Cholic Acid: A major primary bile acid produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption and cholesterol excretion.Cholic Acids: The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.Chenodeoxycholic Acid: A bile acid, usually conjugated with either glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption and is reabsorbed by the small intestine. It is used as cholagogue, a choleretic laxative, and to prevent or dissolve gallstones.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Deoxycholic Acid: A bile acid formed by bacterial action from cholate. It is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. Deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, is reabsorbed itself, and is used as a choleretic and detergent.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Cholestanols: Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.Steroid 12-alpha-Hydroxylase: A liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 12-alpha-hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of sterols in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP8B1gene, converts 7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one to 7-alpha-12-alpha-dihydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and is required in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS from cholesterol.Lithocholic Acid: A bile acid formed from chenodeoxycholate by bacterial action, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as cholagogue and choleretic.Glycocholic Acid: The glycine conjugate of CHOLIC ACID. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed.Enterohepatic Circulation: Recycling through liver by excretion in bile, reabsorption from intestines (INTESTINAL REABSORPTION) into portal circulation, passage back into liver, and re-excretion in bile.Cholestanes: Derivatives of the saturated steroid cholestane with methyl groups at C-18 and C-19 and an iso-octyl side chain at C-17.Eubacterium: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.Xanthomatosis: A condition marked by the development of widespread xanthomas, yellow tumor-like structures filled with lipid deposits. Xanthomas can be found in a variety of tissues including the SKIN; TENDONS; joints of KNEES and ELBOWS. Xanthomatosis is associated with disturbance of LIPID METABOLISM and formation of FOAM CELLS.Ursodeoxycholic Acid: An epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a mammalian bile acid found first in the bear and is apparently either a precursor or a product of chenodeoxycholate. Its administration changes the composition of bile and may dissolve gallstones. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.Cholesterol 7-alpha-Hydroxylase: A membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 7-alpha-hydroxylation of CHOLESTEROL in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP7, converts cholesterol to 7-alpha-hydroxycholesterol which is the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS.Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Cholelithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).Taurocholic Acid: The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.Gallbladder: A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.Cholestyramine Resin: A strongly basic anion exchange resin whose main constituent is polystyrene trimethylbenzylammonium Cl(-) anion.Taurine: A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Enzymes of the oxidoreductase class that catalyze the dehydrogenation of hydroxysteroids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.-.Cholestenones: CHOLESTENES with one or more double bonds and substituted by any number of keto groups.Cholesterol, Dietary: Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.CholanesGas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.ValeratesIodipamide: A water-soluble radiographic contrast media for cholecystography and intravenous cholangiography.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Dehydrocholic Acid: A semisynthetic bile acid made from cholic acid. It is used as a cholagogue, hydrocholeretic, diuretic, and as a diagnostic aid.Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Cholates: Salts and esters of CHOLIC ACID.Norsteroids: Steroids which have undergone contraction in ring size or reduction in side chains.Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase: An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.Hydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Indenes: A family of fused-ring hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar that act as intermediates in various chemical reactions and are used in the production of coumarone-indene resins.Apazone: An anti-inflammatory agent used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It also has uricosuric properties and has been used to treat gout.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Pregnenes: Unsaturated derivatives of PREGNANES.Sulfobromophthalein: A phenolphthalein that is used as a diagnostic aid in hepatic function determination.Griseofulvin: An antifungal agent used in the treatment of TINEA infections.Glycodeoxycholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with glycine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Biliary Fistula: Abnormal passage in any organ of the biliary tract or between biliary organs and other organs.Taurodeoxycholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic, also industrially as a fat emulsifier.Glycochenodeoxycholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver from chenodeoxycholate and glycine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is a cholagogue and choleretic.3-alpha-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase (B-Specific): A 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase which catalyzes the reversible reduction of the active androgen, DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE to 5 ALPHA-ANDROSTANE-3 ALPHA,17 BETA-DIOL. It also has activity towards other 3-alpha-hydroxysteroids and on 9-, 11- and 15- hydroxyprostaglandins. The enzyme is B-specific in reference to the orientation of reduced NAD or NADPH.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cholestasis, Intrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow due to injury to the HEPATOCYTES; BILE CANALICULI; or the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC).Coenzyme A Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Radioisotope Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Cholagogues and Choleretics: Gastrointestinal agents that stimulate the flow of bile into the duodenum (cholagogues) or stimulate the production of bile by the liver (choleretic).Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.TritiumSitosterols: A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.Arthrobacter: A genus of asporogenous bacteria isolated from soil that displays a distinctive rod-coccus growth cycle.Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.Microbodies: Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.Bile Canaliculi: Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.Mesocricetus: A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Pantothenic Acid: A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.Isotope Labeling: Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.Hydroxycholesterols: Cholesterol which is substituted by a hydroxy group in any position.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

Sulphated and unsulphated bile acids in serum, bile, and urine of patients with cholestasis. (1/800)

Samples of serum, bile, and urine were collected simultaneously from patients with cholestasis of varying aetiology and from patients with cirrhosis; their bile acid composition was determined by gas/liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. In cholestasis, the patterns in all three body fluids differed consistently and strikingly. In serum, cholic acid was the major bile acid and most bile acids (greater than 93%) were unsulphated, whereas, in urine, chenodeoxycholic was the major bile acid, and the majority of bile acids (greater than 60%) were sulphated. Secondary bile acids were virtually absent in bile, serum, and urine. The total amount of bile acids excreted for 24 hours correlated highly with the concentration of serum bile acids; in patients with complete obstruction, urinary excretion averaged 71-6 mg/24 h. In cirrhotic patients, serum bile acids were less raised, and chenodeoxycholic acid was the predominant acid. In healthy controls, serum bile acids were consistently richer in chenodeoxycholic acid than biliary bile acids, and no bile acids were present in urine. No unusual monohydroxy bile acids were present in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, but, in several patients, there was a considerable amount of hyocholic acid present in the urinary bile acids. The analyses of individual bile acids in serum and urine did not appear to provide helpful information in the differential diagnosis of cholestasis. Thus, in cholestasis, conjugation of chenodeoxycholic acid with sulphate becomes a major biochemical pathway, urine becomes a major route of bile acid excretion, and abnormal bile acids are formed.  (+info)

A new bile acid conjugate, ciliatocholic acid, from bovine gall bladder bile. (2/800)

This study was carried out to investigate the occurrence of ciliatocholic acid in bovine gall bladder bile. Ciliatocholic acid was synthesized according to the method described by Bergstrom and Norman for the synthesis of taurocholic acid. Elemental analysis, melting point, and the infrared spectrum of this substance were determined. An isolation procedure for ciliatocholic acid was established by stepwise elution with an HCl-ethanol solvent system using a Dowex-1 anion exchange resin column chromatographic technique. Ciliatocholic acid amounting to 158 mug (as ciliatine) per 100 ml of gall bladder bile was found in the fraction eluted with 0.01 N HCl in 50% ethanol. This coumpound was purified by preparative thin-layer chromatography and confirmed to be ciliatocholic acid from the hydrolytic stability, phosphorus determination, and chromatographic behavior. Thus, bovine gall bladder bile contains a small amount of ciliatocholic acid.  (+info)

Microbiological degradation of bile acids. Nitrogenous hexahydroindane derivatives formed from cholic acid by Streptomyces rubescens. (3/800)

The metabolism of cholic acid (I) by Streptomyces rubescens was investigated. This organism effected ring A cleavage, side-chain shortening and amide bond formation and gave the following metabolites: (4R)-4-[4alpha-(2-carboxyethyl)-3aalpha-hexahydro-7abeta-methyl-5-oxoindan-1 beta-yl]valeric acid (IIa) and its mono-amide (valeramide) (IIb); and 2,3,4,6, 6abeta,7,8,9,9aalpha,9bbeta-decahydro-6abeta-methyl-1H-cyclopenta[f]quinoline-3,7 -dione(IIIe)and its homologues with the beta-oriented side chains, valeric acid, valeramide, butanone and propionic acid, in the place of the oxo group at C-7, i.e.compounds (IIIa), (IIIb), (IIIc) and (IIId) respectively. All the nitrogenous metabolites were new compounds, and their structures were established by partial synthesis except for the metabolite (IIIc). The mechanism of formation of these metabolites is considered. A degradative pathway of cholic acid (I) into the metabolites is also tentatively proposed.  (+info)

Microbiological degradation of bile acids. The conjugation of a certain cholic acid metabolite with amino acids in Corynebacterium equi. (4/800)

1. (4R)-4[4alpha-(2-Carboxyethyl)-3aalpha-hexahydro-7abeta-methyl-5-oxoindan-1beta-y l]valeric acid (II) could not be utilized by Arthrobacter simplex, even though the acid was one of the metabolites formed from cholic acid (I) by this organism. Therefore the further degradation of the acid (II) by Corynebacterium equi was investigated to identify the intermediates involved in the cholic acid degradation. 2. The organism, cultured in a medium containing the acid (II) as the sole source of carbon, produced unexpected metabolites, the conjugates of this original acid (II) with amino acids or their derivatives, although the yield was very low. These new metabolites were isolated and identified by chemical synthesis as the Na-((4R)-4-[4alpha-(2-carboxyethyl)-3a alpha-hexahydro-7a beta-methyl-5-oxoindan-1 beta-yl]-valeryl) derivatives of L-alanine, glutamic acid, O-acetylhomoserine and glutamine, i.e. compounds (IIIa), (IIIb), (IIId) respectively. 3. The possibility that the bacterial synthetic reaction observed in the acid (II) metabolism with C. equi is analogous to peptide conjugation known in both animals and higher plants is discussed. A possible mechanism for this bacterial conjugation is also considered.  (+info)

Identification of protein components of the microsomal glucose 6-phosphate transporter by photoaffinity labelling. (5/800)

The glucose-6-phosphatase system catalyses the terminal step of hepatic glucose production from both gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis and is thus a key regulatory factor of blood glucose homoeostasis. To identify the glucose 6-phosphate transporter T1, we have performed photoaffinity labelling of human and rat liver microsomes by using the specific photoreactive glucose-6-phosphate translocase inhibitors S 0957 and S 1743. Membrane proteins of molecular mass 70, 55, 33 and 31 kDa were labelled in human microsomes by [3H]S 0957, whereas in rat liver microsomes bands at 95, 70, 57, 54, 50, 41, 33 and 31 kDa were detectable. The photoprobe [3H]S 1743 led to the predominant labelling of a 57 kDa and a 50 kDa protein in the rat. Stripping of microsomes with 0.3% CHAPS retains the specific binding of T1 inhibitors; photoaffinity labelling of such CHAPS-treated microsomes resulted in the labelling of membrane proteins of molecular mass 55, 33 and 31 kDa in human liver and 50, 33 and 31 kDa in rat liver. Photoaffinity labelling of human liver tissue samples from a healthy individual and from liver samples of patients with a diagnosed glycogen-storage disease type 1b (GSD type 1b; von Gierke's disease) revealed the absence of the 55 kDa protein from one of the patients with GSD type 1. These findings support the identity of the glucose 6-phosphate transporter T1, with endoplasmic reticulum protein of molecular mass 50 kDa in rat liver and 55 kDa in human liver.  (+info)

