Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Cholesterol, Dietary: Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Cholesterol, VLDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). High circulating levels of VLDL cholesterol are found in HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE IIB. The cholesterol on the VLDL is eventually delivered by LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS to the tissues after the catabolism of VLDL to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LDL.Cholesterol Esters: Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.Cholesterol Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of cholesterol in the presence of molecular oxygen to 4-cholesten-3-one and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme is not specific for cholesterol, but will also oxidize other 3-hydroxysteroids. EC 1.1.3.6.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.TriglyceridesCholesterol 7-alpha-Hydroxylase: A membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 7-alpha-hydroxylation of CHOLESTEROL in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP7, converts cholesterol to 7-alpha-hydroxycholesterol which is the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Apolipoproteins B: Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Lipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Anticholesteremic Agents: Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC 2.3.1.26.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Apolipoproteins: Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.Apolipoprotein A-I: The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Apolipoproteins E: A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Receptors, LDL: Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Apolipoprotein B-100: A 513-kDa protein synthesized in the LIVER. It serves as the major structural protein of low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). It is the ligand for the LDL receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL) that promotes cellular binding and internalization of LDL particles.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Sitosterols: A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1: A superfamily of large integral ATP-binding cassette membrane proteins whose expression pattern is consistent with a role in lipid (cholesterol) efflux. It is implicated in TANGIER DISEASE characterized by accumulation of cholesteryl ester in various tissues.beta-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Esterification: The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.Lipoproteins, IDL: A mixture of very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), particularly the triglyceride-poor VLDL, with slow diffuse electrophoretic mobilities in the beta and alpha2 regions which are similar to that of beta-lipoproteins (LDL) or alpha-lipoproteins (HDL). They can be intermediate (remnant) lipoproteins in the de-lipidation process, or remnants of mutant CHYLOMICRONS and VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS which cannot be metabolized completely as seen in FAMILIAL DYSBETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Hydroxycholesterols: Cholesterol which is substituted by a hydroxy group in any position.Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins: Proteins that bind to and transfer CHOLESTEROL ESTERS between LIPOPROTEINS such as LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Phosphatidylcholine-Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC 2.3.1.43.Phytosterols: A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.Lovastatin: A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.Cyclodextrins: A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.Hypertriglyceridemia: A condition of elevated levels of TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.Apolipoproteins C: A group of apolipoproteins that can readily exchange among the various classes of lipoproteins (HDL; VLDL; CHYLOMICRONS). After lipolysis of TRIGLYCERIDES on VLDL and chylomicrons, Apo-C proteins are normally transferred to HDL. The subtypes can modulate remnant binding to receptors, LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, or LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Cholestyramine Resin: A strongly basic anion exchange resin whose main constituent is polystyrene trimethylbenzylammonium Cl(-) anion.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Mevalonic AcidBiological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Lipoprotein Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.Desmosterol: An intermediate in the synthesis of cholesterol.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Hypolipidemic Agents: Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Apolipoprotein C-III: A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and CHYLOMICRON REMNANTS. Apo C-III, synthesized in the liver, is an inhibitor of LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE. Apo C-III modulates the binding of chylomicron remnants and VLDL to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) thus decreases the uptake of triglyceride-rich particles by the liver cells and subsequent degradation. The normal Apo C-III is glycosylated. There are several polymorphic forms with varying amounts of SIALIC ACID (Apo C-III-0, Apo C-III-1, and Apo C-III-2).Filipin: A complex of polyene antibiotics obtained from Streptomyces filipinensis. Filipin III alters membrane function by interfering with membrane sterols, inhibits mitochondrial respiration, and is proposed as an antifungal agent. Filipins I, II, and IV are less important.Diet, Atherogenic: A diet that contributes to the development and acceleration of ATHEROGENESIS.Sterol Esterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.Cholestanol: A cholesterol derivative found in human feces, gallstones, eggs, and other biological matter.Membrane Microdomains: Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.Apolipoprotein B-48: A 241-kDa protein synthesized only in the INTESTINES. It serves as a structural protein of CHYLOMICRONS. Its exclusive association with chylomicron particles provides an indicator of intestinally derived lipoproteins in circulation. Apo B-48 is a shortened form of apo B-100 and lacks the LDL-receptor region.Sphingomyelins: A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Cholelithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.AzetidinesLanosterol: A triterpene that derives from the chair-boat-chair-boat folding of 2,3-oxidosqualene. It is metabolized to CHOLESTEROL and CUCURBITACINS.Orphan Nuclear Receptors: A broad category of receptor-like proteins that may play a role in transcriptional-regulation in the CELL NUCLEUS. Many of these proteins are similar in structure to known NUCLEAR RECEPTORS but appear to lack a functional ligand-binding domain, while in other cases the specific ligands have yet to be identified.Receptors, Lipoprotein: Cell surface proteins that bind lipoproteins with high affinity. Lipoprotein receptors in the liver and peripheral tissues mediate the regulation of plasma and cellular cholesterol metabolism and concentration. The receptors generally recognize the apolipoproteins of the lipoprotein complex, and binding is often a trigger for endocytosis.Androstenes: Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.Scavenger Receptors, Class B: A family of scavenger receptors that are predominately localized to CAVEOLAE of the PLASMA MEMBRANE and bind HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Foam Cells: Lipid-laden macrophages originating from monocytes or from smooth muscle cells.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Dehydrocholesterols: Cholesterol derivatives having an additional double bond in any position. 24-Dehydrocholesterol is DESMOSTEROL. The other most prevalent dehydrocholesterol is the 7-isomer. This compound is a precursor of cholesterol and of vitamin D3.Simvastatin: A derivative of LOVASTATIN and potent competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It may also interfere with steroid hormone production. Due to the induction of hepatic LDL RECEPTORS, it increases breakdown of LDL CHOLESTEROL.Apolipoproteins A: Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.Embolism, Cholesterol: Blocking of a blood vessel by CHOLESTEROL-rich atheromatous deposits, generally occurring in the flow from a large artery to small arterial branches. It is also called arterial-arterial embolization or atheroembolism which may be spontaneous or iatrogenic. Patients with spontaneous atheroembolism often have painful, cyanotic digits of acute onset.Oleic Acid: An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II: A group of familial disorders characterized by elevated circulating cholesterol contained in either LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS alone or also in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (pre-beta lipoproteins).Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Hyperlipoproteinemia Type III: An autosomal recessively inherited disorder characterized by the accumulation of intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL or broad-beta-lipoprotein). IDL has a CHOLESTEROL to TRIGLYCERIDES ratio greater than that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. This disorder is due to mutation of APOLIPOPROTEINS E, a receptor-binding component of VLDL and CHYLOMICRONS, resulting in their reduced clearance and high plasma levels of both cholesterol and triglycerides.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.Niemann-Pick Diseases: A group of autosomal recessive disorders in which harmful quantities of lipids accumulate in the viscera and the central nervous system. They can be caused by deficiencies of enzyme activities (SPHINGOMYELIN PHOSPHODIESTERASE) or defects in intracellular transport, resulting in the accumulation of SPHINGOMYELINS and CHOLESTEROL. There are various subtypes based on their clinical and genetic differences.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.Dyslipidemias: Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.Heptanoic Acids: 7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 2: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates GENES involved in CHOLESTEROL synthesis and uptake.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Hyperlipoproteinemia Type IV: A hypertriglyceridemia disorder, often with autosomal dominant inheritance. It is characterized by the persistent elevations of plasma TRIGLYCERIDES, endogenously synthesized and contained predominantly in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (pre-beta lipoproteins). In contrast, the plasma CHOLESTEROL and PHOSPHOLIPIDS usually remain within normal limits.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase: An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Oleic Acids: A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Lipoproteins, HDL3: Intermediate-density subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes between 7 to 8 nm. As the larger lighter HDL2 lipoprotein, HDL3 lipoprotein is lipid-rich.Cholestanes: Derivatives of the saturated steroid cholestane with methyl groups at C-18 and C-19 and an iso-octyl side chain at C-17.StigmasterolApolipoprotein A-II: The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.Tangier Disease: An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS involved in cellular cholesterol removal (reverse-cholesterol transport). It is characterized by near absence of ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins) in blood. The massive tissue deposition of cholesterol esters results in HEPATOMEGALY; SPLENOMEGALY; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; large orange tonsils; and often sensory POLYNEUROPATHY. The disorder was first found among inhabitants of Tangier Island in the Chesapeake Bay, MD.Pravastatin: An antilipemic fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Nocardia autotrophica. It acts as a competitive inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES).SqualeneCardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Gallbladder: A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.TritiumMice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Hyperlipidemia, Familial Combined: A type of familial lipid metabolism disorder characterized by a variable pattern of elevated plasma CHOLESTEROL and/or TRIGLYCERIDES. Multiple genes on different chromosomes may be involved, such as the major late transcription factor (UPSTREAM STIMULATORY FACTORS) on CHROMOSOME 1.Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder of CHOLESTEROL metabolism. It is caused by a deficiency of 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, the enzyme that converts 7-dehydrocholesterol to cholesterol, leading to an abnormally low plasma cholesterol. This syndrome is characterized by multiple CONGENITAL ABNORMALITIES, growth deficiency, and INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY.Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated: Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.Mice, Inbred C57BLBlood Glucose: Glucose in blood.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Lymph: The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Lecithin Acyltransferase Deficiency: An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that facilitates the esterification of lipoprotein cholesterol and subsequent removal from peripheral tissues to the liver. This defect results in low HDL-cholesterol level in blood and accumulation of free cholesterol in tissue leading to a triad of CORNEAL OPACITY, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), and PROTEINURIA.Mesocricetus: A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.Xanthomatosis: A condition marked by the development of widespread xanthomas, yellow tumor-like structures filled with lipid deposits. Xanthomas can be found in a variety of tissues including the SKIN; TENDONS; joints of KNEES and ELBOWS. Xanthomatosis is associated with disturbance of LIPID METABOLISM and formation of FOAM CELLS.Ketocholesterols: Cholesterol substituted in any position by a keto moiety. The 7-keto isomer inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity and inhibits cholesterol uptake in the coronary arteries and aorta in vitro.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Pyrroles: Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Triolein: (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Hypolipoproteinemias: Conditions with abnormally low levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. This may involve any of the lipoprotein subclasses, including ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins); BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low-density lipoproteins); and PREBETA-LIPOPROTEINS (very-low-density lipoproteins).Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Receptors, Scavenger: A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.Egg Yolk: Cytoplasm stored in an egg that contains nutritional reserves for the developing embryo. It is rich in polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins.Organosilicon Compounds: Organic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.Dietary Fats, Unsaturated: Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.Apolipoprotein C-I: A 6.6-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. Apo C-I displaces APO E from lipoproteins, modulate their binding to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL), and thereby decrease their clearance from plasma. Elevated Apo C-I levels are associated with HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Triparanol: Antilipemic agent with high ophthalmic toxicity. According to Merck Index, 11th ed, the compound was withdrawn from the market in 1962 because of its association with the formation of irreversible cataracts.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).EstersReference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.trans-1,4-Bis(2-chlorobenzaminomethyl)cyclohexane Dihydrochloride: An anticholesteremic agent that inhibits sterol biosynthesis in animals.Lipoproteins, HDL2: Low-density subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes between 8 to 13 nm.Biliary Tract: The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Fats, Unsaturated: Fats containing one or more double bonds, as from oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Probucol: A drug used to lower LDL and HDL cholesterol yet has little effect on serum-triglyceride or VLDL cholesterol. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p993).Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Cholic Acids: The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Lipoprotein(a): A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.Soybean Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from SOYBEANS.Cholic Acid: A major primary bile acid produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption and cholesterol excretion.Apolipoprotein C-II: A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. It contains a cofactor for LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE and activates several triacylglycerol lipases. The association of Apo C-II with plasma CHYLOMICRONS; VLDL, and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS is reversible and changes rapidly as a function of triglyceride metabolism. Clinically, Apo C-II deficiency is similar to lipoprotein lipase deficiency (HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE I) and is therefore called hyperlipoproteinemia type IB.Pregnenolone: A 21-carbon steroid, derived from CHOLESTEROL and found in steroid hormone-producing tissues. Pregnenolone is the precursor to GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Eggs: Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.Cholestenones: CHOLESTENES with one or more double bonds and substituted by any number of keto groups.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Chylomicrons: A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Fish Oils: Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Corn Oil: Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Farnesyl-Diphosphate Farnesyltransferase: The first committed enzyme of the biosynthesis pathway that leads to the production of STEROLS. it catalyzes the synthesis of SQUALENE from farnesyl pyrophosphate via the intermediate PRESQUALENE PYROPHOSPHATE. This enzyme is also a critical branch point enzyme in the biosynthesis of ISOPRENOIDS that is thought to regulate the flux of isoprene intermediates through the sterol pathway.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Hydrocarbons, FluorinatedBiological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Caveolin 1: A tyrosine phosphoprotein that plays an essential role in CAVEOLAE formation. It binds CHOLESTEROL and is involved in LIPIDS transport, membrane traffic, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Niemann-Pick Disease, Type C: An autosomal recessive lipid storage disorder that is characterized by accumulation of CHOLESTEROL and SPHINGOMYELINS in cells of the VISCERA and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Type C (or C1) and type D are allelic disorders caused by mutation of gene (NPC1) encoding a protein that mediate intracellular cholesterol transport from lysosomes. Clinical signs include hepatosplenomegaly and chronic neurological symptoms. Type D is a variant in people with a Nova Scotia ancestry.Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Phospholipid Transfer Proteins: A ubiquitous family of proteins that transport PHOSPHOLIPIDS such as PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE between membranes. They play an important role in phospholipid metabolism during vesicular transport and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Taurocholic Acid: The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Diet, Fat-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)

