An enzyme bound to the inner mitochondrial membrane that catalyzes the oxidation of CHOLINE to BETAINE.
A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)
An NAD+ dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of betain aldehyde to BETAINE.
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped or pleomorphic bacteria which are halotolerant. Members of this genus are capable of growth in sodium chloride concentrations of up to 20% or more. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
An enzyme that is active in the first step of choline phosphoglyceride (lecithin) biosynthesis by catalyzing the phosphorylation of choline to phosphorylcholine in the presence of ATP. Ethanolamine and its methyl and ethyl derivatives can also act as acceptors. EC 2.7.1.32.
A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.
Databases devoted to knowledge about PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS.
The metabolism of drugs and their mechanisms of action.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
A complex mixture of PHOSPHOLIPIDS; GLYCOLIPIDS; and TRIGLYCERIDES; with substantial amounts of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES; PHOSPHATIDYLETHANOLAMINES; and PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS, which are sometimes loosely termed as 1,2-diacyl-3-phosphocholines. Lecithin is a component of the CELL MEMBRANE and commercially extracted from SOYBEANS and EGG YOLK. The emulsifying and surfactant properties are useful in FOOD ADDITIVES and for forming organogels (GELS).
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.
In eukaryotes, a genetic unit consisting of a noncontiguous group of genes under the control of a single regulator gene. In bacteria, regulons are global regulatory systems involved in the interplay of pleiotropic regulatory domains and consist of several OPERONS.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.

The choline-converting pathway in Staphylococcus xylosus C2A: genetic and physiological characterization. (1/19)

A Staphylococcus xylosus C2A gene cluster, which encodes enzymes in the pathway for choline uptake and dehydrogenation (cud), to form the osmoprotectant glycine betaine, was identified. The cud locus comprises four genes, three of which encode proteins with significant similarities to those known to be involved in choline transport and conversion in other organisms. The physiological role of the gene products was confirmed by analysis of cud deletion mutants. The fourth gene possibly codes for a regulator protein. Part of the gene cluster was shown to be transcriptionally regulated by choline and elevated NaCl concentrations as inducers.  (+info)

Genes for the synthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine from choline in the moderately halophilic bacterium Halomonas elongata DSM 3043, USA. (2/19)

The genes involved in the oxidative pathway of choline to glycine betaine in the moderate halophile Halomonas elongata DSM 3043 were isolated by functional complementation of an Escherichia coli strain defective in glycine betaine synthesis. The cloned region was able to mediate the oxidation of choline to glycine betaine in E. coli, but not the transport of choline, indicating that the gene(s) involved in choline transport are not clustered with the glycine betaine synthesis genes. Nucleotide sequence analysis of a 4.6 kb segment from the cloned DNA revealed the occurrence of three ORFs (betIBA) apparently arranged in an operon. The deduced betI gene product exhibited features typical for DNA-binding regulatory proteins. The deduced BetB and BetA proteins showed significant similarity to soluble glycine betaine aldehyde dehydrogenases and membrane-bound choline dehydrogenases, respectively, from a variety of organisms. Evidence is presented that BetA is able to oxidize both choline and glycine betaine aldehyde and therefore can mediate both steps in the synthesis of glycine betaine.  (+info)

Improved tolerance to salinity and low temperature in transgenic tobacco producing glycine betaine. (3/19)

Glycine betaine is an osmoprotectant found in many organisms, including bacteria and higher plants. The bacterium Escherichia coli produces glycine betaine by a two-step pathway where choline dehydrogenase (CDH), encoded by betA, oxidizes choline to betaine aldehyde which is further oxidized to glycine betaine by the same enzyme. The second step, conversion of betaine aldehyde into glycine betaine, can also be performed by the second enzyme in the pathway, betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH), encoded by betB. Transformation of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), a species not accumulating glycine betaine, with the E. coli genes for glycine betaine biosynthesis, resulted in transgenic plants accumulating glycine betaine. Plants producing CDH were found to accumulate glycine betaine as did F1 progeny from crosses between CDH- and BADH-producing lines. Plants producing both CDH and BADH generally accumulated higher amounts of glycine betaine than plants producing CDH alone, as determined by 1H NMR analysis. Transgenic tobacco lines accumulating glycine betaine exhibited increased tolerance to salt stress as measured by biomass production of greenhouse-grown intact plants. Furthermore, experiments conducted with leaf discs from glycine betaine-accumulating plants indicated enhanced recovery from photoinhibition caused by high light and salt stress as well as improved tolerance to photoinhibition under low temperature conditions. In conclusion, introduction of glycine betaine production into tobacco is associated with increased stress tolerance probably partly due to improved protection of the photosynthetic apparatus.  (+info)

Cloning, expression, and purification of choline dehydrogenase from the moderate halophile Halomonas elongata. (4/19)

Choline dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.99.1) catalyzes the four-electron oxidation of choline to glycine-betaine via a betaine-aldehyde intermediate. Such a reaction is of considerable interest for biotechnological applications in that transgenic plants engineered with bacterial glycine-betaine-synthesizing enzymes have been shown to have enhanced tolerance towards various environmental stresses, such as hypersalinity, freezing, and high temperatures. To date, choline dehydrogenase has been poorly characterized in its biochemical and kinetic properties, mainly because its purification has been hampered by instability of the enzyme in vitro. In the present report, we cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli the betA gene from the moderate halophile Halomonas elongata which codes for a hypothetical choline dehydrogenase. The recombinant enzyme was purified to more than 70% homogeneity as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by treatment with 30 to 50% saturation of ammonium sulfate followed by column chromatography using DEAE-Sepharose. The purified enzyme showed similar substrate specificities with either choline or betaine-aldehyde as the substrate, as indicated by the apparent V/K values (where V is the maximal velocity and K is the Michaelis constant) of 0.9 and 0.6 micro mol of O(2) min(-1) mg(-1) mM(-1) at pH 7 and 25 degrees C, respectively. With 1 mM phenazine methosulfate as the primary electron acceptor, the apparent V(max) values for choline and betaine-aldehyde were 10.9 and 5.7 micro mol of O(2) min(-1) mg(-1), respectively. These V(max) values decreased four- to sevenfold when molecular oxygen was used as the electron acceptor. Altogether, the kinetic data are consistent with the conclusion that H. elongata betA codes for a choline dehydrogenase that can also act as an oxidase when electron acceptors other than molecular oxygen are not available.  (+info)

The Sinorhizobium meliloti glycine betaine biosynthetic genes (betlCBA) are induced by choline and highly expressed in bacteroids. (5/19)

The symbiotic soil bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti has the capacity to synthesize the osmoprotectant glycine betaine from choline-O-sulfate and choline. This pathway is encoded by the betICBA locus, which comprises a regulatory gene, betI, and three structural genes, betC (choline sulfatase), betB (betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase), and betA (choline dehydrogenase). Here, we report that betICBA genes constitute a single operon, despite the existence of intergenic regions containing mosaic elements between betI and betC, and betB and betA. The regulation of the bet operon was investigated by using transcriptional lacZ (beta-galactosidase) fusions and has revealed a strong induction by choline at concentrations as low as 25 microM and to a lesser extent by choline-O-sulfate and acetylcholine but not by osmotic stress or oxygen. BetI is a repressor of the bet transcription in the absence of choline, and a nucleotide sequence of dyad symmetry upstream of betI was identified as a putative betI box. Measurements of intracellular pools of choline, well correlated with beta-galactosidase activities, strongly suggested that BetI senses the endogenous choline pool that modulates the intensity of BetI repression. In contrast to Escherichia coli, BetI did not repress choline transport. During symbiosis with Medicago sativa, S. meliloti bet gene expression was observed within the infection threads, in young and in mature nodules. The existence of free choline in nodule cytosol, peribacteroid space, and bacteroids was demonstrated, and the data suggest that bet regulation in planta is mediated by BetI repression, as in free-living cells. Neither Nod nor Fix phenotypes were significantly impaired in a betI::omega mutant, indicating that glycine betaine biosynthesis from choline is not crucial for nodulation and nitrogen fixation.  (+info)

Effects of diabetes and insulin on betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase expression in rat liver. (6/19)

Elevation of plasma homocysteine levels has been recognized as an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease, a major complication of diabetes. Plasma homocysteine reflects a balance between its synthesis via S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methylation reactions and its removal through the transmethylation and the transsulfuration pathways. Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT, EC 2.1.1.5) is one of the enzymes involved in the remethylation pathway. BHMT, a major zinc metalloenzyme in the liver, catalyzes the transfer of methyl groups from betaine to homocysteine to form dimethylglycine and methionine. We have previously shown that plasma homocysteine levels and the transsulfuration pathway are affected by diabetes. In the present study, we found increased BHMT activity and mRNA levels in livers from streptozotocin-diabetic rats. In the rat hepatoma cell line (H4IIE cells), glucocorticoids (triamcinolone) increased the level and rate of BHMT mRNA synthesis. In the same cell line, insulin decreased the abundance of BHMT mRNA and the rate of de novo mRNA transcription of the gene. Thus the decreased plasma homocysteine in various models of diabetes could be due to enhanced homocysteine removal brought about by a combination of increased transsulfuration of homocysteine to cysteine and increased remethylation of homocysteine to methionine by BHMT.  (+info)

