A major primary bile acid produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption and cholesterol excretion.
The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.
A bile acid, usually conjugated with either glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption and is reabsorbed by the small intestine. It is used as cholagogue, a choleretic laxative, and to prevent or dissolve gallstones.
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
A bile acid formed by bacterial action from cholate. It is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. Deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, is reabsorbed itself, and is used as a choleretic and detergent.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.
A liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 12-alpha-hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of sterols in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP8B1gene, converts 7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one to 7-alpha-12-alpha-dihydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and is required in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS from cholesterol.
A bile acid formed from chenodeoxycholate by bacterial action, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as cholagogue and choleretic.
The glycine conjugate of CHOLIC ACID. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed.
Recycling through liver by excretion in bile, reabsorption from intestines (INTESTINAL REABSORPTION) into portal circulation, passage back into liver, and re-excretion in bile.
Derivatives of the saturated steroid cholestane with methyl groups at C-18 and C-19 and an iso-octyl side chain at C-17.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.
A condition marked by the development of widespread xanthomas, yellow tumor-like structures filled with lipid deposits. Xanthomas can be found in a variety of tissues including the SKIN; TENDONS; joints of KNEES and ELBOWS. Xanthomatosis is associated with disturbance of LIPID METABOLISM and formation of FOAM CELLS.
An epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a mammalian bile acid found first in the bear and is apparently either a precursor or a product of chenodeoxycholate. Its administration changes the composition of bile and may dissolve gallstones. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.
A membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 7-alpha-hydroxylation of CHOLESTEROL in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP7, converts cholesterol to 7-alpha-hydroxycholesterol which is the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS.
Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).
The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.
A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.
A strongly basic anion exchange resin whose main constituent is polystyrene trimethylbenzylammonium Cl(-) anion.
A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.
Enzymes of the oxidoreductase class that catalyze the dehydrogenation of hydroxysteroids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.-.
CHOLESTENES with one or more double bonds and substituted by any number of keto groups.
Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.
'Cholanes' are not recognized as a medical term; however, it is possible that the term is being referred to as "bile acids," which are steroid acids that play an essential role in lipid digestion and absorption in the small intestine.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Valerates are salts or esters formed from the reaction between valerianic acid and a base, characterized by their tranquilizing and sedative properties, often used in pharmaceuticals and dietary supplements for promoting sleep and reducing anxiety.
A water-soluble radiographic contrast media for cholecystography and intravenous cholangiography.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A semisynthetic bile acid made from cholic acid. It is used as a cholagogue, hydrocholeretic, diuretic, and as a diagnostic aid.
Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)
Salts and esters of CHOLIC ACID.
Steroids which have undergone contraction in ring size or reduction in side chains.
Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).
An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A family of fused-ring hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar that act as intermediates in various chemical reactions and are used in the production of coumarone-indene resins.
An anti-inflammatory agent used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It also has uricosuric properties and has been used to treat gout.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Unsaturated derivatives of PREGNANES.
A phenolphthalein that is used as a diagnostic aid in hepatic function determination.
An antifungal agent used in the treatment of TINEA infections.
A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with glycine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
Abnormal passage in any organ of the biliary tract or between biliary organs and other organs.
A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic, also industrially as a fat emulsifier.
A bile salt formed in the liver from chenodeoxycholate and glycine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is a cholagogue and choleretic.
A 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase which catalyzes the reversible reduction of the active androgen, DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE to 5 ALPHA-ANDROSTANE-3 ALPHA,17 BETA-DIOL. It also has activity towards other 3-alpha-hydroxysteroids and on 9-, 11- and 15- hydroxyprostaglandins. The enzyme is B-specific in reference to the orientation of reduced NAD or NADPH.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Impairment of bile flow due to injury to the HEPATOCYTES; BILE CANALICULI; or the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC).
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Gastrointestinal agents that stimulate the flow of bile into the duodenum (cholagogues) or stimulate the production of bile by the liver (choleretic).
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
Tritium is an isotope of hydrogen (specifically, hydrogen-3) that contains one proton and two neutrons in its nucleus, making it radioactive with a half-life of about 12.3 years, and is used in various applications including nuclear research, illumination, and dating techniques due to its low energy beta decay.
A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.
A genus of asporogenous bacteria isolated from soil that displays a distinctive rod-coccus growth cycle.
Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.
Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.
Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.
A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
Cholesterol which is substituted by a hydroxy group in any position.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

An allosteric synthetic DNA. (1/334)

Allosteric DNA oligonucleotides are potentially useful diagnostic reagents. Here we develop a model system for the study of allosteric interactions in DNAs. A DNA that binds either Cibacron blue or cholic acid was isolated and partially characterized. Isolation was performed using a multi-stage SELEX. First, short oligos that bind either Cibacron blue or cholic acid were enriched from random oligonucleotide pools. Then, members of the two pools were fused to form longer oligos, which were then selected for theability to bind Cibacron blue columns and elute with cholic acid. One resulting isolate (A22) was studied. Dye- and cholate-binding functions can be separated on sequences from the 5'- and 3'-regions, respectively. Ligand-column affinity assays indicate that each domain binds only its respective ligand. However, the full-length A22 will bind either dye or cholate columns and elute with the other ligand, as if binding by the ligands is mutually exclusive. Furthermore, S1 nuclease protection assays show that Cibacron blue causes a structural change in A22 and that cholic acid inhibits this change. This system will be useful for elucidating mechanisms of allosteric interactions in synthetic DNAs.  (+info)

Cholic acid aids absorption, biliary secretion, and phase transitions of cholesterol in murine cholelithogenesis. (2/334)

Cholic acid is a critical component of the lithogenic diet in mice. To determine its pathogenetic roles, we fed chow or 1% cholesterol with or without 0.5% cholic acid to C57L/J male mice, which because of lith genes have 100% gallstone prevalence rates. After 1 yr on the diets, we measured bile flow, biliary lipid secretion rates, hepatic cholesterol and bile salt synthesis, and intestinal cholesterol absorption. After hepatic conjugation with taurine, cholate replaced most tauro-beta-muricholate in bile. Dietary cholic acid plus cholesterol increased bile flow and biliary lipid secretion rates and reduced cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase activity significantly mostly via deoxycholic acid, cholate's bacterial 7alpha-dehydroxylation product but did not downregulate cholesterol biosynthesis. Intestinal cholesterol absorption doubled, and biliary cholesterol crystallized as phase boundaries shifted. Feeding mice 1% cholesterol alone produced no lithogenic or homeostatic effects. We conclude that in mice cholic acid promotes biliary cholesterol hypersecretion and cholelithogenesis by enhancing intestinal absorption, hepatic bioavailability, and phase separation of cholesterol in bile.  (+info)

Antilithiasic effect of beta-cyclodextrin in LPN hamster: comparison with cholestyramine. (3/334)

Beta-Cyclodextrin (BCD), a cyclic oligosaccharide that binds cholesterol and bile acids in vitro, has been previously shown to be an effective plasma cholesterol lowering agent in hamsters and domestic pigs. This study examined the effects of BCD as compared with cholestyramine on cholesterol and bile acid metabolism in the LPN hamster model model for cholesterol gallstones. The incidence of cholesterol gallstones was 65% in LPN hamsters fed the lithogenic diet, but decreased linearly with increasing amounts of BCD in the diet to be nil at a dose of 10% BCD. In gallbladder bile, cholesterol, phospholipid and chenodeoxycholate concentrations, hydrophobic and lithogenic indices were all significantly decreased by 10% BCD. Increases in bile acid synthesis (+110%), sterol 27-hydroxylase activity (+106%), and biliary cholate secretion (+140%) were also observed, whereas the biliary secretion of chenodeoxycholate decreased (-43%). The fecal output of chenodeoxycholate and cholate (plus derivatives) was increased by +147 and +64%, respectively, suggesting that BCD reduced the chenodeoxycholate intestinal absorption preferentially. Dietary cholestyramine decreased biliary bile acid concentration and secretion, but dramatically increased the fecal excretion of chenodeoxycholate and cholate plus their derivatives (+328 and +1940%, respectively). In contrast to BCD, the resin increased the lithogenic index in bile, induced black gallstones in 34% of hamsters, and stimulated markedly the activities of HMG-CoA reductase (+670%), sterol 27-hydroxylase (+310%), and cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (+390%). Thus, beta-cyclodextrin (BCD) prevented cholesterol gallstone formation by decreasing specifically the reabsorption of chenodeoxycholate, stimulating its biosynthesis and favoring its fecal elimination. BCD had a milder effect on lipid metabolism than cholestyramine and does not predispose animals to black gallstones as cholestyramine does in this animal model.  (+info)

Polyspecific substrate uptake by the hepatic organic anion transporter Oatp1 in stably transfected CHO cells. (4/334)

The rat liver organic anion transporting polypeptide (Oatp1) has been extensively characterized mainly in the Xenopus laevis expression system as a polyspecific carrier transporting organic anions (bile salts), neutral compounds, and even organic cations. In this study, we extended this characterization using a mammalian expression system and confirm the basolateral hepatic expression of Oatp1 with a new antibody. Besides sulfobromophthalein [Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of approximately 3 microM], taurocholate (Km of approximately 32 microM), and estradiol- 17beta-glucuronide (Km of approximately 4 microM), substrates previously shown to be transported by Oatp1 in transfected HeLa cells, we determined the kinetic parameters for cholate (Km of approximately 54 microM), glycocholate (Km of approximately 54 microM), estrone-3-sulfate (Km of approximately 11 microM), CRC-220 (Km of approximately 57 microM), ouabain (Km of approximately 3,000 microM), and ochratoxin A (Km of approximately 29 microM) in stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. In addition, three new substrates, taurochenodeoxycholate (Km of approximately 7 microM), tauroursodeoxycholate (Km of approximately 13 microM), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (Km of approximately 5 microM), were also investigated. The results establish the polyspecific nature of Oatp1 in a mammalian expression system and definitely identify conjugated dihydroxy bile salts and steroid conjugates as high-affinity endogenous substrates of Oatp1.  (+info)

Biliary bile acids in primary biliary cirrhosis: effect of ursodeoxycholic acid. (5/334)

Bile acid composition in fasting duodenal bile was assessed at entry and at 2 years in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) (10-12 mg/kg/d) taken as a single bedtime dose. Specimens were analyzed by a high-pressure liquid chromatography method that had been validated against gas chromatography. Percent composition in bile (mean +/- SD) for 98 patients at entry for cholic (CA), chenodeoxycholic (CDCA), deoxycholic (DCA), lithocholic (LCA), and ursodeoxycholic (UDCA) acids, respectively, were 57.4 +/- 18.6, 31.5 +/- 15.5, 8.0 +/- 9.3, 0.3 +/- 1.0, and 0.6 +/- 0.9. Values for CA were increased, whereas those for CDCA, DCA, LCA, and UDCA were decreased when compared with values in normal persons. Bile acid composition of the major bile acids did not change after 2 years on placebo medication. By contrast, in patients receiving UDCA for 2 years, bile became enriched with UDCA on average to 40.1%, and significant decreases were noted for CA (to 32.2%) and CDCA (to 19.5%). No change in percent composition was observed for DCA and LCA. Percent composition at entry and changes in composition after 2 years on UDCA were similar in patients with varying severity of PBC. In patients whose bile was not enriched in UDCA (entry and placebo-treated specimens), CA, CDCA, DCA, and the small amount of UDCA found in some of these specimens were conjugated to a greater extent with glycine (52%-64%) than with taurine (36%-48%). Treatment with UDCA caused the proportion of all endogenous bile acids conjugated with glycine to increase to 69% to 78%, while the proportion conjugated with taurine (22%-31%) fell (P <.05). Administered UDCA was also conjugated predominantly with glycine (87%).  (+info)

Fecal steroid excretion is increased in rats by oral administration of gymnemic acids contained in Gymnema sylvestre leaves. (6/334)

Gymnemic acids are the saponins with a triterpenoid structure contained in Gymnema sylvestre leaves and have the hypoglycemic effects. In spite of the cholesterol-binding properties of saponins, the effect of gymnemic acids on cholesterol metabolism has not been elucidated to date. We investigated the effects of gymnemic acids on fecal steroid excretion in rats. Three kinds of extracts from Gymnema sylvestre leaves, extract (GSE), acid precipitate (GSA) and column fractionate (GSF), of which the gymnemagenin (an aglycone of gymnemic acids) concentrations are 58.87, 161.6, and 363.3 mg/g respectively, were used for the experiments. These were administered to rats orally at the dose of 0.05-1.0 g/kg for 22 d. Rats were given free access to water and nonpurified diet without cholesterol, and the differences in fecal excretion of steroids and gymnemic acids were investigated. Although there were no significant effects of GSE, GSA and GSF decreased body weight gain and food intakes in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.01). GSF (1.0 g/kg) significantly increased fecal excretion of neutral steroids and bile acids in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05), especially those of cholesterol and cholic acid (CA)-derived bile acids. The increases in fecal steroid excretion of cholesterol, total neutral steroids, total bile acids and CA-related bile acids were acute and significantly correlated with fecal gymnemagenin levels (r2 = 0.2316-0.9861, P < 0. 05). These results demonstrated for the first time that a high dose of gymnemic acids increases fecal cholesterol and CA-derived bile acid excretion. Further studies are needed to clarify the effect of gymnemic acids on cholesterol metabolism.  (+info)

