Cholic Acid: A major primary bile acid produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption and cholesterol excretion.Cholic Acids: The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.Chenodeoxycholic Acid: A bile acid, usually conjugated with either glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption and is reabsorbed by the small intestine. It is used as cholagogue, a choleretic laxative, and to prevent or dissolve gallstones.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Deoxycholic Acid: A bile acid formed by bacterial action from cholate. It is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. Deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, is reabsorbed itself, and is used as a choleretic and detergent.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Cholestanols: Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.Steroid 12-alpha-Hydroxylase: A liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 12-alpha-hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of sterols in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP8B1gene, converts 7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one to 7-alpha-12-alpha-dihydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and is required in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS from cholesterol.Lithocholic Acid: A bile acid formed from chenodeoxycholate by bacterial action, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as cholagogue and choleretic.Glycocholic Acid: The glycine conjugate of CHOLIC ACID. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed.Enterohepatic Circulation: Recycling through liver by excretion in bile, reabsorption from intestines (INTESTINAL REABSORPTION) into portal circulation, passage back into liver, and re-excretion in bile.Cholestanes: Derivatives of the saturated steroid cholestane with methyl groups at C-18 and C-19 and an iso-octyl side chain at C-17.Eubacterium: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.Xanthomatosis: A condition marked by the development of widespread xanthomas, yellow tumor-like structures filled with lipid deposits. Xanthomas can be found in a variety of tissues including the SKIN; TENDONS; joints of KNEES and ELBOWS. Xanthomatosis is associated with disturbance of LIPID METABOLISM and formation of FOAM CELLS.Ursodeoxycholic Acid: An epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a mammalian bile acid found first in the bear and is apparently either a precursor or a product of chenodeoxycholate. Its administration changes the composition of bile and may dissolve gallstones. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.Cholesterol 7-alpha-Hydroxylase: A membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 7-alpha-hydroxylation of CHOLESTEROL in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP7, converts cholesterol to 7-alpha-hydroxycholesterol which is the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS.Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Cholelithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).Taurocholic Acid: The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.Gallbladder: A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.Cholestyramine Resin: A strongly basic anion exchange resin whose main constituent is polystyrene trimethylbenzylammonium Cl(-) anion.Taurine: A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Enzymes of the oxidoreductase class that catalyze the dehydrogenation of hydroxysteroids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.-.Cholestenones: CHOLESTENES with one or more double bonds and substituted by any number of keto groups.Cholesterol, Dietary: Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.CholanesGas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.ValeratesIodipamide: A water-soluble radiographic contrast media for cholecystography and intravenous cholangiography.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Dehydrocholic Acid: A semisynthetic bile acid made from cholic acid. It is used as a cholagogue, hydrocholeretic, diuretic, and as a diagnostic aid.Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Cholates: Salts and esters of CHOLIC ACID.Norsteroids: Steroids which have undergone contraction in ring size or reduction in side chains.Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase: An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.Hydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Indenes: A family of fused-ring hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar that act as intermediates in various chemical reactions and are used in the production of coumarone-indene resins.Apazone: An anti-inflammatory agent used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It also has uricosuric properties and has been used to treat gout.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Pregnenes: Unsaturated derivatives of PREGNANES.Sulfobromophthalein: A phenolphthalein that is used as a diagnostic aid in hepatic function determination.Griseofulvin: An antifungal agent used in the treatment of TINEA infections.Glycodeoxycholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with glycine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Biliary Fistula: Abnormal passage in any organ of the biliary tract or between biliary organs and other organs.Taurodeoxycholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic, also industrially as a fat emulsifier.Glycochenodeoxycholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver from chenodeoxycholate and glycine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is a cholagogue and choleretic.3-alpha-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase (B-Specific): A 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase which catalyzes the reversible reduction of the active androgen, DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE to 5 ALPHA-ANDROSTANE-3 ALPHA,17 BETA-DIOL. It also has activity towards other 3-alpha-hydroxysteroids and on 9-, 11- and 15- hydroxyprostaglandins. The enzyme is B-specific in reference to the orientation of reduced NAD or NADPH.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cholestasis, Intrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow due to injury to the HEPATOCYTES; BILE CANALICULI; or the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC).Coenzyme A Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Radioisotope Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Cholagogues and Choleretics: Gastrointestinal agents that stimulate the flow of bile into the duodenum (cholagogues) or stimulate the production of bile by the liver (choleretic).Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.TritiumSitosterols: A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.Arthrobacter: A genus of asporogenous bacteria isolated from soil that displays a distinctive rod-coccus growth cycle.Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.Microbodies: Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.Bile Canaliculi: Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.Mesocricetus: A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Pantothenic Acid: A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.Isotope Labeling: Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.Hydroxycholesterols: Cholesterol which is substituted by a hydroxy group in any position.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

An allosteric synthetic DNA. (1/334)

Allosteric DNA oligonucleotides are potentially useful diagnostic reagents. Here we develop a model system for the study of allosteric interactions in DNAs. A DNA that binds either Cibacron blue or cholic acid was isolated and partially characterized. Isolation was performed using a multi-stage SELEX. First, short oligos that bind either Cibacron blue or cholic acid were enriched from random oligonucleotide pools. Then, members of the two pools were fused to form longer oligos, which were then selected for theability to bind Cibacron blue columns and elute with cholic acid. One resulting isolate (A22) was studied. Dye- and cholate-binding functions can be separated on sequences from the 5'- and 3'-regions, respectively. Ligand-column affinity assays indicate that each domain binds only its respective ligand. However, the full-length A22 will bind either dye or cholate columns and elute with the other ligand, as if binding by the ligands is mutually exclusive. Furthermore, S1 nuclease protection assays show that Cibacron blue causes a structural change in A22 and that cholic acid inhibits this change. This system will be useful for elucidating mechanisms of allosteric interactions in synthetic DNAs.  (+info)

Cholic acid aids absorption, biliary secretion, and phase transitions of cholesterol in murine cholelithogenesis. (2/334)

Cholic acid is a critical component of the lithogenic diet in mice. To determine its pathogenetic roles, we fed chow or 1% cholesterol with or without 0.5% cholic acid to C57L/J male mice, which because of lith genes have 100% gallstone prevalence rates. After 1 yr on the diets, we measured bile flow, biliary lipid secretion rates, hepatic cholesterol and bile salt synthesis, and intestinal cholesterol absorption. After hepatic conjugation with taurine, cholate replaced most tauro-beta-muricholate in bile. Dietary cholic acid plus cholesterol increased bile flow and biliary lipid secretion rates and reduced cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase activity significantly mostly via deoxycholic acid, cholate's bacterial 7alpha-dehydroxylation product but did not downregulate cholesterol biosynthesis. Intestinal cholesterol absorption doubled, and biliary cholesterol crystallized as phase boundaries shifted. Feeding mice 1% cholesterol alone produced no lithogenic or homeostatic effects. We conclude that in mice cholic acid promotes biliary cholesterol hypersecretion and cholelithogenesis by enhancing intestinal absorption, hepatic bioavailability, and phase separation of cholesterol in bile.  (+info)

Antilithiasic effect of beta-cyclodextrin in LPN hamster: comparison with cholestyramine. (3/334)

Beta-Cyclodextrin (BCD), a cyclic oligosaccharide that binds cholesterol and bile acids in vitro, has been previously shown to be an effective plasma cholesterol lowering agent in hamsters and domestic pigs. This study examined the effects of BCD as compared with cholestyramine on cholesterol and bile acid metabolism in the LPN hamster model model for cholesterol gallstones. The incidence of cholesterol gallstones was 65% in LPN hamsters fed the lithogenic diet, but decreased linearly with increasing amounts of BCD in the diet to be nil at a dose of 10% BCD. In gallbladder bile, cholesterol, phospholipid and chenodeoxycholate concentrations, hydrophobic and lithogenic indices were all significantly decreased by 10% BCD. Increases in bile acid synthesis (+110%), sterol 27-hydroxylase activity (+106%), and biliary cholate secretion (+140%) were also observed, whereas the biliary secretion of chenodeoxycholate decreased (-43%). The fecal output of chenodeoxycholate and cholate (plus derivatives) was increased by +147 and +64%, respectively, suggesting that BCD reduced the chenodeoxycholate intestinal absorption preferentially. Dietary cholestyramine decreased biliary bile acid concentration and secretion, but dramatically increased the fecal excretion of chenodeoxycholate and cholate plus their derivatives (+328 and +1940%, respectively). In contrast to BCD, the resin increased the lithogenic index in bile, induced black gallstones in 34% of hamsters, and stimulated markedly the activities of HMG-CoA reductase (+670%), sterol 27-hydroxylase (+310%), and cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (+390%). Thus, beta-cyclodextrin (BCD) prevented cholesterol gallstone formation by decreasing specifically the reabsorption of chenodeoxycholate, stimulating its biosynthesis and favoring its fecal elimination. BCD had a milder effect on lipid metabolism than cholestyramine and does not predispose animals to black gallstones as cholestyramine does in this animal model.  (+info)

Polyspecific substrate uptake by the hepatic organic anion transporter Oatp1 in stably transfected CHO cells. (4/334)

The rat liver organic anion transporting polypeptide (Oatp1) has been extensively characterized mainly in the Xenopus laevis expression system as a polyspecific carrier transporting organic anions (bile salts), neutral compounds, and even organic cations. In this study, we extended this characterization using a mammalian expression system and confirm the basolateral hepatic expression of Oatp1 with a new antibody. Besides sulfobromophthalein [Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of approximately 3 microM], taurocholate (Km of approximately 32 microM), and estradiol- 17beta-glucuronide (Km of approximately 4 microM), substrates previously shown to be transported by Oatp1 in transfected HeLa cells, we determined the kinetic parameters for cholate (Km of approximately 54 microM), glycocholate (Km of approximately 54 microM), estrone-3-sulfate (Km of approximately 11 microM), CRC-220 (Km of approximately 57 microM), ouabain (Km of approximately 3,000 microM), and ochratoxin A (Km of approximately 29 microM) in stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. In addition, three new substrates, taurochenodeoxycholate (Km of approximately 7 microM), tauroursodeoxycholate (Km of approximately 13 microM), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (Km of approximately 5 microM), were also investigated. The results establish the polyspecific nature of Oatp1 in a mammalian expression system and definitely identify conjugated dihydroxy bile salts and steroid conjugates as high-affinity endogenous substrates of Oatp1.  (+info)

Biliary bile acids in primary biliary cirrhosis: effect of ursodeoxycholic acid. (5/334)

Bile acid composition in fasting duodenal bile was assessed at entry and at 2 years in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) (10-12 mg/kg/d) taken as a single bedtime dose. Specimens were analyzed by a high-pressure liquid chromatography method that had been validated against gas chromatography. Percent composition in bile (mean +/- SD) for 98 patients at entry for cholic (CA), chenodeoxycholic (CDCA), deoxycholic (DCA), lithocholic (LCA), and ursodeoxycholic (UDCA) acids, respectively, were 57.4 +/- 18.6, 31.5 +/- 15.5, 8.0 +/- 9.3, 0.3 +/- 1.0, and 0.6 +/- 0.9. Values for CA were increased, whereas those for CDCA, DCA, LCA, and UDCA were decreased when compared with values in normal persons. Bile acid composition of the major bile acids did not change after 2 years on placebo medication. By contrast, in patients receiving UDCA for 2 years, bile became enriched with UDCA on average to 40.1%, and significant decreases were noted for CA (to 32.2%) and CDCA (to 19.5%). No change in percent composition was observed for DCA and LCA. Percent composition at entry and changes in composition after 2 years on UDCA were similar in patients with varying severity of PBC. In patients whose bile was not enriched in UDCA (entry and placebo-treated specimens), CA, CDCA, DCA, and the small amount of UDCA found in some of these specimens were conjugated to a greater extent with glycine (52%-64%) than with taurine (36%-48%). Treatment with UDCA caused the proportion of all endogenous bile acids conjugated with glycine to increase to 69% to 78%, while the proportion conjugated with taurine (22%-31%) fell (P <.05). Administered UDCA was also conjugated predominantly with glycine (87%).  (+info)

