Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC
An enzyme that is active in the first step of choline phosphoglyceride (lecithin) biosynthesis by catalyzing the phosphorylation of choline to phosphorylcholine in the presence of ATP. Ethanolamine and its methyl and ethyl derivatives can also act as acceptors. EC
Enzymes that catalyze acyl group transfer from ACETYL-CoA to HISTONES forming CoA and acetyl-histones.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC
A condition produced by a deficiency of CHOLINE in animals. Choline is known as a lipotropic agent because it has been shown to promote the transport of excess fat from the liver under certain conditions in laboratory animals. Combined deficiency of choline (included in the B vitamin complex) and all other methyl group donors causes liver cirrhosis in some animals. Unlike compounds normally considered as vitamins, choline does not serve as a cofactor in enzymatic reactions. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A family of histone acetyltransferases that is structurally-related to CREB-BINDING PROTEIN and to E1A-ASSOCIATED P300 PROTEIN. They function as transcriptional coactivators by bridging between DNA-binding TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and the basal transcription machinery. They also modify transcription factors and CHROMATIN through ACETYLATION.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of O-acetylcarnitine from acetyl-CoA plus carnitine. EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-SERINE to COENZYME A and O-acetyl-L-serine, using ACETYL-COA as a donor.
An N-terminal acetyltransferase subtype that consists of the Naa10p catalytic subunit and the Naa15p auxiliary subunit. The structure of this enzyme is conserved between lower and higher eukaryotes. It has specificity for N-terminal SERINE; ALANINE; THREONINE; GLYCINE; VALINE; and CYSTINE residues and acts on nascent peptide chains after the removal of the initiator METHIONINE by METHIONYL AMINOPEPTIDASES.
An N-terminal acetyltransferase subtype that consists of the Naa50p catalytic subunit, and the Naa10p and Naa15p auxiliary subunits. It has specificity for the N-terminal METHIONINE of peptides where the next amino acid in the chain is hydrophobic.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A potent inhibitor of the high affinity uptake system for CHOLINE. It has less effect on the low affinity uptake system. Since choline is one of the components of ACETYLCHOLINE, treatment with hemicholinium can deplete acetylcholine from cholinergic terminals. Hemicholinium 3 is commonly used as a research tool in animal and in vitro experiments.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetyltransferase reaction using ACETYL CoA as an acetyl donor and dihydrolipoamide as acceptor to produce COENZYME A (CoA) and S-acetyldihydrolipoamide. It forms the (E2) subunit of the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)
A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.
Donor of choline in biosynthesis of choline-containing phosphoglycerides.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
An enzyme bound to the inner mitochondrial membrane that catalyzes the oxidation of CHOLINE to BETAINE.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Vesicular amine transporter proteins that transport the neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE into small SECRETORY VESICLES. Proteins of this family contain 12 transmembrane domains and exchange vesicular PROTONS for cytoplasmic acetylcholine.
Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A member of the p300-CBP transcription factor family that was initially identified as a binding partner for CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN. Mutations in CREB-binding protein are associated with RUBINSTEIN-TAYBI SYNDROME.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
An enzyme that transfers methyl groups from O(6)-methylguanine, and other methylated moieties of DNA, to a cysteine residue in itself, thus repairing alkylated DNA in a single-step reaction. EC
A member of the p300-CBP transcription factors that was originally identified as a binding partner for ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Calcium and magnesium salts used therapeutically in hepatobiliary dysfunction.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from ACETYL COENZYME A, to the N-terminus of a peptide chain.
A multienzyme complex responsible for the formation of ACETYL COENZYME A from pyruvate. The enzyme components are PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE); dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase; and LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to three types of control: inhibited by acetyl-CoA and NADH; influenced by the energy state of the cell; and inhibited when a specific serine residue in the pyruvate decarboxylase is phosphorylated by ATP. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE)-PHOSPHATASE catalyzes reactivation of the complex. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
An N-terminal acetyltransferase subtype that consists of the Naa20p catalytic subunit and the Naa25p auxiliary subunit. The structure of this enzyme is conserved between YEASTS and HUMAN. It has specificity for the N-terminal METHIONINE of peptides where the next amino acid in the chain is either ASPARTATE; GLUTAMATE; ASPARAGINE; OR GLUTAMINE.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
An enzyme that catalyses three sequential METHYLATION reactions for conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine to PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE.
A polyamine formed from putrescine. It is found in almost all tissues in association with nucleic acids. It is found as a cation at all pH values, and is thought to help stabilize some membranes and nucleic acid structures. It is a precursor of spermine.
A component of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES or LECITHINS, in which the two hydroxy groups of GLYCEROL are esterified with fatty acids. (From Stedman, 26th ed) It counteracts the effects of urea on enzymes and other macromolecules.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A viscous, hygroscopic amino alcohol with an ammoniacal odor. It is widely distributed in biological tissue and is a component of lecithin. It is used as a surfactant, fluorimetric reagent, and to remove CO2 and H2S from natural gas and other gases.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of cysteine in microorganisms and plants from O-acetyl-L-serine and hydrogen sulfide. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Endogenous factors or drugs that increase the transport and metabolism of LIPIDS including the synthesis of LIPOPROTEINS by the LIVER and their uptake by extrahepatic tissues.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of ACETYL COA. Some enzymes called thiolase or thiolase-I have referred to this activity or to the activity of ACETYL-COA C-ACYLTRANSFERASE.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE.
An antidepressive agent that has also been used in the treatment of movement disorders. The mechanism of action is not well understood.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.
A group of 6-alkyl SALICYLIC ACIDS that are found in ANACARDIUM and known for causing CONTACT DERMATITIS.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of phosphatidylcholines from CDPcholine and 1,2-diacylglycerols. EC
Tissue in the BASAL FOREBRAIN inferior to the anterior perforated substance, and anterior to the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and ansa lenticularis. It contains the BASAL NUCLEUS OF MEYNERT.
An enzyme that catalyses the reaction of D-glucosamine 6-phosphate with ACETYL-COA to form N-acetylglucosamine 6-phosphate.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.
A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.
A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Deacetylases that remove N-acetyl groups from amino side chains of the amino acids of HISTONES. The enzyme family can be divided into at least three structurally-defined subclasses. Class I and class II deacetylases utilize a zinc-dependent mechanism. The sirtuin histone deacetylases belong to class III and are NAD-dependent enzymes.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A mitochondrial matrix enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of L-GLUTAMATE to N-acetyl-L-glutamate in the presence of ACETYL-COA.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
An amino acid intermediate in the metabolism of choline.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Biogenic amines having more than one amine group. These are long-chain aliphatic compounds that contain multiple amino and/or imino groups. Because of the linear arrangement of positive charge on these molecules, polyamines bind electrostatically to ribosomes, DNA, and RNA.
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A toxic diamine formed by putrefaction from the decarboxylation of arginine and ornithine.
An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.
The repeating structural units of chromatin, each consisting of approximately 200 base pairs of DNA wound around a protein core. This core is composed of the histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A plant genus of the family CELASTRACEAE.
GRAY MATTER structures of the telencephalon and LIMBIC SYSTEM in the brain, but containing widely varying definitions among authors. Included here is the cortical septal area, subcortical SEPTAL NUCLEI, and the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Any drug used for its actions on cholinergic systems. Included here are agonists and antagonists, drugs that affect the life cycle of ACETYLCHOLINE, and drugs that affect the survival of cholinergic neurons. The term cholinergic agents is sometimes still used in the narrower sense of MUSCARINIC AGONISTS, although most modern texts discourage that usage.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of acetylphosphate from acetyl-CoA and inorganic phosphate. Acetylphosphate serves as a high-energy phosphate compound. EC
An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of cytidylate (CMP) to choline phosphate to form CDPcholine. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in the choline pathway for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine. Its activity is increased by glucocorticoids. EC
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A species of GRAM-POSITIVE ENDOSPORE-FORMING BACTERIA in the family BACILLACEAE, found in soil, hot springs, Arctic waters, ocean sediments, and spoiled food products.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein, believed to be the rate-limiting compound in the biosynthesis of polyamines. It catalyzes the decarboxylation of ornithine to form putrescine, which is then linked to a propylamine moiety of decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine to form spermidine.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL-COA to arylamines. It can also catalyze acetyl transfer between arylamines without COENZYME A and has a wide specificity for aromatic amines, including SEROTONIN. However, arylamine N-acetyltransferase should not be confused with the enzyme ARYLALKYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE which is also referred to as SEROTONIN ACETYLTRANSFERASE.
A cholinesterase inhibitor that is rapidly absorbed through membranes. It can be applied topically to the conjunctiva. It also can cross the blood-brain barrier and is used when central nervous system effects are desired, as in the treatment of severe anticholinergic toxicity.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
An acetic acid ester of CARNITINE that facilitates movement of ACETYL COA into the matrices of mammalian MITOCHONDRIA during the oxidation of FATTY ACIDS.
The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)
A triangular double membrane separating the anterior horns of the LATERAL VENTRICLES of the brain. It is situated in the median plane and bounded by the CORPUS CALLOSUM and the body and columns of the FORNIX (BRAIN).
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
An NAD+ dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of betain aldehyde to BETAINE.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Drugs used to specifically facilitate learning or memory, particularly to prevent the cognitive deficits associated with dementias. These drugs act by a variety of mechanisms. While no potent nootropic drugs have yet been accepted for general use, several are being actively investigated.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
An N-terminal acetyltransferase subtype that consists of the Naa60p catalytic subunit. It is found in higher eukayotes and displays a substrate specificity for the N-terminal METHIONINE of peptides where the next amino acid in the chain is either LEUCINE; LYSINE; PHENYALANINE; ISOLEUCINE; or TRYPTOPHANE.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.
Serves as the biological precursor of insect chitin, of muramic acid in bacterial cell walls, and of sialic acids in mammalian glycoproteins.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
A plant family of the order Plumbaginales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida of shrubs and herbs. Some members contain ANTHOCYANINS and naphthaquinones.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A class of enzymes that inactivate aminocyclitol-aminoglycoside antibiotics (AMINOGLYCOSIDES) by regiospecific PHOSPHORYLATION of the 3' and/or 5' hydroxyl.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
An octanoic acid bridged with two sulfurs so that it is sometimes also called a pentanoic acid in some naming schemes. It is biosynthesized by cleavage of LINOLEIC ACID and is a coenzyme of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX). It is used in DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reduction of lipoamide by NADH to yield dihydrolipoamide and NAD+. The enzyme is a component of several MULTIENZYME COMPLEXES.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A mercaptocholine used as a reagent for the determination of CHOLINESTERASES. It also serves as a highly selective nerve stain.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The mechanisms effecting establishment, maintenance, and modification of that specific physical conformation of CHROMATIN determining the transcriptional accessibility or inaccessibility of the DNA.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.
Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.
A class of weak acids with the general formula R-CONHOH.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
4(1-Naphthylvinyl)pyridine hydrochloride. Cholinesterase inhibitor. Synonym: YuB 25.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
A chromosomal disorder characterized by MENTAL RETARDATION, broad thumbs, webbing of fingers and toes, beaked nose, short upper lip, pouting lower lip, agenesis of corpus callosum, large foramen magnum, keloid formation, pulmonary stenosis, vertebral anomalies, chest wall anomalies, sleep apnea, and megacolon. The disease has an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance and is associated with deletions of the short arm of chromosome 16 (16p13.3).
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.