Structure, evolution, and liver-specific expression of sterol 12alpha-hydroxylase P450 (CYP8B). (7/334)

The rat CYP8B cDNA encoding sterol 12alpha-hydroxylase was cloned and sequenced. The amino acid sequence of the heme-binding region of CYP8B was close to those of CYP7A (cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase) and CYP7B (oxysterol 7alpha-hydroxylase). Molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests that CYP8B and the CYP7 family derive from a common ancestor. The P450s of the CYP7 and CYP8 families, except for CYP8A (prostacyclin synthase), catalyze the oxygenation of sterols from an alpha surface in the middle of the steroid skeleton. These facts suggest that CYP8B is a P450 closely linked to those of the CYP7 family. CYP8B was expressed specifically in liver. Hepatic CYP8B mRNA level and the 12alpha-hydroxylase activity were altered by cholestyramine feeding, starvation, streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus, and administration of clofibrate, dexamethasone or thyroxin, indicating the pretranslational regulation of CYP8B expression. The enhanced CYP8B mRNA expression in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was significantly decreased by insulin within 3 h of its administration. These facts demonstrate a regulatory role of insulin in CYP8B expression as a suppressor.  (+info)

Gallstone formation and gallbladder mucosal changes in mice fed a lithogenic diet. (8/334)

To investigate the pathologic change of gallbladder mucosa related to gallstone formation, 52 mice were fed a lithogenic diet containing 1% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid and we evaluated the sequential morphologic changes in the gallbladder from two days to 40 weeks. Cholesterol gallstones began to appear after two weeks and all the mice had gallstones after eight weeks. At two days, the mitotic index was at its highest. The gallbladder mucosa showed progressive hyperplastic change with earlier papillary projection of the folds and later inward proliferation. At the same time of stone formation, mucous cells forming glands appeared. Their histochemical profile of mucin was different from that of normal epithelium. Numbers of mucous cells increased gradually until 24 weeks but slightly decreased afterward. These results suggest hyperplasia and metaplasia are closely related to the gallstone formation. Hyperplasia is probably reactive to irritating effect of lithogenic bile or stone. Metaplasia and cholesterol gallstone may develop simultaneously, and act synergistically.  (+info)

Cholic acid is a primary bile acid, which is a type of organic compound that plays a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the body. It is produced in the liver from cholesterol and is then conjugated with glycine or taurine to form conjugated bile acids, which are stored in the gallbladder and released into the small intestine during digestion.

Cholic acid helps to emulsify fats, allowing them to be broken down into smaller droplets that can be absorbed by the body. It also facilitates the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamin A, D, E, and K. In addition to its role in digestion, cholic acid is also involved in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism and the excretion of bile acids from the body.

Abnormalities in cholic acid metabolism can lead to various medical conditions, such as cholestatic liver diseases, gallstones, and genetic disorders that affect bile acid synthesis.

Cholic acids are a type of bile acid, which are naturally occurring steroid acids that play a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the body. Cholic acid is the primary bile acid synthesized in the liver from cholesterol. It is then conjugated with glycine or taurine to form conjugated cholic acids, which are stored in the gallbladder and released into the small intestine during digestion to aid in fat emulsification and absorption.

Cholic acid and its derivatives have also been studied for their potential therapeutic benefits in various medical conditions, including liver diseases, gallstones, and bacterial infections. However, more research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms of action and potential side effects of cholic acids and their derivatives before they can be widely used as therapeutic agents.

Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) is a bile acid that is naturally produced in the human body. It is formed in the liver from cholesterol and is then conjugated with glycine or taurine to become a primary bile acid. CDCA is stored in the gallbladder and released into the small intestine during digestion, where it helps to emulsify fats and facilitate their absorption.

CDCA also has important regulatory functions in the body, including acting as a signaling molecule that binds to specific receptors in the liver, intestines, and other tissues. It plays a role in glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation, and cell growth and differentiation.

In addition to its natural functions, CDCA is also used as a medication for the treatment of certain medical conditions. For example, it is used to dissolve gallstones that are composed of cholesterol, and it is also used to treat a rare genetic disorder called cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX), which is characterized by the accumulation of CDCA and other bile acids in various tissues.

It's important to note that while CDCA has therapeutic uses, it can also have adverse effects if taken in high doses or for extended periods of time. Therefore, it should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Bile acids and salts are naturally occurring steroidal compounds that play a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of lipids (fats) in the body. They are produced in the liver from cholesterol and then conjugated with glycine or taurine to form bile acids, which are subsequently converted into bile salts by the addition of a sodium or potassium ion.

Bile acids and salts are stored in the gallbladder and released into the small intestine during digestion, where they help emulsify fats, allowing them to be broken down into smaller molecules that can be absorbed by the body. They also aid in the elimination of waste products from the liver and help regulate cholesterol metabolism.

Abnormalities in bile acid synthesis or transport can lead to various medical conditions, such as cholestatic liver diseases, gallstones, and diarrhea. Therefore, understanding the role of bile acids and salts in the body is essential for diagnosing and treating these disorders.

Deoxycholic acid is a bile acid, which is a natural molecule produced in the liver and released into the intestine to aid in the digestion of fats. It is also a secondary bile acid, meaning that it is formed from the metabolism of primary bile acids by bacteria in the gut.

Deoxycholic acid has a chemical formula of C~24~H~39~NO~4~ and a molecular weight of 391.57 g/mol. It is a white crystalline powder that is soluble in water and alcohol. In the body, deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to help break down dietary fats into smaller droplets, which can then be absorbed by the intestines.

In addition to its role in digestion, deoxycholic acid has been investigated for its potential therapeutic uses. For example, it is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as an injectable treatment for reducing fat in the submental area (the region below the chin), under the brand name Kybella. When injected into this area, deoxycholic acid causes the destruction of fat cells, which are then naturally eliminated from the body over time.

It's important to note that while deoxycholic acid is a natural component of the human body, its therapeutic use can have potential side effects and risks, so it should only be used under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional.

Bile is a digestive fluid that is produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It plays an essential role in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the small intestine. Bile consists of bile salts, bilirubin, cholesterol, phospholipids, electrolytes, and water.

Bile salts are amphipathic molecules that help to emulsify fats into smaller droplets, increasing their surface area and allowing for more efficient digestion by enzymes such as lipase. Bilirubin is a breakdown product of hemoglobin from red blood cells and gives bile its characteristic greenish-brown color.

Bile is released into the small intestine in response to food, particularly fats, entering the digestive tract. It helps to break down large fat molecules into smaller ones that can be absorbed through the walls of the intestines and transported to other parts of the body for energy or storage.

Cholestanols are a type of sterol that is similar in structure to cholesterol. They are found in small amounts in the body and can also be found in some foods. Cholestanols are formed when cholesterol undergoes a chemical reaction called isomerization, which changes its structure.

Cholestanols are important because they can accumulate in the body and contribute to the development of certain medical conditions. For example, elevated levels of cholestanols in the blood have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Additionally, some genetic disorders can cause an accumulation of cholestanols in various tissues, leading to a range of symptoms such as liver damage, neurological problems, and cataracts.

Medically, cholestanols are often used as markers for the diagnosis and monitoring of certain conditions related to cholesterol metabolism.

Steroid 12-alpha-hydroxylase is an enzyme that is involved in the metabolism of steroids. It is specifically responsible for adding a hydroxyl group (-OH) to the 12th carbon atom of certain steroid molecules. This enzyme plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of bile acids and corticosteroids, including cortisol and aldosterone, which are important hormones produced by the adrenal gland.

The gene that encodes this enzyme is called CYP12A1, and mutations in this gene can lead to various disorders related to steroid metabolism. For example, a deficiency in steroid 12-alpha-hydroxylase can result in the accumulation of bile acids that are not properly hydroxylated, which can cause liver damage and cholestatic pruritus (itching). Additionally, impaired cortisol and aldosterone production due to defects in this enzyme can lead to conditions such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia and salt-wasting crisis.

Lithocholic acid (LCA) is a secondary bile acid that is produced in the liver by bacterial modification of primary bile acids, specifically chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a steroid acid that plays a role in various physiological processes such as cholesterol metabolism, drug absorption, and gut microbiota regulation. However, high levels of LCA can be toxic to the liver and have been linked to several diseases, including colon cancer and cholestatic liver diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Glycocholic Acid" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. It seems there might be a misunderstanding or a typo in your request.

If you meant "Glycocholic," it's a term that refers to a substance conjugated with glycine, which is an amino acid. This process often occurs in the liver during the metabolism of certain substances, like bile acids.

"Glycocholic" could theoretically refer to a glycine conjugate of a bile acid such as cholic acid, which would make it a derivative called "Glycocholic Acid." However, I couldn't find any specific medical or scientific literature that directly refers to "Glycocholic Acid" as a known compound or concept.

If you could provide more context or clarify your question, I would be happy to help further!

Enterohepatic circulation is the process by which certain substances, such as bile salts, bilirubin, and some drugs, are chemically modified and reabsorbed in the enterohepatic system. This system includes the liver, bile ducts, and small intestine.

In the case of bile salts, they are synthesized in the liver, secreted into the bile, and stored in the gallbladder. After a meal, the gallbladder contracts and releases bile into the small intestine to aid in fat digestion. The bile salts help to emulsify fats, allowing them to be absorbed by the intestines. Once absorbed, they are transported back to the liver through the portal vein, where they can be reused for further bile production.

Similarly, bilirubin, a waste product produced from the breakdown of red blood cells, is also conjugated in the liver and excreted into the bile. In the small intestine, bacteria break down bilirubin into colorless urobilinogen, which can be reabsorbed and transported back to the liver for further processing.

Certain drugs may also undergo enterohepatic circulation, where they are metabolized in the liver, excreted into the bile, and then reabsorbed in the small intestine. This can prolong the duration of drug action and affect its overall effectiveness.

Cholestanes are a type of steroid compound that are derived from cholesterol. They are characterized by a fully saturated steroid nucleus, which means that all of the double bonds in the cholesterol molecule have been reduced to single bonds through a process called hydrogenation.

Cholestanes are important intermediates in the biosynthesis of other steroids, such as bile acids and steroid hormones. They can also be found in some natural sources, including certain plants and fungi.

It's worth noting that cholestanes themselves do not have any specific medical significance, but they are important for understanding the biochemistry of steroids and their role in human health and disease.

"Eubacterium" is a genus of Gram-positive, obligately anaerobic, non-sporeforming bacteria that are commonly found in the human gastrointestinal tract. These bacteria are typically rod-shaped and can be either straight or curved. They play an important role in the breakdown of complex carbohydrates and the production of short-chain fatty acids in the gut, which are beneficial for host health. Some species of Eubacterium have also been shown to have probiotic properties and may provide health benefits when consumed in appropriate quantities. However, other species can be opportunistic pathogens and cause infections under certain circumstances.

Xanthomatosis is a medical term that refers to the condition characterized by the presence of xanthomas, which are yellowish, fat-laden deposits that form under the skin or in other tissues. These deposits consist of lipids, such as cholesterol and triglycerides, and immune cells called macrophages, which have engulfed the lipids.

Xanthomas can occur in various parts of the body, including the eyelids, tendons, joints, and other areas with connective tissue. They may appear as small papules or larger nodules, and their size and number can vary depending on the severity of the underlying disorder.

Xanthomatosis is often associated with genetic disorders that affect lipid metabolism, such as familial hypercholesterolemia, or with acquired conditions that cause high levels of lipids in the blood, such as diabetes, hypothyroidism, and certain liver diseases. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying disorder and controlling lipid levels through dietary changes, medications, or a combination of both.

Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a naturally occurring bile acid that is used medically as a therapeutic agent. It is commonly used to treat gallstones, particularly cholesterol gallstones, and other conditions associated with abnormal liver function, such as primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). UDCA works by decreasing the amount of cholesterol in bile and protecting liver cells from damage. It is also known as ursodiol or Ursotan.

Cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis in the body. It is located in the endoplasmic reticulum of hepatic cells and is responsible for the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of bile acids from cholesterol.

The enzyme catalyzes the conversion of cholesterol to 7α-hydroxycholesterol, which is then further metabolized to form primary bile acids, including cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. These bile acids are essential for the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the small intestine.

Additionally, CYP7A1 is also involved in the regulation of cholesterol levels in the body by providing negative feedback to the synthesis of cholesterol in the liver. When cholesterol levels are high, the activity of CYP7A1 increases, leading to an increase in bile acid synthesis and a decrease in cholesterol levels. Conversely, when cholesterol levels are low, the activity of CYP7A1 decreases, reducing bile acid synthesis and allowing cholesterol levels to rise.

Abnormalities in CYP7A1 function have been implicated in several diseases, including gallstones, liver disease, and cardiovascular disease.

