Choline Dehydrogenase: An enzyme bound to the inner mitochondrial membrane that catalyzes the oxidation of CHOLINE to BETAINE.Betaine: A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)Betaine-Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: An NAD+ dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of betain aldehyde to BETAINE.Choline: A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.Halomonas: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped or pleomorphic bacteria which are halotolerant. Members of this genus are capable of growth in sodium chloride concentrations of up to 20% or more. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Choline Kinase: An enzyme that is active in the first step of choline phosphoglyceride (lecithin) biosynthesis by catalyzing the phosphorylation of choline to phosphorylcholine in the presence of ATP. Ethanolamine and its methyl and ethyl derivatives can also act as acceptors. EC 2.7.1.32.Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Databases, Chemical: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.Databases, Pharmaceutical: Databases devoted to knowledge about PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS.Pharmacological Processes: The metabolism of drugs and their mechanisms of action.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Lecithins: A complex mixture of PHOSPHOLIPIDS; GLYCOLIPIDS; and TRIGLYCERIDES; with substantial amounts of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES; PHOSPHATIDYLETHANOLAMINES; and PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS, which are sometimes loosely termed as 1,2-diacyl-3-phosphocholines. Lecithin is a component of the CELL MEMBRANE and commercially extracted from SOYBEANS and EGG YOLK. The emulsifying and surfactant properties are useful in FOOD ADDITIVES and for forming organogels (GELS).Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Heat-Shock Proteins: Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.Regulon: In eukaryotes, a genetic unit consisting of a noncontiguous group of genes under the control of a single regulator gene. In bacteria, regulons are global regulatory systems involved in the interplay of pleiotropic regulatory domains and consist of several OPERONS.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.LouisianaEthacridine: A topically applied anti-infective agent.GeorgiaFloridaAdministration, Intravaginal: The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.Nonoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Nonoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide, formulated primarily as a component of vaginal foams and creams.Vaginal Creams, Foams, and Jellies: Medicated dosage forms for topical application in the vagina. A cream is a semisolid emulsion containing suspended or dissolved medication; a foam is a dispersion of a gas in a medicated liquid resulting in a light, frothy mass; a jelly is a colloidal semisolid mass of a water soluble medicated material, usually translucent.Choline-Phosphate Cytidylyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of cytidylate (CMP) to choline phosphate to form CDPcholine. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in the choline pathway for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine. Its activity is increased by glucocorticoids. EC 2.7.7.15.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Phosphatidylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyses three sequential METHYLATION reactions for conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine to PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE.Choline Deficiency: A condition produced by a deficiency of CHOLINE in animals. Choline is known as a lipotropic agent because it has been shown to promote the transport of excess fat from the liver under certain conditions in laboratory animals. Combined deficiency of choline (included in the B vitamin complex) and all other methyl group donors causes liver cirrhosis in some animals. Unlike compounds normally considered as vitamins, choline does not serve as a cofactor in enzymatic reactions. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Cytidine Diphosphate Choline: Donor of choline in biosynthesis of choline-containing phosphoglycerides.Lipotropic Agents: Endogenous factors or drugs that increase the transport and metabolism of LIPIDS including the synthesis of LIPOPROTEINS by the LIVER and their uptake by extrahepatic tissues.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Hydrochloric Acid: A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Methanosarcina barkeri: A species of halophilic archaea whose organisms are nonmotile. Habitats include freshwater and marine mud, animal-waste lagoons, and the rumens of ungulates.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Semiconductors: Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.Aspergillus oryzae: An imperfect fungus present on most agricultural seeds and often responsible for the spoilage of seeds in bulk storage. It is also used in the production of fermented food or drink, especially in Japan.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Chromomycin A3: Glycosidic antibiotic from Streptomyces griseus used as a fluorescent stain of DNA and as an antineoplastic agent.Cardiac Complexes, Premature: A group of cardiac arrhythmias in which the cardiac contractions are not initiated at the SINOATRIAL NODE. They include both atrial and ventricular premature beats, and are also known as extra or ectopic heartbeats. Their frequency is increased in heart diseases.Odontogenic Cysts: Cysts found in the jaws and arising from epithelium involved in tooth formation. They include follicular cysts (e.g., primordial cyst, dentigerous cyst, multilocular cyst), lateral periodontal cysts, and radicular cysts. They may become keratinized (odontogenic keratocysts). Follicular cysts may give rise to ameloblastomas and, in rare cases, undergo malignant transformation.Reticular Formation: A region extending from the PONS & MEDULLA OBLONGATA through the MESENCEPHALON, characterized by a diversity of neurons of various sizes and shapes, arranged in different aggregations and enmeshed in a complicated fiber network.Ventricular Premature Complexes: A type of cardiac arrhythmia with premature contractions of the HEART VENTRICLES. It is characterized by the premature QRS complex on ECG that is of abnormal shape and great duration (generally >129 msec). It is the most common form of all cardiac arrhythmias. Premature ventricular complexes have no clinical significance except in concurrence with heart diseases.Oxidoreductases, N-Demethylating

The choline-converting pathway in Staphylococcus xylosus C2A: genetic and physiological characterization. (1/19)

A Staphylococcus xylosus C2A gene cluster, which encodes enzymes in the pathway for choline uptake and dehydrogenation (cud), to form the osmoprotectant glycine betaine, was identified. The cud locus comprises four genes, three of which encode proteins with significant similarities to those known to be involved in choline transport and conversion in other organisms. The physiological role of the gene products was confirmed by analysis of cud deletion mutants. The fourth gene possibly codes for a regulator protein. Part of the gene cluster was shown to be transcriptionally regulated by choline and elevated NaCl concentrations as inducers.  (+info)

Genes for the synthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine from choline in the moderately halophilic bacterium Halomonas elongata DSM 3043, USA. (2/19)

The genes involved in the oxidative pathway of choline to glycine betaine in the moderate halophile Halomonas elongata DSM 3043 were isolated by functional complementation of an Escherichia coli strain defective in glycine betaine synthesis. The cloned region was able to mediate the oxidation of choline to glycine betaine in E. coli, but not the transport of choline, indicating that the gene(s) involved in choline transport are not clustered with the glycine betaine synthesis genes. Nucleotide sequence analysis of a 4.6 kb segment from the cloned DNA revealed the occurrence of three ORFs (betIBA) apparently arranged in an operon. The deduced betI gene product exhibited features typical for DNA-binding regulatory proteins. The deduced BetB and BetA proteins showed significant similarity to soluble glycine betaine aldehyde dehydrogenases and membrane-bound choline dehydrogenases, respectively, from a variety of organisms. Evidence is presented that BetA is able to oxidize both choline and glycine betaine aldehyde and therefore can mediate both steps in the synthesis of glycine betaine.  (+info)

