An enzyme bound to the inner mitochondrial membrane that catalyzes the oxidation of CHOLINE to BETAINE.
A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)
An NAD+ dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of betain aldehyde to BETAINE.
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped or pleomorphic bacteria which are halotolerant. Members of this genus are capable of growth in sodium chloride concentrations of up to 20% or more. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
An enzyme that is active in the first step of choline phosphoglyceride (lecithin) biosynthesis by catalyzing the phosphorylation of choline to phosphorylcholine in the presence of ATP. Ethanolamine and its methyl and ethyl derivatives can also act as acceptors. EC 2.7.1.32.
A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.

The choline-converting pathway in Staphylococcus xylosus C2A: genetic and physiological characterization. (1/19)

A Staphylococcus xylosus C2A gene cluster, which encodes enzymes in the pathway for choline uptake and dehydrogenation (cud), to form the osmoprotectant glycine betaine, was identified. The cud locus comprises four genes, three of which encode proteins with significant similarities to those known to be involved in choline transport and conversion in other organisms. The physiological role of the gene products was confirmed by analysis of cud deletion mutants. The fourth gene possibly codes for a regulator protein. Part of the gene cluster was shown to be transcriptionally regulated by choline and elevated NaCl concentrations as inducers.  (+info)

Genes for the synthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine from choline in the moderately halophilic bacterium Halomonas elongata DSM 3043, USA. (2/19)

The genes involved in the oxidative pathway of choline to glycine betaine in the moderate halophile Halomonas elongata DSM 3043 were isolated by functional complementation of an Escherichia coli strain defective in glycine betaine synthesis. The cloned region was able to mediate the oxidation of choline to glycine betaine in E. coli, but not the transport of choline, indicating that the gene(s) involved in choline transport are not clustered with the glycine betaine synthesis genes. Nucleotide sequence analysis of a 4.6 kb segment from the cloned DNA revealed the occurrence of three ORFs (betIBA) apparently arranged in an operon. The deduced betI gene product exhibited features typical for DNA-binding regulatory proteins. The deduced BetB and BetA proteins showed significant similarity to soluble glycine betaine aldehyde dehydrogenases and membrane-bound choline dehydrogenases, respectively, from a variety of organisms. Evidence is presented that BetA is able to oxidize both choline and glycine betaine aldehyde and therefore can mediate both steps in the synthesis of glycine betaine.  (+info)

Improved tolerance to salinity and low temperature in transgenic tobacco producing glycine betaine. (3/19)

Glycine betaine is an osmoprotectant found in many organisms, including bacteria and higher plants. The bacterium Escherichia coli produces glycine betaine by a two-step pathway where choline dehydrogenase (CDH), encoded by betA, oxidizes choline to betaine aldehyde which is further oxidized to glycine betaine by the same enzyme. The second step, conversion of betaine aldehyde into glycine betaine, can also be performed by the second enzyme in the pathway, betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH), encoded by betB. Transformation of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), a species not accumulating glycine betaine, with the E. coli genes for glycine betaine biosynthesis, resulted in transgenic plants accumulating glycine betaine. Plants producing CDH were found to accumulate glycine betaine as did F1 progeny from crosses between CDH- and BADH-producing lines. Plants producing both CDH and BADH generally accumulated higher amounts of glycine betaine than plants producing CDH alone, as determined by 1H NMR analysis. Transgenic tobacco lines accumulating glycine betaine exhibited increased tolerance to salt stress as measured by biomass production of greenhouse-grown intact plants. Furthermore, experiments conducted with leaf discs from glycine betaine-accumulating plants indicated enhanced recovery from photoinhibition caused by high light and salt stress as well as improved tolerance to photoinhibition under low temperature conditions. In conclusion, introduction of glycine betaine production into tobacco is associated with increased stress tolerance probably partly due to improved protection of the photosynthetic apparatus.  (+info)

Cloning, expression, and purification of choline dehydrogenase from the moderate halophile Halomonas elongata. (4/19)

Choline dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.99.1) catalyzes the four-electron oxidation of choline to glycine-betaine via a betaine-aldehyde intermediate. Such a reaction is of considerable interest for biotechnological applications in that transgenic plants engineered with bacterial glycine-betaine-synthesizing enzymes have been shown to have enhanced tolerance towards various environmental stresses, such as hypersalinity, freezing, and high temperatures. To date, choline dehydrogenase has been poorly characterized in its biochemical and kinetic properties, mainly because its purification has been hampered by instability of the enzyme in vitro. In the present report, we cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli the betA gene from the moderate halophile Halomonas elongata which codes for a hypothetical choline dehydrogenase. The recombinant enzyme was purified to more than 70% homogeneity as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by treatment with 30 to 50% saturation of ammonium sulfate followed by column chromatography using DEAE-Sepharose. The purified enzyme showed similar substrate specificities with either choline or betaine-aldehyde as the substrate, as indicated by the apparent V/K values (where V is the maximal velocity and K is the Michaelis constant) of 0.9 and 0.6 micro mol of O(2) min(-1) mg(-1) mM(-1) at pH 7 and 25 degrees C, respectively. With 1 mM phenazine methosulfate as the primary electron acceptor, the apparent V(max) values for choline and betaine-aldehyde were 10.9 and 5.7 micro mol of O(2) min(-1) mg(-1), respectively. These V(max) values decreased four- to sevenfold when molecular oxygen was used as the electron acceptor. Altogether, the kinetic data are consistent with the conclusion that H. elongata betA codes for a choline dehydrogenase that can also act as an oxidase when electron acceptors other than molecular oxygen are not available.  (+info)

The Sinorhizobium meliloti glycine betaine biosynthetic genes (betlCBA) are induced by choline and highly expressed in bacteroids. (5/19)