Steroid hydroxylases are enzymes that catalyze the addition of a hydroxyl group (-OH) to a steroid molecule. These enzymes are located in the endoplasmic reticulum and play a crucial role in the biosynthesis of various steroid hormones, such as cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones. The hydroxylation reaction catalyzed by these enzymes increases the polarity and solubility of steroids, allowing them to be further metabolized and excreted from the body.

The most well-known steroid hydroxylases are part of the cytochrome P450 family, specifically CYP11A1, CYP11B1, CYP11B2, CYP17A1, CYP19A1, and CYP21A2. Each enzyme has a specific function in steroid biosynthesis, such as converting cholesterol to pregnenolone (CYP11A1), hydroxylating the 11-beta position of steroids (CYP11B1 and CYP11B2), or performing multiple hydroxylation reactions in the synthesis of sex hormones (CYP17A1, CYP19A1, and CYP21A2).

Defects in these enzymes can lead to various genetic disorders, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia, which is characterized by impaired steroid hormone biosynthesis.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

Cholesterol is a type of lipid (fat) molecule that is an essential component of cell membranes and is also used to make certain hormones and vitamins in the body. It is produced by the liver and is also obtained from animal-derived foods such as meat, dairy products, and eggs.

Cholesterol does not mix with blood, so it is transported through the bloodstream by lipoproteins, which are particles made up of both lipids and proteins. There are two main types of lipoproteins that carry cholesterol: low-density lipoproteins (LDL), also known as "bad" cholesterol, and high-density lipoproteins (HDL), also known as "good" cholesterol.

High levels of LDL cholesterol in the blood can lead to a buildup of cholesterol in the walls of the arteries, increasing the risk of heart disease and stroke. On the other hand, high levels of HDL cholesterol are associated with a lower risk of these conditions because HDL helps remove LDL cholesterol from the bloodstream and transport it back to the liver for disposal.

It is important to maintain healthy levels of cholesterol through a balanced diet, regular exercise, and sometimes medication if necessary. Regular screening is also recommended to monitor cholesterol levels and prevent health complications.

Cholelithiasis is a medical term that refers to the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder. The gallbladder is a small pear-shaped organ located beneath the liver that stores bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver. Gallstones are hardened deposits that can form in the gallbladder when substances in the bile, such as cholesterol or bilirubin, crystallize.

Gallstones can vary in size and may be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball. Some people with gallstones may not experience any symptoms, while others may have severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes) if the gallstones block the bile ducts.

Cholelithiasis is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide, particularly women over the age of 40 and those with certain medical conditions such as obesity, diabetes, and rapid weight loss. If left untreated, gallstones can lead to serious complications such as inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), infection, or pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas). Treatment options for cholelithiasis include medication, shock wave lithotripsy (breaking up the gallstones with sound waves), and surgery to remove the gallbladder (cholecystectomy).

Taurocholic acid is a bile salt, which is a type of organic compound that plays a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the small intestine. It is formed in the liver by conjugation of cholic acid with taurine, an amino sulfonic acid.

Taurocholic acid has a detergent-like effect on the lipids in our food, helping to break them down into smaller molecules that can be absorbed through the intestinal wall and transported to other parts of the body for energy production or storage. It also helps to maintain the flow of bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine, where it is stored until needed for digestion.

Abnormal levels of taurocholic acid in the body have been linked to various health conditions, including gallstones, liver disease, and gastrointestinal disorders. Therefore, it is important to maintain a healthy balance of bile salts, including taurocholic acid, for optimal digestive function.

The gallbladder is a small, pear-shaped organ located just under the liver in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. Its primary function is to store and concentrate bile, a digestive enzyme produced by the liver, which helps in the breakdown of fats during the digestion process. When food, particularly fatty foods, enter the stomach and small intestine, the gallbladder contracts and releases bile through the common bile duct into the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine, to aid in fat digestion.

The gallbladder is made up of three main parts: the fundus, body, and neck. It has a muscular wall that allows it to contract and release bile. Gallstones, an inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), or other gallbladder diseases can cause pain, discomfort, and potentially serious health complications if left untreated.

Cholestyramine resin is a medication used to treat high levels of cholesterol in the blood. It is a type of drug called a bile acid sequestrant, which works by binding to bile acids in the digestive system and preventing them from being reabsorbed into the body. This leads to an increased removal of cholesterol from the body, which can help lower the levels of cholesterol in the blood.

Cholestyramine resin is available as a powder that is mixed with water or other fluids and taken by mouth. It may be used alone or in combination with other medications to treat high cholesterol. In addition to its use for lowering cholesterol, cholestyramine resin may also be used to treat itching associated with partial biliary obstruction (blockage of the bile ducts) and to reduce the absorption of certain drugs, such as digitalis and thyroid hormones.

It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking cholestyramine resin, as the medication can interfere with the absorption of other medications and nutrients. It may also cause gastrointestinal side effects, such as constipation, bloating, and gas.

Taurine is an organic compound that is widely distributed in animal tissues. It is a conditionally essential amino acid, meaning it can be synthesized by the human body under normal circumstances, but there may be increased requirements during certain periods such as infancy, infection, or illness. Taurine plays important roles in various physiological functions, including bile salt formation, membrane stabilization, neuromodulation, and antioxidation. It is particularly abundant in the brain, heart, retina, and skeletal muscles. In the human body, taurine is synthesized from the amino acids cysteine and methionine with the aid of vitamin B6.

Taurine can also be found in certain foods like meat, fish, and dairy products, as well as in energy drinks, where it is often added as a supplement for its potential performance-enhancing effects. However, there is ongoing debate about the safety and efficacy of taurine supplementation in healthy individuals.

Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in steroid hormone metabolism. They catalyze the oxidation and reduction reactions of hydroxyl groups on the steroid molecule, which can lead to the activation or inactivation of steroid hormones. HSDs are involved in the conversion of various steroids, including sex steroids (e.g., androgens, estrogens) and corticosteroids (e.g., cortisol, cortisone). These enzymes can be found in different tissues throughout the body, and their activity is regulated by various factors, such as hormones, growth factors, and cytokines. Dysregulation of HSDs has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Cholestenones are a group of steroid compounds that are derived from cholesterol. They include several biologically important compounds, such as bile acids and their intermediates, which play crucial roles in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins. Cholestenones are also used as intermediates in the synthesis of various steroid hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones.

Cholestenones are characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings, with a double bond between the second and third carbons and a ketone group at the third carbon atom. Some examples of cholestenones include 7-dehydrocholesterol, which is a precursor to vitamin D, and desmosterol, which is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of cholesterol.

It's worth noting that while cholestenones are important biomolecules, they can also accumulate in various tissues and fluids under certain pathological conditions, such as in some inherited metabolic disorders. For example, elevated levels of certain cholestenones in the blood or urine may indicate the presence of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, a genetic disorder that affects cholesterol biosynthesis.

Dietary cholesterol is a type of cholesterol that comes from the foods we eat. It is present in animal-derived products such as meat, poultry, dairy products, and eggs. While dietary cholesterol can contribute to an increase in blood cholesterol levels for some people, it's important to note that saturated and trans fats have a more significant impact on blood cholesterol levels than dietary cholesterol itself.

The American Heart Association recommends limiting dietary cholesterol intake to less than 300 milligrams per day for most people, and less than 200 milligrams per day for those with a history of heart disease or high cholesterol levels. However, individual responses to dietary cholesterol can vary, so it's essential to monitor blood cholesterol levels and adjust dietary habits accordingly.

I am not aware of a medical term called "Cholanes." The term may be misspelled or it might refer to a specific concept or substance within a particular context. In general, "chol"-related terms in medicine refer to bile or the biliary system. For example, "chole" means bile and "cholestasis" refers to the stoppage of bile flow. If you have more context or information about where this term is being used, I'd be happy to help you try to decipher it further!

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is a powerful analytical technique that combines the separating power of gas chromatography with the identification capabilities of mass spectrometry. This method is used to separate, identify, and quantify different components in complex mixtures.

In GC-MS, the mixture is first vaporized and carried through a long, narrow column by an inert gas (carrier gas). The various components in the mixture interact differently with the stationary phase inside the column, leading to their separation based on their partition coefficients between the mobile and stationary phases. As each component elutes from the column, it is then introduced into the mass spectrometer for analysis.

The mass spectrometer ionizes the sample, breaks it down into smaller fragments, and measures the mass-to-charge ratio of these fragments. This information is used to generate a mass spectrum, which serves as a unique "fingerprint" for each compound. By comparing the generated mass spectra with reference libraries or known standards, analysts can identify and quantify the components present in the original mixture.

GC-MS has wide applications in various fields such as forensics, environmental analysis, drug testing, and research laboratories due to its high sensitivity, specificity, and ability to analyze volatile and semi-volatile compounds.

"Valerates" is not a recognized medical term. However, it may refer to a salt or ester of valeric acid, which is a carboxylic acid with the formula CH3CH2CH2CO2H. Valeric acid and its salts and esters are used in pharmaceuticals and perfumes. Valerates can have a sedative effect and are sometimes used as a treatment for anxiety or insomnia. One example is sodium valerate, which is used in the manufacture of some types of medical-grade polyester. Another example is diethyl valerate, an ester of valeric acid that is used as a flavoring agent and solvent.

Iodipamide is not typically defined in a medical dictionary or resource as it is not a medical term itself, but rather a chemical compound. Iodipamide is a radiocontrast agent that contains iodine atoms and is used during imaging procedures such as X-rays and CT scans to enhance the visibility of internal body structures.

The chemical formula for iodipamide is C8H9I5N2O2, and it is a type of organoiodine compound that is highly water-soluble and radiopaque, making it useful as a contrast agent in medical imaging. Iodipamide works by blocking X-rays and absorbing them, which allows the radiologist to see the internal structures more clearly on an X-ray or CT scan image.

While iodipamide is generally considered safe for use as a contrast agent, it can cause side effects in some people, including allergic reactions, kidney damage, and thyroid problems. As with any medical procedure, patients should discuss the risks and benefits of using iodipamide with their healthcare provider before undergoing an imaging exam.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

Dehydrocholic acid is not typically considered a medical term, but it does have relevance to the field of medicine as a gastrointestinal stimulant and choleretic agent. Here's a brief definition:

Dehydrocholic acid (C~24~H~39~NO~5~) is a bile salt that is formed from cholic acid through the introduction of a double bond between carbons 7 and 8. It is used in medical research and practice as a pharmacological agent to stimulate the production and flow of bile from the liver, which can aid in digestion and absorption of fats. Dehydrocholic acid may also be used in diagnostic tests to assess liver function and biliary tract patency.

It is important to note that dehydrocholic acid is not commonly used as a therapeutic agent in clinical practice due to the availability of safer and more effective alternatives for treating gastrointestinal disorders and promoting liver health.

Sterols are a type of organic compound that is derived from steroids and found in the cell membranes of organisms. In animals, including humans, cholesterol is the most well-known sterol. Sterols help to maintain the structural integrity and fluidity of cell membranes, and they also play important roles as precursors for the synthesis of various hormones and other signaling molecules. Phytosterols are plant sterols that have been shown to have cholesterol-lowering effects in humans when consumed in sufficient amounts.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Cholates" is not a recognized medical term or abbreviation in physiology, pathology, or pharmacology. It seems like there might be a spelling mistake or a misunderstanding. If you meant to ask about "cholesterol," I would be happy to help provide information on that.

Cholesterol is a type of lipid (fat) that is essential for the normal functioning of our bodies. It plays crucial roles in maintaining cell membrane structure, producing certain hormones, and serving as a precursor for vitamin D and bile acids. However, high levels of cholesterol in the blood can increase the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases.

If you have any questions or need more information about cholesterol or any other medical topic, please feel free to ask!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Norsteroids" is not a recognized term in medical terminology or pharmacology. It seems like it could be a combination of the words "nor" (a prefix often used in chemistry to indicate the absence of a hydrogen atom or the presence of a double bond) and "steroid" (a type of organic compound that includes certain hormones and chemicals with a specific molecular structure). However, without further context, it's not possible to provide an accurate medical definition.

If you have more information about where you encountered this term or its intended meaning, I'd be happy to help you try to clarify the definition.

Cholestasis is a medical condition characterized by the interruption or reduction of bile flow from the liver to the small intestine. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the breakdown and absorption of fats. When the flow of bile is blocked or reduced, it can lead to an accumulation of bile components, such as bilirubin, in the blood, which can cause jaundice, itching, and other symptoms.

Cholestasis can be caused by various factors, including liver diseases (such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, or cancer), gallstones, alcohol abuse, certain medications, pregnancy, and genetic disorders. Depending on the underlying cause, cholestasis may be acute or chronic, and it can range from mild to severe in its symptoms and consequences. Treatment for cholestasis typically involves addressing the underlying cause and managing the symptoms with supportive care.

Cholestanetriol 26-monooxygenase is an enzyme that is involved in the metabolism of bile acids and steroids in the body. This enzyme is responsible for adding a hydroxyl group (-OH) to the cholestanetriol molecule at position 26, which is a critical step in the conversion of cholestanetriol to bile acids.

