Choline Kinase: An enzyme that is active in the first step of choline phosphoglyceride (lecithin) biosynthesis by catalyzing the phosphorylation of choline to phosphorylcholine in the presence of ATP. Ethanolamine and its methyl and ethyl derivatives can also act as acceptors. EC 2.7.1.32.Choline O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 2.3.1.6.Choline Deficiency: A condition produced by a deficiency of CHOLINE in animals. Choline is known as a lipotropic agent because it has been shown to promote the transport of excess fat from the liver under certain conditions in laboratory animals. Combined deficiency of choline (included in the B vitamin complex) and all other methyl group donors causes liver cirrhosis in some animals. Unlike compounds normally considered as vitamins, choline does not serve as a cofactor in enzymatic reactions. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Hemicholinium 3: A potent inhibitor of the high affinity uptake system for CHOLINE. It has less effect on the low affinity uptake system. Since choline is one of the components of ACETYLCHOLINE, treatment with hemicholinium can deplete acetylcholine from cholinergic terminals. Hemicholinium 3 is commonly used as a research tool in animal and in vitro experiments.Betaine: A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)Cytidine Diphosphate Choline: Donor of choline in biosynthesis of choline-containing phosphoglycerides.Choline Dehydrogenase: An enzyme bound to the inner mitochondrial membrane that catalyzes the oxidation of CHOLINE to BETAINE.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Phosphorylcholine: Calcium and magnesium salts used therapeutically in hepatobiliary dysfunction.Phosphatidylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyses three sequential METHYLATION reactions for conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine to PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE.Glycerylphosphorylcholine: A component of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES or LECITHINS, in which the two hydroxy groups of GLYCEROL are esterified with fatty acids. (From Stedman, 26th ed) It counteracts the effects of urea on enzymes and other macromolecules.Ethanolamine: A viscous, hygroscopic amino alcohol with an ammoniacal odor. It is widely distributed in biological tissue and is a component of lecithin. It is used as a surfactant, fluorimetric reagent, and to remove CO2 and H2S from natural gas and other gases.Lipotropic Agents: Endogenous factors or drugs that increase the transport and metabolism of LIPIDS including the synthesis of LIPOPROTEINS by the LIVER and their uptake by extrahepatic tissues.Deanol: An antidepressive agent that has also been used in the treatment of movement disorders. The mechanism of action is not well understood.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Sarcosine: An amino acid intermediate in the metabolism of choline.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Ethanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.Creatine: An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.Phosphatidylethanolamines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Inositol: An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.Choline-Phosphate Cytidylyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of cytidylate (CMP) to choline phosphate to form CDPcholine. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in the choline pathway for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine. Its activity is increased by glucocorticoids. EC 2.7.7.15.Cholinergic Fibers: Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.Acetylcholinesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.Vesicular Acetylcholine Transport Proteins: Vesicular amine transporter proteins that transport the neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE into small SECRETORY VESICLES. Proteins of this family contain 12 transmembrane domains and exchange vesicular PROTONS for cytoplasmic acetylcholine.Betaine-Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: An NAD+ dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of betain aldehyde to BETAINE.Diacylglycerol Cholinephosphotransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of phosphatidylcholines from CDPcholine and 1,2-diacylglycerols. EC 2.7.8.2.Nootropic Agents: Drugs used to specifically facilitate learning or memory, particularly to prevent the cognitive deficits associated with dementias. These drugs act by a variety of mechanisms. While no potent nootropic drugs have yet been accepted for general use, several are being actively investigated.Thiocholine: A mercaptocholine used as a reagent for the determination of CHOLINESTERASES. It also serves as a highly selective nerve stain.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Cholinergic Agents: Any drug used for its actions on cholinergic systems. Included here are agonists and antagonists, drugs that affect the life cycle of ACETYLCHOLINE, and drugs that affect the survival of cholinergic neurons. The term cholinergic agents is sometimes still used in the narrower sense of MUSCARINIC AGONISTS, although most modern texts discourage that usage.Amino Alcohols: Compounds possessing both a hydroxyl (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2).Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Lysophosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES obtained by their partial hydrolysis which removes one of the fatty acid moieties.Physostigmine: A cholinesterase inhibitor that is rapidly absorbed through membranes. It can be applied topically to the conjunctiva. It also can cross the blood-brain barrier and is used when central nervous system effects are desired, as in the treatment of severe anticholinergic toxicity.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.TritiumSphingomyelins: A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Betaine-Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase: A ZINC metalloenzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from BETAINE to HOMOCYSTEINE to produce dimethylglycine and METHIONINE, respectively. This enzyme is a member of a family of ZINC-dependent METHYLTRANSFERASES that use THIOLS or selenols as methyl acceptors.Plasmalogens: GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS in which one of the two acyl chains is attached to glycerol with an ether alkenyl linkage instead of an ester as with the other glycerophospholipids.Parasympathetic Nervous System: The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.Cholinergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE.Phospholipase D: An enzyme found mostly in plant tissue. It hydrolyzes glycerophosphatidates with the formation of a phosphatidic acid and a nitrogenous base such as choline. This enzyme also catalyzes transphosphatidylation reactions. EC 3.1.4.4.Nucleotidyltransferases: A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.Phospholipases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.Lithium: An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Septum of Brain: GRAY MATTER structures of the telencephalon and LIMBIC SYSTEM in the brain, but containing widely varying definitions among authors. Included here is the cortical septal area, subcortical SEPTAL NUCLEI, and the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM.Ethanolaminephosphotransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the transfer of phosphoethanolamine from CDP-ethanolamine to diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidylethanolamine (cephalin) and CMP. The enzyme is found in the endoplasmic reticulum. EC 2.7.8.1.Organic Cation Transport Proteins: A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Folic Acid: A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Arthrobacter: A genus of asporogenous bacteria isolated from soil that displays a distinctive rod-coccus growth cycle.Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.Homocysteine: A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.Folic Acid Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)Cholinesterase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Synaptosomes: Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.DiglyceridesQuaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Plasma Membrane Neurotransmitter Transport Proteins: A family of neurotransmitter transporter proteins that facilitate NEUROTRANSMITTER reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. They may play a role in regulating the intensity and duration of neurotransmission.Cytidine Diphosphate: Cytidine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. Synonyms: CRPP; cytidine pyrophosphate.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Substantia Innominata: Tissue in the BASAL FOREBRAIN inferior to the anterior perforated substance, and anterior to the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and ansa lenticularis. It contains the BASAL NUCLEUS OF MEYNERT.Ouabain: A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.Nicotinic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC) and block the actions of acetylcholine or cholinergic agonists. Nicotinic antagonists block synaptic transmission at autonomic ganglia, the skeletal neuromuscular junction, and at central nervous system nicotinic synapses.Methyltransferases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.S-Adenosylmethionine: Physiologic methyl radical donor involved in enzymatic transmethylation reactions and present in all living organisms. It possesses anti-inflammatory activity and has been used in treatment of chronic liver disease. (From Merck, 11th ed)CholinesterasesGanglia, Autonomic: Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia.Phosphatidic Acids: Fatty acid derivatives of glycerophosphates. They are composed of glycerol bound in ester linkage with 1 mole of phosphoric acid at the terminal 3-hydroxyl group and with 2 moles of fatty acids at the other two hydroxyl groups.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Decamethonium Compounds: Compounds that contain the decamethylenebis(trimethyl)ammonium radical. These compounds frequently act as neuromuscular depolarizing agents.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Sulfur Isotopes: Stable sulfur atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sulfur, but differ in atomic weight. S-33, 34, and 36 are stable sulfur isotopes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Aconitine: A C19 norditerpenoid alkaloid (DITERPENES) from the root of ACONITUM plants. It activates VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. It has been used to induce ARRHYTHMIAS in experimental animals and it has antiinflammatory and antineuralgic properties.Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Ethionine: 2-Amino-4-(ethylthio)butyric acid. An antimetabolite and methionine antagonist that interferes with amino acid incorporation into proteins and with cellular ATP utilization. It also produces liver neoplasms.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Neuromuscular Depolarizing Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction by causing sustained depolarization of the motor end plate. These agents are primarily used as adjuvants in surgical anesthesia to cause skeletal muscle relaxation.N-Acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine Amidase: An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC 3.5.1.28.Phospholipid Ethers: Phospholipids which have an alcohol moiety in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol. They are usually derivatives of phosphoglycerols or phosphatidates. The other two alcohol groups of the glycerol backbone are usually in ester linkage. These compounds are widely distributed in animal tissues.Ganglia, Sympathetic: Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)MethylaminesDimethylaminesNitrogenous Group Transferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of nitrogenous groups, primarily amino groups, from a donor, generally an amino acid, to an acceptor, usually a 2-oxoacid. EC 2.6.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Vitamin B Complex: A group of water-soluble vitamins, some of which are COENZYMES.Transferases (Other Substituted Phosphate Groups): A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Nerve Endings: Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Autonomic Fibers, Preganglionic: NERVE FIBERS which project from the central nervous system to AUTONOMIC GANGLIA. In the sympathetic division most preganglionic fibers originate with neurons in the intermediolateral column of the SPINAL CORD, exit via ventral roots from upper thoracic through lower lumbar segments, and project to the paravertebral ganglia; there they either terminate in SYNAPSES or continue through the SPLANCHNIC NERVES to the prevertebral ganglia. In the parasympathetic division the fibers originate in neurons of the BRAIN STEM and sacral spinal cord. In both divisions the principal transmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE but peptide cotransmitters may also be released.Methylenetetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase (NADP): An NADP-dependent oxidoreductase that catalyses the conversion of 5,10-methyleneterahydrofolate to 5,10-methenyl-tetrahydrofolate. In higher eukaryotes a trifunctional enzyme exists with additional METHENYLTETRAHYDROFOLATE CYCLOHYDROLASE and FORMATE-TETRAHYDROFOLATE LIGASE activity. The enzyme plays an important role in the synthesis of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, the methyl donor for the VITAMIN B12-dependent remethylation of HOMOCYSTEINE to METHIONINE via METHIONINE SYNTHETASE.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Glycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Dibucaine: A local anesthetic of the amide type now generally used for surface anesthesia. It is one of the most potent and toxic of the long-acting local anesthetics and its parenteral use is restricted to spinal anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1006)Neostigmine: A cholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the effects of muscle relaxants such as gallamine and tubocurarine. Neostigmine, unlike PHYSOSTIGMINE, does not cross the blood-brain barrier.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)3-Deazauridine: 4-Hydroxy-1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-2-pyridinone. Analog of uridine lacking a ring-nitrogen in the 3-position. Functions as an antineoplastic agent.Carnitine: A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.Carnitine O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of O-acetylcarnitine from acetyl-CoA plus carnitine. EC 2.3.1.7.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Neurochemistry: The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of the NERVOUS SYSTEM or its components.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Nicotinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Septum Pellucidum: A triangular double membrane separating the anterior horns of the LATERAL VENTRICLES of the brain. It is situated in the median plane and bounded by the CORPUS CALLOSUM and the body and columns of the FORNIX (BRAIN).Nutrigenomics: The study of the relationship between NUTRITIONAL PHYSIOLOGY and genetic makeup. It includes the effect of different food components on GENE EXPRESSION and how variations in GENES effect responses to food components.Chromatography, Paper: An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Cations, Monovalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or group of atoms with a valence of plus 1, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.CDPdiacylglycerol-Serine O-Phosphatidyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of phosphatidylserine and CMP from CDPdiglyceride plus serine. EC 2.7.8.8.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Organic Cation Transporter 1: An organic cation transporter found in kidney. It is localized to the basal lateral membrane and is likely to be involved in the renal secretion of organic cations.Cinchona Alkaloids: Alkaloids extracted from various species of Cinchona.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit the transport of neurotransmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. For many transmitters, uptake determines the time course of transmitter action so inhibiting uptake prolongs the activity of the transmitter. Blocking uptake may also deplete available transmitter stores. Many clinically important drugs are uptake inhibitors although the indirect reactions of the brain rather than the acute block of uptake itself is often responsible for the therapeutic effects.Osmotic Pressure: The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Deuterium: Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.Anabasine: A piperidine botanical insecticide.Glycerophospholipids: Derivatives of phosphatidic acid in which the hydrophobic regions are composed of two fatty acids and a polar alcohol is joined to the C-3 position of glycerol through a phosphodiester bond. They are named according to their polar head groups, such as phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Stomach, RuminantPrenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Ganglia: Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Abomasum: The fourth stomach of ruminating animals. It is also called the "true" stomach. It is an elongated pear-shaped sac lying on the floor of the abdomen, on the right-hand side, and roughly between the seventh and twelfth ribs. It leads to the beginning of the small intestine. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Muscarinic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.S-Adenosylhomocysteine: 5'-S-(3-Amino-3-carboxypropyl)-5'-thioadenosine. Formed from S-adenosylmethionine after transmethylation reactions.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Receptors, Muscarinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Acetylthiocholine: An agent used as a substrate in assays for cholinesterases, especially to discriminate among enzyme types.Diagnostic Techniques, Radioisotope: Any diagnostic evaluation using radioactive (unstable) isotopes. This diagnosis includes many nuclear medicine procedures as well as radioimmunoassay tests.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Lysophospholipase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a single fatty acid ester bond in lysoglycerophosphatidates with the formation of glyceryl phosphatidates and a fatty acid. EC 3.1.1.5.Depression, Chemical: The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.ButanesTissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Tilapia: A freshwater fish used as an experimental organism and for food. This genus of the family Cichlidae (CICHLIDS) inhabits Central and South America (one species extends north into Texas), West Indies, Africa, Madagascar, Syria, and coastal India.Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Receptors, Cholinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Lecithins: A complex mixture of PHOSPHOLIPIDS; GLYCOLIPIDS; and TRIGLYCERIDES; with substantial amounts of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES; PHOSPHATIDYLETHANOLAMINES; and PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS, which are sometimes loosely termed as 1,2-diacyl-3-phosphocholines. Lecithin is a component of the CELL MEMBRANE and commercially extracted from SOYBEANS and EGG YOLK. The emulsifying and surfactant properties are useful in FOOD ADDITIVES and for forming organogels (GELS).Scopolamine Hydrobromide: An alkaloid from SOLANACEAE, especially DATURA and SCOPOLIA. Scopolamine and its quaternary derivatives act as antimuscarinics like ATROPINE, but may have more central nervous system effects. Among the many uses are as an anesthetic premedication, in URINARY INCONTINENCE, in MOTION SICKNESS, as an antispasmodic, and as a mydriatic and cycloplegic.Bungarotoxins: Neurotoxic proteins from the venom of the banded or Formosan krait (Bungarus multicinctus, an elapid snake). alpha-Bungarotoxin blocks nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and has been used to isolate and study them; beta- and gamma-bungarotoxins act presynaptically causing acetylcholine release and depletion. Both alpha and beta forms have been characterized, the alpha being similar to the large, long or Type II neurotoxins from other elapid venoms.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Glyceryl Ethers: Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Rubidium: An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Coenzyme ACytosine NucleotidesBis-Trimethylammonium Compounds: Compounds containing polymethylene bis-trimethylammonium cations. Members of this group frequently act as ganglionic blockers and neuromuscular depolarizing agents.Phosphatidylinositols: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.