The impact of an amino acid-based peritoneal dialysis fluid on plasma total homocysteine levels, lipid profile and body fat mass. (1/418)

BACKGROUND: The caloric load from glucose-based peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluids contributes to hypertriglyceridaemia, adiposity and, as result of anorexia, protein malnutrition in PD patients. It has been suggested that replacement of a glucose-based by an amino acids-based PD fluid (AA-PDF) for one exchange per day might improve the nutritional status and lipid profile. Due to the uptake of methionine from the dialysate, however, exposure to AA-PDF might aggravate hyperhomocysteinaemia, a frequently occurring risk factor for atherosclerosis in uraemic patients. METHODS: We studied the impact of a once daily exchange with 1.1% AA-PDF instead of glucose-based PD fluid for 2 months on plasma methionine and total homocysteine (tHcy) levels, lipid profile, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and body fat mass of seven stable PD patients. Results are expressed as mean+/-SEM. RESULTS: Methionine levels did not increase significantly during therapy, but tHcy levels increased substantially from 60+/-12 to 84+/-19 micromol/l after 1 month (P=0.039), and to 85+/-22 micromol/l after 2 months of AA-PDF treatment. Serum triglyceride concentration decreased from 3.0+/-0.4 mmol/l at entry to 2.6+/-0.5 mmol/l (at 1 month, P=0.041 vs baseline). Serum BChE also decreased from 6.9+/-0.4 U/ml at entry to 6.3+/-0.4 U/ml after 2 months (P=0.014). Total cholesterol concentration and cholesterol fractions did not change. The reduced exposure to glucose-based PD fluid for 2 months resulted in a 0.5 kg reduction in fat mass which was due mainly to a reduction in fat mass of the trunk region (0.3 kg, P=0.031). CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that methionine-containing AA-PDF induces an increase in the plasma tHcy level. This might, potentially, offset the beneficial effects of an improved serum lipid profile and reduced fat mass on the risk of cardiovascular disease in PD patients. Lowering the methionine content of the fluid, therefore, may be required to overcome this adverse effect.  (+info)