The gene that encodes this enzyme is called CYP3A4, which is located on chromosome 7 in humans. Mutations in this gene can lead to various metabolic disorders, including impaired bile acid synthesis and altered steroid hormone metabolism.

Deficiency or dysfunction of cholestanetriol 26-monooxygenase has been associated with several diseases, such as liver disease, cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis, and some forms of cancer. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of this enzyme is essential for developing new therapies and treatments for these conditions.

Hydroxylation is a biochemical process that involves the addition of a hydroxyl group (-OH) to a molecule, typically a steroid or xenobiotic compound. This process is primarily catalyzed by enzymes called hydroxylases, which are found in various tissues throughout the body.

In the context of medicine and biochemistry, hydroxylation can have several important functions:

1. Drug metabolism: Hydroxylation is a common way that the liver metabolizes drugs and other xenobiotic compounds. By adding a hydroxyl group to a drug molecule, it becomes more polar and water-soluble, which facilitates its excretion from the body.
2. Steroid hormone biosynthesis: Hydroxylation is an essential step in the biosynthesis of many steroid hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, and the sex hormones estrogen and testosterone. These hormones are synthesized from cholesterol through a series of enzymatic reactions that involve hydroxylation at various steps.
3. Vitamin D activation: Hydroxylation is also necessary for the activation of vitamin D in the body. In order to become biologically active, vitamin D must undergo two successive hydroxylations, first in the liver and then in the kidneys.
4. Toxin degradation: Some toxic compounds can be rendered less harmful through hydroxylation. For example, phenol, a toxic compound found in cigarette smoke and some industrial chemicals, can be converted to a less toxic form through hydroxylation by enzymes in the liver.

Overall, hydroxylation is an important biochemical process that plays a critical role in various physiological functions, including drug metabolism, hormone biosynthesis, and toxin degradation.

Microsomes, liver refers to a subcellular fraction of liver cells (hepatocytes) that are obtained during tissue homogenization and subsequent centrifugation. These microsomal fractions are rich in membranous structures known as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), particularly the rough ER. They are involved in various important cellular processes, most notably the metabolism of xenobiotics (foreign substances) including drugs, toxins, and carcinogens.

The liver microsomes contain a variety of enzymes, such as cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, that are crucial for phase I drug metabolism. These enzymes help in the oxidation, reduction, or hydrolysis of xenobiotics, making them more water-soluble and facilitating their excretion from the body. Additionally, liver microsomes also host other enzymes involved in phase II conjugation reactions, where the metabolites from phase I are further modified by adding polar molecules like glucuronic acid, sulfate, or acetyl groups.

In summary, liver microsomes are a subcellular fraction of liver cells that play a significant role in the metabolism and detoxification of xenobiotics, contributing to the overall protection and maintenance of cellular homeostasis within the body.

Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a type of chromatography used to separate, identify, and quantify the components of a mixture. In TLC, the sample is applied as a small spot onto a thin layer of adsorbent material, such as silica gel or alumina, which is coated on a flat, rigid support like a glass plate. The plate is then placed in a developing chamber containing a mobile phase, typically a mixture of solvents.

As the mobile phase moves up the plate by capillary action, it interacts with the stationary phase and the components of the sample. Different components of the mixture travel at different rates due to their varying interactions with the stationary and mobile phases, resulting in distinct spots on the plate. The distance each component travels can be measured and compared to known standards to identify and quantify the components of the mixture.

TLC is a simple, rapid, and cost-effective technique that is widely used in various fields, including forensics, pharmaceuticals, and research laboratories. It allows for the separation and analysis of complex mixtures with high resolution and sensitivity, making it an essential tool in many analytical applications.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Indenes" is not a recognized medical term or concept in the field of medicine or healthcare. It may be that there is a spelling mistake or typo in your question. If you are referring to "Indenes" as a chemical compound, it is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) with the molecular formula C9H8. However, I would recommend consulting a chemistry or toxicology resource for information on its non-medical uses and properties.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Apazone" is not a term recognized in medical terminology. It may be a proper name of a compound or medication from a specific company or context, but without more information, I cannot provide an accurate definition or meaning. In general, it's important to use precise and unambiguous language when discussing medical topics to ensure clear communication and understanding.

Chromatography, gas (GC) is a type of chromatographic technique used to separate, identify, and analyze volatile compounds or vapors. In this method, the sample mixture is vaporized and carried through a column packed with a stationary phase by an inert gas (carrier gas). The components of the mixture get separated based on their partitioning between the mobile and stationary phases due to differences in their adsorption/desorption rates or solubility.

The separated components elute at different times, depending on their interaction with the stationary phase, which can be detected and quantified by various detection systems like flame ionization detector (FID), thermal conductivity detector (TCD), electron capture detector (ECD), or mass spectrometer (MS). Gas chromatography is widely used in fields such as chemistry, biochemistry, environmental science, forensics, and food analysis.

Pregnenes is not a term that is commonly used in medical terminology. However, in biochemistry, pregnenes are steroid compounds containing a carbon skeleton with nine or more rings. They are precursors to various steroid hormones such as progesterone and cortisol.

Pregnenes are derived from cholesterol through a series of enzymatic reactions that involve the removal of several carbons from the cholesterol molecule. The resulting pregnenolone is then further metabolized to produce other steroid hormones, including progesterone, cortisol, androgens, and estrogens.

Therefore, while not a medical term per se, pregnenes are an essential class of compounds in the endocrine system that play a crucial role in various physiological processes, such as sexual development, stress response, and immune function.

Sulfobromophthalein (BSP or bromsulphthalein) is not typically defined in a medical dictionary as it is a chemical compound. However, I can provide you with some information about its use in a medical context:

Sulfobromophthalein is a chemical compound primarily used for liver function tests. It is a dye that is injected into the patient's bloodstream, and then its clearance rate from the blood is measured to evaluate liver function. A healthy liver should quickly remove the dye from the blood and excrete it through the bile ducts into the digestive system. If the liver is not functioning properly, the clearance of sulfobromophthalein will be slower, leading to higher levels of the dye remaining in the bloodstream over time.

The test using sulfobromophthalein has largely been replaced by more modern and specific liver function tests; however, it was once widely used for assessing overall liver health and diagnosing conditions such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver damage due to various causes.

Griseofulvin is an antifungal medication used to treat various fungal infections, including those affecting the skin, hair, and nails. It works by inhibiting the growth of fungi, particularly dermatophytes, which cause these infections. Griseofulvin can be obtained through a prescription and is available in oral (by mouth) and topical (on the skin) forms.

The primary mechanism of action for griseofulvin involves binding to tubulin, a protein necessary for fungal cell division. This interaction disrupts the formation of microtubules, which are crucial for the fungal cell's structural integrity and growth. As a result, the fungi cannot grow and multiply, allowing the infected tissue to heal and the infection to resolve.

Common side effects associated with griseofulvin use include gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), headache, dizziness, and skin rashes. It is essential to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully when taking griseofulvin, as improper usage may lead to reduced effectiveness or increased risk of side effects.

It is important to note that griseofulvin has limited use in modern medicine due to the development of newer and more effective antifungal agents. However, it remains a valuable option for specific fungal infections, particularly those resistant to other treatments.

Glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) is not a widely recognized or established medical term. However, it appears to be a chemical compound that can be formed as a result of the metabolic process in the body. It is a glycine-conjugated bile acid, which means that it is a combination of the bile acid deoxycholic acid and the amino acid glycine.

Bile acids are produced by the liver to help with the digestion and absorption of fats in the small intestine. They are conjugated, or combined, with amino acids like glycine or taurine before being released into the bile. These conjugated bile acids help to keep the bile acid salts in their soluble form and prevent them from being reabsorbed back into the bloodstream.

Glycodeoxycholic acid may be involved in various physiological processes, but there is limited research on its specific functions or medical significance. If you have any concerns about this compound or its potential impact on your health, it would be best to consult with a healthcare professional for more information.

'Clostridium' is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in nature, including in soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans. Many species of Clostridium are anaerobic, meaning they can grow and reproduce in environments with little or no oxygen. Some species of Clostridium are capable of producing toxins that can cause serious and sometimes life-threatening illnesses in humans and animals.

Some notable species of Clostridium include:

* Clostridium tetani, which causes tetanus (also known as lockjaw)
* Clostridium botulinum, which produces botulinum toxin, the most potent neurotoxin known and the cause of botulism
* Clostridium difficile, which can cause severe diarrhea and colitis, particularly in people who have recently taken antibiotics
* Clostridium perfringens, which can cause food poisoning and gas gangrene.

It is important to note that not all species of Clostridium are harmful, and some are even beneficial, such as those used in the production of certain fermented foods like sauerkraut and natto. However, due to their ability to produce toxins and cause illness, it is important to handle and dispose of materials contaminated with Clostridium species carefully, especially in healthcare settings.

A biliary fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the biliary system (which includes the gallbladder, bile ducts, and liver) and another organ or structure, usually in the abdominal cavity. This connection allows bile, which is a digestive fluid produced by the liver, to leak out of its normal pathway and into other areas of the body.

Biliary fistulas can occur as a result of trauma, surgery, infection, or inflammation in the biliary system. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, fever, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), nausea, vomiting, and clay-colored stools. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the fistula, such as draining an infection or repairing damaged tissue, and diverting bile flow away from the site of the leak. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the fistula.

Taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA) is a bile acid, which is a type of organic compound that is produced in the liver and essential for the digestion and absorption of fats. It is a conjugated bile acid, meaning it is formed from the combination of a deoxycholic acid with a taurine molecule.

TDCA helps to emulsify dietary fats, making them easier to absorb in the small intestine. It also plays a role in the elimination of cholesterol from the body by promoting its conversion into bile acids and excretion through the digestive system.

Abnormal levels of TDCA and other bile acids have been associated with various medical conditions, including liver disease, gallstones, and intestinal disorders. Therefore, measuring the levels of TDCA in blood or other bodily fluids can provide valuable diagnostic information for these conditions.

Glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA) is a type of bile acid that is produced in the liver and then conjugated with glycine. Bile acids are formed from cholesterol and play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the small intestine.

GCDCA is a secondary bile acid, which means that it is produced by bacterial metabolism of primary bile acids (such as cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid) in the colon. Once formed, GCDCA is then reabsorbed into the bloodstream and transported back to the liver, where it can be conjugated with glycine or taurine and excreted into bile again.

Abnormal levels of GCDCA and other bile acids have been associated with various health conditions, including cholestatic liver diseases, gallstones, and colon cancer. Therefore, measuring the levels of these acids in blood, urine, or feces can provide valuable diagnostic information for these conditions.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Intrahepatic cholestasis is a medical condition characterized by the interruption or reduction of bile flow within the liver. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins. Intrahepatic cholestasis occurs when there is a problem with the transport of bile components inside the liver cells (hepatocytes). This can lead to an accumulation of bile acids, bilirubin, and other substances in the liver, which can cause damage to liver cells and result in symptoms such as jaundice, itching, and dark urine.

Intrahepatic cholestasis can be caused by various factors, including medications, alcohol abuse, hepatitis viruses, autoimmune disorders, genetic defects, and cancer. Depending on the underlying cause, intrahepatic cholestasis can be acute or chronic, and it can range from mild to severe. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition, as well as providing supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Coenzyme A (CoA) ligases, also known as CoA synthetases, are a class of enzymes that activate acyl groups, such as fatty acids and amino acids, by forming a thioester bond with coenzyme A. This activation is an essential step in various metabolic pathways, including fatty acid oxidation, amino acid catabolism, and the synthesis of several important compounds like steroids and acetylcholine.

CoA ligases catalyze the following reaction:

acyl group + ATP + CoA ↔ acyl-CoA + AMP + PP~i~

In this reaction, an acyl group (R-) from a carboxylic acid is linked to the thiol (-SH) group of coenzyme A through a high-energy thioester bond. The energy required for this activation is provided by the hydrolysis of ATP to AMP and inorganic pyrophosphate (PP~i~).

CoA ligases are classified into three main types based on the nature of the acyl group they activate:

1. Acyl-CoA synthetases (or long-chain fatty acid CoA ligases) activate long-chain fatty acids, typically containing 12 or more carbon atoms.
2. Aminoacyl-CoA synthetases activate amino acids to form aminoacyl-CoAs, which are essential intermediates in the catabolism of certain amino acids.
3. Short-chain specific CoA ligases activate short-chain fatty acids (up to 6 carbon atoms) and other acyl groups like acetate or propionate.

These enzymes play a crucial role in maintaining cellular energy homeostasis, metabolism, and the synthesis of various essential biomolecules.

Carbon radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes of carbon, which is an naturally occurring chemical element with the atomic number 6. The most common and stable isotope of carbon is carbon-12 (^12C), but there are also several radioactive isotopes, including carbon-11 (^11C), carbon-14 (^14C), and carbon-13 (^13C). These radioisotopes have different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei, which makes them unstable and causes them to emit radiation.

Carbon-11 has a half-life of about 20 minutes and is used in medical imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) scans. It is produced by bombarding nitrogen-14 with protons in a cyclotron.

Carbon-14, also known as radiocarbon, has a half-life of about 5730 years and is used in archaeology and geology to date organic materials. It is produced naturally in the atmosphere by cosmic rays.