Fecal steroid excretion is increased in rats by oral administration of gymnemic acids contained in Gymnema sylvestre leaves. (6/334)

Gymnemic acids are the saponins with a triterpenoid structure contained in Gymnema sylvestre leaves and have the hypoglycemic effects. In spite of the cholesterol-binding properties of saponins, the effect of gymnemic acids on cholesterol metabolism has not been elucidated to date. We investigated the effects of gymnemic acids on fecal steroid excretion in rats. Three kinds of extracts from Gymnema sylvestre leaves, extract (GSE), acid precipitate (GSA) and column fractionate (GSF), of which the gymnemagenin (an aglycone of gymnemic acids) concentrations are 58.87, 161.6, and 363.3 mg/g respectively, were used for the experiments. These were administered to rats orally at the dose of 0.05-1.0 g/kg for 22 d. Rats were given free access to water and nonpurified diet without cholesterol, and the differences in fecal excretion of steroids and gymnemic acids were investigated. Although there were no significant effects of GSE, GSA and GSF decreased body weight gain and food intakes in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.01). GSF (1.0 g/kg) significantly increased fecal excretion of neutral steroids and bile acids in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05), especially those of cholesterol and cholic acid (CA)-derived bile acids. The increases in fecal steroid excretion of cholesterol, total neutral steroids, total bile acids and CA-related bile acids were acute and significantly correlated with fecal gymnemagenin levels (r2 = 0.2316-0.9861, P < 0. 05). These results demonstrated for the first time that a high dose of gymnemic acids increases fecal cholesterol and CA-derived bile acid excretion. Further studies are needed to clarify the effect of gymnemic acids on cholesterol metabolism.  (+info)

Structure, evolution, and liver-specific expression of sterol 12alpha-hydroxylase P450 (CYP8B). (7/334)

The rat CYP8B cDNA encoding sterol 12alpha-hydroxylase was cloned and sequenced. The amino acid sequence of the heme-binding region of CYP8B was close to those of CYP7A (cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase) and CYP7B (oxysterol 7alpha-hydroxylase). Molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests that CYP8B and the CYP7 family derive from a common ancestor. The P450s of the CYP7 and CYP8 families, except for CYP8A (prostacyclin synthase), catalyze the oxygenation of sterols from an alpha surface in the middle of the steroid skeleton. These facts suggest that CYP8B is a P450 closely linked to those of the CYP7 family. CYP8B was expressed specifically in liver. Hepatic CYP8B mRNA level and the 12alpha-hydroxylase activity were altered by cholestyramine feeding, starvation, streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus, and administration of clofibrate, dexamethasone or thyroxin, indicating the pretranslational regulation of CYP8B expression. The enhanced CYP8B mRNA expression in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was significantly decreased by insulin within 3 h of its administration. These facts demonstrate a regulatory role of insulin in CYP8B expression as a suppressor.  (+info)

Gallstone formation and gallbladder mucosal changes in mice fed a lithogenic diet. (8/334)

To investigate the pathologic change of gallbladder mucosa related to gallstone formation, 52 mice were fed a lithogenic diet containing 1% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid and we evaluated the sequential morphologic changes in the gallbladder from two days to 40 weeks. Cholesterol gallstones began to appear after two weeks and all the mice had gallstones after eight weeks. At two days, the mitotic index was at its highest. The gallbladder mucosa showed progressive hyperplastic change with earlier papillary projection of the folds and later inward proliferation. At the same time of stone formation, mucous cells forming glands appeared. Their histochemical profile of mucin was different from that of normal epithelium. Numbers of mucous cells increased gradually until 24 weeks but slightly decreased afterward. These results suggest hyperplasia and metaplasia are closely related to the gallstone formation. Hyperplasia is probably reactive to irritating effect of lithogenic bile or stone. Metaplasia and cholesterol gallstone may develop simultaneously, and act synergistically.  (+info)