Improvement by nefiracetam of beta-amyloid-(1-42)-induced learning and memory impairments in rats. (1/969)

1. We have previously demonstrated that continuous i.c.v. infusion of amyloid beta-peptide (A beta), the major constituent of senile plaques in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease, results in learning and memory deficits in rats. 2. In the present study, we investigated the effects of nefiracetam [N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-2-(2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinyl) acetamide, DM-9384] on A beta-(1-42)-induced learning and memory deficits in rats. 3. In the A beta-(1-42)-infused rats, spontaneous alternation behaviour in a Y-maze task, spatial reference and working memory in a water maze task, and retention of passive avoidance learning were significantly impaired as compared with A beta-(40-1)-infused control rats. 4. Nefiracetam, at a dose range of 1-10 mg kg(-1), improved learning and memory deficits in the A beta-(1-42)-infused rats when it was administered p.o. 1 h before the behavioural tests. 5. Nefiracetam at a dose of 3 mg kg(-1) p.o. increased the activity of choline acetyltransferase in the hippocampus of A beta-(1-42)-infused rats. 6. Nefiracetam increased dopamine turnover in the cerebral cortex and striatum of A beta-(1-42)-infused rats, but failed to affect the noradrenaline, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid content. 7. These results suggest that nefiracetam may be useful for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease.  (+info)

Establishment and characterization of human neuroblastoma cell lines. (2/969)

Three new tissue culture cell lines, CHP-100, CHP-126, and CHP-134, have been established from explant cultures of human neuroblastoma. The cell lines have been characterized with respect to morphology, chromosomes constitution, growth, neural enzyme content, and their ability to grow in nude mice. The cells grow as dense masses comprised of fibroblast-or neuroblast-like cells with small processes. The cell lines differ in their neural enzyme acitivity. The chromosomal content of the 3 cell lines is near diploid, and all are capable of forming tumors in nude mice. The morphological findings indicate that the cells in culture resemble those found in the tumor, and the enzyme activities are consistent with those of nervous tissue. This the morphological, biochemical, and tumorigenic properties confirm that the 3 cell lines are neoplastic cells of neural origin.  (+info)

Immunohistological studies of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 6-deficient mice show no abnormality of retinal cell organization and ganglion cell maturation. (3/969)

Immature retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) initially show a multistratified dendritic pattern, and, during the postnatal period, these dendrites gradually monostratify into ON and OFF sublaminae. The selective agonist of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR), L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-AP-4), hyperpolarizes ON bipolar cells and reduces glutamate release. On the basis of L-AP-4-evoked inhibitory effects on ON-OFF segregation of developing RGCs, it has been hypothesized that glutamate-mediated synaptic activity is crucial for formation of the ON-OFF network. Gene-targeted ablation of mGluR6 specifically expressed in ON bipolar cells blocks normal ON responses but has been predicted to enhance glutamate release from ON bipolar cells. The mGluR6 knock-out mouse therefore provides a unique opportunity to investigate whether glutamate release and ON responses are important factors in the development of ON-OFF segregation. The combination of several different morphological analyses indicates that ON bipolar cells, as well as several distinct amacrine cells, in mGluR6 knock-out mice are normally distributed and correctly extend their terminals to defined retinal laminae. Importantly, both alpha and delta RGCs in adult mGluR6 knock-out mice are found monostratified into cell type-specific layers. Furthermore, no difference between wild-type and mGluR6 knock-out mice is observed in the maturation and dendritic stratification of developing RGCs. Hence, despite a deficit in normal ON responses, mGluR6 deficiency causes no abnormality in the retinal cellular organization nor in the stratifications of both ON bipolar cells and developing and mature RGCs. Based on these findings, we discuss several possible mechanisms that may underlie ON-OFF segregation of RGCs.  (+info)

A nerve growth factor mimetic TrkA antagonist causes withdrawal of cortical cholinergic boutons in the adult rat. (4/969)

Cholinergic neurons respond to the administration of nerve growth factor (NGF) in vivo with a prominent and selective increase of choline acetyl transferase activity. This suggests the possible involvement of endogenous NGF, acting through its receptor TrkA, in the maintenance of central nervous system cholinergic synapses in the adult rat brain. To test this hypothesis, a small peptide, C(92-96), that blocks NGF-TrkA interactions was delivered stereotactically into the rat cortex over a 2-week period, and its effect and potency were compared with those of an anti-NGF monoclonal antibody (mAb NGF30). Two presynaptic antigenic sites were studied by immunoreactivity, and the number of presynaptic sites was counted by using an image analysis system. Synaptophysin was used as a marker for overall cortical synapses, and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter was used as a marker for cortical cholinergic presynaptic sites. No significant variations in the number of synaptophysin-immunoreactive sites were observed. However, both mAb NGF30 and the TrkA antagonist C(92-96) provoked a significant decrease in the number and size of vesicular acetylcholine transporter-IR sites, with the losses being more marked in the C(92-96) treated rats. These observations support the notion that endogenously produced NGF acting through TrkA receptors is involved in the maintenance of the cholinergic phenotype in the normal, adult rat brain and supports the idea that NGF normally plays a role in the continual remodeling of neural circuits during adulthood. The development of neurotrophin mimetics with antagonistic and eventually agonist action may contribute to therapeutic strategies for central nervous system degeneration and trauma.  (+info)

Mapping the active site in vasoactive intestinal peptide to a core of four amino acids: neuroprotective drug design. (5/969)

The understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to peptide action entails the identification of a core active site. The major 28-aa neuropeptide, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), provides neuroprotection. A lipophilic derivative with a stearyl moiety at the N-terminal and norleucine residue replacing the Met-17 was 100-fold more potent than VIP in promoting neuronal survival, acting at femtomolar-picomolar concentration. To identify the active site in VIP, over 50 related fragments containing an N-terminal stearic acid attachment and an amidated C terminus were designed, synthesized, and tested for neuroprotective properties. Stearyl-Lys-Lys-Tyr-Leu-NH2 (derived from the C terminus of VIP and the related peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide) captured the neurotrophic effects offered by the entire 28-aa parent lipophilic derivative and protected against beta-amyloid toxicity in vitro. Furthermore, the 4-aa lipophilic peptide recognized VIP-binding sites and enhanced choline acetyltransferase activity as well as cognitive functions in Alzheimer's disease-related in vivo models. Biodistribution studies following intranasal administration of radiolabeled peptide demonstrated intact peptide in the brain 30 min after administration. Thus, lipophilic peptide fragments offer bioavailability and stability, providing lead compounds for drug design against neurodegenerative diseases.  (+info)

Millimeter-scale positioning of a nerve-growth-factor source and biological activity in the brain. (6/969)

Toxicity prevents the systemic administration of many therapeutic proteins, and attempts at protein targeting via the circulatory system (i.e., "magic bullets") have failed in all but a few special cases. Direct administration at the target site is a logical alternative, particularly in the central nervous system, but the limits of direct administration have not been defined clearly. Nerve growth factor (NGF) enhances survival of cholinergic neurons and, therefore, has generated considerable interest for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. We tested the effectiveness of local delivery by implanting small polymer pellets that slowly released NGF into the central nervous system of adult rats at controlled distances from a target site containing transplanted fetal cholinergic cells. NGF-releasing implants placed within 1-2 mm of the treatment site enhanced the biological function of cellular targets, whereas identical implants placed approximately 3 mm from the target site of treatment produced no beneficial effect. Effective NGF therapy required millimeter-scale positioning of the NGF source, and efficacy correlated with the spatial distribution of NGF concentration in the tissue; this result suggests that NGF must be delivered within several millimeters of the target to be effective in treating Alzheimer's disease. Because the human brain is divided into functional regions that are typically several centimeters in diameter and often irregular in shape, new methods for sculpting larger-scale drug fields are needed. We illustrate a concept, called pharmacotectonics, in which drug-delivery systems are arranged spatially in tissues to shape concentration fields for potent agents.  (+info)

The induction of apoptosis in HeLa cells by the loss of LBP-p40. (7/969)

To analyze the function of the laminin-binding protein precursor p40 (LBP-p40) in higher eukaryotic cells, plasmid DNA expressing antisense or sense cDNA for p40 under the control of the LacSwitch system was introduced into HeLa cells. Stable transformants were isolated, and the expression of p40 was assayed by Western and Northern blotting. The expression level of p40 was not affected in HeLa cell transformants cultured in 10% serum-supplemented media with the induction of antisense (AS)-p40 with 5 mM IPTG. However, both the protein and message for endogenous p40 in serum-depleted media with 5 mM IPTG were reduced to about 30 - 10% of the expression level in serum-free media without 5 mM IPTG. Colony formation was inhibited with the suppression of p40. AS-p40 clones died in 7 days when cultured in serum-depleted media with 5 mM IPTG, while clones without 5 mM IPTG AS-p40 clones never died, even in serum-depleted media. Additionally, sense (S)-p40 clones and control CAT clones survived more than 2 weeks in serum-free media with 5 mM IPTG. DNA fragmentation assay revealed that cell death induced by the reduction of AS-p40 resulted from apoptosis. Both the inhibition of cell growth and apoptotic cell death were partially rescued by the transfer of the p40 cDNA expression vector to AS-p40 clones. Moreover, the introduction of a synthetic hammerhead ribozyme for LBP-p40 using a fusigenic viral liposome suppressed the message for LBP-p40 even in the presence of 10% serum, and it also induced apoptosis.  (+info)