Dietary control of triglyceride and phospholipid synthesis in rat liver slices. (1/2759)

1. The effect of dietary manipulation on the synthesis of triglycerides and phospholipids was investigated by determining the incorporation of labeled long-chain fatty acid or glycerol into these lipids in liver slices derived from normally fed, fasted, and fat-free refed rats. 2. Triglyceride synthesis was affected markedly by the dietary regime of the animal; the lowest rates were measured with fasted rats, and the highest ones with fat-free refed rats. 3. In contrast to triglyceride synthesis, phospholipid synthesis occured at virtually constant rates regardless of the dietary conditions. 4. Addition of large amounts of fatty acid to the incubation mixture resulted in a marked stimulation of triglyceride synthesis, whereas phospholipid synthesis was affected to a much smaller extent. 5. These results indicate that the synthesis of triglycerides and that of phospholipids are controlled independently, and that the availability of fatty acid in the cell contributes to the control of triglyceride synthesis.  (+info)

Inhibition of Echovirus-12 multiplication by N-carbobenzoxy-D-glucosamine. (2/2759)

The glucosamine derivative, N-carbobenzoxy-D-glucosamine (NCBZG) inhibits the multiplication of Echovirus-12 and the synthesis of both virus RNA and protein at a stage in the virus growth cycle after attachment and penetration. However, the compound does not inhibit virus multiplication after the appearance of progeny virus nor after virus RNA has accumulated. Incorporation of radioactive glucosamine and choline into infected and uninfected cultures is inhibited by NCBZG as is the virus-induced increase in choline incorporation. The compound also prevents the appearance of radioactive choline in isolated membranous structures. The compound did not alter significantly the cellular RNA or protein synthesis, plating efficiency of the cells, their growth over a period of several days, nor the virus-directed inhibition of cellular RNA and protein. These findings suggest that the compound inhibits virus multiplication by its effect on the initiation of biosynthesis which appears to require membrane synthesis.  (+info)

Glycine betaine: reserve form of choline in Penicillium fellutanum in low-sulfate medium. (3/2759)

In spite of choline's importance in fungal metabolism, its sources in cytoplasm have not been fully established. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of mycelial extracts from day-5 Penicillium fellutanum cultures showed that, as well as choline-O-sulfate, intracellular glycine betaine is another reserve form of choline, depending on the availability of sulfate in the culture medium. These observations are discussed relative to the multiple roles of choline and its precursors in P. fellutanum.  (+info)

Central nervous system-mediated hyperglycemic effects of NIK-247, a cholinesterase inhibitor, and MKC-231, a choline uptake enhancer, in rats. (4/2759)

We investigated the effects of intracerebroventricular administration of NIK-247 (9-amino-2,3,5,6,7,8-hexahydro-1H-cyclo-penta(b)-quinoline monohydrate hydrochloride; a cholinesterase inhibitor) or MKC-231 (2-(2-oxypyrrolidin-1-yl)-N-(2,3-dimethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofur o[2,3-b]quinolin-4-yl) acetoamide; a choline uptake enhancer) on plasma glucose level in comparison with that of neostigmine administration in rats. The extents of NIK-247- and MKC-231-induced hyperglycemia were considerably less than that by neostigmine, suggesting that the potencies of the drugs to produce the peripheral hyperglycemia may be pharmacologically negligible.  (+info)

Folate nutriture alters choline status of women and men fed low choline diets. (5/2759)

Choline and folate share methylation pathways and, in studies of rats, were shown to be metabolically inter-related. To determine whether choline status is related to folate intake in humans, we measured the effect of controlled folate depletion and repletion on the plasma choline and phosphatidylcholine concentrations of 11 healthy men (33-46 y) and 10 healthy women (49-63 y) fed low-choline diets in two separate metabolic unit studies. Total folate intake was varied by supplementing low folate (25 and 56 microg/d for men and women, respectively) and low choline (238 and 147 mg/d for men and women, respectively) diets with pteroylglutamic acid for 2-6 wk following folate-depletion periods of 4-5 wk. The low folate/choline intakes resulted in subclinical folate deficiencies; mean plasma choline decreases of 28 and 25% in the men and women, respectively; and a plasma phosphatidylcholine decrease of 26% in the men (P < 0. 05). No functional choline deficiency occurred, as measured by serum transaminase and lipid concentrations. The decreases in choline status measures returned to baseline or higher upon moderate folate repletion and were more responsive to folate repletion than plasma folate and homocysteine. Feeding methionine supplements to the men did not prevent plasma choline depletion, indicating that folate is a more limiting nutrient for these methylation pathways. The results indicate that 1) choline is utilized as a methyl donor when folate intake is low, 2) the de novo synthesis of phosphatidylcholine is insufficient to maintain choline status when intakes of folate and choline are low, and 3) dietary choline is required by adults in an amount > 250 mg/d to maintain plasma choline and phosphatidylcholine when folate intake is low.  (+info)

Choline and selective antagonists identify two subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors that modulate GABA release from CA1 interneurons in rat hippocampal slices. (6/2759)

Neuronal nicotinic receptors (nAChR) are known to control transmitter release in the CNS. Thus, this study was aimed at exploring the diversity and localization of nAChRs present in CA1 interneurons in rat hippocampal slices. The use of a U-tube as the agonist delivery system was critical for the reliable detection of nicotinic responses induced by brief exposure of the neurons to ACh or to the alpha7 nAChR-selective agonist choline. The present study demonstrated that CA1 interneurons, in addition to expressing functional alpha7 nAChRs, also express functional alpha4beta2-like nAChRs and that activation of both receptors facilitates an action potential-dependent release of GABA. Depending on the experimental condition, one of the following nicotinic responses was recorded from the interneurons by means of the patch-clamp technique: a nicotinic whole-cell current, depolarization accompanied by action potentials, or GABA-mediated postsynaptic currents (PSCs). Responses mediated by alpha7 nAChRs were short-lasting, whereas those mediated by alpha4beta2 nAChRs were long-lasting. Thus, phasic or tonic inhibition of CA1 interneurons may be achieved by selective activation of alpha7 or alpha4beta2 nAChRs, respectively. It can also be suggested that synaptic levels of choline generated by hydrolysis of ACh in vivo may be sufficient to control the activity of the alpha7 nAChRs. The finding that methyllycaconitine and dihydro-beta-erythroidine (antagonists of alpha7 and alpha4beta2 nAChRs, respectively) increased the frequency and amplitude of GABAergic PSCs suggests that there is an intrinsic cholinergic activity that sustains a basal level of nAChR activity in these interneurons.  (+info)

Absolute quantification of brain metabolites by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in normal-appearing white matter of multiple sclerosis patients. (7/2759)

The aim of this research was to obtain an absolute quantification of the N-acetyl-aspartate, choline, creatine and phosphocreatine levels in normal-appearing white matter by means of 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy in a group of multiple sclerosis patients (27 with the relapsing-remitting form and 13 with the secondary progressive form). These values were compared with those of a group of 12 age-matched healthy control subjects. A significant decrease in the N-acetyl-aspartate concentration was found in normal-appearing white matter of frontal and parietal brain areas in multiple sclerosis patients compared with the same areas in control subjects. This reduction was more evident in progressive patients. The decrease in the N-acetyl-aspartate concentration in normal-appearing white matter significantly correlated with the Expanded Disability Status and the lesional load. No significant change was found in the concentration of creatine or choline. This finding concurs with previous evidence of heterogeneity in the multiple sclerosis pathological process which is not confined to the lesions and involves not only myelin, but also axons, even in white matter which appears normal on MRI.  (+info)

The choline-converting pathway in Staphylococcus xylosus C2A: genetic and physiological characterization. (8/2759)

A Staphylococcus xylosus C2A gene cluster, which encodes enzymes in the pathway for choline uptake and dehydrogenation (cud), to form the osmoprotectant glycine betaine, was identified. The cud locus comprises four genes, three of which encode proteins with significant similarities to those known to be involved in choline transport and conversion in other organisms. The physiological role of the gene products was confirmed by analysis of cud deletion mutants. The fourth gene possibly codes for a regulator protein. Part of the gene cluster was shown to be transcriptionally regulated by choline and elevated NaCl concentrations as inducers.  (+info)

*Choline

... -providing dietary supplement ingredients include: choline chloride, choline bitartrate, citicoline (CDP-choline), L- ... Choline (C5H14NO+) Choline chloride Choline hydroxide Acetylcholine Cytidine diphosphate choline Dimethylethanolamine ... Oxford Dictionaries definition for Choline Merriam-Webster definition of Choline "Choline". Human Metabolome Database. The ... and choline levels within breast milk are correlated with choline levels in maternal blood. Choline consumed via breast milk ...

*Choline oxidase

In enzymology, a choline oxidase (EC 1.1.3.17) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction choline + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle ... "The trimethylammonium headgroup of choline is a major determinant for substrate binding and specificity in choline oxidase". ... Fan F, Gadda G (2005). "On the catalytic mechanism of choline oxidase". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127 (7): 2067-74. doi:10.1021/ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is choline:oxygen 1-oxidoreductase. This enzyme participates in glycine, serine, and ...

*Choline sulfotransferase

This enzyme is also called choline sulphokinase. This enzyme participates in sulfur metabolism. Orsi BA, Spencer B. "Choline ... choline sulfate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate and choline, whereas its two products ... In enzymology, a choline sulfotransferase (EC 2.8.2.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 3'-phosphoadenylyl ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 3'-phosphoadenylyl-sulfate:choline sulfotransferase. ...

*Choline chloride

Other commercial choline salts are choline hydroxide and choline bitartrate. In foodstuffs the compound is often present as ... Choline chloride is an organic compound and a quaternary ammonium salt. It has a choline cation with chloride anion. ... Choline chloride licensed process "Choline chloride" (PDF). Screening Information Data Set (SIDS) for High Production Volume ... In the laboratory choline can be prepared by methylation of dimethylethanolamine with methyl chloride. Johnson Matthey Process ...

*Choline theophyllinate

... (INN), also known as oxtriphylline, is a cough medicine derived from xanthine that acts as a ... Chemically, it is a salt of choline and theophylline. It classifies as an expectorant.[citation needed] The drug is available ...

*Choline monooxygenase

In enzymology, a choline monooxygenase (EC 1.14.15.7) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction choline + O2 + 2 ... "The endogenous choline supply limits glycine betaine synthesis in transgenic tobacco expressing choline monooxygenase". Plant. ... "Glycine betaine synthesis in transgenic tobacco expressing choline monooxygenase is limited by the endogenous choline supply". ... Brouquisse R, Weigel P, Rhodes D, Yocum CF & Hanson AD (1989). "Evidence for a ferredoxin-dependent choline monooxygenase from ...

*Choline transporter

The choline uptake does not change upon the alkalinization of the extracellular medium. Moreover, it was found that the choline ... The choline absorption decreases majorly as a result of the membrane depolarization by the potassium ions. The choline uptake ... Neurons get their choline by specific protein transporters known as choline transporters. In the human brain microvascular ... The first system is known as the Choline transporter-like protein 1, or CTL1. The second system is the Choline transporter-like ...

*Choline kinase

... (also known as CK,ChoK and choline phosphokinase) is an enzyme which catalyzes the first reaction in the choline ... Choline kinase requires magnesium ions (+2) as a cofactor for this reaction. This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases ... Mammalian choline kinases exists in either dimeric or tetrameric forms in solution. Structural studies carried out on CKα-2 ... It has been proposed that in the CKα-2 mechanism, ATP binds first, followed by choline, and then the transfer of the phosphoryl ...

*Choline acetyltransferase

Choline is bound in the active site of ChAT by non-covalent interactions between the positively charged amine of choline and ... In humans, the choline acetyltransferase enzyme is encoded by the CHAT gene. Choline acetyltransferase was first described by ... The choline substrate fits into a pocket in the interior of ChAT, while acetyl-CoA fits into a pocket on the surface of the ... Choline Acetylcholine It is often used as an immunohistochemical marker for motor neurons (motoneurons). Mutants of ChAT have ...