Liver choline dehydrogenase and kidney betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase expression are not affected by methionine or choline intake in growing rats. (7/19)

Choline dehydrogenase (CHDH) and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) are 2 enzymes involved in choline oxidation. BHMT is expressed at high levels in rat liver and its expression is regulated by dietary Met and choline. BHMT is also found in rat kidney, albeit in substantially lower amounts, but it is not known whether kidney BHMT expression is regulated by dietary Met or choline. Similarly, CHDH activity is highest in the liver and kidney, but the regulation of its expression by diet has not been thoroughly investigated. Sprague Dawley rats ( approximately 50 g) were fed, for 9 d in 2 x 3 factorial design (n = 8), an l-amino acid-defined diet varying in l-Met (0.125, 0.3, or 0.8%) and choline (0 or 25 mmol/kg diet). Liver and kidney BHMT and CHDH were assessed using enzymatic, Western blot, and real-time PCR analyses. Liver samples were also fixed for histological analysis. Liver BHMT activity was 1.3-fold higher in rats fed the Met deficient diet containing choline, which was reflected in corresponding increases in mRNA content and immunodetectable protein. Independent of dietary choline, supplemental Met increased hepatic BHMT activity approximately 30%. Kidney BHMT and liver CHDH expression were refractory to these diets. Some degree of fatty liver developed in all rats fed a choline-devoid diet, indicating that supplemental Met cannot completely compensate for the lack of dietary choline in growing rats.  (+info)

The HOXB13:IL17BR expression index is a prognostic factor in early-stage breast cancer. (8/19)

PURPOSE: We previously identified three genes, HOXB13, IL17BR and CHDH, and the HOXB13:IL17BR ratio index in particular, that strongly predicted clinical outcome in breast cancer patients receiving tamoxifen monotherapy. Confirmation in larger independent patient cohorts was needed to fully validate their clinical utility. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Expression of HOXB13, IL17BR, CHDH, estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction in 852 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded primary breast cancers from 566 untreated and 286 tamoxifen-treated breast cancer patients. Gene expression and clinical variables were analyzed for association with relapse-free survival (RFS) by Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: ER and PR mRNA measurements were in close agreement with immunohistochemistry. In the entire cohort, expression of HOXB13 was associated with shorter RFS (P = .008), and expression of IL17BR and CHDH was associated with longer RFS (P < .0001 for IL17BR and P = .0002 for CHDH). In ER+ patients, the HOXB13:IL17BR index predicted clinical outcome independently of treatment, but more strongly in node-negative patients. In multivariate analysis of the ER+ node-negative subgroup including age, PR status, tumor size, S phase fraction, and tamoxifen treatment, the two-gene index remained a significant predictor of RFS (hazard ratio = 3.9; 95% CI, 1.5 to 10.3; P = .007). CONCLUSION: This tumor bank study demonstrated HOXB13:IL17BR index is a strong independent prognostic factor for ER+ node-negative patients irrespective of tamoxifen therapy.  (+info)