Egr-1 inhibits apoptosis during the UV response: correlation of cell survival with Egr-1 phosphorylation. (8/969)

UV irradiation of normal or immortalized cells induces a rapid increase in the expression of several transcription factors and is thought to serve a protective function. The human fibrosarcoma cell line, HT1080 clone H4, expresses almost undetectable levels of Egr-1 and does not respond to UV-C irradiation by the induction of Egr-1. The H4 cells are hypersensitive to UV which induces apoptosis and reduces clonogenicity. The introduction of exogenous Egr-1 into H4 (H4E9 and H4E4 cell-lines) confers protection from UV damage as measured by a number of assays. In both NIH3T3 (with inducible Egr-1) and H4E9 (constitutive Egr-1) cells, UV irradiation gave enhanced transactivation of Egr-1 reporters that correlated with phosphorylated Egr-1. Studies using inhibitors indicated that protein kinase-C and tyrosine kinases are involved in the anti-apoptotic effects of Egr-1 after UV damage. This is the first description of a biological effect of phosphorylated Egr-1.  (+info)

Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens choline O-acetyltransferase (CHAT), transcript variant S as transfection-ready DNA - 10 µg - OriGene - cdna clones
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The protein kinase inhibitor K-252a increased choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity in rat embryonic spinal cord cultures in a dose-dependent manner (EC50 of approximately 100 nM) with maximal stimulatory activity at 300 nM resulting in as much as a fourfold increase. A single application of K-252a completely prevented the marked decline in ChAT activity occurring over a 5-day period following culture initiation. Of 11 kinase inhibitors, only the structurally related inhibitor staurosporine also increased ChAT activity (EC50 of approximately 0.5 nM). Effective concentrations of K-252a were not cytotoxic or mitogenic and did not alter the total protein content of treated cultures. Insulin-like growth factor I, basic fibroblast growth factor, ciliary neurotrophic factor, and leukemia inhibitory factor yielded dose-dependent increases in ChAT activity in spinal cord cultures. The combination of K-252a with insulin-like growth factor-I or basic fibroblast growth factor increased ChAT activity up ...
Choline acetyltransferase (CAT) catalyzes the biosynthesis of acetylcholine according to the chemical equation: Acetyl-CoA + Choline in equilibrium Acetylcholine + CoA. To demonstrate the neuronal relationship of this enzyme, CAT activity was measured in hearts to which the extrinsic innervation was completely interrupted by extirpation of the heart from a donor animal and transplantation in a heterotopic position into the recipients abdominal cavity. After the animals were killed at 8 days, enzyme activity in the transplanted hearts was measured and compared with that of the recipient. Choline acetyltransferase activity decreased 98% in the right atrium of the transplanted denervated hearts, 94% in the SA node, 87% in the left atrium, 80% in the right ventricle, and about 50% in the interventricular septum and left ventricle. These data show that sectioning the extrinsic parasympathetic innervation to the heart results in variable decreases in CAT activity, a finding which confirms that CAT activity
Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is critical in the modulation of cholesterol and phospholipid transport between cells of different types. Human apoE is a polymorphic protein with three common alleles, APO epsilon 2, APO epsilon 3, and APO epsilon 4. ApoE4 is associated with sporadic and late-onset familial Alzheimer disease (AD). Gene dose was shown to have an effect on risk of developing AD, age of onset, accumulation of senile plaques in the brain, and reduction of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity in the hippocampus of AD subjects. To characterize the possible impact of the apoE4 allele on cholinergic markers in AD, we examined the effect of apoE4 allele copy number on pre- and postsynaptic markers of cholinergic activity. ApoE4 allele copy number showed an inverse relationship with residual brain ChAT activity and nicotinic receptor binding sites in both the hippocampal formation and the temporal cortex of AD subjects. AD cases lacking the apoE4 allele showed ChAT activities close or within ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Lesions of nucleus basalis alter ChAT activity and EEG in rat frontal neocortex. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Alzheimers disease is the leading cause of dementia and one of the most common diseases of the aging population. It is a chronic brain disease that involves gradual memory loss, decline in the ability to perform routine tasks, disorientation, difficulty in learning, loss of language skills, impairment of judgment, and personality changes in affected individuals. The neurodegenerative nature of the disease eventually leads to the failure of other organ systems and death.. A consistent and marked change in the brains of patients with AD is degeneration of the cholinergic innervation in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex areas. The activity of choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) is significantly reduced in these brain regions, and a linear correlation is seen between the reduction in cortical ChAT activity and the progress of dementia, indicating a progressive loss of cholinergic function.. Receptor selective nicotinic alpha-7 receptor agonists can modulate acetylcholine in selective brain regions ...
Synonyms for CHOACTase in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for CHOACTase. 70 synonyms for chat: talk, gossip, jaw, natter, blather, schmooze, blether, shoot the breeze, chew the rag or fat, talk, tête-à-tête, conversation, gossip.... What are synonyms for CHOACTase?
article{58bdbf8b-cb0c-4890-80c3-1b810f44ac8c, abstract = {,p,The intricate balance between dopaminergic and cholinergic neurotransmission in the striatum has been thoroughly difficult to characterize. It was initially described as a seesaw with a competing function of dopamine versus acetylcholine. Recent technical advances however, have brought this view into question suggesting that the two systems work rather in concert with the cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) driving dopamine release. In this study, we have utilized two transgenic Cre-driver rat lines, a choline acetyl transferase ChAT-Cre transgenic rat and a novel double-transgenic tyrosine hydroxylase TH-Cre/ChAT-Cre rat to further elucidate the role of striatal ChIs in normal motor function and in Parkinsons disease. Here we show that selective and reversible activation of ChIs using chemogenetic (DREADD) receptors increases locomotor function in intact rats and potentiate the therapeutic effect of L-DOPA in the rats with lesions of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Acetylcholine and its enzymes in some brain areas of the rat under stress. AU - Fatranská, M.. AU - Budai, D.. AU - Opršalová, Z.. AU - Kvetňanský, R.. PY - 1987/10/20. Y1 - 1987/10/20. N2 - A period of 1 or 24 h of cold stress (5 °C) resulted in a significant decrease of acetylcholine (ACh) concentration in the hypothalamus and hippocampus in rats. In the hippocampus the activity of the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) was significantly increased after 24 h and that of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) after 1 and 24 h exposure to cold, whereas in the hypothalamus, AChE activity was found to be decreased, albeit only after 24 h exposure. Separate investigation of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus under 24 h of cold revealed that the ACh decreased in the dorsal hippocampus only, where no change in ChAT activity was observed. On the other hand, ACh showed no change in the ventral hippocampus where andincrease of ChAT activity was found. Forced swimming for 20 min also induced a ...
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We have isolated recombinant lambda (A) phages which contain a part of the rat choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) gene. Restriction and Southern blot analyses using synthetic oligonucleotides indicate that these clones overlap one another and contain at least four exons which reside in 16.4 kb of sequence encoding from the middle to the 3 end, but not the 5-region, of the rat ChAT gene. Partial sequence analyses revealed that the clones contain an exon whose nucleotide sequence corresponds to a highly conserved region of ChAT during evolution. RNase protection mapping experiments show that sequences represented by this exon are expressed at high levels in the spinal cord of adult rats and at low but detectable levels in PC12 cells. By using the genomic sequences, including the exon, as a hybridization probe, we have detected ChAT mRNAs in situ in rat tissues. In situ hybridization experiments using radioactive and non-radioactive probes revealed that cholinergic motoneurons in the spinal cord, ...
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References for Abcams Choline Acetyltransferase peptide (736-748) (ab45678). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Instagram is expanding its growing collection of interactive stickers with a new chat sticker for Stories. The company announced on Tuesday a new chat sticker that will make it really easy for users to start new communities and group chats.. The new chat sticker is essentially a way for people to invite others into a new group chat. It could be really useful for when you are trying to do a meetup with your close friends, or just want to create a chat to talk about something.. When you place a chat sticker within a story, others can request to be part of the chat. You have complete control over who joins the chat, and you can remove people that you dont really want in the chat. After that, you can start the new chat with all the people that you chose from before, and you can even end the chat whenever you want.. ...
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In 2002 a draft sequence of the mouse genome was published and the NIH described this as the genetic blueprint for the most important animal model in bi...
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Chicken polyclonal antibody raised against recombinant Human CHAT. A KLH-conjugated synthetic peptide corresponding to a region of CHAT gene product shared between the human (P_066264, NCBI) and mouse (Q03059, NCBI) sequences. (PAB29065) - Products - Abnova
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Page 31-FOR TECHNICAL CHAT BETWEEN INDUSTRY WORKERS ONLY. NO AOP OR DIY** This forum is for Technical Chat in the Residential Industry and only within the limits of the Open area Rules concerning DIY. Any technical chat that goes too far will be removed or moved to the Pro Area.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Coordinate expression of vesicular acetylcholine transporter and choline acetyltransferase in sympathetic superior cervical neurones. AU - Misawa, Hidemi. AU - Takahashi, R.. AU - Deguchi, T.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is synthesized by choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and transported into synaptic vesicles by the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). Recently it has been reported that the entire coding region of VAChT mRNA is located in the first intron of the ChAT gene. In this study, ChAT and VAChT mRNAs were analysed in cultured sympathetic neurones. Cholinergic differentiation factor/leukaemia inhibitory factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor induced strong expression of ChAT and VAChT mRNAs in parallel. RT-PCR analysis of ChAT mRNAs revealed that five types of ChAT transcripts which differed in the 5 non coding regions were increased. RT-PCR analysis of VAChT mRNA indicated that the cytokines induced only VAChT mRNA species which ...