*Choline-sulfatase

... choline + sulfate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are choline sulfate and H2O, whereas its two products are choline and ... In enzymology, a choline-sulfatase (EC 3.1.6.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction choline sulfate + H2O ⇌ {\ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is choline-sulfate sulfohydrolase. Takebe, I. (September 1961). "Isolation and ... characterization of a new enzyme choline sulfatase". Journal of Biochemistry. 50 (3): 245-255. PMID 13919191. Molecular and ...

*Choline dehydrogenase

Other names in common use include choline oxidase, choline-cytochrome c reductase, choline:(acceptor) oxidoreductase, and ... In enzymology, a choline dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.99.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction choline + acceptor ⇌ {\ ... Gadda G, McAllister-Wilkins EE (2003). "Cloning, Expression, and Purification of Choline Dehydrogenase from the Moderate ... Ebisuzaki K, Williams JN (1955). "Preparation and partial purification of soluble choline dehydrogenase from liver mitochondria ...

*Choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase

Other names in common use include phosphorylcholine transferase, CDP-choline pyrophosphorylase, CDP-choline synthetase, choline ... Choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase (EC 2.7.7.15) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction CTP + choline phosphate ... CDP-choline where the two substrates of this enzyme are CTP and choline phosphate, and the two products are diphosphate and CDP ... Williams-Ashman HG, Banks J (1956). "Participation of cytidine coenzymes in the metabolism of choline by seminal vesicles". J. ...

*CDP-choline pathway

Mst other cells will phosphorylate choline by the enzyme choline kinase, the first committed step of CDP-choline pathway. ... Under normal circumstances, choline kinase is not the rate-limiting step of the CDP-choline pathway. However in rapidly ... The uptake of choline is accomplished predominantly by the high-affinity, sodium dependent choline transporter (CHT) and ... Choline kinase (CK) is a cytosolic protein that catalyzes the following reaction: choline + ATP ⇌ phosphocholine + ADP In ...

*Bis-choline tetrathiomolybdate

... has been evaluated in clinical trials in patients with various forms of cancer and has received ... Bis-choline tetrathiomolybdate is a de-coppering therapy in clinical development against Wilson's disease under the code name ... Bis-choline tetrathiomolybdate (or tiomolibdate USAN, trade name Decuprate), is a salt of tetrathiomolybdate (TTM, MoS42−) and ... The data suggest that bis-choline tetrathiomolybdate can rapidly lower and control toxic free copper levels and improve ...

*Choline/ethanolamine kinase family

In molecular biology, the choline/ethanolamine kinase family includes choline kinase(EC 2.7.1.32) and ethanolamine kinase (EC ... There are two putative choline/ethanolamine kinases (C/EKs) in the Trypanosoma brucei genome. Ethanolamine kinase has no ... Kim KH, Voelker DR, Flocco MT, Carman GM (March 1998). "Expression, purification, and characterization of choline kinase, ... the ethanolamine and choline kinases". Biochem. J. 415 (1): 135-44. doi:10.1042/BJ20080435. PMC 2552378 . PMID 18489261. Tian Y ...

*Sinapoylglucose-choline O-sinapoyltransferase

The systematic name of this enzyme class is 1-O-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxycinnamoyl)-beta-D-glucose:choline 1-O-(4-hydroxy-3,5- ... In enzymology, a sinapoylglucose---choline O-sinapoyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.91) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical ... the two substrates of this enzyme are 1-O-sinapoyl-beta-D-glucose and choline, whereas its two products are D-glucose and ... reaction 1-O-sinapoyl-beta-D-glucose + choline ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } D-glucose + sinapoylcholine Thus, ...

*Glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family

The glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) oxidoreductases are FAD flavoproteins oxidoreductases. These enzymes include a variety of ... In molecular biology, the glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase family (GMC oxidoreductase) is a family of enzymes with ... proteins; choline dehydrogenase (CHD) EC 1.1.99.1, methanol oxidase (MOX) EC 1.1.3.13 and cellobiose dehydrogenase EC 1.1.99.18 ...

*1-alkenyl-2-acylglycerol choline phosphotransferase

In enzymology, a 1-alkenyl-2-acylglycerol choline phosphotransferase (EC 2.7.8.22) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is CDP-choline:1-alkenyl-2-acylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase. This enzyme is also ... Wientzek M, Man RY, Choy PC (1987). "Choline glycerophospholipid biosynthesis in the guinea pig heart". Biochem. Cell Biol. 65 ... the two substrates of this enzyme are CDP-choline and 1-alkenyl-2-acylglycerol, whereas its two products are CMP and ...

*Phospho-Energon

Choline; Cupper sulphate; Licorice; Nicotinamide; Pyridoxine; Riboflavin; Thiamine http://www.lakemedelsvarlden.se/zino.aspx? ...

*Almond

The same amount is also a good source (10-19% DV) of the B vitamins thiamine, vitamin B6, and folate; choline; and the ...

*Pigeon pea

Choline; Ca = Calcium; Fe = Iron; Mg = Magnesium; P = Phosphorus; K = Potassium; Na = Sodium; Zn = Zinc; Cu = Copper; Mn = ...

*Transferase

ChAT functions to transfer an acetyl group from acetyl co-enzyme A to choline in the synapses of nerve cells and exists in two ... Choline acetyltransferase (also known as ChAT or CAT) is an important enzyme which produces the neurotransmitter acetylcholine ... Strauss WL, Kemper RR, Jayakar P, Kong CF, Hersh LB, Hilt DC, Rabin M (Feb 1991). "Human choline acetyltransferase gene maps to ... "Choline O-Acetyltransferase". GeneCards: The Human Gene Compendium. Weizmann Institute of Science. Retrieved 5 December 2013. ...

*Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium

3mg choline chloride; 1mg each para-aminobenzoic acid, folic acid, nicotinamide, pyridoxine hydrochloride, and thiamine ...

*Succinylmonocholine

... is an ester of succinic acid and choline created by the metabolism of suxamethonium chloride. Succinic acid ...