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This section describes the Planning and Evaluation Core. The overall goal ofthe Planning and Evaluation Core is to monitor the progress ofthe collaboration in m...
It has been firmly established that organic osmolytes (compatible solutes) of halophilic Bacteria and Archaea have positive effects on conformation and activity of proteins, and may therefore improve their functional production. In particular, the amino acid derivative ectoine is known for its conformational stabilization, aggregation suppression, and radical protection properties. The natural producer and industrial production strain Halomonas elongata accumulates ectoine in the cytoplasm, and as a result offers a unique stabilizing environment for recombinant proteins. For the construction of broad hoast range vector systems with fluorescent reporter proteins, we chose the salt-inducible promoter region of the ectoine gene cluster (promA). A closer inspection of the genetic background revealed that its combination of sigma 38 (σ38) and sigma 70 (σ70) promoters was followed by a weak ribosomal binding site (RBS). This inspired a systematic approach for the construction of a promA-based vector series
bacteria OpuC protein: mediates the uptake of choline for biosynthesis of osmoprotectant glycine betaine in Bacillus subtilis; amino sequence in first source
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
In many bacteria, plants and animals, the osmoprotectant betaine is synthesized in two steps: (1) choline to betaine aldehyde and (2) betaine aldehyde to betaine ...
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Did you know that upwards of 1 in 6 couples may experience issues with infertility? At the Austin Urology Institute, we pride ourselves in a comprehensive workup of male infertility. In up to 40% of couples, the male may be at least a partial source of the fertility issue, although in many cases we tend to focus on the womans fertility.. Our clinic does an extensive workup, including the hormones FSH, LH, and Testosterone. Prolactin can also be checked. These hormones are all part of the cascade that drives testosterone production, which is critical to providing an environment for optimal sperm production. We also check a semen analysis, to check the final product in the assembly line.. A testicular exam is also helpful, and in some cases, we identify a varicocele, or excess veins in the testicle, that causes excess warmth in the testicle. This leads to sub-optimal temperatures that can lead to diminished sperm production. At the Austin Urology Institute, we perform an outpatient, 45 minute ...
General Information: Halomonas elongata DSM 2581 was isolated from a solar salt facility and is halotolerant up to a concentration of 35%. Halomonas elongata is a halophilic bacterium which uses ectoine as its major compatible solute. This organism can both, synthesize and degrade ectoine and is used as industrial ectoine producer. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase in plants. AU - Fitzgerald, T. L.. AU - Waters, D. L E. AU - Henry, R. J.. PY - 2009/3. Y1 - 2009/3. N2 - Plant betaine aldehyde dehydrogenases (BADHs) have been the target of substantial research, especially during the last 20 years. Initial characterisation of BADH as an enzyme involved in the production of glycine betaine (GB) has led to detailed studies of the role of BADH in the response of plants to abiotic stress in vivo, and the potential for transgenic expression of BADH to improve abiotic stress tolerance. These studies have, in turn, yielded significant information regarding BADH and GB function. Recent research has identified the potential for BADH as an antibiotic-free marker for selection of transgenic plants, and a major role for BADH in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline-based fragrance associated with jasmine and basmati style aromatic rice varieties.. AB - Plant betaine aldehyde dehydrogenases (BADHs) have been the target of substantial ...
Cell wall and phospholipid composition and their contribution to the salt tolerance of Halomonas elongata.: The salt-tolerant bacterium Halomonas elongata makes
Dimethylglycine estas derivaĵo de la aminoacido glicino kun la struktura formulo ( CH3) 2 NCH2COOH. Ĝi povas esti trovita en faboj kaj hepato. Ĝi povas esti formita de trimetilglicino sur la perdo de unu el siaj metilgrupoj. Ĝi ankaŭ estas kromprodukto de la metabolo de kolino.. Kiam DMG unue estis malkovrita, ĝi estis referita kiel Vitamino B16, sed, male al veraj vitaminoj B, manko de DMG en la dieto ne kondukas al iuj mis-efikoj kaj ĝi estas sintezita de la homa korpo en la citracido (aŭ Krebs) ciklo signifante ke ĝi ne renkontas la difinon de vitamino.. ...
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Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Potassium atom in PDB 2wme: Crystallographic Structure of Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase From Pseudomonas Aeruginosa
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
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Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: The fgr gene on rice chromosome 8 has been identified to control the presence of grain fragrance/aroma in rice. An eight base pair deletion in the fgr gene was found by Bradbury et al. (2005) in aromatic rice accessions, with this recessive mutation causing a loss in function of the betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BAD2) enzyme it encodes, resulting in the accumulation of the fragrant compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP). We developed an easily assayed single functional polymorphism (SFP) marker to test for the presence of this deletion in rice germplasm and its association with grain fragrance. The SFP marker was assayed on all rice accessions in the USDA-ARS GRIN collection listed as being aromatic, as well as on all Basmati rice accessions, the entire USDA-ARS rice core collection, and elite US rice breeding materials being tested in the Uniform Regional Rice Nursery. The SFP marker, using one labeled forward and an unlabeled reverse primer spanning the ...
Hernandez GV, Smith VA, Melnyk M, Burd MA, Sprayberry KA, Edwards MS, Peterson DG, Bennet DC, Fanter RK, Columbus DA, Steibel JP, Glanz H, Immoos C, Rice MS, Santiago-Rodriguez TM, Blank J, VanderKelen JJ, Kitts CL, Piccolo BD, La Frano MR, Burrin DG, Maj M, Manjarin R. Dysregulated FXR-FGF19 signaling and choline metabolism are associated with gut dysbiosis and hyperplasia in a novel pig model of pediatric NASH. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2020 03 01; 318(3):G582-G609 ...
Choline Hydrogentartrate is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Choline Hydrogentartrate is available on the Drugs.com website.
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00661 (0.00312 - 0.01398), b=3.01 (2.83 - 3.19), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hepatic betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase and methionine synthase activity and intermediates of the methionine cycle are altered by choline supply during negative energy balance in Holstein cows. AU - Coleman, Danielle N.. AU - Vailati-Riboni, M.. AU - Elolimy, Ahmed A.. AU - Cardoso, Felipe C.. AU - Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.. AU - Miura, Makoto. AU - Pan, Yuan Xiang. AU - Loor, Juan J.. PY - 2019/9. Y1 - 2019/9. N2 - Although choline requirements are unknown, enhanced postruminal supply may decrease liver triacylglycerol (TAG) storage and increase flux through the methionine cycle, helping cows during a negative energy balance (NEB). The objective was to investigate effects of postruminal choline supply during NEB on hepatic activity of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), methionine synthase (MTR), methionine adenosyltransferase, transcription of enzymes, and metabolite concentrations in the methionine cycle. Ten primiparous rumen-cannulated Holstein cows (158 ± ...
Dimethylglycine (DMG) is an amino acid derivative found in the cells of all plants and animals and can be obtained in the diet in small amounts from grains and meat. The human body produces DMG when metabolizing choline into Glycine. Dimethylglycine that is not metabolized in the liver is transported by the circulatory system to body tissue. Dimethylglycine was popular with Russian athletes and cosmonauts owing to its reputed ability to increase endurance and reduce fatigue. DMG is also a byproduct of homocysteine metabolism. Homocysteine and betaine are converted to methionine and N, N-dimethylglycine by betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase. Dimethylglycine in the urine is a biomarker for the consumption of legumes ...
Planchestainer, Matteo and Contente, Martina Letizia and Cassidy, Jennifer and Molinari, Francesco and Tamborini, Lucia and Paradisi, Francesca (2017) Continuous flow biocatalysis: production and in-line purification of amines by immobilised transaminase from Halomonas elongata. Green Chemistry, 19 . pp. 372-375. ISSN 1463-9262 Contente, Martina Letizia and Planchestainer, Matteo and Molinari, Francesco and Paradisi, Francesca (2016) Stereoelectronic effects in the reaction of aromatic substrates catalysed by Halomonas elongata transaminase and its mutants. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 14 . pp. 9306-9311. ISSN 1477-0539 ...
Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) is important enzyme which plays a dual role in cereals. It acts as an osmoprotectant and has an important role during abiotic stress. In addition it also influences the fragrance in rice. Therefore, this gene has both agronomical and breeding values. An 8pb deletion in exon 7 cause a premature termination codon in BADH2 resulting a mutate badh2 allele; which ultimately elevates the level of 2AP leading fragrance in fragrant rice (Bradbury et al., 2008). Unlike rice wheat is a hexaploid and has two BADH homologs i.e. BADH1 and BADH2. Our genomic data shows that there are three alleles for BADH homologs. One allele is present in the progenitors and these indicates that, these allele is inheritate from each of the progenitors during polyploidy in hexaploid wheat. Our data show that a total of 4 and 14 SNPs are present among the genomes in BADH2 and BADH1respectivly. Investigation on two different tissues (i.e. leaves and seeds), at two different time point (i.e. 14 DPA
Despite not accumulating glycine betaine, rice (Oryza sativa) possesses two genes encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH, EC 1.2.1.8) (BADH1 and BADH2). A BADH2 allele which codes for a truncated BADH2 enzyme is responsible for the elevated level of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) which gives Jasmine and Basmati style fragrant rices their distinct aroma. In this study the transcript levels of the genes which encode BADH1 and BADH2 were studied using quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRTPCR) in multiple fragrant and non-fragrant rice varieties. In non-fragrant rices, BADH2 transcript levels were significantly higher than those of BADH1 in leaf and mature seed, whilst in developing seed BADH1 and BADH2 transcript levels were similar. This indicates that the loss of BADH2 activity due to the deletion in the gene in fragrant rice is likely to result in a significant reduction in total functional BADH. BADH2 transcript levels in non-fragrant rice varieties were significantly higher than the levels in