Information for Cholic acid 81-25-4 including Cholic acid CAS NO 81-25-4, Cholic acid Suppliers, Cholic acid Manufacturers, related products of Cholic acid.
Cholic acid is a bile acid. Bile acids are produced naturally in the body to aid in digestion of fats and certain nutrients. People with bile acid disorders are unable to produce cholic acid normally. This can make it harder for the body to absorb nutrients important for health, growth, and body functioning. Abnormal...
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History The rodent magic size can be used to review cosmetic nerve injury commonly. practical deficit subsequent cosmetic nerve repair and transection inside a rodent magic size. Strategies Adult rats had been split into group 1 (settings) and group 2 (experimental). Group 1 pets underwent mind fixation accompanied by a cosmetic nerve damage and functional Read More. ...
Cholic (?), Cho*linic (?), a. [Gr. , from bile.] Physiology|Physiol. Chemistry|Chem. Pertaining to, or obtained from, the bi...
View drug interactions between cholic acid and deoxycholic acid. These medicines may also interact with certain foods or diseases.
27-Hydroxycholesterol (27OH) is a strong suppressor of cholesterol synthesis and a weak activator of LXR in vitro. The regulatory importance of 27OH in vivo is controversial. Here we utilized male mice with increased levels of 27OH either due to increased production (CYP27A1 transgenic mice) or reduced metabolism (Cyp7b1-/- mice). We also used mice lacking 27OH due to a knockout of Cyp27a1. The latter mice were treated with cholic acid to compensate for reduced bile acid synthesis. The effects of the different levels of 27OH on Srebp- and other LXR-regulated genes in the liver were investigated. In the liver of CYP27tg mice we found a modest increase of the mRNA levels corresponding to the LXR target genes Cyp7b1 and Abca1. A number of other LXR-regulated genes were not affected. The effect on Abca1 mRNA was not seen in the liver of Cyp7b1-/- mice. There were little or no effects on cholesterol synthesis. In the liver of the Cyp27-/- mice treated with 0.025% cholic acid there was no significant ...
Chemicals. [2,4-3H]cholic acid (24.5 Ci/mmol) was purchased from Amersham Biosciences (Piscataway, NJ). Folic acid, cholic acid (sodium salt), pyrimethamine, etoposide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and probenecid were obtained from Sigma Chemical Co. (St. Louis, MO). MK571 was obtained from Merck Frosst Canada (Kirkland, PQ, Canada), prostaglandin A1 from Cayman Chemicals (Ann Arbor, MI), calcein AM from Molecular Probes (Eugene, OR), and G-418 from Calbiochem-Novabiochem (San Diego, CA).. Tissue Culture. A clonal subline (C11) of CHO AA8 cells was subjected to stepwise selection with increasing concentrations of pyrimethamine, resulting in the establishment of PyrR100 cells as described previously (Assaraf and Slotky, 1993). Parental CHO AA8 cells and their PyrR100 subline were maintained as monolayer cultures at 37°C in RPMI-1640 medium containing 5% fetal calf serum (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA), 2.3 μM folic acid, supplemented with 2 mM glutamine, 100 μg/ml penicillin/streptomycin, and 1 mM ...
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Abstract Recent studies indicate an important role for nuclear receptors in regulating lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, fibrosis and inflammation. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. FXR is highly expressed in the liver, intestine, adrenal gland and kidney. The primary bile acids are the highest affinity endogenous ligands for FXR. The effects of FXR agonists in diabetic kidney disease, the main cause of end stage renal disease, however have not been determined. To identify the effect of FXR activation in modulation of diabetic nephropathy, we have treated 1) C57BL/6J mice on low fat diet or high fat diet with FXR agonists (GW4064 or cholic acid) for one week; 2) C57BLKS/J-db/db mice and their lean mates with GW4064 for one week; and 3) C57BL/6J-db/db mice and their lean mates with cholic acid for 12 weeks. We found that FXR agonists modulate renal SREBP-1 expression and lipid metabolism, as well as renal expression of profibrotic growth factors, ...
We report that star-shaped molecules with cholic acid cores asymmetrically grafted by low molecular weight polymers with hydrogen bonding end-groups undergo aggregation to nanofibers, which subsequently wrap into micrometer spherical aggregates with low density cores. Therein the facially amphiphilic cholic acid (CA) is functionalized by four flexible allyl glycidyl ether (AGE) side chains, which are terminated with hydrogen bonding 2-ureido-4[1H]pyrimidinone (UPy) end-groups as connected by hexyl spacers, denoted as CA(AGE6-C6H12-UPy)4. This wedge-shaped molecule is expected to allow the formation of a rich variety of solvent-dependent structures due to the complex interplay of interactions, enabled by its polar/nonpolar surface-active structure, the hydrophobicity of the CA in aqueous medium, and the possibility to control hydrogen bonding between UPy molecules by solvent selection. In DMSO, the surfactant-like CA(AGE6-C6H12-UPy)4 self-assembles into nanometer scale micelles, as expected due ...
Bile acid in the stomach plays a key role in the digestion of food in the small intestine. Two chief bile acids produced in the body include chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid. These acids assist in the creation of micelles, which aids in breaking down dietary fat, and is integral for the digestion of fat in the small intestine. Bile acid is a fluid secreted by the hepatocytes that flows into the canaliculi. From the canaliculi, it reaches the bile ducts, and is then transferred to the gall bladder where it is concentrated with time and the addition of other bodily fluids. Bile acids are derived from the cholesterol inside of the hepatocytem, and are made up of hydrophilic or polar faces and lipid or hydrophobic faces. Cholesterol gets converted into chenodeoxycholic and cholic acids, which are two forms of bile acid. These are combined with amino acids and released into the canaliculi. This combined nature of bile acids enables them to perform two of the most important functions in the ...
Description: A bile acid formed by bacterial action from cholate. It is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. Deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, is reabsorbed itself, and is used as a choleretic and detergent ...
The designing, synthesizing and screening of one-bead-one-compound (OBOC) combinatorial chemistry libraries against a single target ligand has been well developed. Recently, novel cholesterol/peptide hybrid combinatorial One-Bead-One-Compound (OBOC) combinatorial libraries have been developed and synthesized with self folding capabilities. The library design strategy was based on a similar pentamer and hexamer self-folding branched tricylic libraries previously developed. The cholic acid on the side chain of the carboxyl lysine is believed to interact with fixed hydrophobic amino acids at the amino-termini (position 5) of the twin branched L-amino acid arms and self-fold into a tricyclic molecule. The newly synthesized library has arginine (R) and Lysine (K) down-proportioned to 10 % for each position to decrease the probability of positive charge nonspecific binding. Thirty L-, D-, and unnatural amino acids were used in each position as building blocks. Hydrophobicity was fixed at position 5 ...
Mac. Now. pray, ladies, take your places. Here, fellow [Pays the harper.\ Bid the drawer bring us more wine. [Exit harper.] If any of the ladies chuse gin, I hope they will be so free to call for it.. Jen. You look as if you meant me. Wine is strong enough for me. Indeed, sir, I never drink strong waters but when I have the cholic.. Mac. Just the excuse of the fine ladies! why, a lady of quality is never without the cholic. I hope, Mrs. Coaxer, you have had good success of late in your visits among the mercers. 192. Coax. We have so many interlopers; yet with industry one may still have a little picking. I carried a silver-flowered lutestring and a piece of black pade. soy to Mr. Peachums lock but last week.. Fix. Theres Molly Brazen hath the ogle of a rattle-snake: she riveted a linen-drapers eye so fast upon her, that he was nicked of three pieces of cambric before he could look off. 200. Braz. Oh, dear Madam! But sure nothing can. come up to your handling of laces; and then you have such a ...
Bile acid synthesis, determined by conversion of [4-14C]cholesterol into bile acids in rat and human hepatocytes and by measurement of mass production of bile acids in rat hepatocytes, was dose-dependently decreased by cyclosporin A, with 52% (rat) and 45% (human) inhibition of 10 microM. The decreased bile acid production in rat hepatocytes was due only to a fall in the synthesis of beta-muricholic and chenodeoxycholic acids (-64% at 10 microM-cyclosporin A), with no change in the formation of cholic acid. In isolated rat liver mitochondria, 26-hydroxylation of cholesterol was potently inhibited by the drug (concn. giving half-maximal inhibition = 4 microM). These results suggest that cyclosporin A blocks the alternative pathway in bile acid synthesis, which leads preferentially to the formation of chenodeoxycholic acid. ...
While screening bile acid derivatives to find a suitable TGR5 agonist, Pellicciari and his colleagues discovered the importance of two alkyl moieties on the steroid scaffold. They also noted that the bile acid cholic acid can reverse diabetes in obese mice at extremely high doses. By incorporating the pair of slight alkyl modifications into cholic acids side chain and b ring, they developed a potent drug candidate, INT-777, which is entering clinical trials as a treatment for diabetes. It was developed in collaboration with Johan Auwerx and his team at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne (J. Med. Chem. 2009, 52, 7958).. ...
1. The effects of phenobarbitone on cholesterol and bile acid metabolism have been examined in healthy humans.. 2. In three of four subjects the faecal excretion of bile acids was increased by phenobarbitone. This was associated with an increased pool size and turnover of cholic acid. Cholesterol excretion was not clearly affected. The fourth subject who did not respond was also exceptional in not showing an increase in the plasma clearance of antipyrine.. 3. The three responsive subjects also developed significant increases in plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. These findings were associated with an early rise in very-low-density lipoprotein and a fall in plasma cholesterol specific radioactivity in one patient, changes compatible with increased cholesterol synthesis. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bile acids lower triglyceride levels via a pathway involving FXR, SHP, and SREBP-1c. AU - Watanabe, Mitsuhiro. AU - Houten, Sander M.. AU - Wang, Li. AU - Moschetta, Antonio. AU - Mangelsdorf, David J.. AU - Heyman, Richard A.. AU - Moore, David D.. AU - Auwerx, Johan. PY - 2004/1/1. Y1 - 2004/1/1. N2 - We explored the effects of bile acids on triglyceride (TG) homeostasis using a combination of molecular, cellular, and animal models. Cholic acid (CA) prevents hepatic TG accumulation, VLDL secretion, and elevated serum TG in mouse models of hypertriglyceridemia. At the molecular level, CA decreases hepatic expression of SREBP-1c and its lipogenic target genes. Through the use of mouse mutants for the short heterodimer partner (SHP) and liver X receptor (LXR) α and β, we demonstrate the critical dependence of the reduction of SREBP-1c expression by either natural or synthetic farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonists on both SHP and LXRα and LXRβ. These results suggest that ...
Xing, X., Burgermeister, E., Geisler, F., Einwächter, H., Fan, L., Hiber, M., Rauser, S., Walch, A., Röcken, C., Ebeling, M., Wright, M. B., Schmid, R. M. and Ebert, M. P.A. (2009), Hematopoietically expressed homeobox is a target gene of farnesoid X receptor in chenodeoxycholic acid-induced liver hypertrophy. Hepatology, 49: 979-988. doi: 10.1002/hep.22712 ...
A high-absorbable transvaginal preparation having excellent absorbability of the active ingredient, which comprises a biologically active polypeptide and an absorption promoter comprising a polyoxyethylenealkylphenyl ether and one or more compounds selected from the group consisting of an N-acylamino acid, cholic acids, pectic acid, taurine, saccharin, glycyrrhizic acid, aspartame, or a salt thereof.
Creative-Proteomics offer cas 83-44-3 DEOXYCHOLIC ACID (2,2,4,4-D4, 98%). We are specialized in manufacturing Stabel Isotope Labeled Analytical Standard products.
Bile acid synthesis defects may manifest in the neonatal period or later. This panel is specifically designed to cover the genes which lead to neonatal or infantile onset of symptoms. The Jaundice NGS Panel is an option for those cases which present with jaundice and an unclear cause.
Using deoxycholic acid as starting materials, a series of 12a-aza-C-homo-12-one 7-deoxycholic acid derivatives were synthesized The antiproliferative activity of the synthesized compounds against some carcinoma cell lines was investigated. The results showed that some 12-oxy-12a-aza-C-homo-7-deoxycholic acid derivatives displayed distinct cytotoxicity to HeLa (human cervical carcinoma) and Tu 686 (laryngocarcinoma) tumor ...