Carbon-13 is stable and has a natural abundance of about 1.1% in carbon. It is not radioactive, but it can be used as a tracer in medical research and in the study of metabolic processes.

Cytoplasmic receptors and nuclear receptors are two types of intracellular receptors that play crucial roles in signal transduction pathways and regulation of gene expression. They are classified based on their location within the cell. Here are the medical definitions for each:

1. Cytoplasmic Receptors: These are a group of intracellular receptors primarily found in the cytoplasm of cells, which bind to specific hormones, growth factors, or other signaling molecules. Upon binding, these receptors undergo conformational changes that allow them to interact with various partners, such as adapter proteins and enzymes, leading to activation of downstream signaling cascades. These pathways ultimately result in modulation of cellular processes like proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Examples of cytoplasmic receptors include receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), serine/threonine kinase receptors, and cytokine receptors.
2. Nuclear Receptors: These are a distinct class of intracellular receptors that reside primarily in the nucleus of cells. They bind to specific ligands, such as steroid hormones, thyroid hormones, vitamin D, retinoic acid, and various other lipophilic molecules. Upon binding, nuclear receptors undergo conformational changes that facilitate their interaction with co-regulatory proteins and the DNA. This interaction results in the modulation of gene transcription, ultimately leading to alterations in protein expression and cellular responses. Examples of nuclear receptors include estrogen receptor (ER), androgen receptor (AR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), thyroid hormone receptor (TR), vitamin D receptor (VDR), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs).

Both cytoplasmic and nuclear receptors are essential components of cellular communication networks, allowing cells to respond appropriately to extracellular signals and maintain homeostasis. Dysregulation of these receptors has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and autoimmune disorders.

The Radioisotope Dilution Technique is a method used in nuclear medicine to measure the volume and flow rate of a particular fluid in the body. It involves introducing a known amount of a radioactive isotope, or radioisotope, into the fluid, such as blood. The isotope mixes with the fluid, and samples are then taken from the fluid at various time points.

By measuring the concentration of the radioisotope in each sample, it is possible to calculate the total volume of the fluid based on the amount of the isotope introduced and the dilution factor. The flow rate can also be calculated by measuring the concentration of the isotope over time and using the formula:

Flow rate = Volume/Time

This technique is commonly used in medical research and clinical settings to measure cardiac output, cerebral blood flow, and renal function, among other applications. It is a safe and reliable method that has been widely used for many years. However, it does require the use of radioactive materials and specialized equipment, so it should only be performed by trained medical professionals in appropriate facilities.

Cholagogues and choleretics are terms used to describe medications or substances that affect bile secretion and flow in the body. Here is a medical definition for each:

1. Cholagogue: A substance that promotes the discharge of bile from the gallbladder into the duodenum, often by stimulating the contraction of the gallbladder muscle. This helps in the digestion and absorption of fats. Examples include chenodeoxycholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid, and some herbal remedies like dandelion root and milk thistle.
2. Choleretic: A substance that increases the production of bile by the liver or its flow through the biliary system. This can help with the digestion of fats and the elimination of waste products from the body. Examples include certain medications like ursodeoxycholic acid, as well as natural substances such as lemon juice, artichoke extract, and turmeric.

It is important to note that while cholagogues and choleretics can aid in digestion, they should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as improper use or overuse may lead to complications like diarrhea or gallstone formation.

Micelles are structures formed in a solution when certain substances, such as surfactants, reach a critical concentration called the critical micelle concentration (CMC). At this concentration, these molecules, which have both hydrophilic (water-attracting) and hydrophobic (water-repelling) components, arrange themselves in a spherical shape with the hydrophilic parts facing outward and the hydrophobic parts clustered inside. This formation allows the hydrophobic components to avoid contact with water while the hydrophilic components interact with it. Micelles are important in various biological and industrial processes, such as drug delivery, soil remediation, and the formation of emulsions.

Tritium is not a medical term, but it is a term used in the field of nuclear physics and chemistry. Tritium (symbol: T or 3H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen with two neutrons and one proton in its nucleus. It is also known as heavy hydrogen or superheavy hydrogen.

Tritium has a half-life of about 12.3 years, which means that it decays by emitting a low-energy beta particle (an electron) to become helium-3. Due to its radioactive nature and relatively short half-life, tritium is used in various applications, including nuclear weapons, fusion reactors, luminous paints, and medical research.

In the context of medicine, tritium may be used as a radioactive tracer in some scientific studies or medical research, but it is not a term commonly used to describe a medical condition or treatment.

Sitosterols are a type of plant sterol or phytosterol that are structurally similar to cholesterol, a steroid lipid found in animals. They are found in small amounts in human diets, primarily in vegetable oils, nuts, seeds, and avocados. Sitosterols are not synthesized by the human body but can be absorbed from the diet and have been shown to lower cholesterol levels in the blood when consumed in sufficient quantities. This is because sitosterols compete with cholesterol for absorption in the digestive tract, reducing the amount of cholesterol that enters the bloodstream. Some margarines and other foods are fortified with sitosterols or other phytosterols to help reduce cholesterol levels in people with high cholesterol.

Arthrobacter is a genus of Gram-positive, catalase-positive, aerobic bacteria that are commonly found in soil and water. These bacteria are known for their ability to degrade various organic compounds, including hydrocarbons, and are often used in bioremediation applications. The cells of Arthrobacter species are typically rod-shaped and may appear slightly curved or irregular. They can form dormant structures called exospores that allow them to survive in harsh environments. Arthrobacter species are not considered human pathogens and do not cause disease in humans.

Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the synthesis of cholesterol in the body. It is found in the endoplasmic reticulum of cells and catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonic acid, which is a key rate-limiting step in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway.

The reaction catalyzed by HMG-CoA reductase is as follows:

HMG-CoA + 2 NADPH + 2 H+ → mevalonic acid + CoA + 2 NADP+

This enzyme is the target of statin drugs, which are commonly prescribed to lower cholesterol levels in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Statins work by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase, thereby reducing the production of cholesterol in the body.

Microbodies are small, membrane-bound organelles found in the cells of eukaryotic organisms. They typically measure between 0.2 to 0.5 micrometers in diameter and play a crucial role in various metabolic processes, particularly in the detoxification of harmful substances and the synthesis of lipids.

There are several types of microbodies, including:

1. Peroxisomes: These are the most common type of microbody. They contain enzymes that help break down fatty acids and amino acids, producing hydrogen peroxide as a byproduct. Another set of enzymes within peroxisomes then converts the harmful hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen, thus detoxifying the cell.
2. Glyoxysomes: These microbodies are primarily found in plants and some fungi. They contain enzymes involved in the glyoxylate cycle, a metabolic pathway that helps convert stored fats into carbohydrates during germination.
3. Microbody-like particles (MLPs): These are smaller organelles found in certain protists and algae. Their functions are not well understood but are believed to be involved in lipid metabolism.

It is important to note that microbodies do not have a uniform structure or function across all eukaryotic cells, and their specific roles can vary depending on the organism and cell type.

Bile canaliculi are the smallest bile-transporting structures in the liver. They are formed by the close apposition of hepatocyte (liver cell) plasma membranes, and they are responsible for the majority of bile production. The bile canaliculi merge to form bile ductules, which then merge to form larger bile ducts that transport bile to the gallbladder and small intestine. Bile is a fluid that contains water, electrolytes, bile salts, cholesterol, phospholipids, and bilirubin, which are produced by the liver and play important roles in digestion and elimination of waste products.

"Mesocricetus" is a genus of rodents, more commonly known as hamsters. It includes several species of hamsters that are native to various parts of Europe and Asia. The best-known member of this genus is the Syrian hamster, also known as the golden hamster or Mesocricetus auratus, which is a popular pet due to its small size and relatively easy care. These hamsters are burrowing animals and are typically solitary in the wild.

Liver diseases refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the normal functioning of the liver. The liver is a vital organ responsible for various critical functions such as detoxification, protein synthesis, and production of biochemicals necessary for digestion.

Liver diseases can be categorized into acute and chronic forms. Acute liver disease comes on rapidly and can be caused by factors like viral infections (hepatitis A, B, C, D, E), drug-induced liver injury, or exposure to toxic substances. Chronic liver disease develops slowly over time, often due to long-term exposure to harmful agents or inherent disorders of the liver.

Common examples of liver diseases include hepatitis, cirrhosis (scarring of the liver tissue), fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, autoimmune liver diseases, genetic/hereditary liver disorders (like Wilson's disease and hemochromatosis), and liver cancers. Symptoms may vary widely depending on the type and stage of the disease but could include jaundice, abdominal pain, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, and weight loss.

Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent progression and potential complications associated with liver diseases.

Pantothenic Acid, also known as Vitamin B5, is a water-soluble vitamin that plays a vital role in the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. It is essential for the synthesis of coenzyme A (CoA), which is involved in various biochemical reactions in the body, including energy production, fatty acid synthesis, and cholesterol metabolism.

Pantothenic Acid is widely distributed in foods, including meat, poultry, fish, whole grains, legumes, and vegetables. Deficiency of this vitamin is rare but can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, irritability, sleep disturbances, muscle cramps, and gastrointestinal problems.

In addition to its role in metabolism, Pantothenic Acid also has potential benefits for wound healing, reducing inflammation, and supporting the immune system.

Isotope labeling is a scientific technique used in the field of medicine, particularly in molecular biology, chemistry, and pharmacology. It involves replacing one or more atoms in a molecule with a radioactive or stable isotope of the same element. This modified molecule can then be traced and analyzed to study its structure, function, metabolism, or interaction with other molecules within biological systems.

Radioisotope labeling uses unstable radioactive isotopes that emit radiation, allowing for detection and quantification of the labeled molecule using various imaging techniques, such as positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). This approach is particularly useful in tracking the distribution and metabolism of drugs, hormones, or other biomolecules in living organisms.

Stable isotope labeling, on the other hand, employs non-radioactive isotopes that do not emit radiation. These isotopes have different atomic masses compared to their natural counterparts and can be detected using mass spectrometry. Stable isotope labeling is often used in metabolic studies, protein turnover analysis, or for identifying the origin of specific molecules within complex biological samples.

In summary, isotope labeling is a versatile tool in medical research that enables researchers to investigate various aspects of molecular behavior and interactions within biological systems.

Hydroxycholesterols are a type of sterol that is formed in the body when cholesterol, a steroid alcohol, undergoes hydroxylation. This means that one or more hydroxyl groups (-OH) are added to the cholesterol molecule. There are several different types of hydroxycholesterols, including 24-hydroxycholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol, and 27-hydroxycholesterol, among others. These compounds play important roles in various physiological processes, such as regulating cholesterol metabolism and contributing to the formation of bile acids. They have also been studied for their potential involvement in atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and other health conditions.

Lipids are a broad group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. They include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, and phospholipids. Lipids serve many important functions in the body, including energy storage, acting as structural components of cell membranes, and serving as signaling molecules. High levels of certain lipids, particularly cholesterol and triglycerides, in the blood are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

