An enzyme that is active in the first step of choline phosphoglyceride (lecithin) biosynthesis by catalyzing the phosphorylation of choline to phosphorylcholine in the presence of ATP. Ethanolamine and its methyl and ethyl derivatives can also act as acceptors. EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC
A condition produced by a deficiency of CHOLINE in animals. Choline is known as a lipotropic agent because it has been shown to promote the transport of excess fat from the liver under certain conditions in laboratory animals. Combined deficiency of choline (included in the B vitamin complex) and all other methyl group donors causes liver cirrhosis in some animals. Unlike compounds normally considered as vitamins, choline does not serve as a cofactor in enzymatic reactions. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
A potent inhibitor of the high affinity uptake system for CHOLINE. It has less effect on the low affinity uptake system. Since choline is one of the components of ACETYLCHOLINE, treatment with hemicholinium can deplete acetylcholine from cholinergic terminals. Hemicholinium 3 is commonly used as a research tool in animal and in vitro experiments.
A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)
Donor of choline in biosynthesis of choline-containing phosphoglycerides.
An enzyme bound to the inner mitochondrial membrane that catalyzes the oxidation of CHOLINE to BETAINE.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Calcium and magnesium salts used therapeutically in hepatobiliary dysfunction.
An enzyme that catalyses three sequential METHYLATION reactions for conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine to PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE.
A component of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES or LECITHINS, in which the two hydroxy groups of GLYCEROL are esterified with fatty acids. (From Stedman, 26th ed) It counteracts the effects of urea on enzymes and other macromolecules.
A viscous, hygroscopic amino alcohol with an ammoniacal odor. It is widely distributed in biological tissue and is a component of lecithin. It is used as a surfactant, fluorimetric reagent, and to remove CO2 and H2S from natural gas and other gases.
Endogenous factors or drugs that increase the transport and metabolism of LIPIDS including the synthesis of LIPOPROTEINS by the LIVER and their uptake by extrahepatic tissues.
An antidepressive agent that has also been used in the treatment of movement disorders. The mechanism of action is not well understood.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
An amino acid intermediate in the metabolism of choline.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.
An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of cytidylate (CMP) to choline phosphate to form CDPcholine. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in the choline pathway for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine. Its activity is increased by glucocorticoids. EC
Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC
Vesicular amine transporter proteins that transport the neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE into small SECRETORY VESICLES. Proteins of this family contain 12 transmembrane domains and exchange vesicular PROTONS for cytoplasmic acetylcholine.
An NAD+ dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of betain aldehyde to BETAINE.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of phosphatidylcholines from CDPcholine and 1,2-diacylglycerols. EC
Drugs used to specifically facilitate learning or memory, particularly to prevent the cognitive deficits associated with dementias. These drugs act by a variety of mechanisms. While no potent nootropic drugs have yet been accepted for general use, several are being actively investigated.
A mercaptocholine used as a reagent for the determination of CHOLINESTERASES. It also serves as a highly selective nerve stain.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
Any drug used for its actions on cholinergic systems. Included here are agonists and antagonists, drugs that affect the life cycle of ACETYLCHOLINE, and drugs that affect the survival of cholinergic neurons. The term cholinergic agents is sometimes still used in the narrower sense of MUSCARINIC AGONISTS, although most modern texts discourage that usage.
Compounds possessing both a hydroxyl (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2).
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES obtained by their partial hydrolysis which removes one of the fatty acid moieties.
A cholinesterase inhibitor that is rapidly absorbed through membranes. It can be applied topically to the conjunctiva. It also can cross the blood-brain barrier and is used when central nervous system effects are desired, as in the treatment of severe anticholinergic toxicity.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
A ZINC metalloenzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from BETAINE to HOMOCYSTEINE to produce dimethylglycine and METHIONINE, respectively. This enzyme is a member of a family of ZINC-dependent METHYLTRANSFERASES that use THIOLS or selenols as methyl acceptors.
GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS in which one of the two acyl chains is attached to glycerol with an ether alkenyl linkage instead of an ester as with the other glycerophospholipids.
The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE.
An enzyme found mostly in plant tissue. It hydrolyzes glycerophosphatidates with the formation of a phosphatidic acid and a nitrogenous base such as choline. This enzyme also catalyzes transphosphatidylation reactions. EC
A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.
An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
GRAY MATTER structures of the telencephalon and LIMBIC SYSTEM in the brain, but containing widely varying definitions among authors. Included here is the cortical septal area, subcortical SEPTAL NUCLEI, and the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the transfer of phosphoethanolamine from CDP-ethanolamine to diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidylethanolamine (cephalin) and CMP. The enzyme is found in the endoplasmic reticulum. EC
A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.
The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.
A genus of asporogenous bacteria isolated from soil that displays a distinctive rod-coccus growth cycle.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)
Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
A family of neurotransmitter transporter proteins that facilitate NEUROTRANSMITTER reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. They may play a role in regulating the intensity and duration of neurotransmission.
Cytidine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. Synonyms: CRPP; cytidine pyrophosphate.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Tissue in the BASAL FOREBRAIN inferior to the anterior perforated substance, and anterior to the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and ansa lenticularis. It contains the BASAL NUCLEUS OF MEYNERT.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
Drugs that bind to nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC) and block the actions of acetylcholine or cholinergic agonists. Nicotinic antagonists block synaptic transmission at autonomic ganglia, the skeletal neuromuscular junction, and at central nervous system nicotinic synapses.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Physiologic methyl radical donor involved in enzymatic transmethylation reactions and present in all living organisms. It possesses anti-inflammatory activity and has been used in treatment of chronic liver disease. (From Merck, 11th ed)
Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia.
Fatty acid derivatives of glycerophosphates. They are composed of glycerol bound in ester linkage with 1 mole of phosphoric acid at the terminal 3-hydroxyl group and with 2 moles of fatty acids at the other two hydroxyl groups.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Compounds that contain the decamethylenebis(trimethyl)ammonium radical. These compounds frequently act as neuromuscular depolarizing agents.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Stable sulfur atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sulfur, but differ in atomic weight. S-33, 34, and 36 are stable sulfur isotopes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A C19 norditerpenoid alkaloid (DITERPENES) from the root of ACONITUM plants. It activates VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. It has been used to induce ARRHYTHMIAS in experimental animals and it has antiinflammatory and antineuralgic properties.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
2-Amino-4-(ethylthio)butyric acid. An antimetabolite and methionine antagonist that interferes with amino acid incorporation into proteins and with cellular ATP utilization. It also produces liver neoplasms.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction by causing sustained depolarization of the motor end plate. These agents are primarily used as adjuvants in surgical anesthesia to cause skeletal muscle relaxation.
An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC
Phospholipids which have an alcohol moiety in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol. They are usually derivatives of phosphoglycerols or phosphatidates. The other two alcohol groups of the glycerol backbone are usually in ester linkage. These compounds are widely distributed in animal tissues.
Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of nitrogenous groups, primarily amino groups, from a donor, generally an amino acid, to an acceptor, usually a 2-oxoacid. EC 2.6.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
A group of water-soluble vitamins, some of which are COENZYMES.
A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
NERVE FIBERS which project from the central nervous system to AUTONOMIC GANGLIA. In the sympathetic division most preganglionic fibers originate with neurons in the intermediolateral column of the SPINAL CORD, exit via ventral roots from upper thoracic through lower lumbar segments, and project to the paravertebral ganglia; there they either terminate in SYNAPSES or continue through the SPLANCHNIC NERVES to the prevertebral ganglia. In the parasympathetic division the fibers originate in neurons of the BRAIN STEM and sacral spinal cord. In both divisions the principal transmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE but peptide cotransmitters may also be released.
An NADP-dependent oxidoreductase that catalyses the conversion of 5,10-methyleneterahydrofolate to 5,10-methenyl-tetrahydrofolate. In higher eukaryotes a trifunctional enzyme exists with additional METHENYLTETRAHYDROFOLATE CYCLOHYDROLASE and FORMATE-TETRAHYDROFOLATE LIGASE activity. The enzyme plays an important role in the synthesis of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, the methyl donor for the VITAMIN B12-dependent remethylation of HOMOCYSTEINE to METHIONINE via METHIONINE SYNTHETASE.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
A local anesthetic of the amide type now generally used for surface anesthesia. It is one of the most potent and toxic of the long-acting local anesthetics and its parenteral use is restricted to spinal anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1006)
A cholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the effects of muscle relaxants such as gallamine and tubocurarine. Neostigmine, unlike PHYSOSTIGMINE, does not cross the blood-brain barrier.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
4-Hydroxy-1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-2-pyridinone. Analog of uridine lacking a ring-nitrogen in the 3-position. Functions as an antineoplastic agent.
A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of O-acetylcarnitine from acetyl-CoA plus carnitine. EC
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of the NERVOUS SYSTEM or its components.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)
Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.
Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.
A triangular double membrane separating the anterior horns of the LATERAL VENTRICLES of the brain. It is situated in the median plane and bounded by the CORPUS CALLOSUM and the body and columns of the FORNIX (BRAIN).
The study of the relationship between NUTRITIONAL PHYSIOLOGY and genetic makeup. It includes the effect of different food components on GENE EXPRESSION and how variations in GENES effect responses to food components.
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Positively charged atoms, radicals or group of atoms with a valence of plus 1, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of phosphatidylserine and CMP from CDPdiglyceride plus serine. EC
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An organic cation transporter found in kidney. It is localized to the basal lateral membrane and is likely to be involved in the renal secretion of organic cations.
Alkaloids extracted from various species of Cinchona.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Drugs that inhibit the transport of neurotransmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. For many transmitters, uptake determines the time course of transmitter action so inhibiting uptake prolongs the activity of the transmitter. Blocking uptake may also deplete available transmitter stores. Many clinically important drugs are uptake inhibitors although the indirect reactions of the brain rather than the acute block of uptake itself is often responsible for the therapeutic effects.
The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.
A piperidine botanical insecticide.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acid in which the hydrophobic regions are composed of two fatty acids and a polar alcohol is joined to the C-3 position of glycerol through a phosphodiester bond. They are named according to their polar head groups, such as phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The fourth stomach of ruminating animals. It is also called the "true" stomach. It is an elongated pear-shaped sac lying on the floor of the abdomen, on the right-hand side, and roughly between the seventh and twelfth ribs. It leads to the beginning of the small intestine. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.
5'-S-(3-Amino-3-carboxypropyl)-5'-thioadenosine. Formed from S-adenosylmethionine after transmethylation reactions.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
An agent used as a substrate in assays for cholinesterases, especially to discriminate among enzyme types.
Any diagnostic evaluation using radioactive (unstable) isotopes. This diagnosis includes many nuclear medicine procedures as well as radioimmunoassay tests.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a single fatty acid ester bond in lysoglycerophosphatidates with the formation of glyceryl phosphatidates and a fatty acid. EC
The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A freshwater fish used as an experimental organism and for food. This genus of the family Cichlidae (CICHLIDS) inhabits Central and South America (one species extends north into Texas), West Indies, Africa, Madagascar, Syria, and coastal India.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A complex mixture of PHOSPHOLIPIDS; GLYCOLIPIDS; and TRIGLYCERIDES; with substantial amounts of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES; PHOSPHATIDYLETHANOLAMINES; and PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS, which are sometimes loosely termed as 1,2-diacyl-3-phosphocholines. Lecithin is a component of the CELL MEMBRANE and commercially extracted from SOYBEANS and EGG YOLK. The emulsifying and surfactant properties are useful in FOOD ADDITIVES and for forming organogels (GELS).
An alkaloid from SOLANACEAE, especially DATURA and SCOPOLIA. Scopolamine and its quaternary derivatives act as antimuscarinics like ATROPINE, but may have more central nervous system effects. Among the many uses are as an anesthetic premedication, in URINARY INCONTINENCE, in MOTION SICKNESS, as an antispasmodic, and as a mydriatic and cycloplegic.
Neurotoxic proteins from the venom of the banded or Formosan krait (Bungarus multicinctus, an elapid snake). alpha-Bungarotoxin blocks nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and has been used to isolate and study them; beta- and gamma-bungarotoxins act presynaptically causing acetylcholine release and depletion. Both alpha and beta forms have been characterized, the alpha being similar to the large, long or Type II neurotoxins from other elapid venoms.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Compounds containing polymethylene bis-trimethylammonium cations. Members of this group frequently act as ganglionic blockers and neuromuscular depolarizing agents.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.

Dietary control of triglyceride and phospholipid synthesis in rat liver slices. (1/2759)

1. The effect of dietary manipulation on the synthesis of triglycerides and phospholipids was investigated by determining the incorporation of labeled long-chain fatty acid or glycerol into these lipids in liver slices derived from normally fed, fasted, and fat-free refed rats. 2. Triglyceride synthesis was affected markedly by the dietary regime of the animal; the lowest rates were measured with fasted rats, and the highest ones with fat-free refed rats. 3. In contrast to triglyceride synthesis, phospholipid synthesis occured at virtually constant rates regardless of the dietary conditions. 4. Addition of large amounts of fatty acid to the incubation mixture resulted in a marked stimulation of triglyceride synthesis, whereas phospholipid synthesis was affected to a much smaller extent. 5. These results indicate that the synthesis of triglycerides and that of phospholipids are controlled independently, and that the availability of fatty acid in the cell contributes to the control of triglyceride synthesis.  (+info)

Inhibition of Echovirus-12 multiplication by N-carbobenzoxy-D-glucosamine. (2/2759)

The glucosamine derivative, N-carbobenzoxy-D-glucosamine (NCBZG) inhibits the multiplication of Echovirus-12 and the synthesis of both virus RNA and protein at a stage in the virus growth cycle after attachment and penetration. However, the compound does not inhibit virus multiplication after the appearance of progeny virus nor after virus RNA has accumulated. Incorporation of radioactive glucosamine and choline into infected and uninfected cultures is inhibited by NCBZG as is the virus-induced increase in choline incorporation. The compound also prevents the appearance of radioactive choline in isolated membranous structures. The compound did not alter significantly the cellular RNA or protein synthesis, plating efficiency of the cells, their growth over a period of several days, nor the virus-directed inhibition of cellular RNA and protein. These findings suggest that the compound inhibits virus multiplication by its effect on the initiation of biosynthesis which appears to require membrane synthesis.  (+info)

Glycine betaine: reserve form of choline in Penicillium fellutanum in low-sulfate medium. (3/2759)

In spite of choline's importance in fungal metabolism, its sources in cytoplasm have not been fully established. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of mycelial extracts from day-5 Penicillium fellutanum cultures showed that, as well as choline-O-sulfate, intracellular glycine betaine is another reserve form of choline, depending on the availability of sulfate in the culture medium. These observations are discussed relative to the multiple roles of choline and its precursors in P. fellutanum.  (+info)

Central nervous system-mediated hyperglycemic effects of NIK-247, a cholinesterase inhibitor, and MKC-231, a choline uptake enhancer, in rats. (4/2759)

We investigated the effects of intracerebroventricular administration of NIK-247 (9-amino-2,3,5,6,7,8-hexahydro-1H-cyclo-penta(b)-quinoline monohydrate hydrochloride; a cholinesterase inhibitor) or MKC-231 (2-(2-oxypyrrolidin-1-yl)-N-(2,3-dimethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofur o[2,3-b]quinolin-4-yl) acetoamide; a choline uptake enhancer) on plasma glucose level in comparison with that of neostigmine administration in rats. The extents of NIK-247- and MKC-231-induced hyperglycemia were considerably less than that by neostigmine, suggesting that the potencies of the drugs to produce the peripheral hyperglycemia may be pharmacologically negligible.  (+info)

Folate nutriture alters choline status of women and men fed low choline diets. (5/2759)

Choline and folate share methylation pathways and, in studies of rats, were shown to be metabolically inter-related. To determine whether choline status is related to folate intake in humans, we measured the effect of controlled folate depletion and repletion on the plasma choline and phosphatidylcholine concentrations of 11 healthy men (33-46 y) and 10 healthy women (49-63 y) fed low-choline diets in two separate metabolic unit studies. Total folate intake was varied by supplementing low folate (25 and 56 microg/d for men and women, respectively) and low choline (238 and 147 mg/d for men and women, respectively) diets with pteroylglutamic acid for 2-6 wk following folate-depletion periods of 4-5 wk. The low folate/choline intakes resulted in subclinical folate deficiencies; mean plasma choline decreases of 28 and 25% in the men and women, respectively; and a plasma phosphatidylcholine decrease of 26% in the men (P < 0. 05). No functional choline deficiency occurred, as measured by serum transaminase and lipid concentrations. The decreases in choline status measures returned to baseline or higher upon moderate folate repletion and were more responsive to folate repletion than plasma folate and homocysteine. Feeding methionine supplements to the men did not prevent plasma choline depletion, indicating that folate is a more limiting nutrient for these methylation pathways. The results indicate that 1) choline is utilized as a methyl donor when folate intake is low, 2) the de novo synthesis of phosphatidylcholine is insufficient to maintain choline status when intakes of folate and choline are low, and 3) dietary choline is required by adults in an amount > 250 mg/d to maintain plasma choline and phosphatidylcholine when folate intake is low.  (+info)

Choline and selective antagonists identify two subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors that modulate GABA release from CA1 interneurons in rat hippocampal slices. (6/2759)

Neuronal nicotinic receptors (nAChR) are known to control transmitter release in the CNS. Thus, this study was aimed at exploring the diversity and localization of nAChRs present in CA1 interneurons in rat hippocampal slices. The use of a U-tube as the agonist delivery system was critical for the reliable detection of nicotinic responses induced by brief exposure of the neurons to ACh or to the alpha7 nAChR-selective agonist choline. The present study demonstrated that CA1 interneurons, in addition to expressing functional alpha7 nAChRs, also express functional alpha4beta2-like nAChRs and that activation of both receptors facilitates an action potential-dependent release of GABA. Depending on the experimental condition, one of the following nicotinic responses was recorded from the interneurons by means of the patch-clamp technique: a nicotinic whole-cell current, depolarization accompanied by action potentials, or GABA-mediated postsynaptic currents (PSCs). Responses mediated by alpha7 nAChRs were short-lasting, whereas those mediated by alpha4beta2 nAChRs were long-lasting. Thus, phasic or tonic inhibition of CA1 interneurons may be achieved by selective activation of alpha7 or alpha4beta2 nAChRs, respectively. It can also be suggested that synaptic levels of choline generated by hydrolysis of ACh in vivo may be sufficient to control the activity of the alpha7 nAChRs. The finding that methyllycaconitine and dihydro-beta-erythroidine (antagonists of alpha7 and alpha4beta2 nAChRs, respectively) increased the frequency and amplitude of GABAergic PSCs suggests that there is an intrinsic cholinergic activity that sustains a basal level of nAChR activity in these interneurons.  (+info)