1. The duodenal bile acid composition was analysed in 24 control subjects and 107 patients with various types of hyperlipoproteinaemia. A highly significant negative correlation was observed between the proportions of deoxycholic acid and cholic acid as well as between deoxycholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. Patients with gall-bladder disease had an increased proportion of deoxycholic acid in their bile.. 2. Eight control subjects were studied before and during the ingestion of 1·9 mmol (0·75 g) of deoxycholic acid daily. In these subjects a rise in the proportion of deoxycholic acid was also accompanied by a fall in the proportion of both cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid in duodenal bile.. 3. The biliary lipid composition and cholesterol saturation was determined before and during the administration of 1·9 mmol (0·75 g) of chenodeoxycholic acid (n = 12) or deoxycholic acid (n = 8) daily for 3-4 weeks. The cholesterol saturation was decreased during the chenodeoxycholic acid ...
Chenodeoxycholoyl-CoA is bile acid Coenzyme A ester. In humans, bile acids conjugated with glycine and taurine are the major solutes in bile, and unconjugated bile acids are almost nondetectable in normal bile. Conjugated bile acids are less toxic and are more efficient promoters of intestinal absorption of dietary lipid than unconjugated bile acids. The synthesis of bile acid and amino acid conjugates in human liver is the result of two independent enzymatic reactions with a bile acid coenzyme A thioester intermediate formation of bile acid-CoA esters, considered the rate-limiting step in bile acid amidation and catalyzed by an ATP-dependent microsomal enzyme, bile acid-CoA synthetase (EC 6.2.1.7). In the second reaction, the thioester bond is cleaved, and an amide bond is formed between the bile acid and the amino acids glycine or taurine. The bile acid-CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.65) catalyzes this reaction in the cytosol prior to secretion into bile. In human liver the ...
PROTOCOL OUTLINE: Patients receive oral cholic acid and oral chenodeoxycholic acid on day 1. On day 4, patients receive oral cholic and ursodeoxycholic acids. Patients are assessed at 3 and 6 months for liver function response, neurologic status, and nutritional status.. Patients receive treatment until disease progression or unacceptable toxic effects are observed.. Completion date provided represents the completion date of the grant per OOPD records ...
Phospholipids and bile acids, by virtue of their amphiphilic properties, can interact in nonpolar media forming "inverted" structures (micelles) which presumably have an hydrophilic core and might act as diffusional carriers (ionophores) of electrolytes across low dielectric constant media or lipid membranes.. The Na+ ionophoretic capability of various purified phospholipids and the modulating effects of bile acids and phospatidylcholine was examined by: (a) measurement of 22Na+ partition into the organic phase (chloroform) of a two-phase system and (b) direct measurement of the translocation of 22Na+ across a bulk chloroform phase separating two aqueous phases in a Pressman cell. All phospholipids tested, except for phosphatidylcholine, showed ionophoretic capability for Na+ at micromolar concentrations. Cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine were the most efficient Na+ carriers, comparable with monensin, an established Na+ ionophore. In contrast, cholic acid as well as other bile acids ...
CYP7A1 encodes the rate limiting enzyme for the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids. Several studies have demonstrated that elevated expression of CYP7A1 confers protection from hypercholesterolemia. CYP7A1 expression is regulated by two nuclear receptors, farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and small heterodimer (SHP). Here we demonstrate that although FXR−/ − and SHP−/ − mice have similarly elevated levels of CYP7A1, FXR−/ − mice have elevated serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels and serum markers of hepatic inflammation whereas the SHP−/ − mice do not. This suggestion of a beneficial lipid effect of the loss of SHP was confirmed in a cholesterol/cholic acid diet model, in which SHP−/ − mice were strongly protected form diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and hepatic inflammation. To examine the effects of the loss of SHP in a model relevant to human dyslipidemia, we generated LDLR−/ −SHP−/ − mice. The LDLR−/ −SHP−/ − mice were highly resistant to Western ...
The classical functions of bile acids include acting as detergents to facilitate the digestion and absorption of nutrients in the gut. In addition, bile acids also act as signaling molecules to regulate glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism and energy expenditure. The signaling potential of bile acids in compartments such as the systemic circulation is regulated in part by an efficient enterohepatic circulation that functions to conserve and channel the pool of bile acids within the intestinal and hepatobiliary compartments. Changes in hepatobiliary and intestinal bile acid transport can alter the composition, size, and distribution of the bile acid pool. These alterations in turn can have significant effects on bile acid signaling and their downstream metabolic targets. This review discusses recent advances in our understanding of the inter-relationship between the enterohepatic cycling of bile acids and the metabolic consequences of signaling via bile acid-activated receptors, such as ...
The classical functions of bile acids include acting as detergents to facilitate the digestion and absorption of nutrients in the gut. In addition, bile acids also act as signaling molecules to regulate glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism and energy expenditure. The signaling potential of bile acids in compartments such as the systemic circulation is regulated in part by an efficient enterohepatic circulation that functions to conserve and channel the pool of bile acids within the intestinal and hepatobiliary compartments. Changes in hepatobiliary and intestinal bile acid transport can alter the composition, size, and distribution of the bile acid pool. These alterations in turn can have significant effects on bile acid signaling and their downstream metabolic targets. This review discusses recent advances in our understanding of the inter-relationship between the enterohepatic cycling of bile acids and the metabolic consequences of signaling via bile acid-activated receptors, such as ...
It is widely accepted that hyperlipidemia may lead to atherosclerosis, and hyperlipidemia has been identified as an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke [14]. Extensive epidemiologic and experimental studies have supported the conception that hyperlipidemia may cause nervous system-related diseases [15, 16]. We evaluated the hyperlipidemia model with reference to the Deepa modeling method (normal rat chow supplemented with 4% cholesterol, 1% cholic acid and 0.5% thiouracil, also called the CCT diet) [9]. In rats that were fed the CCT diet for 1 week, the levels of serum TC, TG and LDL-C increased by 2.40, 1.29 and 1.75 times,(P , 0.05), respectively, and the levels of serum HDL-C decreased by 0.26 times (P , 0.05). Factorial analysis shows that the severity of hyperlipidemia was aggravated with the extension of the CCT diet.. Brain tissue is composed of neurons and glial cells, and this tissue is a significant integration center for body movements, sensations ...
Glycocholic Acid: The glycine conjugate of CHOLIC ACID. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed.
Health Benefits and Bioactive Components of the. at a dosage comparable to the amount. 2003; Kuti, 2004). In addition, taurine, a cell-protective β-amino acid.Antiviral agents active against influenza A viruses Erik De Clercq. sialic-acid receptors used by both human and avian. at a once-weekly dosing regimen. Antimicrob.Producon of Oseltamivir anviral drug. Producon of caffeoylquinic acids for HIV treatment. Technology Licensing. Shikimic acid is an important starng.Brazilian journal of pharmaceutical sciences; Development of mesalazine pellets coated with methacrylic. is the standard drug for the treatment of inflammatory.Keywords: Chapter 9a, Clinical Microbiology and Virology. Aseptic technique Collection of specimens for microbiologic testing in a way that eliminates contamination.NEW ZEALAND PHARMACEUTICALS LTD Product List Cholic Acid Pharmaceutical intermediate: raw material for the production of.. every 2 weeks at recommended dosage. dont trim the grass or plants 1 to 2 days after ...
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Get rid of your double chin or saggy neck - wouldnt that be wonderful? Well today we share some exciting new options for those of you who really want to do something about your chin or neck but dont know what is available. Our neck & chin area has traditionally been difficult to improve, with…. Read More ...
Subcellular localization of 3 alpha, 7 alpha-dihydroxy- and 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoyl-coenzyme A ligase(s) in rat liver ...
Dec 22, 2005. SAN DIEGO, CA - Dec 22, 2005 - Diazyme Laboratories, a company that applies its proprietary enzyme technologies to develop low cost and high quality diagnostic products for clinical and research uses, announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted Diazyme 510(K) clearance to market its Enzymatic Total Bile Acids (TBA) Assay Kit for the quantitative determination of total bile acids in human blood samples.. Total bile acids is a well known bio-marker for diagnosis of liver diseases. Serum total bile acids are elevated in patients with acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, liver sclerosis, and liver cancer. Total bile acids levels are found to be the most sensitive indicator for monitoring the effectiveness of interferon treatment of chronic hepatitis C patients. Moreover, total bile acids tests are also widely used to screen pregnant women for the condition of obstetric cholestasis, a disease that is caused by elevated total bile acids in the bloodstream ...
Anhui Chem-Bright Bioengineering Co.,Ltd is a modernized enterprise specialized in research & development, manufacturing and selling of Active Pharmaceutical Intermediates and feed additive.. Our main products are cholesterol, bilirubin,cholic acid, hyodeoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, pig bile powder, ox bile powder,sodium cholate,Deoxycholic acid,Sodium Deoxycholate,Dehydrocholic acid,Sodium Dehydrocholate,Chondronitin Sulfate.. Our factory covers an area of over 36,000 square meter, included standard workshop, warehouse, research center, laboratory, office building, and other devices, with a total investment of more than CNY 75 million.We had established 10-thousand-grade Purification Room, and introduced advanced equipments both for research and production from home and abroad. Our production management is strictly conducted by the requirement of GMP of China,ISO9001-2008, and all of our products could meet the requirements of international standards.In 2013, products including ...
Acyl-CoA synthetase involved in bile acid metabolism. Proposed to catalyze the first step in the conjugation of C24 bile acids (choloneates) to glycine and taurine before excretion into bile canaliculi by activating them to their CoA thioesters. Seems to activate secondary bile acids entering the liver from the enterohepatic circulation. In vitro, also activates 3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-trihydroxy-5-beta-cholestanate (THCA), the C27 precursor of cholic acid deriving from the de novo synthesis from cholesterol.
In addition to their well-known function as dietary lipid detergents, bile acids have emerged as important signalling molecules that regulate energy homeostasis. Recent studies have highlighted that disrupted bile acid metabolism is associated with metabolism disorders such as dyslipidaemia, intestinal chronic inflammatory diseases and obesity. In particular, type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with quantitative and qualitative modifications in bile acid metabolism. Bile acids bind and modulate the activity of transmembrane and nuclear receptors (NR). Among these receptors, the G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (TGR5) and the NR farnesoid X receptor (FXR) are implicated in the regulation of bile acid, lipid, glucose and energy homeostasis. The role of these receptors in the intestine... in energy metabolism regulation has been recently highlighted. More precisely, recent studies have shown that FXR is important for glucose homeostasis in particular in metabolic disorders such as T2D and ...
The serum concentration of TBA in healthy neonates significantly exceeds that in children over 1 year of age, a condition called physiological cholestasis.9 The urinary TBA:creatinine ratio was raised in the first week after birth, then decreased gradually. The high concentration of TBA in urine may be attributable to either an enhanced stimulation of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids or an impaired hepatic clearance or excretion.10The highest value for TBA in meconium was in neonates. This value is greatly influenced by events or conditions during pregnancy, such as the presence of biliary bile in the fetal duodenum or the ingestion of amniotic fluid by the fetus.10 11 Ketonic bile acids are usually considered to result from the bacterial oxidation of primary bile acids.12 In this study we detected ketonic bile acids early in life. The intestine may be colonised by bacterial flora during the first week.13 A high concentration of 3-oxo Δ4 bile acids in serum or urine has been ...
FXR is expressed at high levels in the liver and intestine. Chenodeoxycholic acid and other bile acids are natural ligands for FXR. Similar to other nuclear receptors, when activated, FXR translocates to the cell nucleus, forms a dimer (in this case a heterodimer with RXR) and binds to hormone response elements on DNA, which up- or down-regulates the expression of certain genes.[6] One of the primary functions of FXR activation is the suppression of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid synthesis from cholesterol. FXR does not directly bind to the CYP7A1 promoter. Rather, FXR induces expression of small heterodimer partner (SHP), which then functions to inhibit transcription of the CYP7A1 gene. In this way, a negative feedback pathway is established in which synthesis of bile acids is inhibited when cellular levels are already high. FXR has also been found to be important in regulation of hepatic triglyceride levels.[7] Studies have also shown the FXR to ...