Improved tolerance to salinity and low temperature in transgenic tobacco producing glycine betaine. (3/19)

Glycine betaine is an osmoprotectant found in many organisms, including bacteria and higher plants. The bacterium Escherichia coli produces glycine betaine by a two-step pathway where choline dehydrogenase (CDH), encoded by betA, oxidizes choline to betaine aldehyde which is further oxidized to glycine betaine by the same enzyme. The second step, conversion of betaine aldehyde into glycine betaine, can also be performed by the second enzyme in the pathway, betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH), encoded by betB. Transformation of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), a species not accumulating glycine betaine, with the E. coli genes for glycine betaine biosynthesis, resulted in transgenic plants accumulating glycine betaine. Plants producing CDH were found to accumulate glycine betaine as did F1 progeny from crosses between CDH- and BADH-producing lines. Plants producing both CDH and BADH generally accumulated higher amounts of glycine betaine than plants producing CDH alone, as determined by 1H NMR analysis. Transgenic tobacco lines accumulating glycine betaine exhibited increased tolerance to salt stress as measured by biomass production of greenhouse-grown intact plants. Furthermore, experiments conducted with leaf discs from glycine betaine-accumulating plants indicated enhanced recovery from photoinhibition caused by high light and salt stress as well as improved tolerance to photoinhibition under low temperature conditions. In conclusion, introduction of glycine betaine production into tobacco is associated with increased stress tolerance probably partly due to improved protection of the photosynthetic apparatus.  (+info)

Cloning, expression, and purification of choline dehydrogenase from the moderate halophile Halomonas elongata. (4/19)

Choline dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.99.1) catalyzes the four-electron oxidation of choline to glycine-betaine via a betaine-aldehyde intermediate. Such a reaction is of considerable interest for biotechnological applications in that transgenic plants engineered with bacterial glycine-betaine-synthesizing enzymes have been shown to have enhanced tolerance towards various environmental stresses, such as hypersalinity, freezing, and high temperatures. To date, choline dehydrogenase has been poorly characterized in its biochemical and kinetic properties, mainly because its purification has been hampered by instability of the enzyme in vitro. In the present report, we cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli the betA gene from the moderate halophile Halomonas elongata which codes for a hypothetical choline dehydrogenase. The recombinant enzyme was purified to more than 70% homogeneity as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by treatment with 30 to 50% saturation of ammonium sulfate followed by column chromatography using DEAE-Sepharose. The purified enzyme showed similar substrate specificities with either choline or betaine-aldehyde as the substrate, as indicated by the apparent V/K values (where V is the maximal velocity and K is the Michaelis constant) of 0.9 and 0.6 micro mol of O(2) min(-1) mg(-1) mM(-1) at pH 7 and 25 degrees C, respectively. With 1 mM phenazine methosulfate as the primary electron acceptor, the apparent V(max) values for choline and betaine-aldehyde were 10.9 and 5.7 micro mol of O(2) min(-1) mg(-1), respectively. These V(max) values decreased four- to sevenfold when molecular oxygen was used as the electron acceptor. Altogether, the kinetic data are consistent with the conclusion that H. elongata betA codes for a choline dehydrogenase that can also act as an oxidase when electron acceptors other than molecular oxygen are not available.  (+info)

The Sinorhizobium meliloti glycine betaine biosynthetic genes (betlCBA) are induced by choline and highly expressed in bacteroids. (5/19)

The symbiotic soil bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti has the capacity to synthesize the osmoprotectant glycine betaine from choline-O-sulfate and choline. This pathway is encoded by the betICBA locus, which comprises a regulatory gene, betI, and three structural genes, betC (choline sulfatase), betB (betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase), and betA (choline dehydrogenase). Here, we report that betICBA genes constitute a single operon, despite the existence of intergenic regions containing mosaic elements between betI and betC, and betB and betA. The regulation of the bet operon was investigated by using transcriptional lacZ (beta-galactosidase) fusions and has revealed a strong induction by choline at concentrations as low as 25 microM and to a lesser extent by choline-O-sulfate and acetylcholine but not by osmotic stress or oxygen. BetI is a repressor of the bet transcription in the absence of choline, and a nucleotide sequence of dyad symmetry upstream of betI was identified as a putative betI box. Measurements of intracellular pools of choline, well correlated with beta-galactosidase activities, strongly suggested that BetI senses the endogenous choline pool that modulates the intensity of BetI repression. In contrast to Escherichia coli, BetI did not repress choline transport. During symbiosis with Medicago sativa, S. meliloti bet gene expression was observed within the infection threads, in young and in mature nodules. The existence of free choline in nodule cytosol, peribacteroid space, and bacteroids was demonstrated, and the data suggest that bet regulation in planta is mediated by BetI repression, as in free-living cells. Neither Nod nor Fix phenotypes were significantly impaired in a betI::omega mutant, indicating that glycine betaine biosynthesis from choline is not crucial for nodulation and nitrogen fixation.  (+info)

Effects of diabetes and insulin on betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase expression in rat liver. (6/19)

Elevation of plasma homocysteine levels has been recognized as an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease, a major complication of diabetes. Plasma homocysteine reflects a balance between its synthesis via S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methylation reactions and its removal through the transmethylation and the transsulfuration pathways. Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT, EC 2.1.1.5) is one of the enzymes involved in the remethylation pathway. BHMT, a major zinc metalloenzyme in the liver, catalyzes the transfer of methyl groups from betaine to homocysteine to form dimethylglycine and methionine. We have previously shown that plasma homocysteine levels and the transsulfuration pathway are affected by diabetes. In the present study, we found increased BHMT activity and mRNA levels in livers from streptozotocin-diabetic rats. In the rat hepatoma cell line (H4IIE cells), glucocorticoids (triamcinolone) increased the level and rate of BHMT mRNA synthesis. In the same cell line, insulin decreased the abundance of BHMT mRNA and the rate of de novo mRNA transcription of the gene. Thus the decreased plasma homocysteine in various models of diabetes could be due to enhanced homocysteine removal brought about by a combination of increased transsulfuration of homocysteine to cysteine and increased remethylation of homocysteine to methionine by BHMT.  (+info)

Liver choline dehydrogenase and kidney betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase expression are not affected by methionine or choline intake in growing rats. (7/19)