The symbiotic soil bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti has the capacity to synthesize the osmoprotectant glycine betaine from choline-O-sulfate and choline. This pathway is encoded by the betICBA locus, which comprises a regulatory gene, betI, and three structural genes, betC (choline sulfatase), betB (betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase), and betA (choline dehydrogenase). Here, we report that betICBA genes constitute a single operon, despite the existence of intergenic regions containing mosaic elements between betI and betC, and betB and betA. The regulation of the bet operon was investigated by using transcriptional lacZ (beta-galactosidase) fusions and has revealed a strong induction by choline at concentrations as low as 25 microM and to a lesser extent by choline-O-sulfate and acetylcholine but not by osmotic stress or oxygen. BetI is a repressor of the bet transcription in the absence of choline, and a nucleotide sequence of dyad symmetry upstream of betI was identified as a putative betI box. Measurements of intracellular pools of choline, well correlated with beta-galactosidase activities, strongly suggested that BetI senses the endogenous choline pool that modulates the intensity of BetI repression. In contrast to Escherichia coli, BetI did not repress choline transport. During symbiosis with Medicago sativa, S. meliloti bet gene expression was observed within the infection threads, in young and in mature nodules. The existence of free choline in nodule cytosol, peribacteroid space, and bacteroids was demonstrated, and the data suggest that bet regulation in planta is mediated by BetI repression, as in free-living cells. Neither Nod nor Fix phenotypes were significantly impaired in a betI::omega mutant, indicating that glycine betaine biosynthesis from choline is not crucial for nodulation and nitrogen fixation.  (+info)

Effects of diabetes and insulin on betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase expression in rat liver. (6/19)

Elevation of plasma homocysteine levels has been recognized as an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease, a major complication of diabetes. Plasma homocysteine reflects a balance between its synthesis via S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methylation reactions and its removal through the transmethylation and the transsulfuration pathways. Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT, EC 2.1.1.5) is one of the enzymes involved in the remethylation pathway. BHMT, a major zinc metalloenzyme in the liver, catalyzes the transfer of methyl groups from betaine to homocysteine to form dimethylglycine and methionine. We have previously shown that plasma homocysteine levels and the transsulfuration pathway are affected by diabetes. In the present study, we found increased BHMT activity and mRNA levels in livers from streptozotocin-diabetic rats. In the rat hepatoma cell line (H4IIE cells), glucocorticoids (triamcinolone) increased the level and rate of BHMT mRNA synthesis. In the same cell line, insulin decreased the abundance of BHMT mRNA and the rate of de novo mRNA transcription of the gene. Thus the decreased plasma homocysteine in various models of diabetes could be due to enhanced homocysteine removal brought about by a combination of increased transsulfuration of homocysteine to cysteine and increased remethylation of homocysteine to methionine by BHMT.  (+info)

Liver choline dehydrogenase and kidney betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase expression are not affected by methionine or choline intake in growing rats. (7/19)

Choline dehydrogenase (CHDH) and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) are 2 enzymes involved in choline oxidation. BHMT is expressed at high levels in rat liver and its expression is regulated by dietary Met and choline. BHMT is also found in rat kidney, albeit in substantially lower amounts, but it is not known whether kidney BHMT expression is regulated by dietary Met or choline. Similarly, CHDH activity is highest in the liver and kidney, but the regulation of its expression by diet has not been thoroughly investigated. Sprague Dawley rats ( approximately 50 g) were fed, for 9 d in 2 x 3 factorial design (n = 8), an l-amino acid-defined diet varying in l-Met (0.125, 0.3, or 0.8%) and choline (0 or 25 mmol/kg diet). Liver and kidney BHMT and CHDH were assessed using enzymatic, Western blot, and real-time PCR analyses. Liver samples were also fixed for histological analysis. Liver BHMT activity was 1.3-fold higher in rats fed the Met deficient diet containing choline, which was reflected in corresponding increases in mRNA content and immunodetectable protein. Independent of dietary choline, supplemental Met increased hepatic BHMT activity approximately 30%. Kidney BHMT and liver CHDH expression were refractory to these diets. Some degree of fatty liver developed in all rats fed a choline-devoid diet, indicating that supplemental Met cannot completely compensate for the lack of dietary choline in growing rats.  (+info)

The HOXB13:IL17BR expression index is a prognostic factor in early-stage breast cancer. (8/19)

PURPOSE: We previously identified three genes, HOXB13, IL17BR and CHDH, and the HOXB13:IL17BR ratio index in particular, that strongly predicted clinical outcome in breast cancer patients receiving tamoxifen monotherapy. Confirmation in larger independent patient cohorts was needed to fully validate their clinical utility. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Expression of HOXB13, IL17BR, CHDH, estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction in 852 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded primary breast cancers from 566 untreated and 286 tamoxifen-treated breast cancer patients. Gene expression and clinical variables were analyzed for association with relapse-free survival (RFS) by Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: ER and PR mRNA measurements were in close agreement with immunohistochemistry. In the entire cohort, expression of HOXB13 was associated with shorter RFS (P = .008), and expression of IL17BR and CHDH was associated with longer RFS (P < .0001 for IL17BR and P = .0002 for CHDH). In ER+ patients, the HOXB13:IL17BR index predicted clinical outcome independently of treatment, but more strongly in node-negative patients. In multivariate analysis of the ER+ node-negative subgroup including age, PR status, tumor size, S phase fraction, and tamoxifen treatment, the two-gene index remained a significant predictor of RFS (hazard ratio = 3.9; 95% CI, 1.5 to 10.3; P = .007). CONCLUSION: This tumor bank study demonstrated HOXB13:IL17BR index is a strong independent prognostic factor for ER+ node-negative patients irrespective of tamoxifen therapy.  (+info)

Choline dehydrogenase is an enzyme that plays a role in the metabolism of choline, a nutrient that is essential for the normal functioning of cells. Specifically, choline dehydrogenase helps to catalyze the oxidation of choline to betaine aldehyde, which is then further metabolized to betaine. This reaction is an important step in the conversion of choline to a molecule called glycine betaine, which helps to regulate cell volume and protect cells from osmotic stress. Choline dehydrogenase is found in various tissues throughout the body, including the liver, kidneys, and brain. Deficiencies in choline or dysfunction of choline dehydrogenase can lead to a variety of health problems, including fatty liver disease, muscle damage, and neurological disorders.

Betaine, also known as trimethylglycine, is a naturally occurring compound that can be found in various foods such as beets, spinach, and whole grains. In the body, betaine functions as an osmolyte, helping to regulate water balance in cells, and as a methyl donor, contributing to various metabolic processes including the conversion of homocysteine to methionine.