Development of a simple and highly sensitive enzyme immunoassay for hepatitis C virus core antigen. (6/800)

A highly sensitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the hepatitis C virus (HCV) core antigen (HCVcAg) was developed, and its performance was compared with that of the AMPLICOR HCV test (Roche Molecular Systems). The developed one-step pretreatment method, 30-min incubation of the specimen with a solution containing three different types of detergents (Triton X-100, 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)-dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate [CHAPS], and sodium dodecyl sulfate), does not require any special device. Because the interfering anti-core antibody in the sample was sufficiently inactivated by the pretreatment, HCVcAg in the sample could be detected. The immunoreactivity on gel filtration was shifted from void fractions to those corresponding to the molecular mass range from 20 to 25 kDa, which is equal to the estimated molecular mass of HCVcAg, after the pretreatment. By the recovery test with HCVcAg-positive serum, the recovery rate was 93.5 to 106. 5%. There was no interference with the EIA by anticoagulants or blood components in the serum. When the cutoff value was tentatively set at 0.5 mU/ml based on the distribution of healthy subjects' sera, the sera of all healthy subjects (n = 125) and patients with hepatitis B (n = 50) were negative. HCVcAg was detected in sera from 57 of 73 individuals (78.1%) with anti-HCV antibody. Similarly, HCV RNA was detected in sera from 59 individuals (80.8%) with the AMPLICOR HCV as the qualitative test (AMPLICOR HCV test) and in sera from 54 individuals (74.0%) by the AMPLICOR HCV Monitor as the quantitative test (AMPLICOR Monitor test). Concentrations of HCVcAg and HCV RNA (measured by the AMPLICOR Monitor test) correlated significantly (r = 0.8, P < 0.001). On seroconversion panels, HCVcAg was detected during the early stage of infection, when anti-HCV antibodies had not been produced. This assay for HCVcAg is simpler than assays for HCV RNA based on gene technology and shows specificity and sensitivity equivalent to those of the AMPLICOR HCV test.  (+info)

The identification of specific high density lipoprotein3 binding sites on human blood monocytes using fluorescence-labeled ligand. (7/800)

We previously reported the identity and purification of two HDL3-binding proteins in rat liver plasma membranes. As these proteins are candidate high density lipoprotein (HDL) receptors and probably multifunctional, including a role in HDL metabolism, we have considerable interest in identifying corresponding proteins that are present in human tissue. This report describes the identification of HDL3-binding sites on human monocytes with the use of fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry assay. After the incubation of mononuclear cells from human blood with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled human HDL3, fluorescence micrographs showed dense signals of fluorescent grains on monocytes, but not lymphocytes. A significant increase in FITC intensity on monocytes, but not lymphocytes, was observed by flow cytometry analysis, and the interaction between FITC-HDL3 and human monocytes was concentration-dependent. Although very low density (VLDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) were ineffective competitors and HDL2 only partially competed for binding, a 50-fold concentration of HDL3 did compete effectively for binding of FITC-HDL3 to human monocytes. Trypsin treatment reduced the FITC intensity of monocytes, showing that a portion of cell-associated FITC-HDL3 remained bound to the cell surface. Two major HDL-binding proteins were identified in CHAPS-solubilized human mononuclear cells by ligand blotting, using HDL3 as the ligand. Both showed similar binding parameters, specificity, and molecular weight identical to HB1 and HB2 from rat liver plasma membrane. We conclude that corresponding candidate HDL receptors or a similar receptor complex also exist on human blood monocytes.  (+info)

Formation of hyodeoxycholic acid from muricholic acid and hyocholic acid by an unidentified gram-positive rod termed HDCA-1 isolated from rat intestinal microflora. (8/800)

From the rat intestinal microflora we isolated a gram-positive rod, termed HDCA-1, that is a member of a not previously described genomic species and that is able to transform the 3alpha,6beta, 7beta-trihydroxy bile acid beta-muricholic acid into hyodeoxycholic acid (3alpha,6alpha-dihydroxy acid) by dehydroxylation of the 7beta-hydroxy group and epimerization of the 6beta-hydroxy group into a 6alpha-hydroxy group. Other bile acids that were also transformed into hyodeoxycholic acid were hyocholic acid (3alpha, 6alpha,7alpha-trihydroxy acid), alpha-muricholic acid (3alpha,6beta, 7alpha-trihydroxy acid), and omega-muricholic acid (3alpha,6alpha, 7beta-trihydroxy acid). The strain HDCA-1 could not be grown unless a nonconjugated 7-hydroxylated bile acid and an unidentified growth factor produced by a Ruminococcus productus strain that was also isolated from the intestinal microflora were added to the culture medium. Germfree rats selectively associated with the strain HDCA-1 plus a bile acid-deconjugating strain and the growth factor-producing R. productus strain converted beta-muricholic acid almost completely into hyodeoxycholic acid.  (+info)