Choline dehydrogenase (CHDH) and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) are 2 enzymes involved in choline oxidation. BHMT is expressed at high levels in rat liver and its expression is regulated by dietary Met and choline. BHMT is also found in rat kidney, albeit in substantially lower amounts, but it is not known whether kidney BHMT expression is regulated by dietary Met or choline. Similarly, CHDH activity is highest in the liver and kidney, but the regulation of its expression by diet has not been thoroughly investigated. Sprague Dawley rats ( approximately 50 g) were fed, for 9 d in 2 x 3 factorial design (n = 8), an l-amino acid-defined diet varying in l-Met (0.125, 0.3, or 0.8%) and choline (0 or 25 mmol/kg diet). Liver and kidney BHMT and CHDH were assessed using enzymatic, Western blot, and real-time PCR analyses. Liver samples were also fixed for histological analysis. Liver BHMT activity was 1.3-fold higher in rats fed the Met deficient diet containing choline, which was reflected in corresponding increases in mRNA content and immunodetectable protein. Independent of dietary choline, supplemental Met increased hepatic BHMT activity approximately 30%. Kidney BHMT and liver CHDH expression were refractory to these diets. Some degree of fatty liver developed in all rats fed a choline-devoid diet, indicating that supplemental Met cannot completely compensate for the lack of dietary choline in growing rats.  (+info)

The HOXB13:IL17BR expression index is a prognostic factor in early-stage breast cancer. (8/19)

PURPOSE: We previously identified three genes, HOXB13, IL17BR and CHDH, and the HOXB13:IL17BR ratio index in particular, that strongly predicted clinical outcome in breast cancer patients receiving tamoxifen monotherapy. Confirmation in larger independent patient cohorts was needed to fully validate their clinical utility. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Expression of HOXB13, IL17BR, CHDH, estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction in 852 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded primary breast cancers from 566 untreated and 286 tamoxifen-treated breast cancer patients. Gene expression and clinical variables were analyzed for association with relapse-free survival (RFS) by Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: ER and PR mRNA measurements were in close agreement with immunohistochemistry. In the entire cohort, expression of HOXB13 was associated with shorter RFS (P = .008), and expression of IL17BR and CHDH was associated with longer RFS (P < .0001 for IL17BR and P = .0002 for CHDH). In ER+ patients, the HOXB13:IL17BR index predicted clinical outcome independently of treatment, but more strongly in node-negative patients. In multivariate analysis of the ER+ node-negative subgroup including age, PR status, tumor size, S phase fraction, and tamoxifen treatment, the two-gene index remained a significant predictor of RFS (hazard ratio = 3.9; 95% CI, 1.5 to 10.3; P = .007). CONCLUSION: This tumor bank study demonstrated HOXB13:IL17BR index is a strong independent prognostic factor for ER+ node-negative patients irrespective of tamoxifen therapy.  (+info)