Nola erantzun nola zaude? Galderari. Beti izututa sentitzen naiz Ongi al zaude? Galderari erantzun behar diodanean. Oraindik pixka bat gaizki sentitzen naizelako eta erantzun zuzena eman ahal izateko ongizate eta gaixotasun dosia hazten saiatzen banaiz, galdu egiten naiz eta horrek denbora gehiegi behar du pentsatzeko. Beraz, edo ez dut erantzuten edo eta zurekin? erantzun gabe, edo ondo nagoela esaten dut baina gero egia esan ez izateak oso frustratuta nago, edo ezetz esaten diot eta nire buruari errua botatzen diot agian ondo dagoelako .... ...
Nola erantzun nola zaude? Galderari. Beti izututa sentitzen naiz Ongi al zaude? Galderari erantzun behar diodanean. Oraindik pixka bat gaizki sentitzen naizelako eta erantzun zuzena eman ahal izateko ongizate eta gaixotasun dosia hazten saiatzen banaiz, galdu egiten naiz eta horrek denbora gehiegi behar du pentsatzeko. Beraz, edo ez dut erantzuten edo eta zurekin? erantzun gabe, edo ondo nagoela esaten dut baina gero egia esan ez izateak oso frustratuta nago, edo ezetz esaten diot eta nire buruari errua botatzen diot agian ondo dagoelako .... ...
Nola erantzun nola zaude? Galderari. Beti izututa sentitzen naiz Ongi al zaude? Galderari erantzun behar diodanean. Oraindik pixka bat gaizki sentitzen naizelako eta erantzun zuzena eman ahal izateko ongizate eta gaixotasun dosia hazten saiatzen banaiz, galdu egiten naiz eta horrek denbora gehiegi behar du pentsatzeko. Beraz, edo ez dut erantzuten edo eta zurekin? erantzun gabe, edo ondo nagoela esaten dut baina gero egia esan ez izateak oso frustratuta nago, edo ezetz esaten diot eta nire buruari errua botatzen diot agian ondo dagoelako .... ...
Learn more about Choline uses, effectiveness, possible side effects, interactions, dosage, user ratings and products that contain Choline
Choline and cholinergics for the cholinergic biohacker. Learn about the importance of choline and cholinergics to memory building in the brain.
In this study, we reported the expression of the S. meliloti betS gene in B. japonicum USDA110 and addressed the question of possible accumulation and role of glycine betaine in transformed cells submitted to salt stress. B. japonicum is one of the most salt-sensitive rhizobia and possesses neither high-affinity uptake systems for betaines or choline nor the choline-glycine betaine biosynthetic pathway (3). These deficiencies were the rationale to install the betaine transport activity. Analysis of the B. japonicum transformed cells revealed strong glycine betaine and proline betaine uptake activities in an osmotically stimulated manner. It is also noteworthy that the stimulated BetS-mediated glycine betaine transport in B. japonicum leads to a large accumulation of this compatible solute, up to 240 mM, which is not used as sole carbon and nitrogen sources, in contrast to many other members of the family Rhizobiaceae. Genetic engineering has also proved fruitful in the freshwater cyanobacterium ...
Pseudomonasaeruginosa uses choline as a source of carbon and nitrogen, and also for the synthesis of glycine betaine, an osmoprotectant under stress conditions such as drought and salinity. The transcription factor GbdR is the specific regulator of choline metabolism and it belongs to the Arac/XylS family of transcriptional regulators. Despite the link between choline catabolism and bacterial pathogenicity, gbdR regulation has not been explored in detail. In the present work, we describe how gbdR transcription can be initiated from a σ54-dependent promoter. gbdR transcription can be activated by NtrC in the absence of a preferential nitrogen source, by CbrB in the absence of a preferential carbon source, and by the integration host factor favouring DNA bending. In addition, we found that BetI negatively regulates gbdR expression in the absence of choline. We identified two overlapping BetI binding sites in the gbdR promoter sequence, providing an additional example of σ54-promoter down-regulation.
Dimethylglycine (DMG) is an amino acid. DMG is believed to improve DMG | Dimethylglycine | Improve Endurance Performance performance, enhance oxygen uptake.
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Choline benefits! Choline acts as a sexual messenger. When you take a choline supplement, it is quickly converted by your body into Acetyl-Choline, a neurotransmitter...
A flavoprotein (FAD). In many bacteria, plants and animals, the osmoprotectant betaine is synthesized using different enzymes to catalyse the conversion of (1) choline in
Choline is a critical nutrient for our health, but many people are deficient in it. It might just be time to reconsider eggs - a natural source of choline.
The regulation of glycine betaine accumulation by Staphylococcus aureus was investigated. The accumulation of glycine betaine was regulated by the osmotic pressure of the medium and the low affinity transport system played the major role in this regulation. Mutants were isolated that lack the low affinity, osmotically activated glycine betaine/proline transport system. Such mutants accumulated glycine betaine via the high affinity system but the glycine betaine pool was smaller and responded poorly to osmotic pressure changes. The regulation of glycine betaine transport has revealed that at the steady state net influx is reduced and that this is achieved by inhibition of both the low affinity and the high affinity transport systems. Cells pre-loaded with glycine betaine exhibited a reduced V max for both systems: the low affinity system was reduced in activity fivefold and the high affinity system was reduced 10-fold and became virtually undetectable. Although glycine betaine transport at the steady
Anaerobic choline metabolism by human gut microbiota to produce trimethylamine (TMA) has recently evolved as a potential therapeutic target because of its association with chronic kidney disease and increased cardiovascular risks. Limited examples of choline analogs have been reported as inhibitors of bacterial enzyme choline TMA-lyase (CutC), a key enzyme regulating choline anaerobic metabolism. We utilized a new workflow to discover CutC inhibitors based on focused screening of a diversified library of small molecules for intestinal metabolic stability followed by in vitro CutC inhibitory assay. This workflow identified a histidine-based scaffold, (compound 5), as a CutC inhibitor with an IC50 value of 1.9 ± 0.2 μM. Remarkably, compound 5 was able to reduce the production of TMA in whole cell assays using various bacterial strains as well as in complex gut microbiota environment. The improved efficiency of the new scaffold identified in this study in comparison to previously reported CutC ...
Karbono dioxidoa berotegi efektua sortzen duen gasetako bat da eta Lurrak tenperatura jakin eta bizigarri batean manten dezan laguntzen du, neurri batean bada, beti ere. Karbono dioxido barik, Lurra izotz bloke handi bat litzateke. Bestalde, karbono dioxido larregik berotegi efektua areagotu egiten du. Horren ondorioz, planetak beroketa orokorra jasan lezake. Azken urteotan, karbono dioxidoaren kopurua asko emendatu da atmosferan eta horrek, hein handi batean, Lurraren beroketa areagotzen du. ...
Haurdun dauden emakumeak, beren egoera pozez gain, beti atsegina izango dute momentu atseginagoekin aurre egiteko. Toxicosis gain, aldarte koloreak eta etengabe hazten diren sabelaldea, medikuek aldizka bisitatu eta probak egin beharko dituzue. Bai, oso nekagarria da, baina oso garrantzitsua da haurtxo osasuntsua jaiotzeko. Sarritan, gernu-probak gainditu beharko dituzu, organo jakin batzuen arazo posibleak islatu ahal izateko gorputzaren jarduera ezinbestekoa delako. Baina zifrako zatiak ez du esan nahi pertsona uninitiated bati. Horregatik, deszentralizazioa ulertzen saiatu. ...
II estadioa: Bi eremutan zabalduta dago, elkar banatuta, baina beti ere diafragmaren alde batean, honen gainean edo azpian biak ala biak, alegia ...
Thermophysical properties and gas solubilities in choline chloride-urea for CO2 separation. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Betaine aldehyde is a substrate for choline dehydrogenase (mitochondrial). Glycine betaine aldehyde is a short chain aldehyde ... stress tolerance in Escherichia coli and Nicotiana tabacum expressing a betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase/choline dehydrogenase ... The human aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.3) stimulates the transformation of betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine. ...
Park S, Choi SG, Yoo SM, Son JH, Jung YK (2014). "Choline dehydrogenase interacts with SQSTM1/p62 to recruit LC3 and stimulate ...
... in phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase and methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase influence biomarkers of choline ... While the CDP-choline pathway, in which choline obtained either by dietary consumption or by metabolism of choline-containing ... PC made via the PEMT pathway can be degraded by phospholipases C/D, resulting in the de novo formation of choline. Thus, the ... This is one of several examples of the reciprocal regulation of PEMT and CT in the PEMT and CDP-choline pathways. Estrogen has ...
... choline dehydrogenase, EC 1.1.99.1). Betaine aldehyde is further oxidised in the mitochondria in mice to betaine by the enzyme ... USDA Database for the Choline Content of Common Foods - including the data on choline metabolites, such as betaine, in 434 food ... In most organisms, glycine betaine is biosynthesized by oxidation of choline in two steps. The intermediate, betaine aldehyde, ... "BRENDA - Information on EC 1.2.1.8 - betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase". Brenda-enzymes.org. Retrieved 2016-07-07. Chern, M. K.; ...
... which functions in choline degradation. The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) catalyzes the oxidative ... Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase regulatory subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PDPR gene. The complete ... "Entrez Gene: Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase regulatory subunit". Lawson JE, Park SH, Mattison AR, Yan J, Reed LJ (December ... by the pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatases (PDPs 1 and 2). As PDPR is involved in the regulation of the central metabolic ...
... uridine diphosphate glucose dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.047.180 - choline dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.047.210 - galactose ... malate dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.047.748 - malate dehydrogenase (nadp+) MeSH D08.811.682.047.892 - xanthine dehydrogenase ... acetoin dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.047.070 - alcohol dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.047.150 - carbohydrate dehydrogenases ... acyl-coa dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.660.150.150 - acyl-coa dehydrogenase, long-chain MeSH D08.811.682.660.150.200 - acyl- ...
S. Park, S. G. Choi, S. M. Yoo, J. H. Son, and Y. K. Jung, 'Choline Dehydrogenase Interacts with Sqstm1/P62 to Recruit Lc3 and ...