In medical terms, betaine is also used as a dietary supplement and medication. Betaine hydrochloride is a form of betaine that is sometimes used as a supplement to help with digestion by providing additional stomach acid. Betaine anhydrous, on the other hand, is often used as a supplement for improving athletic performance and promoting liver health.

Betaine has also been studied for its potential role in protecting against various diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and neurological disorders. However, more research is needed to fully understand its mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential.

Betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) is an enzyme involved in the metabolic pathway of betaine, a compound that helps protect cells from environmental stress and is important for maintaining cell volume and osmotic balance. The enzyme catalyzes the conversion of betaine aldehyde to betaine, using NAD+ as a cofactor.

Deficiency in BADH has been associated with certain genetic disorders, such as hyperbetalipoproteinemia type I, which is characterized by elevated levels of lipids and lipoproteins in the blood. Additionally, mutations in the BADH gene have been linked to an increased risk of alcoholism and alcohol-related disorders.

Choline is an essential nutrient that is vital for the normal functioning of all cells, particularly those in the brain and liver. It is a water-soluble compound that is neither a vitamin nor a mineral, but is often grouped with vitamins because it has many similar functions. Choline is a precursor to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which plays an important role in memory, mood, and other cognitive processes. It also helps to maintain the structural integrity of cell membranes and is involved in the transport and metabolism of fats.

Choline can be synthesized by the body in small amounts, but it is also found in a variety of foods such as eggs, meat, fish, nuts, and cruciferous vegetables. Some people may require additional choline through supplementation, particularly if they follow a vegetarian or vegan diet, are pregnant or breastfeeding, or have certain medical conditions that affect choline metabolism.

Deficiency in choline can lead to a variety of health problems, including liver disease, muscle damage, and neurological disorders. On the other hand, excessive intake of choline can cause fishy body odor, sweating, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea and vomiting. It is important to maintain adequate levels of choline through a balanced diet and, if necessary, supplementation under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

"Halomonas" is a genus of bacteria that are found in saline environments, such as salt lakes, marine habitats, and salted food products. These bacteria are characterized by their ability to grow optimally in media with high salt concentrations (up to 20-30% sodium chloride). They are generally rod-shaped and motile, with a gram-negative cell wall structure. Some species of Halomonas have been studied for their potential applications in biotechnology, such as the production of compatible solutes, enzymes, and biofuels. However, it is important to note that "Halomonas" is not a medical term per se, but rather a taxonomic designation used in microbiology and related fields.

L-Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme found in various tissues within the body, including the heart, liver, kidneys, muscles, and brain. It plays a crucial role in the process of energy production, particularly during anaerobic conditions when oxygen levels are low.

In the presence of the coenzyme NADH, LDH catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to lactate, generating NAD+ as a byproduct. Conversely, in the presence of NAD+, LDH can convert lactate back to pyruvate using NADH. This reversible reaction is essential for maintaining the balance between lactate and pyruvate levels within cells.

Elevated blood levels of LDH may indicate tissue damage or injury, as this enzyme can be released into the circulation following cellular breakdown. As a result, LDH is often used as a nonspecific biomarker for various medical conditions, such as myocardial infarction (heart attack), liver disease, muscle damage, and certain types of cancer. However, it's important to note that an isolated increase in LDH does not necessarily pinpoint the exact location or cause of tissue damage, and further diagnostic tests are usually required for confirmation.

Choline kinase is an enzyme that plays a role in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, a major component of cell membranes. It catalyzes the phosphorylation of choline to form phosphocholine, which is then used in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine. Choline kinase exists as multiple isoforms, and its activity has been found to be elevated in some types of cancer cells, making it a potential target for cancer therapy.

Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is a group of enzymes responsible for catalyzing the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones, and reducing equivalents such as NAD+ to NADH. In humans, ADH plays a crucial role in the metabolism of ethanol, converting it into acetaldehyde, which is then further metabolized by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) into acetate. This process helps to detoxify and eliminate ethanol from the body. Additionally, ADH enzymes are also involved in the metabolism of other alcohols, such as methanol and ethylene glycol, which can be toxic if allowed to accumulate in the body.