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This section describes the Planning and Evaluation Core. The overall goal ofthe Planning and Evaluation Core is to monitor the progress ofthe collaboration in m...
It has been firmly established that organic osmolytes (compatible solutes) of halophilic Bacteria and Archaea have positive effects on conformation and activity of proteins, and may therefore improve their functional production. In particular, the amino acid derivative ectoine is known for its conformational stabilization, aggregation suppression, and radical protection properties. The natural producer and industrial production strain Halomonas elongata accumulates ectoine in the cytoplasm, and as a result offers a unique stabilizing environment for recombinant proteins. For the construction of broad hoast range vector systems with fluorescent reporter proteins, we chose the salt-inducible promoter region of the ectoine gene cluster (promA). A closer inspection of the genetic background revealed that its combination of sigma 38 (σ38) and sigma 70 (σ70) promoters was followed by a weak ribosomal binding site (RBS). This inspired a systematic approach for the construction of a promA-based vector series
bacteria OpuC protein: mediates the uptake of choline for biosynthesis of osmoprotectant glycine betaine in Bacillus subtilis; amino sequence in first source
In many bacteria, plants and animals, the osmoprotectant betaine is synthesized in two steps: (1) choline to betaine aldehyde and (2) betaine aldehyde to betaine ...
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Aquariumen izan ginen lehenik eta ondoren, Igartubeitia baserrian. Umeekin familia planak egiteko bi aukera hauek itzelak izan dira gure kasuan. Hurrengoan Urola garaia aldera, gogoa pizten baitizute BERRIAko beherapen hauek, herritik eta betiko planetatik irteteko akuilu paregabeak. Beti ikasten da zerbait, milesker ...
Aquariumen izan ginen lehenik eta ondoren, Igartubeitia baserrian. Umeekin familia planak egiteko bi aukera hauek itzelak izan dira gure kasuan. Hurrengoan Urola garaia aldera, gogoa pizten baitizute BERRIAko beherapen hauek, herritik eta betiko planetatik irteteko akuilu paregabeak. Beti ikasten da zerbait, milesker ...
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Cell wall and phospholipid composition and their contribution to the salt tolerance of Halomonas elongata.: The salt-tolerant bacterium Halomonas elongata makes
Dimethylglycine estas derivaĵo de la aminoacido glicino kun la struktura formulo ( CH3) 2 NCH2COOH. Ĝi povas esti trovita en faboj kaj hepato. Ĝi povas esti formita de trimetilglicino sur la perdo de unu el siaj metilgrupoj. Ĝi ankaŭ estas kromprodukto de la metabolo de kolino.. Kiam DMG unue estis malkovrita, ĝi estis referita kiel Vitamino B16, sed, male al veraj vitaminoj B, manko de DMG en la dieto ne kondukas al iuj mis-efikoj kaj ĝi estas sintezita de la homa korpo en la citracido (aŭ Krebs) ciklo signifante ke ĝi ne renkontas la difinon de vitamino.. ...
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Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Potassium atom in PDB 2wme: Crystallographic Structure of Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase From Pseudomonas Aeruginosa
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Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: The fgr gene on rice chromosome 8 has been identified to control the presence of grain fragrance/aroma in rice. An eight base pair deletion in the fgr gene was found by Bradbury et al. (2005) in aromatic rice accessions, with this recessive mutation causing a loss in function of the betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BAD2) enzyme it encodes, resulting in the accumulation of the fragrant compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP). We developed an easily assayed single functional polymorphism (SFP) marker to test for the presence of this deletion in rice germplasm and its association with grain fragrance. The SFP marker was assayed on all rice accessions in the USDA-ARS GRIN collection listed as being aromatic, as well as on all Basmati rice accessions, the entire USDA-ARS rice core collection, and elite US rice breeding materials being tested in the Uniform Regional Rice Nursery. The SFP marker, using one labeled forward and an unlabeled reverse primer spanning the ...
Choline Hydrogentartrate is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Choline Hydrogentartrate is available on the Drugs.com website.
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00661 (0.00312 - 0.01398), b=3.01 (2.83 - 3.19), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hepatic betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase and methionine synthase activity and intermediates of the methionine cycle are altered by choline supply during negative energy balance in Holstein cows. AU - Coleman, Danielle N.. AU - Vailati-Riboni, M.. AU - Elolimy, Ahmed A.. AU - Cardoso, Felipe C.. AU - Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.. AU - Miura, Makoto. AU - Pan, Yuan Xiang. AU - Loor, Juan J.. PY - 2019/9. Y1 - 2019/9. N2 - Although choline requirements are unknown, enhanced postruminal supply may decrease liver triacylglycerol (TAG) storage and increase flux through the methionine cycle, helping cows during a negative energy balance (NEB). The objective was to investigate effects of postruminal choline supply during NEB on hepatic activity of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), methionine synthase (MTR), methionine adenosyltransferase, transcription of enzymes, and metabolite concentrations in the methionine cycle. Ten primiparous rumen-cannulated Holstein cows (158 ± ...
Dimethylglycine (DMG) is an amino acid derivative found in the cells of all plants and animals and can be obtained in the diet in small amounts from grains and meat. The human body produces DMG when metabolizing choline into Glycine. Dimethylglycine that is not metabolized in the liver is transported by the circulatory system to body tissue. Dimethylglycine was popular with Russian athletes and cosmonauts owing to its reputed ability to increase endurance and reduce fatigue. DMG is also a byproduct of homocysteine metabolism. Homocysteine and betaine are converted to methionine and N, N-dimethylglycine by betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase. Dimethylglycine in the urine is a biomarker for the consumption of legumes ...
Planchestainer, Matteo and Contente, Martina Letizia and Cassidy, Jennifer and Molinari, Francesco and Tamborini, Lucia and Paradisi, Francesca (2017) Continuous flow biocatalysis: production and in-line purification of amines by immobilised transaminase from Halomonas elongata. Green Chemistry, 19 . pp. 372-375. ISSN 1463-9262 Contente, Martina Letizia and Planchestainer, Matteo and Molinari, Francesco and Paradisi, Francesca (2016) Stereoelectronic effects in the reaction of aromatic substrates catalysed by Halomonas elongata transaminase and its mutants. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 14 . pp. 9306-9311. ISSN 1477-0539 ...
Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) is important enzyme which plays a dual role in cereals. It acts as an osmoprotectant and has an important role during abiotic stress. In addition it also influences the fragrance in rice. Therefore, this gene has both agronomical and breeding values. An 8pb deletion in exon 7 cause a premature termination codon in BADH2 resulting a mutate badh2 allele; which ultimately elevates the level of 2AP leading fragrance in fragrant rice (Bradbury et al., 2008). Unlike rice wheat is a hexaploid and has two BADH homologs i.e. BADH1 and BADH2. Our genomic data shows that there are three alleles for BADH homologs. One allele is present in the progenitors and these indicates that, these allele is inheritate from each of the progenitors during polyploidy in hexaploid wheat. Our data show that a total of 4 and 14 SNPs are present among the genomes in BADH2 and BADH1respectivly. Investigation on two different tissues (i.e. leaves and seeds), at two different time point (i.e. 14 DPA