*Hypophosphatasia

Alkaline phosphatase Choline "hypophosphatasia". Genetics Home Reference. Whyte MP (2001). "Hypophosphatasia". In Scriver CR, ...
Choline is a crucial nutrient that contributes to several biological functions and serves as a precursor molecule to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Choline is integral to the development and function of the central nervous system, and its availability during the prenatal period has lasting and protective effects on neural function. Researchers have found that prenatal choline supplementation in the rat enhances learning and memory processes later in life, especially those involving spatial memory. Researchers have also demonstrated that choline protects against a number of physical stressors to the neural environment, such as prenatal alcohol exposure, induced seizures, and chronic stress-induced exposure to corticosteroids. Compared to the study of these types of physical stressors, relatively little research has examined the influence of prenatal choline exposure on psychological stress later in life. In an attempt to contribute to this field, the present study examined the effects of prenatal
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Purpose: 11C-Choline positron emission tomography (PET) has been exploited to detect the aberrant choline metabolism in tumors. Radiolabeled choline uptake within the imaging time is primarily a function of transport, phosphorylation and oxidation. Rapid choline oxidation, however, complicates interpretation of PET data. In this study we investigated the biological basis of the oxidation of deuterated choline analogues and assessed their specificity in human tumor xenografts. Experimental Design: 11C-Choline, 11C-methyl-[1,2-2H4]-choline (11C-D4-choline) and 18F-D4-choline were synthesized to permit comparison. Biodistribution, metabolism, small-animal PET studies, and kinetic analysis of tracer uptake were performed in human colon HCT116 xenograft-bearing mice. Results: Oxidation of choline analogs to betaine was highest with 11C-choline, with reduced oxidation observed with 11C-D4-choline and substantially reduced with 18F-D4-choline; suggesting that both fluorination and deuteration were ...
Choline-containing compounds detected by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the basal ganglia in bipolar disorder.: Choline-containing compounds (Cho) we
BACKGROUND. The choline oxidation pathway comprises the sequential metabolism of choline into betaine, dimethylglycine (DMG), and sarcosine. In addition, dietary choline and betaine can be turned into trimethylamine N-amino oxide (TMAO). Alterations in choline metabolism may relate to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Several investigations have focused on systemic concentrations of choline and betaine; however large-scale prospective data are scarce. There is therefore a need for more comprehensive assessments of choline metabolites in relation to incident CVD, T2D and mortality, in addition to investigating any potential benefit in risk prediction from such biomarkers. AIM. We carried out observational cohort studies of the prospective relationships between plasma DMG and incident acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and mortality, as well as the association between systemic and urinary choline metabolites with the risk of incident T2D. The biomarkers impact on model ...
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Group T1 were fed with feed mixed with herbal product (Repchol supplied by Ayurvet Ltd., Baddi, India) @ 500gm/tonne of feed and T2 was given combination of synthetic choline [email protected]/tonne (60%) and biotin @ 150 mg/ton of feed. To study the effect of inclusion of herbal sources of choline and synthetic choline on hepatic lipid metabolism, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were estimated on day 21st and 42nd of experimental study. Gross pathological changes in liver were recorded on representative birds ...
The placental epigenome regulates processes that affect placental and fetal development, and could be mediating some of the reported effects of maternal choline supplementation (MCS) on placental vascular development and nutrient delivery. As an extension of work previously conducted in pregnant mice, the current study sought to explore the effects of MCS on various epigenetic markers in the placenta. RNA and DNA were extracted from placentas collected on embryonic day 15.5 from pregnant mice fed a 1X or 4X choline diet, and were subjected to genome-wide sequencing procedures or mass-spectrometry-based assays to examine placental imprinted gene expression, DNA methylation patterns, and microRNA (miRNA) abundance. MCS yielded a higher (fold change = 1.63-2.25) expression of four imprinted genes (Ampd3, Tfpi2, Gatm and Aqp1) in the female placentas and a lower (fold change = 0.46-0.62) expression of three imprinted genes (Dcn, Qpct and Tnfrsf23) in the male placentas (false discovery rate (FDR) ≤ 0.05
Abstract: This experiment was carried out to evaluation usage different levels of Choline Chloride Supplement (CCS 60%) (0, 500 and 1000 mg kg-1) in the basal diet (corn and soybean meal) and their effects on the different parts of carcass weight (breast and thigh) and internal organs weight (liver, heart, spleen, gizzard, proventriculus and abdominal fat) in broiler chick s. A total of 90 Ross 308 strain mail broiler were randomly divided in to 3 experimental treatments with 3 replicates (10 chicks per pen) and arranged in a completely randomized design. The experimental period lasted 6 weeks and during this period, the birds had free access to feed and water. Experimental diets consisted of: Basal diet 0 mg kg-1 choline chloride supplement, basal diet with 500 mg kg-1 choline chloride supplement and basal diet with 1000 mg kg-1 choline chloride supplement. These diets were isonitrogenous and isoenergetic were given to broiler chickens throughout a 42 day growth period. Data was analyzed with ...
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Read "PET and PET/CT with radiolabeled choline in prostate cancer: a critical reappraisal of 20 years of clinical studies, European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Not all sources of choline are the same. Choline itself is the "basic" form (also referred to as "basic choline") and is usually purchased as "bitartrate." Basic choline is just that-the most "basic" and inexpensive form of choline. It is far less expensive than CDP-choline and as a result, it is used much more often in various supplements. Basic choline does not effectively cross the blood-brain barrier and doesnt reliably increase neural (brain) concentrations of choline. While the basic form of choline does have some benefits to your liver and may help with methylation, its benefits are definitely lacking when it comes to helping your brain.. Another basic form of choline is "choline citrate." This form can have about 50% more choline content than choline bitartrate and may have some other health benefits, such as helping to prevent fatty deposits from accumulating in the liver. Unfortunately, it is also ineffective at crossing the blood-brain barrier or increasing choline concentrations in ...
Magnetic resonance (MR) has become one of the most important diagnostic tools in modern medicine. It provides superior soft tissue contrast compared to other imaging modalities, it is extremely flexible as it can be used to image all parts of the body, and it is considered to be safe for patients.. Today almost all MR is performed in a non-quantitative manner, only by comparing neighbouring tissue in the search for pathology. It is possible to quantify the MR-signals to its physical entities, but time consuming and complicated calibration procedures have prevented this in clinical routine.. In this work two different applications of quantitative MR-spectroscopy in diffuse liver and neurological disease, and a new rapid method for simultaneous quantification of proton density, T1 relaxation and T2* relaxation in MR-imaging are presented.. In Paper I, absolutely quantified phosphorus MR-spectroscopy was tested as a predictive tool in order to determine the degree of fibrosis on patients with ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Jessica A Ash, Ramon Velazquez, Christy M Kelley, Brian E Powers, Stephen D Ginsberg, Elliott J Mufson, Barbara J Strupp].
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Regular physical exercise not only enhances fitness but also has a positive impact on brain metabolism, researchers say. The findings showed that physical activity prevented an increase in choline - a macronutrient thats important for liver function, normal brain development, nerve function, muscle movement, supporting energy levels and maintaining a healthy metabolism.. The concentration of this metabolite often rises as a result of the increased loss of nerve cells, which typically occurs in the case of Alzheimers disease, said Johannes Pantel, Professor at the Goethe University Frankfurt in Germany. In the study, physical exercise led to stable cerebral choline concentrations in the training group, whereas choline levels increased in the control group. The participants physical fitness also improved and they showed increased cardiac efficiency after the training period.. Overall, these findings suggest that physical exercise not only improves physical fitness but also protects cells. To ...
The aim of the present study was to investigate the function of human CTL1 in choline transport. The function of CTL1 as a choline transporter has been demonstrated in the Torpedo electric lobe (40), mouse (57), and rat (16, 40, 47). Human CTL1 was cloned and characterized as a cell-surface antigen in monocytes and differentiating dendritic cells; however, its choline transport was not clearly established (55). This study is the first to establish a functional link between the regulation of surface expression of CTL1 protein and choline transport in monocytes and differentiated macrophages. We realized that the well-known induction process of monocytic cell differentiation to macrophages by PMA is a good model for our study because the PMA/PKC system has the following properties: 1) they contribute to the differentiation processes, 2) they are common modulators of choline uptake in multiple systems, and 3) they are well-documented regulators of surface receptors and transporters (3, 10, 24, ...
Choline chloride is a common additive in animal feeds for both farm animals and pets. Choline is an essential nutritive chemical. Choline is important for cell membrane structure, for synthesizing folic acid and vitamin B12, and for protecting the liver from accumulating fat. ...
PURPOSE: We have previously reported results of a pilot study in patients with locally advanced breast cancer receiving primary systemic chemotherapy (PST) showing that a decrease in tumor choline concentration ([tCho]) measured one day after starting treatment was associated with clinical response based on MRI. In this follow-up study with a larger cohort, we assessed whether early changes in [tCho] were associated with clinical response, based on both MRI and pathology, and survival.. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Women with locally advanced breast cancer scheduled for PST were scanned using a high-field MRI/MRS protocol prior to treatment, day 1 after treatment, and at the end of the first course of chemotherapy. MRI/MRS was performed on a 4 T Varian system with unilateral transmit/receive breast coils. MRI consisted of contrast-enhanced T1-weighted 3D gradient echo scans with one-minute temporal resolution. A single-voxel MR spectrum was acquired from the index lesion after MRI, and the ...
To compare the blood flow in tumors before therapy with the concentration of choline, an indicator of cell proliferation. This choline concentration can be measured with another MRI technique. This information will demonstrate the relationship between cell proliferation and blood supply and will also determine whether the choline measurement adds additional information that is clinically necessary ...
CDP Choline sodium capsules are a convenient way to increase choline levels in the brain without the bitter taste. Free Shipping for orders over $35.
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Learn more about Choline at Grand Strand Medical Center Uses Principal Proposed Uses Alzheimers Disease ...
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Advanced imaging of veterinary cancer patients has evolved in recent years and modalities once limited to human medicine have now been described for diagnostic purposes in veterinary medicine (positron emission tomography/computed tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, whole body magnetic resonance imaging). Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive and non-ionizing technique that is well described in the human medical literature and is most frequently used to evaluate the metabolic activity of tissues with questionable malignant transformation. Differentiation of neoplastic tissue from surrounding normal tissue is dependent on variations in cellular metabolism. Choline (Cho) levels have been described as diagnostic markers for malignancy for many different tumor types in vivo and ex vivo (tissue biopsies). Monitoring of pre- and post-therapy choline metabolites in tumors has also been performed to evaluate a patients response to cancer treatment. Positive ...
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Définitions de Hemicholinium-3, synonymes, antonymes, dérivés de Hemicholinium-3, dictionnaire analogique de Hemicholinium-3 (anglais)
Electrical stimulation of the chick ciliary nerve leads to a frequency-dependent increase in the Na+-dependent high affinity uptake of [3H]choline (SDHACU) and its conversion to acetylcholine (ACh) in the nerve terminals innervating the iris muscle. The forces that drive this choline (Ch) uptake across the presynaptic membrane were evaluated. Depolarization with increased [K+] out or veratridine decreases Ch accumulation. In addition to the electrical driving force, energy is provided by the Na+ gradient. Inhibition of the Na,K-ATPase decreased the Ch taken up. Thus, changes in the rate of Ch transport are dependent on the electrochemical gradients for both Ch and Na+. Ch uptake and ACh synthesis were increased after a conditioning preincubation with high [K+] out or veratridine. As is the case for electrical stimulation, this acceleration of Ch uptake and ACh synthesis was strongly dependent on the presence of Ca++ in the incubation medium. Na+ influx through a TTX-sensitive channel also ...
Choline for ACh biosynthesis can potentially be supplied through three pathways: (1) de novo synthesis, (2) uptake of free choline by low- and high-affinity transporters, and (3) turnover of membrane phospholipids. Assessing the relative contributions of these pathways from the literature is somewhat difficult. Observations on the mouse CHT knockout suggest that choline uptake through the high-affinity transporter is critical for the synthesis of synaptically releasable pools of ACh (Ferguson et al. 2004). However, as noted earlier, researchers have also reported that a small, but significant fraction (∼20%) of ACh synthesis is independent of HC-3-sensitive choline uptake (Birks and Macintosh 1957; Guyenet et al. 1973). Other researchers have demonstrated that neuroendocrine cells are capable of synthesizing and releasing ACh in the absence of detectable CHT expression (Bauerfeind et al. 1993; Ferguson et al. 2003). These observations are generally attributed to the activity of low-affinity ...
Blusztajn, J. K., and Berse, B. (2000) The cholinergic neuronal phenotype in Alzheimers disease. Metab Brain Dis 15, 45-64 PubMed. · Farber, S. A., Slack, B. E., and Blusztajn, J. K. (2000) Acceleration of phosphatidylcholine synthesis and breakdown by inhibitors of mitochondrial function in neuronal cells: a model of the membrane defect of Alzheimers disease. FASEB J 14, 2198-2206 PubMed. · Lopez-Coviella, I., Berse, B., Krauss, R., Thies, R. S., and Blusztajn, J. K. (2000) Induction and maintenance of the neuronal cholinergic phenotype in the central nervous system by BMP-9. Science 289, 313-316 PubMed. · Yang, Y., Liu, Z., Cermak, J. M., Tandon, P., Sarkisian, M. R., Stafstrom, C. E., Neill, J. C., Blusztajn, J. K., and Holmes, G. L. (2000) Protective effects of prenatal choline supplementation on seizure-induced memory impairment. J Neurosci 20, RC109 PubMed · Guo-Ross, S. X., Clark, S., Montoya, D. A., Jones, K. H., Obernier, J., Shetty, A. K., White, A. M., Blusztajn, J. K., Wilson, ...
And in the unfortunate case that you do believe that you are running short of choline, because you dont eat all the good choline containing foods out of ethical or whatever other reasons, and thus insist on supplementing, I suggest you yourself a 500g container of choline bitartrate powder (dont let that become wet, though! It will stink like rotten fish ;-). Those 500g of choline bitartrate (40% choline, 60% tartate) will cost you about as much as 60x300mg caps of the overpriced GPC and has been "scientifically proven" (not in supplement company terms, but in SuppVersity terms) to safely increase circulating and brain choline levels and its metabolites after oral ingestion, as well (Stoll. 1996; Babb. 2004). And lets be honest, even if the effects on growth hormone were GPC specific - even on the boards, people have meanwhile realized none of those arginine + lysine GH boosters does make a difference and not because they would not produce transient increases in GH, but simply because those ...
PtdCho is a major component of eukaryotic but not prokaryotic membranes. We demonstrate for the first time that a bacterium can inhibit the de novo synthesis of PtdCho in human cells. Significantly, this inhibition triggers apoptosis. Although inhibition of PtdCho biosynthesis initiates apoptosis in cells exposed to xenobiotics (13-15, 17, 28), in mutant cells with genetic CCT dysfunction (40), or in nutritional choline deprivation (18, 31), the response of human cells to pneumococcus is the first case where this mechanism plays a critical role in pathogenesis.. In the brain, PtdCho has an additional role as a precursor for the biosynthesis of the important neurotransmitter acetylcholine. It is unlikely that acetylcholine deprivation accounts for the observed pneumococcal-induced neuronal cell death because a low level of acetylcholine is not known to be a death signal and PtdCho serves as a reservoir of choline for acetylcholine biosynthesis under conditions of nutritional choline deprivation ...
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The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) is bound with 50-micromolar affinity by a completely synthetic receptor (host) comprising primarily aromatic rings. The host provided an overall hydrophobic binding site, but one that could recognize the positive charge of the quaternary ammonium group of ACh through a stabilizing interaction with the electron-rich π systems of the aromatic rings (cation-π interaction). Similar interactions may be involved in biological recognition of ACh and other choline derivatives. ...
Background: Choline status has been associated with stunting among young children. Findings from this study showed that an egg intervention improved linear growth by a length-for-age z score of 0.63.Objective: We aimed to test the efficacy of eggs introduced early in complementary feeding on plasma concentrations of biomarkers in choline pathways, vitamins B-12 and A, and