Salts of cholic acid are called cholates. Cholic acid, along with chenodeoxycholic acid, is one of the two major bile acids ... Cholic acid, also known as 3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid is a primary bile acid that is insoluble in water ( ... This is why chenodeoxycholic acid, and not cholic acid, can be used to treat gallstones (because decreasing bile acid synthesis ... Other species may synthesize different bile acids as their predominant primary bile acids. Cholic acid, sold under the brand ...
... in vitro from bovine bile by adding ursodeoxycholic acid, cholic acid, and calcium bilirubinate, producing calculus bovis ... 6% cholic acid, ≥ 35% bilirubin by dry wright. v t e (CS1 Chinese-language sources (zh), All articles with dead external links ... "Cholic Acid". Archived from the original on 15 March 2012. Retrieved 9 November 2016. "人工牛黄". (cowgallstones.com). Retrieved 10 ... 13% cholic acid, ≥ 0.63% bilirubin by dry wright. Bovis calculus sativus, in vitro cultivated replacement produced from bovine ...
... cholic acid derivatives and organic acids. It is hoped that further research into alkaliphilic enzymes will allow scientists to ... gluconic acid, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and phosphoric acid. Together, these residues form an acidic matrix that helps ... subtilis has been observed to contain higher levels of hexosamines and amino acids as compared to its neutrophilic counterpart ... it has been proposed that cell walls contain acidic polymers composed of residues such as galacturonic acid, ...
"Biosynthesis of cholic acid in rat liver. 24-Hydroxylation of 3alpha, 7alpha, 12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestanoic acid". J. ... Relationship between the different dehydrogenases and evidence that fatty acids and the C27 bile acids di- and tri- ... Russell DW (2003). "The enzymes, regulation, and genetics of bile acid synthesis". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 72: 137-74. doi:10.1146/ ... hydroxycoprostanic acids are metabolized by separate multifunctional proteins". Eur. J. Biochem. 240 (3): 660-6. doi:10.1111/j. ...
Her doctoral research considered cholic acid and methyl cholate. Scott joined the faculty at the University of Cape Town in ... Scott, Janet Lesley (1995). Inclusion compounds of cholic acid and methyl cholate (Thesis). Place of publication not identified ...
It is a conjugate of cholic acid with taurine. In medical use, it is administered as a cholagogue and choleretic. Hydrolysis of ... Taurocholic acid, known also as cholaic acid, cholyltaurine, or acidum cholatauricum, is a deliquescent yellowish crystalline ... For commercial use, taurocholic acid is manufactured from cattle bile, a byproduct of the meat-processing industry. This acid ... Deoxycholic acid Anwer, M. Sawkat (2004). "Cellular regulation of hepatic bile acid transport in health and cholestasis". ...
It is a conjugate of cholic acid with glycine. Its anion is called glycocholate. Taurocholic acid "Glycocholic Acid". MeSH. v t ... Glycocholic acid, or cholylglycine, is a crystalline bile acid involved in the emulsification of fats. It occurs as a sodium ... Bile acids, Cholanes, All stub articles, Steroid stubs). ...
Hepatocytes metabolize cholesterol to cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. These lipid-soluble bile acids are conjugated ( ... Finally, the conjugated bile acids which remained un-ionized conjugated bile acids are passively absorbed. Venous blood from ... Due to the pH of the small intestine, most of the bile acids are ionized and mostly occur as their sodium salts which are then ... The presence of biliary acids in the intestines helps in absorption of fats and other substances. Bilirubin is conjugated with ...
... and calcium carbonate and reports choleic acid. Deoxycholic acid and cholic acid have also been reported. In simple cases of ... Choleic acid stones are almost always radiolucent. They sometimes can be visualized on CT scans without contrast; presence of ... Raper HS (1921). "A Human Enterolith containing Choleic Acid". The Biochemical Journal. 15 (1): 49-52. doi:10.1042/bj0150049. ... Acid-base physiology Bezoar Blue MG (April 1979). "Enteroliths in horses--a retrospective study of 30 cases". Equine Veterinary ...
... cholic thiokinase, cholate thiokinase, cholic acid:CoA ligase, 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestanoyl coenzyme A ... Elliott WH (March 1956). "The enzymic activation of cholic acid by guinea-pig-liver microsomes". The Biochemical Journal. 62 (3 ... Elliott WH (February 1957). "The breakdown of adenosine triphosphate accompanying cholic acid activation by guinea-pig liver ... Cholate-CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.7, BAL, bile acid CoA ligase, bile acid coenzyme A ligase, choloyl-CoA synthetase, choloyl ...
This step leads to the formation of the bile acid cholic acid. Cholic acid is a 3,7,12 tri-hydroxy bile acid and is one of the ... Activity of this enzyme determines the balance between cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids in humans. Ishida H, Noshiro M, Okuda ... Russell DW (2003). "The enzymes, regulation, and genetics of bile acid synthesis". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 72: 137-74. ... major bile acids in humans and many other animals. ...
... bile acids Cholic acid Glycocholic acid Taurocholic acid Deoxycholic acid Chenodeoxycholic acid Glycochenodeoxycholic acid ... Cholic acid is converted into deoxycholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid into lithocholic acid. All four of these bile acids ... "deoxycholic acid" in that it had one fewer hydroxyl group than cholic acid. Deoxycholic acid is formed from cholic acid by 7- ... In humans, taurocholic acid and glycocholic acid (derivatives of cholic acid) and taurochenodeoxycholic acid and ...
... and cholic acid are the two primary bile acids in humans. Chenodeoxycholic acid has two hydroxyl groups ... Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA; also known as chenodesoxycholic acid, chenocholic acid and 3α,7α-dihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid) ... Ursodeoxycholic acid Hyodeoxycholic acid Russell DW (2003). "The enzymes, regulation, and genetics of bile acid synthesis". ... Salts of this carboxylic acid are called chenodeoxycholates. Chenodeoxycholic acid is one of the main bile acids. It was first ...
... from cholic acids (monoisotopic mass 498.2895) easily. Additional suggestions included removal of cholic acids through the ... Taurodeoxycholic acid is a bile acid. This compound is a closely related isomer of Taurochenodeoxycholic acid and ... Strynar and colleagues ASMS Strynar et al., 2009 demonstrated the presence of these cholic acids in a number of biological ... extraction cleanup of methanolic extracts using Supelco's ENVI-Carb cartridge or monitoring for the presence of cholic acids ...
"Unsaturated bile acids. III. Relations of apocholic acid, dihydroxycholenic acid (m. 260) and cholic acid to desoxycholic acid ... Apocholic acid is an unsaturated bile acid first characterized in the 1920s. It has questionable carcinogenic activity as ... The salts and esters of apocholic acid are known as apocholates.[citation needed] Apocholate citrate agar ,ALDRICH&N5=SEARCH_ ... 5-beta-Chol-8(14)-en-24-oic acid, 3-alpha,12-alpha-dihydroxy-, sodium salt at environmentalchemistry.com (All articles with ...
... is a synthetic bile acid, manufactured by the oxidation of cholic acid. It acts as a hydrocholeretic, ... Yousef IM, Barnwell SG, Tuchweber B, Weber A, Roy CC (1987). "Effect of complete sulfation of bile acids on bile formation in ... Bile acids, Cholanes, Ketones, All stub articles, Organic compound stubs). ... increasing bile output to clear increased bile acid load. ...
"Nitrogen Mustards" (1951, with Max Tishler) "The Conversion of Cholic Acid into 3α-Hydroxy-12-keto-Δ9(11)-cholenic Acid" (1951 ... "The Conversion of Cholic Acid into 3α-Hydroxy-12-keto-Δ9(11)-cholenic Acid". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 73 (9): ... Wilson, Evelyn H.; Weijlard, John; Tishler, Max (October 1954). "Pantothenic Acid Salts". Journal of the American Chemical ... "Pantothenic Acid Salts" (1954, with John Weijlard and Max Tishler) "Why Not Science?" (1969) "Course Development: A Legitimate ...
Synthetic steroids are synthesized from cholic acid and sapogenins obtained from cattle and plants, respectively. ... It is evidence that dissociated SRC is responsible for inhibiting the release of arachidonic acid (AA) from cell membrane ...
Bacteria metabolize chenodeoxycholic acid into the secondary bile acid lithocholic acid, and they metabolize cholic acid into ... Deoxycholic acid is a bile acid. Deoxycholic acid is one of the secondary bile acids, which are metabolic byproducts of ... The two primary bile acids secreted by the liver are cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. ... There are additional secondary bile acids, such as ursodeoxycholic acid. Deoxycholic acid is soluble in alcohol and acetic acid ...
It may be synthesized from cholic acid and is zwitterionic due to its quaternary ammonium and sulfonate groups; it is ... Taurodeoxycholic acid Taurochenodeoxycholic acid Hjelmeland, LM (November 1980). "A nondenaturing zwitterionic detergent for ... structurally similar to certain bile acids, such as taurodeoxycholic acid and taurochenodeoxycholic acid. It is used as a non- ...
Muricholic acids differ from the primary bile acids found in humans, cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid, by having a ... α-muricholic acid β-muricholic acid γ-muricholic acid (hyocholic acid) ω-muricholic acid Russell DW (2003). "The enzymes, ... The three major bile acids in germ-free mice are cholic acid, α-muricholic, and β-muricholic acids. In conventional mice with a ... This produces α-muricholic acid from chenodeoxycholic acid, and β-muricholic acid from ursodeoxycholic acid. Tauromuricholic ...
"Formation of cholic acid from 3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acid by rat liver peroxisomes". J. ... 12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acid into cholic acid by rat liver peroxisomes". FEBS Lett. 121 (2): 345-8. doi:10.1016 ... "Glycine and taurine conjugation of bile acids by a single enzyme Molecular cloning and expression of human liver bile acid CoA: ... Russell DW (2003). "The enzymes, regulation, and genetics of bile acid synthesis". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 72: 137-74. doi:10.1146/ ...
UDCA is most commonly produced from cholic acid (CA) derived from bovine bile, a by-product of the beef industry. The current ... While some bile acids are known to be colon tumor promoters (e.g. deoxycholic acid), others such as ursodeoxycholic acid are ... Mroz MS, Lajczak NK, Goggins BJ, Keely S, Keely SJ (March 2018). "The bile acids, deoxycholic acid and ursodeoxycholic acid, ... "Bile acids deoxycholic acid and ursodeoxycholic acid differentially regulate human β-defensin-1 and -2 secretion by colonic ...
... cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid, both of which are secreted in the bile. In the intestine these bile acids affect the ... The elephant, manatee and naked mole rat have inactive copies of this gene and lack cholic acid in their bile. Relaxed ... "Entrez Gene: CYP8B1". Sharma, V; Hiller, M (1 December 2018). "Loss of Enzymes in the Bile Acid Synthesis Pathway Explains ... Ellis EC (2006). "Suppression of bile acid synthesis by thyroid hormone in primary human hepatocytes". World J. Gastroenterol. ...
... , a conjugate of cholic acid and arachidic acid, is a member of a synthetic fatty-acid/bile-acid conjugate (FABAC). ... Aramchol was initially intended to combine a cholesterol solubilizing moiety (a saturated fatty acid) with a bile acid (cholic ... August 2010). "Fatty acid bile acid conjugate inhibits hepatic stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase and is non-atherogenic". Archives ... Safadi R, Konikoff FM, Mahamid M, Zelber-Sagi S, Halpern M, Gilat T, Oren R (December 2014). "The fatty acid-bile acid ...
The only method for preparing this drug prior to 1952 was a lengthy synthesis starting from cholic acid isolated from bile. In ...
Tauro-ursodeoxy-cholic acid (TUDCA), and monoclonal antibodies. The use of pacemakers (both right ventricular pacing and ...
... steroids and bile acids (e.g. cholic acid). 5α-Cholane 5β-Cholane Cholestane Ergostane International Union of Pure and Applied ...
"Cofactor requirements for 7 alpha-dehydroxylation of cholic and chenodeoxycholic acid in cell extracts of the intestinal ... Bile-acid 7alpha-dehydroxylase (EC 1.17.99.5, cholate 7alpha-dehydroxylase, 7alpha-dehydroxylase, bile acid 7-dehydroxylase) ... Bile-acid+7alpha-dehydroxylase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology ( ... White BA, Paone DA, Cacciapuoti AF, Fricke RJ, Mosbach EH, Hylemon PB (January 1983). "Regulation of bile acid 7-dehydroxylase ...
... primary bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver to form either cholic acid (CA), chenodeoxycholic acid or ... bile acid reconjugation involves the addition of amino acids to an unconjugated bile acid. Additionally, microbial bile acid ... which regulates bile acid synthesis and transport. Upon activation, FXR can repress bile acid synthesis and alter the bile acid ... Bile acid metabolism, and by association BSHs, influences the immune system by shaping the gut microbiota and bile acid pool. ...
Salts of cholic acid are called cholates. Cholic acid, along with chenodeoxycholic acid, is one of the two major bile acids ... Cholic acid, also known as 3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid is a primary bile acid that is insoluble in water ( ... This is why chenodeoxycholic acid, and not cholic acid, can be used to treat gallstones (because decreasing bile acid synthesis ... Other species may synthesize different bile acids as their predominant primary bile acids. Cholic acid, sold under the brand ...
CHOLIC ACID (UNII: G1JO7801AE) (CHOLIC ACID - UNII:G1JO7801AE) CHOLIC ACID. 50 mg. ... CHOLIC ACID (UNII: G1JO7801AE) (CHOLIC ACID - UNII:G1JO7801AE) CHOLIC ACID. 250 mg. ... In the liver, cholic acid is conjugated with glycine or taurine by bile acid-CoA synthetase and bile acid-CoA:amino acid N- ... The loss of cholic acid is compensated by de-novo synthesis of cholic acids from cholesterol to maintain the bile acid pool in ...
Did you mean choice ACID? *. LiverTox: Clinical and Research Information on Drug-Induced Liver Injury (National Library of ...
When given in high doses, cholic acid replacement therapy has been linked to minor elevations in serum aminotransferase levels ... acid is a naturally occurring bile acid that is used to treat patients with genetic deficiencies in the synthesis of bile acids ... cholic acid is not effective in gallstone dissolution. Cholic acid is used therapeutically to treat patients with bile acid ... Among 15 patients with bile acid synthesis defects treated with oral bile acids [ursodiol and cholic acid initially, and ...