Chemicals. [2,4-3H]cholic acid (24.5 Ci/mmol) was purchased from Amersham Biosciences (Piscataway, NJ). Folic acid, cholic acid (sodium salt), pyrimethamine, etoposide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and probenecid were obtained from Sigma Chemical Co. (St. Louis, MO). MK571 was obtained from Merck Frosst Canada (Kirkland, PQ, Canada), prostaglandin A1 from Cayman Chemicals (Ann Arbor, MI), calcein AM from Molecular Probes (Eugene, OR), and G-418 from Calbiochem-Novabiochem (San Diego, CA).. Tissue Culture. A clonal subline (C11) of CHO AA8 cells was subjected to stepwise selection with increasing concentrations of pyrimethamine, resulting in the establishment of PyrR100 cells as described previously (Assaraf and Slotky, 1993). Parental CHO AA8 cells and their PyrR100 subline were maintained as monolayer cultures at 37°C in RPMI-1640 medium containing 5% fetal calf serum (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA), 2.3 μM folic acid, supplemented with 2 mM glutamine, 100 μg/ml penicillin/streptomycin, and 1 mM ...
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This chapter introduces Part II (Chaps. 9- 11), which covers the biological background complementing the mathematical background given in Part I (Chaps. 2- 8). This introductory chapter is mainly...
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Cholic acid is a bile acid. Bile acids are produced naturally in the body to aid in digestion of fats and certain nutrients. People with bile acid disorders are unable to produce cholic acid normally. This can make it harder for the body to absorb nutrients important for health, growth, and body functioning. Abnormal...
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Cholic (?), Cho*linic (?), a. [Gr. , from bile.] Physiology|Physiol. Chemistry|Chem. Pertaining to, or obtained from, the bi...
Subcellular localization of 3 alpha, 7 alpha-dihydroxy- and 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoyl-coenzyme A ligase(s) in rat liver ...
View Notes - Chap_19 from CHEM 102 at UMBC. Chapter 19 Solubility and Simultaneous Equilibria In this chapter we extend our discussion of ionic equilibria to deal with salts that until now we have
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एक दिन बात चली passion की तो उन्हें याद आया कि अपने ज़िन्दगी में पहली फिल्म शूटिंग जो उन्होंने देखी थी वो थी मुग़ल-ए-आज़म की. वो बच्चे ही थे जब उनके पिताजी (जो बंबई में वकील हुआ करते थे) उन्हें प्यार किया तो डरना क्या गाने की शूटिंग और शीशमहल दिखाने ले गए थे. उन्होंने थोडा उदास हो के कहा वो एक हद्द थी जिस तक हम कभी नहीं गए. फिर एक बार उन्होंने बताया कि कैसे जब अमिताभ बच्चन को पहली फिल्म की तनख्वाह ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Testing of Materials. AU - Pluijm, van der, R.. AU - Vermeltfoort, A.T.. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. N2 - No abstract.. AB - No abstract.. M3 - Chapter. SN - 9054106808. SP - 4. EP - 45. BT - Structural Masonry : an experimental/numerical basis for practical design rules. A2 - Rots, J.G.. PB - Balkema. CY - Rotterdam. ER - ...
Dec 22, 2005. SAN DIEGO, CA - Dec 22, 2005 - Diazyme Laboratories, a company that applies its proprietary enzyme technologies to develop low cost and high quality diagnostic products for clinical and research uses, announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted Diazyme 510(K) clearance to market its Enzymatic Total Bile Acids (TBA) Assay Kit for the quantitative determination of total bile acids in human blood samples.. Total bile acids is a well known bio-marker for diagnosis of liver diseases. Serum total bile acids are elevated in patients with acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, liver sclerosis, and liver cancer. Total bile acids levels are found to be the most sensitive indicator for monitoring the effectiveness of interferon treatment of chronic hepatitis C patients. Moreover, total bile acids tests are also widely used to screen pregnant women for the condition of obstetric cholestasis, a disease that is caused by elevated total bile acids in the bloodstream ...
Bile acid synthesis, determined by conversion of [4-14C]cholesterol into bile acids in rat and human hepatocytes and by measurement of mass production of bile acids in rat hepatocytes, was dose-dependently decreased by cyclosporin A, with 52% (rat) and 45% (human) inhibition of 10 microM. The decreased bile acid production in rat hepatocytes was due only to a fall in the synthesis of beta-muricholic and chenodeoxycholic acids (-64% at 10 microM-cyclosporin A), with no change in the formation of cholic acid. In isolated rat liver mitochondria, 26-hydroxylation of cholesterol was potently inhibited by the drug (concn. giving half-maximal inhibition = 4 microM). These results suggest that cyclosporin A blocks the alternative pathway in bile acid synthesis, which leads preferentially to the formation of chenodeoxycholic acid. ...
View drug interactions between cholic acid and deoxycholic acid. These medicines may also interact with certain foods or diseases.
Hyocholic acid is a bile acid. Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in the bile of mammals. The distinction between different bile acids is minute, depending only on the presence or absence of hydroxyl groups on positions 3, 7, and 12. Bile acids are physiological detergents that facilitate excretion, absorption, and transport of fats and sterols in the intestine and liver. Bile acids are also steroidal amphipathic molecules derived from the catabolism of cholesterol. They modulate bile flow and lipid secretion, are essential for the absorption of dietary fats and vitamins, and have been implicated in the regulation of all the key enzymes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Bile acids recirculate through the liver, bile ducts, small intestine and portal vein to form an enterohepatic circuit. They exist as anions at physiological pH and, consequently, require a carrier for transport across the membranes of the enterohepatic tissues. The unique detergent properties of bile acids are ...
Bile acid in the stomach plays a key role in the digestion of food in the small intestine. Two chief bile acids produced in the body include chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid. These acids assist in the creation of micelles, which aids in breaking down dietary fat, and is integral for the digestion of fat in the small intestine. Bile acid is a fluid secreted by the hepatocytes that flows into the canaliculi. From the canaliculi, it reaches the bile ducts, and is then transferred to the gall bladder where it is concentrated with time and the addition of other bodily fluids. Bile acids are derived from the cholesterol inside of the hepatocytem, and are made up of hydrophilic or polar faces and lipid or hydrophobic faces. Cholesterol gets converted into chenodeoxycholic and cholic acids, which are two forms of bile acid. These are combined with amino acids and released into the canaliculi. This combined nature of bile acids enables them to perform two of the most important functions in the ...
27-Hydroxycholesterol (27OH) is a strong suppressor of cholesterol synthesis and a weak activator of LXR in vitro. The regulatory importance of 27OH in vivo is controversial. Here we utilized male mice with increased levels of 27OH either due to increased production (CYP27A1 transgenic mice) or reduced metabolism (Cyp7b1-/- mice). We also used mice lacking 27OH due to a knockout of Cyp27a1. The latter mice were treated with cholic acid to compensate for reduced bile acid synthesis. The effects of the different levels of 27OH on Srebp- and other LXR-regulated genes in the liver were investigated. In the liver of CYP27tg mice we found a modest increase of the mRNA levels corresponding to the LXR target genes Cyp7b1 and Abca1. A number of other LXR-regulated genes were not affected. The effect on Abca1 mRNA was not seen in the liver of Cyp7b1-/- mice. There were little or no effects on cholesterol synthesis. In the liver of the Cyp27-/- mice treated with 0.025% cholic acid there was no significant ...
Description: A bile acid formed by bacterial action from cholate. It is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. Deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, is reabsorbed itself, and is used as a choleretic and detergent ...
Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion. Extinguishing media: Use agent most appropriate to extinguish fire. In case of fire use water spray, dry chemical, carbon dioxide, or appropriate foam ...
Creative-Proteomics offer cas 83-44-3 DEOXYCHOLIC ACID (2,2,4,4-D4, 98%). We are specialized in manufacturing Stabel Isotope Labeled Analytical Standard products.
Using deoxycholic acid as starting materials, a series of 12a-aza-C-homo-12-one 7-deoxycholic acid derivatives were synthesized The antiproliferative activity of the synthesized compounds against some carcinoma cell lines was investigated. The results showed that some 12-oxy-12a-aza-C-homo-7-deoxycholic acid derivatives displayed distinct cytotoxicity to HeLa (human cervical carcinoma) and Tu 686 (laryngocarcinoma) tumor ...
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It has been FAR too long since noders wreaked havoc on North California. This is going to change. The illustrious Lady Midnight contacted me some time a...
What think you of this sentence, my dear Lizzy? -- said Jane as she finished it. ``Is it not clear enough? -- Does it not expressly declare that Caroline neither expects nor wishes me to be her sister; that she is perfectly convinced of her brothers indifference, and that if she suspects the nature of my feelings for him, she means (most kindly!) to put me on my guard? Can there be any other opinion on the subject?. ``Yes, there can; for mine is totally different. -- Will you hear it?. ``Most willingly.. ``You shall have it in few words. Miss Bingley sees that her brother is in love with you, and wants him to marry Miss Darcy. She follows him to town in the hope of keeping him there, and tries to persuade you that he does not care about you.. Jane shook her head.. ``Indeed, Jane, you ought to believe me. -- No one who has ever seen you together, can doubt his affection. Miss Bingley I am sure cannot. She is not such a simpleton. Could she have seen half as much love in Mr. Darcy for ...
Hi there all After doing as much research as I could I decided that the arguments for trying an antibiotic regime were persuasive enough for me to try. Consequently I met Dr Wheldon (Incidentally hes a very nice chap!). Armed ...
1. The duodenal bile acid composition was analysed in 24 control subjects and 107 patients with various types of hyperlipoproteinaemia. A highly significant negative correlation was observed between the proportions of deoxycholic acid and cholic acid as well as between deoxycholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. Patients with gall-bladder disease had an increased proportion of deoxycholic acid in their bile.. 2. Eight control subjects were studied before and during the ingestion of 1·9 mmol (0·75 g) of deoxycholic acid daily. In these subjects a rise in the proportion of deoxycholic acid was also accompanied by a fall in the proportion of both cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid in duodenal bile.. 3. The biliary lipid composition and cholesterol saturation was determined before and during the administration of 1·9 mmol (0·75 g) of chenodeoxycholic acid (n = 12) or deoxycholic acid (n = 8) daily for 3-4 weeks. The cholesterol saturation was decreased during the chenodeoxycholic acid ...
Glycocholic acid is an acyl glycine and a bile acid-glycine conjugate. It is a secondary bile acid produced by the action of enzymes existing in the microbial flora of the colonic environment. Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Clostridium and Lactobacillus are involved in bile acid metabolism and produce glycocholic acid (PMID: 6265737 ; 10629797). In hepatocytes, both primary and secondary bile acids undergo amino acid conjugation at the C-24 carboxylic acid on the side chain, and almost all bile acids in the bile duct therefore exist in a glycine conjugated form (PMID:16949895 ). More specifically, glycocholic acid or cholylglycine, is a crystalline bile acid involved in the emulsification of fats. It occurs as a sodium salt in the bile of mammals. Its anion is called glycocholate. As the glycine conjugate of cholic acid, this compound acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed (PubChem). Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in bile of mammals. The ...
Glycocholic Acid: The glycine conjugate of CHOLIC ACID. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed.