Absolute quantification of brain metabolites by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in normal-appearing white matter of multiple sclerosis patients. (7/2759)

The aim of this research was to obtain an absolute quantification of the N-acetyl-aspartate, choline, creatine and phosphocreatine levels in normal-appearing white matter by means of 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy in a group of multiple sclerosis patients (27 with the relapsing-remitting form and 13 with the secondary progressive form). These values were compared with those of a group of 12 age-matched healthy control subjects. A significant decrease in the N-acetyl-aspartate concentration was found in normal-appearing white matter of frontal and parietal brain areas in multiple sclerosis patients compared with the same areas in control subjects. This reduction was more evident in progressive patients. The decrease in the N-acetyl-aspartate concentration in normal-appearing white matter significantly correlated with the Expanded Disability Status and the lesional load. No significant change was found in the concentration of creatine or choline. This finding concurs with previous evidence of heterogeneity in the multiple sclerosis pathological process which is not confined to the lesions and involves not only myelin, but also axons, even in white matter which appears normal on MRI.  (+info)

The choline-converting pathway in Staphylococcus xylosus C2A: genetic and physiological characterization. (8/2759)

A Staphylococcus xylosus C2A gene cluster, which encodes enzymes in the pathway for choline uptake and dehydrogenation (cud), to form the osmoprotectant glycine betaine, was identified. The cud locus comprises four genes, three of which encode proteins with significant similarities to those known to be involved in choline transport and conversion in other organisms. The physiological role of the gene products was confirmed by analysis of cud deletion mutants. The fourth gene possibly codes for a regulator protein. Part of the gene cluster was shown to be transcriptionally regulated by choline and elevated NaCl concentrations as inducers.  (+info)