The diethanolamine salt of the mono (α,p-dimethylbenzyl) ester of d-camphoric acid (Gallogen) augmented diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and hyperlipemia in the rat, while depressing liver cholesterol and total lipid concentrations. Diethanolamine had virtually identical effects. Gallogen, given orally to rats with biliary fistulas had a slight hydrocholeretic effect, but did not influence biliary excretion of cholesterol, cholic acid, or chenodeoxycholic acid.. ...
The limited success of life-style modifications like diet and exercise in controlling weight is apparent in the ever-expanding epidemic of obesity. An alternative approach might be to manipulate metabolic rate. For instance, thyroid hormone increases basal metabolism and stimulates weight loss; however, excess thyroid hormone can lead to dangerous systemic effects, such as atrial fibrillation and bone loss (see Baxter and Webb). Watanabe et al. found that supplementing a high-fat diet (HF) with the bile acid cholic acid (CA) limited weight gain in C57BL/6J mice. Indeed, obese mice fed HF supplemented with CA lost weight and adipose mass. Mice fed HF supplemented with CA showed increased oxygen consumption and CO2 production relative to mice fed chow or HF without CA, indicating increased energy expenditure. Expression of the gene that encodes the adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent thyroid hormone activating enzyme type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (D2, which converts thyroxine into ...
Ten inbred strains of mice were fed an atherogenic diet containing 1.25% cholesterol, 0.5% cholic acid and 15% fat. The strains were examined for plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels and for formation of lipid-containing lesions in the aortic wall. The strains differed considerably in the frequency of lesion formation after 14 weeks on the atherogenic diet with a range of 0-1.8 lesions/mouse. The order of susceptibility to lesion formation from the least susceptible to the most susceptible was BALB/cJ, C3H/J, A/J, SWR/J, NZB/J, less than 129/J, AKR/J, DBA/2J, less than C57L/J less than C57BL/6J. Total plasma cholesterol after 5 weeks on the diet varied from 131 mg/dl to 328 mg/dl among strains; however, there was little correlation between total cholesterol levels and susceptibility to lesion formation (r = 0.29). Plasma triglycerides after 5 weeks on the diet varied less than cholesterol with a range of 137-220 mg/dl. An analysis of the genetic differences among inbred strains of mice
Definition of cholate synthetase. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
The secondary bile acids are derived from the primary bile acids by the enzymatic action of intestinal bacteria through the process of deconjugation and dehydroxylation. The secondary bile acids in humans include deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid, formed from the 7alpha-dehydroxylation of cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid, respectively ...
We investigated the effect of increasing dietary cholesterol on bile acid pool sizes and the regulation of the two bile acid synthetic pathways (classic, via cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, and alternative, via sterol 27-hydroxylase) in New Zealand white rabbits fed 3 g cholesterol/per day for up to 15 days. Feeding cholesterol for one day increased hepatic cholesterol 75% and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase activity 1.6 times without significant change of bile acid pool size or sterol 27-hydroxylase activity. After three days of cholesterol feeding, the bile acid pool size increased 83% (P < 0.01), and further feeding produced 10%-20% increments, whereas cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase activity declined progressively to 60% below baseline. In contrast, sterol 27-hydroxylase activity rose 58% after three days of cholesterol feeding and remained elevated with continued intake. Bile drainage depleted the bile acid pool and stimulated downregulated cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase activity but did not affect ...
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on the alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT)-induced acute and recovery stage of cholestasis model mice. In the acute stage of model mice, pretreatment with UDCA (25, 50, and 100 mg·kg-1, ig) for 12 days prior to ANIT administration (50 mg·kg-1, ig) resulted in the dramatic increase in serum biochemistry, with aggrevation of bile infarcts and hepatocyte necrosis. The elevation of beta-muricholic acid (β-MCA), cholic acid (CA), and taurocholic acid (TCA) in serum and liver, and reduction of these bile acids (BAs) in bile was observed ...
To study the effect of steroid hormones on bile acid synthesis by cultured rat hepatocytes, cells were incubated with various amounts of these compounds during 72 h and conversion of [4-14C]cholesterol into bile acids was measured. Bile acid synthesis was stimulated in a dose-dependent way by glucocorticoids, but not by sex steroid hormones, pregnenolone or the mineralocorticoid aldosterone in concentrations up to 10 microM. Dexamethasone proved to be the most efficacious inducer, giving 3-fold and 7-fold increases in bile acid synthesis during the second and third 24 h incubation periods respectively, at a concentration of 50 nM. Mass production of bile acids as measured by g.l.c. during the second day of culture (28-52 h) was 2.2-fold enhanced by 1 microM-dexamethasone. No change in the ratio of bile acids produced was observed during this period in the presence of dexamethasone. Conversion of [4-14C]7 alpha-hydroxycholesterol, an intermediate of the bile acid pathway, to bile acids was not ...
Deoxycholic acid is a secondary bile acid produced in the liver and is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption and cholesterol excretion. Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in the bile of mammals. The distinction between different bile acids is minute, and depends only on the presence or absence of hydroxyl groups on positions 3, 7, and 12. Bile acids are physiological detergents that facilitate excretion, absorption, and transport of fats and sterols in the intestine and liver. Bile acids are also steroidal amphipathic molecules derived from the catabolism of cholesterol. They modulate bile flow and lipid secretion, are essential for the absorption of dietary fats and vitamins, and have been implicated in the regulation of all the key enzymes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Bile acids recirculate through the liver, bile ducts, small intestine, and portal vein to form an enterohepatic circuit. They exist as anions at physiological pH, and ...
Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) are uptake transporters for a broad range of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. To investigate the physiologic and pharmacologic roles of OATPs of the 1A and 1B subfamilies, we generated mice lacking all established and predicted mouse Oatp 1a/1b transporters (referred to as Slco1a/1b(-/-) mice, as SLCO genes encode OATPs). Slco1a/1b(-/-) mice were viable and fertile but exhibited markedly increased plasma levels of bilirubin conjugated to glucuronide and increased plasma levels of unconjugated bile acids. The unexpected conjugated hyperbilirubinemia indicates that Oatp1a/1b transporters normally mediate extensive hepatic reuptake of glucuronidated bilirubin. We therefore hypothesized that substantial sinusoidal secretion and subsequent Oatp1a/1b-mediated reuptake of glucuronidated compounds can occur in hepatocytes under physiologic conditions. This alters our perspective on normal liver functioning. Slco1a/1b(-/-) mice also showed drastically ...
2.A.60 The Organo Anion Transporter (OAT) Family. Proteins of the OAT family (solute carrier family 21 (previously called SLC21A; more recently designated SLCO by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (B. Hagenbuch, personal communication))) catalyze the Na+-independent facilitated transport of fairly large amphipathic organic anions (and less frequently neutral or cationic drugs) such as bromosulfobromophthalein, prostaglandins, conjugated and unconjugated bile acids (taurocholate and cholate, respectively), steroid conjugates such as estrone-sulfate and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (Rižner et al. 2017), thyroid hormones, anionic oligopeptides, drugs, toxins and other xenobiotics (Hong 2013). Among the well characterized substrates are numerous drugs including statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, antibiotics, antihistaminics, antihypertensives and anticancer drugs (Hagenbuch and Stieger 2013). There are six mammalian OAT families (Hagenbuch and ...
The synthesis and excretion of bile acids comprise the major pathway of cholesterol catabolism in mammals. Synthesis provides a direct means of converting cholesterol, which is both hydrophobic and insoluble, into a water-soluble and readily excreted molecule, the bile acid. The biosynthetic steps t …
x] J Biol Chem. 2011 Aug 12;286(32):28382-95. Nutritional regulation of bile acid metabolism is associated with improved pathological characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. Liaset B, Hao Q, Jørgensen H, Hallenborg P, Du ZY, Ma T, Marschall HU, Kruhøffer M, Li R, Li Q, Yde CC, Criales G, Bertram HC, Mellgren G, Ofjord ES, Lock EJ, Espe M, Frøyland L, Madsen L, Kristiansen K. "Bile acids (BAs)3 are synthesized in the liver from cholesterol. After their synthesis, they are conjugated to the amino acids taurine or glycine in a species-dependent manner (1). Conjugation of bile acids increases their solubility and facilitates their secretion into bile (2). [...] the dietary levels of these amino acids might be crucial for BA conjugation and secretion [...] In conclusion, we provide compelling evidence that plasma bile acid levels can be modulated by the dietary protein source in high fat-treated rats. Increased levels of plasma BAs were associated with a significant reduction in diet-induced ...
Receptor for bile acid. Bile acid-binding induces its internalization, activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and intracellular cAMP production. May be involved in the suppression of macrophage functions by bile acids.
THCA is tetrahydrocannabinolic acid found in live, unprocessed Cannabis plants. THCA is transformed into THC as Cannabis plants dry, and then further accelerated by heat (like, when you light the bud…). Elevate with THCA in its most authentic Crystalline form, where potencies can reach 99.9%. The purest of extracts can be used in your favorite dab rig or vape for a clean, clear and energetic high.. Each Order Contains 1Gram ...
Kybella (deoxycholic acid) injection is the first and only FDA-approved injectable drug that contours and improves the appearance of the chin.
Kit Component:- KN302990G1, Cdca3 gRNA vector 1 in pCas-Guide vector- KN302990G2, Cdca3 gRNA vector 2 in pCas-Guide vector- KN302990D, donor vector…
Characterization of HCO3-/CO2 pool sizes and kinetics in infants.: The first bicarbonate pool sizes and kinetic data necessary for the interpretation of substra
The multifactorial mechanisms promoting weight loss and improved metabolism following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GB) surgery remain incompletely understood. Recent rodent studies suggest that bile acids can mediate energy homeostasis by activating the G-protein coupled receptor TGR5 and the type 2 thyroid hormone deiodinase. Altered gastrointestinal anatomy following GB could affect enterohepatic recirculation of bile acids. We assessed whether circulating bile acid concentrations differ in patients who previously underwent GB, which might then contribute to improved metabolic homeostasis. We performed cross-sectional analysis of fasting serum bile acid composition and both fasting and post-meal metabolic variables, in three subject groups: (i) post-GB surgery (n = 9), (ii) without GB matched to preoperative BMI of the index cohort (n = 5), and (iii) without GB matched to current BMI of the index cohort (n = 10). Total serum bile acid concentrations were higher in GB (8.90 +/- 4.84 micromol/l) than in
Cholecystokinin (CCK) modulates contractility of the gallbladder, the sphincter of Oddi, and the stomach. These effects are mediated through activation of gastrointestinal smooth muscle as well as enteric neuron CCK-1 receptors (CCK-1Rs). To investigate the potential physiological and pathophysiological functions linked to CCK-1R-mediated signaling, we compared male WT and CCK-1R-deficient mice (129/SvEv). After 12 weeks on either a standard mouse chow or a lithogenic diet (containing 1% cholesterol, 0.5% cholic acid, and 15% dairy fat), small-intestinal transit time, intestinal cholesterol absorption, biliary cholesterol secretion, and cholesterol gallstone prevalence were compared in knockout versus WT animals. Analysis of mice on either the chow or the lithogenic diet revealed that CCK-1R-/- animals had larger gallbladder volumes (predisposing to bile stasis), significant retardation of small-intestinal transit times (resulting in increased cholesterol absorption), and increased biliary ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - X-linked cholestasis in mouse due to mutations of the P4-ATPase ATP11C. AU - Siggs, Owen M.. AU - Schnabl, Bernd. AU - Webb, Bill. AU - Beutler, Bruce. PY - 2011/5/10. Y1 - 2011/5/10. N2 - Transporters at the hepatic canalicular membrane are essential for the formation of bile and the prevention of cholestatic liver disease. One such example is ATP8B1, a P4-type ATPase disrupted in three inherited forms of intrahepatic cholestasis. Mutation of the X-linked mouse gene Atp11c, which encodes a paralogous P4-type ATPase, precludes B-cell development in the adult bone marrow, but also causes hyperbilirubinemia. Here we explore this hyperbilirubinemia in two independent Atp11c mutant mouse lines, and find that it originates from an effect on nonhematopoietic cells. Liver function tests and histology revealed only minor pathology, although cholic acid was elevated in the serum of mutant mice, and became toxic to mutant mice when given as a dietary supplement. The majority of homozygous ...