Recent studies have suggested that the canalicular bile salt transport system of rat liver corresponds to a 100-kDa membrane glycoprotein. In the present study we attempted to functionally reconstitute the 100-kDa protein into artificial proteoliposomes. Canalicular membrane proteins were solubilized with octyl glucoside in the presence of asolectin phospholipids. The extracts were treated with preimmune serum or the 100-kDa protein selectively immunoprecipitated with a polyclonal antiserum. Proteins remaining in the supernatant were then incorporated into proteoliposomes by gel-filtration chromatography. Canalicular proteoliposomes containing the 100-kDa protein exhibited transstimulatable taurocholate uptake that could be inhibited by 4,4-diisothiocyanato-2,2-stilbenedisulfonic acid (DIDS). In contrast, no DIDS-sensitive transstimulatable taurocholate uptake was found in 100-kDa protein-free canalicular proteoliposomes. However, when the immunoprecipitated 100-kDa protein was dissociated ...
In this work, we show that in nondiabetic subjects, plasma 12α-hydroxylated BAs are disproportionately increased in association with IR. This finding provides evidence that BA composition is altered within the normal range of insulin sensitivity, and is consistent with insulin-dependent regulation of the 12α-hydroxylase CYP8B1. Our prior work has shown that Cyp8b1 is a target gene of transcription factor FoxO1, whose ability to promote Cyp8b1 transcription is inhibited by insulin via Akt-dependent phosphorylation and nuclear exclusion of FoxO1 (12). These findings dovetail with earlier studies of BA composition, as increased 12α-hydroxylated BAs have been observed in mice lacking hepatic insulin receptors and rodent models of diabetes (13-17). Because FoxO is expected to be more active in IR, owing to decreased Akt-mediated nuclear exclusion, the finding that FoxO1 activates Cyp8b1 reveals a plausible mechanism for upregulation of 12α-hydroxylated BA synthesis in these models.. Surprisingly, ...
We report that star-shaped molecules with cholic acid cores asymmetrically grafted by low molecular weight polymers with hydrogen bonding end-groups undergo aggregation to nanofibers, which subsequently wrap into micrometer spherical aggregates with low density cores. Therein the facially amphiphilic cholic acid (CA) is functionalized by four flexible allyl glycidyl ether (AGE) side chains, which are terminated with hydrogen bonding 2-ureido-4[1H]pyrimidinone (UPy) end-groups as connected by hexyl spacers, denoted as CA(AGE6-C6H12-UPy)4. This wedge-shaped molecule is expected to allow the formation of a rich variety of solvent-dependent structures due to the complex interplay of interactions, enabled by its polar/nonpolar surface-active structure, the hydrophobicity of the CA in aqueous medium, and the possibility to control hydrogen bonding between UPy molecules by solvent selection. In DMSO, the surfactant-like CA(AGE6-C6H12-UPy)4 self-assembles into nanometer scale micelles, as expected due ...
Sea Lamprey redd, Dead River, 3rd August 2012 (Image: Glen Wightman) Other highlights of MulkearLIFEs work to benefit Sea Lamprey during 2012, included ongoing networking and cooperation with colleagues in Ireland, the UK, France, Canada and the USA. Most recently it has included new opportunities for cooperation with partners involved in the Atlantic Aquatic Resource Conservation (ARRC) project, which held its international end-of-project conference in Limerick in November 2012. MulkearLIFE was delighted to host the partners during a field trip to the Mulkear catchment and outline the projects work with on sea lamprey passage. Finally, MulkearLIFE was delighted that the projects work with Sea Lamprey was featured by Michael Vineys in The Irish Times. Michael Viney has been documenting Irish wildlife in his highly regarded column "Another Life" in The Irish Times since 1977. The article on Sea Lamprey ran with the apt title A jaw-dropping sight, but in the best possible taste. The article ...
Increased levels of intestinal bile acids (BAs) are a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we show that the convergence of dietary factors (high-fat diet) and dysregulated WNT signaling (APC mutation) alters BA profiles to drive malignant transformations in Lgr5-expressing (Lgr5+) cancer stem cells and promote an adenoma-to-adenocarcinoma progression. Mechanistically, we show that BAs that antagonize intestinal farnesoid X receptor (FXR) function, including tauro-ß-muricholic acid (T-ßMCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA), induce proliferation and DNA damage in Lgr5+ cells. Conversely, selective activation of intestinal FXR can restrict abnormal Lgr5+ cell growth and curtail CRC progression. This unexpected role for FXR in coordinating intestinal self-renewal with BA levels implicates FXR as a potential therapeutic target for CRC ...
Obeticholic acid (abbreviated to OCA, trade name Ocaliva), is a semi-synthetic bile acid analogue which has the chemical structure 6α-ethyl-chenodeoxycholic acid. It is used as a drug to treat primary biliary cholangitis, and is undergoing development for several other liver diseases and related disorders. Intercept Pharmaceuticals Inc. hold the worldwide rights to develop OCA outside Japan and China, where it is licensed to Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma. The natural bile acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, was identified in 1999 as the most active physiological ligand for the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), which is involved in many physiological and pathological processes. A series of alkylated bile acid analogues were designed, studied and patented by Roberto Pellicciari and colleagues at the University of Perugia, with 6α-ethyl-chenodeoxycholic acid emerging as the most highly potent FXR agonist. FXR-dependent processes in liver and intestine were proposed as therapeutic targets in human diseases. ...
Try CAPS buffer: (3-[cyclohexlamino]-1-propanesulfonic acid) pH11.0. You can purchase through Sigma. Prepare 10X CAPS: 22.13 g CAPS in 900 ml dH2O. pH to pH 11.0 using NaOH. Bring vol to 1 l. Store at room temp. For 1X (per liter) : 100 ml 10X CAPS 200 ml methanol 700 ml dH2O I cant find the reference but should be easy to search. Karen Andrej.Michalik wrote: , Dear Netters, , I am looking for a protocol (or buffer composition) for acidic transfer of , proteins. The one I am looking at has pI of 9.8, thus not having much , reason to head towards the anode in pH8.3. The other possibility seems to , be to sandwich the gel between two membranes, but Id prefer having the , markers and the protein on one single membrane. , Thanx. , Andrej , , ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ , A andrej michalik , A A department of biochemistry , A A university of antwerp (uia) , A A universiteitsplein 1 , AAAAAAAAAAAAA B-2610 antwerpen , A AAA belgium , A A tel: ...
* found in: CAPS (3-(Cyclohexylamino)-1-propanesulfonic acid, N-Cyclohexyl-3-aminopropanesulfonic acid), Carbenicillin Disodium, CHES (2-(Cyclohexylamino)..
Kybella (deoxycholic acid) is the first and only FDA-approved injectable treatment to improve the appearance of moderate to severe fat beneath the chin.
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But there are other puzzles to the evolution of sex. And one involves sea monkeys. In a paper appearing in the Journal of Evolutionary Biology, Marta Maccari of the University of Hull and her colleagues describe a massive survey of brine shrimp from across Europe and Asia. They reared cysts from dozens of populations and closely examined the offspring over the course of two generations. The females in these populations can reproduce on their own. And yet in most of the populations they studied, they discovered a few males.. The males were exceedingly rare-around one in thousand in many cases, and around one in a hundred in a few. And yet they were healthy and fertile. The males couldnt mate with females of their own population, but they readily had sex with other species. Whats more, their hybrid offspring were healthy and fertile, too.. If asexual animal species are rare, species with asexual females and rare males are even more rare. Only a few other examples have turned up, such as certain ...
The Council for Health Action and Promotion is a working network of individuals who address health-related issues in the Greater Mankato Area. CHAPs goal is to encourage healthy and responsible decision-making by teens. The group has more than a decade of service promoting the health and well-being of children, youth and families in the Greater Mankato Area. CHAP supports programs including: \Let\s Talk\ - Sex Talks for Parents and Project for Teens.
Lets just say hypothetically I was strange enough to want to keep a Lamprey. Has anyone successfully raised predatory -AKA parasitic- lampreys? (as opposed to f
S-Adenosyl-L-methionine + Peptide 2-[3-carboxy-3-(methylammonio)propyl]-L-histidine ,=> S-Adenosyl-L-homocysteine + Peptide 2-[3-carboxy-3-(dimethylammonio)propyl]-L- ...
ngau chap with noodle soup "Ngau Chap", which consists of beef ball, briskets and mixed cow parts, is my favourite breakfast. "Ngau Chap" literally translates from Chinese to "cow mixed". One finds all sort of cow parts in a "Ngau Chap" meal, beef balls, cow intestine, cow tongue, even cow ligament is on offer.. Since I was a young boy, I have heard of this popular "Ngau Chap" kopitiam from Donggongon, Penampang. In the old day one would need to drive through narrow and winding road for about 45 minutes to go from KK to Donggongon, but today with the new highway, travel time has been cut down from 45 minutes to a mere 20 minutes.. ...
Get rid of your double chin or saggy neck - wouldnt that be wonderful? Well today we share some exciting new options for those of you who really want to do something about your chin or neck but dont know what is available. Our neck & chin area has traditionally been difficult to improve, with…. Read More ...
Hello guys~ Today I released three chapters. two of them are regular chapters and the last one is a intermission. I think the plot will be thickened with this chaps. I would like to say thanks...
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Dr. Shelton: Man lives in such a manner that he breaks down his resistance to parasitic invasion. Instead of building resistance that is invulnerable to their onslaughts, he continues to fight with them and to seek to cure the effects of their presence. Parasites cannot harm the man or woman who has maintained, unimpaired, the integrity of his or her body.
I would like some help in identifying some possible sources of acid demand in my pool. I have a salt pool with a SWCG. First my most recent numbers: FC 3.0 TC 3.2 CC 0.2 pH 7.6 TA 80 CH 370 CYA 80 Borates 30 Salt 3100
Mark Higgs is a nice chap... Had the pleasure of fitting with him once... Only thing is i really didnt like the look of Nakashima irons...
Imagine being at one of Grant Shapps’s talks. Chap appears at the front of the room and introduces himself: “Hi everyone, I’m Michael Green. I’m going to talk to you about being me and how I can help YOUR business go digital. Except I can’t tell you about being me. I can’t give you a full rundown on my experience and my qualifications. Cos I’m not me, I’m someone else. But we won’t mention that.”
1. Bile salt metabolism has been studied in seven patients with ileostomy following total proctocolectomy; three of these patients also had various degrees of ileal resection.. 2. The half-life of the cholic acid pool was shortened in the patients with ileal resection.. 3. Rates of bile acid synthesis were raised in two of the three patients with ileal resection. In the third, the rate was normal.. 4. Four of the six patients had low bile acid concentrations in the duodenum after a fatty meal.. 5. Deoxycholic acid could not be detected in the duodenum or ileal effluent of any of the patients.. ...
Synonyms for glycocholic acid in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for glycocholic acid. 92 synonyms for acid: sour, sharp, tart, pungent, biting, acidic, acerbic, acrid, acetic, vinegary, acidulous, acidulated, vinegarish, acerb, sharp, cutting.... What are synonyms for glycocholic acid?
Abstract Recent studies indicate an important role for nuclear receptors in regulating lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, fibrosis and inflammation. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. FXR is highly expressed in the liver, intestine, adrenal gland and kidney. The primary bile acids are the highest affinity endogenous ligands for FXR. The effects of FXR agonists in diabetic kidney disease, the main cause of end stage renal disease, however have not been determined. To identify the effect of FXR activation in modulation of diabetic nephropathy, we have treated 1) C57BL/6J mice on low fat diet or high fat diet with FXR agonists (GW4064 or cholic acid) for one week; 2) C57BLKS/J-db/db mice and their lean mates with GW4064 for one week; and 3) C57BL/6J-db/db mice and their lean mates with cholic acid for 12 weeks. We found that FXR agonists modulate renal SREBP-1 expression and lipid metabolism, as well as renal expression of profibrotic growth factors, ...