Pixelwise correlation of each 18F tracer and 131I-SIP(L19) uptake revealed higher correlation coefficients for 18F-fluorocholine and 18F-FET than for 18F-FDG. These findings may be explained by the different metabolic pathways.. 18F-Fluorocholine is a choline analog and has uptake characteristics similar to those of radiolabeled natural choline (11,26). Choline, an essential compound of the cell membrane, is transported into mammalian cells and then phosphorylated by choline kinase (27). In a further step, it is metabolized to phosphatidylcholine, which is incorporated into the cell membrane. In previous studies, the increased choline uptake in tumor cells was explained mainly by the upregulation of choline kinase due to an increased demand of membrane constituents (28,29). Consequently, further in vitro and in vivo studies postulated the use of choline analogs as a marker for tumor proliferation (9,29,30). Because 18F-fluorocholine mimics natural choline, it might be a potential tracer of ...
Choline is a crucial nutrient that contributes to several biological functions and serves as a precursor molecule to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Choline is integral to the development and function of the central nervous system, and its availability during the prenatal period has lasting and protective effects on neural function. Researchers have found that prenatal choline supplementation in the rat enhances learning and memory processes later in life, especially those involving spatial memory. Researchers have also demonstrated that choline protects against a number of physical stressors to the neural environment, such as prenatal alcohol exposure, induced seizures, and chronic stress-induced exposure to corticosteroids. Compared to the study of these types of physical stressors, relatively little research has examined the influence of prenatal choline exposure on psychological stress later in life. In an attempt to contribute to this field, the present study examined the effects of prenatal
Water maze experience and prenatal choline supplementation differentially promote long-term hippocampal recovery from seizures in adulthood.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aerobic fitness and the brain. T2 - Increased N-acetyl-aspartate and choline concentrations in endurance-trained middle-aged adults. AU - Gonzales, Mitzi M.. AU - Tarumi, Takashi. AU - Kaur, Sonya. AU - Nualnim, Nantinee. AU - Fallow, Bennett A.. AU - Pyron, Martha. AU - Tanaka, Hirofumi. AU - Haley, Andreana P.. PY - 2013/1/1. Y1 - 2013/1/1. N2 - Engagement in regular aerobic exercise is associated with cognitive benefits, but information on the mechanisms governing these changes in humans is limited. The goal of the current study was to compare neurometabolite concentrations relating to cellular metabolism, structure, and viability in endurance-trained and sedentary middle-aged adults. Twenty-eight endurance-trained and 27 sedentary adults, aged 40-65 years, underwent general health assessment, cardiorespiratory fitness measurement, neuropsychological testing, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS). 1H MRS was used to examine N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), creatine ...
Headline: Bitcoin & Blockchain Searches Exceed Trump! Blockchain Stocks Are Next!. Choline Chloride Market research report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Choline Chloride Industry.. The Report provides a basic overview of the Choline Chloride Market including definitions, classifications, applications and chain structure. The Choline Chloride Industry analysis is provided for the international market including development history, competitive landscape analysis, and major regional development status.. To begin with, the report elaborates Choline Chloride Market overview. Various definitions and classification of the industry, applications of industry and chain structure are given. Present day status of the Choline Chloride Market in key regions is stated and industry policies and news are analysed.. Browse Detailed TOC, Tables, Figures, Charts and Companies Mentioned in Choline Chloride Market @ ...
Purpose: 11C-Choline positron emission tomography (PET) has been exploited to detect the aberrant choline metabolism in tumors. Radiolabeled choline uptake within the imaging time is primarily a function of transport, phosphorylation and oxidation. Rapid choline oxidation, however, complicates interpretation of PET data. In this study we investigated the biological basis of the oxidation of deuterated choline analogues and assessed their specificity in human tumor xenografts. Experimental Design: 11C-Choline, 11C-methyl-[1,2-2H4]-choline (11C-D4-choline) and 18F-D4-choline were synthesized to permit comparison. Biodistribution, metabolism, small-animal PET studies, and kinetic analysis of tracer uptake were performed in human colon HCT116 xenograft-bearing mice. Results: Oxidation of choline analogs to betaine was highest with 11C-choline, with reduced oxidation observed with 11C-D4-choline and substantially reduced with 18F-D4-choline; suggesting that both fluorination and deuteration were ...
Choline-containing compounds detected by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the basal ganglia in bipolar disorder.: Choline-containing compounds (Cho) we
BACKGROUND. The choline oxidation pathway comprises the sequential metabolism of choline into betaine, dimethylglycine (DMG), and sarcosine. In addition, dietary choline and betaine can be turned into trimethylamine N-amino oxide (TMAO). Alterations in choline metabolism may relate to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Several investigations have focused on systemic concentrations of choline and betaine; however large-scale prospective data are scarce. There is therefore a need for more comprehensive assessments of choline metabolites in relation to incident CVD, T2D and mortality, in addition to investigating any potential benefit in risk prediction from such biomarkers. AIM. We carried out observational cohort studies of the prospective relationships between plasma DMG and incident acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and mortality, as well as the association between systemic and urinary choline metabolites with the risk of incident T2D. The biomarkers impact on model ...
The report firstly introduced Choline Chloride basic information included Choline Chloride definition classification application industry chain structure industry overview; international market analysis, China domestic market analysis, Macroeconomic environment and economic situation analysis and influence, Choline Chloride industry policy and plan, Choline Chloride product specification, manufacturing process, product cost structure etc.. Browse Full Report with TOC @ Then statistics Global and China key manufacturers Choline Chloride capacity production cost price profit production value gross margin etc details information, at the same time, statistics these manufacturers Choline Chloride products customers application capacity market position Havayontact information etc company related information, then collect all these manufacturers data and listed Global and China Choline ...
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Group T1 were fed with feed mixed with herbal product (Repchol supplied by Ayurvet Ltd., Baddi, India) @ 500gm/tonne of feed and T2 was given combination of synthetic choline [email protected]/tonne (60%) and biotin @ 150 mg/ton of feed. To study the effect of inclusion of herbal sources of choline and synthetic choline on hepatic lipid metabolism, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were estimated on day 21st and 42nd of experimental study. Gross pathological changes in liver were recorded on representative birds ...
Evidence to confirm the suggested effects of choline on health in different stages of life is scarce. Potential effects of choline need to be confirmed by intervention studies. Possible harmful effects on cardiometabolic health need careful evaluation.
The placental epigenome regulates processes that affect placental and fetal development, and could be mediating some of the reported effects of maternal choline supplementation (MCS) on placental vascular development and nutrient delivery. As an extension of work previously conducted in pregnant mice, the current study sought to explore the effects of MCS on various epigenetic markers in the placenta. RNA and DNA were extracted from placentas collected on embryonic day 15.5 from pregnant mice fed a 1X or 4X choline diet, and were subjected to genome-wide sequencing procedures or mass-spectrometry-based assays to examine placental imprinted gene expression, DNA methylation patterns, and microRNA (miRNA) abundance. MCS yielded a higher (fold change = 1.63-2.25) expression of four imprinted genes (Ampd3, Tfpi2, Gatm and Aqp1) in the female placentas and a lower (fold change = 0.46-0.62) expression of three imprinted genes (Dcn, Qpct and Tnfrsf23) in the male placentas (false discovery rate (FDR) ≤ 0.05
Abstract: This experiment was carried out to evaluation usage different levels of Choline Chloride Supplement (CCS 60%) (0, 500 and 1000 mg kg-1) in the basal diet (corn and soybean meal) and their effects on the different parts of carcass weight (breast and thigh) and internal organs weight (liver, heart, spleen, gizzard, proventriculus and abdominal fat) in broiler chick s. A total of 90 Ross 308 strain mail broiler were randomly divided in to 3 experimental treatments with 3 replicates (10 chicks per pen) and arranged in a completely randomized design. The experimental period lasted 6 weeks and during this period, the birds had free access to feed and water. Experimental diets consisted of: Basal diet 0 mg kg-1 choline chloride supplement, basal diet with 500 mg kg-1 choline chloride supplement and basal diet with 1000 mg kg-1 choline chloride supplement. These diets were isonitrogenous and isoenergetic were given to broiler chickens throughout a 42 day growth period. Data was analyzed with ...
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Read PET and PET/CT with radiolabeled choline in prostate cancer: a critical reappraisal of 20 years of clinical studies, European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
The influence of choline availability on acetylcholine (ACh) release in the hippocampus of the awake rat was investigated using the microdialysis procedure. Three treatments enhancing choline availability for basal and atropine-evoked ACh release were evaluated: acute administration of choline chloride (20 mg/kg i.p.); pretreatment of animals with nicotinamide (10 mmol/kg s.c.) 2 hr before atropine injection and dietary choline supplementation (5-fold increase of choline intake for 15-18 days). Although acute choline administration led to a short-lasting (15 min) increase of basal choline efflux by 25% and nicotinamide caused a long-lasting (5 hr) increase by 105%, neither one affected basal ACh release. However, basal release of choline (1.38 pmol/min) and of ACh (114 fmol/min) in the hippocampus was slightly increased in choline-supplemented animals (choline: 1.92 pmol/min; ACh: 140 fmol/min). In untreated animals, atropine administration caused a 3-fold increase of ACh efflux that lasted ...
Not all sources of choline are the same. Choline itself is the basic form (also referred to as basic choline) and is usually purchased as bitartrate. Basic choline is just that-the most basic and inexpensive form of choline. It is far less expensive than CDP-choline and as a result, it is used much more often in various supplements. Basic choline does not effectively cross the blood-brain barrier and doesnt reliably increase neural (brain) concentrations of choline. While the basic form of choline does have some benefits to your liver and may help with methylation, its benefits are definitely lacking when it comes to helping your brain.. Another basic form of choline is choline citrate. This form can have about 50% more choline content than choline bitartrate and may have some other health benefits, such as helping to prevent fatty deposits from accumulating in the liver. Unfortunately, it is also ineffective at crossing the blood-brain barrier or increasing choline concentrations in ...
Magnetic resonance (MR) has become one of the most important diagnostic tools in modern medicine. It provides superior soft tissue contrast compared to other imaging modalities, it is extremely flexible as it can be used to image all parts of the body, and it is considered to be safe for patients.. Today almost all MR is performed in a non-quantitative manner, only by comparing neighbouring tissue in the search for pathology. It is possible to quantify the MR-signals to its physical entities, but time consuming and complicated calibration procedures have prevented this in clinical routine.. In this work two different applications of quantitative MR-spectroscopy in diffuse liver and neurological disease, and a new rapid method for simultaneous quantification of proton density, T1 relaxation and T2* relaxation in MR-imaging are presented.. In Paper I, absolutely quantified phosphorus MR-spectroscopy was tested as a predictive tool in order to determine the degree of fibrosis on patients with ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Jessica A Ash, Ramon Velazquez, Christy M Kelley, Brian E Powers, Stephen D Ginsberg, Elliott J Mufson, Barbara J Strupp].
Our DAVY™ choline chloride technology includes a continuous single-stream process in which ethylene oxide, hydrochloric acid, trimethylamine (TMA) are reacted under moderate conditions to produce choline chloride.
Choline Chloride In Dog Food By Hungry Bark | January 21, 2021 If you have gotten into the habit of reading your dogs food labels, there are likely ingredients that you have questions about. Chances are, Choline Chloride is one of those ingredients. Chemical names can be a little intimidating, especially when there is
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Regular physical exercise not only enhances fitness but also has a positive impact on brain metabolism, researchers say. The findings showed that physical activity prevented an increase in choline - a macronutrient thats important for liver function, normal brain development, nerve function, muscle movement, supporting energy levels and maintaining a healthy metabolism.. The concentration of this metabolite often rises as a result of the increased loss of nerve cells, which typically occurs in the case of Alzheimers disease, said Johannes Pantel, Professor at the Goethe University Frankfurt in Germany. In the study, physical exercise led to stable cerebral choline concentrations in the training group, whereas choline levels increased in the control group. The participants physical fitness also improved and they showed increased cardiac efficiency after the training period.. Overall, these findings suggest that physical exercise not only improves physical fitness but also protects cells. To ...
High choline purity, guaranteed by IC (Ion Chromatography)Choline chloride is an essential nutrient and an important component in the regulation of certain metabolic processes. As choline chloride is synthesized in the liver, it is naturally available. It is however required in greater amounts than the body produces. Therefore choline chloride is an essential B-Vitamin and a required dietary supplement. Impextraco offers different choline chlorides within the KOLVIT® range.
Anaerobic choline metabolism by human gut microbiota to produce trimethylamine (TMA) has recently evolved as a potential therapeutic target because of its association with chronic kidney disease and increased cardiovascular risks. Limited examples of choline analogs have been reported as inhibitors of bacterial enzyme choline TMA-lyase (CutC), a key enzyme regulating choline anaerobic metabolism. We utilized a new workflow to discover CutC inhibitors based on focused screening of a diversified library of small molecules for intestinal metabolic stability followed by in vitro CutC inhibitory assay. This workflow identified a histidine-based scaffold, (compound 5), as a CutC inhibitor with an IC50 value of 1.9 ± 0.2 μM. Remarkably, compound 5 was able to reduce the production of TMA in whole cell assays using various bacterial strains as well as in complex gut microbiota environment. The improved efficiency of the new scaffold identified in this study in comparison to previously reported CutC ...
7 Dec 2018 Choline is an essential nutrient that has many benefits for your health. It was only acknowledged as a required nutrient by the Institute of Medicine in 1998. Summary The adequate intake of choline is 425 mg per day for women and Other forms of supplements include choline chloride, CDP-choline, Chat Online ...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Choline positron emission tomography (PET) can help to optimize radiation treatment strategy of prostate cancer. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of ionizing radiation on the choline uptake in an androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and an androgen-independent (PC3) prostate cancer cell line. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Uptake of [methyl-(3)H]choline chloride was investigated between 4 and 96 h after irradiation with 6 Gy. Dose dependence of choline uptake was examined following irradiation with 2-12 Gy, and cell survival was analyzed via the clonogenic assay. Michaelis-Menten kinetics was determined 24 h (PC3) and 48 h (LNCaP) after irradiation with 6 Gy. RESULTS: PC3 cells showed a significant transitory increase of [methyl-(3)H]choline uptake with a maximum at 24 h after irradiation. In LNCaP cells irradiation induced a significant decrease with a minimum at 48 h. Changes in choline uptake in both cell lines were almost dose-independent up to 12 Gy. ...
The aim of this study was to prospectively compare the detection rate of 68Ga-PSMA versus 11C-Choline in men with prostate cancer with biochemical recurrence and to demonstrate the added value of a tri-modality PET/CT-MRI system. We analysed 36 patients who underwent both 11C-Choline PET/CT and 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT scanning within a time window of 1-2 weeks. Additionally, for the 68Ga-PSMA scan, we used a PET/CT-MRI (3.0 T) system with a dedicated shuttle, acquiring MRI images of the pelvis. Both scans were positive in 18 patients (50%) and negative in 8 patients (22%). Nine patients were positive with 68Ga-PSMA alone (25%) and one with 11C-Choline only (3%). The median detected lesion per patient was 2 for 68Ga-PSMA (range 0-93) and 1 for 11C-Choline (range 0-57). Tumour to background ratios in all concordant lesions (n = 96) were higher for 68Ga-PSMA than for 11C-Choline (110.3 ± 107.8 and 27.5 ± 17.1, mean ± S.D., for each tracer, respectively P = 0.0001). The number of detected lesions per patient
The aim of the present study was to investigate the function of human CTL1 in choline transport. The function of CTL1 as a choline transporter has been demonstrated in the Torpedo electric lobe (40), mouse (57), and rat (16, 40, 47). Human CTL1 was cloned and characterized as a cell-surface antigen in monocytes and differentiating dendritic cells; however, its choline transport was not clearly established (55). This study is the first to establish a functional link between the regulation of surface expression of CTL1 protein and choline transport in monocytes and differentiated macrophages. We realized that the well-known induction process of monocytic cell differentiation to macrophages by PMA is a good model for our study because the PMA/PKC system has the following properties: 1) they contribute to the differentiation processes, 2) they are common modulators of choline uptake in multiple systems, and 3) they are well-documented regulators of surface receptors and transporters (3, 10, 24, ...
Choline chloride is a common additive in animal feeds for both farm animals and pets. Choline is an essential nutritive chemical. Choline is important for cell membrane structure, for synthesizing folic acid and vitamin B12, and for protecting the liver from accumulating fat. ...
Fourteen patients with a variety of ataxic disorders were given choline chloride, double blind for six weeks, in an attempt to improve gait and manual dexterity. One patient withdrew before receiving the active drug, twelve patients showed no functional improvement, but one achieved greater mobility; his response, which was dose dependent, ceased when choline was stopped and was reproducible.. ...
PURPOSE: We have previously reported results of a pilot study in patients with locally advanced breast cancer receiving primary systemic chemotherapy (PST) showing that a decrease in tumor choline concentration ([tCho]) measured one day after starting treatment was associated with clinical response based on MRI. In this follow-up study with a larger cohort, we assessed whether early changes in [tCho] were associated with clinical response, based on both MRI and pathology, and survival.. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Women with locally advanced breast cancer scheduled for PST were scanned using a high-field MRI/MRS protocol prior to treatment, day 1 after treatment, and at the end of the first course of chemotherapy. MRI/MRS was performed on a 4 T Varian system with unilateral transmit/receive breast coils. MRI consisted of contrast-enhanced T1-weighted 3D gradient echo scans with one-minute temporal resolution. A single-voxel MR spectrum was acquired from the index lesion after MRI, and the ...
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To compare the blood flow in tumors before therapy with the concentration of choline, an indicator of cell proliferation. This choline concentration can be measured with another MRI technique. This information will demonstrate the relationship between cell proliferation and blood supply and will also determine whether the choline measurement adds additional information that is clinically necessary ...
CDP Choline sodium capsules are a convenient way to increase choline levels in the brain without the bitter taste. Free Shipping for orders over $35.
Liqui B Complex Plus information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Twin Laboratories, Liqui B Complex Plus indications, usages and related health products lists
Particle size (60 mesh): 95% min passes APPEARANCE:. Pure white powder PACKING:. Normally in 25 kg PEPA bags with PE liner CONTAINER LOADING: 1x20 full container loads 18.5 M. tons (or to be indicated) without pallets STORAGE: Stable powder, keep container closed when in not use. ...
Learn more about Choline at Grand Strand Medical Center Uses Principal Proposed Uses Alzheimers Disease ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Synthesis and biodistribution of new radiolabeled high-affinity choline transporter inhibitors [11C]hemicholinium-3 and [18F]hemicholinium-3. AU - Zheng, Qi Huang. AU - Gao, Mingzhang. AU - Mock, Bruce H.. AU - Wang, Shuyan. AU - Hara, Toshihiko. AU - Nazih, Rachid. AU - Miller, Michael A.. AU - Receveur, Tim J.. AU - Lopshire, John C.. AU - Groh, William J.. AU - Zipes, Douglas P.. AU - Hutchins, Gary D.. AU - DeGrado, Timothy R.. PY - 2007/4/15. Y1 - 2007/4/15. N2 - The high-affinity choline transporter (CHT1) system is an attractive target for the development of positron emission tomography (PET) biomarkers to probe brain, cardiac, and cancer diseases. An efficient and convenient synthesis of new radiolabeled CHT1 inhibitors [11C]hemicholinium-3 and [18F]hemicholinium-3 by solid-phase extraction (SPE) technique using a cation-exchange CM Sep-Pak cartridge has been well developed. The preliminary evaluation of both tracers through biodistribution studies in 9L-glioma rats has ...
The effects of several non-neuronal cell types on neurotransmitter synthesis in cultures of dissociated sympathetic neurons from the new-born rat were studied. Acetylcholine synthesis from radioactive choline was increased 100- to 1000-fold in the presence of non-neuronal cells from sympathetic ganglia. This increase was roughly dependent on the number of ganglionic non-neuronal cells present. The effect did not appear to be due to an increased plating efficiency of neurons, since the non-neuronal cells were capable of increasing acetylcholine synthesis after only 48-hr contact with neurons that had been previously grown without non-neuronal cells for 2 weeks. C6 rat glioma cells were also able to stimulate acetylcholine synthesis, but 3T3 mouse fibroblast cells had little or no effect. None of the non-neuronal cell types synthesized detectable acetylcholine in the absence of the neurons. The ganglionic non-neuronal cells had no significant effect on catecholamine synthesis (which occurs in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increases in the concentration of brain α-bungarotoxin binding sites induced by dietary choline are age-dependent. AU - Morley, Barbara J.. AU - Garner, Laura L.. PY - 1986/7/23. Y1 - 1986/7/23. N2 - We have previously reported that a diet supplemented with choline induces an increase in the concentration of a brain nicotinic-like receptor, as measured by α-bungarotoxin (BuTX) binding. Here we report the effects of choline administered in the drinking water on BuTX binding in the cortex, midbrain and brainstem of rats at 3 ages. In comparison with animals fed a choline-free diet, choline supplementation produced increases averaging 50% in 23-day-old rats and increases of approximately 30% in 60-day-old rats. Increases were also found in 6-month-old animals (averaging 16%), but the differences were generally not statistically significant. The mechanism responsible for the increase in the concentration of BuTX binding sites following the administration of dietary choline is not ...