This is oxidized by mitochondrial or cytosolic betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenases to trimethylglycine. Trimethylglycine is a ... Choline can also be produced by the CDP-choline route, cytosolic choline kinases (CK) phosphorylate choline with ATP to ... Choline is a family of water-soluble quaternary ammonium compounds. Choline hydroxide is known as choline base. It is ... Choline is often not classified as a vitamin, but as a nutrient with an amino acid-like metabolism. In most animals, choline ...
In enzymology, a choline dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.99.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction choline + acceptor ⇌ {\ ... Other names in common use include choline oxidase, choline-cytochrome c reductase, choline:(acceptor) oxidoreductase, and ... Gadda G, McAllister-Wilkins EE (2003). "Cloning, Expression, and Purification of Choline Dehydrogenase from the Moderate ... Ebisuzaki K, Williams JN (1955). "Preparation and partial purification of soluble choline dehydrogenase from liver mitochondria ...
... choline dehydrogenase (CHD) EC 1.1.99.1, methanol oxidase (MOX) EC 1.1.3.13 and cellobiose dehydrogenase EC 1.1.99.18 which ... The glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) oxidoreductases are FAD flavoproteins oxidoreductases. These enzymes include a variety of ... In molecular biology, the glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family (GMC oxidoreductase) is a family of enzymes with ... Henriksson G, Johansson G, Pettersson G (March 2000). "A critical review of cellobiose dehydrogenases". J. Biotechnol. 78 (2): ...
... inhibits choline acetyltransferace acting as a neurotoxin. It competes with Acetyl-CoA. PubChem. "Phenylacetyl ... Phenylacetyl-CoA combines with water and quinone to produce phenylglyoxylyl-CoA and quinol via a Phenylacetyl-CoA dehydrogenase ...
NADH dehydrogenase succinate dehydrogenase Coenzyme Q - cytochrome c reductase cytochrome c oxidase Metabolism portal. ... In mammals, this metabolic pathway is important in beta oxidation of fatty acids and catabolism of amino acids and choline, as ... NADH-coenzyme Q oxidoreductase, also known as NADH dehydrogenase or complex I, is the first protein in the electron transport ... Ikeda Y, Dabrowski C, Tanaka K (25 January 1983). "Separation and properties of five distinct acyl-CoA dehydrogenases from rat ...
glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase Ja 1.1.99.1 choline dehydrogenase Ja 1.1.99.2 2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase Ja ... oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (succinyl-transferring) Ja 1.2.4.4 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate dehydrogenase (2-methylpropanoyl- ... L-iditol 2-dehydrogenase Ja 1.1.1.15 D-iditol + NAD+ ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. D-sorbose + NADH + H+ D-iditol 2- ... D-arabitol 4-dehydrogenase 1.1.1.12 L-arabitol + NAD+ ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. L-xylulose + NADH + H+ L-arabitol ...
Malate dehydrogenase (quinone). *Quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase. 1.1.99: other acceptors. *Choline dehydrogenase ... Other names in common use include 2-hydroxy-3-carboxyadipate dehydrogenase, 3-carboxy-2-hydroxyadipate dehydrogenase, ... In enzymology, a homoisocitrate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.87) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... Rowley B, Tucci AF (1970). "Homoisocitric dehydrogenase from yeast". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 141 (2): 499-, 510. doi:10.1016/ ...
Malate dehydrogenase (quinone). *Quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase. 1.1.99: other acceptors. *Choline dehydrogenase ... lactate dehydrogenase A. (subunit M). Human lactate dehydrogenase M4 (the isoenzyme found in skeletal muscle). From PDB: 1I10​. ... D-lactate dehydrogenase, membrane binding. crystal structure of d-lactate dehydrogenase, a peripheral membrane respiratory ... Lactate dehydrogenase-A deficiency is caused by a mutation to the LDHA gene, while lactate dehydrogenase-B deficiency is caused ...
Malate dehydrogenase (quinone). *Quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase. 1.1.99: other acceptors. *Choline dehydrogenase ... Carbohydrate dehydrogenases are a group of dehydrogenase enzymes that occur in many organisms and facilitate the conversion ... Carbohydrate dehydrogenases are the most common quinoprotein oxidoreductases,[1] which are enzymes that oxidize a wide range of ... Carbohydrate Dehydrogenases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
Malate dehydrogenase (quinone). *Quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase. 1.1.99: other acceptors. *Choline dehydrogenase ... In enzymology, a carnitine 3-dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.108) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... carnitine+dehydrogenase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... "Kinetic studies of the reaction mechanism of carnitine dehydrogenase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa]. Eur. J. Biochem. (in German). ...
Malate dehydrogenase (quinone). *Quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase. 1.1.99: other acceptors. *Choline dehydrogenase ... In enzymology, a cholest-5-ene-3β,7α-diol 3β-dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.181) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction[1] ... The human version of this enzyme is known as hydroxy-Δ-5-steroid dehydrogenase, 3 β- and steroid delta-isomerase 7 or HSD3B7 ... Cholest-5-ene-3beta,7alpha-diol 3beta-dehydrogenase. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ...
... and choline metabolism. It is characterized by multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiencies resulting in large excretion not ... Electron-transferring-flavoprotein dehydrogenase in the inner mitochondrial membrane accepts electrons from electron-transfer ... "Entrez Gene: ETFDH electron-transferring-flavoprotein dehydrogenase". Olsen RK, Andresen BS, Christensen E, Bross P, Skovby F, ... Deficiency in electron-transferring-flavoprotein dehydrogenase have been demonstrated in some patients with type II glutaric ...
A crystal structure of the complex of one of its interactors, medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD; gene name ACADM) has ... The flavoenzymes that transfer electrons to ETF are involved in fatty acid beta oxidation, amino acid catabolism, choline ... Crane FL, Beinert H (September 1954). "A Link Between Fatty Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase and Cytochrome C: A New Flavin Enzyme". ... Defects in either of the ETF subunits or ETFDH cause multiple acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (OMIM # 231680), earlier called ...
These include transferrin receptor, choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase A, RNF168, serine/threonine-protein kinase, nuclear ... cap-binding protein complex, melanotransferrin, DLG1 and D-beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase Research on the risk for ...
Cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), an enzyme that transforms cinnamyl alcohol into cinnamaldehyde Sinapine esterase, an ... D-quinate into trans-5-O-caffeoyl-D-quinate Sinapoylglucose-choline O-sinapoyltransferase, an enzyme that transforms 1-O- ... enzyme that transforms sinapoylcholine into sinapate (sinapic acid) and choline Trans-cinnamate 2-monooxygenase, an enzyme that ...
Genes phosphate and cytidyltransferase 1, choline alpha (PYT1A), P21 (RAC1) activated kinase 2 (PAK2), melanotransferrin (MFI2 ... discs large MAGUK scaffold protein 1 (DLG1), and 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 1 (BDH1) have been confirmed and another 7 ...
... is found naturally as an intermediate in the metabolism of choline to glycine. Sarcosine is sweet to the taste and ... Sarcosine is metabolized to glycine by the enzyme sarcosine dehydrogenase, while glycine-N-methyl transferase generates ... is formed via the metabolism of nutrients such as choline and methionine, which both contain methyl groups used in a wide range ...
Competitive inhibitors of succinate dehydrogenase (complex II).[91]. Antimycin A Piscicide Complex III Binds to the Qi site of ... In mammals, this metabolic pathway is important in beta oxidation of fatty acids and catabolism of amino acids and choline, as ... NADH-coenzyme Q oxidoreductase, also known as NADH dehydrogenase or complex I, is the first protein in the electron transport ... Identification of a new 2-methyl branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase". J. Biol. Chem. 258 (2): 1066-76. PMID 6401712. ...
Choline, in combination with acetyl-CoA, is catalyzed by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase to produce acetylcholine and ... namely acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, enoyl-CoA hydratase, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and thiolase. The cycle produces a new ... The oxidative conversion of pyruvate into acetyl-CoA is referred to as the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction. It is catalyzed by ... Ethanol also serves as a carbon source for acetylation of CoA utilizing the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase. Degradation of ...
Allaire M, Li Y, MacKenzie RE, Cygler M (1998). "The 3-D structure of a folate-dependent dehydrogenase/cyclohydrolase ... "Genetic variation of folate-mediated one-carbon transfer pathway predicts susceptibility to choline deficiency in humans". Proc ... 2006). "Evaluation of a methylenetetrahydrofolate-dehydrogenase 1958G>A polymorphism for neural tube defect risk". J. Hum. ... Mejia NR, MacKenzie RE (1985). "NAD-dependent methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase is expressed by immortal cells". J. Biol ...
These enzymes are regulated by inositol and choline, both of which are phospholipid precursors. Within this consensus sequence ... study looked at the effect of inserting the UASG into the promoter region of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene ... A cis-regulatory element responsible for inositol choline-mediated regulation of phospholipid biosynthesis". The Journal of ...
Choline increases carnitine uptake and retention. Choline supplements are inexpensive, safe (probably even in all children ... The GCDH gene encodes the enzyme glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase. This enzyme is involved in degrading the amino acids lysine, ... Daily, James W.; Sachan, Dileep S. (July 1995). "Choline Supplementation Alters Carnitine Homeostasis in Humans and Guinea Pigs ... "Glutaric aciduria type I with high residual glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity". Dev Med Child Neurol. 40 (12): 840-2. doi: ...
Malate dehydrogenase (quinone). *Quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase. 1.1.99: other acceptors. *Choline dehydrogenase ...
Pervasive and required for several enzymes such as carboxypeptidase, liver alcohol dehydrogenase, and carbonic anhydrase ...
3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity. • RNA binding. • acetyl-CoA C-acyltransferase activity. • long-chain-enoyl-CoA ... Choline acetyltransferase. *Dihydrolipoyl transacetylase. *Acetyl-CoA C-acyltransferase. *Beta-galactoside transacetylase. * ... long-chain-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • catalytic activity. • transferase activity ... HADHB, ECHB, MSTP029, MTPB, TP-BETA, hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase/3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase/enoyl-CoA hydratase (trifunctional ...