Anhui Chem-Bright Bioengineering Co.,Ltd is a modernized enterprise specialized in research & development, manufacturing and selling of Active Pharmaceutical Intermediates and feed additive.. Our main products are cholesterol, bilirubin,cholic acid, hyodeoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, pig bile powder, ox bile powder,sodium cholate,Deoxycholic acid,Sodium Deoxycholate,Dehydrocholic acid,Sodium Dehydrocholate,Chondronitin Sulfate.. Our factory covers an area of over 36,000 square meter, included standard workshop, warehouse, research center, laboratory, office building, and other devices, with a total investment of more than CNY 75 million.We had established 10-thousand-grade Purification Room, and introduced advanced equipments both for research and production from home and abroad. Our production management is strictly conducted by the requirement of GMP of China,ISO9001-2008, and all of our products could meet the requirements of international standards.In 2013, products including ...
Our data show that the female preference for a component of the male sea lamprey mating pheromone may be the result of a sensory trap. Spermiating male sea lamprey direct ovulated females to nests by releasing a bile alcohol signal, 3kPZS, at exaggerated rates [18,27,28,29]. We suggest that female preference for 3kPZS evolved through a non-sexual mechanism. Specifically, we hypothesize that silver lamprey, a basal member of the Petromyzontidae [30-35], cue onto larval-released 3kPZS to locate streams containing productive habitat conducive to offspring survival and that males have not adapted to take advantage of the preference by signalling with 3kPZS. In support of this hypothesis, we found that (i) 3kPZS was released by silver lamprey larvae at rates similar to putative sea lamprey migratory cues [36]; (ii) more migratory females moved upstream in response to 3kPZS, and spawning-phase silver lamprey females retained the upstream movement response to 3kPZS; and (iii) spawning-phase silver ...
PROTOCOL OUTLINE: Patients receive oral cholic acid and oral chenodeoxycholic acid on day 1. On day 4, patients receive oral cholic and ursodeoxycholic acids. Patients are assessed at 3 and 6 months for liver function response, neurologic status, and nutritional status.. Patients receive treatment until disease progression or unacceptable toxic effects are observed.. Completion date provided represents the completion date of the grant per OOPD records ...
CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis in the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus: a powerful tool for understanding ancestral gene functions in vertebrates Journal Article ...
Phospholipids and bile acids, by virtue of their amphiphilic properties, can interact in nonpolar media forming "inverted" structures (micelles) which presumably have an hydrophilic core and might act as diffusional carriers (ionophores) of electrolytes across low dielectric constant media or lipid membranes.. The Na+ ionophoretic capability of various purified phospholipids and the modulating effects of bile acids and phospatidylcholine was examined by: (a) measurement of 22Na+ partition into the organic phase (chloroform) of a two-phase system and (b) direct measurement of the translocation of 22Na+ across a bulk chloroform phase separating two aqueous phases in a Pressman cell. All phospholipids tested, except for phosphatidylcholine, showed ionophoretic capability for Na+ at micromolar concentrations. Cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine were the most efficient Na+ carriers, comparable with monensin, an established Na+ ionophore. In contrast, cholic acid as well as other bile acids ...
The diethanolamine salt of the mono (α,p-dimethylbenzyl) ester of d-camphoric acid (Gallogen) augmented diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and hyperlipemia in the rat, while depressing liver cholesterol and total lipid concentrations. Diethanolamine had virtually identical effects. Gallogen, given orally to rats with biliary fistulas had a slight hydrocholeretic effect, but did not influence biliary excretion of cholesterol, cholic acid, or chenodeoxycholic acid.. ...
Illustration of a Lithocholic Acid molecular model. Recent research has shown that lithocholic acid (LCA), which is naturally produced in the liver during digestion, can kill several types of cancer cells, including those found in some brain tumours and breast cancer. Key: black=carbon, white=hydrogen, red=oxygen. - Stock Image C022/4469
The designing, synthesizing and screening of one-bead-one-compound (OBOC) combinatorial chemistry libraries against a single target ligand has been well developed. Recently, novel cholesterol/peptide hybrid combinatorial One-Bead-One-Compound (OBOC) combinatorial libraries have been developed and synthesized with self folding capabilities. The library design strategy was based on a similar pentamer and hexamer self-folding branched tricylic libraries previously developed. The cholic acid on the side chain of the carboxyl lysine is believed to interact with fixed hydrophobic amino acids at the amino-termini (position 5) of the twin branched L-amino acid arms and self-fold into a tricyclic molecule. The newly synthesized library has arginine (R) and Lysine (K) down-proportioned to 10 % for each position to decrease the probability of positive charge nonspecific binding. Thirty L-, D-, and unnatural amino acids were used in each position as building blocks. Hydrophobicity was fixed at position 5 ...
Mac. Now. pray, ladies, take your places. Here, fellow [Pays the harper.\ Bid the drawer bring us more wine. [Exit harper.] If any of the ladies chuse gin, I hope they will be so free to call for it.. Jen. You look as if you meant me. Wine is strong enough for me. Indeed, sir, I never drink strong waters but when I have the cholic.. Mac. Just the excuse of the fine ladies! why, a lady of quality is never without the cholic. I hope, Mrs. Coaxer, you have had good success of late in your visits among the mercers. 192. Coax. We have so many interlopers; yet with industry one may still have a little picking. I carried a silver-flowered lutestring and a piece of black pade. soy to Mr. Peachums lock but last week.. Fix. Theres Molly Brazen hath the ogle of a rattle-snake: she riveted a linen-drapers eye so fast upon her, that he was nicked of three pieces of cambric before he could look off. 200. Braz. Oh, dear Madam! But sure nothing can. come up to your handling of laces; and then you have such a ...
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Cayuga Lake is currently experiencing an infestation of sea lampreys. Former News Director Kyle Robertson spoke with the Hydrilla Program Manager of the Hydrilla Task Force, James Balyszak, to find out how the city is handling the parasite.
Free flashcards to help memorize facts about end of chap terms. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word scramble, games, matching, quizes, and tests.
Free flashcards to help memorize facts about Troy Schultz #30 end of chap 11 terms. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word scramble, games, matching, quizes, and tests.
Chap I Am Oozing Emotion lyrics & video : Give me a contract, give me a sign Give me a t-t-t-t-baby! Give me a contract, give me a sign Give me a t-t-t-t-baby! Ive been waitin...
Your ladyship has declared it to be impossible.. ``It ought to be so; it must be so, while he retains the use of his reason. But your arts and allurements may, in a moment of infatuation, have made him forget what he owes to himself and to all his family. You may have drawn him in.. ``If I have, I shall be the last person to confess it.. ``Miss Bennet, do you know who I am? I have not been accustomed to such language as this. I am almost the nearest relation he has in the world, and am entitled to know all his dearest concerns.. ``But you are not entitled to know mine; nor will such behaviour as this, ever induce me to be explicit.. ``Let me be rightly understood. This match, to which you have the presumption to aspire, can never take place. No, never. Mr. Darcy is engaged to my daughter. Now what have you to say?. ``Only this; that if he is so, you can have no reason to suppose he will make an offer to me.. Lady Catherine hesitated for a moment, and then replied,. ``The engagement ...
Allison Szabo wore a mask to cover her broken nose for the first seven games of Lubbock Christian Universitys basketball season.
THE prospect of a chap named Patrick OShaughnessy lining out in a match between Ireland and Finland sounds plausible. When he is playing for Finland, however, you know there is the mak
A simple, precise and sensitive method for separation and determination of total bile acid sulfates in human urine is described. The sulfate fraction of urinary bile acids was separated with lipophilic anion exchange gel, piperidinohydroxypropyl Sephadex LH-20 after sample clean-up with Sep-Pak C18 cartridge. The obtained sulfate fraction was submitted to solvolysis with a small volume of dimethoxypropane-HCl solution and subjected to enzymatic-fluorimetrical assay using 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and resazurin. In this method, no influence of existing salts in the reaction mixture on fluorescence intensity was observed and solvolysis reaction was almost complete. Overall recoveries of glycine- and taurine-conjugated bile acid 3-sulfates from normal urine ranged from 90.5 to 93.7% and those of unconjugates from 48.7 to 78.0%. The sensitivity of the described method enabled to estimate total bile acid sulfates with 0.5 ml of normal urine and precision tests showed the satisfactory accuracy. The
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on the alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT)-induced acute and recovery stage of cholestasis model mice. In the acute stage of model mice, pretreatment with UDCA (25, 50, and 100 mg·kg-1, ig) for 12 days prior to ANIT administration (50 mg·kg-1, ig) resulted in the dramatic increase in serum biochemistry, with aggrevation of bile infarcts and hepatocyte necrosis. The elevation of beta-muricholic acid (β-MCA), cholic acid (CA), and taurocholic acid (TCA) in serum and liver, and reduction of these bile acids (BAs) in bile was observed ...
Acyl-CoA synthetase involved in bile acid metabolism. Proposed to catalyze the first step in the conjugation of C24 bile acids (choloneates) to glycine and taurine before excretion into bile canaliculi by activating them to their CoA thioesters. Seems to activate secondary bile acids entering the liver from the enterohepatic circulation. In vitro, also activates 3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-trihydroxy-5-beta-cholestanate (THCA), the C27 precursor of cholic acid deriving from the de novo synthesis from cholesterol.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of deoxycholylglycine, a conjugated secondary bile acid, on myogenic tone and Agonist-Induced contraction in rat resistance arteries. AU - Khurana, Sandeep. AU - Raina, Hema. AU - Pappas, Valeria. AU - Raufman, Jean Pierre. AU - Pallone, Thomas L.. PY - 2012/2/16. Y1 - 2012/2/16. N2 - Background: Bile acids (BAs) regulate cardiovascular function via diverse mechanisms. Although in both health and disease serum glycine-conjugated BAs are more abundant than taurine-conjugated BAs, their effects on myogenic tone (MT), a key determinant of systemic vascular resistance (SVR), have not been examined. Methodology/Principal Findings: Fourth-order mesenteric arteries (170-250 μm) isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats were pressurized at 70 mmHg and allowed to develop spontaneous constriction, i.e., MT. Deoxycholylglycine (DCG; 0.1-100 μM), a glycine-conjugated major secondary BA, induced reversible, concentration-dependent reduction of MT that was similar in endothelium-intact and ...
Sea lampreys are parasitic pests. They attach to fish with their suction mouth and teeth, and use their tongue to rasp through a fishs scales and skin so they can feed on its blood and body fluids. A single sea lamprey will destroy up to 40 lbs. (18 kgs.) of fish during its adult lifetime. Sea lampreys are so destructive that, under some conditions, only one out of seven fish attacked will survive. Sea lampreys prey on all types of large fish, such as lake trout, salmon, rainbow trout (steelhead), brown trout, whitefish, yellow perch, burbot, walleye, and catfish. In the 1940s and 1950s, sea lamprey populations exploded as there were no effective control methods. This contributed significantly to the collapse of fish species that were the economic mainstay of a vibrant Great Lakes fishery. For example, before sea lampreys entered the Great Lakes, Canada and the United States harvested about 15 million lbs. (6.8 million kgs.) of lake trout in Lakes Huron and Superior annually. By the early ...
While screening bile acid derivatives to find a suitable TGR5 agonist, Pellicciari and his colleagues discovered the importance of two alkyl moieties on the steroid scaffold. They also noted that the bile acid cholic acid can reverse diabetes in obese mice at extremely high doses. By incorporating the pair of slight alkyl modifications into cholic acids side chain and b ring, they developed a potent drug candidate, INT-777, which is entering clinical trials as a treatment for diabetes. It was developed in collaboration with Johan Auwerx and his team at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne (J. Med. Chem. 2009, 52, 7958).. ...