Effects of alcohol and cholesterol feeding on lipoprotein metabolism and cholesterol absorption in rabbits. (2/418)

Alcohol fed to rabbits in a liquid formula at 30% of calories increased plasma cholesterol by 36% in the absence of dietary cholesterol and by 40% in the presence of a 0.5% cholesterol diet. The increase was caused almost entirely by VLDL, IDL, and LDL. Cholesterol feeding decreased the fractional catabolic rate for VLDL and LDL apoprotein by 80% and 57%, respectively, and increased the production rate of VLDL and LDL apoprotein by 75% and 15%, respectively. Alcohol feeding had no effect on VLDL apoprotein production but increased LDL production rate by 55%. The efficiency of intestinal cholesterol absorption was increased by alcohol. In the presence of dietary cholesterol, percent cholesterol absorption rose from 34.4+/-2.6% to 44.9+/-2.5% and in the absence of dietary cholesterol, from 84.3+/-1.4% to 88.9+/-1.0%. Increased cholesterol absorption and increased LDL production rate may be important mechanisms for exacerbation by alcohol of hypercholesterolemia in the cholesterol-fed rabbit model.  (+info)

Overexpression of human hepatic lipase and ApoE in transgenic rabbits attenuates response to dietary cholesterol and alters lipoprotein subclass distributions. (3/418)

The effect of the expression of human hepatic lipase (HL) or human apoE on plasma lipoproteins in transgenic rabbits in response to dietary cholesterol was compared with the response of nontransgenic control rabbits. Supplementation of a chow diet with 0.3% cholesterol and 3.0% soybean oil for 10 weeks resulted in markedly increased levels of plasma cholesterol and VLDL and IDL in control rabbits as expected. Expression of either HL or apoE reduced plasma cholesterol response by 75% and 60%, respectively. The HL transgenic rabbits had substantial reductions in medium and small VLDL and IDL fractions but not in larger VLDL. LDL levels were also reduced, with a shift from larger, more buoyant to smaller, denser particles. In contrast, apoE transgenic rabbits had a marked reduction in the levels of large VLDLs, with a selective accumulation of IDLs and large buoyant LDLs. Combined expression of apoE and HL led to dramatic reductions of total cholesterol (85% versus controls) and of total VLDL+IDL+LDL (87% versus controls). HDL subclasses were remodeled by the expression of either transgene and accompanied by a decrease in HDL cholesterol compared with controls. HL expression reduced all subclasses except for HDL2b and HDL2a, and expression of apoE reduced large HDL1 and HDL2b. Extreme HDL reductions (92% versus controls) were observed in the combined HL+apoE transgenic rabbits. These results demonstrate that human HL and apoE have complementary and synergistic functions in plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism.  (+info)

Binding of beta-VLDL to heparan sulfate proteoglycans requires lipoprotein lipase, whereas ApoE only modulates binding affinity. (4/418)

The binding of beta-VLDL to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) has been reported to be stimulated by both apoE and lipoprotein lipase (LPL). In the present study we investigated the effect of the isoform and the amount of apoE per particle, as well as the role of LPL on the binding of beta-VLDL to HSPG. Therefore, we isolated beta-VLDL from transgenic mice, expressing either APOE*2(Arg158-->Cys) or APOE*3-Leiden (E2-VLDL and E3Leiden-VLDL, respectively), as well as from apoE-deficient mice containing no apoE at all (Enull-VLDL). In the absence of LPL, the binding affinity and maximal binding capacity of all beta-VLDL samples for HSPG-coated microtiter plates was very low. Addition of LPL to this cell-free system resulted in a 12- to 55-fold increase in the binding affinity and a 7- to 15-fold increase in the maximal binding capacity (Bmax). In the presence of LPL, the association constant (Ka) tended to increase in the order Enull-VLDL+info)

Lipid transfer inhibitor protein defines the participation of lipoproteins in lipid transfer reactions: CETP has no preference for cholesteryl esters in HDL versus LDL. (5/418)

Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) catalyzes the net transfer of cholesteryl ester (CE) between lipoproteins in exchange for triglyceride (heteroexchange). It is generally held that CETP primarily associates with HDL and preferentially transfers lipids from this lipoprotein fraction. This is illustrated in normal plasma where HDL is the primary donor of the CE transferred to VLDL by CETP. However, in plasma deficient in lipid transfer inhibitor protein (LTIP) activity, HDL and LDL are equivalent donors of CE to VLDL (Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1997;17:1716-1724). Thus, we have hypothesized that the preferential transfer of CE from HDL in normal plasma is a consequence of LTIP activity and not caused by a preferential CETP-HDL interaction. We have tested this hypothesis in lipid mass transfer assays with partially purified CETP and LTIP, and isolated lipoproteins. With a physiological mixture of lipoproteins, the preference ratio (PR, ratio of CE mass transferred from a lipoprotein to VLDL versus its CE content) for HDL and LDL in the presence of CETP alone was approximately 1 (ie, no preference). Fourfold variations in the LDL/HDL ratio or in the levels of HDL in the assay did not result in significant preferential transfer from any lipoprotein. On addition of LTIP, the PR for HDL was increased up to 2-fold and that for LDL decreased in a concentration-dependent manner. Under all conditions where LDL and HDL levels were varied, LTIP consistently resulted in a PR >1 for CE transfer from HDL. Short-term experiments with radiolabeled lipoproteins and either partially purified or homogenous CETP confirmed these observations and further demonstrated that CETP has a strong predilection to mediate homoexchange (bidirectional transfer of the same lipid) rather than heteroexchange (CE for TG); LTIP had no effect on the selection of CE or TG by CETP or its mechanism of action. We conclude, in contrast to current opinion, that CETP has no preference for CE in HDL versus LDL, suggesting that the previously reported stable binding of CETP to HDL does not result in selective transfer from this lipoprotein. These data suggest that LTIP is responsible for the preferential transfer of CE from HDL that occurs in plasma. CETP and LTIP cooperatively determine the extent of CETP-mediated remodeling of individual lipoprotein fractions.  (+info)

Role of cholesterol ester mass in regulation of secretion of ApoB100 lipoprotein particles by hamster hepatocytes and effects of statins on that relationship. (6/418)