Despite not accumulating glycine betaine, rice (Oryza sativa) possesses two genes encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH, EC 1.2.1.8) (BADH1 and BADH2). A BADH2 allele which codes for a truncated BADH2 enzyme is responsible for the elevated level of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) which gives Jasmine and Basmati style fragrant rices their distinct aroma. In this study the transcript levels of the genes which encode BADH1 and BADH2 were studied using quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRTPCR) in multiple fragrant and non-fragrant rice varieties. In non-fragrant rices, BADH2 transcript levels were significantly higher than those of BADH1 in leaf and mature seed, whilst in developing seed BADH1 and BADH2 transcript levels were similar. This indicates that the loss of BADH2 activity due to the deletion in the gene in fragrant rice is likely to result in a significant reduction in total functional BADH. BADH2 transcript levels in non-fragrant rice varieties were significantly higher than the levels in
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Dimethylglycine (DMG) is an amino acid. DMG is believed to improve DMG | Dimethylglycine | Improve Endurance Performance performance, enhance oxygen uptake.
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A flavoprotein (FAD). In many bacteria, plants and animals, the osmoprotectant betaine is synthesized using different enzymes to catalyse the conversion of (1) choline in
Choline is a critical nutrient for our health, but many people are deficient in it. It might just be time to reconsider eggs - a natural source of choline.
The regulation of glycine betaine accumulation by Staphylococcus aureus was investigated. The accumulation of glycine betaine was regulated by the osmotic pressure of the medium and the low affinity transport system played the major role in this regulation. Mutants were isolated that lack the low affinity, osmotically activated glycine betaine/proline transport system. Such mutants accumulated glycine betaine via the high affinity system but the glycine betaine pool was smaller and responded poorly to osmotic pressure changes. The regulation of glycine betaine transport has revealed that at the steady state net influx is reduced and that this is achieved by inhibition of both the low affinity and the high affinity transport systems. Cells pre-loaded with glycine betaine exhibited a reduced V max for both systems: the low affinity system was reduced in activity fivefold and the high affinity system was reduced 10-fold and became virtually undetectable. Although glycine betaine transport at the steady
Karbono dioxidoa berotegi efektua sortzen duen gasetako bat da eta Lurrak tenperatura jakin eta bizigarri batean manten dezan laguntzen du, neurri batean bada, beti ere. Karbono dioxido barik, Lurra izotz bloke handi bat litzateke. Bestalde, karbono dioxido larregik berotegi efektua areagotu egiten du. Horren ondorioz, planetak beroketa orokorra jasan lezake. Azken urteotan, karbono dioxidoaren kopurua asko emendatu da atmosferan eta horrek, hein handi batean, Lurraren beroketa areagotzen du. ...
Thermophysical properties and gas solubilities in choline chloride-urea for CO2 separation. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Betaine aldehyde is a substrate for choline dehydrogenase (mitochondrial). Glycine betaine aldehyde is a short chain aldehyde ... stress tolerance in Escherichia coli and Nicotiana tabacum expressing a betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase/choline dehydrogenase ... The human aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.3) stimulates the transformation of betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine. ...
... in phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase and methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase influence biomarkers of choline ... While the CDP-choline pathway, in which choline obtained either by dietary consumption or by metabolism of choline-containing ... PC made via the PEMT pathway can be degraded by phospholipases C/D, resulting in the de novo formation of choline. Thus, the ... This is one of several examples of the reciprocal regulation of PEMT and CT in the PEMT and CDP-choline pathways. Estrogen has ...
... choline dehydrogenase, EC 1.1.99.1). Betaine aldehyde is further oxidised in the mitochondria in mice to betaine by the enzyme ... USDA Database for the Choline Content of Common Foods - including the data on choline metabolites, such as betaine, in 434 food ... In most organisms, glycine betaine is biosynthesized by oxidation of choline in two steps. The intermediate, betaine aldehyde, ... "BRENDA - Information on EC 1.2.1.8 - betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase". Brenda-enzymes.org. Retrieved 2016-07-07. Chern, M. K.; ...
... which functions in choline degradation. The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) catalyzes the oxidative ... Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase regulatory subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PDPR gene. The complete ... by the pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatases (PDPs 1 and 2). As PDPR is involved in the regulation of the central metabolic ... Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase regulatory subunit". Lawson JE, Park SH, Mattison AR, Yan J, Reed LJ (December 1997). " ...
Choline Dehydrogenase Interacts with Sqstm1/P62 to Recruit Lc3 and Stimulate Mitophagy', Autophagy, 10 (2014), 1906-20 C. M. ...
... uridine diphosphate glucose dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.047.180 --- choline dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.047.210 --- ... acyl-coa dehydrogenases MeSH D08.811.682.660.150.100 --- acyl-coa dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.660.150.150 --- acyl-coa ... 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 MeSH D08.811.682.047.436.174.600 --- 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 ... l-lactate dehydrogenase MeSH D08.811.682.047.551.500 --- l-lactate dehydrogenase (cytochrome) MeSH D08.811.682.047.605 --- ...
S. Park, S. G. Choi, S. M. Yoo, J. H. Son, and Y. K. Jung, 'Choline Dehydrogenase Interacts with Sqstm1/P62 to Recruit Lc3 and ...
In enzymology, a choline dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.99.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction choline + acceptor ⇌ {\ ... Other names in common use include choline oxidase, choline-cytochrome c reductase, choline:(acceptor) oxidoreductase, and ... Gadda G, McAllister-Wilkins EE (2003). "Cloning, Expression, and Purification of Choline Dehydrogenase from the Moderate ... Ebisuzaki K, Williams JN (1955). "Preparation and partial purification of soluble choline dehydrogenase from liver mitochondria ...
... choline dehydrogenase (CHD) EC 1.1.99.1, methanol oxidase (MOX) EC 1.1.3.13 and cellobiose dehydrogenase EC 1.1.99.18 which ... The glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) oxidoreductases are FAD flavoproteins oxidoreductases. These enzymes include a variety of ... In molecular biology, the glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family (GMC oxidoreductase) is a family of enzymes with ... Henriksson G, Johansson G, Pettersson G (March 2000). "A critical review of cellobiose dehydrogenases". J. Biotechnol. 78 (2): ...
NADH dehydrogenase succinate dehydrogenase Coenzyme Q - cytochrome c reductase cytochrome c oxidase Metabolism portal. ... In mammals, this metabolic pathway is important in beta oxidation of fatty acids and catabolism of amino acids and choline, as ... NADH-coenzyme Q oxidoreductase, also known as NADH dehydrogenase or complex I, is the first protein in the electron transport ... Ikeda Y, Dabrowski C, Tanaka K (25 January 1983). "Separation and properties of five distinct acyl-CoA dehydrogenases from rat ...
Malate dehydrogenase (quinone). *Quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase. 1.1.99: other acceptors. *Choline dehydrogenase ... Other names in common use include 2-hydroxy-3-carboxyadipate dehydrogenase, 3-carboxy-2-hydroxyadipate dehydrogenase, ... In enzymology, a homoisocitrate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.87) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... Rowley B, Tucci AF (1970). "Homoisocitric dehydrogenase from yeast". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 141 (2): 499-, 510. doi:10.1016/ ...