The serum concentration of TBA in healthy neonates significantly exceeds that in children over 1 year of age, a condition called physiological cholestasis.9 The urinary TBA:creatinine ratio was raised in the first week after birth, then decreased gradually. The high concentration of TBA in urine may be attributable to either an enhanced stimulation of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids or an impaired hepatic clearance or excretion.10The highest value for TBA in meconium was in neonates. This value is greatly influenced by events or conditions during pregnancy, such as the presence of biliary bile in the fetal duodenum or the ingestion of amniotic fluid by the fetus.10 11 Ketonic bile acids are usually considered to result from the bacterial oxidation of primary bile acids.12 In this study we detected ketonic bile acids early in life. The intestine may be colonised by bacterial flora during the first week.13 A high concentration of 3-oxo Δ4 bile acids in serum or urine has been ...
1. The effects of phenobarbitone on cholesterol and bile acid metabolism have been examined in healthy humans.. 2. In three of four subjects the faecal excretion of bile acids was increased by phenobarbitone. This was associated with an increased pool size and turnover of cholic acid. Cholesterol excretion was not clearly affected. The fourth subject who did not respond was also exceptional in not showing an increase in the plasma clearance of antipyrine.. 3. The three responsive subjects also developed significant increases in plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. These findings were associated with an early rise in very-low-density lipoprotein and a fall in plasma cholesterol specific radioactivity in one patient, changes compatible with increased cholesterol synthesis. ...
Rat brain somatostatin (SRIF) receptors were solubilized in an active form with the detergent 3-[(cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS). Solubilized SRIF receptors were detected with the stable SRIF analog 125I-MK 678. CHAPS solubilized approximately 30% of membrane-bound SRIF receptors. 125I-MK 678 binding to the solubilized SRIF receptors reached equilibrium by 90 min and dissociated from the receptor with a t1/2 of 60 min. The binding of 125I-MK 678 to the solubilized SRIF receptor was of high affinity and was selective. The characteristics of 125I-MK 678 binding to the solubilized and membrane-bound SRIF receptors were similar. The solubilized brain SRIF receptor specifically bound to a wheat germ agglutinin-Sepharose column, suggesting that it is a glycoprotein. Analysis of the solubilized SRIF receptor by gel exclusion chromatography on an AcA 34 Ultrogel column revealed that its molecular mass is approximately 400 kDa. This mass is probably representative of the ...
Vacuoles were isolated via protoplasts from the leaves of a halophyte Atriplex gmelini C.A.Mey., grown in culture solution supplemented with 250 millimolar NaCl. Lysis of the protoplasts was induced by lowering the medium osmolarity (1.2 to 1.0 molar sorbitol) and adding a detergent, a synthesized cholate derivative, 3-([3-cholamidopropyl] dimethylammonio)-1-propanesulfonate at a concentration of 0.5 millimolar and the resulting vacuoles were purified by successive dilution and floatation. Isolated vacuoles contained almost the same concentration of sodium (569 millimolar) and chloride (260 millimolar) as recorded in protoplasts (582 and 254 millimolar, respectively), suggesting that the vacuoles are the major sequestration site of NaCl in leaves of halophytes. Betaine concentration in the protoplasts was about 16 millimolar, while that in vacuoles was only about 0.24 millimolar, indicating that betaine is accumulated in the cytoplasm as a compatible solute.. ...
Effects of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE) on the neutral and acidic biosynthetic pathways of bile salt (BS) synthesis were evaluated in rats with an intact enterohepatic circulation and in rats with long-term bile diversion to induce BS synthesis. For this purpose, bile salt pool composition, synthesis of individual BS in vivo, hepatic activities, and expression levels of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A), and sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27), as well as of other enzymes involved in BS synthesis, were analyzed in rats treated with EE (5 mg/kg, 3 days) or its vehicle. BS pool size was decreased by 27% but total BS synthesis was not affected by EE in intact rats. Synthesis of cholate was reduced by 68% in EE-treated rats, while that of chenodeoxycholate was increased by 60%. The recently identified Δ,sup,22,/sup,- isomer of β-muricholate contributed for 5.4% and 18.3% (P , 0.01) to the pool in control and EE-treated rats, respectively, but could not be detected in bile after exhaustion of the pool. A ...
Gustavson, M. S., Collins, P. C., Finarelli, J. A., Egan, D., Conchúir, R. Ó., Wightman, G. D., King, J. J., Gauthier, D. T., Whelan, K., Carlsson, J. E. L. & Carlsson, J., (2015), An eDNA assay for Irish Petromyzon marinus and Salmo trutta and field validation in running water. Journal of Fish Biology, Article first published online: 17 SEP 2015. doi: 10.1111/jfb.12781 ...
A high-absorbable transvaginal preparation having excellent absorbability of the active ingredient, which comprises a biologically active polypeptide and an absorption promoter comprising a polyoxyethylenealkylphenyl ether and one or more compounds selected from the group consisting of an N-acylamino acid, cholic acids, pectic acid, taurine, saccharin, glycyrrhizic acid, aspartame, or a salt thereof.
The primary bile acids (BAs) are synthetized from colesterol in the liver, conjugated to glycine or taurine to increase their solubility, secreted into bile, concentrated in the gallbladder during fasting, and expelled in the intestine in response to dietary fat, as well as bio-transformed in the colon to the secondary BAs by the gut microbiota, reabsorbed in the ileum and colon back to the liver, and minimally lost in the feces. BAs in the intestine not only regulate the digestion and absorption of cholesterol, triglycerides, and fat-soluble vitamins, but also play a key role as signaling molecules in modulating epithelial cell proliferation, gene expression, and lipid and glucose metabolism by activating farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 (GPBAR-1, also known as TGR5) in the liver, intestine, muscle and brown adipose tissue ...
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Genetic research of the sea lamprey may help find the cure for a rare liver disease in human newborns and expand understanding of human neurological disorders
The multifactorial mechanisms promoting weight loss and improved metabolism following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GB) surgery remain incompletely understood. Recent rodent studies suggest that bile acids can mediate energy homeostasis by activating the G-protein coupled receptor TGR5 and the type 2 thyroid hormone deiodinase. Altered gastrointestinal anatomy following GB could affect enterohepatic recirculation of bile acids. We assessed whether circulating bile acid concentrations differ in patients who previously underwent GB, which might then contribute to improved metabolic homeostasis. We performed cross-sectional analysis of fasting serum bile acid composition and both fasting and post-meal metabolic variables, in three subject groups: (i) post-GB surgery (n = 9), (ii) without GB matched to preoperative BMI of the index cohort (n = 5), and (iii) without GB matched to current BMI of the index cohort (n = 10). Total serum bile acid concentrations were higher in GB (8.90 +/- 4.84 micromol/l) than in
Rosin, polymer with bisphenol A, epichlorohydrin and linoleic acid 6,7,8-trimethoxytetralin-1-one SB 216641A 9H-Carbazole-1-ethanol,4-hydroxy-â,3- dimethoxy-R,2-dimethyl-6-(3-methyl-2- butenyl)- 2-(2-carboxy-4-phenyl-butyl)benzoic acid (2S,4R)-2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-hexanoic acid ethyl 4-cyano-3-methyl-5-(2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-tridecafluoroheptanoylamino)thiophene-2-carboxylate 3-01-00-02890 (Beilstein Handbook Reference) Tannins, salts with 3,7-bis(dimethylamino)phenothiazin-5-ium methylenebis(2-hydroxybenzoate) 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, butyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethenylbenzene, methyl 2-methyl-2-propenoate, 2-methyl-2-((1-oxo-2-propenyl)amino)-1-propanesulfonic acid, 1,2-propanediol mono-2-propenoate and 2-propenoic acid, compd. with 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol
To study the effect of steroid hormones on bile acid synthesis by cultured rat hepatocytes, cells were incubated with various amounts of these compounds during 72 h and conversion of [4-14C]cholesterol into bile acids was measured. Bile acid synthesis was stimulated in a dose-dependent way by glucocorticoids, but not by sex steroid hormones, pregnenolone or the mineralocorticoid aldosterone in concentrations up to 10 microM. Dexamethasone proved to be the most efficacious inducer, giving 3-fold and 7-fold increases in bile acid synthesis during the second and third 24 h incubation periods respectively, at a concentration of 50 nM. Mass production of bile acids as measured by g.l.c. during the second day of culture (28-52 h) was 2.2-fold enhanced by 1 microM-dexamethasone. No change in the ratio of bile acids produced was observed during this period in the presence of dexamethasone. Conversion of [4-14C]7 alpha-hydroxycholesterol, an intermediate of the bile acid pathway, to bile acids was not ...
Since the last International Bile Acid Meeting in Freiburg in 1996, considerable progress has been made in several areas of bile acid research. The different pathways of bile acid synthesis and their regulation have been further characterized. The molecular mechanisms for biliary secretion of bile acids have been elucidated and genetic defects of bile acid transport have been defined. Injurious as well as protective effects of different bile acids on the liver have been further studied. Finally, the beneficial effects of ursodeoxycholic acid in cholestatic liver diseases have been substantiated and the potential mechanisms of action have been explored. This book, the proceedings of the Falk Symposium No. 108 (XV International Bile Acid Meeting), held in Titisee, Germany, October 12-13, 1998, is dedicated to both basic and clinical aspects of bile acid research with a focus on bile acids and cholestasis.Bile Acids and Cholestasis - XV International Bile Acid Meeting, 1 was published 1999 under ...
It can also be cultivated in vitro from bovine bile by adding ursodeoxycholic acid, cholic acid, and calcium bilirubinate, ... "Cholic Acid". Archived from the original on 2012-03-15. Retrieved 2016-11-09. "关于牛黄及其代用品使用问题的通知". www.sda.gov.cn. 国食药监局. 2004- ... These are manufactured from cholic acid derived from bovine bile. Chinese regulations forbid the use
... and calcium carbonate and reports choleic acid. Deoxycholic acid and cholic acid have also been reported. In simple cases of ... Acid-base physiology Blue MG (April 1979). "Enteroliths in horses--a retrospective study of 30 cases". Equine Veterinary ... Raper HS (1921). "A Human Enterolith containing Choleic Acid". The Biochemical Journal. 15 (1): 49-52. doi:10.1042/bj0150049. ...
... cholic acid derivatives and organic acids. It is hoped that further research into alkaliphilic enzymes will allow scientists to ... gluconic acid, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and phosphoric acid. Together, these residues form an acidic matrix that helps ... subtilis has been observed to contain higher levels of hexosamines and amino acids as compared to its neutrophilic counterpart ... it has been proposed that cell walls contain acidic polymers composed of residues such as galacturonic acid, ...
These are manufactured from cholic acid derived from bovine bile. In some products, they claim to remove "toxins" from the body ... which get precipitated with gastric acid reflux to form esophageal bezoars. Ox bezoars (cow bezoars) are used in Chinese ...
"Biosynthesis of cholic acid in rat liver. 24-Hydroxylation of 3alpha, 7alpha, 12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestanoic acid". J. ... Relationship between the different dehydrogenases and evidence that fatty acids and the C27 bile acids di- and tri- ... Russell DW (2003). "The enzymes, regulation, and genetics of bile acid synthesis". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 72: 137-74. doi:10.1146/ ... hydroxycoprostanic acids are metabolized by separate multifunctional proteins". Eur. J. Biochem. 240 (3): 660-6. doi:10.1111/j. ...
Hepatocytes metabolize cholesterol to cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. These lipid-soluble bile acids are conjugated ( ... Finally, the conjugated bile acids which remained un-ionized conjugated bile acids are passively absorbed. Venous blood from ... Due to the pH of the small intestine, most of the bile acids are ionized and mostly occur as their sodium salts which are then ... The presence of biliary acids in the intestines helps in digestion of fats and other substances. Bilirubin is conjugated with ...