Cholelithiasis (gallstones) is a major medical and economic problem in the USA (Schoenfield, 1977; Schoenfield et al., 1981). It has been estimated to have a prevalence of 15 million women and five...
The effect of exercise training on upregulation of molecular markers of bile acid metabolism in the liver of ovariectomized rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet
x] J Biol Chem. 2011 Aug 12;286(32):28382-95. Nutritional regulation of bile acid metabolism is associated with improved pathological characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. Liaset B, Hao Q, Jørgensen H, Hallenborg P, Du ZY, Ma T, Marschall HU, Kruhøffer M, Li R, Li Q, Yde CC, Criales G, Bertram HC, Mellgren G, Ofjord ES, Lock EJ, Espe M, Frøyland L, Madsen L, Kristiansen K. "Bile acids (BAs)3 are synthesized in the liver from cholesterol. After their synthesis, they are conjugated to the amino acids taurine or glycine in a species-dependent manner (1). Conjugation of bile acids increases their solubility and facilitates their secretion into bile (2). [...] the dietary levels of these amino acids might be crucial for BA conjugation and secretion [...] In conclusion, we provide compelling evidence that plasma bile acid levels can be modulated by the dietary protein source in high fat-treated rats. Increased levels of plasma BAs were associated with a significant reduction in diet-induced ...
KYBELLA™ (deoxycholic acid) injection is the first and only FDA-approved injectable treatment that is used in adults to treat the appearance and profile of moderate to severe fat below the chin (submental fat), also called, "double chin." It is not known if KYBELLA™ is safe and effective in children less than 18 years of age. It is not known if KYBELLA™ is safe and effective for use outside of submental fat. The active ingredient in KYBELLA™ is deoxycholic acid, a naturally-occurring molecule in the body that aids in the breakdown and absorption of fat. When injected into the fat beneath your chin, KYBELLA™ causes the destruction of fat cells. Once destroyed, those cells cannot store or accumulate fat ...
What are the options to get rid of a double chin? Kybella injections and SmartLipo liposuction are the best options available to reduce a double chin. For patients who have a double chin accompanied by jowling, sagging skin or who are overweight, we recommend a Non-surgial Neck Lift, achieved by SmartLipo Liposuction plus laser skin tightening. Please call our office for details on both procedures. What is Kybella?. Kybella is an injectible made of deoxycholic acid. Deoxycholic acid naturally occurs in the body, and its function is to metabolize fat cells. In the physicians office, it is used to break down fat under the chin and reduce a double chin.. How long does the procedure take? Each Kybella session takes 15-20 minutes. The exact number of injections that you need will be determined by the physician and depends on the amount of fat you have under your chin (i.e., the size of your double chin) and your desired profile.. What are the side effects of Kybella injections?. Common side ...
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TABLE-US-00011 TABLE 11 (731) ##STR00090## (732) ##STR00091## Short Open TiCl4 circuit circuit Conversion treatment Cholic Compound current voltage efficiency of acid Electrolytic Example No. (mA/cm2) (V) (%) thin film treatment solution 1 1 6.7 0.64 2.5 Untreated Untreated B 2 1 7.0 0.70 2.8 Treated Untreated B 3 35 7.5 0.55 2.0 Untreated Untreated B 4 35 6.4 0.57 2.0 Untreated Treated B 5 35 6.3 0.57 1.9 Treated Untreated B 6 36 5.7 0.49 1.2 Treated Untreated B 7 1 + 731 14.0 0.70 5.1 Untreated Untreated A 8 35 + 732 7.7 0.57 2.2 Treated Untreated B 9 100 0.48 0.55 0.2 Untreated Untreated A 10 100 1.78 0.53 0.7 Untreated Untreated B 11 100 1.89 0.53 0.7 Untreated Treated B 12 100 2.05 0.55 0.8 Treated Untreated B 13 103 0.65 0.43 0.3 Untreated Treated B 14 100 + 731 10.8 0.63 4.8 Treated Untreated A 15 100 + 732 7.3 0.61 2.2 Treated Untreated B 16 199 8.1 0.56 2.5 Treated Untreated B 17 200 8.9 0.55 2.5 Treated Untreated B 18 207 8.0 0.53 2.1 Treated Untreated B 19 210 8.3 0.50 1.7 Treated ...
Bile Acid Factors™ consists of a mixture of highly concentrated bile acids (also called bile salts), mostly in the conjugated form, from U.S. and/or New Zealan
Crystalline lithocholic (3α-hydroxycholanic) acid was isolated from a pooled sample of feces from healthy men for the first time. This acid, which occurs in small amounts in human bile, was obtained by alcohol extraction, followed by solvent partition and chromatography. Under these conditions most of the acid was recovered in the form of its methyl ester. ...
This article reviews the use of a first-in-class injectable therapy, deoxycholic acid, as a minimally invasive, office-based treatment for submental fullness, commonly known as double-chin.
BTG 511, a high capacity bile acid-binding resin with potent cholesterol lowering effects, had completed phase II development with BTG in the USA. The binding
Faecal bile acid excretion and intestinal transit time were studied in 18 children with inflammatory bowel disease in clinical remission and with normal stools: 16 with ulcerative colitis, two with Crohns colitis, mean age 14 years (range 10-17 years). Five healthy children, mean age 12.4 years (range 10-17 years), were studied as control subjects. Most patients were taking sulphasalazine, but none were taking steroids. Transit time was determined by carmine and did not differ between groups. Faeces were collected for 72 hours, and faecal water was prepared by centrifugation of faeces at 15,000 x g for two hours. Bile acids in total faeces and faecal water were studied using capillary gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Faecal excretion of total bile acids, unconjugated bile acids, and glycine and taurine conjugates were significantly increased in patients as was faecal water excretion of total bile acids, particularly the taurine conjugates and cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids. Total ...
Fasting is associated with unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in several species, including the horse. Studies in ponies showed that a 3-day fast decreased plasma clearance of bilirubin, cholic acid, and sulfobromophthalein (BSP). Since these organic anions are conjugated with different substrates, it is possible that observed differences in plasma clearance result from a general decrease in hepatic conjugating capacity during the animals fasting. To test this hypothesis, the effects of a 3-day Show moreFasting is associated with unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in several species, including the horse. Studies in ponies showed that a 3-day fast decreased plasma clearance of bilirubin, cholic acid, and sulfobromophthalein (BSP). Since these organic anions are conjugated with different substrates, it is possible that observed differences in plasma clearance result from a general decrease in hepatic conjugating capacity during the animals fasting. To test this hypothesis, the effects of a 3-day fast ...
Bile acid diarrhoea (BAD) is an under-recognised but common condition of chronic watery diarrhoea. BAD may be secondary to ileal disease affecting the reabsorption and the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids (bile acid malabsorption) or can be an idiopathic, primary BAD (PBAD). In work published in 2009, we described a new mechanism to explain this syndrome of primary BAD.. Blood levels of the hormone fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) are reduced in primary and secondary BAD, producing impaired feedback inhibition of bile acid synthesis, leading to excess faecal bile acids, which then produce diarrhoea by stimulating colonic secretion. FGF19 is synthesised in the ileum and we have shown transcription is markedly induced by farnesoid X receptor(FXR) agonists such as chenodeoxycholic acid, an abundant natural bile acid. More potent FXR agonists are logical diagnostic and therapeutic agents for this condition, and obeticholic acid (OCA), which is 100x more potent than chenodeoxycholic acid, ...
Stabilized enzymes useful in the diagnostic assay of total cholesterol are prepared by dissolving a salt of cholic acid in a buffer solution providing a pH within the range of about 4 to about 9, to the solution is added a cholesterol esterase. The solution is then mixed with a polyhydroxy organic compound and TRITON-X-100. A cholesterol oxidase and a peroxidase are each dissolved in separate portions of buffer solution and introduced into the buffered solution containing the cholesterol esterase. 4-aminoantipyrine is then added to the solution. The resultant solution is a stabilized enzyme solution which can be used in the total cholesterol assay of a serum sample. The stabilized solution can be used in combination with a chromogen diluent solution which is made by dissolving phenol and TRITON-X-100 in water or a buffer solution. The combination of the stabilized enzyme solution and the chromogen diluent solution provides a solution which has utility
The primary bile acids (BAs) are synthetized from colesterol in the liver, conjugated to glycine or taurine to increase their solubility, secreted into bile, concentrated in the gallbladder during fasting, and expelled in the intestine in response to dietary fat, as well as bio-transformed in the colon to the secondary BAs by the gut microbiota, reabsorbed in the ileum and colon back to the liver, and minimally lost in the feces. BAs in the intestine not only regulate the digestion and absorption of cholesterol, triglycerides, and fat-soluble vitamins, but also play a key role as signaling molecules in modulating epithelial cell proliferation, gene expression, and lipid and glucose metabolism by activating farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 (GPBAR-1, also known as TGR5) in the liver, intestine, muscle and brown adipose tissue ...
Increased levels of intestinal bile acids (BAs) are a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we show that the convergence of dietary factors (high-fat diet) and dysregulated WNT signaling (APC mutation) alters BA profiles to drive malignant transformations in Lgr5-expressing (Lgr5+) cancer stem cells and promote an adenoma-to-adenocarcinoma progression. Mechanistically, we show that BAs that antagonize intestinal farnesoid X receptor (FXR) function, including tauro-ß-muricholic acid (T-ßMCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA), induce proliferation and DNA damage in Lgr5+ cells. Conversely, selective activation of intestinal FXR can restrict abnormal Lgr5+ cell growth and curtail CRC progression. This unexpected role for FXR in coordinating intestinal self-renewal with BA levels implicates FXR as a potential therapeutic target for CRC ...
Illustration of a Lithocholic Acid molecular model. Recent research has shown that lithocholic acid (LCA), which is naturally produced in the liver during digestion, can kill several types of cancer cells, including those found in some brain tumours and breast cancer. Key: black=carbon, white=hydrogen, red=oxygen. - Stock Image C022/4469
Methods Subjects with PBAD were prospectively recruited. After an overnight fast, blood was sampled every 90 min for 6 h. Meals were provided at 9:00 and 12:00. Serum FGF19 was quantified by ELISA using a commercially available kit. Three phenotypes of meal stimulated FGF19 response are described: 1. Low-low (L-L) all five serum FGF19 levels ,400 pg/ml. 2. Low-high (L-H) sample 1 400 pg/ml sample 4 or 5 ,400 pg/ml. 3. High-high (H-H) samples 1 and 3 or 5 ,300 pg/ml. In a separate part of the study genomic DNA was extracted from 91 subjects with PBAD and 120 diarrhoea control subjects. Eight SNPs were analysed, two from the FXR gene (rs61755050, rs56163822), two from the FGF19 gene (rs1789170, rs948992) as well as SNPs from the genes for OSTα, klothoβ, FGFR4 and ASBT (rs939885, rs17618244, rs376618, rs188096). Genotyping was performed using Taqman SNP genotyping assays. ...
It can also be cultivated in vitro from bovine bile by adding ursodeoxycholic acid, cholic acid, and calcium bilirubinate, ... "Cholic Acid". Archived from the original on 2012-03-15. Retrieved 2016-11-09. "关于牛黄及其代用品使用问题的通知". www.sda.gov.cn. 国食药监局. 2004- ... These are manufactured from cholic acid derived from bovine bile. Chinese regulations forbid the use
... cholic acid derivatives and organic acids. It is hoped that further research into alkaliphilic enzymes will allow scientists to ... gluconic acid, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and phosphoric acid. Together, these residues form an acidic matrix that helps ... subtilis has been observed to contain higher levels of hexosamines and amino acids as compared to its neutrophilic counterpart ... it has been proposed that cell walls contain acidic polymers composed of residues such as galacturonic acid, ...
"Biosynthesis of cholic acid in rat liver. 24-Hydroxylation of 3alpha, 7alpha, 12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestanoic acid". J. ... Relationship between the different dehydrogenases and evidence that fatty acids and the C27 bile acids di- and tri- ... Russell DW (2003). "The enzymes, regulation, and genetics of bile acid synthesis". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 72: 137-74. doi:10.1146/ ... hydroxycoprostanic acids are metabolized by separate multifunctional proteins". Eur. J. Biochem. 240 (3): 660-6. doi:10.1111/j. ...