We report here the effects of oral micronized estradiol and soy phytoestrogens on uterine weight, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and nerve growth factor (NGF) mRNAs in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of ovariectomized young and retired breeder rats. Within each age category, 15 bilaterally ovariectomized rats were randomized equally into three groups: control (OVX), estradiol (E2), and soy phytoestrogens (SBE).
Woolf, N.J. (1996) The critical role of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons in morphological change and memory encoding A hypothesis. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 66, 258-266.
Several highly selective biochemical markers were used to assess the persistent central cholinergic dysfunction which accompanies administration of the cholinergic neurotoxin ethylcholine mustard aziridinium ion (AF64A). Rats received a single bilateral intracerebroventricular injection of AF64A (3 nmol/3 microliter/side) or vehicle and measurements were carried out in the cerebral cortices, hippocampi and corpora striata at 7 and 21 days postinjection. The drug binding sites of muscarinic cholinergic receptors, as revealed by high-affinity binding of (-)-[3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate (a classical muscarinic antagonist), [3H]pirenzepine (a selective antagonist of the putative M1 muscarinic receptor subclass) and (+)-[3H]cis-methyldioxolane (a potent muscarinic agonist), were not significantly affected by AF64A treatment. As reported previously, activity of the cholinergic synthetic enzyme choline acetyltransferase was reduced markedly (60-65%) in the hippocampi of AF64A-treated rats. A similar ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Selective induction of c-Jun and NGF in reactive astrocytes after cholinergic degenerations in rat basal forebrain. AU - Roßner, Steffen. AU - Schliebs, Reinhard. AU - Härtig, Wolfgang. AU - Perez-Polo, J. Regino. AU - Bigl, Volker. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. N2 - Cholinergic basal forebrain neurons are the major source of cortical cholinergic innervation. The number of these neurons is regulated by the availability of nerve growth factor (NGF) during development while in adulthood their cholinergic activity is modulated by NGF. In previous studies we have shown that cholinergic immunolesions of basal forebrain neurons increase local immediate early gene expression and NGF synthesis in the regions of degeneration. In this study we identify the cellular source of c- Jun and NGF expression using dual immunolabeling of c-Jun and NGF in combination with neuronal and glial markers. We demonstrate that both c-Jun and NGF are exclusively expressed in reactive astrocytes but not in ...
Grünblatt, E; Reif, A; Jungwirth, S; Galimberti, D; Weber, H; Scarpini, E; Sauer, C; Wichart, I; Rainer, M K; Huber, K; Danielczyk, W; Tragl, K H; Deckert, J; Fischer, P; Riederer, P (2011). Genetic variation in the choline O-acetyltransferase gene in depression and Alzheimers disease: the VITA and Milano studies. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 45(9):1250-1256.. Renner, T J; Nguyen, T T; Romanos, M; Walitza, S; Röser, C; Reif, A; Schäfer, H; Warnke, A; Gerlach, M; Lesch, K P (2011). No evidence for association between a functional promoter variant of the Norepinephrine Transporter gene SLC6A2 and ADHD in a family-based sample. ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, 3(3):285-289.. Reif, A; Grünblatt, E; Herterich, S; Wichart, I; Rainer, M K; Jungwirth, S; Danielczyk, W; Deckert, J; Tragl, K H; Riederer, P; Fischer, P (2011). Association of a functional NOS1 promoter repeat with Alzheimers disease in the VITA cohort. Journal of Alzheimers Disease, 23(2):327-333.. Reif, A; ...
2005, Estrogenic effects of soy isoflavones on neurons have been observed in various studies. Soy contains numerous phytochemicals including isoflavones, phytic acid, trypsin inhibitors, saponins. Soy isoflavones are referred to as phytoestrogens because they bind to the estrogen receptors and affect estrogen-mediated processes. Soy isoflavones can exert both agonistic and antagonistic estrogenic effects, and have inhibitory effects on tyrosine kinase, topoisomerase and angiogenesis. Soy can affect synthesis of acetylcholine, and neurotrophic factors such as BDNF and nerve growth factor in the brain of the female rat. Frontal cortex choline acetyltransferase mRNA levels and BDNF were significantly higher in rats receiving soy isoflavones. DNA fragmentation was detected in homogenates of brain tissue from rats receiving either dose (2mg/day or 2mg/day) genistein. Daidzein augments nitric oxide (neurotransmitter of the vasodilator nerve) synthesis in the basilar artery and increases contraction ...
BioAssay record AID 51967 submitted by ChEMBL: Compound was tested in vitro for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity (maximal ChAT stimulation) in embryonic rat spinal cord cultures at a concentration of 10 uM.
Title: NGF-Cholinergic Dependency in Brain Aging, MCI and Alzheimers Disease. VOLUME: 4 ISSUE: 4. Author(s):A. C. Cuello, A. Bruno and K.F. S. Bell. Affiliation:Room 1210, 3655 Sir William Osler Promenade, Montreal, QC, H3G 1Y6, Canada.. Keywords:basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, CNS, trophic support system, acetylcholinesterase, amyloid pathology. Abstract: Forebrain cholinergic neurons are highly dependent on nerve growth factor (NGF) for phenotype maintenance. We have established that in addition to target-derived NGF neurotrophic stimulation, cholinergic neurons also respond dose-dependently, to intra-parenchymal NGF administration in the somato-dendritic region of the nucleus Basalis [1], thus illustrating the potential of alternative reparative therapies which would by-pass the undesirable effects of diffuse neurotrophin application. Moreover, our lab has also observed that the steady-state number of cortical cholinergic synapses is dependent on continuous NGF supply, as anti-NGF ...
Silver, Ann - 07 The Acetylcholine System: Mapping the Enzymes, Choline Acetyltransferase (ChAT) and Acetylcholinesterase (AchE) (mp3 ...
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One group of six male control rats [12 months old] and one group of six male rats of the same age, singularly maintained in a cage, and treated with acetyl-L-carnitine-HCl [(gamma-trimethyl-beta-acetyl-butyrobetaine-HCl: Sigma-Tau code ST200 or ALCAR: 60 mg/kg/day[7]/po)] for six months were tested in the spatial learning/memory Morris mazewater task and for atrophy and cell loss in seven myelo- and cytostructurally defined basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic regions [Freddi et al., 2009]. Coronal sections 25 ?m thick were cut through the BF regions and processed every 200 ?m for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunohistochemistry. The ALCAR-treated rats had significantly shorter exit times on the Morris maze-water task test than the control rats (average ± SD 28.3 ± 12.4 s vs. 61.16 ± 4.67 s; t = 6.07, DOF = 10, P = 0.0001). Degenerative morphological changes in the BF ChAT-positive cells were observed in the substantia innominata pars anterior of the control rats but _disibledevent= 0.319]. In the
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Anaerobic choline metabolism by human gut microbiota to produce trimethylamine (TMA) has recently evolved as a potential therapeutic target because of its association with chronic kidney disease and increased cardiovascular risks. Limited examples of choline analogs have been reported as inhibitors of bacterial enzyme choline TMA-lyase (CutC), a key enzyme regulating choline anaerobic metabolism. We utilized a new workflow to discover CutC inhibitors based on focused screening of a diversified library of small molecules for intestinal metabolic stability followed by in vitro CutC inhibitory assay. This workflow identified a histidine-based scaffold, (compound 5), as a CutC inhibitor with an IC50 value of 1.9 ± 0.2 μM. Remarkably, compound 5 was able to reduce the production of TMA in whole cell assays using various bacterial strains as well as in complex gut microbiota environment. The improved efficiency of the new scaffold identified in this study in comparison to previously reported CutC ...
Hofecker, G; Strasser, A; Niedermüller, H; Skalicky, M; Gabler, C (2003): Revitalisierung und MLP-Verlängerung durch xenogene fetale Faktoren bei Labornagern. -10th Annual Conference and Members´ Meeting der Internationalen Gesellschaft f. Cytobiologische Therapien e.V; OCT 18, 2003; Verona, Italy. Lopucki, M; Schmerold, I; Dadak, A; Wiktor, H; Niedermüller, H; Kankofer, M (2005): Levels of 8-hydroxy-2´-deoxy-guanosine in cellular DNA from human placental tissues exposed to low dose magnetic fields in vitro. 38. Jahrestagung Physiologie und Pathologie der Fortpflanzung, 30. Veterinär-Humanmedizinische Gemeinschaftstagung, Zürich, 10.02.-11.02.2005. 38. Jahrestagung Physiologie und Pathologie der Fortpflanzung, 30. Veterinär-Humanmedizinische Gemeinschaftstagung, Zürich, 10.02.-11.02.2005. Draxler, M; Baran, H; Schmoll, F; Nowotny, N; Kepplinger, B; Url, A; Schmidt, P; Strasser, A; Niedermüller, H; Hofecker, G; Schuh, M (2004): Affected choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity in ...
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Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) are involved in acetylcholine synthesis and degradation at pre- and postsynaptic compartments, respectively. Here we show that their anterograde transport in Drosophila larval ganglion is microtubule-dependent and occurs in two different time profiles. AChE transport is constitutive while that of ChAT occurs in a brief pulse during third instar larva stage. Mutations in the kinesin-2 motor subunit Klp64D and separate siRNA-mediated knock-outs of all the three kinesin-2 subunits disrupt the ChAT and AChE transports, and these antigens accumulate in discrete nonoverlapping punctae in neuronal cell bodies and axons. Quantification analysis further showed that mutations in Klp64D could independently affect the anterograde transport of AChE even before that of ChAT. Finally, ChAT and AChE were coimmunoprecipitated with the kinesin-2 subunits but not with each other. Altogether, these suggest that kinesin-2 independently transports AChE ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of the non-neuronal human cholinergic system in lung cancer and mesothelioma. T2 - Possibility of new therapeutic strategies. AU - Trombino, Sonya. AU - Bisio, Alessandra. AU - Catassi, Alessia. AU - Cesario, Alfredo. AU - Falugi, Carla. AU - Russo, Patrizia. PY - 2004/11. Y1 - 2004/11. N2 - Acethlycholine (Ach), one of the most important examples of a neurotransmitter, represents a phylogenetically old molecule, widely distributed from bacteria to humans. The finding that neuronal Ach receptors (nAChRs) are present in non-neuronal cells raised some interesting issues related to their specific activity. In humans, different studies have showed that many lung cancer cells expressed nAchRs and that low concentrations of nicotine blocked the induction of apoptosis in these cells. A recent study presents data that SCLC express a cholinergic autocrine loop that can regulate cell growth. Such work demonstrates that SCLC cells have a cholinergic phenotype and that ACh exerts as an ...