... cholic thiokinase, cholate thiokinase, cholic acid:CoA ligase, 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestanoyl coenzyme A ... Elliott, W.H. (1956). "The enzymic activation of cholic acid by guinea-pig-liver microsomes". Biochem. J. 62 (3): 427-433. PMC ... Elliott, W.H. (1957). "The breakdown of adenosine triphosphate accompanying cholic acid activation by guinea-pig liver ... Cholate-CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.7, BAL, bile acid CoA ligase, bile acid coenzyme A ligase, choloyl-CoA synthetase, choloyl ...
The only method for preparing this drug prior to 1952 was a lengthy synthesis starting from cholic acid isolated from bile. In ...
It may be synthesized from cholic acid and is zwitterionic due to its quaternary ammonium and sulfonate groups; it is ... Taurodeoxycholic acid Taurochenodeoxycholic acid Hjelmeland, LM (November 1980). "A nondenaturing zwitterionic detergent for ... structurally similar to certain bile acids, such as taurodeoxycholic acid and taurochenodeoxycholic acid. It is used as a non- ...
... may refer to: Cholic acid Epic E1000, an American turboprop aircraft design The E1000 locomotive used by the Taiwan ...
"Formation of cholic acid from 3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acid by rat liver peroxisomes". J. ... 12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acid into cholic acid by rat liver peroxisomes". FEBS Lett. 121 (2): 345-8. doi:10.1016 ... "Glycine and taurine conjugation of bile acids by a single enzyme Molecular cloning and expression of human liver bile acid CoA: ... Russell DW (2003). "The enzymes, regulation, and genetics of bile acid synthesis". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 72: 137-74. doi:10.1146/ ...
... steroids and bile acids (e.g. cholic acid). 5α-Cholane 5β-Cholane Cholestane Ergostane Kurauti, Yukiti; Kazuno, Taro (January ...
Kase, F., Björkhem, I. and Pedersen, J.I. (1983). „Formation of cholic acid from 3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholestanoic acid by ... Pedersen, J.I. & Gustafsson, J. (1980). „Conversion of 3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholestanoic acid into cholic acid by rat liver ... Molecular cloning and expression of human liver bile acid CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase". J. Biol. Chem. 269: 19375-19379. ... Russell, D.W. (2003). „The enzymes, regulation, and genetics of bile acid synthesis". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 72: 137-174. PMID ...
... cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid, both of which are secreted in the bile. In the intestine these bile acids affect the ... Ellis EC (2006). "Suppression of bile acid synthesis by thyroid hormone in primary human hepatocytes". World J. Gastroenterol. ... The balance between these two steroids determines the relative amounts of the two primary bile acids, ... roles of heaptocyte nuclear factor 4alpha in mediating bile acid repression". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (45): 41690-9. doi:10.1074/jbc ...
... a conjugate of Cholic acid and Arachidic acid, is a first in class member of a novel family of synthetic Fatty-Acid/Bile-Acid ... Aramchol was initially intended to combine a cholesterol solubilising moiety (a saturated fatty acid) with a bile acid (cholic ... 2001). Fatty acid bile acid conjugates (FABACs)-new molecules for the prevention of cholesterol crystallisation in bile. 48(1 ... Safadi, R; Konikoff, FM; Mahamid, M; Zelber-Sagi, S; Halpern, M; Gilat, T; Oren, R. "The Fatty Acid-bile Acid conjugate ...
A05AA01 Chenodeoxycholic acid A05AA02 Ursodeoxycholic acid A05AA03 Cholic acid A05AA04 Obeticholic acid A05AB01 Nicotinyl ... A05BA04 Citiolone A05BA05 Epomediol A05BA06 Ornithine oxoglutarate A05BA07 Tidiacic arginine A05BA08 Glycyrrhizic acid ( ...
... cholic acids MeSH D04.808.105.225.130 --- cholic acid MeSH D04.808.105.225.130.330 --- cholates MeSH D04.808.105.225.130.330. ... cholic acids MeSH D04.808.221.430.130 --- cholic acid MeSH D04.808.221.430.130.330 --- cholates MeSH D04.808.221.430.130.330. ... ursodeoxycholic acid MeSH D04.808.105.225.400 --- glycocholic acid MeSH D04.808.105.225.400.380 --- glycodeoxycholic acid MeSH ... lithocholic acid MeSH D04.808.105.225.480.880 --- taurolithocholic acid MeSH D04.808.105.225.900 --- taurocholic acid MeSH ...
24-tetrahydroxy-5beta-cholestan-26-oic acid and cholic acid". Chem. Pharm. Bull. 36: 134-141. doi:10.1248/cpb.36.134. Sonoda Y ... 24-tetrahydroxy-5beta-cholestan-26-oic acid and cholic acid". Chem. Pharm. Bull. 36: 142-145. doi:10.1248/cpb.36.142. Hashimoto ... Russell DW (2003). "The enzymes, regulation, and genetics of bile acid synthesis". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 72: 137-74. doi:10.1146/ ... role of the hydratase reaction in bile acid synthesis". Biochem. J. 328: 377-82. PMC 1218931 . PMID 9371691. Xu R; Cuebas DA ( ...
Bacteria metabolize chenodeoxycholic acid into the secondary bile acid lithocholic acid, and they metabolize cholic acid into ... The two primary bile acids secreted by the liver are cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. ... There are additional secondary bile acids, such as ursodeoxycholic acid. Deoxycholic acid is soluble in alcohol and acetic acid ... 12α-dihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid, is a bile acid. Deoxycholic acid is one of the secondary bile acids, which are metabolic ...
Cholic acid, a bile acid, showing the carboxylic acid and additional hydroxyl groups often present Dexamethasone, a synthetic ... allowing the cholesterol to be broken up by other enzymes into bile acids. These acids can then be eliminated by secretion from ... Zollner G, Marschall HU, Wagner M, Trauner M (2006). "Role of nuclear receptors in the adaptive response to bile acids and ... Steroid hormones, lacking the side chain of cholesterol and bile acids, are typically hydroxylated at various ring positions or ...
12α-dihydroxycholest-4-en-3-one and then to cholic acid, the major primary bile acid in humans. Alternatively, it can be ... The increase in serum 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one concentrations reflects the loss of bile acids secondary to bile acid ... Elevated values are found in patients with bile acid malabsorption and may be useful in the diagnosis of this condition as high ... 7α-Hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one is an intermediate in the biochemical synthesis of bile acids from cholesterol. Its precursor, 7α- ...
It is a conjugate of cholic acid with taurine. In medical use, it is administered as a cholagogue and choleretic. Hydrolysis of ... The median lethal dose of taurocholic acid in newborn rats is 380 mg/kg. Deoxycholic acid Taurocholic acid, sodium salt at ... Taurocholic acid, known also as cholaic acid, cholyltaurine, or acidum cholatauricum, is a deliquescent yellowish crystalline ... For commercial use, taurocholic acid is manufactured from cattle bile, a byproduct of the meat-processing industry. This acid ...
It is a conjugate of cholic acid with glycine. Its anion is called glycocholate. Taurocholic acid "Glycocholic Acid". MeSH. ... Glycocholic acid, or cholylglycine, is a crystalline bile acid involved in the emulsification of fats. It occurs as a sodium ...
... such as chenodeoxycholic acid and ursodeoxycholic acid.[citation needed]. On an empty stomach - after repeated vomiting, for ... "Secretion of Bile and the Role of Bile Acids In Digestion". www.vivo.colostate.edu. Retrieved 2017-03-31.. ... "Secretion of Bile and the Role of Bile Acids In Digestion". www.vivo.colostate.edu. Retrieved 2016-06-05.. ... The composition of hepatic bile is 97% water, 0.7%[1] bile salts, 0.2% bilirubin, 0.51% fats (cholesterol, fatty acids, and ...
"Cofactor requirements for 7α-dehydroxylation of cholic and chenodeoxycholic acid in cell extracts of the intestinal anaerobic ... Bile-acid 7alpha-dehydroxylase (EC 1.17.99.5, cholate 7alpha-dehydroxylase, 7alpha-dehydroxylase, bile acid 7-dehydroxylase) is ... H+ Bile-acid 7alpha-dehydroxylase is highly specific for bile acid substrates. White, B.A.; Cacciapuoti, A.F.; Fricke, R.J.; ... White, B.A.; Paone, D.A.; Cacciapuoti, A.F.; Fricke, R.J.; Mosbach, E.H.; Hylemon, P.B. (1983). "Regulation of bile acid 7- ...
Muricholic acids differ from the more common bile acids, such as cholic acid or chenodeoxycholic acid, by having a hydroxyl ... α-muricholic acid β-muricholic acid γ-muricholic acid (hyocholic acid) ω-muricholic acid Russell DW (2003). "The enzymes, ... The three major bile acids in germ-free mice are cholic acid, α-muricholic, and β-muricholic acids. In conventional mice, ω- ... Muricholic acids are a group of bile acids found as one of the main forms in mice, which gives them their name, and at low ...
... has been shown to be absorbed from the gut and excreted into the bile at the same rate as cholic acid, one of the major ... This test has replaced 14C-labeled glycocholic acid (or taurocholic acid) breath tests and fecal bile acid measurements, which ... SeHCAT (23-seleno-25-homotaurocholic acid, selenium homocholic acid taurine, or tauroselcholic acid) is a drug used in a ... The enterohepatic circulation of bile acids is reduced in these patients with ileal abnormalities and, as the normal bile acid ...
Cholic acid Glycocholic acid Taurocholic acid Deoxycholic acid Chenodeoxycholic acid Glycochenodeoxycholic acid ... Cholic acid is converted into deoxycholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid into lithocholic acid. All four of these bile acids ... "deoxycholic acid" in that it had one fewer hydroxyl group than cholic acid. Deoxycholic acid is formed from cholic acid by 7- ... In humans, taurocholic acid and glycocholic acid (derivatives of cholic acid) and taurochenodeoxycholic acid and ...
The glycine conjugate of CHOLIC ACID. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. ... Bile Acids and Salts: 3397*Cholic Acids: 8*Glycocholic Acid: 105*Glycodeoxycholic Acid: 68 ... Glycocholic Acid. Subscribe to New Research on Glycocholic Acid The glycine conjugate of CHOLIC ACID. It acts as a detergent to ... 01/01/1982 - "The conjugated cholic acid (glycocholic acid) (GC) in the serum and the conjugated sulfolithocholic acid ( ...
Cholic acid CAS: 81-25-4. Product Name: Cholic acid Synonyms: 3,7,12-Trihydroxy-cholan-24-oic acid;5beta-Cholan-24-oic acid, ... cholic acid, hyodeoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, pig bile powder, ox bile powder,sodium cholate,Deoxycholic acid,Sodium ... cholic acid,ox bile powder, hyodeoxycholic acid and pig bile powder passed the certification of China GMP. ... Chenodeoxycholic Acid (CDCA)CAS:474-25-9. Product Name: Chenodeoxycholic Acid (CDCA) Products in detail Product Name: ...
... is a bile acid (CHEBI:3098) cholic acid (CHEBI:16359) is a C24-steroid (CHEBI:131620) cholic acid ( ... cholic acid (CHEBI:16359). cholate salt (CHEBI:23169) has functional parent cholic acid (CHEBI:16359). cholic acid 24-O-(β-D- ... cholic acid (CHEBI:16359). glycocholic acid (CHEBI:17687) has functional parent cholic acid (CHEBI:16359). hyodeoxycholic acid ... cholic acid (CHEBI:16359). murideoxycholic acid (CHEBI:52030) has functional parent cholic acid (CHEBI:16359). taurocholic acid ...
Salts of cholic acid are called cholates. Cholic acid, along with chenodeoxycholic acid, is one of the two major bile acids ... Cholic acid, also known as 3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid is a primary bile acid that is insoluble in water ( ... This is why chenodeoxycholic acid, and not cholic acid, can be used to treat gallstones (because decreasing bile acid synthesis ... Other species may synthesize different bile acids as their predominant primary bile acids. Cholic acid, formulated as Cholbam ...
View drug interactions between cholic acid and deoxycholic acid. These medicines may also interact with certain foods or ... Cholic acid is used to treat Bile Acid Synthesis Disorders.. deoxycholic acid. A total of 96 drugs (360 brand and generic names ... cholic acid. A total of 32 drugs (171 brand and generic names) are known to interact with cholic acid. ... There were no interactions found in our database between cholic acid and deoxycholic acid. However, this does not necessarily ...
PubChem] Cholic acid, formulated as Cholbam capsules, is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration as a ... A major primary bile acid produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption ... treatment for children and adults with bile acid synthesis disorders due to single enzyme defects, and for peroxisomal ... Receptor for bile acids such as chenodeoxycholic acid, lithocholic acid and deoxycholic acid. Represses the transcription of ...
People with bile acid disorders are unable to produce cholic acid normally. This can make it harder for the body to absorb ... Bile acids are produced naturally in the body to aid in digestion of fats and certain nutrients. ... What is cholic acid?. Cholic acid is a bile acid. Bile acids are produced naturally in the body to aid in digestion of fats and ... When you take your cholic acid dose, avoid taking other medicines by mouth at the same time. Since cholic acid aids in ...