Shop High-affinity choline transport protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and High-affinity choline transport protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the Breast. T2 - Current Status. AU - Bolan, Patrick J.. PY - 2013/8/1. Y1 - 2013/8/1. N2 - Invivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the breast can be used to measure the level of choline-containing compounds, which is a biomarker of malignancy. In the diagnostic setting, MRS can provide high specificity for distinguishing benign from malignant lesions. MRS also can be used as an early response indicator in patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. This article describes the acquisition and analysis methods used for measuring total choline levels in the breast using MRS, reviews the findings from clinical studies of diagnosis and treatment response, and discusses problems, limitations, and future developments for this promising clinical technology.. AB - Invivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the breast can be used to measure the level of choline-containing compounds, which is a biomarker of malignancy. In the diagnostic ...
Advanced imaging of veterinary cancer patients has evolved in recent years and modalities once limited to human medicine have now been described for diagnostic purposes in veterinary medicine (positron emission tomography/computed tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, whole body magnetic resonance imaging). Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive and non-ionizing technique that is well described in the human medical literature and is most frequently used to evaluate the metabolic activity of tissues with questionable malignant transformation. Differentiation of neoplastic tissue from surrounding normal tissue is dependent on variations in cellular metabolism. Choline (Cho) levels have been described as diagnostic markers for malignancy for many different tumor types in vivo and ex vivo (tissue biopsies). Monitoring of pre- and post-therapy choline metabolites in tumors has also been performed to evaluate a patients response to cancer treatment. Positive ...
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Définitions de Hemicholinium-3, synonymes, antonymes, dérivés de Hemicholinium-3, dictionnaire analogique de Hemicholinium-3 (anglais)
Electrical stimulation of the chick ciliary nerve leads to a frequency-dependent increase in the Na+-dependent high affinity uptake of [3H]choline (SDHACU) and its conversion to acetylcholine (ACh) in the nerve terminals innervating the iris muscle. The forces that drive this choline (Ch) uptake across the presynaptic membrane were evaluated. Depolarization with increased [K+] out or veratridine decreases Ch accumulation. In addition to the electrical driving force, energy is provided by the Na+ gradient. Inhibition of the Na,K-ATPase decreased the Ch taken up. Thus, changes in the rate of Ch transport are dependent on the electrochemical gradients for both Ch and Na+. Ch uptake and ACh synthesis were increased after a conditioning preincubation with high [K+] out or veratridine. As is the case for electrical stimulation, this acceleration of Ch uptake and ACh synthesis was strongly dependent on the presence of Ca++ in the incubation medium. Na+ influx through a TTX-sensitive channel also ...
Choline Transporter Inhibitor II, ML352 - Calbiochem A moderately brain permeant, non-choline based highly selective and potent inhibitor of high-affinity choline transporter (CHT; Ki = 92 nM in hCHT-LV-AA transfected HEK293 cells). - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
Choline- and acetylcholine-induced changes in the morphology of Fusarium graminearum: evidence for the involvement of the choline transport system and acetylcholinesterase
Choline for ACh biosynthesis can potentially be supplied through three pathways: (1) de novo synthesis, (2) uptake of free choline by low- and high-affinity transporters, and (3) turnover of membrane phospholipids. Assessing the relative contributions of these pathways from the literature is somewhat difficult. Observations on the mouse CHT knockout suggest that choline uptake through the high-affinity transporter is critical for the synthesis of synaptically releasable pools of ACh (Ferguson et al. 2004). However, as noted earlier, researchers have also reported that a small, but significant fraction (∼20%) of ACh synthesis is independent of HC-3-sensitive choline uptake (Birks and Macintosh 1957; Guyenet et al. 1973). Other researchers have demonstrated that neuroendocrine cells are capable of synthesizing and releasing ACh in the absence of detectable CHT expression (Bauerfeind et al. 1993; Ferguson et al. 2003). These observations are generally attributed to the activity of low-affinity ...
Carnitine and choline supplementation with exercise alter carnitine profiles, biochemical markers of fat metabolism and serum leptin concentration in healthy wo
Blusztajn, J. K., and Berse, B. (2000) The cholinergic neuronal phenotype in Alzheimers disease. Metab Brain Dis 15, 45-64 PubMed. · Farber, S. A., Slack, B. E., and Blusztajn, J. K. (2000) Acceleration of phosphatidylcholine synthesis and breakdown by inhibitors of mitochondrial function in neuronal cells: a model of the membrane defect of Alzheimers disease. FASEB J 14, 2198-2206 PubMed. · Lopez-Coviella, I., Berse, B., Krauss, R., Thies, R. S., and Blusztajn, J. K. (2000) Induction and maintenance of the neuronal cholinergic phenotype in the central nervous system by BMP-9. Science 289, 313-316 PubMed. · Yang, Y., Liu, Z., Cermak, J. M., Tandon, P., Sarkisian, M. R., Stafstrom, C. E., Neill, J. C., Blusztajn, J. K., and Holmes, G. L. (2000) Protective effects of prenatal choline supplementation on seizure-induced memory impairment. J Neurosci 20, RC109 PubMed · Guo-Ross, S. X., Clark, S., Montoya, D. A., Jones, K. H., Obernier, J., Shetty, A. K., White, A. M., Blusztajn, J. K., Wilson, ...
And in the unfortunate case that you do believe that you are running short of choline, because you dont eat all the good choline containing foods out of ethical or whatever other reasons, and thus insist on supplementing, I suggest you yourself a 500g container of choline bitartrate powder (dont let that become wet, though! It will stink like rotten fish ;-). Those 500g of choline bitartrate (40% choline, 60% tartate) will cost you about as much as 60x300mg caps of the overpriced GPC and has been scientifically proven (not in supplement company terms, but in SuppVersity terms) to safely increase circulating and brain choline levels and its metabolites after oral ingestion, as well (Stoll. 1996; Babb. 2004). And lets be honest, even if the effects on growth hormone were GPC specific - even on the boards, people have meanwhile realized none of those arginine + lysine GH boosters does make a difference and not because they would not produce transient increases in GH, but simply because those ...
Title:Choline Alphoscerate (Alpha-Glyceryl-Phosphoryl-Choline) An Old Choline- containing Phospholipid with a Still Interesting Profile As Cognition Enhancing Agent. VOLUME: 10 ISSUE: 10. Author(s):Enea Traini, Vincenzo Bramanti and Francesco Amenta. Affiliation:Centro Ricerche Cliniche, Telemedicina e Telefarmacia Università di Camerino, Via Madonna delle Carceri 9, 62032 Camerino (MC) Italy.. Keywords:Adult-onset dementia, choline alphoscerate, cholinergic neurotransmission, clinical trials, preclinical studies.. Abstract:Cholinergic precursors have represented the first approach to counter cognitive impairment occurring in adultonset dementia disorders. These compounds were early leaved because their clinical efficacy was not clearly demonstrated. This is probably not true for some choline-containing phospholipids including choline alphoscerate. Choline alphoscerate increases the release of acetylcholine in rat hippocampus, facilitates learning and memory in experimental animals, improves ...
Title:Choline Alphoscerate (Alpha-Glyceryl-Phosphoryl-Choline) An Old Choline- containing Phospholipid with a Still Interesting Profile As Cognition Enhancing Agent. VOLUME: 10 ISSUE: 10. Author(s):Enea Traini, Vincenzo Bramanti and Francesco Amenta. Affiliation:Centro Ricerche Cliniche, Telemedicina e Telefarmacia Università di Camerino, Via Madonna delle Carceri 9, 62032 Camerino (MC) Italy.. Keywords:Adult-onset dementia, choline alphoscerate, cholinergic neurotransmission, clinical trials, preclinical studies.. Abstract:Cholinergic precursors have represented the first approach to counter cognitive impairment occurring in adultonset dementia disorders. These compounds were early leaved because their clinical efficacy was not clearly demonstrated. This is probably not true for some choline-containing phospholipids including choline alphoscerate. Choline alphoscerate increases the release of acetylcholine in rat hippocampus, facilitates learning and memory in experimental animals, improves ...
PtdCho is a major component of eukaryotic but not prokaryotic membranes. We demonstrate for the first time that a bacterium can inhibit the de novo synthesis of PtdCho in human cells. Significantly, this inhibition triggers apoptosis. Although inhibition of PtdCho biosynthesis initiates apoptosis in cells exposed to xenobiotics (13-15, 17, 28), in mutant cells with genetic CCT dysfunction (40), or in nutritional choline deprivation (18, 31), the response of human cells to pneumococcus is the first case where this mechanism plays a critical role in pathogenesis.. In the brain, PtdCho has an additional role as a precursor for the biosynthesis of the important neurotransmitter acetylcholine. It is unlikely that acetylcholine deprivation accounts for the observed pneumococcal-induced neuronal cell death because a low level of acetylcholine is not known to be a death signal and PtdCho serves as a reservoir of choline for acetylcholine biosynthesis under conditions of nutritional choline deprivation ...
After the impulse is transmitted across the synapse, the acetylcholine is broken down by the enzyme cholinesterase. 83+ Ways to Increase or Decrease Acetylcholine. Choline is a precursor for acetylcholine, an important neurotransmitter synthesized by cholinergic neurons and involved in muscle control, circadian rhythm, memory, and many other neuronal functions. Acetylcholine (ACh) is a neurotransmitter that has been receiving a lot of attention in memory research. It is the main neurotransmitter released into the nerves throughout your body (excluding your spinal cord and brain), and is responsible for … While your liver makes choline, it doesnt make enough to meet your daily needs so its … If youre trying to make more acetylcholine, you have to increase your choline levels. These compounds are toxic because they inhibit the action of acetylcholinesterase, leading to a build-up of acetylcholine. Acetylcholine, a biochemical, plays a large role in maintaining your hearts rhythm when you ...
Choline kinase alpha (ChoK) overexpression is connected with an aggressive tumor phenotype. in 4175-Luc+ tumors that LY500307 was followed by concomitant decrease in JAS239 uptake and reduced total choline metabolite amounts as assessed using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. At higher healing dosages, JAS239 was as effectual as MN58b at arresting tumor development and inducing apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 tumors, considerably reducing tumor choline below baseline amounts without observable systemic toxicity. These data bring in a new solution to monitor therapeutically effective inhibitors of choline fat burning capacity in breasts cancer utilizing a little molecule partner diagnostic. phospholipid biosynthesis qualified prospects to lower degrees of pro-mitotic second messenger Kennedy pathway intermediates, elevated ceramide amounts, and de-stabilized endoplasmic reticulum [2, 17C19]. The strongest of these agencies, TCD-717, is certainly a appealing anti-cancer medication [19] thats being ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) is bound with 50-micromolar affinity by a completely synthetic receptor (host) comprising primarily aromatic rings. The host provided an overall hydrophobic binding site, but one that could recognize the positive charge of the quaternary ammonium group of ACh through a stabilizing interaction with the electron-rich π systems of the aromatic rings (cation-π interaction). Similar interactions may be involved in biological recognition of ACh and other choline derivatives. ...
AlphaSize AlphaSize® Alpha-Glyceryl Phosphoryl Choline (A-GPC), is an advanced choline compound that enhances brain metabolism - unlike other choline sources. AlphaSize A-GPC is considered to be one of the most effective brain nutrients in the world, and is used widely for memory, focus, and brain energy, and also for
Dr. Bhujwallas lab promotes preclinical and clinical multimodal imaging applications to understand and effectively treat cancer. The labs work is dedicated to the applications of molecular imaging to understand cancer and the tumor environment. Significant research contributions include 1) developing theranostic agents for image-guided targeting of cancer, including effective delivery of siRNA in combination with a prodrug enzyme 2) understanding the role of inflammation and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in cancer using molecular and functional imaging 3) developing noninvasive imaging techniques to detect COX-2 expressing in tumors 4) understanding the role of hypoxia and choline pathways to reduce the stem-like breast cancer cell burden in tumors 5) using molecular and functional imaging to understand the role of the tumor microenvironment including the extracellular matrix, hypoxia, vascularization, and choline phospholipid metabolism in prostate and breast cancer invasion and metast...asis, ...
Background: Choline status has been associated with stunting among young children. Findings from this study showed that an egg intervention improved linear growth by a length-for-age z score of 0.63.Objective: We aimed to test the efficacy of eggs introduced early in complementary feeding on plasma concentrations of biomarkers in choline pathways, vitamins B-12 and A, and
Vitamins are organic substances that are indispensable to the normal metabolic processes of animals. Vitamins are required in very small amounts and are classified as micronutrients. They are essential to maintain health and performance, and have to be supplied as part of the overall diet. Vitamins can also be ingested as pro-vitamins, which are converted into the corresponding vitamins by the animal organism. In most cases, the animal organism itself is not able to synthesise vitamins.. A deficiency or complete lack of one or more vitamins may lead to multiple metabolic malfunctions, possibly resulting in depressed performance, growth retardation, fertility problems or diseases and possibly death. Furthermore, an increased supply of certain vitamins can have positive effects on health (Fefana, 2014). Orffa can offer a broad and complete range of vitamins to the compound feed and premix industry.. Availability can depend on region. ...
Data from a large, long-running Finnish study, involving some 2,500 men aged 42-60, has found that dietary intake of phosphatidylcholine was associated with a reduced risk of dementia (the risk was 28% lower in men with the highest intake compared to the lowest). Men with the highest intake of dietary phosphatidylcholine also excelled in tests measuring their memory and linguistic abilities.. The key sources of phosphatidylcholine in the study populations diet were eggs (39%) and meat (37%).. Choline is necessary for the formation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Earlier studies have linked choline intake with cognitive processing, and adequate choline intake may play a role in the prevention of cognitive decline and Alzheimers disease.. There was no interaction with the APOE4 gene.. ...
Choline is really a water-soluble nutrient needed for individual life. [1 stress] and [1 stress]; see Desk?S1?within the supplemental materials) were tested for choline intake and TMA creation from choline HDAC inhibitor under anaerobic circumstances. All strains had been inoculated within a diluted gut moderate (Desk?S2) supplemented with 15?mM choline and incubated for 24?h within […]. ...
Description Nervous System Health B-Complex for Maximum Effectiveness Supports Energy Production A Dietary Supplement Vegetarian/Vegan Vitamins Family Owned Since 1968 GMP Quality Assured B-50 Caps provide a full complement of B-Vitamins plus Choline and Inositol. These vitamins work to support energy production, maint
November 26, 2012 -- Taking extra choline during pregnancy does not improve babies language and memory skills, according to a new study. I think eating the...
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[65 Pages Report] Check for Discount on choline dihydrogen citrate Global Market and Forecast Research report by ChemReport. DescriptionWe provide independent and unbiased information on manufacturers, prices, production...
Choline. 4%. 19.1 mg. Vitamin C. 102%. 85 mg. Vitamin E. 6% ...
Annona muricata is a small, upright, evergreen tree that can grow to about 30 feet (9.1 m) tall.[4][5][8][9] Its young branches are hairy.[9] Leaves are oblong to oval, 8 centimetres (3.1 in) to 16 centimetres (6.3 in) long and 3 centimetres (1.2 in) to 7 centimetres (2.8 in) wide. They are a glossy dark green with no hairs above, and paler and minutely hairy to no hairs below.[9] The leaf stalks are 4 millimetres (0.16 in) to 13 millimetres (0.51 in) long and without hairs.[9] Flower stalks (peduncles) are 2 millimetres (0.079 in) to 5 millimetres (0.20 in) long and woody. They appear opposite from the leaves or as an extra from near the leaf stalk, each with one or two flowers, occasionally a third.[9] Stalks for the individual flowers (pedicels) are stout and woody, minutely hairy to hairless and 15 millimetres (0.59 in) to 20 millimetres (0.79 in) with small bractlets nearer to the base which are densely hairy.[9] The petals are thick and yellowish. Outer petals meet at the edges without ...
Choline. 9%. 46.1 mg. Vitamin C. 0%. 0 mg. Vitamin E. 3% ...
Choline. 2%. 8.4 mg. Vitamin C. 64%. 53.2 mg. Vitamin E. 1% ...
... made from sugar beets differs from sugarcane molasses. Only the syrup left from the final crystallization stage is called molasses. Intermediate syrups are called high green and low green, and these are recycled within the crystallization plant to maximize extraction. Beet molasses is 50% sugar by dry weight, predominantly sucrose, but contains significant amounts of glucose and fructose. Beet molasses is limited in biotin (vitamin H or B7) for cell growth; hence, it may be supplemented with a biotin source. The nonsugar content includes many salts, such as calcium, potassium, oxalate, and chloride. It contains betaine and the trisaccharide raffinose. These are a result of concentration from the original plant material or chemicals in processing, and make it unpalatable to humans. So, it is mainly used as an additive to animal feed (called "molassed sugar beet feed") or as a fermentation feedstock.. Extracting additional sugar from beet molasses is possible through molasses ...
Citrullus lanatus is a plant species in the family Cucurbitaceae, a vine-like (scrambler and trailer) flowering plant originating in West Africa. It is cultivated for its fruit. The subdivision of this species into two varieties, watermelons (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) var. lanatus) and citron melons (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides (L. H. Bailey) Mansf.), originated with the erroneous synonymization of Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai and Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. by L.H. Bailey in 1930.[2] Molecular data including sequences from the original collection of Thunberg and other relevant type material, show that the sweet watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.) and the bitter wooly melon Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai are not closely related to each other.[3] Since 1930, thousands of papers have misapplied the name Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai for the watermelon, and a proposal to conserve the name with this meaning was accepted by the relevant nomenclatural ...
Choline. 2%. 10.1 mg. Vitamin C. 1%. 0.6 mg. Vitamin E. 3% ...
Choline. 3%. 12.3 mg. Vitamin C. 44%. 36.4 mg. Vitamin E. 6% ...
... s are a moderate source (10-19% DV) of the B vitamins thiamine, vitamin B6, and folate, choline, and the essential ...
Choline. (0%). 0 mg. Vitamin C. (0%). 0 mg. Vitamin E. (0%) ...
The pineapple was brought to northern Europe by the Dutch from their colony in Surinam. The first pineapple to be successfully cultivated in Europe, is said to have been grown by Pieter de la Court at Meerburg in 1658.[24] In England, the first pineapple was grown at Dorney Court, Dorney in Buckinghamshire, and a huge "pineapple stove" needed to grow the plants had been built at the Chelsea Physic Garden in 1723.[25] In France, King Louis XV was presented with a pineapple that had been grown at Versailles in 1733. Catherine the Great ate pineapples grown on her own estates before her death in 1796.[26] Because of the expense of direct import and the enormous cost in equipment and labour required to grow them in a temperate climate, using hothouses called "pineries", pineapples soon became a symbol of wealth. They were initially used mainly for display at dinner parties, rather than being eaten, and were used again and again until they began to rot.[27] By the second half of the 18th century, the ...
Choline. 2%. 10.2 mg. Vitamin C. 32%. 26.7 mg. Vitamin E. 1% ...
Choline. 17%. 82.4 mg. Vitamin D. 1%. 7 IU. Vitamin E. 3% ...
Choline. 2%. 7.6 mg. Vitamin C. 41%. 34.4 mg. Vitamin E. 1% ...
The same amount is also a good source (10-19% DV) of the B vitamins thiamine, vitamin B6, and folate; choline; and the ...
Choline. 5%. 23.7 mg. Vitamin C. 1%. 0.7 mg. Vitamin K. 22% ...
It is not known when yeast was first used to bake bread; the earliest definite records come from Ancient Egypt.[9] Researchers speculate that a mixture of flour meal and water was left longer than usual on a warm day and the yeasts that occur in natural contaminants of the flour caused it to ferment before baking. The resulting bread would have been lighter and tastier than the previous hard flatbreads. It is generally assumed that the earliest forms of leavening were likely very similar to modern sourdough; the leavening action of yeast would have been discovered from its action on flatbread doughs and would have been either cultivated separately or transferred from batch to batch by means of previously mixed ("old") dough. Also, the development of leavened bread seems to have developed in close proximity to the development of beer brewing, and barm from the beer fermentation process can also be used in bread making. Without an understanding of microbiology, early bakers would have had little ...
Egg yolks and whole eggs store significant amounts of protein and choline,[2][3] and are widely used in cookery. Due to their ... "USDA Database for the Choline Content of Common Foods" (PDF). U.S. Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 25 April 2013.. ... choline (60 percent DV), phosphorus (25 percent DV), zinc (11 percent DV) and vitamin D (15 percent DV). Cooking methods affect ... "USDA Database for the Choline Content of Common Foods" (PDF). United States Department of Agriculture (USDA): 10. Archived ...
Choline. 13%. 66 mg. Vitamin C. 12%. 10.1 mg. Vitamin D. 0% ...
Choline. 14%. 70 mg. Vitamin C. 0%. 0 mg. Vitamin E. 16% ...
Columbus brought the plant back to Spain and called it piña de Indes, meaning "pine of the Indians". The pineapple was documented in Peter Martyr's Decades of the New World in 1516 and Antonio Pigafetta's Le Voyage et Navigacion.. of 1526, and the first known illustration was in Oviedo's Historia General de Las Indias in 1535.[26] The pineapple fascinated Europeans as a fruit of colonialism[27] but it could not be successfully cultivated in Europe for several centuries until Pieter de la Court developed a greenhouse horticulture near Leyden from about 1658.[28][22] Pineapple plants were distributed from the Netherlands to English gardeners in 1719 and French ones in 1730.[22] In England, the first pineapple was grown at Dorney Court, Dorney in Buckinghamshire, and a huge "pineapple stove" to heat the plants was built at the Chelsea Physic Garden in 1723.[29][30] In France, King Louis XV was presented with a pineapple that had been grown at Versailles in 1733. In Russia, Catherine the Great ate ...
The banana plant is the largest herbaceous flowering plant.[8] All the above-ground parts of a banana plant grow from a structure usually called a "corm".[9] Plants are normally tall and fairly sturdy, and are often mistaken for trees, but what appears to be a trunk is actually a "false stem" or pseudostem. Bananas grow in a wide variety of soils, as long as the soil is at least 60 cm deep, has good drainage and is not compacted.[10] The leaves of banana plants are composed of a "stalk" (petiole) and a blade (lamina). The base of the petiole widens to form a sheath; the tightly packed sheaths make up the pseudostem, which is all that supports the plant. The edges of the sheath meet when it is first produced, making it tubular. As new growth occurs in the centre of the pseudostem the edges are forced apart.[11] Cultivated banana plants vary in height depending on the variety and growing conditions. Most are around 5 m (16 ft) tall, with a range from 'Dwarf Cavendish' plants at around 3 m (10 ft) ...
Choline. 43%. 212 mg. Vitamin D. 5%. 29 IU. Vitamin E. 8% ...
Choline. 11%. 55.8 mg. Vitamin C. 1%. 0.8 mg. Vitamin E. 62% ...