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rs1948 showed nominally significant transmission bias; haploview analyses showed nominally significant transmission bias of rs1948-rs7178270-rs1316971-rs11633223; no evidence of interaction among these 19 cholinergic genes by FITF analysis and FDR correction was ...
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Max has passed the torch to Martin Rowe and me for handling these weekly live chats. (No comment on it taking two of us to fill his shoes, though I will admit they are at least a 13E.) This weeks chat will be a bit earlier than usual (9am Pacific time) because I will be returning from ARM TechCon and boarding a plane at 10.. Speaking of ARM TechCon, that is the subject of this weeks chat. Lots of activity here in one of the top-tier trade shows in the industry. EETimes will have covered the news announcements, but no one can cover everything. Heres a chance to discuss the show as a whole, put the announcements into perspective, and share what you found on the show floor (or ask those who were there what they saw).. Come join us at 9am Pacific for a live chat wrapping up ARM TechCon!. ...
Generation of mutant mice. Although the genomic structure of mouse Chat has not been described, it is known that in rats and humans, ChAT is encoded by a large gene that includes 14 coding exons in the 3′ region that are used in all transcripts. In contrast, the 5′ region of the gene is complicated, with alternative splicing, multiple transcription and translation start sites, and the gene encoding the vesicular ACh transporter embedded in the first intron (Hahn et al., 1992; Ohno et al., 2001). To avoid this 5′ region, the catalytic portion of the protein was targeted for deletion. Site-directed mutagenesis of Drosophila ChAT has shown that conserved histidines (H302 and H335 in mice) are critical for enzymatic activity (Carbini and Hersh, 1993). Point mutations in this same region of the human gene reduce protein expression and lower the efficiency of ACh synthesis (Ohno et al., 2001). We found the genomic structure of this region of mouse Chat to be homologous to those described for rat ...
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Welcome to the board!!! Im really glad u decided to take part and let us all get to know u!! Please do join in on chat tonight...its sure to be informative. Seems the MS fatigue is much more than being tired and sleepy. As ive described it before to others...its so bad u must just stop. My husband says i collapse into my chair. Well hes right...its just a matter of not being able to do any other thing. U sit there and rest and for a min it helps...then just the sitting is tiresome. No energy or life in u until it passes. I can relate to the dizzy and spacey feeling too...as im sure many here will say. Residual symptoms are a bit annoying, but thankfully thats all! Im glad to see ur using Copaxone and hope thats going well for u. Im sure being dxd can be very scary, but it sounds like ur doing ok. GOOD!! Welcome again to the board and i look forward to getting to know u better soon ...
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Structure of choline acetyltransferase binding sites Crystal structure of choline ion bound in choline acetyltransferase. Side ... In humans, the choline acetyltransferase enzyme is encoded by the CHAT gene. Choline acetyltransferase was first described by ... Choline+Acetyltransferase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology (Articles with ... Choline acetyltransferase (commonly abbreviated as ChAT, but sometimes CAT) is a transferase enzyme responsible for the ...
Choline acetyltransferase (also known as ChAT or CAT) is an important enzyme which produces the neurotransmitter acetylcholine ... Strauss WL, Kemper RR, Jayakar P, Kong CF, Hersh LB, Hilt DC, Rabin M (Feb 1991). "Human choline acetyltransferase gene maps to ... "Choline O-Acetyltransferase". GeneCards: The Human Gene Compendium. Weizmann Institute of Science. Retrieved 5 December 2013. ... Maselli RA, Chen D, Mo D, Bowe C, Fenton G, Wollmann RL (Feb 2003). "Choline acetyltransferase mutations in myasthenic syndrome ...
Python F, Stocker RF (2002) Immunoreactivity against choline acetyltransferase, gamma-aminobutyric acid, histamine, octopamine ... Python, F; Stocker, Reinhard F. (2002-10-08). "Immunoreactivity against choline acetyltransferase, ?-aminobutyric acid, ...
... acetyltransferase inhibitors have also been developed. In 1849, Adolph Strecker was the first to isolate choline from ... Choline can also be produced by the CDP-choline route, cytosolic choline kinases (CK) phosphorylate choline with ATP to ... "Total choline" is defined as the sum of free choline and choline-containing phospholipids, without accounting for mass fraction ... Choline is often not classified as a vitamin, but as a nutrient with an amino acid-like metabolism. In most animals, choline ...
"Nuclear choline acetyltransferase activates transcription of a high-affinity choline transporter". The Journal of Biological ... Chireux MA, Le Van Thai A, Weber MJ (Mar 1995). "Human choline acetyltransferase gene: localization of alternative first exons ... located within the first intron of the choline acetyltransferase gene. VAChT is able to transport ACh into vesicles by relying ...
... inhibits choline acetyltransferase acting as a neurotoxin. It competes with acetyl-CoA. PubChem. "Phenylacetyl ...
Differentiated cells also have choline acetyltransferase and acetyl cholinesterase activities. When treated with DMSO, cardiac ...
The problem with this therapy is that choline acetyltransferase is largely blocked by the blood-brain barrier. PTD-ChAT is a ... It is normal in aging for circadian rhythms to deteriorate as choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) fluctuations change in pattern ... Alzheimer's typically involves a decline in the activity of choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase, as well as a ... Cholinergic neurons have significantly reduced choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholine activity, which is correlated to the ...
Several NVP derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their ability to inhibit choline acetyltransferase and protect ... Haubrich, DR; Goldberg, ME (1975). "Homovanillic acid concentration in the rat brain: Effect of a choline acetyltransferase ... However, NVP's method of acetylcholine (ACh) antagonism involves inhibiting the enzyme choline acetyltransferase. ... "Synthesis of a naphthylvinylpyridine derivative and its use for affinity chromatography of choline acetyltransferase". ...
There are two key markers in these studies: choline acetyltransferase and tyrosine hydroxylase. Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT ... Retrieved 2014-02-28.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "ChAT or Choline Acetyltransferase Antibody". ... Choline Acetyltransferase (ChAT) is expressed in cholinergic neurons of both the CNS and PNS. In the CNS, ChAT is expressed in ... choline acetyltransferase, parvalbumin, and neurofilament protein. All of these antigens are present in specific neuronal cell ...
Robert I, Sutter A, Quirin-Stricker C (October 2002). "Synergistic activation of the human choline acetyltransferase gene by c- ... giving rise to substance P and neurokinin A and the choline acetyltransferase responsible for the biosynthesis of the important ...
Hattori T, Singh VK, McGeer EG, McGeer PL (January 1976). "Immunohistochemical localization of choline acetyltransferase ...
Paul JW, DaVanzo JP (June 1992). "1,1,3 Tricyano-2-amino-1-propene (Triap) stimulates choline acetyltransferase activity in ... It stimulates the action of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase, resulting in increased acetylcholine production. This then ...
"Enhanced acetylcholine secretion in neuroblastoma X glioma hybrid NG108-15 cells transfected with rat choline-acetyltransferase ... Acetylcholine is synthesized in the cytoplasm of the neuron from choline and acetyl-CoA. Choline acyltransferase is the enzyme ...
In 1961 she was awarded a PhD in physiology, concerning the transport of choline acetyltransferase in nerves. Her PhD was ... While there, Silver worked on the acetylcholine system, mapping the enzymes, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and ...
... is synthesized in certain neurons by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase from the compounds choline and acetyl- ... Following the evolution of choline transporters, the abundance of intracellular choline paved the way for choline to become ... Hunt R, Taveau M (1906). "On the physiological action of certain choline derivatives and new methods for detecting choline". ... which causes dysfunction of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase. This inhibition may lead to acetylcholine deficiency, and can ...
"Differential expression and regulation of the high-affinity choline transporter CHT1 and choline acetyltransferase in neurons ... "Impaired trafficking of choline transporter-like protein-1 at plasma membrane and inhibition of choline transport in THP-1 ... Choline transporter-like protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC44A1 gene. Cluster of differentiation ... Traiffort E, Ruat M, O'Regan S, Meunier FM (March 2005). "Molecular characterization of the family of choline transporter-like ...
... by the action of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). Thus, decreasing the amount of choline available to a neuron will decrease ... Hemicholinium-3 (HC3), also known as hemicholine, is a drug which blocks the reuptake of choline by the high-affinity choline ... The reuptake of choline is the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of acetylcholine; hence, hemicholinium-3 decreases the ... Neurons affected by hemicholinium-3 must rely on the transport of choline from the soma (cell body), rather than relying on ...
Acetylcholine is produced in the body of the neuron by choline acetyltransferase and transported down the axon to the synaptic ...
Choline, in combination with acetyl-CoA, is catalyzed by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase to produce acetylcholine and ... This acetylation is catalyzed by acetyltransferases. This acetylation affects cell growth, mitosis, and apoptosis. Allosteric ...
... type of congenital myasthenia gravis can affect the junction presynaptically by a mutation in the gene encoding choline acetyl transferase ... This protein is an enzyme that is responsible for catalyzing the reaction that combines acetyl-coenzyime A with choline, ...
She joined the group of David Nachmansohn, where she worked on choline acetyltransferase and identified the presence of ...
... by the pre-synaptic neuron and ACh is synthesized by combining with acetyl-CoA through the action of choline acetyltransferase ... The hydrolysis reaction of the carboxyl ester leads to the formation of an acyl-enzyme and free choline. Then, the acyl-enzyme ... AChE is a hydrolase that hydrolyzes choline esters. It has a very high catalytic activity-each molecule of AChE degrades about ... It is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of acetylcholine and some other choline esters that function as neurotransmitters ...
"Effects of bifemelane on muscarinic receptors and choline acetyltransferase in the brains of aged rats following chronic ...