l-galactonolactone dehydrogenase.[131] to produce ascorbic acid.[122] l-Ascorbic acid has a negative feedback on l-galactose ... l-galactose dehydrogenase, whereby the lactone ring opens and forms again but with between the carbonyl on C1 and hydroxyl ... UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase uses the co-factor NAD+ as the electron acceptor. The transferase UDP-glucuronate pyrophosphorylase ... Leferink, N. G.; van den Berg, W. A.; van Berkel, W. J. (2008). "L-Galactono-γ-lactone Dehydrogenase from Arabidopsis thaliana ...
UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase uses the co-factor NAD+ as the electron acceptor. The transferase UDP-glucuronate pyrophosphorylase ... Leferink, N. G.; van den Berg, W. A.; van Berkel, W. J. (2008). "L-Galactono-γ-lactone Dehydrogenase from Arabidopsis thaliana ... L-Galactose reacts with the enzyme L-galactose dehydrogenase, whereby the lactone ring opens and forms again but with between ... UDP-glucuronic acid is formed when UDP-glucose undergoes two oxidations catalyzed by the enzyme UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase. ...
Malate dehydrogenase (quinone). *Quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase. 1.1.99: other acceptors. *Choline dehydrogenase ... alcohol dehydrogenase (NADP+) activity. • retinal dehydrogenase activity. • allyl-alcohol dehydrogenase activity. • NADP- ... retinol dehydrogenase activity. Cellular component. • mast cell granule. • Schwann cell microvillus. • Schmidt-Lanterman ...
Fatty acyl CoA dehydrogenase requires FAD in fatty acid oxidation. *FAD is required to convert retinol (vitamin A) to retinoic ... and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. pp. 87-122. ISBN 0-309-06554-2. Archived from the original on 2015- ... and branched-chain amino acids requires FAD in the shared E3 portion of their respective dehydrogenase complexes ... acid via cytosolic retinal dehydrogenase. *Synthesis of an active form of folate (5-methyltetrahydrofolate) from 5,10- ...
pyruvate dehydrogenase and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (also called α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase). *branched-chain α-keto ... and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. pp. 58-86. ISBN 978-0-309-06554-2. . Archived from the original on ... The enzymes transketolase, pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDH) are all important in ... At present, this view seems to be oversimplified: pyruvate dehydrogenase is only one of several enzymes requiring thiamine ...
ChAT functions to transfer an acetyl group from acetyl co-enzyme A to choline in the synapses of nerve cells and exists in two ... Herbst EA, MacPherson RE, LeBlanc PJ, Roy BD, Jeoung NH, Harris RA, Peters SJ (Jan 2014). "Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 ... Choline acetyltransferase (also known as ChAT or CAT) is an important enzyme which produces the neurotransmitter acetylcholine ... Strauss WL, Kemper RR, Jayakar P, Kong CF, Hersh LB, Hilt DC, Rabin M (Feb 1991). "Human choline acetyltransferase gene maps to ...
Choline, in combination with acetyl-CoA, is catalyzed by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase to produce acetylcholine and ... namely acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, enoyl-CoA hydratase, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and thiolase. The cycle produces a new ... The oxidative conversion of pyruvate into acetyl-CoA is referred to as the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction. It is catalyzed by ... Acetyl-CoA serves as an allosteric regulator of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK). It regulates through the ratio of acetyl- ...
Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (E1, E2, E3). *(regulated by Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase and Pyruvate dehydrogenase ... Choline acetyltransferase. *Dihydrolipoyl transacetylase. *Acetyl-CoA C-acyltransferase. *Beta-galactoside transacetylase. * ...
Malate dehydrogenase (quinone). *Quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase. 1.1.99: other acceptors. *Choline dehydrogenase ...
Malate dehydrogenase (quinone). *Quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase. 1.1.99: other acceptors. *Choline dehydrogenase ...
Pujol, C.J.; Kado, C.I. (1999). "gdhB, a gene encoding a second quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase in Pantoea citrea, is ...
A dehydrogenase then reduces the aldehyde to a primary alcohol making (−)-hyoscyamine, which upon racemization forms atropine.[ ... Choline (lecithin). *Citicoline. *Cyprodenate. *Dimethylethanolamine. *Glycerophosphocholine. *Meclofenoxate (centrophenoxine) ...
For example, alcohol dehydrogenase which catalyses the transfer of a hydride ion from ethanol to NAD+ interacts with the ... Acetylcholinesterase is required to break down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine into acetate and choline. Physostigmine binds ...
... by retinol dehydrogenases and then retinaldehyde can be oxidized to retinoic acid by retinaldehyde dehydrogenases.[21] The ...
3-Hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase. *Branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase. *Branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase ... CDP-diacylglycerol-choline O-phosphatidyltransferase. Glycosyl-1-phosphotransferase. *N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate ...
Glycerol dehydrogenase EC 1.1.1.6. *Propanediol-phosphate dehydrogenase EC 1.1.1.7. *glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD+) ... Choline acetyltransferase EC 2.3.1.6. *Category:EC 2.3.2 *Factor XIII EC 2.3.2.13 ...
Hypotaurine is enzymatically oxidized to yield taurine by hypotaurine dehydrogenase.[10] Taurine is also produced by the ...
In enzymology, a choline dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.99.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction choline + acceptor ⇌ {\ ... Other names in common use include choline oxidase, choline-cytochrome c reductase, choline:(acceptor) oxidoreductase, and ... Gadda G, McAllister-Wilkins EE (2003). "Cloning, Expression, and Purification of Choline Dehydrogenase from the Moderate ... Ebisuzaki K, Williams JN (1955). "Preparation and partial purification of soluble choline dehydrogenase from liver mitochondria ...
Catalyzes the oxidation of choline to betaine aldehyde and betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine at the same rate. ... Oxygen-dependent choline dehydrogenase (betA). This subpathway is part of the pathway betaine biosynthesis via choline pathway ... Oxygen-dependent choline dehydrogenaseUniRule annotation. ,p>Manual validated information which has been generated by the ... sp,A6U4Z2,BETA_STAA2 Oxygen-dependent choline dehydrogenase OS=Staphylococcus aureus (strain JH1) OX=359787 GN=betA PE=3 SV=1 ...
Catalyzes the oxidation of choline to betaine aldehyde and betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine at the same rate. ... betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase activity Source: UniProtKB-EC. *choline dehydrogenase activity Source: EcoCyc ,p>Inferred from ... Oxygen-dependent choline dehydrogenase (betA). This subpathway is part of the pathway betaine biosynthesis via choline pathway ... Optimum pH is 7.5 for choline dehydrogenase and is between 7.5 and 9.5 for glycine betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase.1 Publication ...
Choline dehydrogenase, mitochondrial (CHDH) Recombinant Protein-NP_060867.2 (MBS1305107) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ... Choline Degradation Pathway antibodies. Choline Degradation Pathway Diagram. Choline Degradation I Pathway antibodies. Choline ... The protein encoded by this gene is a choline dehydrogenase that localizes to the mitochondrion. Variations in this gene can ... Choline Catabolism Pathway antibodies. Choline Catabolism Pathway Diagram. Glycerophospholipid Biosynthesis Pathway antibodies ...
Determination of Choline Dehydrogenase Activity along the Rat Nephron. Miller, Bernhard / Schmid, Heide / Chen, Tian Jun / ...
... choline dehydrogenase; Stat-6, signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (C). Diagram showing the numbers of probes in ...
Product: choline dehydrogenase. Function: catalyzes the production of the osmoprotectant compound glycine betaine conferring ...
choline dehydrogenase. MGI:1860776 Go Annotations as Summary Text (Tabular View) (GO Graph). Summary from NCBI RefSeq. [Summary ... This summary is for the human ortholog.] The protein encoded by this gene is a choline dehydrogenase that localizes to the ... Variations in this gene can affect susceptibility to choline deficiency. A few transcript variants have been found for this ...
... choline dehydrogenase; COX, cholesterol oxidase; CKO, compound K oxidase; FDH, fructose dehydrogenase; FOX, fructose oxidase; ... This enzyme belongs to an algae-specific clade of the glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family and catalyzes the ... All members of the GMC oxidoreductase family characterized so far are oxidases or dehydrogenases (mostly acting on sugars), ... a family of flavoproteins comprising a wide range of oxidases and dehydrogenases (20). A full-length cDNA coding for the C. ...
... choline dehydrogenase; COX, cholesterol oxidase; CKO, compound K oxidase; FDH, fructose dehydrogenase; FOX, fructose oxidase; ... GDH, glucose dehydrogenase; GOX, glucose oxidase; HFO, hydroxy fatty acid oxidase (genetic evidence only); HNL, hydroxynitrile ...
Choline and its derivatives serve as components of structural lipoproteins, blood and membrane lipids, and as a precursor of... ... Choline is an essential nutrient, but is also formed by de novo synthesis. ... Lin CS, Wu RD (1986) Choline oxidation and choline dehydrogenase. J Protein Chem 5:193-200CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Choline Homocysteine Betaine Choline Intake Neural Tube Defect These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. ...
Read chapter 12 Choline: Since 1941, Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) has been recognized as the most authoritative source ... Renal inner medullary choline dehydrogenase activity: Characterization and modulation. Am J Physiol 256:F107-F112. ... choline chloride contains more choline by weight than does choline bitartrate. Dietary supplements containing choline are ... Estimated average choline dietary intake in adults consuming a typical U.S. or Canadian diet (as free choline and the choline ...
Slow S, Garrow TA: Liver choline dehydrogenase and kidney betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase expression are not affected by ... Choline bitartrate (55 mg/1) + Choline bitartrate (55 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium ... Choline bitartrate (55 mg/1) + Choline bitartrate (55 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium ... cholines (CHEBI:15354) / Pesticides (C00114) / a small molecule (CHOLINE) Targets. Details1. Choline-phosphate ...