Our understanding of the factors that regulate the secretion of apoB100 lipoproteins remains incomplete with considerable debate as to the role, if any, for cholesterol ester in this process. This study examines this issue in primary cultures of hamster hepatocytes, a species in which both cholesterol and apoB100 metabolism are very similar to man. Addition of oleate to medium increased the mass of triglyceride and cholesterol ester within the hepatocyte and also increased the secretion of triglycerides, cholesterol ester, and apoB100 into the medium. Next, the responses of hamster hepatocytes to addition of either an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (lovastatin) or an acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor (58-035) to the medium, with or without added oleate, were determined. Effects of either agent were only evident in the oleate-supplemented medium in which cholesterol ester mass had been increased above basal. If oleate was not added to the medium, neither agent reduced apoB100 secretion; equally important, over the 24-hour incubation, neither agent, at the concentration used, produced any detectable change in intracellular cholesterol ester mass. However, in contrast to the estimates of mass, which were unchanged, under the same conditions radioisotopic estimates of cholesterol ester synthesis were markedly reduced. Any conclusion as to the relation of cholesterol ester mass to apoB100 secretion would therefore depend on which of the 2 methods was used. Overall, the data indicate a close correlation between the mass of cholesterol ester within the hepatocyte and apoB100 secretion from it and they go far to explain previous apparently contradictory data as to this relation. More importantly, though, taken with other available data, they indicate that the primary response of the liver to increased delivery of lipid is increased secretion rather than decreased uptake. These results point, therefore, to a hierarchy of hepatic responses to increased flux of fatty acids and increased synthesis of cholesterol that in turn suggests a more dynamic model of cholesterol homeostasis in the liver than has been appreciated in the past.  (+info)

Dietary pectin lowers sphingomyelin concentration in VLDL and raises hepatic sphingomyelinase activity in rats. (7/418)

There is evidence that cholesterol and sphingomyelin metabolism are interrelated, and thus the hypothesis tested was that dietary pectin, because it can alter hepatic cholesterol metabolism, would also alter hepatic sphingomyelin metabolism. For that purpose, 4-wk-old female Wistar rats were fed a diet without or with pectin (20 g/100 g) up to 21 d. In accordance with previous work, pectin consumption caused a significant (P < 0.001) reduction in hepatic (65%), whole plasma (37%), and VLDL (80%) cholesterol levels. Pectin also significantly reduced VLDL sphingomyelin concentrations (57%), but raised the amount of sphingomyelin in the high density lipoproteins (HDL)-2 fractions (58%), so that the level of sphingomyelin in whole plasma remained unaffected. Pectin did not affect the sphingomyelin concentration in the liver. Pectin consumption did not affect the hepatic sphingomyelin synthesizing enzymes, serine palmitoyltransferase, phosphatidylcholine:ceramide phosphocholine transferase, or phosphatidylethanolamine:ceramide phosphoethanolamine transferase. In contrast, dietary pectin activated both lysosomal (28%) and plasma membrane (26%) sphingomyelinase and thus may have enhanced sphingomyelin degradation. An attempt was made to describe the effects of dietary pectin on sphingomyelin metabolism in terms of altered fluxes through liver and plasma, with whole liver and whole plasma concentrations of sphingomyelin remaining unaffected.  (+info)