In enzymology, a choline dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.99.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction choline + acceptor ⇌ {\ ... Other names in common use include choline oxidase, choline-cytochrome c reductase, choline:(acceptor) oxidoreductase, and ... Gadda G, McAllister-Wilkins EE (2003). "Cloning, Expression, and Purification of Choline Dehydrogenase from the Moderate ... Ebisuzaki K, Williams JN (1955). "Preparation and partial purification of soluble choline dehydrogenase from liver mitochondria ...
Betaine aldehyde is a substrate for choline dehydrogenase (mitochondrial). Glycine betaine aldehyde is a short chain aldehyde ... stress tolerance in Escherichia coli and Nicotiana tabacum expressing a betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase/choline dehydrogenase ... The human aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.3) stimulates the transformation of betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine. ...
Park S, Choi SG, Yoo SM, Son JH, Jung YK (2014). "Choline dehydrogenase interacts with SQSTM1/p62 to recruit LC3 and stimulate ...
... in phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase and methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase influence biomarkers of choline ... While the CDP-choline pathway, in which choline obtained either by dietary consumption or by metabolism of choline-containing ... PC made via the PEMT pathway can be degraded by phospholipases C/D, resulting in the de novo formation of choline. Thus, the ... This is one of several examples of the reciprocal regulation of PEMT and CT in the PEMT and CDP-choline pathways. Estrogen has ...
... choline dehydrogenase, EC 1.1.99.1). Betaine aldehyde is further oxidised in the mitochondria in mice to betaine by the enzyme ... USDA Database for the Choline Content of Common Foods - including the data on choline metabolites, such as betaine, in 434 food ... "Dietary reference values for choline". EFSA Journal. 14 (8). 2016. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2016.4484. "USDA Database for the Choline ... In most organisms, glycine betaine is biosynthesized by oxidation of choline in two steps. The intermediate, betaine aldehyde, ...
... which functions in choline degradation. The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) catalyzes the oxidative ... Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase regulatory subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PDPR gene. The complete ... "Entrez Gene: Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase regulatory subunit". Lawson JE, Park SH, Mattison AR, Yan J, Reed LJ (December ... by the pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatases (PDPs 1 and 2). As PDPR is involved in the regulation of the central metabolic ...
... choline dehydrogenase (CHD) EC 1.1.99.1, methanol oxidase (MOX) EC 1.1.3.13 and cellobiose dehydrogenase EC 1.1.99.18 which ... The glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) oxidoreductases are FAD flavoproteins oxidoreductases. These enzymes include a variety of ... In molecular biology, the glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family (GMC oxidoreductase) is a family of enzymes with ... Henriksson G, Johansson G, Pettersson G (March 2000). "A critical review of cellobiose dehydrogenases". J. Biotechnol. 78 (2): ...
... uridine diphosphate glucose dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.047.180 - choline dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.047.210 - galactose ... malate dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.047.748 - malate dehydrogenase (nadp+) MeSH D08.811.682.047.892 - xanthine dehydrogenase ... acetoin dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.047.070 - alcohol dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.047.150 - carbohydrate dehydrogenases ... acyl-coa dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.660.150.150 - acyl-coa dehydrogenase, long-chain MeSH D08.811.682.660.150.200 - acyl- ...
This is oxidized by mitochondrial or cytosolic betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenases to trimethylglycine. Trimethylglycine is a ... Choline can also be produced by the CDP-choline route, cytosolic choline kinases (CK) phosphorylate choline with ATP to ... Choline forms various salts, for example choline chloride and choline bitartrate. Choline is a quaternary ammonium cation. The ... "Total choline" is defined as the sum of free choline and choline-containing phospholipids, without accounting for mass fraction ...
... inhibits choline acetyltransferase acting as a neurotoxin. It competes with acetyl-CoA. PubChem. "Phenylacetyl ... Phenylacetyl-CoA combines with water and quinone to produce phenylglyoxylyl-CoA and quinol via a phenylacetyl-CoA dehydrogenase ...
NADH dehydrogenase succinate dehydrogenase Coenzyme Q - cytochrome c reductase cytochrome c oxidase (CS1 errors: periodical ... In mammals, this metabolic pathway is important in beta oxidation of fatty acids and catabolism of amino acids and choline, as ... NADH-coenzyme Q oxidoreductase, also known as NADH dehydrogenase or complex I, is the first protein in the electron transport ... Ikeda Y, Dabrowski C, Tanaka K (25 January 1983). "Separation and properties of five distinct acyl-CoA dehydrogenases from rat ...
... and choline metabolism. It is characterized by multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiencies resulting in large excretion not ... Electron-transferring-flavoprotein dehydrogenase in the inner mitochondrial membrane accepts electrons from electron-transfer ... "Entrez Gene: ETFDH electron-transferring-flavoprotein dehydrogenase". Olsen RK, Andresen BS, Christensen E, Bross P, Skovby F, ... Deficiency in electron-transferring-flavoprotein dehydrogenase have been demonstrated in some patients with type II glutaric ...
A crystal structure of the complex of one of its interactors, medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD; gene name ACADM) has ... The flavoenzymes that transfer electrons to ETF are involved in fatty acid beta oxidation, amino acid catabolism, choline ... Crane FL, Beinert H (September 1954). "A Link Between Fatty Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase and Cytochrome C: A New Flavin Enzyme". ... Defects in either of the ETF subunits or ETFDH cause multiple acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (OMIM # 231680), earlier called ...
A crystal structure of the complex of one of its interactors, medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD; gene name ACADM) has ... The flavoenzymes that transfer electrons to ETF are involved in fatty acid beta oxidation, amino acid catabolism, choline ... Crane FL, Beinert H (September 1954). "A Link Between Fatty Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase and Cytochrome C: A New Flavin Enzyme". ... Defects in either of the ETF subunits or ETFDH cause multiple acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (OMIM # 231680), earlier called ...
These include transferrin receptor, choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase A, RNF168, serine/threonine-protein kinase, nuclear ... cap-binding protein complex, melanotransferrin, DLG1 and D-beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase[citation needed] Research on the ...
Cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), an enzyme that transforms cinnamyl alcohol into cinnamaldehyde Sinapine esterase, an ... D-quinate into trans-5-O-caffeoyl-D-quinate Sinapoylglucose-choline O-sinapoyltransferase, an enzyme that transforms 1-O- ... enzyme that transforms sinapoylcholine into sinapate (sinapic acid) and choline Trans-cinnamate 2-monooxygenase, an enzyme that ...
Genes phosphate and cytidyltransferase 1, choline alpha (PYT1A), P21 (RAC1) activated kinase 2 (PAK2), melanotransferrin (MFI2 ... discs large MAGUK scaffold protein 1 (DLG1), and 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 1 (BDH1) have been confirmed and another 7 ...
... is an intermediate in the metabolism of choline to glycine. Sarcosine, like the related compounds dimethylglycine ( ... Sarcosine is metabolized to glycine by the enzyme sarcosine dehydrogenase, while glycine-N-methyl transferase generates ... DMG) and trimethylglycine (betaine, TMG), is formed via the metabolism of nutrients such as choline and methionine, which both ...
Choline, in combination with acetyl-CoA, is catalyzed by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase to produce acetylcholine and ... namely acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, enoyl-CoA hydratase, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and thiolase. The cycle produces a new ... The oxidative conversion of pyruvate into acetyl-CoA is referred to as the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction. It is catalyzed by ... Ethanol also serves as a carbon source for acetylation of CoA utilizing the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase. Degradation of ...
... choline dehydrogenase EC 1.1.99.2: L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase EC 1.1.99.3: gluconate 2-dehydrogenase (acceptor) EC 1.1. ... EC 1.1.1.1: alcohol dehydrogenase EC 1.1.1.2: alcohol dehydrogenase (NADP+) EC 1.1.1.3: homoserine dehydrogenase EC 1.1.1.4: (R ... L-arabinitol 4-dehydrogenase EC 1.1.1.13: L-arabinitol 2-dehydrogenase EC 1.1.1.14: L-iditol 2-dehydrogenase EC 1.1.1.15: D- ... L-gulonate 3-dehydrogenase EC 1.1.1.46: L-arabinose 1-dehydrogenase EC 1.1.1.47: glucose 1-dehydrogenase [NAD(P)+)] EC 1.1.1.48 ...
Allaire M, Li Y, MacKenzie RE, Cygler M (February 1998). "The 3-D structure of a folate-dependent dehydrogenase/cyclohydrolase ... "Genetic variation of folate-mediated one-carbon transfer pathway predicts susceptibility to choline deficiency in humans". ... Mutations of the MTHFD1 gene may cause methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1 deficiency, also known as combined ... MacKenzie RE, Mejia N, Yang XM (1989). "Methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenases in normal and transformed mammalian cells". ...
It is formed from many precursors including choline, serine, and sarcosine. It provides a C-1 source in the biosynthesis of ... Formate is reversibly oxidized by the enzyme formate dehydrogenase from Desulfovibrio gigas: HCO−2 → CO2 + H+ + 2 e− Formate ...
These enzymes are regulated by inositol and choline, both of which are phospholipid precursors. Within this consensus sequence ... study looked at the effect of inserting the UASG into the promoter region of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene ... A cis-regulatory element responsible for inositol choline-mediated regulation of phospholipid biosynthesis". The Journal of ...
June 2003). "Hydrogen peroxide induces association between glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and phospholipase D2 to ... catalyze the hydrolysis of PC to produce phosphatidic acid and choline. Activation of PC-specific PLDs occurs as a consequence ... Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, PLCG1, PRKCD, Src, and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein. N-(2-(1-(3-fluorophenyl)-4- ...
Glyoxylate is then oxidized by hepatic lactate dehydrogenase to oxalate in an NAD+-dependent reaction. The half-life of glycine ... choline or hydroxyproline via inter-organ metabolism of the liver and kidneys. Glycine is degraded via three pathways. The ...
In the citric acid cycle, coenzyme A works as an allosteric regulator in the stimulation of the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase. ... Lipmann F, Kaplan NO (1946). "A common factor in the enzymatic acetylation of sulfanilamide and of choline". Journal of ... Acetyl-CoA is utilised in the post-translational regulation and allosteric regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase and carboxylase ... phosphopantetheinyl transferase activates 10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 285 (3 ...
Choline increases carnitine uptake and retention. Choline supplements are inexpensive, are safe (probably even in children ... GA1 is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of the enzyme glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH), encoded by the ... The GCDH gene encodes the enzyme glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase. This enzyme is involved in degrading the amino acids lysine, ... Daily, James W.; Sachan, Dileep S. (July 1995). "Choline Supplementation Alters Carnitine Homeostasis in Humans and Guinea Pigs ...
... choline deficiency MeSH C18.654.521.500.133.699.308 - folic acid deficiency MeSH C18.654.521.500.133.699.529 - pellagra MeSH ... pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency disease MeSH C18.452.648.240 - cytochrome-c oxidase deficiency MeSH C18.452.648.390 ... pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency disease MeSH C18.452.100.100.875 - tyrosinemias MeSH C18.452.100.360 - hepatic ... pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency disease MeSH C18.452.648.151.825 - sphingolipidoses MeSH C18.452.648.151.825.200 - ...
Alcohol dehydrogenase (NAD) EC 1.1.1.1 Alcohol dehydrogenase (NADP) EC 1.1.1.2 Homoserine dehydrogenase EC 1.1.1.3 ... EC 2.3.1 Aminolevulinic acid synthase EC 2.3.1.37 Choline acetyltransferase EC 2.3.1.6 Category:EC 2.3.2 Factor XIII EC 2.3. ... Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase EC 1.2.1.10 Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase EC 1.2.1.12 Pyruvate dehydrogenase EC 1.2.1.51 ... L-xylulose reductase EC 1.1.1.10 Lactate dehydrogenase EC 1.1.1.27 Malate dehydrogenase EC 1.1.1.37 Isocitrate dehydrogenase EC ...
3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring)) kinase EC 2.7.1.116: Now EC 2.7.11.5, [isocitrate dehydrogenase ( ... choline kinase EC 2.7.1.33: pantothenate kinase EC 2.7.1.34: pantetheine kinase EC 2.7.1.35: pyridoxal kinase EC 2.7.1.36: ... 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring)) kinase EC 2.7.11.5: [isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP+)] kinase EC ... choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase EC 2.7.7.16: Now EC 4.6.1.18, pancreatic ribonuclease EC 2.7.7.17: Now EC 4.6.1.19, ...
In enzymology, a choline dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.99.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction choline + acceptor ⇌ {\ ... Other names in common use include choline oxidase, choline-cytochrome c reductase, choline:(acceptor) oxidoreductase, and ... Gadda G, McAllister-Wilkins EE (2003). "Cloning, Expression, and Purification of Choline Dehydrogenase from the Moderate ... Ebisuzaki K, Williams JN (1955). "Preparation and partial purification of soluble choline dehydrogenase from liver mitochondria ...