Unlike the classical preganglionic neurons that contain choline acetyltransferase, neurons of the Centrally-projecting Edinger- ...
These amacrine cells are usually characterised by their expression of choline acetyltransferase, or ChAT, and are known to play ...
Particles containing acetylcholine and its synthesizing enzyme choline acetyltransferase were originally isolated by Hebb and ... Hebb CO, Whittaker VP (1958). "Intracellular distributions of acetylcholine and choline acetylase". J Physiol. 142 (1): 187-96 ...
In pre-synaptic neurons the majority of choline will be acetylated by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase to form the ... Most other cells will phosphorylate choline by the enzyme choline kinase, the first committed step of CDP-choline pathway. ... Under normal circumstances, choline kinase is not the rate-limiting step of the CDP-choline pathway. However in rapidly ... Choline kinase (CK) is a cytosolic protein that catalyzes the following reaction:: 418 choline + ATP ⇌ phosphocholine + ADP In ...
Histone acetyltransferases including CBP histone acetyltransferase Choline acetyltransferase Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase ... Serotonin N-acetyltransferase NatA Acetyltransferase NatB acetyltransferase Acyltransferase Acetylation Acetyltransferases at ... Acetyltransferase (or transacetylase) is a type of transferase enzyme that transfers an acetyl group. Examples include: ...
EC 2.3.1 Aminolevulinic acid synthase EC Choline acetyltransferase EC Category:EC 2.3.2 Factor XIII EC 2.3. ...
PDOC00402 - Acyltransferases ChoActase / COT / CPT family in PROSITE Choline/Carnitine o-acyltransferase family[permanent dead ... "Crystal structure of carnitine acetyltransferase and implications for the catalytic mechanism and fatty acid transport". Cell. ...
... choline acetyltransferase, nitric oxide synthase, cholecystokinin, neurotensin, neuropeptide FF, substance P, somatostatin, ...
... arylamine N-acetyltransferase EC choline O-acetyltransferase EC carnitine O-acetyltransferase EC ... D-tryptophan N-acetyltransferase EC glutamate N-acetyltransferase EC D-amino-acid N-acetyltransferase EC ... amino-acid N-acetyltransferase EC imidazole N-acetyltransferase EC glucosamine N-acetyltransferase EC ... glycine C-acetyltransferase EC serine O-acetyltransferase EC homoserine O-acetyltransferase EC ...
Other mutations, such as those affecting acetylcholinesterase and acetyltransferase, can also cause the expression of CMS, with ... Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter synthesized from dietary choline and acetyl-CoA (ACoA), and is involved in the stimulation ...
... has been shown to reverse the loss of choline acetyltransferase production in the medial septal nucleus of rats ... Murai S, Saito H, Abe E, Masuda Y, Odashima J, Itoh T (1994). "MKC-231, a choline uptake enhancer, ameliorates working memory ... Bessho T, Takashina K, Eguchi J, Komatsu T, Saito K (July 2008). "MKC-231, a choline-uptake enhancer: (1) long-lasting ... April 1996). "Effect of the novel high affinity choline uptake enhancer 2-(2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)-N-(2,3-dimethyl-5,6,7,8- ...
... chloramphenicol o-acetyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050.134.180 - choline o-acetyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050.134.310 - ... acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050.134.105 - amino-acid n-acetyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050.134.150 - ... phosphate acetyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050.134.850 - serine O-acetyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050.170 - acyl-carrier ... acetyltransferases MeSH D08.811.913.050.134.029 - acyl-carrier protein s-acetyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050.134.060 - ...
For example, acetylation of the K14 and K9 lysines of the tail of histone H3 by histone acetyltransferase enzymes (HATs) is ... Bekdash, Rola A (2018). "Choline the brain and neurodegeneration insights from epigenetics". Frontiers in Bioscience. 23 (3): ...
... particularly those with defects in choline acetyltransferase, downstream kinase 7, and those where any kind of defect causes " ... Activity of these enzymes (primarily N-acetyltransferase 2) in different individuals seems to be primarily responsible for the ... The substance is deactivated by acetylation via N-acetyltransferases to the single metabolite 3-N-acetylamifampridine. ...
Whereas the phosphate group is combined with choline in phosphatidylcholine, it is combined with the ethanolamine in ... the N-acetyltransferase and phospholipase-D. Where phosphatidylcholine is the principal phospholipid in animals, ...
N-acetyltransferase 2, and xanthine oxidase in healthy males and females". Br J Clin Pharmacol. 57 (4): 495-499. doi:10.1111/j. ... choline, nicotinamide, nicotinic acid) Miscellaneous others (e.g. pectin, β-sitosterol, hexadecane, triacontane, kielcorin, ...
... used in autism screening Choline acetyltransferase, an enzyme that synthesises acetylcholine (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol acetyltransferase ...
View Goat Polyclonal anti-Choline Acetyltransferase/ChAT Antibody (NBP1-30052). Validated Applications: WB, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-Fr ... Choline Acetyltransferase/ChAT Antibody Summary. Immunogen. Native choline acetyltransferase purifed from human placenta ... PTMs for Choline Acetyltransferase/ChAT Antibody (NBP1-30052). Learn more about PTMs related to Choline Acetyltransferase/ChAT ... Reviews for Choline Acetyltransferase/ChAT Antibody (NBP1-30052) (0) There are no reviews for Choline Acetyltransferase/ChAT ...
Choline Acetyltransferase) antibody. ChAT serves as a specific marker for cholinergic neurons in both peripheral and central ... Murine choline-O-acetyltransferase (EC is a 71,721 dalton protein(640 amino acids) expressed in cholinergic neurons of ... ChAT is the enzyme responsible for synthesis of acetylcholine from acetyl-coenzyme A and choline. ...
Regional distribution of choline acetyltransferase in the human brain: changes in Huntingtons chorea. ... Regional distribution of choline acetyltransferase in the human brain: changes in Huntingtons chorea. ... Regional distribution of choline acetyltransferase in the human brain: changes in Huntingtons chorea. ...
Neuronal distribution and association with perikarya containing choline acetyltransferase. Brain Research, 849(1-2), 253-274. ... Neuronal distribution and association with perikarya containing choline acetyltransferase, Brain Research, vol. 849, no. 1-2, ... Neuronal distribution and association with perikarya containing choline acetyltransferase. Brain Research. 1999 Dec 4;849(1-2): ... Neuronal distribution and association with perikarya containing choline acetyltransferase. Elliott J. Mufson, Wei Jun Cai, Syed ...
keywords = "Choline acetyltransferase, Gene mapping, Polymerase chain reaction",. author = "Riccardo Cervini and Mariano Rocchi ... Isolation and sub-chromosomal localization of a DNA fragment of the human choline acetyltransferase gene. In: Neuroscience ... Isolation and sub-chromosomal localization of a DNA fragment of the human choline acetyltransferase gene. / Cervini, Riccardo; ... title = "Isolation and sub-chromosomal localization of a DNA fragment of the human choline acetyltransferase gene", ...
Cholinergic systems in mammalian brain identified with antibodies against choline acetyltransferase. Bruce H. Wainer*, Allan I ... Cholinergic systems in mammalian brain identified with antibodies against choline acetyltransferase. / Wainer, Bruce H.; Levey ... Cholinergic systems in mammalian brain identified with antibodies against choline acetyltransferase. In: Neurochemistry ... Cholinergic systems in mammalian brain identified with antibodies against choline acetyltransferase. Neurochemistry ...
Choline acetyltransferase (CAT), which is known to be a specific marker of cholinergic neurons, best reflects spinal motoneuron ... Yato Y, Fujimura Y, Nakamura M, Watanabe M, Yabe Y. Decreased choline acetyltransferase activity in the murine spinal cord ... Decreased choline acetyltransferase activity in the murine spinal cord motoneurons under chronic mechanical compression. In: ... Choline acetyltransferase (CAT), which is known to be a specific marker of cholinergic neurons, best reflects spinal motoneuron ...
Category: Choline Acetyltransferase Antibody. OLIG2 is a novel immunohistochemical marker associated with the presence of PAX3/ ...
The CHAT gene provides instructions for making a protein called choline acetyltransferase. Learn about this gene and related ... The CHAT gene provides instructions for making a protein called choline acetyltransferase. This protein is located at the ends ... Choline acetyltransferase facilitates the production of a molecule called acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is essential for normal ... The mutations lead to decreased production of choline acetyltransferase or the production of a protein with decreased ability ...
Choline O-Acetyltransferase / genetics * Choline O-Acetyltransferase / metabolism * Disease Models, Animal * Embryo, Mammalian ...
Striosomes and extrastriosomal matrix contain different amounts of immunoreactive choline acetyltransferase in the human ... Striosomes and extrastriosomal matrix contain different amounts of immunoreactive choline acetyltransferase in the human ...
Chronic continuous infusion of nicotine increases the disappearance of choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the ... Chronic continuous infusion of nicotine increases the disappearance of choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the ...
Choline Acetyltransferase antibody (GTX113164). GAD65 antibody. (GTX133156). VGAT antibody. (GTX101908). PSD95 antibody ( ...
Aberrant Patterning of Neuromuscular Synapses in Choline Acetyltransferase-Deficient Mice Eugene P. Brandon, Weichun Lin, Kevin ...
Extensive loss of choline acetyltransferase activity is not reflected by neuronal loss in the nucleus of meynert in Alzheimers ... Synaptic proteins and choline acetyltransferase loss in visual cortex in dementia with Lewy bodies. Journal of Neuropathology ... Neurotensin immunoreactivity and choline acetyltransferase activity in the cerebral cortex in Parkinsons disease. In: Bayliss ... Loss of synaptic proteins and choline acetyltransferase in primary and secondary visual cortex in dementia with Lewy bodies. In ...
PDB Description: Crystal structure of rat choline acetyltransferase. PDB Compounds: (A:) choline O-acetyltransferase. SCOPe ... Protein Choline O-acetyltransferase [110591] (2 species). *. Species Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) [TaxId:10116] [110592] (2 ... d1q6xa2 c.43.1.3 (A:402-617) Choline O-acetyltransferase {Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) [TaxId: 10116]} ... Family c.43.1.3: Choline/Carnitine O-acyltransferase [82424] (3 proteins). Pfam PF00755; monomeric enzyme containing tandem ...
Toxicity induced by Hg2+ on choline acetyltransferase activity from E. electricus (L.) electrocytes: the protective effect of 2 ... Toxicity induced by Hg2+ on choline acetyltransferase activity from E. electricus (L.) electrocytes: the protective effect of 2 ...
Zhang, J.Y.; Wang, Z. The changes of praxiology, choline acetyltransferase and synaptophsin in model rats with Alzheimers ... As the aging process progresses, some neurons in the brain become increasingly difficult to regenerate, and the choline content ...