Choline is really a water-soluble nutrient needed for individual life. [1 stress] and [1 stress]; see Desk?S1?within the supplemental materials) were tested for choline intake and TMA creation from choline HDAC inhibitor under anaerobic circumstances. All strains had been inoculated within a diluted gut moderate (Desk?S2) supplemented with 15?mM choline and incubated for 24?h within […]. ...
November 26, 2012 -- Taking extra choline during pregnancy does not improve babies language and memory skills, according to a new study. I think eating the...
[65 Pages Report] Check for Discount on choline dihydrogen citrate Global Market and Forecast Research report by ChemReport. DescriptionWe provide independent and unbiased information on manufacturers, prices, production...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and intracranial tumours. T2 - Clinical perspectives. AU - Falini, Andrea. AU - Calabrese, Giovanna. AU - Origgi, Daniela. AU - Lipari, Susanna. AU - Triulzi, Fabio. AU - Losa, Marco. AU - Scotti, Giuseppe. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1H-MRS) was applied to characterize intracranial tumours of different hystological types. Seventy patients with intracranial neoplasms were studied before receiving surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy. All tumours were characterized by reduced or absent N-acetylaspartate and increased signal from choline-containing compounds. Distinctive patterns were observed only for primitive brain neo-plasms; high-grade gliomas were differentiated from low-grade ones by higher levels of choline-containing compounds. The metabolic aspects of metastatic lesions were similar to high-grade gliomas. These results, together with the limitations of 1H-MRS and future applications are ...
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked genetic disorder primarily affecting young boys, often causing mental retardation in addition to the well-known progressive muscular weakness. Normal dystrophin expression is lacking in skeletal muscle and the central nervous system (CNS) of both DMD children and the mdx mouse model. The underlying biochemical lesion causing mental impairment in DMD is unknown. 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) detects choline-containing compounds, creatine and N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) in vivo. NAA is commonly used as a chemical marker for neurons, and a decline in NAA is thought to correlate with neuronal loss. Control mice were compared to mdx using a combination of in vivo and in vitro 1H-MRS methods to determine whether neural necrosis or developmental abnormalities occur in dystrophic brain. NAA levels were normal in mdx brain compared to controls suggesting minor, if any, neuronal necrosis in dystrophic brain. In contrast, choline compounds and myo
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked genetic disorder primarily affecting young boys, often causing mental retardation in addition to the well-known progressive muscular weakness. Normal dystrophin expression is lacking in skeletal muscle and the central nervous system (CNS) of both DMD children and the mdx mouse model. The underlying biochemical lesion causing mental impairment in DMD is unknown. 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) detects choline-containing compounds, creatine and N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) in vivo. NAA is commonly used as a chemical marker for neurons, and a decline in NAA is thought to correlate with neuronal loss. Control mice were compared to mdx using a combination of in vivo and in vitro 1H-MRS methods to determine whether neural necrosis or developmental abnormalities occur in dystrophic brain. NAA levels were normal in mdx brain compared to controls suggesting minor, if any, neuronal necrosis in dystrophic brain. In contrast, choline compounds and myo
Administration of dexamethasone to pregnant rats at 19 days gestation increased phosphatidylcholine synthesis (45%) from radioactive choline in type II cells. This enhanced synthesis of phosphatidylcholine was accompanied by an increased conversion of choline phosphate into CDP-choline. Similar results were obtained by incubating organotypic cultures of 19-day-fetal rat lung with cortisol. The increased conversion of choline phosphate into CDP-choline correlated with an enhanced choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase activity (31% after dexamethasone treatment; 47% after cortisol exposure) in the cell homogenates. A similar increase (26% after dexamethasone treatment; 39% after cortisol exposure) was found in the microsomal-associated enzyme. No differences in cytosolic enzyme activity were observed. The specific activity of the microsomal enzyme was 3-4 times that of the cytosolic enzyme. Most of the enzyme activity was located in the microsomal fraction (58-65%). The treatments had no effect ...
We aimed to elucidate the effects of caloric and non-caloric sweeteners on liver lipid metabolism in rats using in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and to determine their roles in the development of liver steatosis. Wistar rats received normal chow and either normal drinking water, or solutions containing 13% (w/v) glucose, 13% fructose, or 0.4% aspartame. After 7 weeks, in vivo hepatic dietary lipid uptake and de novo lipogenesis were assessed with proton-observed, carbon-13-edited MRS combined with 13C-labeled lipids and 13C-labeled glucose, respectively. The molecular basis of alterations in hepatic liver metabolism was analyzed in detail ex vivo using immunoblotting and targeted quantitative proteomics. Both glucose and fructose feeding increased adiposity, but only fructose induced hepatic lipid accumulation. In vivo MRS showed that this was not caused by increased hepatic uptake of dietary lipids, but could be attributed to an increase in de novo lipogenesis. Stimulation of lipogenesis
More than 70% of the patients undergoing surgery in the USA, experience moderate to severe pain after the surgery in spite of being treated for pain. We will test whether choline will produce an effective additional analgesic action for postoperative pain treatment. Choline and lecithin are safe and are available for consumers as over-the-counter nutritional supplements. Choline supplementation decreases postoperative pain in rodents. Also Nicotine decreases postoperative pain in humans and since choline acts on the same receptors as nicotine, choline supplementation may be effective as an analgesic without the risks of addiction and the side effects like high heart rate and blood pressure.. Sixty women between the ages 18 and 60 undergoing open abdominal gynecological surgeries will be studied. We will not study people with chronic pain, drug abuse, and/or nicotine use over the past six months, current pregnancy or breastfeeding, allergy to soy, or inability to take any drug that we will use in ...
A method for the rapid and quantitative separation of glycerophosphocholine, choline phosphate and choline upon ion-exchange columns is described. The method has been utilized to examine the stimulation of phosphatidylcholine breakdown in quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells in response to bombesin and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). The stimulated generation of choline is shown to precede that of choline phosphate, with no effect upon glycerophosphocholine levels; but was attenuated in cells in which protein kinase C activity was down-regulated. The results thus suggest that stimulation of the cells with either bombesin or TPA activates phospholipase D-catalysed phosphatidylcholine breakdown by a common mechanism involving the activation of protein kinase C. ...
1. Erythrocyte choline transport was studied in 10 haemodialysis patients immediately before and after a haemodialysis session and in 10 control subjects. Choline uptake was measured in erythrocytes from normal and uraemic patients after washing in vitro and subsequent incubation in autologous plasma. Amines present in uraemic plasma were examined for their effect on choline transport in normal erythrocytes.. 2. NMR spectroscopy was used to measure choline, trimethylamine and dimethylamine in erythrocyte extracts from nine control subjects, 32 subjects with renal impairment and nine samples from haemodialysis patients.. 3. The increased choline influx in uraemic erythrocytes is significantly decreased by prior haemodialysis (mean Vmax pre-dialysis 146±20 μmol h−1 I−1, postdialysis 113±13 μ/mol h-1 I−1 (P , 0.005). After in vitro washing there is a fall in Vmax, and no longer any significant difference between pre- and post-dialysis samples. There remains a significant difference in the ...
Background: Single-volume proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) has considerable diagnostic potential for Alzheimers disease (AD). This study investigated 1H MRS in specific regions of the brain, the posterior cingulate gyri (PCG) and the hippocampus, in patients with AD, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and in normal control subjects.. Methods: 1H MRS analysis was carried out on 47 patients with AD, 32 patients with aMCI and 56 normal control subjects (NC group). Volumes of the PCG and hippocampus were assessed, and the metabolic signals of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline compounds (Cho), myo-inositol (mI), and creatine (Cr) were quantified.. Results: In the PCG, differences between the test groups were found in NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, mI/Cr and NAA/mI ratios. Group differences were also found in mI/Cr and NAA/mI ratios in the left hippocampus, and in mI/Cr and NAA/mI ratios in the right hippocampus. NAA/Cr ratios increased in the PCG between AD and aMCI patients, and between aMCI ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Impaired acetylcholine synthesis accompanying reduced pyruvate oxidation in rat brain minces. AU - Gibson, G. E.. AU - Jope, Richard S. AU - Blass, J. P.. PY - 1974/12/1. Y1 - 1974/12/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0016230974&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0016230974&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Chapter. AN - SCOPUS:0016230974. VL - 5. BT - TRANS.AMER.SOC.NEUROCHEM.. ER - ...
Glycerophosphorylcholine (GPC) is a choline derivative and one of the two major forms of choline storage (along with phosphocholine) in the cytosol. Glycerophosphorylcholine is also one of the four major organic osmolytes in renal medullary cells, changing their intracellular osmolyte concentration in parallel with extracellular tonicity during cellular osmoadaptation. As an osmolyte, Glycerophosphorylcholine counteracts the effects of urea on enzymes and other macromolecules. Kidneys (especially medullar cells), which are exposed under normal physiological conditions to widely fluctuating extracellular solute concentrations, respond to hypertonic stress by accumulating the organic osmolytes glycerophosphorylcholine (GPC), betaine, myo-inositol, sorbitol and free amino acids. Increased intracellular contents of these osmolytes are achieved by a combination of increased uptake (myo-inositol and betaine) and synthesis (sorbitol, GPC), decreased degradation (GPC) and reduced osmolyte release. GPC ...
This study showed the feasibility of acquiring 3D MR spectroscopic imaging of the neonatal brain. The results of this study also indicate that both metabolite intensities and ratios of metabolite intensities in the neonate vary with both anatomic location and postconceptional age. These observations are consistent with the fact that different parts of the human brain undergo biochemical maturation at different rates (23-25). The results from this MR spectroscopic imaging study highlight the importance of considering the precise anatomic location and age of the participant when interpreting clinical MR spectroscopy data of neonates.. Relatively few MR spectroscopy studies of the newborn brain have been reported (1-12). Both phosphorus and proton MR spectroscopy techniques have been applied, with the majority of the more recent studies using proton MR spectroscopy because of its greater inherent sensitivity. These studies have shown the ability of MR spectroscopy to detect differences in cellular ...
Our understanding of the impact of poor hepatic choline/phosphatidylcholine availability in promoting the steatosis characteristic of human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has recently advanced and possibly relates to phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylethanolamine concentrations in various, membranes as well as cholesterol dysregulation. A role for choline/phosphatidylcholine availability in the progression of NAFLD to liver injury and serious hepatic consequences in some individuals requires further elucidation. There are many reasons for poor choline/phosphatidylcholine availability in the liver, including low intake, estrogen status, and genetic polymorphisms affecting, in particular, the pathway for hepatic de novo phosphatidylcholine synthesis. In addition to free choline, phosphatidylcholine has been identified as a substrate for trimethylamine production by certain intestinal bacteria, thereby reducing host choline bioavailability and providing an additional link to the increased risk of
1. Cho SG, Lee DH, Lee KY, Ji H, Lee KH, Ros PR, Suh CH. Differentiation of Chronic Focal Pancreatitis from Pancreatic Carcinoma by in Vivo Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2005;29:163-169 ...
IMPORTANCE: Developmental stuttering is a neuropsychiatric condition of incompletely understood brain origin. Our recent functional magnetic resonance imaging study indicates a possible partial basis of stuttering in circuits enacting self-regulation of motor activity, attention, and emotion.. OBJECTIVE: To further characterize the neurophysiology of stuttering through in vivo assay of neurometabolites in suspect brain regions.. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Proton chemical shift imaging of the brain was performed in a case-control study of children and adults with and without stuttering. Recruitment, assessment, and magnetic resonance imaging were performed in an academic research setting.. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Ratios of N-acetyl-aspartate plus N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAA) to creatine (Cr) and choline compounds (Cho) to Cr in widespread cerebral cortical, white matter, and subcortical regions were analyzed using region of interest and data-driven voxel-based ...
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17,18,71 Its favorable fast on-off binding kinetics gives this compound an improved side-effect profile compared with other N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA). antagonists such as MK-801.71 NGP1-01 was shown also to be an uncompetitive NMDA antagonist in murine whole brain synaptoneurosomes and blocked NMDA-mediated 45Ca2+ uptake with an IC50 of 2.98 μM.72 Figure 11 Structures of memantine-derived glutamate Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical antagonists possessing calcium channel-blocking properties. In a recent paper Kiewert et al.73 showed that NGP1-01 (at 1 μM) inhibited depolarization-induced calcium influx by 78% in cortical neurons preloaded with fura-2 AM, with a potency similar to that of nimodipine, while simultaneously inhibiting NMDA-induced (1 mM) calcium influx by 52%, only slightly less potent than. memantine. Using in-vivo microdialysis, choline release was monitored during NMDA infusion as a measure of excitotoxic membrane Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical break-down. ...
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Chris Masterjohn has written extensively about choline deficiency and its relationship to fatty liver disease which affects as many as 100 million Americans and is often attributed to excess alcohol and sugar consumption by conventional practitioners. After a review of the literature, Masterjohn concludes that choline deficiency plays a role in virtually every type of diet-induced fatty liver model, and that adequate dietary choline is essential for proper liver function. He also suggests that high consumption of dietary fat, including saturated fats, increases the amount of choline required to prevent the accumulation of fat in the liver. (6 ...
Hepatocler information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Heralds do Brasil, Hepatocler indications, usages and related health products lists
HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy was employed to monitor the metabolic profiles of Modena BioBank breast samples over 1 year of freezing at -80 C. The study includes 22 adult female patients living in Modena and its hinterland, who underwent total mastectomy or quadrantectomy in 2011-2012. Variations occur, especially affecting phosphocholine (PC) and choline. This is not a trivial finding, since many studies base the distinction between neoplastic and healthy tissues or the assessment of tumor grade on the analysis of choline metabolites. Despite the changes observed, we established that the diagnostic power of the HR-MAS NMR spectra of frozen samples is preserved, at least as far as the distinction between neoplastic and healthy samples is concerned. Lactate (Lac), PC, phosphoethanolamine (PE), taurine (Tau), myo-inositol (Myo) and glucose (Glc) are biomarkers that can be used to distinguish healthy from neoplastic tissues, whereas some metabolite ratios, such as Lac ? PE ? Tau/Glc ? Myo, seem to have ...
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METHODS Fifty-one subjects (7 weeks to 17 years of age), 22 with either hereditary (n = 16) or acquired (n = 6) neurodegenerative disorders and 29 age-matched control subjects, were studied with combined proton MR spectroscopy and MR imaging. Single-voxel (2.0-8.0 cc) MR spectra were acquired at 1.5 T, with either short-echo-stimulated echoes and/or long-echo spin echoes. ...
B-Complex for Maximum Effectiveness Supports Energy Production* B-100 Tabs provide a full complement of B-Vitamins plus Choline and Inositol.
(2012) Yue et al. PLoS ONE. Background: The brain biochemical changes of social anxiety have not been clarified although there have been a limited number of MR spectroscopic studies which utilized metabolite/creatine ratios. Present study aimed to explore the alteration of absolute metabolite con...
Most experts dont recommend one-week cleanse programs. They can be very low in calories and lacking in essential nutrients. Check with your doctor first.
A new study finds an association between two genes involved in choline metabolism and the risk of spina bifida. The study, published in the open access journal BMC Medicine, also shows that this association is independent of dietary choline intake by the mother during pregnancy.. Choline is a nutrient, essential for cardiovascular and brain function, and for cellular membrane composition and repair. Often taken as a lecithin supplement, choline is found in beef liver, egg yolk, peanuts, sunflower seeds, cauliflower and soy. Recent studies had suggested that choline intake during pregnancy might decrease the risk of spina bifida.. James Enaw, from the Texas A&M University System Health Science Center in Houston, Texas and colleagues from the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program, analyzed the presence of two specific variants of the genes encoding the enzymes human choline esterase A (CHKA) and CTP:Phosphocholine cytidylytransferase(PCYT1A) in 103 infants suffering from spina bifida and 338 ...