... signifying the practical applications of choline dehydrogenase. Choline dehydrogenase (betA) of E. coli catalyses the first ... coli codes for choline dehydrogenase (Lamark et al., 1991). To date, only minimum reports on the characterization of choline ... Choline dehydrogenase catalyzes the oxidation of choline to glycine betaine via betaine aldehyde in glycine betaine ... Choline dehydrogenase catalyzes the four electron oxidation of choline to glycine betaine via a betaine aldehyde intermediate ( ...
Choline dehydrogenase (betA). NC_000913. E. coli. Triticum aestivum. Salt stress. [149]. ... OM: Choline-O-sulfate and β-alanine betaine. In shoots:. AA: β-Alanine, glutamic acid and glutamine. OM: Choline, choline-O- ... Transgenic wheat plants harboring the choline dehydrogenase (betA) gene of Escherichia coli were more tolerant to SS due to an ... OM: Choline, malate and citrate. [60]. Thellungiella. halophila. Whole plant. GC-HP5890. CH: Fructose, sorbose, galactinol, ...
Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase. C. CHOX. (NRULE_0178). Choline oxidase. GOSPT_109_00030. ...
... a transgenic sugarcane genotype expressing a bacterial gene encoding a choline dehydrogenase developed by Persero (PT ...
choline dehydrogenase. Choline dehydrogenase catalyzes the conversion of exogenously supplied choline into the intermediate ... utlizing a soluable choline oxidase or type III alcohol dehydrogenase instead of choline dehydrogenase. This enzyme is a member ... Outgrouping from this model, Caulobacter crescentus shares sequence homology with choline dehydrogenase, yet other genes ... glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) oxidoreductase family protein [Arabidopsis thaliana]. RefSeq. NP_200008.1. 0. 1. 524. 34. 576. ...
Choline dehydrogenase polymorphism rs12676 is a functional variation and is associated with changes in human sperm cell ... Query Trace: Choline Deficiency and CHDH[original query]. Common genetic polymorphisms affect the human requirement for the ... nutrient choline. FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 2006 ...
15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (NAD+) activity GO:0016404 * choline dehydrogenase activity GO:0008812 ...
choline dehydrogenase (RefSeq). 293, 409. BSU31060. gbsA. glycine betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, NAD+-dependent (RefSeq). 293 ... NAD(P)H-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (RefSeq). 37, 314. BSU23560. mleN. malate-H+/Na+-lactate antiporter ( ...
Funciton: Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.8) Locus tag: BLi03269. Name: gbsB. Funciton: Choline dehydrogenase ...
choline dehydrogenase (RefSeq). 293, 409. BSU31060. gbsA. glycine betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, NAD+-dependent (RefSeq). 293 ...
choline dehydrogenase [Source:HGNC Sym.... CLK3. 1198. CLK3. CDC like kinase 3 [Source:HGNC Symbol;.... ...
Choline dehydrogenase [Source:UniProtKB/TrEMBL;Acc:G4NEK0]. Location. Chromosome 5: 1,659,587-1,661,946 forward strand. ...
Choline dehydrogenase [Source:UniProtKB/TrEMBL;Acc:G4NA69]. 0.01. OF. MGG_15702T0. No alias. Putative uncharacterized protein ... Glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase, C-terminal. 0.04. OF. EDO03197. No alias. Glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase, C- ... Glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase, N-terminal. 0.03. OF. EED84444. No alias. Glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase, N- ... choline dehydrogenase, putative. 0.01. OF. EED82817. No alias. ... Glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase, C-terminal. 0.03. OF. ...
Oxygen-dependent choline dehydrogenase OS=Escherichia coli O6:K15:H31 (strain 536 / UPEC) GN=betA PE=3 SV=2. 8. 629. 4.0E-58. ... Oxygen-dependent choline dehydrogenase OS=Escherichia coli O17:K52:H18 (strain UMN026 / ExPEC) GN=betA PE=3 SV=1. 8. 617. 8.0E- ... Oxygen-dependent choline dehydrogenase OS=Escherichia coli O45:K1 (strain S88 / ExPEC) GN=betA PE=3 SV=1. 8. 617. 1.0E-58. ... Oxygen-dependent choline dehydrogenase OS=Escherichia coli O157:H7 (strain EC4115 / EHEC) GN=betA PE=3 SV=1. 8. 629. 3.0E-58. ...
choline dehydrogenase [Source:HGNC Symbol;Acc:HGNC:24288] E-value: 1.4e-52 ...
gi,17532301,ref,NP_495846.1, choline dehydrogenase (67.3 kD) (2I988) [Caenorhabditis elegans] gi,7496991,pir,,T19711 ...
Human choline dehydrogenase (CHDH) is a transmembrane protein located in mitochondria. CHDH has been shown to be one of the ... important catalytic enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of choline to betaine and is involved in mitochondrial autophagy after ...
Choline dehydrogenase. CINNDO. Cinnamate dioxygenase. DHBD. 2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybenzoate dehydrogenase ...
Choline. dehydrogenase. Phosphatidylethanolamine. N-. methyltransferase. Tetrahydrofolic acid. 5-Methyltetrahydrofolic acid. ... Choline. Choline. βine aldehyde. NAD. H. 2. O. NADH. Homocysteine. Dimethylglycine. L-Methionine. ATP. H. 2. O. S- ... Choline. Choline. βine aldehyde. NAD. Water. NADH. Homocysteine. Dimethylglycine. L-Methionine. Adenosine. triphosphate. Water ... dehydrogenase. Betaine--. homocysteine S-. methyltransferase. 1. Methionine. synthase. S-. adenosylmethionine. synthase. ...
Choline. dehydrogenase,. mitochondrial. Methionine-R-. sulfoxide. reductase B3. Methionine-R-. sulfoxide. reductase B2,. ... Choline. Methionine sulfoxide. Sarcosine. Glycine. Pyridoxal. 5-phosphate. Zinc (II) ion. Pyridoxal. 5-phosphate. Pyridoxal. ...
Betaine은 미생물에서 2단계 반응을 통해 choline에서 합성되는데, 첫단계는 choline dehydrogenase (CDH)에 의해서 촉매되고(Bet A gene), bet B 유전자의 산물인 betaine ... Ginseng Transformation of Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Gene Relative Salt Resistant through Somatic Embryogenesis ... 염류내성관련 유전자 Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Gene의 인삼 체세포 배발생을 통한 형질전환 ... aldehyde dehydrogenase(BADH)에 의해 수행된다. 본 실험에서는 Bet A, Bet B 유전자를 아그로박테리움에 도입하여 새로운 conjugants 2 종을 획득하였으며 (Agrobacterium ...
Choline dehydrogenase (FAD acceptor), mitochondrial. Report an error on this page ? Universal metabolite ? * betald ...
Although further research is needed, theres also some evidence that the rs12676 polymorphism in the choline dehydrogenase ( ... 4. PEMT activity and choline. Choline is an essential but often overlooked nutrient involved in metabolism, brain health, ... So, what does this mean for people who drop high choline animal foods from their diet? If someone has normal choline ... In many cases, the small amounts of choline offered by plant foods, combined with the choline synthesized through the PEMT ...
A membrane-bound, O2-dependent, and electron transfer-linked dehydrogenase was found which oxidized choline to glycine betaine ... Choline works as an osm ... ,, More Glycine betaine and its precursors choline and glycine betaine aldehyde have been found to ... Both NAD and NADP could be used as cofactor for the dehydrogenase, but NAD was preferred. The dehydrogenase was highly specific ... Choline-glycine betaine pathway confers a high level of osmotic tolerance in Escherichia coli.. Landfald B., Strom A.R. ...
LuxAB was used to screen the substrate scopes of three prokaryotic oxidoreductases: an alcohol dehydrogenase (Pseudomonas ... a choline oxidase variant (Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus) and a carboxylic acid reductase (Mycobacterium marinum). Consequently ... LuxAB was used to screen the substrate scopes of three prokaryotic oxidoreductases: an alcohol dehydrogenase (Pseudomonas ... LuxAB was used to screen the substrate scopes of three prokaryotic oxidoreductases: an alcohol dehydrogenase (Pseudomonas ...