Malate dehydrogenase (quinone). *Quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase. 1.1.99: other acceptors. *Choline dehydrogenase ... lactate dehydrogenase A. (subunit M). Human lactate dehydrogenase M4 (the isoenzyme found in skeletal muscle). From PDB: 1I10​. ... D-lactate dehydrogenase, membrane binding. crystal structure of d-lactate dehydrogenase, a peripheral membrane respiratory ... Lactate dehydrogenase-A deficiency is caused by a mutation to the LDHA gene, while lactate dehydrogenase-B deficiency is caused ...
Malate dehydrogenase (quinone). *Quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase. 1.1.99: other acceptors. *Choline dehydrogenase ... Carbohydrate dehydrogenases are a group of dehydrogenase enzymes that occur in many organisms and facilitate the conversion ... Carbohydrate dehydrogenases are the most common quinoprotein oxidoreductases,[1] which are enzymes that oxidize a wide range of ... Carbohydrate Dehydrogenases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
Malate dehydrogenase (quinone). *Quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase. 1.1.99: other acceptors. *Choline dehydrogenase ... In enzymology, a cholest-5-ene-3β,7α-diol 3β-dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.181) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction[1] ... The human version of this enzyme is known as hydroxy-Δ-5-steroid dehydrogenase, 3 β- and steroid delta-isomerase 7 or HSD3B7 ... Cholest-5-ene-3beta,7alpha-diol 3beta-dehydrogenase. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ...
These include transferrin receptor, choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase A, RNF168, serine/threonine-protein kinase, nuclear ... cap-binding protein complex, melanotransferrin, DLG1 and D-beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase Research on the risk for ...
Cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), an enzyme responsible for the transformation of cinnamyl alcohol into cinnamaldehyde ... D-quinate into trans-5-O-caffeoyl-D-quinate Sinapoylglucose-choline O-sinapoyltransferase, an enzyme responsible for the ... Sinapine esterase, an enzyme responsible for the transformation of sinapoylcholine into sinapate (sinapic acid) and choline ...
... is found naturally as an intermediate in the metabolism of choline to glycine. Sarcosine is sweet to the taste and ... Sarcosine is metabolized to glycine by the enzyme sarcosine dehydrogenase, while glycine-N-methyl transferase generates ... Sarcosine is formed from dietary intake of choline and from the metabolism of methionine, and is rapidly degraded to glycine, ...
Competitive inhibitors of succinate dehydrogenase (complex II).[91]. Antimycin A Piscicide Complex III Binds to the Qi site of ... In mammals, this metabolic pathway is important in beta oxidation of fatty acids and catabolism of amino acids and choline, as ... NADH-coenzyme Q oxidoreductase, also known as NADH dehydrogenase or complex I, is the first protein in the electron transport ... Identification of a new 2-methyl branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase". J. Biol. Chem. 258 (2): 1066-76. PMID 6401712. ...
Choline, in combination with acetyl-CoA, is catalyzed by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase to produce acetylcholine and ... namely acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, enoyl-CoA hydratase, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and thiolase. The cycle produces a new ... The oxidative conversion of pyruvate into acetyl-CoA is referred to as the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction. It is catalyzed by ... Ethanol also serves as a carbon source for acetylation of CoA utilizing the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase. Degradation of ...
Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, PLCG1, PRKCD, Src, and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein. N-(2-(1-(3-fluorophenyl)-4- ... catalyze the hydrolysis of PC to produce phosphatidic acid and choline. Activation of PC-specific PLDs occurs as a consequence ... "Hydrogen peroxide induces association between glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and phospholipase D2 to facilitate ...
Allaire M, Li Y, MacKenzie RE, Cygler M (1998). "The 3-D structure of a folate-dependent dehydrogenase/cyclohydrolase ... "Genetic variation of folate-mediated one-carbon transfer pathway predicts susceptibility to choline deficiency in humans". Proc ... 2006). "Evaluation of a methylenetetrahydrofolate-dehydrogenase 1958G>A polymorphism for neural tube defect risk". J. Hum. ... Mejia NR, MacKenzie RE (1985). "NAD-dependent methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase is expressed by immortal cells". J. Biol ...
... choline dehydrogenase EC 1.1.99.2: L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase EC 1.1.99.3: gluconate 2-dehydrogenase (acceptor) EC 1.1. ... EC 1.1.1.1: alcohol dehydrogenase EC 1.1.1.2: alcohol dehydrogenase (NADP+) EC 1.1.1.3: homoserine dehydrogenase EC 1.1.1.4: (R ... L-arabinitol 4-dehydrogenase EC 1.1.1.13: L-arabinitol 2-dehydrogenase EC 1.1.1.14: L-iditol 2-dehydrogenase EC 1.1.1.15: D- ... glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase EC 1.3.8.7: medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase EC 1.3.8.8: long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase EC 1.3 ...
These enzymes are regulated by inositol and choline, both of which are phospholipid precursors. Within this consensus sequence ... study looked at the effect of inserting the UASG into the promoter region of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene ... A cis-regulatory element responsible for inositol choline-mediated regulation of phospholipid biosynthesis". The Journal of ...
Choline increases carnitine uptake and retention. Choline supplements are inexpensive, safe (probably even in all children ... Christensen E, Ribes A, Merinero B, Zschocke J (2004). "Correlation of genotype and phenotype in glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase ... Daily JW 3rd, Sachan DS (1995). "Choline supplementation alters carnitine homeostasis in humans and guinea pigs". J. Nutr. 125 ... The GCDH gene encodes the enzyme glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase. This enzyme is involved in degrading the amino acids lysine, ...
Malate dehydrogenase (quinone). *Quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase. 1.1.99: other acceptors. *Choline dehydrogenase ...
Pervasive and required for several enzymes such as carboxypeptidase, liver alcohol dehydrogenase, and carbonic anhydrase ...
In enzymology, a choline dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.99.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction choline + acceptor ⇌ {\ ... Other names in common use include choline oxidase, choline-cytochrome c reductase, choline:(acceptor) oxidoreductase, and ... Gadda G, McAllister-Wilkins EE (2003). "Cloning, Expression, and Purification of Choline Dehydrogenase from the Moderate ... Ebisuzaki K, Williams JN (1955). "Preparation and partial purification of soluble choline dehydrogenase from liver mitochondria ...
Catalyzes the oxidation of choline to betaine aldehyde and betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine at the same rate. ... Oxygen-dependent choline dehydrogenase (betA). This subpathway is part of the pathway betaine biosynthesis via choline pathway ... Oxygen-dependent choline dehydrogenaseUniRule annotation. ,p>Manual validated information which has been generated by the ... sp,A6U4Z2,BETA_STAA2 Oxygen-dependent choline dehydrogenase OS=Staphylococcus aureus (strain JH1) OX=359787 GN=betA PE=3 SV=1 ...
Catalyzes the oxidation of choline to betaine aldehyde and betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine at the same rate. ... betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase activity Source: UniProtKB-EC. *choline dehydrogenase activity Source: EcoCyc ,p>Inferred from ... Oxygen-dependent choline dehydrogenase (betA). This subpathway is part of the pathway betaine biosynthesis via choline pathway ... Optimum pH is 7.5 for choline dehydrogenase and is between 7.5 and 9.5 for glycine betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase.1 Publication ...