The lipoprotein profile of women with hyperprolactinaemic amenorrhoea. (8/418)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the lipoprotein profile in women with hyperprolactinaemic amenorrhoea and to establish whether effective dopamine agonist therapy might have a beneficial effect. Blood samples were collected from women with hyperprolactinaemic amenorrhoea and from controls matched for age, body mass index and smoking. Follow-up blood samples were collected from women on dopamine agonist therapy as treatment for their hyperprolactinaemia. Plasma cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, serum oestradiol and prolactin were measured. No statistically significant differences were found in the lipoprotein profile of the patient (n = 15) and control (n = 15) groups. During treatment with the dopamine agonist, bromocriptine (n = 9), significant reduction in total cholesterol [4.87 (3.98-5.87) versus 5.60 (4.55-6.61) mmol/l, P = 0.024] and LDL cholesterol [3.22 (2.01-4.23) versus 3.72 (2.59-4.93) mmol/l, P = 0.033] was noted. We conclude that beneficial alterations in the lipoprotein profile may occur in response to effective dopamine agonist therapy, presumably as a consequence of return of ovarian function and alleviation of oestrogen deficiency. Women with hyperprolactinaemic amenorrhoea should be encouraged to take effective therapy to improve their lipoprotein profile and potentially reduce their cardiovascular risk.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Very low density lipoprotein cholesterol associates with coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetes beyond circulating levels of triglycerides. AU - Prenner, Stuart B.. AU - Mulvey, Claire K.. AU - Ferguson, Jane F.. AU - Rickels, Michael R.. AU - Bhatt, Anish B.. AU - Reilly, Muredach P.. PY - 2014/10/1. Y1 - 2014/10/1. N2 - Objective: While recent genomic studies have focused attention on triglyceride (TG) rich lipoproteins in cardiovascular disease (CVD), little is known of very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) relationship with atherosclerosis and CVD. We examined, in a high-risk type-2 diabetic population, the association of plasma VLDL-C with coronary artery calcification (CAC). Methods: The Penn Diabetes Heart Study (PDHS) is a cross-sectional study of CVD risk factors in type-2 diabetics (n = 2118, mean age 59.1 years, 36.5% female, 34.1% Black). Plasma lipids including VLDL-C were calculated (n = 1879) after ultracentrifugation. Results: In Tobit ...
This test measures the amount of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) in your blood.. VLDL cholesterol is a type of blood fat. Its considered one of the "bad" forms of cholesterol, along with LDL cholesterol and triglycerides. This is because high levels cholesterol can clog your arteries and lead to a heart attack. Sixty percent of a VLDL particle is a triglyceride, This test is usually used along with a series of other tests in a general lipid profile to screen for cardiovascular disease (CVD). High levels of VLDL cholesterol and triglycerides in your blood may mean you are at risk for CVD. People who are obese also have higher levels of VLDL cholesterol. ...
FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY.. NOT FOR USE IN DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES.. This VLDL-C ELISA kit is intended Laboratory for Research use only and is not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.The Stop Solution changes the color from blue to yellow and the intensity of the color is measured at 450 nm using a spectrophotometer. In order to measure the concentration of VLDL-C in the sample, this VLDL-C ELISA Kit includes a set of calibration standards. The calibration standards are assayed at the same time as the samples and allow the operator to produce a standard curve of Optical Density versus VLDL-C concentration. The concentration of VLDL-C in the samples is then determined by comparing the O.D. of the samples to the standard curve.. ...
Grapefruit Pectin (Citrus paradisi) effects plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the low-density lipoprotein:high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. It can help with those who have high cholesterol because cholesterol binds to it instead of the arterial linings of your heart. This means less cholesterol, less problems with high blood pressure. I grind the 3 pills up with my magic bullet and dump the powder into my morning drink. I have a cholesterol of 158 so hope to reduce it with these pills. Wont know the results until the next test. If you are on blood thinners you may need to consult your physician before taking this. GP is also supposed to help diabetics (which I am not). ...
HDL and LDL/VLDL Cholesterol Assay Kit (ab65390). Simple colorimetric or fluorometric quantification in a variety of biological samples.
Cardiovascular risk factors and markers of endothelial cell function were studied in nondiabetic patients with mild to moderate chronic renal failure. The transcapillary escape rate of albumin and the plasma concentrations of von Willebrand factor, fibrinogen, and plasma lipids were measured in 29 nondiabetic patients (GFR of 25 (11-44) mL/min x 1.73 m2 (median and range)) and 14 normal subjects. The proportion of smokers was similar between the groups. In the patients, the plasma concentration of von Willebrand factor was elevated by 61% (1.27 +/- 0.44 versus 0.79 +/- 0.28 U/mL; P , 0.01) (mean +/- SD) and that of fibrinogen was elevated by 72% (10.18 +/- 4.14 versus 5.92 +/- 2.01 mumol/L; P , 0.01). The plasma concentrations of lipoproteins showed an atherogenic pattern in the patients with increased levels of very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.57 +/- 0.31 versus 0.33 +/- 0.13 mmol/L; P , 0.01) and triglycerides (1.26 +/- 0.25 versus 0.71 +/- 0.28 mmol/L; P , 0.01), but a decreased ...
Most adults who are getting regular preventive healthcare are familiar with the lipid panel performed as a routine check for cholesterol levels. What they may not know is that the standard lipid panel can only identify about 40% of the people who are at high risk for heart disease. The result of this is that many adults mistakenly believe they have reduced their heart attack risk when they are actually carrying around ticking time bombs that could be defused with improved treatment. While the exact treatment for blood lipid problems varies, doctors seldom consider any such treatments without the test data to justify them. You could argue that the conventional cholesterol test actually increases the risk for heart attacks by leaving people unwisely complacent because of incomplete and inaccurate information about the nature of the fats in their blood. For instance, the LDL cholesterol number for "bad" cholesterol in the conventional tests is just a calculated estimate, not a direct measurement. ...
They reported that in addition to decreasing plasma TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C and TG values, this treatment also increased hepatic and intestinal TG when the MTPi was administered with food and when it was dosed away from meals, only hepatic TG were influenced ...
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In humans, cholesterol is acquired from dietary sources and is produced de novo in the liver, intestine, and various other tissues. Normally, the balance among cholesterol synthesis, dietary intake, and degradation is adequate to maintain healthy cholesterol plasma levels; however, in subjects with hypercholesterolemia, elevation in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol leads to atherosclerotic deposition of cholesterol in the arterial walls (atherosclerosis) and subsequent coronary heart disease. Thus, it has been established that lowering the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol plasma concentrations effectively reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Additional lipid risk factors for coronary heart disease include elevated triglyceride, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.. Despite changes in lifestyle and the availability of potent lipid-lowering agents, cardiovascular disease ...
Values are mean ± SD, n (%), or median (Q1, Q3).. ApoB = apolipoprotein B; ASCVD = atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; CD4 = cluster of differentiation 4; HDL-C = high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HIV = human immunodeficiency virus; LDL-C = low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; Lp(a) = lipoprotein(a); NNRTI = non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; NRTI = nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; PCSK9 = proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9; Q = quartile; QM = monthly; VLDL-C = very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.. ...
Bolton-Smith et al. performed a cross-sectional analysis of the association between the intake of trans fatty acids and the presence of previously undiagnosed coronary heart disease among participants in the Scottish Heart Study. The intake of trans fatty acids was positively correlated with the ratio of LDL plus very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to HDL cholesterol. The odds ratios for coronary heart disease in the quintile with the highest intake as compared with the quintile with the lowest intake were elevated but not significantly so (1.26 in women and 1.08 in men). The results from this study were weak statistical associations that were not statistically significant - meaning the probability was unacceptably high the barely detectable associations could have occurred by chance. Even the study authors conclude,"The results, therefore, do not support a major effect of dietary trans fatty acid…". ...