Studies performed during the past decade have shown that the rates at which certain neurons produce and release their neurotransmitters can be affected by precursor availability, and thus by the changes in plasma composition that occur after ingestion of the precursors in purified form or as constituents of foods. Thus, tryptophan administration or a plasma ratio of tryptophan to other large neutral amino acids, thereby raising brain tryptophan levels, increasing the substrate saturation of tryptophan hydroxylase, and accelerating the synthesis and release of serotonin. Tyrosine administration or a high-protein meal similarly elevates brain tyrosine and can accelerate catecholamine synthesis in the CNS and sympathoadrenal cells, while the consumption of lecithin or choline increases brain choline levels and neuronal acetylcholine synthesis. The physiologic and biochemical mechanisms that must exist in order for nutrient consumption to affect neurotransmitte synthesis have been characterized and ...
One hallmark of cancer is an increase of cellular phosphocholine (PC) and total choline-containing compounds (tCho), which are closely related to malignant transformation, invasion and metastasis. Enzymes in choline metabolism present attractive targets that can be exploited for treatment. Choline kinase (Chk) is a cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of choline (Cho) to phosphocholine (PC) by using ATP in the presence of magnesium. Over-expression of Chk-α has been observed in breast, prostate and lung cancers, making it an obvious choice for targeting. Down-regulation of Chk-α results in a significant reduction of cell proliferation and increased differentiation in highly invasive MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells after siRNA-Chk transfection. Another potential target is phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase D (PC-PLD). Two mammalian isoforms of PLD, PLD1 and PLD2 have currently been identified. PLD1 is activated by G proteins such as ARF, Rho and Rac. Elevated PLD1 ...
Plasma free choline, betaine and cognitive performance: the Hordaland Health Study - Volume 109 Issue 3 - Eha Nurk, Helga Refsum, Ingvar Bjelland, Christian A. Drevon, Grethe S. Tell, Per M. Ueland, Stein E. Vollset, Knut Engedal, Harald A. Nygaard, David A. Smith
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) provides specific metabolic information not otherwise observable by any other imaging method. 1H-MRS of the brain at 3 T is a new tool in the modern...
China Nutrition Enhancer Inositol Powder CAS 87-89-8, Find details about China Folic Acid, Choline Chloride from Nutrition Enhancer Inositol Powder CAS 87-89-8 - Hugestone Enterprise Co., Ltd.
A new phantom and evaluation method for experimental evaluation of 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy single volume localization techniques regarding signal contamination (C), defined as the part of the signal originating outside the volume of interest, is presented. The quality assessment method is based on a spherical phantom with an oil/water interface in order to reduce susceptibility effects, and applied for stimulated-echo acquisition method (STEAM) and spin-echo (SE) sequences, echo times of 270, 135, and 10 ms, and cubic volumes of interest (VOI) of 1(3), 1.5(3), 2(3), 2.5(3), and 3(3) cm3. To be able to mimic measurements of the contamination in three dimensions the physical gradients representing the three orthogonal directions for slice selection were shifted in the pulse sequences. Contamination values in one dimension differed between 6.5% and 8.4% in SE sequences, and between 0.7% and 13.8% in STEAM sequences. In STEAM sequences a decrease of C with increasing VOI size was observed ...
MR spectroscopy (MRS) allows tissue to be interrogated for the presence and concentration of various metabolites. Grossman and Yousem said If you need this to help you, go back to page 1; everything except Canavan has low NAA, high Choline. Thi...
... is a vitamin supplement that is present in several forms, including phosphatidylcholine (PC). The medicinal effects of choline are presumed to be caused by phosphatidylcholine. PC is a major part of the membranes surrounding our cells. When PC is eaten, it is broken down into choline rather than being carried directly to the cell membranes. Choline acts like another commonly used supplement, SAMe (S-adenosylmethionine), to provide the methyl groups used by the body in a number of chemical reactions, including the detoxification pathways of the liver. It is also used to make acetylcholine and dopamine, nerve chemicals essential for normal brain function. Choline may also aid in brain and liver function by assisting with the absorption of carnitine from the digestive tract. Carnitine is essential for mitochondrial function, ensuring the liver and brain have an adequate supply of energy.. ...
|p|1. Ajram LA, Pereira AC, Durieux AMS, Velthius HE, Petrinovic MM, McAlonan GM. The contribution of [1H] magnetic resonance spectroscopy to the (...)|/p|
Allcosmeticsource.com Phosphatidylcholine 70%, 1KG/BAG [216]- INTRODUCTION What is Phosphatidylcholine? Phosphatidylcholine is an integral component of every cell in the human body. Consumed regularly as part of our normal diets, Phosphatidylcholine has also been proven safe and effective over decades of study as a therapeutic agent. Researched extensively by scientists, Phosphatidylcholine has been shown to play a vital role
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and the related technique of magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) are widely used in both clinical and preclinical research for the non-invasive evalua
There are over 90 Essential Nutrients that your body needs daily. 112 Essentials Pack contains over 90 essential minerals, vitamins, amino acids, and fatty acids.
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Caryn L. Elsegood is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: The Murine Choline-Deficient, Ethionine-Supplemented (CDE) Diet Model of Chronic Liver Injury
On MR imaging, the white matter lesions, which could be seen in the subacute stage, but not in the acute or chronic stage, might represent edema due to postinfectious neuroallergic phenomena. Immunohistochemical detection of HSV antigen is depicted in B. The sparse amount of literature on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in patients with herpes simplex type 1 encephalitis is discussed. Here is MRI Brain with single voxel MRI Spectroscopy. MR spectra of bilateral temporal lobes were acquired by the single voxel method using 1.5T unit. We performed MR imaging and 1H MR spectroscopy of the brain in patients with different types of primary mitochondrial diseases to investigate the role of 1H MR spectroscopy in the clinical evaluation of these disorders. Theyre usually red in colour and will develop a white head.. Although the clinical picture has been well established for some time, clinical diagnosis is attained in only 20% of the cases. Although these conditions are similar with regard to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ethylcholine mustard aziridinium blocks the axoplasmic transport of acetylcholinesterase in cholinergic nerve fibres of the rat. AU - Kása, P.. AU - Hanin, I.. PY - 1985/7. Y1 - 1985/7. N2 - A cholinotoxin, ethylcholine mustard aziridinium ion, (AF64A) specifically and ireversibly blocks the intraaxonal transport of acetylcholinesterase in the rat. Impairment of the transport of this enzyme in the septo-hippocampal cholinergic fibres and in the sciatic nerve has been studied, using different doses of AF64A. It is demonstrated that the effect on the axonal transport is dose-dependent, but is not related to the mode of drug application. AF64A thus may exert its neurotoxic effects on cholinergic neurons at several target sites of action. In addition to the localized presynaptic mechanisms, it may also be compromising cholinergic function by inhibiting axonal transport in vivo.. AB - A cholinotoxin, ethylcholine mustard aziridinium ion, (AF64A) specifically and ireversibly blocks ...
Definition of cytidine diphosphate choline. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
The blog of MEBO Research, a USA registered Public Charity, a pro-active patient advocacy group for sufferers of systemic malodors and all types of body odor and/or halitosis
AIMS: Emerging evidence shows, that distal symmetric peripheral neuropathy (DSPN) also involves alterations in the central nervous system. Hence, the aims were to investigate brain metabolites in white matter of adults with diabetes and DSPN, and to compare any cerebral disparities with peripheral nerve characteristics.. METHODS: In type 1 diabetes, brain metabolites of 47 adults with confirmed DSPN were compared with 28 matched healthy controls using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS) in the parietal region including the sensorimotor fiber tracts.. RESULTS: Adults with diabetes had 9.3% lower ratio of N-acetylaspartate/creatine (NAA/cre) in comparison to healthy (p , 0.001). Lower NAA/cre was associated with lower sural (p = 0.01) and tibial (p = 0.04) nerve amplitudes, longer diabetes duration (p = 0.03) and higher age (p = 0.03). In addition, NAA/cre was significantly lower in the subgroup with proliferative retinopathy as compared to the subgroup with non-proliferative ...
Sabatini, B. L., Svoboda, K. (2000) Analysis of calcium channels in single spines using optical fluctuation analysis. Nature, 408 (6812). pp. 589-593. ISSN 0028-0836 Sacktor, T. C., Osten, P., Valsamis, H., Jiang, X., Naik, M. U., Sublette, E. (1993) Persistent activation of the ζ isoform of protein kinase C in the maintenance of long-term potentiation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 90 (18). pp. 8342-8346. ISSN 00278424 (ISSN) Sartorius, A., Neumann-Haefelin, C., Vollmayr, B., Hoehn, M., Henn, F. A. (2003) Choline rise in the rat hippocampus induced by electroconvulsive shock treatment. Biological Psychiatry, 53 (7). pp. 620-3. ISSN 0006-3223 Sartorius, A., Schloss, P., Vollmayr, B., Ende, G., Neumann-Haefelin, C., Hoehn, M., Henn, F. A. (2006) Correlation between MR-spectroscopic rat hippocampal choline levels and phospholipase A2. World J Biol Psychiatry, 7 (4). pp. 246-50. ISSN 1562-2975 (Print)1562-2975 (Linking) Schmitt, A., Weber, S., ...
In prostate cancer, citrate may be a marker of responsiveness to treatment based on a pilot study where 16 high-risk prostate cancer patients were treated with chemotherapy, hormones, radical prostatectomy, or radiotherapy, and subsequently followed with prostate-specific antigen monitoring, MRI, and MRSI (53, 54). A risk score using MRSI was developed based on both tumor volume and metabolic abnormality. The MRSI score and MRI tumor/node stage was then used to determine prostate-specific antigen relapse and was predictive in 15 of 16 cases.. There is an ongoing effort by the National Cancer Institute, researchers, clinicians, and industry to expand the use of metabolomics, with particular attention to MRSI for the assessment of therapeutic response (55). Choline phospholipid metabolism intermediates have been deemed a potential biomarker for monitoring treatment efficacy in a variety of human cancers (reviewed in ref. 12). In general, a decrease in the tCho signal on 1H-NMR equates to a ...
Mollusk Venoms: Venoms from mollusks, including CONUS and OCTOPUS species. The venoms contain proteins, enzymes, choline derivatives, slow-reacting substances, and several characterized polypeptide toxins that affect the nervous system. Mollusk venoms include cephalotoxin, venerupin, maculotoxin, surugatoxin, conotoxins, and murexine.
In the present study, (1)H HRMAS NMR spectroscopy was used to assess the changes in the intracellular metabolic profile of MG-63 human osteosarcoma (OS) cells induced by the chemotherapy agent cisplatin (CDDP) at different times of exposure. Multivariate analysis was applied to the cells spectra, enabling consistent variation patterns to be detected and drug-specific metabolic effects to be identified. Statistical recoupling of variables (SRV) analysis and spectral integration enabled the most relevant spectral changes to be evaluated, revealing significant time-dependent alterations in lipids, choline-containing compounds, some amino acids, polyalcohols, and nitrogenated bases. The metabolic relevance of these compounds in the response of MG-63 cells to CDDP treatment is discussed.
Doctors Best Natural Brain Enhancers combine GlyceroPhosphoCholine and Phosphatidylserine, two essential phospholipids for brain health and optimum cognitive functions. They support memory, attention, learning, and concentration.
CDP-choline stands for cytidine-5Í-diphosphate choline. This unique form of choline readily passes through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) directly into the brain tissue. Once past the blood-brain barrier, CDP-choline activates the synthesis of critical components in cell membranes, enhances cerebral energy metabolism and increases levels of various neurotransmitters.. Supplement ...
Nuclear localization of enzymatically active green fluorescent protein-CTP: phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase fusion protein is independent of cell cycle conditions and cell types
Background: The multiple sclerosis (MS) severity scale (MSSS) is a new scoring procedure to clinically characterize the rate of disease progression in MS, rather than the disability of the patient. The latter is often characterized using the expanded disability status score (EDSS). The progress rate of the disease, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based measures of black hole lesions, and atrophy have all been shown to be predicted well by MSSS. In this study we investigated possible relationships between brain metabolite concentrations, measured using proton (1H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and MSSS.. Purpose: Our aims were to quantitatively investigate the metabolite concentrations in normal appearing white matter (NAWM) in MS-patients, and also to investigate possible correlations between disease subtype, EDSS and MSSS and metabolite concentrations. To minimize the interference from lesion contamination in the MRS measurement, a refined novel analysis procedure had to be ...
The cholinergic hypothesis proposes that Alzheimers disease is caused by insufficient or reduced synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. This acetylcholine deficiency hypothesis is not not widely supported because it does not address directly the underlying cause of the disease or the disease progression.. The clinical trials have shown that therapies that support acetylcholine may reduce the symptoms of Alzheimers disease, but do not reverse or stop the disease. Inadequate acetylcholine synthesis is a consequence of generalized brain deterioration observed in Alzheimers disease as well as non-Alzheimers patients. Nevertheless, therapies that support acetylcholine are important to perhaps prevent Alzheimers disease and to maintain proper neurotransmitter balance.. Acetylcholine is the most abundant neurotransmitter in the brain. Acetylcholine is also produced in the Intestines.. According the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 2003-2004, only about 10% of ...
The Gene Ontology (GO) project is a collaborative effort to address the need for consistent descriptions of gene products across databases. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated gene data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
A flavoprotein (FAD). In many bacteria, plants and animals, the osmoprotectant betaine is synthesized using different enzymes to catalyse the conversion of (1) choline in
Detail záznamu - 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of different histological types of human meningiomas in vitro - Detailné zobrazenie záznamu - Slovenská lekárska knižnica
Summary: To examine the effect of beta adrenergic drugs on fetal lung development, we administered isoxsuprine to pregnant rabbits for 24 hr and measured indices of pulmonary surfactant synthesis, storage, and release in rabbit fetuses at 26 days gestation. Incorporation of radiolabeled choline into total and disaturated phosphatidylcholine was measured in vitro in fetal lung slices. There was a significant increase in the rate of choline incorporation into disaturated phosphatidylcholine in the isoxsuprine-treated group and a tendency toward an increased incorporation into total phosphatidylcholine as well. We also observed an increase in the pulmonary phospholipid reservoir as evidenced by a significant increase in total lung disaturated phosphatidylcholine and a trend toward higher total lung phosphatidylcholine in the isoxsuprine group. In addition, there was a significant increase in lung lavage L/S ratio in the treated fetuses and in lung deflation stability determined by pressure volume curve. We
TY - JOUR. T1 - Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in neurodegenerative diseases. AU - Schuff, Norbert. AU - Vermathen, Peter. AU - Maudsley, Andrew A. AU - Weiner, Michael W.. PY - 1999/3/25. Y1 - 1999/3/25. N2 - Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (1H MRSI) was used to investigate changes in brain metabolites in Alzheimers disease, epilepsy, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Examples of results from several ongoing clinical studies are provided. Multislice 1H MRSI of the human brain, without volume preselection offers considerable advantage over previously available techniques. Furthermore, MRI tissue segmentation and completely automated spectral curve fitting greatly facilitate quantitative data analysis. Future efforts will be devoted to obtain full volumetric brain coverage and data acquisition at short spin-echo times (TE , 30 ms) for the detection of metabolites.. AB - Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (1H MRSI) was used to investigate changes in ...
Poor drug delivery to brain tumors caused by aberrant tumor vasculature and a partly intact blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-brain tumor barrier (BTB) can significantly impair the efficacy of chemotherapy. Determining drug delivery to brain tumors is a challenging problem, and the noninvasive detection of drug directly in the tumor can be critically important for accessing, predicting, and eventually improving effectiveness of therapy. In this study, in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to detect an anticancer agent, temozolomide (TMZ), in vivo in murine xenotransplants of U87MG human brain cancer. Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the low-molecular-weight contrast agent, gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (GdDTPA), was used to evaluate tumor vascular parameters. Carbon-13-labeled TMZ ([C-13]TMZ, 99%) was intraperitoneally administered at a dose of similar to 140 mg/kg (450 mg/m(2), well within the maximal clinical dose of 1000 mg/m(2) used in humans) ...
In enzymology, a diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase (EC 2.7.8.2) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction CDP-choline + 1,2-diacylglycerol ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } CMP + a phosphatidylcholine Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are CDP-choline and 1,2-diacylglycerol, whereas its two products are CMP and phosphatidylcholine. This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring non-standard substituted phosphate groups. The systematic name of this enzyme class is CDP choline:1,2-diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase. Other names in common use include: 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-m-glycerol:CDPcholine choline phosphotransferase, 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol cholinephosphotransferase, 1-alkyl-2-acetylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase, alkylacylglycerol choline phosphotransferase, alkylacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase, CDP-choline diglyceride phosphotransferase, cholinephosphotransferase, CPT, cytidine diphosphocholine glyceride ...