Choline dehydrogenase. *CI control ratio. *CII control ratio. *Citrate. *Citrate synthase. *Citreoviridin ...
However, hydroxyurea treatment did not affect basal levels or increases in choline-kinase activity, protease inhibitors, ... dehydrogenase activities was significantly attenuated in the granulocytopenic mice. ...
... sulfur metabolism proteins and dehydrogenase enzymes involved in methionine, glycine and choline metabolism [60]. Kharbanda et ...
  • Other names in common use include choline oxidase, choline-cytochrome c reductase, choline:(acceptor) oxidoreductase, and choline:(acceptor) 1-oxidoreductase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other gram-positive organisms have been shown to employ a different enzymatic system, utlizing a soluable choline oxidase or type III alcohol dehydrogenase instead of choline dehydrogenase. (unl.edu)
  • LuxAB was used to screen the substrate scopes of three prokaryotic oxidoreductases: an alcohol dehydrogenase (Pseudomonas putida), a choline oxidase variant (Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus) and a carboxylic acid reductase (Mycobacterium marinum). (tuni.fi)
  • betaine biosynthesis is catalyzed by choline monooxygenase in combination with betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase. (scialert.net)
  • As in Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus xylosus , and Sinorhizobium meliloti, this enzyme is found associated in a transciptionally co-induced gene cluster with betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, the second catalytic enzyme in this reaction. (unl.edu)
  • Purification and characterization of osmoregulatory betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli. (rhea-db.org)
  • The osmoregulatory NAD-dependent betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (betaine aldehyde:NAD oxidoreductase, EC 1.2.1.8), of Escherichia coli, was purified to apparent homogeneity from an over-producing strain carrying the structural gene for the enzyme (betB) on the plasmid vector pBR322. (rhea-db.org)
  • Outgrouping from this model, Caulobacter crescentus shares sequence homology with choline dehydrogenase, yet other genes participating in this enzymatic reaction have not currently been identified [Cellular processes, Adaptations to atypical conditions]. (unl.edu)
  • RNA-seq results comparing the hypothalamus of rats fed Western to Western/AP showed 15 differentially expressed genes, of which 5 genes: phospholipase D family member 5 (PLD5), synuclein alpha (Snca), NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) fe-s protein 6 (Ndufs6), choline O-acetyltransferase (Chat), and frizzled class receptor 6 (Fzd6) were implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. (archive.org)
  • Choline, Its Potential Role in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, and the Case for Human and Bacterial Genes. (appyuntamiento.es)
  • Thirteen gene products of the 23 aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) genes in SYK-6 were able to oxidize VAL into VAA. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • In enzymology, a choline dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.99.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction choline + acceptor ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } betaine aldehyde + reduced acceptor Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are choline and acceptor, whereas its two products are betaine aldehyde and reduced acceptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Choline dehydrogenase catalyzes the oxidation of choline to glycine betaine via betaine aldehyde in glycine betaine biosynthesis. (scialert.net)
  • Choline dehydrogenase catalyzes the conversion of exogenously supplied choline into the intermediate glycine betaine aldehyde, as part of a two-step oxidative reaction leading to the formation of osmoprotectant betaine. (unl.edu)
  • The dehydrogenase was highly specific for betaine aldehyde. (rhea-db.org)
  • Aldehyde dehydrogenase domain [InterProScan]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • protein_coding" "AGT25156","N559_3508","Klebsiella pneumoniae","putative short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase SDR [Ensembl]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • In this study, choline dehydrogenase ( betA ) gene encoding for glycine betaine biosynthesis in Escherichia coli isolated from salted shark ( Scoliodon sp. (scialert.net)
  • In E . coli , the biosynthetic pathway for the production of glycine betaine from choline has been well characterized at the genetic level ( Landfald and Strom, 1986 ). (scialert.net)
  • Choline dehydrogenase ( betA ) of E . coli catalyses the first step in glycine betaine biosynthesis, the oxidation of choline. (scialert.net)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is choline:acceptor 1-oxidoreductase. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme is a member of the GMC oxidoreductase family (pfam00732 and pfam05199), sharing a common evoluntionary origin and enzymatic reaction with alcohol dehydrogenase. (unl.edu)
  • E.C. 1.5.99.2) is an enzyme involved in the catabolism of choline, catalyzing the oxidative demethylation of dimethylglycine (DMG) to form sarcosine. (elsevierpure.com)
  • SLG_12830 (hpvZ), which belongs to the glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family, was isolated as the HPV-converting enzyme gene. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Rat Malate Dehydrogenase 1 (MDH1) in tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates and other biological fluids. (operatiebrp.nl)
  • Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Double-antibody Sandwich method for detection of Rat Malate Dehydrogenase 1 (MDH1) in samples from tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates and other biological fluids with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species. (operatiebrp.nl)
  • Common genetic polymorphisms affect the human requirement for the nutrient choline. (cdc.gov)
  • Sex and menopausal status influence human dietary requirements for the nutrient choline. (appyuntamiento.es)
  • Description: A sandwich ELISA kit for detection of Malate Dehydrogenase 1 from Rat in samples from blood, serum, plasma, cell culture fluid and other biological fluids. (operatiebrp.nl)
  • Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Human Malate Dehydrogenase 1 (MDH1) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates or other biological fluids. (operatiebrp.nl)
  • However, hydroxyurea treatment did not affect basal levels or increases in choline-kinase activity, protease inhibitors, protein, or lung weight following acute exposure to NO2. (cdc.gov)
  • Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency- (MADD-), also called glutaric aciduria type 2, associated leukodystrophy may be severe and progressive despite conventional treatment with protein- and fat-restricted diet, carnitine, riboflavin, and coenzyme Q10. (nature.com)
  • In this study we evaluated the variations in vitamin B namely cyanocobalamin, folate and pyridoxine, choline,protein and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity in cervical cancer patients at pretherapy, when patients showed up at the clinic and at various times after the commencement of chemotherapy and radiotherapy (using one month and two months respectively). (longdom.org)