Spaniards spread cultivation of jícama from Mexico to the Philippines (where it is known as singkamas, from Nahuatl xicamatl),[8] from there it went to China and other parts of Southeast Asia, where notable uses of raw jícama include popiah, fresh lumpia in the Philippines and salads in Indonesia, Singapore and Malaysia such as yusheng and rojak. In the Philippines, jícama is usually eaten fresh with condiments such as rice vinegar and sprinkled with salt, or with bagoong (shrimp paste). In Malay, it is known by the name ubi sengkuang. In Indonesia, jícama is known as bengkuang. This root crop is also known by people in Sumatra and Java[citation needed], and eaten at fresh fruit bars or mixed in the rojak (a kind of spicy fruit salad). Padang a city in West Sumatra is called "the city of bengkuang". Local people might have thought that this jícama is the "indigenous crop" of Padang. The crop has been grown everywhere in this city and it has become a part of their culture.[9] It is known by ...
Choline. 1%. 4.7 mg. Vitamin C. 2%. 2.0 mg. Vitamin K. 4% ...
Choline. 34.9 mg. 37.2 mg Betaine. 1.5 mg. ~ Water. 215 g. 215 g ...
Choline. 7%. 35.3 mg. Vitamin C. 42%. 35 mg. Vitamin E. 23% ...
The roots of lotus are planted in the soil of the pond or river bottom, while the leaves float on the water's surface or are held well above it. The flowers are usually found on thick stems rising several centimeters above the leaves. The leaf stalks (petioles) can be up to 200 cm (6 ft 7 in) long, allowing the plant to grow in water to that depth,[7] and a horizontal spread of 1 m (3 ft 3 in).[8] The leaves may be as large as 80 cm (31 in) in diameter, while the showy flowers can be up to 30 cm (12 in) in diameter.[9] Researchers report that the lotus has the remarkable ability to regulate the temperature of its flowers to within a narrow range just as humans and other warmblooded animals do.[10] Roger S. Seymour and Paul Schultze-Motel, physiologists at the University of Adelaide in Australia, found that lotus flowers blooming in the Adelaide Botanic Gardens maintained a temperature of 30-35 °C (86-95 °F), even when the air temperature dropped to 10 °C (50 °F). They suspect the flowers may ...
Choline. 4%. 19 mg. Vitamin C. 107%. 89.2 mg. Vitamin E. 5% ...
Other commercial choline salts are choline hydroxide and choline bitartrate. In foodstuffs the compound is often present as ... Johnson Matthey Process Technology - Choline chloride licensed process *^ "Choline chloride" (PDF). Screening Information Data ... Choline chloride is mass-produced with world production estimated at 160 000 tons in 1999.[2] Industrially, it is produce by ... Choline chloride is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)3NCH2CH2OH]Cl. It is bifunctional, containing both quaternary ...
choline ester (CHEBI:23213) has functional parent choline (CHEBI:15354). choline chloride (CHEBI:133341) has part choline ( ... choline (CHEBI:15354) has role nutrient (CHEBI:33284) choline (CHEBI:15354) has role plant metabolite (CHEBI:76924) choline ( ... choline (CHEBI:15354) has role Daphnia magna metabolite (CHEBI:83056) choline (CHEBI:15354) has role Escherichia coli ... choline (CHEBI:15354) has role human metabolite (CHEBI:77746) choline (CHEBI:15354) has role mouse metabolite (CHEBI:75771) ...
So while it can be helpful to you in meeting your choline requirement, you are still going to need a lot more choline from your ... Vegetables are by far your best plant sources of choline! At least 15 WHFoods rank as good or very good sources of choline in ... At WHFoods, we recommend 425 mg of choline each day, and so you can see how this extra choline from food additives represents ... In most diets, phophatidylcholine is the single most common form of choline provided by foods. Nervous System Activity. Choline ...
... is a sn-glycerol 3-phosphates (CHEBI:26706) choline alfoscerate (CHEBI:16870) is a ... choline alfoscerate (CHEBI:16870) has role Escherichia coli metabolite (CHEBI:76971) choline alfoscerate (CHEBI:16870) has role ... choline alfoscerate (CHEBI:16870) has role human metabolite (CHEBI:77746) choline alfoscerate (CHEBI:16870) has role mouse ... choline alfoscerate (CHEBI:16870) has role neuroprotective agent (CHEBI:63726) choline alfoscerate (CHEBI:16870) has role ...
Choline is one of the lipotropic B vitamins-that is, it helps the utilization of fats in the body and thereby supports weight ... of choline, while a tablespoon (5 grams) of lecithin has about 500 mg. of choline. Therapeutic amounts of choline are usually ... Sources: Choline is present in all living cells and is widely distributed in plants and animals. Humans can synthesize choline ... Choline is probably also manufactured by intestinal bacteria. Functions: Choline as phosphatidylcholine, is a basic component ...
Effects of Choline. Br Med J 1945; 2 doi: (Published 10 November 1945) Cite this as: ...
The choline chloride, choline salicylate, choline tartrate, choline lactate and choline phosphate are preferred salts. Choline ... The choline chloride was uniformly dispersed in the tallow. The choline chloride-tallow combination was employed in a choline ... According to this method, a reactable choline compound, i.e. either choline base or a choline salt of an acid weaker than fatty ... It has been discovered that a choline feed supplement containing a choline salt composition consisting essentially of a choline ...
Choline Magnesium Trisalicylate: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Before taking choline magnesium trisalicylate,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to choline magnesium ... Choline magnesium trisalicylate comes as a tablet and a liquid to take by mouth. It is usually taken one to three times a day. ... Take choline magnesium trisalicylate exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed ...
Choline definition, a quaternary ammonium cation, C5H14N+O, one of the B-complex vitamins, found in the lecithin of many plants ... choline. in Science. choline. [kō′lēn′]. *A natural amine often classed in the vitamin B complex. It is incorporated into the ... choline. in Medicine. choline. (kō′lēn′). n.. *A natural amine often classed in the vitamin B complex and a constituent of many ... choline. noun. *a colourless viscous soluble alkaline substance present in animal tissues, esp as a constituent of lecithin: ...
You certainly dont want to fall short of choline -- a nutrient that the body uses to make cell ... Choline is also showing up in multivitamins: Even Flintstones Complete now includes 38 milligrams of choline per tablet. ... You can buy 60 tablets of 500-milligram choline from Physician Formulas for about $15. Physician Formulas also offers choline ... The bottom line: Choline is undoubtedly a vital nutrient, and anyone who skimps on it does so at their own peril, says Dr. ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Choline Hydrogentartrate is available on the website. ... Choline Hydrogentartrate is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ...
Choline is an essential nutrient that humans need for neurodevelopment and many other bodily functions. Learn more about ... People can get choline from various dietary sources. Infants require lots of choline during the first few months of life, most ... Choline supports numerous vital bodily functions, including:. *Cell maintenance: The body uses choline to produce fats that ... Metabolism: Choline helps metabolize fats.. *Nervous system functioning: The body converts choline into a neurotransmitter that ...
Choline deficiency may be a primary trigger for NAFLD, the most common form of liver disease in the U.S. affecting 30% to 40% ... Choline deficiency may be a primary trigger for NAFLD, the most common form of liver disease in the U.S. affecting 30% to 40% ... Risks Linked to Choline Deficit Drastically Understated. Analysis by Dr. Joseph Mercola Fact Checked ... Choline is important in healthy fetal development, fat metabolism, cell messaging, mitochondrial health and cognitive ...
Learn more about Choline uses, effectiveness, possible side effects, interactions, dosage, user ratings and products that ... CHOLINE. OTHER NAME(S): Bitartre de Choline, Chlorure de Choline, Choline Bitartrate, Choline Chloride, Choline Citrate, ... Choline is similar to a B vitamin. It is used in many chemical reactions in the body. Choline seems to be an important in the ... Children: Choline is LIKELY SAFE for most children when taken by mouth in appropriate amounts. Taking high doses of choline by ...
Choline is a precursor of acetylcholine (a neurotransmitter) and is a vital part of the phospholipid bilayer that makes up the ... Its not yet clear whether choline has this effect on humans, too, but it cant hurt to get a healthy dose of choline-rich ... choline (thing). See all of choline, there is 1 more in this node. ... If you administer choline to a newborn or pregnant rat during certain critical periods, the baby rat will often grow up to have ...
Definition of cytidine diphosphate choline. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Includes medical terms and ...
C-11 Choline PET scanning detects recurrent prostate cancer throughout the body. ... How C-11 Choline PET scanning works:. *A carbon atom in the vitamin choline is made radioactive by lab technicians. ... The C-11 Choline PET scan makes recurrent prostate cancers "glow.". This reveals metastatic lesions in about 1/3 of men in whom ... The C-11 Choline PET scan helps physicians to.... *React quickly (months or years earlier than other imaging methods). ...
Choline is needed for proper functioning of your cells, ... What Foods Contain Choline?. You Probably Need More of This ... Never heard of choline? That could be because it is fairly new to the world of essential nutrients, first recognized by the ... Now that you know what it is and why you need it, lets review the top 10 choline-rich foods (according to SELF Nutrition ... Theres an underappreciated nutrient that deserves some major love (and a little room on your plate). Choline is needed for ...
Side Effects and Warnings - In general, choline is regarded as safe, and it appears to be well tolerated. However, when taken ... Avoid with known allergy or sensitivity to choline, lecithin, phosphatidylcholine, or products containing these components. ... For asthma, 500-1,000 milligrams of choline has been taken by mouth three times daily. Also, 500 milligrams of choline citrate ... In general, choline is regarded as safe, and it appears to be well tolerated. However, when taken in high amounts, it may cause ...
Choline. Properties and Metabolism. Choline is a beta-hydroxyethyltrimethylammonium hydroxide. Pure choline is a colorless, ... The metabolic needs for choline can be supplied in two ways: either by dietary choline or by choline synthesis in the body that ... Commercially, choline is produced by chemical synthesis, and choline salts are used in dietary supplementation. Choline is ... Even with choline deficiency, however, choline content of the egg was not affected by low dietary choline. ...
Choline can also be produced by the CDP-choline route, cytosolic choline kinases (CK) phosphorylate choline with ATP to ... Choline is a family of water-soluble quaternary ammonium compounds. Choline hydroxide is known as choline base. It is ... Choline is often not classified as a vitamin, but as a nutrient with an amino acid-like metabolism. In most animals, choline ... Excessive doses of choline can have adverse effects. Daily 8-20 g doses of choline, for example, have been found to cause low ...
Learn how you can get enough choline from natural food sources. ... Learn how you can get enough choline from natural food sources. ... Choline deficiency appears to be a significant trigger of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. ... Choline deficiency appears to be a significant trigger of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. ... "Eggs rank very high on the list of foods that are high in either lecithin, which converts to choline, or in choline itself. ...
... choline citrate, cytidine diphosphate-choline, evidence for improving memory, and safety and concern with TMAO, heart attack ... Learn how to find the best choline supplements, forms such as phosphatidylcholine, ... Perque Choline Citrate. Twinlab Choline Cocktail. Cardiovascular Research Ltd. Cytidine Choline. Recall Elements ... CDP-choline, citicoline, Cognizin, choline citrate, Alpha-GPC, choline alfoscerate and choline bitartrate ...
Other names in common use include choline oxidase, choline-cytochrome c reductase, choline:(acceptor) oxidoreductase, and ... In enzymology, a choline dehydrogenase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction choline + acceptor ⇌ {\ ... Gadda G, McAllister-Wilkins EE (2003). "Cloning, Expression, and Purification of Choline Dehydrogenase from the Moderate ... Ebisuzaki K, Williams JN (1955). "Preparation and partial purification of soluble choline dehydrogenase from liver mitochondria ...
Most studies of choline as a treatment for diseases have used between 1-30 g of choline or choline-containing supplements per ... Choline is widespread in the foods we eat. The average diet provides about 500 mg to 1,000 mg of choline per day.2,4 Lecithin, ... Choline functions as a part of a major biochemical process in the body called methylation; choline acts as a methyl donor. ... Folate nutriture alters choline status of women and men fed low choline diets. J Nutr. 1999;129:712-717. ...
In experiment 2, subjects took 0.20 mmol and 0.02 mmol/kg choline or pantothenate, respectively. Choline, but not pantothenate ... Choline supplementation reduces urinary carnitine excretion in humans.. Dodson WL1, Sachan DS. ... In experiment 1, adults receiving 13.5 mmol choline plus 1.4 mmol pantothenate/d had a significant decline in urinary carnitine ... Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of supplementary choline and/or pantothenate on the carnitine and lipid ...
Choline. Other name(s). choline bitartrate, choline chloride, choline dihydrogen. General description. Choline is a part of ... Choline deficiency only happens in rare cases. For this reason, the use of choline supplements is limited. Choline doesnt have ... All of the jobs of choline are not yet known. It may be needed for your liver and kidneys to work well. Choline is also a part ... Choline may also enhance athletic performance. Choline may help prevent neural tube defects in pregnancy. It also aids in fetal ...
Choline and its derivatives serve as components of structural lipoproteins, blood and membrane lipids, and as a precursor of... ... Choline is an essential nutrient, but is also formed by de novo synthesis. ... Choline Homocysteine Betaine Choline Intake Neural Tube Defect These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. ... Choline is an essential nutrient, but is also formed by de novo synthesis. Choline and its derivatives serve as components of ...
Choline Magnesium Trisalicylate - Generated on June 18, 2019. ©2019 Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. ... If you have an allergy to choline magnesium trisalicylate or any other part of this drug. ...
... the popularity of plant-based diets may be responsible for decreased choline intake worldwide. Heres why thats a problem. ... Choline is especially important for women who are pregnant and breastfeeding since choline is essential to fetal development.) ... Specifically, Derbyshire found that in the U.S., only about 11 percent of adults get enough choline. In Europe, choline intake ... its important for those adhering to a plant-based diet to monitor their choline intake. Getting enough choline will ensure ...
  • Choline chloride is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)3NCH2CH2OH]Cl. (
  • In the laboratory, choline can be prepared by methylation of dimethylethanolamine with methyl chloride . (
  • Choline chloride is mass-produced with world production estimated at 160 000 tons in 1999. (
  • A convenient method of preparation is to spray an aqueous solution of the choline salt, e.g. choline chloride, on the dry ingredients followed by drying. (
  • choline chloride, C 5 H 14 ClNO. (
  • Choline chloride can be made by treating TMA with 2-chloroethanol: (CH3)3N + ClCH2CH2OH → (CH3)3N+CH2CH2OH · Cl- The 2-chloroethanol can be generated from ethylene oxide. (
  • The chloride salt of this compound, choline chloride, is produced by chemical synthesis for use in the feed industry, although there are other forms. (
  • Choline chloride consists of deliquescent white crystals, which are very soluble in water and alcohols. (
  • Because livestock have a physiological need for choline, manufacturers add it to their animal feeds in the form of choline chloride. (
  • They typically add choline chloride as a 70 percent solution to cereals to enhance the nutrient supply for poultry, pigs and other livestock. (
  • Choline chloride helps prevent liver enlargement in chicks, as well as perosis, a condition in poultry that can lead to leg bone deformity. (
  • Choline chloride supplements are available based on the belief that taking high doses of choline helps achieve optimal acetylcholine levels in the brain, which may help with age-related memory loss. (
  • Although choline deficiencies can cause health problems, manufacturers of choline chloride supplements do not provide scientific studies to back up their claims that supplements are effective at preventing or treating any of these conditions. (
  • Choline chloride is an organic compound and a quaternary ammonium salt. (
  • Choline chloride is the salt of the naturally occurring choline, the pre-stage of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is important for mnemonic and thought-processes. (
  • Choline chloride is used as a source of methyl groups for methyl-transfer reactions. (
  • Choline chloride administered intravenously at 20 mg/kg body weight prevents the LPS-mediated decreases in the activities of these two enzymes. (
  • Choline chloride is a complex vitamin that is added as an important nutrient in animal feeds. (
  • Our DAVY™ choline chloride technology includes a continuous single-stream process in which ethylene oxide, hydrochloric acid, trimethylamine (TMA) are reacted under moderate conditions to produce choline chloride. (
  • The crude product from the synthesis section passes to an evaporator which separates the choline chloride product. (
  • By adding a simple, continuous reaction system to our world-leading methylamines (MA) process, the DAVY choline chloride process further enhances our already established technology. (
  • Contact us for further information on the DAVY choline chloride process. (
  • Cells should be cultured in choline chloride free medium. (
  • Amongst many combinations of DES solvents that have been prepared, reline (choline chloride as the hydrogen bond acceptor mixed with urea as the hydrogen bond donor) was the first DES synthesized and is still the one with the lowest melting point. (
  • Choline chloride/urea DES has proven to be a promising solvent as an efficient medium for carbon dioxide capture when compared with amine alone or ionic liquids under the same conditions. (
  • This review sheds light on the preparation method, physical and chemical characteristics, and the CO 2 absorption capacity of choline chloride/urea DES under different temperatures and pressures reported up to date. (
  • Choline chloride is a vital dietary additive for healthy as well as accelerating growth of the animals such as chickens, swine, fish, and so on. (
  • This trend is leading to growing demand for high quality poultry meat fueling the demand for choline chloride within poultry feed. (
  • Choline chloride is also increasingly used in fish and shrimp feed to accelerate growth and enhance fish yield. (
  • In ruminants, use of choline chloride in feed helps in increasing milk and meat production. (
  • Growing awareness about feed supplements in developing countries such as India, Thailand, Brazil, and Russia, is contributing in the growth of choline chloride. (
  • Choline chloride is increasingly used as a clay stabilizer in drilling shale formations for natural gas. (
  • Choline Chloride Market by End-User (Poultry feed, Swine feed, Ruminant feed, Aqua feed & others, Human nutrition and Oil & Gas, and Misc. (
  • Choline is also available as a dietary supplement, in such forms as phosphatydil choline, choline chloride, or choline bitartrate. (
  • Choline chloride 75% liquid is a choline chloride aqueous solution. (
  • suitable for direct spraying to premixes and feeds and used for manufacturing choline chloride dry form. (
  • The highest amount of choline is present in lecithin, usually obtained from soybeans. (
  • Choline as phosphatidylcholine, is a basic component of soy lecithin and thereby helps in the emulsification of fats and cholesterol in the body, by helping form smaller fat globules in the blood and aiding the transport of fats through the smaller vasculature and in and out of the cells. (
  • Choline is combined with fatty acids glycerol and phosphate to make lecithin (see more on lecithin in Chapter 4, Lipids), an important part of cell membranes. (
  • Recently, purified egg lecithin, which contains choline, has been used in the treatment of AIDS. (
  • Water-soluble choline molecules go to the liver, where the body converts them into a type of fat called lecithin. (
  • Choline has historically been produced from natural sources, such as via hydrolysis of lecithin. (
  • Taking choline by mouth, alone or together with lecithin, does not reduce symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. (
  • Avoid with known allergy or sensitivity to choline, lecithin, phosphatidylcholine, or products containing these components. (
  • Avoid in people with a known allergy or sensitivity to choline, lecithin, or phosphatidylcholine. (
  • Choline is ubiquitously distributed in all plant and animal cells, mostly in the form of the phospholipids phosphatidylcholine (lecithin), lysophosphatidylcholine, choline plasmalogens and sphingomyelin-essential components of all membranes (Zeisel, 1990). (
  • 1993). Choline is present in the unsupplemented diet mainly in the form of lecithin, with less than 10% present either as the free base or as sphingomyelin. (
  • Choline is released from lecithin and sphingomyelin by digestive enzymes of the gastrointestinal tract, although 50% of ingested lecithin enters the thoracic duct intact (Chan, 1991). (
  • Choline is released from lecithin by hydrolysis in the intestinal lumen. (
  • As a phospholipid component, choline is a structural part of lecithin (phosphatidylcholine), of certain plasmologens and the sphingomyelins. (
  • Studies in the 1930s demonstrated that lecithin in egg yolk (which contains high amounts of choline) could cure fatty liver disease in Type 1 diabetic dogs. (
  • Slight evidence hints that lecithin or pure choline may be helpful for people with bipolar disorder . (
  • 22-25 Double-blind trials using lecithin as a source of choline failed to find benefit. (
  • Choline is also the building block of lecithin and sphingomyelins. (
  • Two compounds are derived from choline - acetylcholine and lecithin. (
  • Choline occurs naturally in fungi, hop and kingcups and as integral part of lecithin. (
  • One of the two compounds that make up lecithin is choline , which naturally occurs in the cell membranes of living cells. (
  • As lecithin and choline work together, they are able to maintain brain health, aid weight loss, maintain liver and kidney function and keep the body in all-round general health. (
  • Choline and lecithin work together to break down fats, which results in many different health benefits. (
  • It can be gained from eating foods that contain lecithin, however if you find that your diet is low in lecithin-rich foods, then a lecithin supplement is an ideal way to gain a regular amount of choline in order to receive all of its benefits. (
  • 9. Von Allworden HN, Horn S. Kahl J. Feldheim W. The influence of lecithin on plasma choline concentrations in biathletes and adolescent runners during exercise. (
  • The potential I.Q. yield from Choline/Lecithin has been measured at around two letter grades, and 10 full I.Q. points the difference between someone who is merely bright and someone who is a sheer genius or between someone who is seen as becoming a little bit senile and someone who is regarded as being remarkably as keen-minded as they were 20 years before! (
  • This product has been concentrated to contain 3 times the phosphatidyl choline found in ordinary lecithin. (
  • Choline and lecithin are safe and are available for consumers as over-the-counter nutritional supplements. (
  • Phos Choline provides a highly absorbable source of phosphatidylcholine, derived from unbleached soya lecithin, needed for proper liver and brain functions. (
  • Choline is a component of lecithin and is used in the manufacture of cell membranes. (
  • For PC-35 a 1200mg softgel capsule contains 1200mg of lecithin concentrated to 420mg of phosphatidylcholine delivering 57mg of choline. (
  • An enzyme that is active in the first step of choline phosphoglyceride (lecithin) biosynthesis by catalyzing the phosphorylation of choline to phosphorylcholine in the presence of ATP. (
  • Phosphatidyl Choline (also referred to as phosphatidylcholine) is a preferred form of choline derived directly from lecithin. (
  • Lecithin, a food additive used as an emulsifying agent, also adds choline to the diet. (
  • Choline is the backbone of a nervous system signal molecule-or neurotransmitter-called acetylcholine. (
  • Choline is referred to as the "memory" vitamin, as it is an important part of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. (
  • Choline is also an integral part of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. (
  • Choline is required to produce acetylcholine - a neurotransmitter - and S-adenosylmethionine, a universal methyl donor involved in the synthesis of homocysteine. (