Cholic acid mediates negative feedback regulation of bile acid synthesis in mice. Jia Li-Hawkins,1 Mats Gåfvels,2 Maria Olin,2 ... TCA, taurocholic acid (circles); TCDCA, taurochenodeoxycholic acid (symbol X); TβMCA, tauro-β-muricholic acid (squares); GW4064 ... On the turnover and excretory products of cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid in man. J Biol Chem 1963. 238:2299-2304. View ... Bile acid pool sizes and excretion rates in wild-type and Cyp8b1-/- mice. (a) The mass of bile acid in the enterohepatic ...
Biological Data (See Desoxycholic Acid) DESOXYCHOLIC ACID Chemical name 3,12-dihydroxycholanic acid Empirical formula C24H40O4 ... CHOLIC ACID Rabbit i.v. 50 (Na salt) Gillert, 1926 DESOXYCHOLIC ACID Rabbit i.v. 15 (Na salt) Gillert, 1926 In general, bile ... CHOLIC ACID Chemical name 3,7,12-trihydroxycholanic acid Empirical formula C24H40O5 Structural formula Molecular weight 408.58 ... Definition Cholic acid after drying contains not less than 98 per cent. C24H40O5 Description Colourless plates or a white, ...
The cationic 3-ammonium propylamide of cholic acid did not react further with CS2 and the formed salt was stable in the ... of dithiocarbamic acid which further formed an ammonium salt with another molecule of 3-aminopropylamide of cholic acid. ... When the reaction was carried out in the presence of aqueous sodium hydroxide, only the bile acid derivative of sodium ... The reaction of 3-aminopropylamide of cholic acid with CS2 produced a bile acid derivative ...
Buy Cholic Acid(P) - CAS Number 81-25-4 from LGC Standards. Please login or register to view prices, check availability and ... Cholalic acid ; Cholic acid ; 3α,7α,12α-Trihydroxy-5β-cholanoic acid ; 3α,7α,12α-Trihydroxy-β-cholanic acid ; 5β-Cholic acid ; ... Cholic Acid ; Cholalin ; 3α,7α,12α-Trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid ; 5β-Cholanic acid-3α,7α,12α-triol ; 3α,7α,12α-Trihydroxy-5 ... 17β-[1-Methyl-3-carboxypropyl]etiocholane-3α,7α,12α-triol ; NSC-6135 ; (3α,5β,7α,12α)-
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Cholic Acid Drug: Cholic Acids 10-15 mg/kg body weight/day taken orally. ... Compassionate Treatment of Patients With Inborn Errors of Bile Acid Metabolism With Cholic Acid. The safety and scientific ... compassionate treatment study of cholic acid in the treatment of defects of bile acid metabolism. ... Drug Information available for: Cholic acid Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: X-linked ...
... cholic acid), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & lactation schedules, ... Bile acid and peroxisomal disorders dosing for Cholbam ( ... encoded search term (cholic acid (Cholbam)) and cholic acid ( ... In the liver, cholic acid is conjugated with glycine or taurine by bile acid-CoA synthetase and bile acid-CoA: amino acid N- ... Endogenous bile acids, including cholic acid, enhance bile flow and provide the physiologic feedback inhibition of bile acid ...
You can also browse global suppliers,vendor,prices,Price,manufacturers of Cholic acid(81-25-4). At last,Cholic acid(81-25-4) ... Visit ChemicalBook To find more Cholic acid(81-25-4) information like chemical properties,Structure,melting point,boiling point ... Cholic acid Spectrum. Cholic acid(81-25-4)IR1Cholic acid(81-25-4)IR2Cholic acid(81-25-4)RamanCholic acid(81-25-4)13CNMR ... Cholic acid. Synonyms. CA;CHOLATE;CHOLALIN;Cholic acd;CHOLIC ACID;Cholic CHOLALIC ACID;Cyclosphorine;AHR 3053-13C3;CHOLIC ACID( ...
cholate (1), taurocholic acid (3); glycodeoxycholic acid (5) and glycocholic acid (6). All six compounds exhibited ... Antimicrobial cholic acid derivatives from the Pitch Lake bacteriumBacillus amyloliquefaciensUWI-W23. ... Six cholic acid derivatives (1-6) were isolated from broth cultures of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens UWI-W23, an isolate from the ... Cholate (1) also showed activity against MRSA (MICs=125μg/mL) and glycocholic acid (6) against S. cerevisiae (MICs=15.6μg/mL). ...
Percent change in total cholesterol in cholic acid (0.5%)-cholesterol (1.5%)-peanut oil (5.5%)-fed rats after administration of ...
Cholic Acid Feeding Leads to Increased CYP2D6 Expression in CYP2D6-Humanized Mice. Xian Pan, Rebecca Kent, Kyoung-Jae Won and ... CYP2D6 Induction by Cholic Acid Feeding. Xian Pan, Rebecca Kent, Kyoung-Jae Won and Hyunyoung Jeong ... CYP2D6 Induction by Cholic Acid Feeding. Xian Pan, Rebecca Kent, Kyoung-Jae Won and Hyunyoung Jeong ... Cholic Acid Feeding Leads to Increased CYP2D6 Expression in CYP2D6-Humanized Mice ...
cholic acid. ChIP. chromatin immunoprecipitation. CPR. cytochrome P450 reductase. Cyb5. cytochrome-b5. CYP2D6. cytochrome P450 ... Cholic Acid Feeding Leads to Increased CYP2D6 Expression in CYP2D6-Humanized Mice. Xian Pan, Rebecca Kent, Kyoung-Jae Won and ... and altered bile acid composition. When hepatic bile acid levels rise, bile acids bind to FXR, and the ligand-activated FXR ... CYP2D6 Induction by Cholic Acid Feeding. Xian Pan, Rebecca Kent, Kyoung-Jae Won and Hyunyoung Jeong ...
Our main products are cholesterol, bilirubin, cholic acid, hyodeoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, pig bile powder and ox ...
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Cholic acid Suppliers, Cholic acid Manufacturers, related products of Cholic acid. ... Information for Cholic acid 81-25-4 including Cholic acid CAS NO 81-25-4, ... Cholic acid. Product Name:. Cholic acid. Synonyms:. 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-Trihydroxy-5beta-cholanic acid; (3alpha,5beta,7alpha, ... Enquiry for Cholic Acid Address:. PO Box 1869 Palmerston Nth Central Palmerston North 4440 NEW ZEALAND. Other products:. • N- ...
... cholic acid could also inhibit the increase of NSE under the 12-hour cerebral ischemia; but both cholic acid and jasminoidin ... cholic acid group, jasminoidin group, cholic acid plus jasminoidin group, and Xueshuantong group. The rat model of focal ... Both cholic acid and jasminoidin could markedly inhibit the increase of TNF-α and IL-1 β under both the 12-hour and 24-hour ... However, the coadministration of cholic acid and jasminoidin could not only markedly inhibit the decrease of TNF-α and IL-1 β ...
Alpini Gianfranco 2006 Cholic acid stimulates bile duct proliferation both in vivo and in vitro via regulation of the ... Alpini Gianfranco 2006 Cholic acid stimulates bile duct proliferation both in vivo and in vitro via regulation of the ... Conference Paper: Alpini Gianfranco 2006 Cholic acid stimulates bile duct proliferation both in vivo and in vitro via ...
Global Cholic Acid (CAS 81-25-4) Market - Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends, and Forecast 2016-2021 - Radiant ... Salts of cholic acid are called cholates. Cholic acid, along with chenodeoxycholic acid, is one of two major bile acids ... Cholic acid, also known as 3?,7?,12?-trihydroxy-5?-cholan-24-oic acid is a primary bile acid that is insoluble in water ( ... yielding glycocholic and taurocholic acid respectively. GCCs report, Global Cholic Acid (CAS 81-25-4) Market - Industry ...
  • Our production management is strictly conducted by the requirement of GMP of China,ISO9001-2008, and all of our products could meet the requirements of international standards.In 2013, products including cholesterol, bilirubin, cholic acid,ox bile powder, hyodeoxycholic acid and pig bile powder passed the certification of China GMP. (kitairu.net)
  • A fraction of chenodeoxycholic acid is also transformed into the tertiary bile acid, ursodeoxycholic acid. (labcorp.com)
  • It can also be cultivated in vitro from bovine bile by adding ursodeoxycholic acid, cholic acid, and calcium bilirubinate, producing calculus bovis sativus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Objectives To test whether ursodeoxycholic acid reduces pruritus in women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, whether early term delivery does not increase the incidence of caesarean section, and the feasibility of recruiting women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy to trials of these interventions. (bmj.com)
  • 56 women were randomised to ursodeoxycholic acid, 55 to placebo, 30 to early term delivery, and 32 to expectant management. (bmj.com)
  • Main outcome measures The primary outcome for ursodeoxycholic acid was maternal itch (arithmetic mean of measures (100 mm visual analogue scale) of worst itch in past 24 hours) and for the timing of delivery was caesarean section. (bmj.com)
  • Results Ursodeoxycholic acid reduced itching by −16 mm (95% confidence interval −27 mm to −6 mm), less than the 30 mm difference prespecified by clinicians and women as clinically meaningful. (bmj.com)
  • 32% (14/44) of women randomised to ursodeoxycholic acid experienced a reduction in worst itching by at least 30 mm compared with 16% (6/37) randomised to placebo. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions Ursodeoxycholic acid significantly reduces pruritus, but the size of the benefit may be too small for most doctors to recommend it, or for most women to want to take it. (bmj.com)
  • A trial to test whether ursodeoxycholic acid reduces adverse perinatal outcomes would have to be large, but is feasible. (bmj.com)
  • In contrast, hyocholic acid almost failed to inhibit, whereas ursodeoxycholic acid was a weak inhibitor. (tudelft.nl)
  • Based on previous reports of small heterodimer partner (SHP) playing an important role as a transcriptional repressor of CYP2D6 expression, here we investigated how a known upstream regulator of SHP expression, namely cholestasis triggered by cholic acid (CA) feeding in mice, can lead to altered CYP2D6 expression. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Along with FXR, SHP serves as a key player in the maintenance of bile acid homeostasis, especially in patients with cholestasis. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The goal of this study is to define the role of SHP and bile acids in the regulation of CYP2D6 expression by examining the effects of cholestasis on hepatic CYP2D6 expression. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Individual bile acid levels were determined in serum and bile by UPLC/QTOFMS in patients with extrahepatic cholestasis with, or without, concurrent increases in serum transaminases. (osti.gov)
  • Bile acids may be measured to investigate obstructive cholestasis in pregnancy. (labcorp.com)
  • The diagnosis should be considered in the context of hyperbilirubinemia with normal serum bile acids and made by urinary liquid secondary ionization mass spectrometry or DNA testing. (nih.gov)
  • C 18 H 30 O 2 , an omega-3 fatty acid derived from plants, esp. (tabers.com)
  • C 20 H 32 O 2 , an omega-6 fatty acid formed by the action of enzymes on phospholipids in cell membranes. (tabers.com)
  • in diabetic ketoacidosis, when the conversion of fatty acids to ketones increases. (tabers.com)
  • Fatty acids and sterols of the tunicate, Salpa thompsoni, from the antarctic ocean : Chemical composition and hemolytic activity. (nii.ac.jp)
  • It is a building block or proteins, participates in the citric acid and urea cycles, and is a neurotransmitter. (tabers.com)
  • However, neotropical felid scats have poor quantities of bile acids, so we developed in this work a proper technique for their extraction, visualization and determination. (scielo.sa.cr)
  • Corticosteroids inhibit formation of arachidonic acid from phospholipids when cell membranes are damaged. (tabers.com)
  • Phospholipids and bile acids, by virtue of their amphiphilic properties, can interact in nonpolar media forming "inverted" structures (micelles) which presumably have an hydrophilic core and might act as diffusional carriers (ionophores) of electrolytes across low dielectric constant media or lipid membranes. (wiley.com)
  • The Na + ionophoretic capability of various purified phospholipids and the modulating effects of bile acids and phospatidylcholine was examined by: (a) measurement of 22 Na + partition into the organic phase (chloroform) of a two-phase system and (b) direct measurement of the translocation of 22 Na + across a bulk chloroform phase separating two aqueous phases in a Pressman cell. (wiley.com)
  • ABBR: AHA Any of a class of water-soluble acids derived from fruit or milk, having a hydroxyl moiety in the first position in the molecule. (tabers.com)
  • Molecular weight 408.58 Definition Cholic acid after drying contains not less than 98 per cent. (inchem.org)
  • 1, Cosmetic grade Hyaluronic acid (sodium hyaluronate ) power 5000-----300W molecular weight 2, Food grade Hyaluronic acid (sodium hyaluronate ) power 5000-----300W molecular weight 3, Pharma gra. (himfr.com)
  • Of course, there are multiple solubility in bile depends on its lipid concentration other risk factors that play an important role in the and the quantity of bile acids and lecithin. (yudu.com)
  • However, hydroxylated bile acids (particularly cholic acid), sodium dodecyl sulfate and Triton X-100, which can induce and stabilize inverted structures in lipid membranes, were able to increase 5- to 8-fold the phospholipid-mediated Na + transport. (wiley.com)