Hepatocytes metabolize cholesterol to cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. These lipid-soluble bile acids are conjugated ( ... Finally, the conjugated bile acids which remained un-ionized conjugated bile acids are passively absorbed. Venous blood from ... Due to the pH of the small intestine, most of the bile acids are ionized and mostly occur as their sodium salts which are then ... The presence of biliary acids in the intestines helps in digestion of fats and other substances. Bilirubin is conjugated with ...
... and calcium carbonate and reports choleic acid. Deoxycholic acid and cholic acid have also been reported. In simple cases of ... Acid-base physiology Blue MG (April 1979). "Enteroliths in horses--a retrospective study of 30 cases". Equine Veterinary ... Raper HS (1921). "A Human Enterolith containing Choleic Acid". The Biochemical Journal. 15 (1): 49-52. doi:10.1042/bj0150049. ...
These are manufactured from cholic acid derived from bovine bile. In some products, they claim to remove "toxins" from the body ... which get precipitated with gastric acid reflux to form esophageal bezoars. Ox bezoars (cow bezoars) are used in Chinese ...
... cholic thiokinase, cholate thiokinase, cholic acid:CoA ligase, 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestanoyl coenzyme A ... Elliott, W.H. (1956). "The enzymic activation of cholic acid by guinea-pig-liver microsomes". Biochem. J. 62 (3): 427-433. PMC ... Elliott, W.H. (1957). "The breakdown of adenosine triphosphate accompanying cholic acid activation by guinea-pig liver ... Cholate-CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.7, BAL, bile acid CoA ligase, bile acid coenzyme A ligase, choloyl-CoA synthetase, choloyl ...
It may be synthesized from cholic acid and is zwitterionic due to its quaternary ammonium and sulfonate groups; it is ... Taurodeoxycholic acid Taurochenodeoxycholic acid Hjelmeland, LM (November 1980). "A nondenaturing zwitterionic detergent for ... structurally similar to certain bile acids, such as taurodeoxycholic acid and taurochenodeoxycholic acid. It is used as a non- ...
"Formation of cholic acid from 3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acid by rat liver peroxisomes". J. ... 12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acid into cholic acid by rat liver peroxisomes". FEBS Lett. 121 (2): 345-8. doi:10.1016 ... "Glycine and taurine conjugation of bile acids by a single enzyme Molecular cloning and expression of human liver bile acid CoA: ... Russell DW (2003). "The enzymes, regulation, and genetics of bile acid synthesis". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 72: 137-74. doi:10.1146/ ...
The only method for preparing this drug prior to 1952 was a lengthy synthesis starting from cholic acid isolated from bile. In ...
... may refer to: Cholic acid Epic E1000, an American turboprop aircraft design The E1000 locomotive used by the Taiwan ...
... steroids and bile acids (e.g. cholic acid). 5α-Cholane 5β-Cholane Cholestane Ergostane Kurauti, Yukiti; Kazuno, Taro (January ...
... a conjugate of Cholic acid and Arachidic acid, is a first in class member of a novel family of synthetic Fatty-Acid/Bile-Acid ... Aramchol was initially intended to combine a cholesterol solubilising moiety (a saturated fatty acid) with a bile acid (cholic ... 2001). Fatty acid bile acid conjugates (FABACs)-new molecules for the prevention of cholesterol crystallisation in bile. 48(1 ... Safadi, R; Konikoff, FM; Mahamid, M; Zelber-Sagi, S; Halpern, M; Gilat, T; Oren, R. "The Fatty Acid-bile Acid conjugate ...
Bacteria metabolize chenodeoxycholic acid into the secondary bile acid lithocholic acid, and they metabolize cholic acid into ... The two primary bile acids secreted by the liver are cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. ... There are additional secondary bile acids, such as ursodeoxycholic acid. Deoxycholic acid is soluble in alcohol and acetic acid ... 12α-dihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid, is a bile acid. Deoxycholic acid is one of the secondary bile acids, which are metabolic ...
24-tetrahydroxy-5beta-cholestan-26-oic acid and cholic acid". Chem. Pharm. Bull. 36: 134-141. doi:10.1248/cpb.36.134. Sonoda Y ... 24-tetrahydroxy-5beta-cholestan-26-oic acid and cholic acid". Chem. Pharm. Bull. 36: 142-145. doi:10.1248/cpb.36.142. Hashimoto ... Russell DW (2003). "The enzymes, regulation, and genetics of bile acid synthesis". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 72: 137-74. doi:10.1146/ ... role of the hydratase reaction in bile acid synthesis". Biochem. J. 328: 377-82. PMC 1218931 . PMID 9371691. Xu R; Cuebas DA ( ...
... cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid, both of which are secreted in the bile. In the intestine these bile acids affect the ... Ellis EC (2006). "Suppression of bile acid synthesis by thyroid hormone in primary human hepatocytes". World J. Gastroenterol. ... The balance between these two steroids determines the relative amounts of the two primary bile acids, ... roles of heaptocyte nuclear factor 4alpha in mediating bile acid repression". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (45): 41690-9. doi:10.1074/jbc ...
Kase, F., Björkhem, I. and Pedersen, J.I. (1983). „Formation of cholic acid from 3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholestanoic acid by ... Pedersen, J.I. & Gustafsson, J. (1980). „Conversion of 3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholestanoic acid into cholic acid by rat liver ... Molecular cloning and expression of human liver bile acid CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase". J. Biol. Chem. 269: 19375-19379. ... Russell, D.W. (2003). „The enzymes, regulation, and genetics of bile acid synthesis". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 72: 137-174. PMID ...
Cholic acid, a bile acid, showing the carboxylic acid and additional hydroxyl groups often present Dexamethasone, a synthetic ... allowing the cholesterol to be broken up by other enzymes into bile acids. These acids can then be eliminated by secretion from ... Zollner G, Marschall HU, Wagner M, Trauner M (2006). "Role of nuclear receptors in the adaptive response to bile acids and ... Steroid hormones, lacking the side chain of cholesterol and bile acids, are typically hydroxylated at various ring positions or ...
12α-dihydroxycholest-4-en-3-one and then to cholic acid, the major primary bile acid in humans. Alternatively, it can be ... The increase in serum 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one concentrations reflects the loss of bile acids secondary to bile acid ... Elevated values are found in patients with bile acid malabsorption and may be useful in the diagnosis of this condition as high ... 7α-Hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one is an intermediate in the biochemical synthesis of bile acids from cholesterol. Its precursor, 7α- ...
A05AA01 Chenodeoxycholic acid A05AA02 Ursodeoxycholic acid A05AA03 Cholic acid A05AA04 Obeticholic acid A05AB01 Nicotinyl ... A05BA04 Citiolone A05BA05 Epomediol A05BA06 Ornithine oxoglutarate A05BA07 Tidiacic arginine A05BA08 Glycyrrhizic acid ( ...
... cholic acids MeSH D04.808.105.225.130 --- cholic acid MeSH D04.808.105.225.130.330 --- cholates MeSH D04.808.105.225.130.330. ... cholic acids MeSH D04.808.221.430.130 --- cholic acid MeSH D04.808.221.430.130.330 --- cholates MeSH D04.808.221.430.130.330. ... ursodeoxycholic acid MeSH D04.808.105.225.400 --- glycocholic acid MeSH D04.808.105.225.400.380 --- glycodeoxycholic acid MeSH ... lithocholic acid MeSH D04.808.105.225.480.880 --- taurolithocholic acid MeSH D04.808.105.225.900 --- taurocholic acid MeSH ...
Muricholic acids differ from the more common bile acids, such as cholic acid or chenodeoxycholic acid, by having a hydroxyl ... α-muricholic acid β-muricholic acid γ-muricholic acid (hyocholic acid) ω-muricholic acid Russell DW (2003). "The enzymes, ... The three major bile acids in germ-free mice are cholic acid, α-muricholic, and β-muricholic acids. In conventional mice, ω- ... Muricholic acids are a group of bile acids found as one of the main forms in mice, which gives them their name, and at low ...
Cholic acid Glycocholic acid Taurocholic acid Deoxycholic acid Chenodeoxycholic acid Glycochenodeoxycholic acid ... Cholic acid is converted into deoxycholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid into lithocholic acid. All four of these bile acids ... "deoxycholic acid" in that it had one fewer hydroxyl group than cholic acid. Deoxycholic acid is formed from cholic acid by 7- ... In humans, taurocholic acid and glycocholic acid (derivatives of cholic acid) and taurochenodeoxycholic acid and ...
It is a conjugate of cholic acid with taurine. In medical use, it is administered as a cholagogue and choleretic. Hydrolysis of ... The median lethal dose of taurocholic acid in newborn rats is 380 mg/kg. Deoxycholic acid Taurocholic acid, sodium salt at ... Taurocholic acid, known also as cholaic acid, cholyltaurine, or acidum cholatauricum, is a deliquescent yellowish crystalline ... For commercial use, taurocholic acid is manufactured from cattle bile, a byproduct of the meat-processing industry. This acid ...
... and cholic acid are the two primary bile acids in humans. Some other mammals have muricholic acid or ... Chenodeoxycholic acid (also known as chenodesoxycholic acid, chenocholic acid and 3α,7α-dihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid) is a ... Choendeoxycholic acid is the most potent natural bile acid at stimulating the nuclear bile acid receptor, farnesoid X receptor ... Salts of this carboxylic acid are called chenodeoxycholates. Chenodeoxycholic acid is one of the main bile acids produced by ...
bile acid (Chenodeoxycholic acid. *Cholic acid. *Ursodeoxycholic acid). *Obeticholic acid. *Nicotinyl methylamide ... While some bile acids are known to be colon tumor promoters (e.g. deoxycholic acid), others such as ursodeoxycholic acid are ... Mroz MS, Lajczak NK, Goggins BJ, Keely S, Keely SJ (March 2018). "The bile acids, deoxycholic acid and ursodeoxycholic acid, ... "Bile acids deoxycholic acid and ursodeoxycholic acid differentially regulate human β-defensin-1 and -2 secretion by colonic ...
The glycine conjugate of CHOLIC ACID. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. ... Bile Acids and Salts: 3397*Cholic Acids: 8*Glycocholic Acid: 105*Glycodeoxycholic Acid: 68 ... Glycocholic Acid. Subscribe to New Research on Glycocholic Acid The glycine conjugate of CHOLIC ACID. It acts as a detergent to ... 01/01/1982 - "The conjugated cholic acid (glycocholic acid) (GC) in the serum and the conjugated sulfolithocholic acid ( ...
The major components of bile are cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. In a first step the bile acids are converted to an acyl ... Thereby detoxify xenobiotics, such as benzoic acid or salicylic acid, and endogenous organic acids, such as isovaleric acid. ... Glycocholic acid is an acyl glycine and a bile acid-glycine conjugate. It is a secondary bile acid produced by the action of ... Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in bile of mammals. The distinction between different bile acids is minute, ...
Cholic acid CAS: 81-25-4. Product Name: Cholic acid Synonyms: 3,7,12-Trihydroxy-cholan-24-oic acid;5beta-Cholan-24-oic acid, ... cholic acid, hyodeoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, pig bile powder, ox bile powder,sodium cholate,Deoxycholic acid,Sodium ... cholic acid,ox bile powder, hyodeoxycholic acid and pig bile powder passed the certification of China GMP. ... Chenodeoxycholic Acid (CDCA)CAS:474-25-9. Product Name: Chenodeoxycholic Acid (CDCA) Products in detail Product Name: ...
bile acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, cholesterol, cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, hyperlipoproteinaemia, lithogenic index, ... between the proportions of deoxycholic acid and cholic acid as well as between deoxycholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. ... proportion of deoxycholic acid was also accompanied by a fall in the proportion of both cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid ... The Formation of Deoxycholic Acid and Chenodeoxycholic Acid in Man Clin Sci Mol Med (February, 1974) ...
... is a bile acid (CHEBI:3098) cholic acid (CHEBI:16359) is a C24-steroid (CHEBI:131620) cholic acid ( ... cholic acid (CHEBI:16359). cholate salt (CHEBI:23169) has functional parent cholic acid (CHEBI:16359). cholic acid 24-O-(β-D- ... cholic acid (CHEBI:16359). glycocholic acid (CHEBI:17687) has functional parent cholic acid (CHEBI:16359). hyodeoxycholic acid ... cholic acid (CHEBI:16359). murideoxycholic acid (CHEBI:52030) has functional parent cholic acid (CHEBI:16359). taurocholic acid ...
Salts of cholic acid are called cholates. Cholic acid, along with chenodeoxycholic acid, is one of the two major bile acids ... Cholic acid, also known as 3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid is a primary bile acid that is insoluble in water ( ... This is why chenodeoxycholic acid, and not cholic acid, can be used to treat gallstones (because decreasing bile acid synthesis ... Other species may synthesize different bile acids as their predominant primary bile acids. Cholic acid, formulated as Cholbam ...
View drug interactions between cholic acid and deoxycholic acid. These medicines may also interact with certain foods or ... Cholic acid is used to treat Bile Acid Synthesis Disorders.. deoxycholic acid. A total of 96 drugs (360 brand and generic names ... cholic acid. A total of 32 drugs (171 brand and generic names) are known to interact with cholic acid. ... There were no interactions found in our database between cholic acid and deoxycholic acid. However, this does not necessarily ...