Cytidine diphosphate choline definition | Drugs.comCytidine diphosphate choline definition | Drugs.com

Definition of cytidine diphosphate choline. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/dict/cytidine-diphosphate-choline.html

Choline Inositol Complex w/Pantothenic Acid 60 Tablets Country Life Country Life  - Compare Price and Reviews at VitaDigest.comCholine Inositol Complex w/Pantothenic Acid 60 Tablets Country Life Country Life - Compare Price and Reviews at VitaDigest.com

Exclusive Reivews for Choline Inositol Complex w/Pantothenic Acid 60 Tablets Country Life Country Life ... VitaDigest offer Choline Inositol Complex w/Pantothenic Acid 60 Tablets Country Life, Product Review For Country Life Formula ... Home > Nutritional Supplements > Choline > Choline Inositol Complex w/Pantothenic Acid 60 Tablets, Country Life << Prev ... Choline (from 500 mg of choline bitartrate) 225 mg *. * Daily Value not established.. Other Ingredients: Cellulose, stearic ...
more infohttp://www.vitadigest.com/countrylife-6514.html

Choline/ethanolamine kinaseCholine/ethanolamine kinase

The choline kinase-like protein encoded by CHKL belongs to the choline/ethanolamine kinase family; however, its exact function ... Choline kinase (CK) and ethanolamine kinase (EK) catalyze the phosphorylation of choline/ethanolamine to phosphocholine/ ... CHKB activity was reduced in all three patients, significant reduction in choline:N-acetyl aspartate and choline:creatine ... CHKB encodes choline kinase beta, an enzyme that catalyzes the first de-novo biosynthetic step of phosphatidylcholine, the most ...
more infohttps://pharos.nih.gov/idg/targets/Q9Y259

Coordinate expression of vesicular acetylcholine transporter and choline acetyltransferase in sympathetic superior cervical...Coordinate expression of vesicular acetylcholine transporter and choline acetyltransferase in sympathetic superior cervical...

Misawa H, Takahashi R, Deguchi T. Coordinate expression of vesicular acetylcholine transporter and choline acetyltransferase in ... Misawa, H., Takahashi, R., & Deguchi, T. (1995). Coordinate expression of vesicular acetylcholine transporter and choline ... Misawa, H, Takahashi, R & Deguchi, T 1995, Coordinate expression of vesicular acetylcholine transporter and choline ... Misawa, Hidemi ; Takahashi, R. ; Deguchi, T. / Coordinate expression of vesicular acetylcholine transporter and choline ...
more infohttps://keio.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/coordinate-expression-of-vesicular-acetylcholine-transporter-and-

Hepatic betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase and methionine synthase activity and intermediates of the methionine cycle are...Hepatic betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase and methionine synthase activity and intermediates of the methionine cycle are...

Plasma choline increased with R (CONT1) and choline (L). Although R decreased milk yield (CONT1), choline increased milk yield ... Plasma choline increased with R (CONT1) and choline (L). Although R decreased milk yield (CONT1), choline increased milk yield ... Plasma choline increased with R (CONT1) and choline (L). Although R decreased milk yield (CONT1), choline increased milk yield ... Plasma choline increased with R (CONT1) and choline (L). Although R decreased milk yield (CONT1), choline increased milk yield ...
more infohttps://experts.illinois.edu/en/publications/hepatic-betaine-homocysteine-methyltransferase-and-methionine-syn

Dimethylethanolamine - wikidocDimethylethanolamine - wikidoc

It is known that dimethylaminoethanol is processed by the liver into choline; however, the choline molecule is charged and ... Dimethylaminoethanol is related to choline and is a biochemical precursor to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and found ... It is believed that dimethylaminoethanol is methylated to produce choline in the brain[1]. ...
more infohttp://www.wikidoc.org/index.php/DMAE

Choline chloride - WikipediaCholine chloride - Wikipedia

Other commercial choline salts are choline hydroxide and choline bitartrate. In foodstuffs the compound is often present as ... Johnson Matthey Process Technology - Choline chloride licensed process *^ "Choline chloride" (PDF). Screening Information Data ... Choline chloride is mass-produced with world production estimated at 160 000 tons in 1999.[2] Industrially, it is produce by ... Choline chloride is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)3NCH2CH2OH]Cl. It is bifunctional, containing both quaternary ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Choline_chloride

cholinecholine

So while it can be helpful to you in meeting your choline requirement, you are still going to need a lot more choline from your ... Vegetables are by far your best plant sources of choline! At least 15 WHFoods rank as good or very good sources of choline in ... At WHFoods, we recommend 425 mg of choline each day, and so you can see how this extra choline from food additives represents ... In most diets, phophatidylcholine is the single most common form of choline provided by foods. Nervous System Activity. Choline ...
more infohttp://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php/genpage.php?tname=nutrient&dbid=50

choline (CHEBI:15354)choline (CHEBI:15354)

choline ester (CHEBI:23213) has functional parent choline (CHEBI:15354). choline chloride (CHEBI:133341) has part choline ( ... choline (CHEBI:15354) has role nutrient (CHEBI:33284) choline (CHEBI:15354) has role plant metabolite (CHEBI:76924) choline ( ... choline (CHEBI:15354) has role Daphnia magna metabolite (CHEBI:83056) choline (CHEBI:15354) has role Escherichia coli ... choline (CHEBI:15354) has role human metabolite (CHEBI:77746) choline (CHEBI:15354) has role mouse metabolite (CHEBI:75771) ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/ru/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:15354

Vitamins: CholineVitamins: Choline

Choline is one of the lipotropic B vitamins-that is, it helps the utilization of fats in the body and thereby supports weight ... of choline, while a tablespoon (5 grams) of lecithin has about 500 mg. of choline. Therapeutic amounts of choline are usually ... Sources: Choline is present in all living cells and is widely distributed in plants and animals. Humans can synthesize choline ... Choline is probably also manufactured by intestinal bacteria. Functions: Choline as phosphatidylcholine, is a basic component ...
more infohttp://www.healthy.net/scr/article.aspx?ID=2131

cholinecholine

So while it can be helpful to you in meeting your choline requirement, you are still going to need a lot more choline from your ... Vegetables are by far your best plant sources of choline! At least 15 WHFoods rank as good or very good sources of choline in ... At WHFoods, we recommend 425 mg of choline each day, and so you can see how this extra choline from food additives represents ... In most diets, phophatidylcholine is the single most common form of choline provided by foods. Nervous System Activity. Choline ...
more infohttp://whfoods.org/genpage.php?tname=nutrient&dbid=50&utm_source=rss_reader&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=rss_feed

choline alfoscerate (CHEBI:16870)choline alfoscerate (CHEBI:16870)

... is a sn-glycerol 3-phosphates (CHEBI:26706) choline alfoscerate (CHEBI:16870) is a ... choline alfoscerate (CHEBI:16870) has role Escherichia coli metabolite (CHEBI:76971) choline alfoscerate (CHEBI:16870) has role ... choline alfoscerate (CHEBI:16870) has role human metabolite (CHEBI:77746) choline alfoscerate (CHEBI:16870) has role mouse ... choline alfoscerate (CHEBI:16870) has role neuroprotective agent (CHEBI:63726) choline alfoscerate (CHEBI:16870) has role ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:55397

Choline Hydrogentartrate - Drugs.comCholine Hydrogentartrate - Drugs.com

A list of US medications equivalent to Choline Hydrogentartrate is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Choline Hydrogentartrate is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/international/choline-hydrogentartrate.html

Effects of Choline | The BMJEffects of Choline | The BMJ

Effects of Choline. Br Med J 1945; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.4427.664-a (Published 10 November 1945) Cite this as: ...
more infohttp://www.bmj.com/content/2/4427/664.2

Choline | Define Choline at Dictionary.comCholine | Define Choline at Dictionary.com

Choline definition, a quaternary ammonium cation, C5H14N+O, one of the B-complex vitamins, found in the lecithin of many plants ... choline. in Science. choline. [kō′lēn′]. *A natural amine often classed in the vitamin B complex. It is incorporated into the ... choline. in Medicine. choline. (kō′lēn′). n.. *A natural amine often classed in the vitamin B complex and a constituent of many ... choline. noun. *a colourless viscous soluble alkaline substance present in animal tissues, esp as a constituent of lecithin: ...
more infohttps://www.dictionary.com/browse/choline

Choline - Poultry - Compendium - DSMCholine - Poultry - Compendium - DSM

Choline. Properties and Metabolism. Choline is a beta-hydroxyethyltrimethylammonium hydroxide. Pure choline is a colorless, ... The metabolic needs for choline can be supplied in two ways: either by dietary choline or by choline synthesis in the body that ... Commercially, choline is produced by chemical synthesis, and choline salts are used in dietary supplementation. Choline is ... Even with choline deficiency, however, choline content of the egg was not affected by low dietary choline. ...
more infohttps://www.dsm.com/markets/anh/en_US/Compendium/poultry/choline.html

Choline Magnesium Trisalicylate: MedlinePlus Drug InformationCholine Magnesium Trisalicylate: MedlinePlus Drug Information

Choline Magnesium Trisalicylate: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Before taking choline magnesium trisalicylate,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to choline magnesium ... Choline magnesium trisalicylate comes as a tablet and a liquid to take by mouth. It is usually taken one to three times a day. ... Take choline magnesium trisalicylate exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a602021.html

Choline Dosing and SafetyCholine Dosing and Safety

Side Effects and Warnings - In general, choline is regarded as safe, and it appears to be well tolerated. However, when taken ... Avoid with known allergy or sensitivity to choline, lecithin, phosphatidylcholine, or products containing these components. ... For asthma, 500-1,000 milligrams of choline has been taken by mouth three times daily. Also, 500 milligrams of choline citrate ... In general, choline is regarded as safe, and it appears to be well tolerated. However, when taken in high amounts, it may cause ...
more infohttps://www.wellness.com/reference/herb/choline/dosing-and-safety

Do you need more choline? - latimesDo you need more choline? - latimes

You certainly dont want to fall short of choline -- a nutrient that the body uses to make cell ... Choline is also showing up in multivitamins: Even Flintstones Complete now includes 38 milligrams of choline per tablet. ... You can buy 60 tablets of 500-milligram choline from Physician Formulas for about $15. Physician Formulas also offers choline ... The bottom line: Choline is undoubtedly a vital nutrient, and anyone who skimps on it does so at their own peril, says Dr. ...
more infohttp://articles.latimes.com/2008/nov/17/health/he-skeptic17

phosphatydl choline - Ulcerative Colitisphosphatydl choline - Ulcerative Colitis

I researched phosphatidyl choline 2 days ago. It sounded so promising I went to the health food store that afternoon and bought ... I really feel that the colostrum and the phosphatidyl choline (PS) are whats getting me over this. I sure hope so.. Diagnosed ... Can you give us some more info on phosphatydl choline?. Diagnosed UC 12/2007 ...
more infohttps://www.healingwell.com/community/default.aspx?f=38&m=1138027

Patent US3475177 - Choline composition - Google PatentsPatent US3475177 - Choline composition - Google Patents

The choline chloride, choline salicylate, choline tartrate, choline lactate and choline phosphate are preferred salts. Choline ... The choline chloride was uniformly dispersed in the tallow. The choline chloride-tallow combination was employed in a choline ... According to this method, a reactable choline compound, i.e. either choline base or a choline salt of an acid weaker than fatty ... It has been discovered that a choline feed supplement containing a choline salt composition consisting essentially of a choline ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US3475177?dq=6,243,373

choline (thing) by leighton - Everything2.comcholine (thing) by leighton - Everything2.com

Choline is a precursor of acetylcholine (a neurotransmitter) and is a vital part of the phospholipid bilayer that makes up the ... Its not yet clear whether choline has this effect on humans, too, but it cant hurt to get a healthy dose of choline-rich ... choline (thing). See all of choline, there is 1 more in this node. ... If you administer choline to a newborn or pregnant rat during certain critical periods, the baby rat will often grow up to have ...
more infohttps://everything2.com/user/leighton/writeups/choline

Choline - Health LibraryCholine - Health Library

Most studies of choline as a treatment for diseases have used between 1-30 g of choline or choline-containing supplements per ... Choline is widespread in the foods we eat. The average diet provides about 500 mg to 1,000 mg of choline per day.2,4 Lecithin, ... Choline functions as a part of a major biochemical process in the body called methylation; choline acts as a methyl donor. ... Folate nutriture alters choline status of women and men fed low choline diets. J Nutr. 1999;129:712-717. ...
more infohttps://healthlibrary.epnet.com/GetContent.aspx?token=c5987b1e-add7-403a-b817-b3efe6109265&chunkiid=21658