  • Choline is a precursor of acetylcholine (a neurotransmitter ) and is a vital part of the phospholipid bilayer that makes up the cell membrane . (
  • Choline is a precursor for the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. (
  • (c) Choline is essential for the formation of acetylcholine, a substance that makes possible the transmission of nerve impulses. (
  • Choline and its derivatives serve as components of structural lipoproteins, blood and membrane lipids, and as a precursor of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. (
  • Choline specifically acts to prevent fatty liver syndrome and helps in the formation of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, maintaining proper nervous system functioning. (
  • Choline also helps the body use acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that sends signals across nerve endings. (
  • Changing the consumption of choline can alter the synthesis and release of its respective neurotransmitter product acetylcholine. (
  • 1 Consumption of supplemental choline can also increase the release of acetylcholine from nerve endings, including those that cause skeletal muscle to contract. (
  • 2-5 Choline is also incorporated into cell membranes 4 that can serve as an alternative choline source for acetylcholine synthesis when there is a deficiency in circulating choline. (
  • It has been shown that increasing the concentration of choline in skeletal 5 and cardiac 6 muscle increases acetylcholine release. (
  • The reduction in plasma choline levels associated with strenuous exercise (e.g., long distance running or extended swimming) may reduce acetylcholine content, and thus its release, and could thereby affect endurance and performance. (
  • We hypothesized that replacement of choline lost during exercise or prevention of that loss could influence neuronal release of acetylcholine and, subsequently, affect measures of athletic performance and fatigue. (
  • Effects of electrical stimulation and choline availability on release and contents of acetylcholine and choline in superfused slices from rat striatum. (
  • 6. Dieterich HA, Lindmar R. Loffelholz K. The role of choline in the release of acetylcholine in isolated hearts. (
  • They both work by slave-whipping limited supplies of Choline (being held in safety-priority-reserve) into a frenzy, to be forcefully converted to acetylcholine so more thought can be carried more quickly. (
  • The capacity of the high-affinity choline uptake transporter (CHT) to import choline from the extracellular space to presynaptic terminals is essential for normal acetylcholine synthesis and therefore cholinergic transmission. (
  • Choline/Acetylcholine Assay Kit (ab65345) provides a simple and sensitive means for quantifying Choline and Acetylcholine by either a colorimetric or fluorometric method in samples such as blood, cells, culture media, fermentation media, etc. (
  • In the choline / acetylcholine assay protocol, free choline is oxidized to betaine, via the intermediate betaine aldehyde. (
  • Acetylcholine can be converted to choline by adding acetylcholinesterase to the reaction to measure total choline (choline + acetyl choline). (
  • The kit can detect ~10 pmol-5 nmol of choline or acetylcholine. (
  • Choline and acetylcholine (often abbreviated ACh) play important roles in many biological processes. (
  • Choline is also the precursor molecule for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine which is involved in many functions both in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and in the central nervous system (CNS). (
  • Catalyzes the reversible synthesis of acetylcholine (ACh) from acetyl CoA and choline at cholinergic synapses. (
  • The authors noted that choline is the precursor to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and as such has attracted attention as a possibly important nutrient to stave off cognitive decline. (
  • Choline is a precursor of the important neurotransmitter acetylcholine, a chemical used in the transmission of brain impulses between nerves, muscles and organs. (
  • Since acetylcholine levels increase rapidly after consuming choline, researchers have employed choline supplements in the treatment of various disorders marked by lowered levels of acetylcholine in the brain, including Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and tardive dyskinesia. (
  • In this study we examined the developmental roles of acetylcholine (ACh) by establishing and analyzing mice lacking choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the biosynthetic enzyme for ACh. (
  • 35,36) A study in rats found that CDP-choline was associated with increased levels of acetylcholine in the hippocampus and neocortex, which may help reduce neurobehavioral deficits. (
  • An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. (
  • Phosphatidylcholine, a source of choline, supports healthy brain and nerve function as a precursor to neurotransmitter acetylcholine. (
  • Phosphatidyl choline is the nutrient precursor to acetylcholine, an important brain chemical (neurotransmitter) involved in both memory and thought. (
  • We need choline to produce the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which helps with memory, mood and cognitive function, making it an essential brain food. (
  • Choline is a component of cell membranes and a precursor of criticial neurotransmitters like acetylcholine. (
  • Choline bitartrate is an essential nutrient needed by the nervous system to produce acetylcholine. (
  • Other commercial choline salts are choline hydroxide and choline bitartrate. (
  • The bitartrate or citrate sale forms of choline were equally effective. (
  • The objective of this study is to determine the effects of consuming either 3 eggs per day as compared to a daily choline supplement (choline bitartrate, 397.5 mg choline/day) on plasma co. (
  • VitaSprings does not imply any medical claims from the customer reviews on this Choline Bitartrate product on this website. (
  • Write a Review on this Choline Bitartrate product and share your experience or opinion with other customers. (
  • Buy Choline Bitartrate from Roex at VitaSprings, and we guarantee you a safe, secure online shopping experience! (
  • While the NAS does not officially recognize choline as a vitamin specifically belonging to the B-complex family of vitamins, it is officially recognized as a required nutrient that you need in your everyday meal plan. (
  • Choline is an essential nutrient in the production of phosphatidylcholine, one of the most important structural building blocks of a living cell. (
  • You certainly don't want to fall short of choline -- a nutrient that the body uses to make cell membranes and key compounds in the brain. (
  • The bottom line: Choline is undoubtedly a vital nutrient, and anyone who skimps on it does so at their own peril, says Dr. Steven Zeisel, professor of nutrition and pediatrics at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the director of the UNC Clinical Nutrition Research Center. (
  • Choline is a nutrient that supports various bodily functions, including cellular growth and metabolism. (
  • In 1998 , the Institute of Medicine officially recognized choline as an essential nutrient. (
  • Choline is an essential nutrient that supports vital bodily functions and people's overall health. (
  • Choline is an essential nutrient for brain development . (
  • Choline /ˈkəʊliːn/ is an essential nutrient for humans and many other animals. (
  • Choline is often not classified as a vitamin, but as a nutrient with an amino acid-like metabolism. (
  • Choline, initially discovered in 1862, 1 was officially recognized as an essential nutrient for human health by the Institute of Medicine in 1998. (
  • Choline is an unusual essential nutrient. (
  • Choline has only recently been recognized as an essential nutrient. (
  • Choline is an essential nutrient, but is also formed by de novo synthesis. (
  • Whichever type of diet you follow, make sure to get enough choline in it, since this nutrient helps improve brain and muscle function. (
  • They discovered that the majority of people living on these continents don't get enough choline-a nutrient that helps your brain and nervous system regulate things like memory, mood, and muscle function, according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) . (
  • While those animal-based foods are rich sources of choline, you can get the nutrient if you are eating a plant-based diet, too. (
  • Choline is an essential nutrient, considered a vitamin, according to the Linus Pauling Institute. (
  • In your body, choline is an essential nutrient. (
  • Choline is a recently discovered nutrient. (
  • Summary Choline is an essential nutrient that must be included in your diet to maintain optimal health. (
  • In the United States , choline is recommended as an essential nutrient after research showed that humans need to get it. (
  • In 1998 choline was classified as an needed nutrient by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine ( USA ). (
  • Choline is a nutrient you don't hear much about, but if researchers at Cornell University have their way, at least pregnant women will become more familiar with it. (
  • Despite the importance of choline during pregnancy, this nutrient is not found in all prenatal vitamins. (
  • Choline is an essential nutrient that is associated with the B vitamins. (
  • Choline is a nutrient that is important for brain development and maintenance. (
  • Aside from brain health, choline is a nutrient that can be found abundantly in healthy pancreas and liver. (
  • Before anything else, it must be mentioned that choline is an important nutrient for pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers. (
  • Choline is a nutrient that is contained in lipids (fats) in the body. (
  • The brain contains a high amount of lipids to function well and because choline is primarily a nutrient that is included in lipids, the human brain needs to contain a generous amount of lipids with choline to stay healthy. (
  • Choline is a key nutrient of the body's neurotransmitter. (
  • Choline is an essential nutrient for higher organisms, including humans, contributing to cell membrane function, methyl transfer events, and neurotransmission ( 1 ). (
  • A new specialty database is now available to help people get healthful amounts of the nutrient choline in their diets. (
  • Choline is an essential nutrient that is used by the body in a number of ways. (
  • In a more recent study published in The Journal of Nutrition , the researchers look at the impact choline deficiency during pregnancy has on the nutrient composition of sow milk up to 19 days after birth. (
  • While many countries have mandatory fortification programs to get the nutrient folate into the diets of women, those programs don't exist for choline. (
  • Choline is another nutrient we should definitely be looking at and it has been gaining emphasis since the Institute of Medicine officially recognized this nutrient as being essential in 1998,' he adds. (
  • Choline has been recognized as an essential nutrient by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academies of Medicine since 1998. (
  • The Adequate Intake (AI) for choline was calculated at a time when dietary intakes across the population were unknown for the nutrient. (
  • The study can only point to a correlation between memory and dietary choline -- a nutrient found in foods like saltwater fish, eggs, liver, chicken, milk and certain legumes, including soy and kidney beans. (
  • Choline, a nutrient present in significant amounts in eggs, is vital for human health, according to Dr Donald J. McNamara of Eggs For Health Consulting in New Horizons, the Hy-Line International newsletter. (
  • And in the case of choline, we have a nutrient that is really ours. (
  • And choline is our unique, necessary nutrient. (
  • Choline, a nutrient found in high concentration in the egg, can optimise brain development in the foetus and newborn, lower the risk of neural tube defects, reduce heart disease risk and lower breast cancer risk. (
  • To date, it is clear that choline, a nutrient found in high concentration in the egg, can optimise brain development in the foetus and newborn, lower the risk of neural tube defects, reduce heart disease risk and lower breast cancer risk. (
  • Choline is a vital nutrient for brain and nerve function and the structure of cell membranes. (
  • The FDA has added choline as voluntary nutrient on the Nutrient Facts Label, with a DV of 550 mg. (
  • Please visit for a copy of Watson's Choline Guide. (
  • In particular, exciting research suggests that the growth hormone-blocker somatostatin can itself be inhibited with a nutrient called CDP-choline , thus slowing the rate at which growth hormone declines. (
  • The investigators are interested in learning more about choline, a nutrient required by the body. (
  • Choline is an important nutrient during development. (
  • As essential nutrient, choline is a building block in cell membranes and is involved in many processes, including the transport of fat from the liver to the blood stream and overall liver function. (
  • The paper used the US Department of Agriculture Nutrient Database for comparison and found average European choline intakes for most age groups were below the adequate intakes (AI) set by the Institute of Medicine ​ ​ in the US back in 1998 based on age and sex. (
  • A problem with choline supplements, however, is that they rarely list the amount of choline they contain . (
  • Natural feedstuffs do not contain a consistent amount of choline, nor is the amount present predictably bioavailable due to variations in crop growth conditions (see reference 5). (
  • Humans make a small amount of choline in the liver . (
  • In a study published in Nutrition Reviews , investigators reported that pregnant women who consumed the least amount of choline had four times the risk of giving birth to a child with a neural tube defect when compared with women who had the highest intake. (
  • Choline is easily absorbed from the intestines and is one of the only vitamins that crosses the blood-brain barrier into the spinal fluid to be involved directly in brain chemical metabolism. (
  • When choline is depleted, fat metabolism and utilization may be decreased, conceivably leading to fat accumulations. (
  • One of the nutritional functions of choline is concerned with the metabolism and transportation of fat. (
  • Excessive consumption of choline (greater than 7.5 g/day) can cause low blood pressure, sweating, diarrhea and fish-like body odor due to trimethylamine, which forms in its metabolism. (
  • Choline is needed for proper functioning of your cells, metabolism, nervous system, liver, and, for expectant moms, healthy fetal brain development and prevention of neural tube defects. (
  • (b) Choline plays an essential role in fat metabolism in the liver. (
  • 2010). Choline is thus referred to as a "lipotropic" factor due to its function of acting on fat metabolism by hastening removal or decreasing deposition of fat in liver. (
  • Choline is oxidized to betaine that serves as an osmoregulator and is a substrate in the betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase reaction, which links choline and betaine to the folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism. (
  • The link to one-carbon metabolism and the recent availability of food composition data have motivated studies on choline and betaine as risk factors of chronic diseases previously studied in relation to folate and homocysteine status. (
  • Supplementing your diet with choline is necessary for memory, muscle functioning and fat metabolism. (
  • Summary Choline is involved in many different processes, such as cell structure and messaging, fat transport and metabolism, DNA synthesis and nervous system maintenance. (
  • Choline & Inositol helps maintain cellular efficiency, proper nerve function and metabolism of fats and HDL (good) cholesterol. (
  • The sole biochemical reaction directly connecting these two small molecules is the metabolism of choline to TMA by anaerobic microorganisms ( Fig. 1 A ), a process that has not been genetically or biochemically characterized. (
  • C ) Putative choline utilization ( cut ) gene cluster and proposed biochemical pathway for microbial choline metabolism. (
  • Choline is physiologically important for the structure of cell walls, signaling across these walls, signaling from cell to cell, and metabolism. (
  • Choline is necessary for normal synaptic transmission, brain health, and fatty acid metabolism in the liver. (
  • Simplified overview of choline metabolism. (
  • Nature's Way Choline and Inositol is formulated to help maintain cellular efficiency, proper nerve function and metabolism of fats and HDL (good) cholesterol. (
  • Choline is a vitamin-like compound with important roles in neurotransmitter synthesis, cell membrane signaling, lipid transport and methyl group metabolism. (
  • Abnormal choline metabolism is emerging as a metabolic hallmark that is associated with oncogenesis and tumour progression. (
  • These products of choline phospholipid metabolism, such as phosphocholine (PCho), diacylglycerol (DAG) and phosphatidic acid, may function as second messengers that are essential for the mitogenic activity of growth factors, particularly in the activation of the ras-raf-1-MAPK cascade and protein kinase C pathway. (
  • Conclusion: The findings supported our hypothesis that early introduction of eggs significantly improved choline and other markers in its methyl group metabolism pathway. (
  • In the EU there are three authorised choline health claims for contribution to normal homocysteine metabolism, normal lipid metabolism and maintenance of normal liver function. (
  • It was once believed that we made enough choline in our bodies from other nutrients to meet our need for this important substance. (
  • Even people who aren't getting enough choline -- perhaps they avoid eggs or have a very low-fat diet -- shouldn't expect an instant pick-me-up from supplements, Zeisel says. (
  • Are You Getting Enough Choline? (
  • However, many people are not able to produce enough choline (such as postmenopausal women and people with certain genetics). (
  • Most people in the U.S. don't get enough choline in their diet. (
  • Getting enough choline in your diet leads to reduced levels of an amino acid called homocysteine in your body, according to Derbyshire, which "have been linked to improved cardiovascular health. (
  • Specifically, Derbyshire found that in the U.S., only about 11 percent of adults get enough choline. (
  • Getting enough choline will ensure your overall health and performance won't take a hit. (
  • However, these symptoms disappeared once they began getting enough choline. (
  • Maintaining liver health involves much more than ensuring there's enough choline in your diet, but that's a great place to start! (
  • I researched phosphatidyl choline 2 days ago. (
  • Source Naturals Phosphatidyl Choline at (
  • Source Naturals Phosphatidyl Choline provides premium quality and potency. (
  • Phosphatidyl choline is a naturally-occurring molecule that is composed of choline, phosphoric acid, and hydrocarbons. (
  • Source Naturals Phosphatidyl Choline is one of several phosphorus-containing lipids that form the structural elements of all cell membranes in the body. (
  • Scientific research has revealed the outstanding benefits of phosphatidyl choline (PC) as a nutritional supplement. (
  • In healthy people, phosphatidyl choline can enhance mental function and is needed to build cell membranes, improve nerve cell efficiency, and repair neurons. (
  • Choline is important in maintaining healthy cell membranes because it produces phosphatidyl choline. (
  • Rich dietary sources of choline and choline phospholipids include organ meats and egg yolks, dairy products and vegetables. (
  • Foods like beef, eggs , and milk are good animal sources of choline, while nuts, quinoa, and beans are good sources of plant-based choline. (
  • Derbyshire said that eggs, milk, and beef are prime sources of choline-which may be why people who adhere to a plant-based diet are deficient. (
  • Sources of Choline are egg yolks , soy and cooked beef , chicken , veal and turkey (bird) livers . (
  • Top sources of choline include meat, nuts and eggs. (
  • Of course people could also use the other excellent sources of choline in the diet which are beef and chicken livers. (
  • With the establishment of its daily value, consumers will be looking for foods and supplements that are good or excellent sources of choline. (
  • Given importance of phosphatidylcholine to all cellular forms, it's not surprising that we find choline so widespread in different foods. (
  • To maintain health, it must be obtained from the diet as choline or as choline phospholipids, like phosphatidylcholine. (
  • A PEMT enzyme moves three methyl groups from three S-adenosyl methionines (SAM) donors to the ethanolamine group of the phosphatidylethanolamine to form choline in the form of a phosphatidylcholine. (
  • it is comprised mostly of a type of choline called phosphatidylcholine (PC). (
  • Choline as phosphatidylcholine may reduce homocysteine levels. (
  • Choline is a natural amine, and is generally found in phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin, phopholipids abundant in cell membranes. (
  • Responsible for phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the CDP-choline pathway. (
  • however, dietary choline is present in multiple different forms that are both water-soluble (e.g., free choline, phosphocholine, and glycerophosphocholine) and lipid-soluble (e.g., phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin). (
  • The dietary essentiality of choline was demonstrated in a study of healthy men with normal folate and vitamin B12 status who developed liver damage with lower plasma choline and phosphatidylcholine concentrations when fed a choline-deficient diet. (
  • It is the rate-limiting enzyme in the choline pathway for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine. (
  • Choline Kinase is the first enzyme in the Kennedy pathway, responsible for de novo synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC), one of the major lipid components of plasma membranes in mammal cells, that is also essential for structural stability and cell proliferation. (
  • Choline in the diet is available as free choline or is bound as esters such as phosphocholine, glycerophosphocholine, sphingomyelin, or phosphatidylcholine. (
  • Providing 2 g of free choline prior to exercise prevented a fall in choline levels (25-40 percent) and raised choline levels above baseline values for up to 2 hours postexercise. (
  • Dashed box indicates free choline, R represents a fatty acid chain. (
  • The researchers analyzed seven choline metabolites, and observed that free choline and betaine--from the oxidized product of choline--was lowered by the end of lactation (18 days). (
  • Finally, Phospholipase D (PLD) catalyses the hydrolysis of PC to generate phosphatidic acid (PA) and free choline. (
  • In most animals, choline phospholipids are necessary components in cell membranes, in the membranes of cell organelles, and in very low-density lipoproteins. (
  • The structural integrity of cell membranes--as well as cell signaling, neurotransmission, muscle function and fat transport--all require choline. (
  • Choline is an important dietary component that, among other functions, helps the body absorb and use fats, including those that become part of cell membranes. (
  • Choline, a member of the B Complex, is a component of cell membranes and provides key support for optimal cellular function. (
  • Both Choline and Inositol are essential components of all cell membranes. (
  • Citicoline, also called CDP-choline , is an essential intermediate in the synthesis of the structural phospholipids of cell membranes and has been studied extensively for its neuroprotective effects following head trauma. (
  • PART III: CHOLINE 219 CHOLINE C holine is required for the structural integrity of cell membranes. (
  • Choline helps the liver and gallbladder function and is vital to brain chemistry, as it seems to aid thinking capacity and memory. (
  • Choline has also been used for many kinds of liver and kidney problems, especially hepatitis and cirrhosis, by improving fat emulsification, transport, and utilization. (
  • choline hydroxide, C 5 H 15 NO 2 , the viscous, strongly alkaline commercial form of this compound, usually synthesized, used as a feed supplement, especially for poultry, and in medicine in certain liver conditions. (
  • The claims: According to the GNC label, its choline supplement "supports brain, liver and cardiovascular health. (
  • A shortfall of choline can cause liver damage known as fatty liver. (
  • One 2018 study found that choline supplementation improved lung function and reduced symptoms of fatty liver disease in 10 adult males with cystic fibrosis . (
  • Symptomatic choline deficiency - rare in humans - causes nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and muscle damage. (
  • Absorbed choline leaves the enterocytes via the portal vein, passes the liver and enters systemic circulation. (
  • Gut microbes degrade the unabsorbed choline to trimethylamine, which is oxidized in the liver to trimethylamine N-oxide. (
  • Choline is used for liver disease, including chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis . (
  • Giving choline intravenously (by IV) treats liver disease in people receiving parenteral nutrition who are choline deficient. (
  • Avoid using doses of choline at the upper level (UL) intake levels in people with fish odor syndrome, kidney disease, liver disease, or Parkinson's disease. (