Choline dehydrogenase, mitochondrial (CHDH) Recombinant Protein-NP_060867.2 (MBS1305107) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ... Choline Degradation Pathway antibodies. Choline Degradation Pathway Diagram. Choline Degradation I Pathway antibodies. Choline ... The protein encoded by this gene is a choline dehydrogenase that localizes to the mitochondrion. Variations in this gene can ... Choline Catabolism Pathway antibodies. Choline Catabolism Pathway Diagram. Glycerophospholipid Biosynthesis Pathway antibodies ...
Determination of Choline Dehydrogenase Activity along the Rat Nephron. Miller, Bernhard / Schmid, Heide / Chen, Tian Jun / ...
... choline dehydrogenase; Stat-6, signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (C). Diagram showing the numbers of probes in ...
Product: choline dehydrogenase. Function: catalyzes the production of the osmoprotectant compound glycine betaine conferring ...
choline dehydrogenase. MGI:1860776 Go Annotations as Summary Text (Tabular View) (GO Graph). Summary from NCBI RefSeq. [Summary ... This summary is for the human ortholog.] The protein encoded by this gene is a choline dehydrogenase that localizes to the ... Variations in this gene can affect susceptibility to choline deficiency. A few transcript variants have been found for this ...
... choline dehydrogenase; COX, cholesterol oxidase; CKO, compound K oxidase; FDH, fructose dehydrogenase; FOX, fructose oxidase; ... This enzyme belongs to an algae-specific clade of the glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family and catalyzes the ... All members of the GMC oxidoreductase family characterized so far are oxidases or dehydrogenases (mostly acting on sugars), ... a family of flavoproteins comprising a wide range of oxidases and dehydrogenases (20). A full-length cDNA coding for the C. ...
... choline dehydrogenase; COX, cholesterol oxidase; CKO, compound K oxidase; FDH, fructose dehydrogenase; FOX, fructose oxidase; ... GDH, glucose dehydrogenase; GOX, glucose oxidase; HFO, hydroxy fatty acid oxidase (genetic evidence only); HNL, hydroxynitrile ...
... dehydrogenases (PEG-DH) and comprise a PEG-DH subgroup in the family of glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) oxidoreductases that ... includes glucose/alcohol oxidase and glucose/choline dehydrogenase. Three-dimensional (3D) molecular modeling suggested that ... AS08 and EO chain octylphenol dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida share common molecular characteristics with polyethylene ... chain nonylphenol dehydrogenase (NPEO-DH) from Ensifer sp. ... glucose dehydrogenase and choline dehydrogenase in the family [ ...
ADH, aldehyde dehydrogenase; CHDH, choline oxidase; 5,10-CH2-THF, 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate; DMG, dimethylglycine; GCL, ... to fatty acids for the production of anti-inflammatory mediators and on the other to choline. This choline excess might be ... Zeisel, S. H., Story, D. L., Wurtman, R. J., and Brunengraber, H. (1980). Uptake of free choline by isolated perfused rat liver ... but also in recycling the choline derived from phospholipid metabolism (Martínez-Vega et al., 2015b). ...
Choline oxidase (codA from Arthrobactor globiformis) can protect against cold and salt. E. coli choline dehydrogenase (betA) ... Mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (mt1D) from E. coli has been used to provide protection against drought and salinity. ...
Choline dehydrogenase. NA. ND. I35_5976. Paraquat-inducible protein B. NA. ND. ... FAD/FMN-containing dehydrogenases. NA. ND. *. ↵a Nomenclature is given according to the data in GenBank (accession no. HG938370 ... Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. NA. ND. Transcription and signal transduction. I35_0200. BCAL0209. Histone acetyltransferase HPA2. ...
Choline dehydrogenase. betB. 1.7 (2.1). 2.5 (3.5). 1.6 (2.7). 2.4 (2.8). Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase. ...
Choline and its derivatives serve as components of structural lipoproteins, blood and membrane lipids, and as a precursor of... ... Choline is an essential nutrient, but is also formed by de novo synthesis. ... Lin CS, Wu RD (1986) Choline oxidation and choline dehydrogenase. J Protein Chem 5:193-200CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Choline Homocysteine Betaine Choline Intake Neural Tube Defect These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. ...
Read chapter 12 Choline: Since 1941, Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) has been recognized as the most authoritative source ... Renal inner medullary choline dehydrogenase activity: Characterization and modulation. Am J Physiol 256:F107-F112. ... choline chloride contains more choline by weight than does choline bitartrate. Dietary supplements containing choline are ... Estimated average choline dietary intake in adults consuming a typical U.S. or Canadian diet (as free choline and the choline ...
Slow S, Garrow TA: Liver choline dehydrogenase and kidney betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase expression are not affected by ... Choline bitartrate (55 mg/1) + Choline bitartrate (55 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium ... Choline bitartrate (55 mg/1) + Choline bitartrate (55 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium ... cholines (CHEBI:15354) / Pesticides (C00114) / a small molecule (CHOLINE) Targets. Details1. Choline-phosphate ...
Betaine is accumulated via transient choline dehydrogenase activation during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. ...
... choline, glycine betaine, proline betaine) serve as its inducers. Site-directed mutagenesis studies allowed a rational ... which acts as an intracellular choline-responsive repressor. Modeling studies using the X-ray structure of the Mj223 protein ... which acts as an intracellular choline-responsive repressor. Modeling studies using the X-ray structure of the Mj223 protein ... whose envisioned architecture resembles that present in choline and glycine betaine substrate-binding proteins of ABC ...
... choline dehydrogenase (CHDH), BUB1B, CENPA, NEK2, RACGAP1, RRM2) and four normalization genes (beta-actin (ACTB), ... hydromethylbilane synthase (HMBS), succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A (SDHA) and ubiquitin C (UBC)) were measured by ...
1996 Enhanced NaCl stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco expressing bacterial choline dehydrogenase. Biotechnology 14: 177-180 ... 1997 Transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana with the codA gene for choline oxidase: accumulation of glycinebetaine and enhanced ...
Glucose dehydrogenase/choline dehydrogenase/mandelonitrile Lyase. Phvul.002G297200 a −2.55. RING/U-box superfamily protein ( ...
As we previously showed with choline (Cho), Bet improved hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis in HET. The protection from ... As we previously showed with choline (Cho), Bet improved hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis in HET. The protection from ... Choline oxidation to betaine aldehyde by mitochondrial choline dehydrogenase produces FADH2 and derives electrons in a reaction ... Chi-Shui L, Ru-Dan W. Choline oxidation and choline dehydrogenase. J Protein Chem. (1986) 5:193-200. ...
The reaction of choline dehydrogenase with some electron acceptors Biochem J (December,1975) ... Purification and properties of an amine dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas AM1 and its role in growth on methylamine Biochem J ( ... Spectral and kinetic properties of the primary amine dehydrogenase of Pseudomonas AM 1 Biochem J (August,1971) ... Purification and properties of the trimethylamine dehydrogenase of Bacterium 4B6 Biochem J (December,1974) ...
  • the PEMT pathway and the CDP-choline pathway ( 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Choline sulfatase activity was absent from betC but not from betB mutants and was shown to be induced indifferently by choline or choline- O -sulfate as were the other enzymes of the pathway. (pnas.org)
  • Glycine betaine either can be taken up directly from the environment by specific transport systems or synthesized from choline by a two-step pathway with betaine aldehyde as intermediate ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • There are two distinct pathways to use thiocyanate: (i) the "carbonyl sulfide pathway," which has been extensively studied, and (ii) the "cyanate pathway," whose key enzyme, thiocyanate dehydrogenase, was recently purified and studied. (frontiersin.org)