  • The study showed the relationship between low levels of vitamin B group, choline, G6PD and plasma protein with cancer progression and changes accompanying treatment and a probable need for supplementation with immune boosters during therapy. (longdom.org)
  • betaine/carnitine/choline family transporter, BCCT transporter family [InterProScan]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • The biochemical profile of hydroxyurea induced granulocytopenic mice, two days following an acute exposure to NO2, differed from normal mice in that the NO2 induced enhancement of both beta-glucuronidase and lactate- dehydrogenase activities was significantly attenuated in the granulocytopenic mice. (cdc.gov)
  • This inhibition was time dependent and did not seem to be associated with the disruption of the neuronal membrane, because at least for the first 20 min of tissue exposure to the toxin (up to 1 µM) the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released into the supernatant were similar to those of controls. (scielo.org)
  • Prenatal and postnatal choline supplementation also affects choline acetyltransferase levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex in rats which are associated with improved memory functioning, especially visual-spatial memory [ 21 , 22 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For example, LA increases acetylcholine (ACh) production by activation of choline acetyltransferase and increases glucose uptake, thus supplying more acetyl-CoA for the production of ACh. (weeksmd.com)
  • Reduced coenzyme Q passes the electrons to cytochrome b and releases 2H+ into the mitochondrial matrix The oxidation of ubiquinol involves the successive action of 2 enzymes: a) - Ubiquinol (coenzyme Q) dehydrogenase which transfers electrons to cytochrome c. (drugstorepdfsearch.com)
  • Oxygen-dependent choline dehydrogenase OS=Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. (uu.nl)
  • This leads to a secondary functional deficiency of a number of ETF-dependent dehydrogenases and results in a combined disorder of both fatty acid oxidation and amino acid metabolism (especially lysine, tryptophan, and branched-chain amino acids). (nature.com)
  • Also tell your doctor if you have or have ever had asthma, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency (an inherited blood disease), kidney stones, blood problems, or kidney or liver disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. (curehunter.com)
  • Multiple isozymes of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase, ATP synthase and [FeFe]-hydrogenase were differentiated and assigned roles according to their structural properties and genomic contexts. (umass.edu)
  • Both NAD and NADP could be used as cofactor for the dehydrogenase, but NAD was preferred. (rhea-db.org)
  • Only nominal studies in characterization of choline dehydrogenase from E . coli have been reported to date. (scialert.net)
  • In this study, we report the characterization and structural analysis of choline dehydrogenase in E . coli . (scialert.net)
  • Moreover, the sequence analysis of choline dehydrogenase from our isolate shows several base substitutions with that of reported sequences in GenBank, resulting in the altered amino acid sequences of the translated proteins. (scialert.net)
  • Choline dehydrogenase polymorphism rs12676 is a functional variation and is associated with changes in human sperm cell function. (cdc.gov)
  • Every time a muscle moves within the body, choline is needed to activate the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which sends chemical signals to muscles and makes them mobile. (appyuntamiento.es)
  • Yates C. M. Effects of choline and lecithin on CSF choline levels and on cognitive functioning in patients with presenile dementia of the Alzheimer type. (appyuntamiento.es)
  • Pregnant women need even more choline than anyone else because choline is rapidly used byfetuses while their brains, cell structures and nerve channels are forming. (appyuntamiento.es)
  • One study employing prenatal choline supplementation in pregnant Ukrainian women demonstrated improvements in an infant attentional/memory task (cardiac response to familiar/unfamiliar visual stimuli) [ 31 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These are potent types of choline that produce the most benefits in the body, according to some sources, because they closely mimic the way that choline is found naturally in food sources. (appyuntamiento.es)
  • The following 12 foods provide high levels of choline naturally, in addition to many other nutrients. (appyuntamiento.es)
  • Choline may also be helpful in improving energy levels, your mood, sleep cycles and recovery time following strenuous activity. (appyuntamiento.es)
  • However, it was noted that TMAO blood levels were not measured in this study, only choline from foods reported in diet questionnaires. (appyuntamiento.es)
  • The inhibitory effect of crotoxin on ³H-choline uptake seems to be associated with its phospholipase activity since the equimolar substitution of Sr2+ for Ca2+ in the incubation medium or the modification of the toxin with p-bromophenacyl bromide substantially decreased this effect. (scielo.org)
  • Only a handful of human choline studies for individuals with PAE/FASD have been undertaken (Table 1 ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results show that crotoxin inhibits ³H-choline uptake with high affinity (EC25 = 10 ± 5 nM). (scielo.org)
  • However, other research found no relationship between plasma choline concentrations during pregnancy and neural tube defects in offspring [23]. (appyuntamiento.es)
  • We present a long-term follow-up study evaluating the neurodevelopmental effects of choline supplementation in children with FASD 4 years after an initial efficacy trial. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The initial study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of choline vs. placebo in 2-5-year-olds with FASD. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There are only two published studies, in which 600 mg LA was given daily to 43 patients with AD (receiving a standard treatment with choline-esterase inhibitors) in an open-label study over an observation period of up to 48 months. (weeksmd.com)
  • These data support choline as a potential neurodevelopmental intervention for FASD and highlight the need for long-term follow-up to capture treatment effects on neurodevelopmental trajectories. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The information presented on this website is not intended as specific medical advice and is not a substitute for The recommended dosage of choline for adults is 550-3500 mg per day. (appyuntamiento.es)
  • Only limited data are available on the use of choline to treat NAFLD. (appyuntamiento.es)
  • In the concentration range used (0.03-1 µM) and up to 10 min of treatment, crotoxin decreased ³H-choline uptake by 50-75% compared to control. (scielo.org)
  • In addition, a sheep model of prenatal choline supplementation following PAE has demonstrated significant benefits for brain and eye development [ 28 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Neurological disorders Its also worth noting that choline can be found in soy products, especially soy lecithin. (appyuntamiento.es)
  • The dehydrogenase was found to be a tetramer with identical 55 kDa subunits. (rhea-db.org)