... dehydrogenases (PEG-DH) and comprise a PEG-DH subgroup in the family of glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) oxidoreductases that ... includes glucose/alcohol oxidase and glucose/choline dehydrogenase. Three-dimensional (3D) molecular modeling suggested that ... AS08 and EO chain octylphenol dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida share common molecular characteristics with polyethylene ... chain nonylphenol dehydrogenase (NPEO-DH) from Ensifer sp. ... glucose dehydrogenase and choline dehydrogenase in the family [ ...
Choline oxidase (codA from Arthrobactor globiformis) can protect against cold and salt. E. coli choline dehydrogenase (betA) ... Mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (mt1D) from E. coli has been used to provide protection against drought and salinity. ...
Choline dehydrogenase. NA. ND. I35_5976. Paraquat-inducible protein B. NA. ND. ... FAD/FMN-containing dehydrogenases. NA. ND. *. ↵a Nomenclature is given according to the data in GenBank (accession no. HG938370 ... Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. NA. ND. Transcription and signal transduction. I35_0200. BCAL0209. Histone acetyltransferase HPA2. ...
Choline dehydrogenase. betB. 1.7 (2.1). 2.5 (3.5). 1.6 (2.7). 2.4 (2.8). Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase. ...
ADH, aldehyde dehydrogenase; CHDH, choline oxidase; 5,10-CH2-THF, 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate; DMG, dimethylglycine; GCL, ... to fatty acids for the production of anti-inflammatory mediators and on the other to choline. This choline excess might be ... Zeisel, S. H., Story, D. L., Wurtman, R. J., and Brunengraber, H. (1980). Uptake of free choline by isolated perfused rat liver ... but also in recycling the choline derived from phospholipid metabolism (Martínez-Vega et al., 2015b). ...
As we previously showed with choline (Cho), Bet improved hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis in HET. The protection from ... As we previously showed with choline (Cho), Bet improved hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis in HET. The protection from ... Choline oxidation to betaine aldehyde by mitochondrial choline dehydrogenase produces FADH2 and derives electrons in a reaction ... Chi-Shui L, Ru-Dan W. Choline oxidation and choline dehydrogenase. J Protein Chem. (1986) 5:193-200. ...
Betaine is accumulated via transient choline dehydrogenase activation during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. ...
Betaine aldehyde is a substrate for choline dehydrogenase (mitochondrial). Glycine betaine aldehyde is a short chain aldehyde ... stress tolerance in Escherichia coli and Nicotiana tabacum expressing a betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase/choline dehydrogenase ... The human aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.3) stimulates the transformation of betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine. ...
... choline dehydrogenase (CHDH), BUB1B, CENPA, NEK2, RACGAP1, RRM2) and four normalization genes (beta-actin (ACTB), ... hydromethylbilane synthase (HMBS), succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A (SDHA) and ubiquitin C (UBC)) were measured by ...
1996 Enhanced NaCl stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco expressing bacterial choline dehydrogenase. Biotechnology 14: 177-180 ... 1997 Transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana with the codA gene for choline oxidase: accumulation of glycinebetaine and enhanced ...
Glucose dehydrogenase/choline dehydrogenase/mandelonitrile Lyase. Phvul.002G297200 a −2.55. RING/U-box superfamily protein ( ...
The reaction of choline dehydrogenase with some electron acceptors Biochem J (December,1975) ... Purification and properties of an amine dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas AM1 and its role in growth on methylamine Biochem J ( ... Spectral and kinetic properties of the primary amine dehydrogenase of Pseudomonas AM 1 Biochem J (August,1971) ... Purification and properties of the trimethylamine dehydrogenase of Bacterium 4B6 Biochem J (December,1974) ...
For example, there are multiple putative assignments for the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase enzyme for which the gene has recently been ... more useful results in less-characterized organisms and has already been successful in helping to identify malate dehydrogenase ...
5. Choline dehydrogenase, mitochondrial. General function:. Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on CH-OH group of ... 6. Dimethylglycine dehydrogenase, mitochondrial. General function:. Involved in oxidoreductase activity. Specific function:. ... The choline transport is activated by MMTS. Regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways including inhibition by ... the endogenous compounds choline, guanidine, histamine, epinephrine, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, and the drugs ...
These included four copper radical oxidases, cellobiose dehydrogenase, various other glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductases, ... Glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductases such as aryl-alcohol oxidase, methanol oxidase and pyranose oxidase, together with ...
Protein Name:choline dehydrogenase, mitochondrial Catalog #:ARP10408_P050 Type: pAb Reacts with: Human ...
Protein Name:choline dehydrogenase, mitochondrial Catalog #:ARP10408_P050 Type: pAb Reacts with: Human ...
  • Men with a genetic variation in the gene coding for Choline Dehydrogenase (CHDH) have decreased energy production by sperm, and their sperm do not swim normally. (covidresearchtrials.com)
  • Other names in common use include choline oxidase, choline-cytochrome c reductase, choline:(acceptor) oxidoreductase, and choline:(acceptor) 1-oxidoreductase. (wikipedia.org)
  • AS08 and EO chain octylphenol dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida share common molecular characteristics with polyethylene glycol (PEG) dehydrogenases (PEG-DH) and comprise a PEG-DH subgroup in the family of glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) oxidoreductases that includes glucose/alcohol oxidase and glucose/choline dehydrogenase. (mdpi.com)
  • Dr. Giovanni Gadda's research focus is on choline oxidase and choline dehydrogenase. (gsu.edu)
  • Other names in common use include betaine aldehyde oxidase , BADH , betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase , and BetB . (academic.ru)
  • In plants, the reaction is catalysed by this enzyme whereas in animals and many bacteria it is catalysed by either membrane-bound EC 1.1.99.1 (choline dehydrogenase) or soluble EC 1.1.3.17 (choline oxidase) [7]. (genome.jp)
  • In enzymology, a choline dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.99.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction choline + acceptor ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } betaine aldehyde + reduced acceptor Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are choline and acceptor, whereas its two products are betaine aldehyde and reduced acceptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Choline is oxidized to betaine that serves as an osmoregulator and is a substrate in the betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase reaction, which links choline and betaine to the folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism. (springer.com)
  • The link to one-carbon metabolism and the recent availability of food composition data have motivated studies on choline and betaine as risk factors of chronic diseases previously studied in relation to folate and homocysteine status. (springer.com)
  • Choline is a dietary component that is important for the structural integrity of cell membranes, methyl metabolism, cholinergic neurotransmission, transmembrane signaling, and lipid and cholesterol transport and metabolism. (nap.edu)
  • FIGURE 12-1 Choline, folate, and methionine metabolism are closely interrelated. (nap.edu)
  • Choline metabolism and risk of breast cancer in a population-based study. (snpedia.com)
  • Genetic variants in phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase and methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase influence biomarkers of choline metabolism when folate intake is restricted. (snpedia.com)
  • The ETF and ETFDH are forming the electron transport pathway for many mitochondrial flavoprotein dehydrogenases involved in fatty acid, amino acid and choline metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • An important gene associated with Choline Deficiency Disease is PEMT (Phosphatidylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Metabolism and Glycerophospholipid biosynthesis . (malacards.org)
  • Anaerobic microbial choline metabolism, a disease-associated metabolic pathway, exemplifies this challenge, as the specific human gut microorganisms responsible for this transformation have not yet been clearly identified. (asm.org)
  • In this study, we established the link between a bacterial gene cluster, the choline utilization ( cut ) cluster, and anaerobic choline metabolism in human gut isolates by combining transcriptional, biochemical, bioinformatic, and cultivation-based approaches. (asm.org)
  • Overall, this work represents a crucial step toward understanding anaerobic choline metabolism in the human gut microbiota and underscores the importance of examining this microbial community from a function-oriented perspective. (asm.org)
  • Both our analyses of the cut gene cluster and this molecular tool will aid efforts to further understand the role of choline metabolism in the human gut microbiota and its link to disease. (asm.org)
  • 1997). There is an endogenous pathway for the de novo biosynthesis of the choline moiety via the sequential methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine using S -adenosylmethionine as the methyl donor (Bremer and Greenberg, 1961) (see Figure 12-1 ). (nap.edu)
  • Determination of alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase 4,5 Used as a choline biosynthesis inhibitor 8 . (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In cattle, choline is involved in the metabolic pathway called phospholipid biosynthesis pathway. (bovinedb.ca)
  • Biosynthesis of choline, and acetylcholine. (doctorabel.us)
  • The group of glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) flavoprotein oxidoreductases was first outlined by Cavener [ 1 ] and encompasses a wide variety of enzymes from prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. (mdpi.com)
  • Glycine betaine synthesis relies on the import of choline via the substrate-restricted OpuB system and the promiscuous OpuC transporter and its subsequent oxidation by the GbsAB enzymes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Betaine can be obtained from the bacterial habitat or produced intracellularly from choline via the toxic betaine aldehyde (BA) employing the choline dehydrogenase and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) enzymes. (rcsb.org)
  • Induction of apoptosis by inhibition of the enzymes CCT or choline phosphotransferase (CPT) is a mechanism of action of the anticancer drugs ET-18-OCH 3 ( 13 ), HexPC ( 14 ), camptothecin and etoposide ( 15 ), the cytotoxic agents farnesol and chelerythrine ( 15 ), and the short-chain ceramides ( 16 , 17 ). (rupress.org)