PubChem] Cholic acid, formulated as Cholbam capsules, is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration as a ... A major primary bile acid produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption ... treatment for children and adults with bile acid synthesis disorders due to single enzyme defects, and for peroxisomal ... Receptor for bile acids such as chenodeoxycholic acid, lithocholic acid and deoxycholic acid. Represses the transcription of ...
People with bile acid disorders are unable to produce cholic acid normally. This can make it harder for the body to absorb ... Bile acids are produced naturally in the body to aid in digestion of fats and certain nutrients. ... What is cholic acid?. Cholic acid is a bile acid. Bile acids are produced naturally in the body to aid in digestion of fats and ... When you take your cholic acid dose, avoid taking other medicines by mouth at the same time. Since cholic acid aids in ...
Cholic acid mediates negative feedback regulation of bile acid synthesis in mice. Jia Li-Hawkins,1 Mats Gåfvels,2 Maria Olin,2 ... TCA, taurocholic acid (circles); TCDCA, taurochenodeoxycholic acid (symbol X); TβMCA, tauro-β-muricholic acid (squares); GW4064 ... On the turnover and excretory products of cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid in man. J Biol Chem 1963. 238:2299-2304. View ... Bile acid pool sizes and excretion rates in wild-type and Cyp8b1-/- mice. (a) The mass of bile acid in the enterohepatic ...
"Cholic Acid" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Cholic Acid" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Cholic Acid" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Cholic Acid" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Cholic Acid". ...
Biological Data (See Desoxycholic Acid) DESOXYCHOLIC ACID Chemical name 3,12-dihydroxycholanic acid Empirical formula C24H40O4 ... CHOLIC ACID Rabbit i.v. 50 (Na salt) Gillert, 1926 DESOXYCHOLIC ACID Rabbit i.v. 15 (Na salt) Gillert, 1926 In general, bile ... CHOLIC ACID Chemical name 3,7,12-trihydroxycholanic acid Empirical formula C24H40O5 Structural formula Molecular weight 408.58 ... Definition Cholic acid after drying contains not less than 98 per cent. C24H40O5 Description Colourless plates or a white, ...
The cationic 3-ammonium propylamide of cholic acid did not react further with CS2 and the formed salt was stable in the ... of dithiocarbamic acid which further formed an ammonium salt with another molecule of 3-aminopropylamide of cholic acid. ... When the reaction was carried out in the presence of aqueous sodium hydroxide, only the bile acid derivative of sodium ... The reaction of 3-aminopropylamide of cholic acid with CS2 produced a bile acid derivative ...
Buy Cholic Acid(P) - CAS Number 81-25-4 from LGC Standards. Please login or register to view prices, check availability and ... Cholalic acid ; Cholic acid ; 3α,7α,12α-Trihydroxy-5β-cholanoic acid ; 3α,7α,12α-Trihydroxy-β-cholanic acid ; 5β-Cholic acid ; ... Cholic Acid ; Cholalin ; 3α,7α,12α-Trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid ; 5β-Cholanic acid-3α,7α,12α-triol ; 3α,7α,12α-Trihydroxy-5 ... 17β-[1-Methyl-3-carboxypropyl]etiocholane-3α,7α,12α-triol ; NSC-6135 ; (3α,5β,7α,12α)-
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Cholic Acid Drug: Cholic Acids 10-15 mg/kg body weight/day taken orally. ... Compassionate Treatment of Patients With Inborn Errors of Bile Acid Metabolism With Cholic Acid. The safety and scientific ... compassionate treatment study of cholic acid in the treatment of defects of bile acid metabolism. ... Drug Information available for: Cholic acid Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: X-linked ...
... cholic acid), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & lactation schedules, ... Bile acid and peroxisomal disorders dosing for Cholbam ( ... encoded search term (cholic acid (Cholbam)) and cholic acid ( ... In the liver, cholic acid is conjugated with glycine or taurine by bile acid-CoA synthetase and bile acid-CoA: amino acid N- ... Endogenous bile acids, including cholic acid, enhance bile flow and provide the physiologic feedback inhibition of bile acid ...
You can also browse global suppliers,vendor,prices,Price,manufacturers of Cholic acid(81-25-4). At last,Cholic acid(81-25-4) ... Visit ChemicalBook To find more Cholic acid(81-25-4) information like chemical properties,Structure,melting point,boiling point ... Cholic acid Spectrum. Cholic acid(81-25-4)IR1Cholic acid(81-25-4)IR2Cholic acid(81-25-4)RamanCholic acid(81-25-4)13CNMR ... Cholic acid. Synonyms. CA;CHOLATE;CHOLALIN;Cholic acd;CHOLIC ACID;Cholic CHOLALIC ACID;Cyclosphorine;AHR 3053-13C3;CHOLIC ACID( ...
cholate (1), taurocholic acid (3); glycodeoxycholic acid (5) and glycocholic acid (6). All six compounds exhibited ... Antimicrobial cholic acid derivatives from the Pitch Lake bacteriumBacillus amyloliquefaciensUWI-W23. ... Six cholic acid derivatives (1-6) were isolated from broth cultures of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens UWI-W23, an isolate from the ... Cholate (1) also showed activity against MRSA (MICs=125μg/mL) and glycocholic acid (6) against S. cerevisiae (MICs=15.6μg/mL). ...
Percent change in total cholesterol in cholic acid (0.5%)-cholesterol (1.5%)-peanut oil (5.5%)-fed rats after administration of ...
Cholic Acid Feeding Leads to Increased CYP2D6 Expression in CYP2D6-Humanized Mice. Xian Pan, Rebecca Kent, Kyoung-Jae Won and ... CYP2D6 Induction by Cholic Acid Feeding. Xian Pan, Rebecca Kent, Kyoung-Jae Won and Hyunyoung Jeong ... CYP2D6 Induction by Cholic Acid Feeding. Xian Pan, Rebecca Kent, Kyoung-Jae Won and Hyunyoung Jeong ... Cholic Acid Feeding Leads to Increased CYP2D6 Expression in CYP2D6-Humanized Mice ...
cholic acid. ChIP. chromatin immunoprecipitation. CPR. cytochrome P450 reductase. Cyb5. cytochrome-b5. CYP2D6. cytochrome P450 ... Cholic Acid Feeding Leads to Increased CYP2D6 Expression in CYP2D6-Humanized Mice. Xian Pan, Rebecca Kent, Kyoung-Jae Won and ... and altered bile acid composition. When hepatic bile acid levels rise, bile acids bind to FXR, and the ligand-activated FXR ... CYP2D6 Induction by Cholic Acid Feeding. Xian Pan, Rebecca Kent, Kyoung-Jae Won and Hyunyoung Jeong ...
Our main products are cholesterol, bilirubin, cholic acid, hyodeoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, pig bile powder and ox ...
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Cholic acid Suppliers, Cholic acid Manufacturers, related products of Cholic acid. ... Information for Cholic acid 81-25-4 including Cholic acid CAS NO 81-25-4, ... Cholic acid. Product Name:. Cholic acid. Synonyms:. 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-Trihydroxy-5beta-cholanic acid; (3alpha,5beta,7alpha, ... Enquiry for Cholic Acid Address:. PO Box 1869 Palmerston Nth Central Palmerston North 4440 NEW ZEALAND. Other products:. • N- ...
  • Cholic acid, formulated as Cholbam capsules, is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration as a treatment for children and adults with bile acid synthesis disorders due to single enzyme defects, and for peroxisomal disorders (such as Zellweger syndrome). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cholic acid will be marketed as Cholbam by Asklepion Pharmaceuticals, the FDA said in its statement. (freethesaurus.com)
  • On March 17th, 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Cholbam (cholic acid) capsules, the first FDA approved treatment for pediatric and adult patients with bile acid synthesis disorders due to single enzyme defects, and for patients with peroxisomal disorders (including Zellweger spectrum disorders). (globalgenes.org)
  • The efficacy of Cholbam for the treatment of patients with bile acid synthesis disorders due to single enzyme defects was assessed in an uncontrolled trial involving 50 patients treated over an 18 year period. (globalgenes.org)
  • Cholbam did not affect other manifestations of bile acid disorders due to single enzyme defects or peroxisomal disorders such as neurologic symptoms. (globalgenes.org)
  • CHOLBAM is a treatment for infants, children and adults who have a rare condition called bile acid synthesis disorders. (fda.gov)
  • CHOLBAM was studied for the treatment of bile acid synthesis disorders due to what are called single enzyme defects (SEDs). (fda.gov)
  • If you have an allergy to Cholbam (cholic acid) or any part of Cholbam (cholic acid). (drugs.com)
  • This is not a list of all drugs or health problems that interact with Cholbam (cholic acid). (drugs.com)
  • You must check to make sure that it is safe for you to take Cholbam (cholic acid) with all of your drugs and health problems. (drugs.com)
  • Tell all of your health care providers that you take Cholbam (cholic acid). (drugs.com)
  • You will need to talk about the benefits and risks of using Cholbam (cholic acid) while you are pregnant. (drugs.com)
  • If giving to your child, the dose of Cholbam (cholic acid) may need to be changed as your child's weight changes. (drugs.com)
  • Use Cholbam (cholic acid) as ordered by your doctor. (drugs.com)
  • Take Cholbam (cholic acid) with food. (drugs.com)
  • If you also take cholestyramine , colesevelam , colestipol , or an antacid that has aluminum, do not take it within 4 to 6 hours before or 1 hour after Cholbam (cholic acid). (drugs.com)
  • This is to track the outcome of the pregnancy and to evaluate any effects of cholic acid on the baby. (uofmhealth.org)
  • What are the possible side effects of cholic acid? (uofmhealth.org)
  • Based on previous reports of small heterodimer partner (SHP) playing an important role as a transcriptional repressor of CYP2D6 expression, here we investigated how a known upstream regulator of SHP expression, namely cholestasis triggered by cholic acid (CA) feeding in mice, can lead to altered CYP2D6 expression. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Along with FXR, SHP serves as a key player in the maintenance of bile acid homeostasis, especially in patients with cholestasis. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The goal of this study is to define the role of SHP and bile acids in the regulation of CYP2D6 expression by examining the effects of cholestasis on hepatic CYP2D6 expression. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Individual bile acid levels were determined in serum and bile by UPLC/QTOFMS in patients with extrahepatic cholestasis with, or without, concurrent increases in serum transaminases. (osti.gov)
  • Bile acids may be measured to investigate obstructive cholestasis in pregnancy. (labcorp.com)
  • The diagnosis should be considered in the context of hyperbilirubinemia with normal serum bile acids and made by urinary liquid secondary ionization mass spectrometry or DNA testing. (nih.gov)
  • Sreekanth V, Bajaj A. Number of free hydroxyl groups on bile acid phospholipids determines the fluidity and hydration of model membranes. (harvard.edu)
  • C 20 H 32 O 2 , an omega-6 fatty acid formed by the action of enzymes on phospholipids in cell membranes. (tabers.com)
  • Corticosteroids inhibit formation of arachidonic acid from phospholipids when cell membranes are damaged. (tabers.com)
  • Phospholipids and bile acids, by virtue of their amphiphilic properties, can interact in nonpolar media forming "inverted" structures (micelles) which presumably have an hydrophilic core and might act as diffusional carriers (ionophores) of electrolytes across low dielectric constant media or lipid membranes. (wiley.com)
  • The Na + ionophoretic capability of various purified phospholipids and the modulating effects of bile acids and phospatidylcholine was examined by: (a) measurement of 22 Na + partition into the organic phase (chloroform) of a two-phase system and (b) direct measurement of the translocation of 22 Na + across a bulk chloroform phase separating two aqueous phases in a Pressman cell. (wiley.com)
  • Bile acids are about 80% of the organic compounds in bile (others are phospholipids and cholesterol). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a building block or proteins, participates in the citric acid and urea cycles, and is a neurotransmitter. (tabers.com)
  • To better understand the differences between the two h-LLE extraction approaches, salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) and sugaring-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SULLE), have been compared for the partition of 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) from royal jelly, and for the co-extraction of proteins. (bireme.br)
  • In research deoxycholic acid is used as a mild detergent for the isolation of membrane associated proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • ABBR: AHA Any of a class of water-soluble acids derived from fruit or milk, having a hydroxyl moiety in the first position in the molecule. (tabers.com)
  • Thus conjugated bile acids are almost always in their deprotonated (A-) form in the duodenum, which makes them much more water-soluble and much more able to fulfil their physiologic function of emulsifying fats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secondary bile more than that of any other gastrointestinal illness, acids, including deoxycholate and lithocholate, are including colorectal cancer and peptic ulcer disease. (yudu.com)
  • Secondary bile acids result from bacterial actions in the colon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deoxycholate and other secondary bile acids cause DNA damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secondary bile acids increase intracellular production of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species resulting in increased oxidative stress and DNA damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pKa of the unconjugated bile acids are between 5 and 6.5, and the pH of the duodenum ranges between 3 and 5, so when unconjugated bile acids are in the duodenum, they are almost always protonated (HA form), which makes them relatively insoluble in water. (wikipedia.org)