  • In broiler liver, fat content was reduced by adding choline at 760 mg per kg (345 mg per lb) of diet for birds fed different energy sources (Rao et al. (
  • In the absence of sufficient choline, even healthy saturated fats can contribute to fatty liver. (
  • Studies have linked higher choline intake to a range of benefits, including a decreased risk for heart disease , 14 a 24 percent decreased risk for breast cancer , 15 and the prevention of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, which is largely driven by high-sugar diets, as opposed to excess alcohol consumption). (
  • In fact, choline appears to be a key controlling factor in preventing the development of fatty liver by enhancing secretion of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles in your liver, 16 required to safely transport fat out of your liver. (
  • Research has also discovered evidence of epigenetic mechanisms of choline, 17 which also helps explain how choline helps maintain healthy liver function. (
  • According to Chris Masterjohn, who has a Ph.D. in nutritional science, choline deficiency actually appears to be a far more significant trigger of NAFLD than excess fructose, and in his view, the rise in NAFLD is largely the result of shunning liver and egg yolks. (
  • The link between choline and fatty liver initially emerged from research into Type 1 diabetes. (
  • Getting adequate choline from the diet helps prevent fatty liver and muscle damage which can occur with choline deficiency and, during pregnancy, may reduce the risk of birth defects. (
  • Numerous studies have found that diets very low in choline lead to impaired liver function. (
  • To what degree additional choline may benefit people with pre-existing liver damage is an area of ongoing research. (
  • Choline supplements are said to reduce cholesterol, control mood swings, and protect the liver from damage due to alcohol. (
  • Choline deficiency in animals may lead to liver problems and kidney damage. (
  • They claim that choline supplements may help decrease liver disease, high cholesterol, depression, memory loss, Alzheimer's, and asthma and that choline has a general anti-inflammatory effect. (
  • Choline deficiency consistently leads to fatty liver disease, which can cause inflammation and scarring of the liver. (
  • Inadequate choline may result in fat and cholesterol buildup in your liver ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • Choline deficiency can cause harm, especially for your liver. (
  • Another study noted that when postmenopausal women consumed a diet deficient in choline, 73% developed liver or muscle damage ( 12 ). (
  • Summary Choline deficiency is associated with liver and/or muscle damage. (
  • Choline is particularly important for the function of the liver. (
  • An adequate intake of choline will keep the liver and kidneys healthy and reduce the risks of developing problems. (
  • Without the presence of choline, the pancreas and liver will not function properly. (
  • Choline protects our liver from accumulating fats. (
  • Choline also protects the liver from damage and can help repair liver damage that has already occurred. (
  • Without Choline, the fats in your body collect in unattractive and dangerously large lumps in your liver, under your skin (hips, thighs and under your eyes) and most dangerously in your blood vessels. (
  • Ursolic acid could protect against liver damage from high intake of choline. (
  • Deficiency of dietary sources of methyl groups (e.g. methionine, choline, b12, folate, sam-e) reduce DNA methylation in the liver which leads to liver cancer. (
  • Unlike the traditional National Academy of Medicine approach of calculating an AI based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of intake by a group (or groups) of healthy individuals, calculation of the AI for choline was informed in part by a depletion-repletion study in adult men who, upon becoming deficient, developed signs of liver damage. (
  • The study - published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition ​- points towards correlation between memory and dietary choline - found in such as saltwater fish, eggs, liver, chicken, milk and certain legumes, including soy and kidney beans - after researchers found that people with high intakes of choline performed better on memory tests, and were less likely to show brain changes associated with dementia. (
  • A deficiency of choline can result in increased fatty deposits in the liver, memory loss, and poor muscle coordination. (
  • You need a healthy intake of choline in your diet to support liver function, brain development, mental health, muscle function, nervous system health, digestion, and metabolic function. (
  • The evidence is strong that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can be caused by a choline deficiency. (
  • When scientists studied people on a choline-restricted diet and found that over 70% of them developed liver damage, they saw that the effects were reversed once choline was reintroduced to their eating habits. (
  • Choline is known as a lipotropic agent because it has been shown to promote the transport of excess fat from the liver under certain conditions in laboratory animals. (
  • Combined deficiency of choline (included in the B vitamin complex) and all other methyl group donors causes liver cirrhosis in some animals. (
  • I did some searching and found an article, which I do not consider reliable, suggesting that choline deficiency can cause liver problems, "resulting in excessive estrogen produced during menstrual cycle leading to hormone imbalance and endometrial cramps ( link ). (
  • Severe choline deficiency can cause liver problems, but I don't know where they got the part in quotes and if there is any direct evidence for it. (
  • The AIs for choline are based on the intake required to maintain liver function, as assessed by measuring serum alanine aminotransferase levels. (
  • Choline can be found in foods such as beef liver, chicken liver, eggs, fresh cod and salmon. (
  • "Deficiency of choline has been associated with fatty liver, liver damage and muscle damage," ​ the researchers wrote. (
  • However, choline salts acceptable for use in feeds have the inherent disadvantage of being highly hygroscopic, and it is characteristic of choline supplements that if absorption of moisture occurs, the bag contents set up to a hard cake. (
  • Another object is to provide choline animal feed supplements resistant to caking. (
  • Touted as an aid for mood, mental sharpness and cardiovascular health, choline supplements are sold at health food stores everywhere. (
  • But since many people already get plenty of choline in their diets, the value of supplements is uncertain. (
  • If that's not possible, he says, choline supplements could be a valuable addition. (
  • The authors of a small 2014 study found that female athletes who took choline supplements had lower body mass indexes (BMIs) and leptin levels than the control group. (
  • To help, selected and purchased ten popular choline supplements and tested their amounts of choline. (
  • You will get results for 10 choline-containing supplements selected by and for a product which passed testing in our voluntary Quality Certification Program. (
  • But recent evidence has finally shown that, for some people, adequate choline supplies cannot be maintained by other nutrients and must be obtained independently through diet or supplements. (
  • Most studies of choline as a treatment for diseases have used between 1-30 g of choline or choline-containing supplements per day. (
  • This wide range is due to the existence of several different types of choline supplements, all with varying amounts of the active ingredient. (
  • 11 However, there is no direct evidence that choline supplements offer any benefit for people with HIV. (
  • 20,21 However, again it is a long step from the effects of an artificially low-choline diet to taking choline supplements. (
  • For this reason, the use of choline supplements is limited. (
  • Choline supplements may help treat neurological issues due to the cholinergic system. (
  • Manufacturers of choline supplements claim that choline may help reduce sleep problems and increase your ability to concentrate and problem-solve. (
  • And research in rats has found that choline supplements tend to improve memory, Au pointed out. (
  • Choline supplements should be avoided by persons who suffer from manic depression, as they may deepen the depressive phase of this disorder. (
  • Choline supplements are usually used to support brain function with many users reporting positive effects on memory, mood and concentration. (
  • Consult your physician before using any dietary supplements if you are currently taking any medications, as choline may interact with other medications or drugs. (
  • At the time of this study, it was not known whether choline was common in the supplements consumed by the European population," ​ they wrote. (
  • Choline may be helpful for fatigue, and athletes have benefited from choline supplementation. (
  • While these individuals may consume choline within the recommended adequate intake (AI) parameters, supplementation outside of dietary intake may not be necessary. (
  • The Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Science states that choline is necessary in prenatal supplementation. (
  • Choline supplementation reduces urinary carnitine excretion in humans. (
  • They need to have choline in their diet or take a supplementation for proper health. (
  • Prenatal choline supplementation alters the timing, emotion, and memory performance (TEMP) of adult male and female rats as indexed by differential reinforcement of low-rate schedule behavior. (
  • The data suggest that choline supplementation prior to strenuous exercise may improve performance in certain athletic paradigms as well as reduce fatigue and increase vigor. (
  • Adolescent choline supplementation can attenuate some of the behavioural deficits associated with early developmental alcohol exposure. (
  • Dietary choline supplementation improves behavioral, histological, and neurochemical outcomes in a rat model of traumatic brain injury. (
  • These results support the lifelong attentional benefits of maternal choline supplementation for Ts65Dn and 2N offspring. (
  • Choline supplementation decreases postoperative pain in rodents. (
  • Also Nicotine decreases postoperative pain in humans and since choline acts on the same receptors as nicotine, choline supplementation may be effective as an analgesic without the risks of addiction and the side effects like high heart rate and blood pressure. (
  • Effect of choline supplementation on neurological, cognitive and behavioral outcomes in offspring arising from alcohol exposure during development: A quantitative systematic review of clinical and preclinical studies. (
  • High levels of choline in adults may help reduce homocysteine, a compound that can increase the risk of heart disease. (
  • Another observational study from 2019 found that inadequate levels of choline, vitamin C, and zinc were associated with poorer working memory in older men. (
  • Low levels of choline in the blood of pregnant women may increase the risk of neural tube defects such as anencephaly (absence of part of the brain) and spina bifida (incomplete closure of backbone and spinal canal). (
  • While this report is significant, other studies conflict with regards to levels of choline in the brains of people with schizophrenia. (
  • Following transformation, oncogenic signalling via pathways such as the RAS and PI3K-AKT pathways, and transcription factors associated with oncogenesis such as hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1) mediate overexpression and activation of choline cycle enzymes, which causes increased levels of choline-containing precursors and breakdown products of membrane phospholipids. (
  • The synthesis of choline from ethanolamine may take place in three parallel pathways, where three consecutive N-methylation steps catalyzed by a methyl transferase are carried out on either the free-base, phospho-bases, or phosphatidyl-bases. (
  • In humans and most other animals, de novo synthesis of choline is via the phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) pathway, but biosynthesis is not enough to meet human requirements. (
  • Various metabolic functions and synthesis of choline are depicted in Figure 16-1. (
  • The theory goes like this: Diets lacking sufficient methyl donors (such as choline) may cause an error in RNA or DNA synthesis, leading to a mutated gene and, hypothetically, to cancer initiation. (
  • Choline and other vitamins, such as B12 and folate , help with a process that's important for DNA synthesis. (
  • Effects of dietary amino acids, carbohydrates and choline neurotransmitter synthesis. (
  • It may be that the choline requirement can be met by endogenous synthesis at some of these stages. (
  • Intake of choline and betaine shows no consistent relation to cancer or cardiovascular risk or risk factors, whereas an unfavorable cardiovascular risk factor profile was associated with high choline and low betaine concentrations in plasma. (
  • Can Early Signs And Symptoms Be Detected If A Person Needs A High Choline Diet? (
  • A person may need high choline foods if the following problems occur. (
  • Hepatotoxicity and endothelial dysfunction induced by high choline diet and the protective effects of phloretin in mice. (
  • In general, Au and her team found that men and women who reported high choline intake performed better on the memory tests than those who reported lower intake - however the researchers said that the differences in test performance were small. (
  • For example, when folate is not available in sufficient amounts to assure adequate methylation, choline can provide its assistance and help assure that methylation continues. (
  • In general, adequate choline (400-900 milligrams) can be taken by mouth by eating an "average" diet. (
  • The Adequate Intake (AI) of choline is 550 mg for adult men and 425 mg for adult women. (
  • The adequate daily intake, or AI, for choline is set by the Institute of Medicine at 550 mg per day. (
  • With adequate choline in the body, the nerve's communication with each other will be more efficient and the nerve's control of the body's muscles will also become more efficient. (
  • Experts suggest that an adequate choline intake is 425 milligrams (mgs) a day for women and 550 mgs a day for men. (
  • The database shows that one large hard-boiled egg provides 112 mgs of choline- -more than 25 percent of the daily adequate intake for women. (
  • Fatty acids showed the same pattern, that if the sow was provided adequate choline throughout gestation and lactation, between days 0 and 7, fatty acids increased and then plateaued by day 19, versus in those that were deficient, we observed a linear increase,' Dilger explains. (
  • In 1998, the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Science established Adequate Intake values for choline. (
  • Studies have shown that adequate choline intake during pregnancy and lactation optimizes fetal and newborn brain development. (
  • In addition, adequate choline intake during pregnancy lowers risk for neural tube defects. (
  • Recent studies have shown that adequate choline intake is also associated with lower blood markers for inflammation which have been linked with heart disease risk (ironic that now we know there is at least one component in eggs which helps lower cardiovascular disease risk). (
  • In fact, less than one in ten Americans, including one in ten pregnant females, have an adequate choline intake. (
  • For the population, addition of one egg per day to the diet would result in 50 per cent attaining an adequate choline intake. (
  • Approximately 90% of Americans are not consuming adequate choline in their diets according to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in the United States. (
  • Plasma Betaine Is Positively Associated with Developmental Outcomes in Healthy Toddlers at Age 2 Years Who Are Not Meeting the Recommended Adequate Intake for Dietary Choline. (
  • Since data were insufficient to set an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and thus calculate a Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for choline, an Adequate Intake (AI) was instead developed. (
  • It's also available as a supplement, but in 2016, the European Food Safety Authority set the daily adequate intake for choline at 400mg for adults. (
  • In addition, people with higher choline intake at the outset were less likely to show areas of "white-matter hyperintensity" in their MRI brain scans. (
  • In addition, the team found that people with higher choline intake at the outset were less likely to show areas of "white-matter hyperintensity" ​ - areas believed to be a sign of blood vessel disease - in their MRI brain scans. (
  • A large-scale American study, published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition in 2011, found that a higher choline intake was linked to better cognitive performance. (
  • This product contains crystalline inositol and choline bound to tartaric acid. (
  • What is the Connection Between Choline and Inositol? (
  • Choline and inositol are basic nutrients that are often considered members of the B-complex of vitamins. (
  • The inclusion of both choline and inositol in the B-vitamin complex is not entirely accurate, because the body naturally produces both. (
  • Choline and inositol might prevent cancer. (
  • Both choline and inositol play a role in heart health. (
  • Promoting the growth of hair cells is another role of both choline and inositol. (
  • Choline and inositol can be taken together or individually as a dietary supplement. (
  • I am suggesting, that since neither choline or inositol have a recommended daily intake, that getting the supplement through nutrients found in the foods listed in the article is best. (
  • I wouldn't want to skip the choline and inositol benefits. (
  • Patients with dementia or Alzheimer's disease are often prescribed Vitamin B. The choline and inositol in the B complex vitamins reportedly slow the progression of the disease. (
  • Choline & Inositol are members of the B-Vitamin family. (
  • Nature's Way Choline & Inositol at (
  • Nature's Way Choline and Inositol contains crystalline inositol and choline bound to tartaric acid for superior absorption. (
  • Choline is part of the group of B-vitamins which also includes biotin , folic acid , inositol , vitamin B-1 , vitamin B-2 , vitamin B-3 , vitamin B-5 , vitamin B-6 and vitamin B-12 . (
  • Choline hydroxide is known as choline base. (
  • Choline is a beta-hydroxyethyltrimethylammonium hydroxide. (
  • Choline--also known as vitamin B4 or, more formally, as 2-hydroxyethyl-trimethyl ammonium hydroxide--is a common dietary supplement in the livestock and poultry industries. (
  • In most diets, phophatidylcholine is the single most common form of choline provided by foods. (
  • A form of choline called choline alfoscerate has shown promise for Alzheimer's disease . (
  • In a 6-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial , 261 people with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease were given either placebo or choline alfoscerate (a special form of choline) at a dose of 400 mg 3 times daily. (
  • While not toxic, excess consumption of choline can lead to over-stimulation of muscles, leading to tightening of the shoulders and neck, resulting in a tension headache. (
  • Three separate studies point to a high consumption of choline resulting in a lower risk of breast cancer among women. (
  • Choline may be helpful in the treatment of nerve conduction problems, memory deficiencies, muscle twitching, heart palpitations, and Alzheimer's disease, where it seems to help brain function and slow the progression of the disease. (
  • Supplemental choline has shown potential benefit with respect to stroke recovery, cognition, Alzheimer's disease, asthma, and ulcerative colitis. (
  • Weak evidence from highly preliminary studies hint that CDP-choline may improve mental function in Alzheimer's disease. (
  • Studies suggest that choline alfoscerate can treat Alzheimer's and other forms of age-related cognitive decline . (
  • Prescription forms of choline alfoscerate are administered in Europe to treat Alzheimer's disease. (
  • It is hoped that choline alfoscerate may prove invaluable to the treatment of Alzheimer's, dementia and other age-related cognitive disorders. (
  • Research shows that choline can improve memory and may help prevent dementia , Alzheimer's disease, and age-related memory loss. (
  • The findings, researchers say, do not mean that choline is the answer to staving off Alzheimer's disease -- the memory-robbing disease that affects 26 million people globally. (
  • The researchers, led by senior researcher Rhoda Au of Boston University School of Medicine, USA, said that their results do not mean that choline is the answer to staving off Alzheimer's disease, but noted that the findings do add to evidence that nutrition plays a role in the aging of the brain. (
  • Betaine and choline often occur together in the germs of many plants. (
  • In enzymology, a choline dehydrogenase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction choline + acceptor ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } betaine aldehyde + reduced acceptor Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are choline and acceptor, whereas its two products are betaine aldehyde and reduced acceptor. (
  • Choline and betaine are important sources of one-carbon units, in particular, during folate deficiency. (
  • Thus, choline and betaine showed opposite relations with key components of metabolic syndrome, suggesting a disruption of mitochondrial choline oxidation to betaine as part of the mitochondrial dysfunction in metabolic syndrome. (
  • Choline, betaine, and choline-containing compounds was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. (
  • Dietary choline and betaine consumption could significantly reduce the risk of breast cancer. (
  • We tested vitamin B-12 plasma concentrations by using chemiluminescent competitive immunoassay and plasma concentrations of choline, betaine, dimethylglycine, retinol, essential fatty acids, methionine, dimethylamine (DMA), trimethylamine, and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) with the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. (
  • No significant group differences were found for vitamin B-12, retinol, linoleic acid (LA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), or ratios of betaine to choline and LA to ALA. (
  • Choline, along with other nutrients such as folate and vitamin B-12, can affect gene expression. (
  • Choline is similar to a B vitamin. (
  • A carbon atom in the vitamin choline is made radioactive by lab technicians. (
  • Are you even familiar with the B vitamin choline? (
  • Choline is a B vitamin, which means it is water soluble and travels through the system quickly. (
  • Choline is usually grouped with the Vitamin B complex . (
  • In 1998, choline was officially recognized as a member of the B vitamin family. (
  • Choline, while closely related to the B complex family of vitamins, is not truely considered a vitamin since researchers cannot agree on any common definitions of deficiency symptoms. (
  • Choline can be manufactured in the human body with the help of vitamin Bl2, folic acid, and the amino acid called methionine, although not necessarily in optimal amounts. (
  • Choline is an essential vitamin and as a methyl donor is critically needed to support the normal metabo. (
  • Holland & Barrett explains why vitamin B6, choline and omega-3 are essential for a healthy brain. (
  • Holland & Barrett explains: "Choline is not technically a vitamin, but it is often grouped together with the B vitamins. (
  • Choline is LIKELY SAFE for most adults when taken by mouth or given intravenously (by IV) in appropriate amounts. (
  • Large amounts (about 20 g) of choline may cause other side effects. (
  • The body can produce choline in small amounts, but not in large enough quantities to support good health. (
  • Many foods contain small amounts of choline, even iceberg lettuce . (
  • Choline is necessary during early pregnancy for growth of the placenta and the mother's kidneys and uterus, while fetal organ growth demands large amounts of choline during the third trimester. (
  • Consuming recommended amounts of choline can lower levels of the amino acid homocysteine, which is a marker of tissue damage and also a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease. (
  • Humans can endogenously produce small amounts of choline via the hepatic phosphatidylethanolamine N -methyltransferase pathway. (
  • High quality protein, vitamins and minerals, and lutein can be obtained from many foods but only a few provide choline in amounts needed to address the dietary choline inadequacy in the population. (
  • Ninety capsules -- each containing 25 milligrams of choline -- costs about $30. (
  • Choline is also showing up in multivitamins: Even Flintstones Complete now includes 38 milligrams of choline per tablet. (
  • Men should get at least 550 milligrams of choline each day and women need at least 425 milligrams a day, according to guidelines set by the National Academy of Sciences. (
  • In one 2013 study , for example, women in their third trimester of pregnancy received either 480 milligrams (mg) or 930 mg of choline per day. (
  • The U.S. Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine recommends that pregnant women take 450 milligrams of choline by mouth daily. (
  • Breastfeeding women are advised to take 550 milligrams of choline by mouth daily. (