  • After feeding rats for 3 weeks with clofibrate specific activities of the liver mitochondrial enzymes glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) and NAD-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD-ICDH) were found to be increased in a large particle fraction 6-fold and 1.6-fold, respectively, whereas the activity of NADP-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH) remained unchanged. (meta.org)
  • Because choline is a donor of metabolic methyl groups its levels modulate the concentrations of cellular S?adenosylmethionine, a compound that serves as a substrate for DNA methylating enzymes. (bu.edu)
  • We hypothesized that this may be due to induced expression of DNA methylating enzymes by low choline supply. (bu.edu)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a choline dehydrogenase that localizes to the mitochondrion. (mybiosource.com)
  • Variations in this gene can affect susceptibility to choline deficiency. (mybiosource.com)
  • Gene response elements, genetic polymorphisms and epigenetics influence the human dietary requirement for choline. (snpedia.com)
  • Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis and in vitro biochemical characterization of two cut gene products linked the entire cluster to growth on choline and supported a model for this pathway. (asm.org)
  • Given that bacterial phylogeny is a poor marker for choline utilization, we were prompted to develop a degenerate PCR-based method for detecting the key functional gene choline TMA-lyase ( cutC ) in genomic and metagenomic DNA. (asm.org)
  • While bacterial genes responsible for choline fermentation (the cut gene cluster) have been recently identified, there has been no characterization of these genes in human gut isolates and microbial communities. (asm.org)
  • We also developed a PCR-based strategy to detect a key functional gene ( cutC ) involved in this pathway and applied it to characterize newly isolated choline-utilizing strains. (asm.org)
  • AdoHcy = S -adenosylhomocysteine, AdoMet = S -adenosylmethionine, B 12 = vitamin B 12 , CDP-Choline = cytidine diphosphocholine, PtdEtn = phosphatidylethanolamine, THF = tetrahydrofolate. (nap.edu)
  • 5. The method of claim 1, wherein the donor:cytochrome dehydrogenase is a lactate dehydrogenase (cytochrome) (E.C. 1.1.2.3) or mannitol dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.1.2.2). (patentgenius.com)
  • 8. The method of claim 1, wherein the donor:cytochrome dehydrogenase is a lactate dehydrogenase. (patentgenius.com)
  • Thus, the demand for dietary choline is modified by metabolic methyl-exchange relationships between choline and three nutrients: methionine, folate, and vitamin B 12 (lipotropes) (Zeisel and Blusztajn, 1994). (nap.edu)
  • PMID 27488260 ] Dietary choline and betaine intake, choline-metabolising genetic polymorphisms and breast cancer risk: a case-control study in China. (snpedia.com)
  • Eggs, liver, and nuts are great dietary sources of choline. (hackyourgut.com)
  • Dietary choline may be oxidized to trimethylamine by bacteria in the gut of marine animals. (biologists.org)
  • Choline is a drug which is used for nutritional supplementation, also for treating dietary shortage or imbalance. (bovinedb.ca)
  • Choline and betaine are important sources of one-carbon units, in particular, during folate deficiency. (springer.com)
  • Choline deprivation, leading to PtdCho deficiency, is also known to trigger apoptosis in neurons ( 18 ). (rupress.org)
  • 12 A nutritional deficiency disease that is characterized by deficiency of choline, which has been associated with development of fatty liver, and possibly has material basis in inadequate intake and exacerbated by a genetic predisposition. (malacards.org)
  • Choline Deficiency Disease, also known as choline deficiency , is related to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic 1 . (malacards.org)
  • Perhaps surprisingly, we observed upregulation of DNA methylation during choline deficiency. (bu.edu)
  • Indeed, choline deficiency increased the expression of DNA methyltransferases, DNMT1 and DNMT3A in brain and liver. (bu.edu)
  • Choline exists as a solid, possibly soluble (in water), and an extremely weak basic (essentially neutral) compound (based on its pKa) molecule. (bovinedb.ca)
  • Healthy men with normal folate and vitamin B 12 status fed a choline-deficient diet have diminished plasma choline and phosphatidylcholine concentrations and develop liver damage (Zeisel et al. (nap.edu)
  • In a single run of the choline cycle, you've done the same thing as the folate cycle, and created 3 more "pre"-methylfolates to power it. (hackyourgut.com)
  • Research has validated that the choline cycle may be more effective at powering methylation than the folate cycle( 1 ). (hackyourgut.com)
  • Choline is an essential nutrient, but is also formed by de novo synthesis. (springer.com)
  • Choline (Cho) is an essential nutrient required for fetal development, neuronal function, as well as protection against liver and muscle cell death ( 1 , 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • 74 Choline /ˈkəʊliːn/ is an essential nutrient for humans and many other animals. (malacards.org)
  • We study the effects of perinatal availability of an essential nutrient, choline, on brain development and aging in experimental animals. (bu.edu)
  • 6. The method of claim 1, wherein the donor:quinone dehydrogenase is a cellobiose dehydrogenase. (patentgenius.com)
  • Choline and its derivatives serve as components of structural lipoproteins, blood and membrane lipids, and as a precursor of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. (springer.com)
  • Choline functions as a precursor for acetylcholine, phospholipids, and the methyl donor betaine. (nap.edu)
  • Our second interest is the regulation of the expression of the cholinergic phenotype, i.e. of the genes coding for proteins involved in the synthesis (choline acetyltransferase and choline transporter) and the storage (the vesicular acetylcholine transporter) of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine (ACh) ( Fig. 2 ). (bu.edu)
  • Acetylcholine (ACh) is synthesized by choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) that transfers the acetate moiety from acetyl-CoA onto choline. (bu.edu)
  • The activities of the two pathways are coordinately regulated, so that increased choline availability reduces the methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine, whereas decreased availability of preformed choline results in increased de novo synthesis (Lykidis and Jackowski, 2001). (doctorabel.us)
  • Choline can be used for synthesis of phosphatidylcholine by reaction between CDP-choline and diacylglycerol. (doctorabel.us)
  • Choline in the diet is available as free choline or is bound as esters such as phosphocholine, glycerophosphocholine, sphingomyelin, or phosphatidylcholine. (nap.edu)
  • It's important to note that if you begin the choline cycle with phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) instead of phosphatidylcholine(PC) you cancel out a methylfolate. (hackyourgut.com)
  • Ideally, your diet should provide enough choline/phosphatidylcholine and supplementation shouldn't be necessary. (hackyourgut.com)
  • Human cells grown in culture have an absolute requirement for choline (Eagle, 1955). (nap.edu)
  • preformed choline rather than methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine. (doctorabel.us)
  • In mammals, electron-transfer flavoprotein:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETFQO) and electron-transfer flavoprotein (ETF) are functionally associated, and ETF accepts electrons from at least nine mitochondrial matrix flavoprotein dehydrogenases and transfers them to ubiquinone in the inner mitochondrial membrane. (plantcell.org)
  • Indeed, we found that prenatal availability of choline alters global DNA methylation and patterns of DNA methylation of key genes (e.g. insulin-like growth factor II, Igf2) whose expression is known to be regulated by this process. (bu.edu)
  • the remainder is hydrolyzed to lysolecithin in the intestinal mucosa and to free choline in the liver. (doctorabel.us)
  • Free choline in the diet is largely metabolized by intestinal bacteria, forming trimethylamine, which is absorbed and excreted in the urine. (doctorabel.us)
  • Only about 30% of free choline is absorbed intact. (doctorabel.us)
  • This research endeavors to determine why it is that supplementation with choline during critical perinatal periods in rats and mice causes a long-term facilitation of visuospatial memory which persists until old age. (bu.edu)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is choline:acceptor 1-oxidoreductase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Choline + acceptor = betaine aldehyde + reduced acceptor. (uniprot.org)
  • Betaine aldehyde is a substrate for choline dehydrogenase (mitochondrial). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the vicinity of the linker region, an aromatic cage is predicted as the inducer-binding site, whose envisioned architecture resembles that present in choline and glycine betaine substrate-binding proteins of ABC transporters. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, it is shown that the putative betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase SACOL2628 from the early MRSA isolate COL (SaBADH) utilizes betaine aldehyde as the primary substrate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) as the cofactor. (rcsb.org)
  • TMAO is synthesized from the trimethylammonium moiety of choline, thus released, and is retained as a compatible solute in concentrations reflecting the amount of lipid stored in the body. (biologists.org)
  • The mammalian mitochondrial proteins, ETF and ETFQO, are essential for the catabolism of fatty acids, several amino acids, and choline and are important in supplying mitochondria with respiratory substrates auxiliary to those derived from sucrose. (plantcell.org)
  • The primary criterion used to estimate the Adequate Intake (AI) for choline is the prevention of liver damage as assessed by measuring serum alanine aminotransferase levels. (nap.edu)
  • These data point to an apparently adaptive epigenomic response to varied gestational choline supply in rat fetal liver and brain. (bu.edu)
  • Choline gets metabolized in to betaine which methylates homocysteine to methionine and becomes dimethylgycine(DMG). (hackyourgut.com)
  • In addition, the mammalian ETF/ETFQO system plays a key role in β-oxidation of fatty acids and catabolism of amino acids and choline. (plantcell.org)
  • High intake and plasma level of choline in the mother seems to afford reduced risk of neural tube defects. (springer.com)
  • Catalyzes the oxidation of choline to betaine aldehyde and betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine at the same rate. (uniprot.org)
  • An enzyme bound to the inner mitochondrial membrane that catalyzes the oxidation of CHOLINE to BETAINE. (bvsalud.org)
  • Adamczyk M, Brashear RJ, Mattingly PG (2006) Choline concentration in normal blood donor and cardiac troponin-positive plasma samples. (springer.com)
  • Choline, also known as bilineurine or choline ion, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as cholines. (bovinedb.ca)
  • Intake of choline and betaine shows no consistent relation to cancer or cardiovascular risk or risk factors, whereas an unfavorable cardiovascular risk factor profile was associated with high choline and low betaine concentrations in plasma. (springer.com)