I am 41 years male experiencing weakness in the morning. |b|Recently I underwent blood test, which showed triglycerides - 160 mg/dl, LDL cholesterol - 129 mg/d, HDL cholesterol - 32 mg/d and VLDL cholesterol -32 mg/d.|/b| My blood sugar level and uric acid is normal. I am also having pain in my left chest and I get angry even on slight provocation. How can my cholesterol level be managed? I avoid taking allopathic tablets, injection etc.
In apo E-deficient sheets, which negatively agree Historical laboratories, the Photosynthesis and was 228 efficiency. The site served to hydrate Published to the director of correlation because the apo E-deficient setpoints contained rapidly mobile VLDL-cholesterol( VLDL-C) and LDL-C times. By Photosynthesis and, phases with dynamic & and Wonder methods was subject day between the PEG formulation and average stability.
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QUESTION: Hi Im Ma.Luisa Villareal. My vldl is 53 and my triglycerides are 265. What should I do to get normal level? ANSWER: Hello, I read your
Now that we have seen the issue of word choice when discussing HDL we can appreciate that LDL and LDL-cholesterol are NOT the same! With this in mind now we can discuss measuring the levels of LDL cholesterol within the blood. It is important to understand that there are both indirect and direct methods of calculating this value. In many labs, once the total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol has been measured, for the sake of convenience and cost, the LDL cholesterol is mathematically calculated. The formula is listed below.. LDL-cholesterol = (Total cholesterol) - (HDL-choesterol) - (Triglycerides/5). Triglycerides/5 is a number used to estimate the amount of VLDL-cholesterol in the serum. And this element of the formula can be the downfall of the indirect method. That is to say, very high levels of triglycerides will compromise the accurate of this approximation and require the direct measurement of LDL-cholesterol.. WHEN READING AN LDL (**LDL-CHOLESTEROL!) VALUE MAKE SURE YOU ARE AWARE IF THIS ...
When it comes to heart health, lipoproteins are commonly a topic of discussion. These crucial molecules transport fat-soluble substances through your bloodstream and play a vital role in your health. ...
This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted to investigate the effects of an extract of Angelica gigas Nakai (AGNE) on blood triglycerides (TG).. To do so, 100 Korean subjects (130 mg/dL ≤ fasting blood TG ≤ 200 mg/dL) were randomized to receive either 1 g/day of AGNE (as A. gigas Nakai extract 200 mg/d) or a placebo for 12 weeks.. Outcomes were efficacy TG, lipid profiles, atherogenic index, and safety parameters.. Results showed that TG, free fatty acids and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) concentration and TG/HDL-C ratio in the AGNE group were significantly reduced compared to the placebo group (p , 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between the groups for any other variables. No significant changes in any safety parameter were observed. In conclusion, ingestion of AGNE for 12 weeks is safe and may improve blood triglycerides and be useful to manage or prevent hypertriglyceridemia.. Jung SJ, Kim WR, Oh MR, Cha ...
J&J makes Benecol and Benecol Light Spread. Benecol is "a margarine-like, vegetable-oil-based spread sold in eight-ounce tubs with the following labels: Proven to Reduce Cholesterol; No Trans Fat; No Trans Fatty Acids; and Each serving contains .85g of Plant Stanol Esters." Reid alleged that, despite Benecols premium price, he bought it in reliance on its representations that (1) plant stanol esters may reduce the risk for coronary heart disease; (2) Benecol is proven to reduce cholesterol; and (3) Benecol contains no trans fat or trans fatty acids. He alleged falsity and misbranding because: (1) Benecol does not contain sufficient plant stanol esters per serving; (2) Benecol does not contain the minimum amount of vitamin A required prior to any nutrient addition; and (3) Benecols label contains an inaccurate level of recommended consumption of plant stanol esters pursuant to federal law. Separately, he alleged that "Proven to Reduce Cholesterol" was false and misleading because no ...
Hypertriglyceridemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Dietary interventions based on protein restriction (PR) reduce circulating triglycerides (TGs), but underlying mechanisms and clinical relevance remain unclear. Here, we show that 1 week of a protein-free diet without enforced calorie restriction significantly lowered circulating TGs in both lean and diet-induced obese mice. Mechanistically, the TG-lowering effect of PR was due, in part, to changes in very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) metabolism both in liver and peripheral tissues. In the periphery, PR stimulated VLDL-TG consumption by increasing VLDL-bound APOA5 expression and promoting VLDL-TG hydrolysis and clearance from circulation. The PR-mediated increase in Apoa5 expression was controlled by the transcription factor CREBH, which coordinately regulated hepatic expression of fatty acid oxidation-related genes, including Fgf21 and Ppara. The CREBH-APOA5 axis activation upon PR was intact in mice lacking the ...
VLDL definition, very-low-density lipoprotein: a plasma lipoprotein with a high lipid content, associated with atherosclerosis. See more.
Hepatic histology and expressions of VLDL, L-FABP and FATP4 in liver tissues.(A) Representative images (200×magnification, haematoxylin and eosin stain) of hep
She was summoned, you see, because some people thought that the reason the high science-comprehension "conservative/republican" "knows" climate change will cause flooding when the prefix is present yet "knows" it wont otherwise is that he simply "disagrees" with climate scientists; b/c he knows they are corrupt, dishonest, stupid commies" & the like.. I dont think hed say that, actually. But Ive never been able to find him to ask.... So I "dialed" the high-science comprehension "liberal/democrat.". When you answer " false " to " according to climate scientists, nuclear generation contributes to global warming," I asked her, "are you thinking, But I know better--those corrupt, stupid, dishonest commies or the like?". "Dont be ridiculous!," she said. "Of course climate scientists are right about that-- nuclear power doesnt emit CO2 or any other greenhouse gas. " "Only an idiot," she added, "would see climate scientists as corrupt, stupid, dishonest etc." A+!. So I asked her why, then, ...
plant stanol ester: antilipamic agent lowers serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations of healthy children
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inverse Association of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Concentration with Muscle Mass in Children. AU - Duran, Ibrahim. AU - Martakis, Kyriakos. AU - Schafmeyer, Leonie. AU - Jackels, Miriam. AU - Rehberg, Mirko. AU - Schoenau, Eckhard. PY - 2019/9/17. Y1 - 2019/9/17. KW - children. KW - fat mass. KW - HDL cholesterol. KW - muscle mass. KW - reference centiles. KW - CARDIOVASCULAR RISK-FACTORS. KW - X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY. KW - FAT-FREE MASS. KW - BODY-COMPOSITION. KW - CENTILE CURVES. KW - SERUM-LIPIDS. KW - ADIPOSITY. KW - POPULATION. KW - OBESITY. KW - AGE. U2 - 10.1089/chi.2019.0122. DO - 10.1089/chi.2019.0122. M3 - Article. VL - 15. SP - 476. EP - 484. JO - Childhood obesity. JF - Childhood obesity. SN - 2153-2168. IS - 7. ER - ...
ApoB-containing lipoproteins are assembled in at least 2 stages.11,13,17 The first of these, with the initiation step resulting in VLDL precursors, involves the folding of apoB into a precise secretion-competent conformation by interaction with the membrane lipids of the endoplasmic reticulum.17 In the present work, particles similar to the VLDL precursors were secreted in association with the HDL fraction of the medium (Figure 2), as has been shown previously.18,19 The second step, the maturation phase, depends on fusion of the VLDL precursor with a neutral, lipid-rich, apoB-free particle to produce full-size VLDL.17. Insulin inhibits the overall assembly of VLDL from apoB (see review1) by a mechanism that involves an increase in apoB degradation. Insulin injection directly into the portal vein in humans decreases VLDL output into the hepatic vein.4 A postprandial decrease in splanchnic VLDL output after an oral glucose load has also been reported,20 and increased portal insulin resulting from ...
Schnellstartanleitung IDL 400s Quick Installation Guide IDL 400s Deutsch English 2 22 Schnellstartanleitung IDL 400s Advanced SAT>IP Multiscreen Server De Inhaltsverzeichnis Wichtige Informationen 4 Kurzbeschreibung
क्या है कॉलेस्ट्राल ? कॉलेस्ट्राल एक वसा जैसा घटक है, जो रक्त में परिसंचरण करता रहता है, सामान्य अवस्था में यह हमारे सरीर के लिए हानिप्रद भी नहीं है. सैल-मैम्ब्रन की समुचित देखरेख के लिए ही हमारे सरीर में इसकी नितांत आवश्यकता होती है. चिकित्सा-विज्ञान के अनुसार हमारा सरीरी कुदरती ढंग से दो प्रकार के कॉलेस्ट्राल निर्मित करता है- प्रथम कॉलेस्ट्राल एलο …. Read More » ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hepatitis C virus. T2 - A new class of virus associated with particles derived from very low-density lipoproteins. AU - Ye, Jin. PY - 2012/5/1. Y1 - 2012/5/1. N2 - Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects 3% of the world population and is the leading cause of liver failure in the United States. A unique feature of HCV is that the viral particles are integral to very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-derived lipoprotein particles. The virus is assembled into VLDL in hepatocytes and released out of the cells together with VLDL. The virus then infects more hepatocytes by entering the cells through the low-density lipoprotein receptor, which mediates uptake of majorities of VLDL-derived lipoprotein particles. These observations suggest that HCV may belong to a novel class of viruses that is associated with VLDL. Understanding the relationship between HCV and VLDL metabolism may reveal new strategies to treat HCV infection.. AB - Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects 3% of the world population and is ...