Choline - DrugBankCholine - DrugBank

Choline bitartrate (55 mg/1) + Choline bitartrate (55 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium ... Choline bitartrate (55 mg/1) + Choline bitartrate (55 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium ... cholines (CHEBI:15354) / Pesticides (C00114) / a small molecule (CHOLINE) Targets. Details1. Choline-phosphate ... Choline also aids in fat and cholesterol metabolism and prevents excessive fat build up in the liver. Choline has been used to ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00122

What is choline? Benefits, deficiency, and sourcesWhat is choline? Benefits, deficiency, and sources

Choline is an essential nutrient that humans need for neurodevelopment and many other bodily functions. Learn more about ... People can get choline from various dietary sources. Infants require lots of choline during the first few months of life, most ... Choline supports numerous vital bodily functions, including:. *Cell maintenance: The body uses choline to produce fats that ... Metabolism: Choline helps metabolize fats.. *Nervous system functioning: The body converts choline into a neurotransmitter that ...
more infohttps://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/327117.php
  • Choline and its metabolites are needed for three main physiological purposes: structural integrity and signaling roles for cell membranes, cholinergic neurotransmission (acetylcholine synthesis), and a major source for methyl groups via its metabolite, trimethylglycine (betaine), which participates in the S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) synthesis pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • You certainly don't want to fall short of choline -- a nutrient that the body uses to make cell membranes and key compounds in the brain. (latimes.com)
  • The structural integrity of cell membranes--as well as cell signaling, neurotransmission, muscle function and fat transport--all require choline. (livestrong.com)
  • Whether dietary or supplemental choline is beneficial or harmful to humans has not been determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • No specific minimums for dietary choline are listed. (healthy.net)
  • In ruminants, dietary choline is rapidly and extensively degraded in the rumen from studies with both sheep (Neill et al. (dsm.com)
  • Choline absorption must be very limited in all ruminants because of (1) almost complete degradation of dietary choline in the rumen, (2) only limited supplies from any rumen protozoa that might escape rumen degradation and (3) the complete absence of choline in rumen bacteria. (dsm.com)
  • However, it is unclear whether a dietary supply of choline is needed at all ages. (wellness.com)
  • The body makes some choline, but the majority comes from dietary sources. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Fat-soluble choline usually comes from dietary sources , so the body absorbs it in the gastrointestinal tract. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The authors of a 2018 study found an association between higher dietary intakes of choline and a lower risk of ischemic stroke . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Men and postmenopausal women experience signs of organ dysfunction with insufficient dietary choline, while less than half of premenopausal women develop such signs. (livestrong.com)
  • Choline is one of the "lipotropic" B vitamins-that is, it helps the utilization of fats in the body and thereby supports weight loss. (healthy.net)
  • Lorz also disclosed that the dispersion of choline compounds in fats without reaction and incorporation into the feed may in some instances be accomplished but reported that such preparations are unsatisfactory. (google.com)
  • The body uses choline to produce fats that make up cellular membranes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Choline helps metabolize fats. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Some research has shown that choline plays a role in metabolizing fats. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Without Choline, the fats in your body collect in unattractive and dangerously large lumps in your liver, under your skin (hips, thighs and under your eyes) and most dangerously in your blood vessels. (life-enthusiast.com)
  • In addition, supplement manufacturers claim that choline emulsifies fats, keeping them in liquid form so that they are less likely to deposit on the walls of your arteries. (livestrong.com)
  • In the absence of sufficient choline, even healthy saturated fats can contribute to fatty liver. (mercola.com)
  • What is Choline Alfoscerate? (wisegeek.com)
  • Choline alfoscerate, or L-Alpha Glycerylphosphorylcholine (Alpha GPC), occurs naturally in the fatty acids of soy plants. (wisegeek.com)
  • Studies suggest that choline alfoscerate can treat Alzheimer's and other forms of age-related cognitive decline . (wisegeek.com)
  • Prescription forms of choline alfoscerate are administered in Europe to treat Alzheimer's disease. (wisegeek.com)
  • Unlike some other forms of choline, choline alfoscerate normally penetrates the blood-brain barrier easily. (wisegeek.com)
  • Choline alfoscerate may help to stimulate the growth of new neurons and neural receptors, and may help reverse the neural atrophy that can cause loss of cognitive function. (wisegeek.com)
  • It is hoped that choline alfoscerate may prove invaluable to the treatment of Alzheimer's, dementia and other age-related cognitive disorders. (wisegeek.com)
  • Choline alfoscerate may also help boost production of human growth hormone in the elderly. (wisegeek.com)
  • Choline alfoscerate can help stimulate the release of human growth hormone in the brains of older patients. (wisegeek.com)
  • Choline is easily absorbed from the intestines and is one of the only vitamins that crosses the blood-brain barrier into the spinal fluid to be involved directly in brain chemical metabolism. (healthy.net)
  • When choline is depleted, fat metabolism and utilization may be decreased, conceivably leading to fat accumulations. (healthy.net)
  • (b) Choline plays an essential role in fat metabolism in the liver. (dsm.com)
  • 2010). Choline is thus referred to as a "lipotropic" factor due to its function of acting on fat metabolism by hastening removal or decreasing deposition of fat in liver. (dsm.com)
  • One of the nutritional functions of choline is concerned with the metabolism and transportation of fat. (google.com)
  • Choline is a nutrient that supports various bodily functions, including cellular growth and metabolism. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Supplementing your diet with choline is necessary for memory, muscle functioning and fat metabolism. (livestrong.com)
  • While the NAS does not officially recognize choline as a vitamin specifically belonging to the B-complex family of vitamins, it is officially recognized as a required nutrient that you need in your everyday meal plan. (whfoods.com)
  • The bottom line: Choline is undoubtedly a vital nutrient, and anyone who skimps on it does so at their own peril, says Dr. Steven Zeisel, professor of nutrition and pediatrics at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the director of the UNC Clinical Nutrition Research Center. (latimes.com)
  • In one observational study of 2,195 participants aged 70-74 years, those with higher choline levels had better cognitive functioning than participants with low choline levels. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Humans can synthesize choline from the amino acid glycine. (healthy.net)
  • You can synthesize choline directly in your body, but humans also often obtain it through their diets. (livestrong.com)
  • A choline that is the parent compound of the cholines class, consisting of ethanolamine having three methyl substituents attached to the amino function. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • According to this method, a reactable choline compound, i.e. either choline base or a choline salt of an acid weaker than fatty acids, was mixed with fat containing from %-50% free fatty acids and heated until the fat melted whereupon the choline reacted with the fatty acids present in the fat. (google.com)
  • Choline is an organic compound . (wikipedia.org)
  • The U.S. Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine recommends that pregnant women take 450 milligrams of choline by mouth daily. (wellness.com)
  • Breastfeeding women are advised to take 550 milligrams of choline by mouth daily. (wellness.com)
  • In general, adequate choline (400-900 milligrams) can be taken by mouth by eating an "average" diet. (wellness.com)
  • women aged 18 years old are advised to consume 400-3,000 milligrams of choline daily, while those who are older may consume 425-3,500 milligrams. (wellness.com)
  • Pregnant women are advised to consume 450 milligrams of choline daily, while breastfeeding women are advised to consume 550 milligrams daily. (wellness.com)
  • Ninety capsules -- each containing 25 milligrams of choline -- costs about $30. (latimes.com)
  • Choline is also showing up in multivitamins: Even Flintstones Complete now includes 38 milligrams of choline per tablet. (latimes.com)
  • Men should get at least 550 milligrams of choline each day and women need at least 425 milligrams a day, according to guidelines set by the National Academy of Sciences. (latimes.com)
  • In one 2013 study , for example, women in their third trimester of pregnancy received either 480 milligrams (mg) or 930 mg of choline per day. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Choline may be helpful for fatigue, and athletes have benefited from choline supplementation. (healthy.net)
  • The Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Science states that choline is necessary in prenatal supplementation. (wellness.com)
  • One 2018 study found that choline supplementation improved lung function and reduced symptoms of fatty liver disease in 10 adult males with cystic fibrosis . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • They need to have choline in their diet or take a supplementation for proper health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Choline is LIKELY SAFE for most adults when taken by mouth or given intravenously (by IV) in appropriate amounts. (webmd.com)
  • Many foods contain small amounts of choline, even iceberg lettuce . (wikipedia.org)
  • Choline can be manufactured in the human body with the help of vitamin Bl2, folic acid, and the amino acid called methionine, although not necessarily in optimal amounts. (nutritionreview.org)
  • Choline may be helpful in the treatment of nerve conduction problems, memory deficiencies, muscle twitching, heart palpitations, and Alzheimer's disease, where it seems to help brain function and slow the progression of the disease. (healthy.net)
  • Weak evidence from highly preliminary studies hint that CDP-choline may improve mental function in Alzheimer's disease. (epnet.com)
  • Until recently, it was thought that the body could use other substances to substitute for choline, such as folate , vitamins B 6 and B 12 , and the amino acid methionine . (epnet.com)
  • If you become pregnant while taking choline magnesium trisalicylate, call your doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Taking choline by mouth before becoming pregnant and during early pregnancy may reduce the risk of cleft palate. (wellness.com)
  • But for pregnant women, the benefits of extra choline could go far deeper than a mood lift, says Marie Caudill, an associate professor of nutritional sciences and genomics at Cornell University in Ithaca, N.Y. Like folic acid, choline seems to help prevent neural-tube defects in developing fetuses, and it may also help prevent cleft palates. (latimes.com)
  • When researchers give pregnant rats extra choline, the pups showed impressive memory skills throughout their entire lives. (latimes.com)
  • Caudill says it's too early to say if pregnant women who get extra choline can expect extra-smart children. (latimes.com)
  • If you administer choline to a newborn or pregnant rat during certain critical period s, the baby rat will often grow up to have a better memory --that is, it'll learn a maze faster and will make fewer mistakes. (everything2.com)
  • Choline is taken by pregnant women to prevent neural tube defects in their babies and it is used as a supplement in infant formulas. (webmd.com)
  • More recent research using choline-depleted diets has demonstrated that we really do require some outside help from our food to keep our bodies running well. (whfoods.com)
  • Even in medically supervised situations where people eat diets bizarrely restricted in choline, we don't see these activities break down. (whfoods.com)
  • Only one-third of ingested choline in monogastric diets appears to be absorbed intact. (dsm.com)
  • Numerous studies have found that diets very low in choline lead to impaired liver function. (epnet.com)
  • 1,2,12-15 But these diets are contrived: One would have to work very hard to get so little choline in the diet! (epnet.com)
  • 1,19 Indeed, in rats fed diets very low in choline and other methyl donors, cancer rates increased. (epnet.com)
  • Cereals that are relatively low in choline, containing less than 14 mg per 100 mg of food, include Cap'n Crunch Peanut Butter Crunch, Kellogg's Rice Krispies, Kellogg's Fruit Loops, Kellogg's Corn Flakes, Kellogg's Cocoa Krispies, regular, quick and instant oatmeal, and Cream of Wheat. (livestrong.com)
  • Choline is the backbone of a nervous system signal molecule-or neurotransmitter-called acetylcholine. (whfoods.com)
  • Choline seems to be an important in the nervous system . (webmd.com)
  • Choline is found in all living cells, and is known to play a vital role in maintaining the central nervous system and in numerous metabolic functions. (nutritionreview.org)
  • Taking choline seems to lessen symptoms and the number of days that asthma is a problem for some people. (webmd.com)
  • Taking choline by mouth does not reduce symptoms of schizophrenia. (webmd.com)
  • Early research suggests that taking choline might reduce some mood symptoms in people with bipolar disorder who are taking lithium. (webmd.com)
  • Early research suggests that inhaling choline might improve symptoms of bronchitis caused by dust. (webmd.com)
  • Taking choline by mouth does not seem to reduce symptoms of Alzheimer disease. (webmd.com)
  • choline acts as a methyl donor. (epnet.com)
  • Choline is also a source of methyl groups, a specific chemical group containing one carbon atom and three hydrogen atoms. (livestrong.com)
  • Giving choline intravenously (by IV) treats liver disease in people receiving parenteral nutrition who are choline deficient. (webmd.com)
  • Giving choline intravenously (by IV) helps treat this condition. (webmd.com)
  • A member of the class of phosphocholines that is the choline ester of sn -glycero-3-phosphate. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Research has also discovered evidence of epigenetic mechanisms of choline, 17 which also helps explain how choline helps maintain healthy liver function. (mercola.com)
  • 1979) and goats (Emmanual and Kennelly, 1984) suggests that ruminants must metabolize and utilize choline in a different manner than monogastric animals. (dsm.com)
  • Some evidence suggests that individuals with HIV who are low in choline may experience more rapid disease progression. (epnet.com)
  • Early research suggests that taking choline by mouth daily might improve motor function in people with a brain condition called cerebellar ataxia. (webmd.com)
  • Other research suggests choline can improve visual memory, but not other aspects of mental function, when given along with intravenous feeding (parenteral nutrition). (webmd.com)
  • Early research suggests that women who consume a lot of choline in their diet have a lower risk of having babies with a neural tube birth defect. (webmd.com)
  • Some animals cannot produce choline, but must consume it through their diet to remain healthy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following are choline values for a selection of foods in quantities that people may consume in a day. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the United States Department of Agriculture , males aged 20-59 consume an average of 406-421 mg of choline per day, while females in the same age group consume around 290-303 mg per day. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Humans make choline in the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • It's not yet clear whether choline has this effect on humans, too, but it can't hurt to get a healthy dose of choline-rich foods. (everything2.com)