  • PC made via the PEMT pathway can be degraded by phospholipases C/D, resulting in the de novo formation of choline. (wikipedia.org)
  • PC molecules produced by PEMT-catalyzed methylation of PE are more diverse, and tend to contain longer chain, polyunsaturated species and more arachidonate, whereas those produced via the CDP-choline pathway are typically composed of medium-length, saturated chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis and in vitro biochemical characterization of two cut gene products linked the entire cluster to growth on choline and supported a model for this pathway. (asm.org)
  • We also developed a PCR-based strategy to detect a key functional gene ( cutC ) involved in this pathway and applied it to characterize newly isolated choline-utilizing strains. (asm.org)
  • Three examples of these reactions are the activity of coenzyme A (CoA) transferase, which transfers thiol esters, the action of N-acetyltransferase, which is part of the pathway that metabolizes tryptophan, and the regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), which converts pyruvate to acetyl CoA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Men with a genetic variation in the gene coding for Choline Dehydrogenase (CHDH) have decreased energy production by sperm, and their sperm do not swim normally. (covidresearchtrials.com)
  • A variety of different bacteria including Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus , Bacillus subtilus , Rhizobium meliloti , Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Vibrio costicola oxidatively convert choline to GBT ( 1 , 3 , 4 , 11 , 19 , 27 ). (asm.org)
  • In addition, the mammalian ETF/ETFQO system plays a key role in β-oxidation of fatty acids and catabolism of amino acids and choline. (plantcell.org)
  • The mammalian mitochondrial proteins, ETF and ETFQO, are essential for the catabolism of fatty acids, several amino acids, and choline and are important in supplying mitochondria with respiratory substrates auxiliary to those derived from sucrose. (plantcell.org)
  • Another study looked at the effect of inserting the UASG into the promoter region of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (GPD) . (wikipedia.org)
  • The accumulation of TMA in rotting fish as a result of bacterial degradation of choline, as well as the reduction of TMAO to TMA, is responsible for their characteristic 'fishy' odor. (biologists.org)
  • The uptake and degradation of nanomolar levels of [ methyl - 14 C]choline in estuarine water samples and in seawater filtrate cultures composed mainly of natural free-living bacteria was studied. (asm.org)
  • The effects of salinity changes, typical of estuarine environments, on choline uptake and degradation patterns were addressed experimentally. (asm.org)
  • C-1-tetrahydrofolate synthase, cytoplasmic also known as C1-THF synthase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MTHFD1 (methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1) gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a protein that possesses three distinct enzymatic activities, methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (1.5.1.5), methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase (3.5.4.9) and formate-tetrahydrofolate ligase (6.3.4.3). (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, mutations in either ETF or ETFQO results in the fatal genetic disease type II Glutaric acidemia (multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase dysfunctional disease) ( Frerman and Goodman, 2001 ). (plantcell.org)
  • Human cells grown in culture have an absolute requirement for choline (Eagle, 1955). (nap.edu)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a choline dehydrogenase that localizes to the mitochondrion. (mybiosource.com)
  • These include transferrin receptor, choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase A, RNF168, serine/threonine-protein kinase, nuclear cap-binding protein complex, melanotransferrin, DLG1 and D-beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase Research on the risk for developing schizophrenia in Ashkenazi Jews and other populations showed that 3q29 microdeletion syndrome leads to a significant higher rate of schizophrenia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coenzyme A is also the source of the phosphopantetheine group that is added as a prosthetic group to proteins such as acyl carrier protein and formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, we found differences in the presence/absence of genes for various sulfur oxidation pathways, such as sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase, dissimilatory sulfite reductase, and sulfite dehydrogenase. (frontiersin.org)
  • While bacterial genes responsible for choline fermentation (the cut gene cluster) have been recently identified, there has been no characterization of these genes in human gut isolates and microbial communities. (asm.org)
  • Additional genes that have been shown, either by in vitro or in vivo studies, to be regulated by epigenetic mechanisms include leptin, SOCS3, glucose transporter (GLUT)-4, POMC, 11-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 and corticotrophin releasing hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Choline is an essential nutrient, but is also formed by de novo synthesis. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, PC made via PEMT plays a wide range of physiological roles, utilized in choline synthesis, hepatocyte membrane structure, bile secretion, and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • AdoHcy = S -adenosylhomocysteine, AdoMet = S -adenosylmethionine, B 12 = vitamin B 12 , CDP-Choline = cytidine diphosphocholine, PtdEtn = phosphatidylethanolamine, THF = tetrahydrofolate. (nap.edu)
  • High intake and plasma level of choline in the mother seems to afford reduced risk of neural tube defects. (springer.com)
  • Intake of choline and betaine shows no consistent relation to cancer or cardiovascular risk or risk factors, whereas an unfavorable cardiovascular risk factor profile was associated with high choline and low betaine concentrations in plasma. (springer.com)
  • The primary criterion used to estimate the Adequate Intake (AI) for choline is the prevention of liver damage as assessed by measuring serum alanine aminotransferase levels. (nap.edu)
  • There are no nationally representative estimates of the intake of choline from food or food supplements. (nap.edu)
  • The critical adverse effect from high intake of choline is hypotension, with corroborative evidence on cholinergic side effects (e.g., sweating and diarrhea) and fishy body odor. (nap.edu)
  • Levels of amino acids, glutathione metabolites, choline derivatives, and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates were altered in mutant IDH1- and IDH2-expressing cells. (nih.gov)
  • Schematic illustration of the MR-compatible cell perfusion assay used to derive an invasion index and to quantify choline and lipid metabolites. (nih.gov)
  • Plasma concentrations of metabolites associated with a risk for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, including choline, phosphocholine, glycerol-phosphocholine, betaine and carnitine metabolites were significantly lower in the T21 group. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Choline in the diet is available as free choline or is bound as esters such as phosphocholine, glycerophosphocholine, sphingomyelin, or phosphatidylcholine. (nap.edu)
  • COX-2 silencing resulted in a significant decrease in phosphocholine and total choline that was detected by MRS. In addition, a significant increase in lipids, as well as lipid droplet formation, was observed. (nih.gov)
  • Healthy men with normal folate and vitamin B 12 status fed a choline-deficient diet have diminished plasma choline and phosphatidylcholine concentrations and develop liver damage (Zeisel et al. (nap.edu)
  • The uptake system for choline in natural microbial assemblages therefore displays very high affinity and appears able to scavenge this compound at the concentrations expected in seawater. (asm.org)