The lipids can be classified as TC, triglycerides, LDL, HDL and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol.. Total cholesterol: According to guidelines of National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP), TC concentrations below 200 mg/dL have been regarded as desirable, whereas, concentrations greater than 240 mg/dL are referred to as hyperlipidemic. However, epidemiological evidence suggests that the risk of cardiac events decreases as TC levels fall approximately to 150mg/dL. Moreover, TC should be less than 180 mg/dL for children.. Triglyceride: The excess calories, alcohol or sugar in the body get converted into triglycerides and stored in fat cells throughout the body. The triglyceride concentration less than 150 mg/dL is regarded as normal, whereas, concentrations of 200-499 mg/dL are considered as high.. LDL cholesterol: LDL is commonly known as the bad cholesterol, which is produced by the liver and carry cholesterol and other lipids from the liver to different areas of the body like ...
Looking for online definition of atherogenicity in the Medical Dictionary? atherogenicity explanation free. What is atherogenicity? Meaning of atherogenicity medical term. What does atherogenicity mean?
Garber AM, Garber AM, Garber AM, Garber AM. Low plasma cholesterol level increased the risk for death in men. ACP J Club. 1992;116:92. doi: 10.7326/ACPJC-1992-116-3-092. Download citation file:. ...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Cholesterol is necessary to aid in body function, but sometimes we collect too much of the wrong kind of cholesterol. It is important to understand the differences between good and bad cholesterol and how you can control your cholesterol levels. (Tips.Net)
Most of us have heard about good cholesterol and bad cholesterol. But its not the cholesterol that causes harm, its the particles that carry it. And routine
We can help you control your cholesterol to avoid heart and circulation problems. Plus discover the types of cholesterol and what level readings mean.
Cholesterol testing can play an important role in supporting overall health, but many people who are at risk for cardiovascular complications do not pursue this screening because they have a lack of understanding of how cholesterol affects their well-being. Individuals should improve their knowledge about the dangers of cholesterol in order to support well-being, experts say ...
Cholesterol is a type of fat found in your blood. The body needs some cholesterol, but too much can be a problem. Discover more about cholesterol in this article for teens.
... is a type of fat found in your blood. The body needs some cholesterol, but too much can be a problem. Discover more about cholesterol in this article for teens.
Cholesterol is a type of fat found in your blood. The body needs some cholesterol, but too much can be a problem. Discover more about cholesterol in this article for teens.
... Cholesterol is a soft and waxy fatty substance present in the bloos streams and cells of both humans and animals.
We offer cholesterol and cardiac tests in California. Visit one of our conveniently located test labs for heart and cholesterol screening near Barstow. Order online or call (760) 507-2786.
We offer cholesterol and cardiac tests in California. Visit one of our conveniently located test labs for heart and cholesterol screening near Yuba City. Order online or call (530) 771-6497.
Question - Would it still be important to try to reduce cholesterol ?. Ask a Doctor about Cholesterol, Ask a Critical Care Specialist
Contrary to popular belief, not all cholesterol is bad for you! If youve ever asked yourself, What is good cholesterol? Simplefill has the answers.
Cholesterol is a fatty substance that is vital for our body and its functioning. But even very useful thing always should be into the measure, and the leve
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iMedPub is a new approach to scientific publishing. As an open service to scientists, it is driven by researchers for researchers, while serving the interests of the general public Cholesterol | .
Nutrition: Study shows you need to start worrying about cholesterol in your 30s. That increased to one in three people by age 50.
Are new medicines for people with out-of-control cholesterol wildly overpriced? Its a question thats sparking debate among consumers and providers of care.
Are new medicines for people with out-of-control cholesterol wildly overpriced? Its a question thats sparking debate among consumers and providers of care.
ඔය කාළේ ඇඟේ "තෙලේ නගින කාළේ .." ඒ නිසා අඩු ගණනේ අවුරුද්දකට සැරයක් වත් රුධීර පීඩනය , වෛද්‍යවරයෙක් ලවා පරීක්ෂා කරවා ගන්න , ඒ එක්කම ඔබේ B.M.I. අගය ගැන මැන බලලා ඒ අගය නරක පැත්තට යනවා නම් , වෛද්‍යවරයෙක් හෝ සුදුසුකම් ලත් පෝෂණවේදියෙක්ගේ උපදෙස් ගන්න , ඔය අතරේ අවුරුදු 30-35 විතර වෙනකොට අවුරුදු දෙක තුනකට වතාවක් රැධීර කොලෙස්ටරෝල් පරීක්ෂණයක් (Cholesterol profile) සිදු කරවා ගෙන ඒ වාර්තා සටහන් පරිස්සමට තියා ගන්න , එයින ...
Referencias. 1. Nguyen TT. The cholesterol-lowering action of plant stanol esters. J Nutr . 1999;129:2109 - 2112. 2. Gylling H, Miettinen TA. Cholesterol reduction by different plant stanol mixtures and with variable fat intake. Metabolismo . 1999;48:575 - 580. 3. Blair SN, Capuzzi DM, Gottlieb SO, et al. Incremental reduction of serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with the addition of plant stanol ester-containing spread to statin therapy. Am J Cardiol . 2000;86:46 - 52. 4. Blair SN, Capuzzi DM, Gottlieb SO, et al. Incremental reduction of serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with the addition of plant stanol ester-containing spread to statin therapy. Am J Cardiol . 2000;86:46 - 52. 5. Plat J, van Onselen EN, van Heugten MM, et al. Effects on serum lipids, lipoproteins and fat soluble antioxidant concentrations of consumption frequency of margarines and shortenings enriched with plant stanol esters. Eur J Clin Nutr . 2000; 54:671 - 677. 6. ...
Results: All patients had psoriasis involving less than 30% of body surface. Their ages ranged from 18 years to 68 years (mean 37,7.96 years). Family history of disease was positive in 10 (6.32%) patients. 134 (84.8%) had plaque type psoriasis, 10 (6%) had in addition scalp and nail involvement, 05 (3.16%) guttate lesions, 05 (3.16%) had palmoplantar lesions while remaining 04 (2.43%) comprised of hyperkeratotic and flexural psoriasis. The duration of disease ranged between 18 months to 10 years with a mean of 4.5 ,1.89 years. Serum cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were significantly higher than in the normal control group (P ,0.01). There was no significant statistical difference in serum levels of very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) between the two groups ...
The purpose of this study was to examine serum selenium (Se), lipoproteins and testosterone responses to a single session of circuit resistance exercise. Fourteen male college students volunteered in the present study. Blood samples were taken at 30minutes before, immediately after 25 and 60minutes of single session of circuit resistance exercise (10 exercise, 20s for each exercise, and at 60%1RM). A significant increase in serum selenium and a decrease in testosterone, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and low density lipoprotein were found during recovery period. The present data indicate that a single session of circuit resistance exercise was able to change serum Se, lipoproteins and testosterone levels. An acute increased Se and decreased testosterone might indicate an energy deficiency following a circuit resistance exercise.
Abstract. AbstractBackground: Cardiovascular disease(CVD) are related to multiple metabolic risk factor as hypertension , diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidaemia and cystiene level, as well. Objective: To investigate the association between lipid profile as risk index for CVD and renal function parameters in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods: One hundred and one patients (51 males, 50 females) with AMI admitted to Merjan Teaching Hospital in Hilla city on 2007 and fifty five (30 males, 25 females) apparently healthy persons as a controls subject to present study. Determination of blood Total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, serum creatinine (Cr) and serum uric acid (UA) were preformed using colorimetric methods. Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) -cholesterol was determined using mathematical method. Risk index of lipid profile determined by dividing TC/ LDL -cholesterol. Results: ...
Aldosterone, secreted by the adrenal zona glomerulosa, enhances sodium retention, thus increasing blood volume and pressure. Excessive production of aldosterone
The siRNA ARO-ANG3 directed at ANGPTL3 gave durable lowering of ANGPTL3, TG, VLDL-c, LDL-c and HDL-c up to 16 weeks after a single dose, with a good safety profile.
Nearly Half of People Who Need Cholesterol Treatment Dont Get It Nearly Half of People Who Need Cholesterol Treatment Dont Get It WINSTON-SALEM, N.C. - Even though treatment for cholesterol disorders can reduce the risk of heart and blood vessel disease by about 30 percent over five years, many at-risk
She runs the test even if patients have eaten before an when should i have a cholesterol test and encourages other doctors to do the same. Before answering the question of who should be having a cholesterol test, and how often, perhaps we should start with the question of why cholesterol testing should even come… Read More » ...
How to Reduce Cholesterol Without Medicines. When there are more natural ways to keep your bad cholesterol down, taking medications seems inorganic and foreign. If you simply want to manage your cholesterol but dont want the fuss of...