  • women aged 18 years old are advised to consume 400-3,000 milligrams of choline daily, while those who are older may consume 425-3,500 milligrams. (
  • Pregnant women are advised to consume 450 milligrams of choline daily, while breastfeeding women are advised to consume 550 milligrams daily. (
  • According to the NIH , adult men should get around 550 milligrams (mg) of choline per day and adult women should get around 425 mg per day. (
  • Experts generally recommend that men get 550 milligrams of choline per day, while women should get 425 milligrams. (
  • A study found that pregnant women ingesting more than 900 milligrams of choline have babies with a decreased concentration of cortisol, a stress hormone. (
  • 7 My colleagues and I, 8 like others, 9,10 demonstrated a significant reduction in plasma choline levels following exercise. (
  • The running and swimming exercise paradigms used in a series of experiments produced similar depletions in plasma choline levels following that particular exercise. (
  • 9,10 Running 20 miles or swimming for 2 hours led to a significant fall in plasma choline levels (40-5O percent). (
  • 11 failed to show a fall in plasma choline levels after either a brief (approximately 2 minutes duration), but highly intensive and a longer (approximately 73 minutes duration) submaximal exercise on a stationary bicycle. (
  • Apparently, the duration and type of exercise are important determinants of whether plasma choline levels will fall postexercise. (
  • One tablespoon of blood (15 mL) will be drawn five times to measure genetics, changes in levels of plasma choline and inflammatory markers: blood will be drawn at the preoperative visit, three times on the day of surgery and once 24 hours postoperatively. (
  • Primarily we are looking at the pain scores after surgery and secondarily at the pain medication use, plasma choline levels, wound healing and satisfaction with pain treatment. (
  • We will measure pain after surgery, baseline and postoperative plasma choline, and test genetics. (
  • Variations in plasma choline and metabolite concentrations in healthy adults. (
  • Choline magnesium trisalicylate is used to relieve the pain, tenderness, inflammation (swelling), and stiffness caused by arthritis and painful shoulder. (
  • Choline magnesium trisalicylate is in a class of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs) called salicylates. (
  • Choline magnesium trisalicylate comes as a tablet and a liquid to take by mouth. (
  • To help you remember to take choline magnesium trisalicylate, take it around the same time every day. (
  • Take choline magnesium trisalicylate exactly as directed. (
  • you should know that choline magnesium trisalicylate should not be taken by children and teenagers with chicken pox or the flu, because of the risk of Reye Syndrome, a rare but serious disease. (
  • If you become pregnant while taking choline magnesium trisalicylate, call your doctor. (
  • if you are having surgery, including dental surgery, tell the doctor or dentist that you are taking choline magnesium trisalicylate. (
  • ask your doctor about the safe use of alcoholic beverages while you are taking choline magnesium trisalicylate. (
  • Alcohol can make the side effects from choline magnesium trisalicylate worse. (
  • Choline magnesium trisalicylate may cause side effects. (
  • If you have an allergy to choline magnesium trisalicylate or any other part of this drug. (
  • There are no evaluations for Choline Magnesium Trisalicylate. (
  • What is the most important information I should know about choline magnesium trisalicylate? (
  • An overdose of choline magnesium trisalicylate can be fatal. (
  • Choline magnesium trisalicylate may cause stomach or intestinal bleeding, which can be fatal. (
  • These conditions can occur without warning while you are using choline magnesium trisalicylate, especially in older adults. (
  • Choline magnesium trisalicylate is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that works by reducing substances in the body that cause pain, fever, and inflammation. (
  • Choline magnesium trisalicylate is used to treat mild-to-moderate pain, fever, inflammatory conditions, and pain, swelling, or stiffness associated with arthritis. (
  • Choline magnesium trisalicylate may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. (
  • What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking choline magnesium trisalicylate? (
  • Taking choline magnesium trisalicylate during late pregnancy may cause bleeding in the mother or the baby during delivery. (
  • Choline magnesium trisalicylate can pass into breast milk and may cause side effects in the nursing baby. (
  • How should I take choline magnesium trisalicylate? (
  • Take with food if choline magnesium trisalicylate upsets your stomach. (
  • Choline magnesium trisalicylate doses are based on weight in children, and any changes may affect your child's dose. (
  • While using choline magnesium trisalicylate, you may need frequent blood tests. (
  • If you need surgery, tell the surgeon ahead of time that you are using choline magnesium trisalicylate. (
  • Tell any doctor who treats you that you are using choline magnesium trisalicylate. (
  • We list eggs as an excellent source of choline. (
  • But even if you don't do well with eggs and choose to avoid them in your diet, we also have 10 very good and 15 good choline sources. (
  • If you have already heard people talk about foods that are high in choline, the one food that you are mostly likely to have heard them mention is eggs. (
  • Choline can be obtained in the diet--through foods like milk, eggs, poultry, fish, and grains--and is supplied in human and animal milk. (
  • Choline - Jamieson starts out craving, eating, and feeling better from eggs. (
  • Eggs are high in choline. (
  • What I didn't know back then was that choline, a main component in eggs and milk, not only has an impact on gestational hypertension, but can also impact the fetus' health later in life. (
  • Objective: We aimed to test the efficacy of eggs introduced early in complementary feeding on plasma concentrations of biomarkers in choline pathways, vitamins B-12 and A, and essential fatty acids. (
  • A choline that is the parent compound of the cholines class, consisting of ethanolamine having three methyl substituents attached to the amino function. (
  • choline acts as a methyl donor. (
  • 1,19 Indeed, in rats fed diets very low in choline and other methyl donors, cancer rates increased. (
  • Choline is also a source of methyl groups, a specific chemical group containing one carbon atom and three hydrogen atoms. (
  • Choline and its derivative metabolites are considered 'methyl donors. (
  • Choline can affect fetal development and may influence pregnancy outcomes. (
  • Healthy fetal development 4 - Choline is required for proper neural tube closure, 5 brain development and healthy vision. (
  • Choline is especially important for women who are pregnant and breastfeeding since choline is essential to fetal development . (
  • In humans, choline plays critical roles in fetal development and may be beneficial when taken as a supplement. (
  • During fetal development, choline influences stem cell proliferation and apoptosis, also known as programmed cell death, which is essential for brain and spinal cord structure and function, decreasing neural tube defects and increasing memory function. (
  • Humans can synthesize choline from the amino acid glycine. (
  • Humans and most animals make choline de novo, but production is insufficient in humans and most species. (
  • In humans, certain PEMT-enzyme mutations and estrogen deficiency (often due to menopause) increase the dietary need for choline. (
  • In humans, choline is absorbed from the intestines via the SLC44A1 (CTL1) membrane protein via facilitated diffusion governed by the choline concentration gradient and the electrical potential across the enterocyte membranes. (
  • It's not yet clear whether choline has this effect on humans, too, but it can't hurt to get a healthy dose of choline-rich foods. (
  • Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of supplementary choline and/or pantothenate on the carnitine and lipid status of free-living humans. (
  • Moreover, these observations merit additional investigation to determine metabolic and functional consequences of choline and carnitine interactions in humans. (
  • You can synthesize choline directly in your body, but humans also often obtain it through their diets. (
  • It has long been recognized that symbiotic gut microbes in humans ( 9 ⇓ - 11 ) and other vertebrates ( 12 ⇓ - 14 ) generate TMA from choline and that this metabolic activity is exclusively microbial. (
  • Despite long-standing interest in this microbial metabolic pathway and its broad relevance to humans, nothing is currently known about its underlying genetics or biochemical mechanism, as the enzymes responsible for anaerobic choline utilization have not been identified. (
  • Humans must consume choline-containing foods in their diet, but most don't consume enough. (
  • In humans, many women of child-bearing age are not getting sufficient choline in their diets. (
  • The authors of a 2018 study found an association between higher dietary intakes of choline and a lower risk of ischemic stroke . (
  • However, she added, the findings suggest that people with lower choline intakes were more likely to be on a "pathway" toward mental decline than their counterparts with higher intakes. (
  • The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has used its vast consumption database to look at average EU choline intakes for the first time. (
  • Dietary intake of choline needs vary among individuals. (
  • Unfortunately, it has been shown that the majority of the population does not achieve the recommended dietary intake of choline. (
  • Increased dietary intake of choline may be related to better cognitive performance and protection against memory loss, according to new research. (
  • 9 ) There is also some evidence that even a lower than optimal dietary intake of choline can contribute to the risk of NAFLD, however more research is needed to confirm the link. (
  • Until recently, it was thought that the body could use other substances to substitute for choline, such as folate , vitamins B 6 and B 12 , and the amino acid methionine . (
  • People with low folate levels may need more choline. (
  • For pregnant or lactating women, this is especially significant, as choline, much like folate or folic acid, has been shown to play a role in early brain development. (
  • Choline can also be produced by the CDP-choline route, cytosolic choline kinases (CK) phosphorylate choline with ATP to phosphocholine (PChol). (
  • Phosphocholine and glycerophosphocholines are hydrolyzed via phospholipases to choline, which enters the portal vein. (
  • Glycerophosphocholine and phosphocholine are storage forms for choline within the cytosol and the principal forms found in milk (Rohlfs et al. (
  • ATP + choline = ADP + phosphocholine. (
  • Choline Kinase alpha isoform a (NM_001277) has been crystallized in complex with ADP and phosphocholine (referred in the paper as Choline Kinase alpha2). (
  • First Choline Kinase catalyzes choline phosphorylation, then phosphocholine (PCho) cytidylyl-transferase (CCT) catalyzes the formation of CDP-choline from PCho and CTP, and cholinephosphotransferase (CPT) catalyzes the final condensation reaction of CDP-choline with diacylglycerol (DAG) to generate PC. (
  • In plants, the first step in de novo biosynthesis of choline is the decarboxylation of serine into ethanolamine, which is catalyzed by a serine decarboxylase. (
  • B ) Potential parallel logic between anaerobic choline utilization and bacterial ethanolamine utilization pathways. (
  • Also exhibits ethanolamine kinase activity but at 14% efficiency compared with choline. (
  • Belongs to the choline/ethanolamine kinase family. (
  • Phosphorylates ethanolamine, and can also act on choline (in vitro). (
  • For a long time choline kinase and ethanolamine kinase have been considered as the same enzyme, because ChoK preparations of highly purified or recombinant enzymes from mammalian sources has been shown to have also a significant EtnK activity. (
  • Lorz also disclosed that the dispersion of choline compounds in fats without reaction and incorporation into the feed may in some instances be accomplished but reported that such preparations are unsatisfactory. (
  • Choline is a family of water-soluble quaternary ammonium compounds. (
  • Fat-soluble choline-containing compounds (phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelins) are either hydrolyzed by phospholipases or enter the lymph incorporated into chylomicrons. (
  • Unlike compounds normally considered as vitamins, choline does not serve as a cofactor in enzymatic reactions. (
  • Choline is one of the "lipotropic" B vitamins-that is, it helps the utilization of fats in the body and thereby supports weight loss. (
  • The body uses choline to produce fats that make up cellular membranes. (
  • Choline helps metabolize fats. (
  • Some research has shown that choline plays a role in metabolizing fats. (
  • In addition, supplement manufacturers claim that choline emulsifies fats, keeping them in liquid form so that they are less likely to deposit on the walls of your arteries. (
  • Choline has fat modifying properties that allow the fats in our body to be converted into energy. (
  • Without choline, the body is unable to use fats as its source of energy. (
  • Choline is required as a constituent of the phospholipids needed for normal maturation of the cartilage matrix of the bone. (
  • Other phospholipids involved in choline biosynthetic pathways such as CDP-choline , choline alphoscerate and phosphatidylserine clearly enhanced ACh availability or release and provided a modest improvement of cognitive dysfunction in AD, these effects being more pronounced with choline alphoscerate. (
  • During pregnancy, choline taken by the mother may affect brain development in the growing infant. (
  • Taking choline by mouth before becoming pregnant and during early pregnancy may reduce the risk of cleft palate. (
  • Choline may help prevent neural tube defects in pregnancy. (
  • Some studies suggest that low choline levels in pregnancy are linked with an increased risk for neural tube defects. (
  • Choline is especially important during pregnancy , as a low intake may raise the risk of neural tube defects in unborn babies. (
  • In addition, low choline intake may raise your risk of other pregnancy complications. (
  • It has also been found that intake of choline during pregnancy can have long-term beneficial effects on memory for the child. (
  • That's because increasing their intake of choline during pregnancy could have a positive effect on their children later in life. (
  • According to Caudill, "A dampening of the baby's response to stress as a result of mom consuming extra choline during pregnancy would be expected to reduce the risk of stress-related diseases such as hypertension and type 2 diabetes throughout the life of the child. (
  • It has already been established that the need for choline during pregnancy is high. (
  • Nutritional needs change during pregnancy, and the results of this study indicate that pregnant women may need more choline, especially for the future health of their children. (
  • Moreover, there is a high demand for choline during pregnancy. (
  • Researchers at the University of Illinois who study the impacts of nutrition on brain development using the piglet as a model have conducted a series of studies related to choline deficiency in sows during pregnancy. (
  • One such study reports that choline deficiency during pregnancy delays brain development in pigs. (
  • Surprisingly, they found that when mothers did not have enough dietary choline during pregnancy, alterations in choline metabolites, fatty acids, and amino acids, for example, were occurring by the end of lactation. (
  • If milk composition is altered, due to choline deficiency during pregnancy, this could have implications on the quality of nutrition the mother's offspring receives. (
  • Washington, May 28 (ANI): The dietary supplement CDP-choline , that acts as a brain-boosting agent and under study for stroke and traumatic brain injury, may prevent skull and brain damage resulting from alcohol consumption early in pregnancy, according to a new research. (
  • By ingesting increased choline during the third trimester of pregnancy, the baby is less at risk for hypertension and diabetes as they age. (
  • There are no known toxic effects from choline, though high doses could aggravate epileptic conditions because of its nerve stimulation potential. (
  • There is some evidence that higher doses of choline (3 grams daily) might be more effective than lower doses (1.5 grams daily). (
  • There are reports that taking high doses of choline might be helpful for some people with a type of seizure called complex partial seizures . (
  • High doses of choline may produce fishy body odor, especially in a rare disorder called trimethylaminuria, or TMAU. (
  • But for pregnant women, the benefits of extra choline could go far deeper than a mood lift, says Marie Caudill, an associate professor of nutritional sciences and genomics at Cornell University in Ithaca, N.Y. Like folic acid, choline seems to help prevent neural-tube defects in developing fetuses, and it may also help prevent cleft palates. (
  • Choline is taken by pregnant women to prevent neural tube defects in their babies and it is used as a supplement in infant formulas. (
  • High intake and plasma level of choline in the mother seems to afford reduced risk of neural tube defects. (
  • Some research has also indicated that choline may have a role in reducing the risk of certain birth defects , specifically neural tube defects, such as spina bifida. (
  • Choline and trimethylamine (TMA) are important nitrogen-containing metabolites that perform fundamental roles in biological pathways throughout nature. (
  • Choline prevents the buildup of homocysteine levels in the body primarily because it helps convert homocysteine into other substances. (
  • Excess alcohol consumption, high sugar intake , low folic acid intake, and nicotine can all contribute to a choline deficiency. (
  • When researchers give pregnant rats extra choline, the pups showed impressive memory skills throughout their entire lives. (
  • Caudill says it's too early to say if pregnant women who get extra choline can expect extra-smart children. (
  • Pregnant women, those who are lactating, and people who have genetic alterations that increase the body's demand for choline may also have a higher risk of choline deficiency. (
  • If you administer choline to a newborn or pregnant rat during certain critical period s, the baby rat will often grow up to have a better memory --that is, it'll learn a maze faster and will make fewer mistakes. (
  • About 9 in 10 to 19 in 20 pregnant women don't meet the AI for choline. (
  • They believe pregnant women should take choline to reduce the chances their children will develop high blood pressure (hypertension) and diabetes later in life. (
  • The Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine set the current recommended intake of choline for women at 425 mg and at 450 mg for pregnant women. (
  • In this study, third-trimester pregnant women consumed either 930 mg or 480 mg of choline. (
  • It is most probably the reason why milk that are formulated for pregnant women and for babies are supplemented richly with choline. (
  • During the study, pregnant sows were provided a choline sufficient or choline deficient diet. (
  • The guide provides a clear overview of choline, its functions, concerns for pregnant and lactating women, its food sources, and the future of choline, as well as the effects of choline deficiency. (
  • Endurance athletes, heavy drinkers, pregnant women and post-menopausal women are more likely to have a choline deficiency. (
  • Early research suggest that taking a particular type of choline daily for 8 weeks is not as effective as a nasal spray for reducing allergy symptoms. (
  • Evidence also suggests that this type of choline may be able to stimulate increased blood levels of human growth hormone in the elderly, for a healthier, more youthful body. (
  • Unlike some other forms of choline, choline alfoscerate normally penetrates the blood-brain barrier easily. (
  • It has been found that choline helps with the development of learning abilities and memory functioning. (
  • Considering about 80 percent of Americans are likely insulin resistant, 20 and an estimated 90 percent of the U.S. population is deficient in choline, 21 the high prevalence of NAFLD is not surprising. (
  • If you're deficient in choline, you're not only altering choline or its metabolites in the milk, but also the fatty acids and the amino acids. (
  • Experiments with whole cells and cell-free extracts of choline-fermenting anaerobes later revealed that this pathway involves an initial C-N bond cleavage of choline to produce TMA and acetaldehyde ( 6 ⇓ - 8 ). (
  • SLC44A1 has limited ability to transport choline: at high concentrations part of it is left unabsorbed. (
  • A PET (Positron Emission Tomography) scan detects high concentrations of C-11 choline. (
  • We conclude that supplementary choline maintained serum carnitine concentrations by conserving urinary carnitine. (
  • The milk was analyzed for concentrations of choline metabolites, fatty acids, and amino acids. (
  • Plasma concentrations of choline and its metabolites might serve as biomarkers for the health outcomes of several pathological states such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. (
  • Choline can be found in egg yolks, soy, peanut butter and cauliflower. (
  • My first inclination would be to recommend foods that are high in choline. (
  • Our discovery provides the predictive capabilities needed to identify choline utilization clusters in numerous bacterial genomes, underscoring the importance and prevalence of this metabolic activity within the human microbiota and the environment. (
  • Choline is found in all living cells, and is known to play a vital role in maintaining the central nervous system and in numerous metabolic functions. (
  • To avoid the necessity for drying the feed after spraying the dry ingredients with the aqueous choline salt solution, Lorz, US. (
  • Generally, in preparing the combination of this invention, the choline salt is prepared in substantially anhydrous form by any method known to those skilled in the art, for example, the method of Klein, U.S. Patent 2,870,198, or from aqueous solution by azeotropic distillation as described below. (
  • Aqueous solutions of choline are stable, but the compound slowly breaks down to ethylene glycol, polyethylene glycols, and TMA. (
  • Another object of this invention is to provide choline salt and fat compositions wherein the choline salt is substantially uniformly dispersed in the fat. (
  • What Foods Contain Choline? (
  • In New Zealand three topical products for oral use contain choline salicylate: Bonjela Teething Gel, Bonjela Mouth Ulcer Gel and Ora-sed gel. (
  • The Flintstones Vitamins website says that the choline in Flintstones Complete will "support healthy brain function. (
  • Early research suggests that taking choline by mouth daily might improve motor function in people with a brain condition called cerebellar ataxia. (
  • 6 Research shows mothers who get sufficient choline impart lifelong memory enhancement to their child due to changes in the development of the hippocampus (memory center) of the child's brain. (
  • In addition to this, choline can also help to make the brain aware of hunger as well as fullness. (
  • The importance of choline does not contain itself in brain development and function only. (
  • Having an abundance of Choline in your brain feels a little like having caffeine, except you get even faster and more sustained keenness with far better concentration and without the jitters. (
  • Most of the 46 infants who were exposed to choline, as opposed to the 47 infants exposed to placebo, did not display an abnormality in their brain responses to specific stimuli similar to that seen in most adults with schizophrenia (6% displayed this response in the choline group, compared to 91% for the placebo group). (
  • For both areas of interest in the brain, choline levels were increased with relationship to the duration of untreated psychosis. (
  • This rise in choline levels may reflect brain cell loss or damage. (
  • Choline affects the areas of the brain responsible for memory function and learning. (
  • NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - People who get plenty of choline in their diets may perform better on memory tests, and be less likely to show brain changes associated with dementia, a new study suggests. (
  • None of that proves that choline, per se, protects memory or wards off unhealthy brain changes. (
  • Au reiterated that none of the results prove that choline, per se, protects memory or unhealthy brain changes associated with aging. (
  • Choline is essential for proper structure and function of all cells but is particularly important in the brain and nervous system. (
  • Choline is one of the newest nutrients to be added to the list of human vitamins. (
  • Choline is similar to the B vitamins . (
  • Adamczyk M, Brashear RJ, Mattingly PG (2006) Choline concentration in normal blood donor and cardiac troponin-positive plasma samples. (
  • In fact, the concentration of choline in amniotic fluid is 10 times greater than levels in maternal blood. (
  • The first method is quantification through an external phantom standard, containing a known concentration of choline. (