... leading to at least partial suppression of bile acid synthesis. However, caution is needed in patients with advanced liver ... Oral cholic acid therapy can be used in the majority of patients with a ZSD, ... 12 and 36 weeks after start of cholic acid treatment. Results: During cholic acid treatment, bile acid synthesis decreased in ... We investigated whether cholic acid supplementation can suppress bile acid synthesis, reduce accumulation of toxic bile acid ...
... cholic acid), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & lactation schedules, ... Bile acid and peroxisomal disorders dosing for Cholbam ( ... encoded search term (cholic acid (Cholbam)) and cholic acid ( ... In the liver, cholic acid is conjugated with glycine or taurine by bile acid-CoA synthetase and bile acid-CoA: amino acid N- ... Endogenous bile acids, including cholic acid, enhance bile flow and provide the physiologic feedback inhibition of bile acid ...
It is also known as 3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid. Reference standards of Cholic Acid API,and its pharmacopeial, ... Cholic acid is a prescription medication used to treat pediatric and adult patients with bile acid synthesis disorders due to ... cholic acid and its Impurities Cholic acid is a prescription medication used to treat pediatric and adult patients with bile ... It is also known as 3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid. Reference standards of Cholic Acid API,and its pharmacopeial, ...
CHOLIC ACID (UNII: G1JO7801AE) (CHOLIC ACID - UNII:G1JO7801AE) CHOLIC ACID. 50 mg. ... CHOLIC ACID (UNII: G1JO7801AE) (CHOLIC ACID - UNII:G1JO7801AE) CHOLIC ACID. 250 mg. ... In the liver, cholic acid is conjugated with glycine or taurine by bile acid-CoA synthetase and bile acid-CoA:amino acid N- ... The loss of cholic acid is compensated by de-novo synthesis of cholic acids from cholesterol to maintain the bile acid pool in ...
Cholic acid. In March 2015, cholic acid (Cholbam) was approved by the FDA for adjunctive treatment of peroxisomal disorders, ... The mechanism of action of cholic acid has not been fully established; however, it is known that cholic acid and its conjugates ... Efficacy of cholic acid for peroxisomal disorders was assessed in a single arm, treatment trial involving 29 patients treated ... Cholbam (cholic acid) [package insert]. Baltimore, MD: Asklepion Pharmaceuticals LLC. 2015 Mar. Available at [Full Text]. ...
The primary bile acid profile in #Infants predominantly consists of cholic acid (CA) and #Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), with a ... Primary bile acidsCholic acid {90000143}. Record Keys. Parent:. Primary bile acids ... higher concentrations of #Deoxycholic acid (DCA), #Lithocholic acid (LCA), and cholic acid (CA) in feces in #Stroke patients ... High Fat Diet] - non-classic amino acid conjugation of the bile acid cholic acid (AA-CA) increased with HFD. - AA-CAs impact ...
... Huang Huajuna,b, Ren Chongleia,b, Chen Yua ... Cholic Acid/Graphene Oxide Chiral Hybrid Material: Preparation and Characterizations[J]. Acta Chim. Sinica, 2014, 72(11): 1169- ... The present study intends to chirally functionalize oxide graphene (GO) by using a biomass cholic acid (CA), by which to ... 1. Cholic Acid/Graphene Oxide Chiral Hybrid Material: Preparation and Characterizations.PDF(406KB) ...
Cholic acid. ,3.1 mmol/L. 17 mmol/L. May increase ,10-fold in severe cases of ICP. ... Ursodeoxycholic acid (Actigall). 900 mg-2 gm/day; comes in 300-mg tablets. Natural water soluble bile acid interferes with the ... Bile acid sequestrant that binds bile acids in the gut to facilitate excretion. ... Elevated serum bile acid levels are considered the most accurate tool used to predict ICP.[4] However, the degree of pruritus ...
Cholic Acid*. a primary bile acid that is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine; CHOLIC ACIDS is available. ... Oxaloacetic Acids. class of ketodicarboxylic acids; oxaloacetic acid is an intermediate in the CITRIC ACID CYCLE. ... Excitatory Amino Acid Agents Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists. Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists. GABA Agents GABA Agonists. GABA ... Oxalic Acid*. a strong dicarboxylic acid occurring in plants and vegetables; OXALIC ACIDS is also available. ...
Europe Cholic Acid Market Report (2014-2024) - Market Size, Share, Price, Trend and Forecast includes market share, market ... Porter Five Forces Model Analysis of Europe Cholic Acid Figure Production Cost Analysis of Europe Cholic Acid Table Cholic Acid ... Consumption of Cholic Acid Table 2019-2024 Europe Import and Export of Cholic Acid Table 2019-2024 Europe Demand of Cholic Acid ... and Consumption of Cholic Acid Table 2014-2019 Europe Import and Export of Cholic Acid Table 2014-2019 Europe Cholic Acid ...
Hyperuricemia (too much uric acid in the blood) or. *Infection (eg, bacteria, fungus, virus) or ...
Cholic acid.jpg 2,000 × 1,284; 269 KB. * Culture-Model-of-Rat-Portal-Myofibroblasts-Video1.ogv 34 s, 2,048 × 2,048; 12.66 MB. ...
Cholic acid exposure during late pregnancy causes placental dysfunction and fetal growth restriction by reactive oxygen species ... 11ß-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11ß-HSD2); GCN2/eIF2α pathway; cholic acid (CA); fetal growth restriction (FGR); ... Cholic acid exposure during late pregnancy causes placental dysfunction and fetal growth r ... caused by gestational cholestasis is associated with elevated serum cholic acid (CA). Here, we explore the mechanism by which ...
3α,7α,12α-Trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid sodium salt, Cholalic acid sodium salt ... Cholesterol-lowering effect of rice bran protein containing bile acid-binding proteins. ... In this study, we set out to identify the bile acid-binding ...
... chenodeoxycholic and deoxycholic acids are more cytotoxic than cholic acid (3). The minimum 15-mL dose of sheep bile contains ... cholic, and 5% lithocholic acids) -- the equivalent of 36% of the maximum daily dose of bile acids used for treating ... Bobowiec R. Effects of the intravenous infusion of sodium salts of bile acids on bile flow and bile acids of sheep {Polish}. ... bile acids will saturate the enterohepatic cycle and result in increased levels of circulating serum bile acids (6). The ...
Thus, in principle there is enough contaminating cholic acid to explain its presence in the crystal structure. The cholic acid ... Arg7 and Leu10 side chains also form a few van der Waals interactions with cholic acid. The interactions between cholic acid ... The TIF2 structure is stabilized by cholic acid, a bile acid precursor that is also found in cerebrospinal fluid (Ogundare et ... Ligands are sulfate and cholic acid. ‡‡Chains A and B have only one SO42- associated with them. §§Calculated using PHENIX ( ...
Biosynthesis of cholic acid in rat liver. 24-Hydroxylation of 3alpha, 7alpha, 12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestanoic acid. ... Relationship between the different dehydrogenases and evidence that fatty acids and the C27 bile acids di- and tri- ... Relationship between the different dehydrogenases and evidence that fatty acids and the C27 bile acids di- and tri- ... the free acid is preferred to the coenzyme A ester, whereas in mitochondria, the coenzyme A ester is preferred to the free-acid ...
Cholic acid, another bile acid, has also been used to treat young children with CTX. Although chenodeoxycholic acid is ... Bile acids (chenodeoxycholic and cholic acid) are mostly synthesized in the liver. They are an important component of bile and ... cholic acid lacks the potential toxic effects on the liver (hepatotoxicity) sometimes associated with chenodeoxycholic acid. ... Bile alcohols are formed in an alternative pathway present in CTX that generates some cholic acid. Due to the nature of the ...
A study was carried out to investigate the effect of ursodesoxycholic acid and cholic acid on intestinal absorption of ... Effect of ursodesoxycholic acid and cholic acid on intestinal absorption of cholesterol] ... The addition of 8 or 16 mM deoxycholic acid did not change the slow wave or spike activity. However, deoxycholic acid ... whereas the group treated with cholic acid (250 mg/kg p.o.) was found to have an increased value of 30.6% absorbed cholesterol ...
MeSH Terms: Animals; Cholic Acid/pharmacology; Environmental Pollutants/toxicity*; Fatty Acids, Volatile/pharmacology; Humans; ...
cholic acid. Monitor Closely (1)colestipol will decrease the level or effect of cholic acid by drug binding in GI tract. Use ... cholic acid. colestipol will decrease the level or effect of cholic acid by drug binding in GI tract. Use Caution/Monitor. Take ... Take cholic acid at least 1 hr before or 4-6 hr (or as great an interval as possible) after a bile acid binding resin. ... cholic acid at least 1 hr before or 4-6 hr (or as great an interval as possible) after a bile acid binding resin. ...
cholic acid. Monitor Closely (1)fenofibrate increases toxicity of cholic acid by decreasing elimination. Modify Therapy/Monitor ... cholic acid. fenofibrate increases toxicity of cholic acid by decreasing elimination. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Avoid ... Metabolites: Fenofibric acid (active), fenofibric acid glucuronide (activity unknown). Elimination. Half-life: 20 hr (10-35 hr ... Fenofibrate is very similar to fenofibric acid. Do not use medications containing fenofibric acid while using fenofibrate. ...
  • Cholic acid, along with chenodeoxycholic acid, is one of the two major bile acids produced by the liver, where it is synthesized from cholesterol. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is why chenodeoxycholic acid, and not cholic acid, can be used to treat gallstones (because decreasing bile acid synthesis would supersaturate the stones even more). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid are the most important human bile acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chenodeoxycholic acid treatment of gallstones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Y bile acid: cholic (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), and their conjugates Tauro(glycol)cholic acid (T(G)CA) and Tauro(glycol) chenodeoxycholic acid (T(G)CDCA), which are actively transported into bile and turn out to be part with the circulating bile acid pool. (5htreceptor.com)
  • Fricke, R. J. / Cofactor requirements for 7α-dehydroxylation of cholic and chenodeoxycholic acid in cell extracts of the intestinal anaerobic bacterium, Eubacterium species V.P.I. 12708 . (illinois.edu)
  • [ 4 ] In 1971, Salen found that chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), an important bile acid, was virtually absent in patients with clinical symptoms of the disease. (medscape.com)
  • INT-747, so called obeticholic acid (OCA) or 6-alpha-ethyl chenodeoxycholic acid (6-ECDCA), is a 6-alpha-alkyl-substituted analog of CDCA selectively inducing FXR transactivation at 1 μM 15 . (nature.com)
  • The results showed that the addition of capsaicin further decreased the fasting blood glucose and insulin, and increased beta-muricholic acid, deoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, and 3 beta-ursodeoxycholic acid when compared to only high fiber diet. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Subsequent enzymatic reactions catalyzed by sterol 12 α -hydroxylase (CYP8B1) and sterol 27-hyroxylase (CYP27A1), respectively, yield the primary BAs, cholic acid (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA). (aspetjournals.org)
  • For example, chenodeoxycholic and lithocholic acids are cytotoxic and have detergent effects. (hindawi.com)
  • In vitro experiments showed that chenodeoxycholic acids could also disrupt cellular membranes in the alveoli, increasing cationic permeability and intracellular Ca 2+ concentration, leading to overloading of Ca 2+ in cells, and causing injury to type II pneumonocyte [ 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • It is formed by intestinal bacterial 7 α -dehydroxylation of chenodeoxycholic acid and ursodeoxycholic acid ( Hofmann, 2004 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • The serum conjugates of the two primary bile acids, cholic and chenodeoxycholic, were measured using sensitive specific radio-immunoassays. (bmj.com)
  • Spermine, propionylcarnitine , butyrylcarnitine , phenylalanine , lysophosphatidylcholine ( LPC ) C14:0 and LPC C18:2 were down-regulated, methyl-hippuric acid and chenodeoxycholic acid ( CDCA ) were up-regulated significantly in plasma of the excess fatigue rats. (rsc.org)
  • Salen G, Meriwether TW, Nicolau G. Chenodeoxycholic acid inhibits increased cholesterol and cholestanol synthesis in patients with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis. (medscape.com)
  • Berginer VM, Salen G, Shefer S. Long-term treatment of cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis with chenodeoxycholic acid. (medscape.com)
  • Inside the tiny intestine, T(G)CA and T(G)CDCA are converted to secondary bile acids: deoxycholic acid (DCA) and Lithocholic acid (LCA), respectively (Chiang, 2013). (5htreceptor.com)
  • Deficiency of the enzyme results in impaired synthesis of the mature bile acids CDCAoxycholic acid (CDCA) and cholic acid. (medscape.com)
  • The mature bile acids (primarily CDCA) are responsible for negative feedback on cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase, which is the initial and rate-limiting step in bile acid synthesis. (medscape.com)
  • [ 61 , 62 ] As expected given the enzymatic defect, a low concentration of CDCA) is observed along with high concentrations of bile alcohols (conjugated with glucuronic acid). (medscape.com)
  • Spermine, leucine , propionylcarnitine , and butyrylcarnitine decreased, hippuric acid, methyl-hippuric acid , cholic acid , CDCA and LPC C16:0 increased markedly in plasma of the depression rats. (rsc.org)
  • Administration of 0.05 g/kg capsaicin showed the highest of tauro-alpha-muricholic acid sodium salt and tauro-beta-muricholic acid sodium salt and 0.1 g/kg capsaicin resulted in the highest of lithocholic acid, cholic acid and hyodeoxycholic acid. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Lithocholic acid (LCA) is a bile acid associated with adverse effects, including cholestasis, and it exists in vivo mainly as conjugates known as glyco-LCA (GLCA) and tauro-LCA (TLCA). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Derivatives are made from cholyl-CoA, which exchanges its CoA with either glycine, or taurine, yielding glycocholic and taurocholic acid, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cholic acid's role in regulating cholesterol levels, glucose metabolism, and energy homeostasis suggests potential applications in managing cardiovascular and liver-related diseases, diabetes, and metabolic disorders. (viochemicals.com)