Frotscher, M. & Leranth, C. Cholinergic innervation of the rat hippocampus as revealed by choline acetyltransferase ... labelled either with anti-choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) antibody in wild-type (WT) mice or with eYFP-adeno-associated ... were reconstructed using consecutive serial 70 nm-thick sections double labelled for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT; DAB) and ... of cholinergic synaptic terminals on GABAergic neurons and coexistence of immunoreactive GABA and choline acetyltransferase in ...
CMS1A, CMS1A2, choline acetyltransferase, acetyl CoA, choline O-acetyltransferase. Host Species. Rabbit. ... ChAT catalyzes the reversible synthesis of acetylcholine (ACh) from acetyl CoA and choline at cholinergic synapses. ...
Acetylcholine is synthesized from acetyl coenzyme A and choline by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase. In addition to its ... synthesis in the liver, choline employed in acetylcholine production is derived from dietary sources. ...
Antibody directed toward choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) was purchased from Millipore (Temecula, CA, USA; catalog No. AB144P ...
Choline acetyltransferase and inducible nitric oxide synthase are increasef in myenteric plexus of diabetic guinea pig. Auton. ... Co-expression pattern of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and two veriants of choline acetyltransferase in myenteric neurons of ...
Geyer, S.; Weindl, A.; Kuether, G.; Gnahn, H.: Immunohistochemical demonstration of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) containing ...
"A novel transgenic mouse model expressing primate-specific nuclear choline acetyltransferase and its impact on Alzheimers ...
The activities of choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase were assayed in submicrogram samples from layers of pigeon ... Choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase activities were concentrated in and near the inner plexiform layer, within ... White, LE; Ross, CD; Godfrey, DA (1990). Distributions of choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase activities in the ...
Activity of the synthetic enzyme choline acetyltransferase (CAT) and the catabolic enzyme acetylcholinesterase are ...
Filters: Keyword is Choline O-Acetyltransferase and Author is Lacoursiere, Sean [Clear All Filters] ...
  • Choline acetylase catalyzes the reversible synthesis of acetylcholine (ACh) from acetyl CoA and choline at cholinergic synapses. (novusbio.com)
  • CATALYTIC ACTIVITY: Acetyl-CoA + choline = CoA + O-acetylcholine. (novusbio.com)
  • ChAT is the enzyme responsible for synthesis of acetylcholine from acetyl-coenzyme A and choline. (neuromics.com)
  • Choline acetyltransferase facilitates the production of a molecule called acetylcholine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The mutations lead to decreased production of choline acetyltransferase or the production of a protein with decreased ability to aid in the production of acetylcholine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Acetylcholine is synthesized from acetyl coenzyme A and choline by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In addition to its synthesis in the liver, choline employed in acetylcholine production is derived from dietary sources. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These cells express many properties of motor neurons, including choline acetyltransferase, acetylcholine synthesis, storage and release and neurofilament triplet proteins. (cedarlanelabs.com)
  • Additionally, acupuncture stimulation at GV20 significantly restored the expression of choline transporter 1 (CHT1), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), BDNF and CREB mRNA in the hippocampus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Specifically, the activity of choline acetyltransferase, critical in the synthesis of acetylcholine (ACh), is depleted, together with ACh levels, as cholinergic neurons are lost and cholinergic neurotransmission increasingly declines with disease progression [5] [6]. (scirp.org)
  • First, the researchers used 3D computer simulations to examine how six PPI variants based on different active substances interacted with an enzyme called choline acetyltransferase, the function of which is to synthesize the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. (prohealth.com)
  • An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. (bvsalud.org)
  • Western Blot: Choline Acetyltransferase/ChAT Antibody [NBP1-30052] - Rat brain lysate showing specific immunolabeling of the ~70k ChAT. (novusbio.com)
  • Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence: Choline Acetyltransferase/ChAT Antibody [NBP1-30052] - Representative images of lumbar spinal cord sections at 130 days immunostained with Choline Acetyltransferase/ChAT. (novusbio.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: Choline Acetyltransferase/ChAT Antibody [NBP1-30052] - Rat brainstem showing specific labeling using the anti-ChAT antibody. (novusbio.com)
  • Murine choline-O-acetyltransferase (EC is a 71,721 dalton protein(640 amino acids) expressed in cholinergic neurons of both the PNS and CNS. (neuromics.com)
  • Choline acetyltransferase (CAT), which is known to be a specific marker of cholinergic neurons, best reflects spinal motoneuron function. (elsevier.com)
  • A small subset of interneurons, called cholinergic interneurons (CINs), is characterized by expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). (latitudes.org)
  • The present study describes the spatial distribution of cholinergic neurons throughout the brain of the weakly electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus, using in situ hybridization of choline acetyltransferase mRNA. (hu-berlin.de)
  • To analyze the nature and time course of these events, we investigated changes in cytoskeletal elements (phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated neurofilament (NF) proteins) and transmitter-related enzymes (choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in MSN neurons following FF transection. (elsevier.com)
  • Acupuncture stimulation at GV20 significantly alleviated memory-associated decreases in the levels of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), BDNF and CREB proteins in the hippocampus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Quantitation following choline acetyltransferease (ChAT) immunohistochemistry revealed a significant decrease in the number of ChAT positive neurons within the MS, HDB and SI/NB, but not VDB following ovariectomy. (elsevier.com)
  • Immunohistochemical demonstration of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) containing neurons in the human central nervous system. (mpg.de)
  • Morphoquantitative analyses of myenteric and submucous neurons immunoreactive to P2X 2 and P2X 7 receptors, nitric oxide sintase (NOS), calretinin, calbindin and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) of the rats distal colon submitted to undernutrition and refeeding proteic. (usp.br)
  • The aim of the work was to analyze the distal colon myenteric (MN) and submucous (SN) neurons immunoreactive for P2X 2 -7 receptors, calbindin (Calb-ir), calretinin (Calr-ir), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) of the animals submitted to undernutrition and refeeding proteic. (usp.br)
  • Immunohistochemical staining was performed with choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF). (edu.au)
  • A DNA fragment of 219 bp was obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on human genomic DNA using two oligonucleotide mixtures derived from peptide sequences of human placenta choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and from partially conserved amino acid sequences of rat, porcine and Drosophila ChAT. (elsevier.com)
  • The CHAT gene provides instructions for making a protein called choline acetyltransferase. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mutations in ChAT (Choline acetyltransferase) are associated with presynaptic defects in CMS, and mutations in ColQ and LAMB2 cause synaptic defects in CMS. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These neuron-like cells and their neurites retain tyrosine hydroxylase and choline acetyl transferase, as detected immunohistochemically. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In these patients and in one monkey, blood-brain barrier opening was followed by 18F-Choline uptake in the putamen and midbrain regions based on positron emission tomography. (bvsalud.org)
  • 28]. In various other studies, nevertheless, 17-AAG treatment triggered a decline altogether choline amounts (made up of choline, Computer and GPC) in prostate tumor xenografts [29] as well as the (R)-Oxiracetam prices of radiolabelled-choline uptake and phosphorylation in individual cancer of the colon cells which will be expected to create a decrease in mobile Computer [30]. (ebat2018.org)
  • Regional distribution of choline acetyltransferase in the human brain: changes in Huntington's chorea. (bmj.com)
  • Estrogen Receptor Immunoreactivity in the Adult Primate Brain: Neuronal Distribution and Association with p75, trkA, and Choline Acetyltransferase. (bvsalud.org)
  • Choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase activities were concentrated in and near the inner plexiform layer, within which two peaks of activity for each enzyme were obtained. (duke.edu)
  • Distributions of choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase activities in the retinal layers of pigeon red and yellow fields. (duke.edu)
  • This is mediated by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) to yield choline and acetate. (news-medical.net)
  • Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunocytochemistry, acetylcholinesterase histochemistry and muscarinic receptor autoradiography demonstrated a cholinergic innervation within the superior colliculus. (elsevier.com)
  • Here we report the effects of partial immunolesions on the levels of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity and NGF receptor mRNA levels in the basal forebrain of 3- and 30-month-old rats. (utmb.edu)
  • Most individuals consume adequate amounts of choline, although there is evidence that current recommendations might be insufficient for some adult men. (researchgate.net)
  • Lack of sufficient amounts of choline in the diet can lead to a fatty liver condition and general liver damage. (hmdb.ca)
  • Eggs are often considered "brain food" because they supply high amounts of choline. (nootropicsexpert.com)
  • Substrate binding and catalytic mechanism of human choline acetyltransferase. (proteopedia.org)
  • 6. Transcriptional activation of human choline acetyltransferase by AP2- and NGF-induced factors. (nih.gov)
  • cDNA cloning and complete sequence of porcine choline acetyltransferase: in vitro translation of the corresponding RNA yields an active protein. (nih.gov)
  • In Alzheimer's disease (AD), loss of cortical and hippocampal choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity has been correlated with dementia severity and disease duration, and it forms the basis for current therapies. (elsevier.com)
  • The CHAT gene provides instructions for making a protein called choline acetyltransferase. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We report the structure of human ChAT to a resolution of 2.2 A along with structures for binary complexes of ChAT with choline, CoA, and a nonhydrolyzable acetyl-CoA analogue, S-(2-oxopropyl)-CoA. (proteopedia.org)
