acetyltransferase-CHAT/CHAT/datasheet.php?products_id=9371997

Regional heterogeneity of choline acetyltransferase activity in primate neocortex<...Regional heterogeneity of choline acetyltransferase activity in primate neocortex<...

"Regional heterogeneity of choline acetyltransferase activity in primate neocortex",. abstract = "Choline acetyltransferase ... Regional heterogeneity of choline acetyltransferase activity in primate neocortex. Brain Research. 1984 Nov 26;322(2):361-364. ... Regional heterogeneity of choline acetyltransferase activity in primate neocortex. John Lehmann, Robert G. Struble, Piero G. ... N2 - Choline acetyltransferase activity in precentral and temporal regions of primate neocortex is 2.5-fold higher than in ...
more infohttps://jhu.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/regional-heterogeneity-of-choline-acetyltransferase-activity-in-p-4

Choline o-acetyltransferase | Article about Choline o-acetyltransferase by The Free DictionaryCholine o-acetyltransferase | Article about Choline o-acetyltransferase by The Free Dictionary

... to choline in the synthesis of acetylcholine from acetyl coenzyme A and choline Explanation of Choline o-acetyltransferase ... Find out information about Choline o-acetyltransferase. An enzyme that transfers the acetyl group ... redirected from Choline o-acetyltransferase). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal. choline acetyltransferase. ... Choline o-acetyltransferase , Article about Choline o-acetyltransferase by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2. ...
more infohttp://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Choline+o-acetyltransferase

Nerve growth factor-mediated induction of choline acetyltransferase in PC12 cells: evaluation of the site of action of nerve...Nerve growth factor-mediated induction of choline acetyltransferase in PC12 cells: evaluation of the site of action of nerve...

Nerve growth factor-mediated induction of choline acetyltransferase in PC12 cells: evaluation of the site of action of nerve ... Choline O-Acetyltransferase/*metabolism Cytoplasm/ultrastructure Lysosomes/metabolism/*ultrastructure Neoplasms, Experimental/ ... Nerve growth factor-mediated induction of choline acetyltransferase in PC12 cells: evaluation of the site of action of nerve ... and might be responsible for the induction of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in PC12 cells. Second, we investigated whether a ...
more infohttps://epub.uni-regensburg.de/10915/

Localization of choline acetyltransferase and NADPH diaphorase activities in the submucous ganglia of the guinea-pig colon |...Localization of choline acetyltransferase and NADPH diaphorase activities in the submucous ganglia of the guinea-pig colon |...

Localization of choline acetyltransferase and NADPH diaphorase activities in the submucous ganglia of the guinea-pig colon. ... Wang, X.-Y., Wong, W.-C., Ling, E.-A. (1996-03-11). Localization of choline acetyltransferase and NADPH diaphorase activities ... A combined immunohistochemical and histochemical demonstration of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and nicotinamide adenine ...
more infohttps://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/120762

Choline acetyltransferase inhibitors: a group of styryl-pyridine analogs. - Semantic ScholarCholine acetyltransferase inhibitors: a group of styryl-pyridine analogs. - Semantic Scholar

Choline acetyltransferase inhibitors: a group of styryl-pyridine analogs. by James C. Smith et al. ... Choline acetyltransferase inhibitors: a group of styryl-pyridine analogs.. *. James C. Smith. , Chester J Cavallito. , Francis ... Inhibition by styrylpyridines of purified rat and bovine brain choline acetyltransferase. *Rick L. Ryan. , William O. McClure ... Acetylseco hemicholinium-3, a new choline acetyltransferase inhibitor useful in neuropharmacological studies.. *E F Domino. , M ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Choline-acetyltransferase-inhibitors-a-group-of-st-Smith-Cavallito/cd25e54e22e55b6b692c07c031497a0e37f82648

Anti-Choline Acetyltransferase 抗体 [EPR13024(B)] (ab181023)Anti-Choline Acetyltransferase 抗体 [EPR13024(B)] (ab181023)

Anti-Choline Acetyltransferase antibody [EPR13024(B)] (HRP) (ab193095) *Anti-Choline Acetyltransferase antibody [EPR13024(B)] ( ... Anti-Choline Acetyltransferase antibody [EPR13024(B)] (Alexa Fluor® 488) (ab192465) *Anti-Choline Acetyltransferase antibody [ ... Anti-Choline Acetyltransferase antibody [EPR13024(B)] (Allophycocyanin) (ab224001) *Anti-Choline Acetyltransferase antibody [ ... Anti-Choline Acetyltransferase antibody [EPR13024(B)]. Choline Acetyltransferase 一次抗体 製品一覧. ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.co.jp/choline-acetyltransferase-antibody-epr13024b-ab181023.html
  • Nachmanson & Machado, 1943 The acetyl transferase mode of action was unknown at the time of this discovery, however Nachmansohn hypothesized the possibility of acetylphosphate or phosphorylcholine exchanging the phosphate (from ATP) for choline or acetate ion. (wikipedia.org)