  • Cholic acid is also used as an API to treat inborn errors of bile acid metabolism. (icepharma.com)
  • Enterohepatic circulation of bile acids plays a central role within the regulation of bile acids synthesis, fatty acid, lipid, and lipoprotein synthesis, as well as glucose metabolism in the liver (KullakUblick et al. (5htreceptor.com)
  • 2010). Meanwhile, bile acids can market the intestinal absorption of lipid-soluble vitamins such as vitamin A. In between vitamin A metabolism and bile acid synthesis, there's a unfavorable feedback regulatory partnership. (5htreceptor.com)
  • Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare genetic disorder of cholesterol and bile acid metabolism that results in systemic and neurologic abnormalities. (medscape.com)
  • NBS tests for more than 10 inborn errors of metabolism in dried blood spots (DBS) based on multiplexed mass spectrometry-based analysis of amino acids, acylcarnitines (ACs), and steroid hormones. (biocrates.com)
  • Metabolite and pathway analysis showed amino acid metabolism was perturbed in these Mn-exposed workers. (cdc.gov)
  • Cholic acid downregulates cholesterol-7-α-hydroxylase (rate-limiting step in bile acid synthesis), and cholesterol does the opposite. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzymatic defect that causes CTX is in mitochondrial sterol 27-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in the pathway necessary for synthesis of bile acids from cholesterol. (medscape.com)
  • With no inhibition of flux into the metabolic pathway, cholesterol-derived bile acid precursors accumulate in tissues and are thought to cause the symptoms of CTX. (medscape.com)
  • Mice that are homozygous for a targeted disruption of the LDL receptor gene (LDLR-/- mice) were fed a diet that contained 1.25% cholesterol, 7.5% cocoa butter, 7.5% casein, and 0.5% cholic acid. (jci.org)
  • The primary enzymatic defect in cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is in mitochondrial sterol 27-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in the complicated process of bile acid synthesis from cholesterol. (medscape.com)
  • this, in turn, disrupts feedback regulation on cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase, which is the rate-limiting step in bile acid synthesis. (medscape.com)
  • NIH Rat & Mouse/Auto 11F 19.7% Protein, 12.2% Fat (ether extract), 13.1% Fat (acid hydrolysis), 4% Fiber, 6.3% Ash. (mmpc.org)
  • DEER in biological multispin-systems: A case study on the fatty acid binding to human serum albumin. (mpg.de)
  • as in arachidonic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid occurring in animal cells. (absp.org.uk)
  • applied to a type of fatty acid, found in butter and having a goatlike smell. (absp.org.uk)
  • as in dodecanoic acid, a crystalline fatty acid occurring as glycerides in natural fats and oils (especially coconut oil and palm-kernel oil). (absp.org.uk)
  • as in erucic acid, a crystalline fatty acid. (absp.org.uk)
  • The activities of FAS and G6PDH, which are related to fatty acid de novo synthesis, were found to be dose-responsive to C. gracilis and tended to decrease. (bvsalud.org)
  • 3β-hydroxy-Δ5-C27-steroid oxidoreductase or Δ4-3-oxosteroid-5β-reductase deficiencies are part of are a group of Bile Acid Synthesis Disorders (BASD) which are rare metabolic diseases caused by a lack of various liver enzymes involved in the synthesis of bile acids. (b3cnewswire.com)
  • Immunoassay of serum conjugates of cholic acid in cystic fibrosis. (bmj.com)
  • Pre- and post-prandial serum conjugates of cholic acid (SCCA) were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in 83 patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), 14 of whom did not have steatorrhoea, and in 25 controls. (bmj.com)
  • Nonetheless, the concentration of secondary bile acids and conjugates (DCA and GDCA) showed no difference in blood in between the two groups. (5htreceptor.com)
  • When a higher fiber diet program is consumed, there's a greater excretion of bile acids in feces, thus significantly less can reach the liver for re-secretion. (5htreceptor.com)
  • Bile acids Bile acid turnover By-pass operation Crohn s disease Elimination Faecal excretion Faeces Ileal resection Abstract. (karger.com)
  • These results provide essential background data for future studies of serum individual bile acids in intestinal and hepatic disease. (bmj.com)
  • Cholic acid FGK (Kolbam) was approved for medical use in the European Union in November 2015. (wikipedia.org)
  • as in hippuric acid, an acid obtained from the urine of horses. (absp.org.uk)
  • Cholic acid, also known as 3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid is a primary bile acid that is insoluble in water (soluble in alcohol and acetic acid), it is a white crystalline substance. (wikipedia.org)
  • and increased the short-chain fatty acids, especially acetic acid and butyric acid. (ijpsonline.com)
  • as in acetic acid, a diluted form of which is vinegar. (absp.org.uk)
  • denoting a type of acid, aka acetic acid. (absp.org.uk)
  • PubChem] Cholic acid, formulated as Cholbam capsules, is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration as a treatment for children and adults with bile acid synthesis disorders due to single enzyme defects, and for peroxisomal disorders (such as Zellweger syndrome). (rcsb.org)
  • Product Validation and Stability Testing of Pharmacy Compounded Cholic Acid Capsules for Dutch Patients with Rare Bile Acid Synthesis Defects. (stabilis.org)
  • The classic pathway of bile acid is predominant for AT1 Receptor Antagonist drug ruminants (Sheriha et al. (5htreceptor.com)
  • Cholestanol is formed in a pathway from the bile acid precursor 7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one. (medscape.com)
  • Reversely, to get a less-fiber eating plan, since of dehydroxylation transited to DCA gradually inside the colon, the secondary bile acid is reabsorbed and inhibits the production of key bile acid (Sheriha et al. (5htreceptor.com)
  • As part of the mammalian gut microbiota, commensal bacteria residing in the intestine convert primary bile acids into secondary bile acids. (biocrates.com)
  • one of the tannic acids, extracted from CATECHU as a white, crystalline substance. (absp.org.uk)
  • as in gallic acid, a crystalline substance present in gallnuts, tea, and various plants. (absp.org.uk)
  • relating to bile, as in cholic acid, an acid found in bile. (absp.org.uk)
  • The primary use of cholic acid is as a pharmaceutical intermediate for the manufacture of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), an API used for several indications including the treatment and prevention of liver diseases and the dissolution of gall stones. (icepharma.com)
  • Water-soluble metabolite analysis showed that the muscular contents of several amino acids, including leucine, were significantly increased by C. gracilis feeding. (bvsalud.org)
  • Other species may synthesize different bile acids as their predominant primary bile acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • This happens when infants are born with defects that result in low bile acid levels. (fda.gov)
  • Some serum bile acid levels themselves are low. (medscape.com)
  • The best biomarker for diagnosis and follow-up of ICP is up to knowing percentage levels of bile acids (taurocholic and glycocholic acids) over 40% with TBA 14 mmol/L. The level of bile acid is found to be associated with fetal complications [ 1 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A few people who use NOW Super Enzymes experience a reaction to the protein digesting enzymes in this formula (Pancreatin, Bromelain & Papain) or to the acid (Betaine HCl). (supplementwarehouse.com)
  • Orphacol® is a medicine containing cholic acid, a substance found in the bile, which is used to digest fats. (b3cnewswire.com)
  • Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: a defect in mitochondrial 26-hydroxylation required for normal biosynthesis of cholic acid. (medscape.com)
  • Cholic acid, sold under the brand name Cholbam, is approved for use in the United States and is indicated as a treatment for children and adults with bile acid synthesis disorders due to single enzyme defects, and for peroxisomal disorders (such as Zellweger syndrome). (wikipedia.org)
  • CHOLBAM is a treatment for infants, children and adults who have a rare condition called bile acid synthesis disorders. (fda.gov)
  • CHOLBAM was studied for the treatment of bile acid synthesis disorders due to what are called single enzyme defects (SEDs). (fda.gov)
  • In the trials that supported the FDA approval of CHOLBAM, 64% of patients with rare bile acid synthesis disorders had improvement in body weight as a measure of growth as well as improvements in liver tests that are expected to be related to less liver damage. (fda.gov)
  • A major primary bile acid produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. (rcsb.org)
  • as in aminoacetic acid, another name for glycine. (absp.org.uk)
  • as in benzoic acid, an acid found in benzoin and other gums. (absp.org.uk)
  • Cholic acid naturally occurs in the human body and plays a crucial role in the digestive process and the absorption of lipophilic nutrients. (viochemicals.com)
  • as in fumaric acid, an acid which occurs in fumitory and other plants. (absp.org.uk)
  • While ICP occurs, high bile acid level in maternal blood made damage to placental transport, leading to bile acid deposition in fetal body [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Disruption in homeostasis of bile acids occurs when there is dysregulation in the synthesis/secretion, transport, or biotransformation of these endogenous substances ( Li and Apte, 2015 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • as in domoic acid, a poisonous amino acid found in marine algae. (absp.org.uk)
  • At the ribosome, the processed mRNA is translated to produce proteins from amino acid units. (cdc.gov)
  • Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is a sulphur-containing compound characterized as an amino acid. (intechopen.com)
  • The presence of a sulfonic group, as opposed to a carboxyl group in other amino acids, gives taurine a pKa value of 1.5 and it is the most acidic amino acid. (intechopen.com)
  • It is an exclusively free amino acid, i.e. it is not incorporated into proteins, but still widely distributed in most body tissues. (intechopen.com)
  • In humans it is regarded as a conditionally essential amino acid due to a limited ability to synthesize it [ 14 , 15 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Levels of total bile acid (TBA), ALT, AST, TBIL, DBIL, and SP-A were determined and the lungs of fetal rats were analyzed for pathological changes. (hindawi.com)
  • The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) regulates the homeostasis of bile acids, lipids and glucose. (nature.com)
  • Maintaining bile acid (BA) homeostasis is important and regulated by BA activated receptors and signaling pathways. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The goal of this minireview is to provide an update on the regulation of bile acid (BA) homeostasis by the nuclear receptor Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and the effects on this regulation by exposure to environmental or therapeutic agents. (aspetjournals.org)
  • To determine the correlation between maternal bile acid (BA) level and fetal pulmonary surfactant in rats and study the effects of BA on fetal lung in rat model of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. (hindawi.com)
  • Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) lead to reduced gastric acid prodution as the H + /K + -adenosine triphosphatase in parietal cells is irreversibly blocked. (medscape.com)
  • In contrast, in SIBO microorganisms in the small intestine synthesize folic acid, which can lead to an increase in folate absorption and in turn to an increased serum folate concentration. (vin.com)
  • folic acid. (absp.org.uk)
  • as in folic acid, an acid in the vitamin B complex. (absp.org.uk)
  • as in iopanoic acid, a compound containing iodine, opaque to X-rays and used in X-ray examination of the gall bladder. (absp.org.uk)
  • Bile acid is transferred from fetus to mother through fetus circulation, and then mother exhausted the exceeding bile acid out of the body with normal liver and gall system. (hindawi.com)
  • The phylogenetically oldest and best documented function of taurine is conjugation with bile acids in bile salt synthesis [ 2 , 3 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • It is indicated for the treatment of inborn errors in primary bile-acid synthesis due to 3β-hydroxy-Δ5-C27-steroid oxidoreductase deficiency or Δ4-3-oxosteroid-5β-reductase deficiency in infants, children and adolescents aged one month to 18 years and adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1968). From our metabolomic final results, the contents of GCA and GCDCA (belonged to primary bile acid) in blood in the grass-fed group have been considerably greater than that on the grainfed group (Table two). (5htreceptor.com)
  • This makes their liver unable to produce enough of the main components of bile, called primary bile acids, such as cholic acid. (b3cnewswire.com)
  • When these primary bile acids are lacking, the body produces abnormal bile acids instead which can damage the liver, potentially leading to life-threatening liver failure. (b3cnewswire.com)
  • In case of microbial imbalance, or dysbiosis, owing to various factors such as diet, drug intake, or disease, the ratio of secondary to primary bile acids may be altered (Figure 2a). (biocrates.com)
  • as in butanoic or butyric acid, an acid found in butter. (absp.org.uk)
  • Bile acid kinetics were evaluated after. (karger.com)
  • Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Kanuma (sebelipase alfa) as the first treatment for patients with a rare disease known as lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) deficiency. (news-medical.net)
  • Urinary pH was acid and urinary bicarbonate negligible in all patients. (karger.com)
  • Additional research is needed to characterize the biological importance of amino acids in the Mn exposure-disease continuum, and to determine how to appropriately utilize and interpret metabolomics data collected from occupational cohorts. (cdc.gov)
  • Results from our study indicated that the addition of capsaicin have better effects to reduce the weight, insulin and fasting blood glucose, and the possibly mechanism can be due to the changes in bile acid composition, microbial abundance and shortchain fatty acids. (ijpsonline.com)
  • as in cresylic acid, an acid found in CRESOL, a compound found in tar and creosote. (absp.org.uk)
  • as in anthranilic acid, an aromatic acid. (absp.org.uk)
  • These two major bile acids are roughly equal in concentration in humans. (wikipedia.org)