  • The ChAT-choline complex shows which features of choline are important for binding and explains how modifications of the choline trimethylammonium group can be tolerated by the enzyme. (proteopedia.org)
  • We also observed that 66% of the GFP + cells were choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-immunopositive at 1.5 months. (zfin.org)
  • The conditioned medium of BIM cells enhanced choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity in septal neurons and survival of ciliary ganglion neurons. (elsevier.com)
  • The compounds were assayed for their ability to stimulate choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity in embryonic rat spinal cord cultures. (montclair.edu)
  • Courtagen found a mutation in the CHAT gene (choline O-acetyltransferase). (painwithpurpose.com)
  • These neurons express the 75-kDa low-affinity neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), both proteins are specifically expressed by neonatal and embryonic motor neurons in vivo. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Double immunostaining experiments revealed that only the large-sized CR+ neurons expressed choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). (ulaval.ca)
  • For instance, the ventral part of MHb (MHbV) contains cholinergic neurons that are choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) positive. (en-journal.org)
  • Therefore, the present investigation analyzed the three-dimensional spatial organization of 14,000 cholinergic neurons that expressed choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in these subcortical nuclei of the mouse forebrain. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The concentrations of free amino acids and the activities of transmitter-related enzymes, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), choline acetylase (ChAC) and GABA-transaminase (GABA-t) were measured in cerebellar cortex and deep cerebellar nuclei from the mouse mutant Purkinje cell degeneration (pcd) at various times before and after Purkinje cell loss. (semanticscholar.org)
  • choline acetyltransferase) can be translated into active enzyme. (nih.gov)
  • A detailed model of the ternary Michaelis complex fully supports the direct transfer of the acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to choline through a mechanism similar to that seen in the serine hydrolases for the formation of an acyl-enzyme intermediate. (proteopedia.org)
  • pseudocholinesterase enzyme is involved in the breakdown of choline ester drugs. (nih.gov)
  • The hydrolysis reaction proceeds by nucleophilic attack of the carbonyl carbon, acylating the enzyme and liberating choline. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Only 0.9% of the neurons demonstrating nerve growth factor receptor in the basal nuclear complex lacked the cholinergic synthetic enzyme, and a similarly small percentage of cholinergic cells, 7.1%, were choline acetyltransferase-positive but nerve growth factor receptor-negative. (princeton.edu)
  • Immunohistochemical staining of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase identified cell bodies of cholinergic neurons, and c-Fos immunolabeling identified active cells. (brocku.ca)
  • An enzyme that catalyzes the acetyltransferase reaction using ACETYL CoA as an acetyl donor and dihydrolipoamide as acceptor to produce COENZYME A (CoA) and S-acetyldihydrolipoamide. (bvsalud.org)
  • Toward the visualization of the development of the vertebrate ENS, we report our creation of a new transgenic line, Tg(chata:GGFF2) which has a 1.5-kb upstream region of the zebrafish choline acetyltransferase a (chata) gene followed by modified green fluorescent protein (gfp). (zfin.org)
  • In the submucosal plexus, CRF1 receptor immunoreactivity was found in neurons that expressed calbindin, substance P, choline acetyltransferase, or neuropeptide Y. Application of CRF evoked slowly activating depolarizing responses associated with elevated excitability in both myenteric and submucosal neurons. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Neurons and fibers were labeled with a novel mouse anti-human peripheral form of choline acetyltransferase antibody. (nih.gov)
  • Intrinsic cholinergic neurons and fibers were labeled with a novel mouse anti-human peripheral form of choline acetyltransferase (pChAT) antibody as green color. (nih.gov)
  • This highly bioavailable form of choline quickly enters your brain. (nootropicsexpert.com)
  • The degree of reduction of choline acetyltransferase activity in cerebral cholinergic neurons is significantly correlated with the severity of dementia or cognitive impairments observed in Alzheimer's disease. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, Alzheimer's disease may be slowed by supplementation of exogenous choline acetyltransferase. (nih.gov)
  • The recombination TAT-choline acetyltransferase fusion protein injected intravenously improves the memory and cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease model mice induced by amyloid-beta peptide. (nih.gov)
  • Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and progressive supranuclear palsy are all characterized by loss of neurons in the basal forebrain cholinergic system and by associated reductions in cortical presynaptic cholinergic markers, such as choline acetyltransferase. (nih.gov)
  • IN Alzheimer's disease the brain has a variety of neurotransmitter deficits, and the most striking and consistent change is a marked decrease in the activity of choline acetyltransferase, a marker for cholinergic neurons. (elsevier.com)
  • The diet-derived choline is taken up by cholinergic neurons via choline uptake transporter (ChT) where is combines with acetyl molecules produced from the metabolism of glucose. (news-medical.net)
  • Also reviewed are the mechanisms by which exercise might affect blood choline levels, and the links between methyl metabolism and the availability of free choline are highlighted. (researchgate.net)
  • The data from our study indicate a sex difference in apoptosis and differences in hippocampal morphology and choline metabolism as a result of dietary folic acid deficiency. (biorxiv.org)
  • Choline is needed by your body for liver function, normal brain function and development , nerve function, muscle movement, cellular energy and metabolism. (nootropicsexpert.com)
  • Choline Acetyl-Transferase expressing neurons in adult mice forebrains, visualized by immunolabeling of the tdTomato reporter protein using the iDISCO method. (stanford.edu)
  • Each reaction contained the following components in a final volume of 0.05 ml, except where noted: 50 mM _ potassium phosphate buffer (pH 6.8), 200 mI NaCl, 1 mM EDTA (potassium salt), 2.6 mM _ choline iodide, 0.5% Triton X-100 (Packard), 2.2 mM [#C]lacetyl CoA (10 Ci/mol), 0.1 mM neostigmine methylsulfate, and 0-0.5 mg of homogenate protein. (nih.gov)
  • Duplicate or triplicate homogenates were prepared and each was assayed for choline acetvltransferase activity at 4 con- centrations of protein. (nih.gov)
  • Endurance exercise might stress several of these pathways, increasing the demand for choline as a metabolic substrate. (researchgate.net)
  • for choline as a metabolic substrate. (researchgate.net)
  • This last term has led to confusion, and in this thesis the term cholinesterases will refer to all choline ester hydrolysing enzymes, irrespective of their substrate specificity. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • The poorly differentiated and slow growing cells secrete different neuroblastoma specific peptides and synthesise choline acetyltransferase. (hsanmartino.it)
  • After taking the concentration of choline in the blood plasma increases significantly. (pillbuys.com)
  • Sequential immunohistochemical demonstration of nerve growth factor receptor and choline acetyltransferase on the same tissue section in the rat revealed that approximately 92% of all cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain possessed that receptor. (princeton.edu)
  • Affiliation of nerve growth factor receptor with structural entities morphologically indistinguishable from those demonstrating choline acetyltransferase on separate but corresponding tissue sections was also observed in the telencephalic fiber tracts and terminal fields of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, including cholinergic puncta in the reticular nucleus of the thalamus. (princeton.edu)
  • Nerve growth factor receptor was not found in association with choline acetyltransferase-positive somata of the pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei, however, nor were fibers immunoreactive for nerve growth factor receptor observed originating from those cell bodies. (princeton.edu)
  • It is the availabilities of both acetyl-CoA and choline that determine ACh synthesis. (news-medical.net)
  • We also report the sequence of a full length Drosophila choline acetyltransferase cDNA and demonstrate that RNA produced by this clone is translated into active choline acetyltransferase but at a significantly reduced efficiency when compared to the partial cDNA clone. (nih.gov)
  • These results indicate that translational control may be an important regulatory step in production of Drosophila choline acetyltransferase. (nih.gov)
  • Cloning of Drosophila choline acetyltransferase cDNA. (nih.gov)
  • Choline deficiency also leads to elevated serum levels of alanine amino transferase and is associated with increased incidence of liver cancer. (hmdb.ca)
  • insufficiency can be combatted by taking a choline supplement, usually in the form of lecithin. (news-medical.net)
  • Choline is a basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. (hmdb.ca)
  • Most choline is found in phospholipids, namely phosphatidylcholine or lecithin. (hmdb.ca)
  • Alpha GPC (L-Alpha Glycerylphosphorylcholine) is a choline source derived from soy or sunflower lecithin. (nootropicsexpert.com)
  • Expression of light-activated channelrhodopsin 2 in these neurons is governed by Cre expression under the endogenous choline acetyltransferase promoter, and we describe a method to decrease variability in channelrhodopsin expression in future experiments. (elsevier.com)
  • muscle relaxant drugs used during general anesthesia, called choline esters. (nih.gov)
  • a condition that results in increased sensitivity to choline esters and certain other drugs. (nih.gov)
  • ficient to significantly decrease circulating choline stores. (researchgate.net)
  • The pathology behind AD is the progress of intraneuronal fibrillary tangles, accumulation of amyloid plaque, loss of cholinergic neurons, and decrease in choline acetyltransferase. (bvsalud.org)
  • Moreover, oral choline supplementation might only increase endurance performance in activities that reduce circulating choline levels below normal. (researchgate.net)
  • Choline acetyltransferase mutations cause myasthenic syndrome associated with episodic apnea in humans. (proteopedia.org)
  • CRF1 receptor immunoreactivity was coexpressed with calbindin, choline acetyltransferase, and substance P in the myenteric plexus. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Choline was recognized as an " essential " nutrient by the US Institute of Medicine in 1998. (nootropicsexpert.com)
  • Krell, RD & Goldberg, AM 1973, ' The in vivo effects of irreversible inhibitors of choline acetyltransferase (CAT) ', Federation Proceedings , vol. 32, no. 3 (I). (elsevier.com)
  • 1993). Certain human individuals have a mutant BChE which lacks the ability to hydrolyse succinyl choline. (weizmann.ac.il)