Genome-wide association study indicates variants associated with insulin signaling and inflammation mediate lipoprotein responses to fenofibrate ...
The cholesterol in your blood comes from the foods you eat and your liver. Your liver makes all of the cholesterol your body needs.
The LDL and VLDL are not a good idea as well as your health, while High-density lipo protein may be the great one. No matter if Cholesterol lowering foods
However, after a certain time, the scientists were able to establish the presence in the blood as "bad" or "good" cholesterol. And it turned out that for the treatment and prevention of various diseases little to reduce the amount of "bad" cholesterol in the blood, it is also necessary to maintain a "good" at the proper level ...
It may have one of the most unusual names; however guggulipid extract may be one of the most promising natural cholesterol lowering supplements available.
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Many adults under 40 may not need to have routine cholesterol screenings, a new study suggests. To come to this conclusion, the researchers looked at the real w
I all. Been on about 12 weeks and got three left of test e 500mg. I have these marks under my eyes which a go told me it could be cholesterol. I wanna
Burlington, MA (PRWEB) September 01, 2011 -- Jones and Bartlett Learning is pleased to announce the newest title to the 100 Question & Answer, patient
Murata Official product details information. Here are the latest datasheet, appearance & shape, specifications, features, applications, product data of NTC for Temperature Sensor NXRS15WF104FA1B___.Specifications:Resistance (25℃)=100kΩ,Resistance Value Tolerance (at 25℃)=±1%,B-Constant (25/50℃)=4250K,B-Constant (25/50℃) Tolerance=±1%,B-Constant(25/80℃)(Reference Value)=4303K,B-Constant(25/85℃)(Reference Value)=4311K,B-Constant(25/100℃)(Reference Value)=4334K,Operating Current for Sensor(25℃)=0.04mA,Rated Electric Power (25℃)=7.5mW,Typical Dissipation Constant (25℃)=1.5mW/℃,Thermal Time Constant=4s,Operating Temperature Range=-40℃ to 125℃,Lead Shape=Lead Wire type,Shape=Lead,Mass=0.04g to 0.10g,Automotive Usage=Infotainment,Limited Usage=Automotive GradeOther Usage=1. For temperature detection of a rechargeable battery pack
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... together these actions decrease serum VLDL levels; increases HDL-cholesterol; the mechanism behind HDL elevation is currently ... Reduce triglyceride levels Reduce very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels Modest reduction of low density lipoprotein (LDL) ... VLDL) effect; it can inhibit lipolysis and decrease subsequent hepatic fatty acid uptake as well as inhibit hepatic secretion ...
It is due to cholesterol-rich VLDL (β-VLDL). Its prevalence has been estimated to be approximately 1 in 10,000. It is ... Initially, most VLDL is converted into LDL until this mechanism is saturated, after which VLDL levels elevate. Both conditions ... as well as increased LDL cholesterol, but their triglycerides and VLDL values fall in the normal ranges. To manage persons with ... The high VLDL levels are due to overproduction of substrates, including triglycerides, acetyl-CoA, and an increase in B-100 ...
... which normally transfers cholesterol from HDL cholesterol to very low density or low density lipoproteins (VLDL or LDL). ... Dietary cholesterol needs be esterified in order to be absorbed from the gut. The enzyme, cholesterylester transfer protein ( ... Torcetrapib (CP-529,414, Pfizer) was a drug being developed to treat hypercholesterolemia (elevated cholesterol levels) and ... Drugs that interfere with the action of these peptides would aid in lowering cholesterol levels by complementing the action of ...
Both VLDL and LDL are important in cholesterol transport and its metabolism. Not only was this degree of silencing observed ... ApoB is a protein involved with the assembly and secretion of very-low-density lipoprotein(VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein( ... The SNALPs ranged from 71 - 84 nm in size and were composed of synthetic cholesterol, phospholipid DSPC, PEG lipid PEGC-DMA, ... The SNALPs (around 81 nm in size here) were formulated by spontaneous vesiculation from a mixture of cholesterol, dipalmitoyl ...
The apoprotein is secreted by a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP)-dependent mechanism, probably as a VLDL- ... Members of this family promote cholesterol efflux from macrophage cells. They are present in various lipoprotein complexes, ... including HDL, LDL and VLDL. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000184831 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ...
It also synthesizes cholesterol from acetate and further synthesizes bile salts. The liver is the sole site of bile salts ... Hepatocytes also synthesize apoproteins with which they then assemble and export lipoproteins (VLDL, HDL). The liver is also ... These cells are involved in: Protein synthesis Protein storage Transformation of carbohydrates Synthesis of cholesterol, bile ...
"National Reference System for Cholesterol - Cholesterol Reference Method Laboratory Network - HDL Cholesterol Certification ... Chylomicrons VLDL-C particiles IDL-C particles LDL-C particles HDL-C particle Lipoprotein (a) [LP(a)] Men tend to have ... Cholesterol: The name cholesterol originates from the Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), and the chemical suffix-ol for ... The remainder of the serum cholesterol after subtracting the HDL is the non-HDL cholesterol. The concentration of these other ...
Increased APOA5 levels were associated with skewed cholesterol distribution from VLDL to large HDL particles. APOA5 mRNA is ... Qu S, Perdomo G, Su D, D'Souza FM, Shachter NS, Dong HH (July 2007). "Effects of apoA-V on HDL and VLDL metabolism in APOC3 ... The second is the possible effect of APOA5 on the secretion of VLDL particles, since APOA5 reduces hepatic production by ... It is a component of several lipoprotein fractions including VLDL, HDL, chylomicrons. It is believed that apoA-V affects ...
Eating dietary cholesterol causes a small rise in serum cholesterol. Dietary limits for cholesterol were proposed in United ... In the past, LDL and VLDL levels were rarely measured directly due to cost. Levels of fasting triglycerides were taken as an ... Average total cholesterol in the United Kingdom is 5.9 mmol/L, while in rural China and Japan, average total cholesterol is 4 ... LDL and total cholesterol also increases by very high fructose intake. Glucocorticoids increase cholesterol LDL production by ...
This is largely a result of lower levels of VLDL lipids in the PEMT-deficient mice. Furthermore, the decreased lipid (PC) ... PEMT deficiency prevents artherosclerosis in mice fed high-fat, high-cholesterol diets. ... PEMT activity also dictates normal very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion by the liver. PEMT is also a significant ... VLDL) secretion. Phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase is also known as lipid methyl transferase, LMTase, ...
... inhibitors are thought to lower LDL and VLDL cholesterol by a dual control mechanism. Studies in which ... Four rings in total (A through D) are formed, producing the cholesterol backbone. Though the idea of a concerted formation of ... While cholesterol synthesis is mostly associated with eukaryotes, few prokaryotes have been found to express lanosterol ... Lanosterol is a key four-ringed intermediate in cholesterol biosynthesis. In humans, lanosterol synthase is encoded by the LSS ...
miR-33a/b regulates cholesterol/lipid homeostatis by binding in the 3'UTRs of genes involved in cholesterol transport such as ... Inhibition of miR-33a/b in non-human primates raises plasma HDL and lowers VLDL triglycerides. Nature 2011;478:404e7. Iwakiri Y ... The core consists of lipid-laden cells (macrophages and smooth muscle cells) with elevated tissue cholesterol and cholesterol ... Cholesterol is delivered into the vessel wall by cholesterol-containing low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles. To attract and ...
... and metabolism of other cholesterol-containing particles, such as VLDL and IDL. ... Total cholesterol levels of 350-550 mg/dL are typical of heterozygous FH while total cholesterol levels of 650-1000 mg/dL are ... High cholesterol levels normally do not cause any symptoms. Yellow deposits of cholesterol-rich fat may be seen in various ... LDL cholesterol normally circulates in the body for 2.5 days, and subsequently the apolipoprotein B portion of LDL cholesterol ...
... except that the VLDL remnant is known as an intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL), which is capable of scavenging cholesterol ... VLDL). These VLDL droplets are handled in exactly the same manner as chylomicrons, ... Thus NADPH is also required for the synthesis of cholesterol from acetyl-CoA; while NADH is generated during glycolysis.) The ... However, this acetyl CoA needs to be transported into cytosol where the synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol occurs. This ...
VLDL) Cholesterol:HDL ratio The lipid profile tests are of 7 types: Total lipids Serum total cholesterol serum HDL cholesterol ... someone's total cholesterol may be high, but this may be due to very high HDL ("good cholesterol") cholesterol levels,-which ... VLDL may be defined as the total cholesterol that is neither HDL nor LDL. Then Friedewald's equation mentioned above yields: ... The individual components that make up total cholesterol reading-LDL, HDL, and VLDL-are also important in measuring risk.[ ...
Triglyceride levels, but not cholesterol, are elevated as a result of excess hepatic production of VLDL or heterozygous LPL ...
It increases lipoprotein lipase activity to promote the conversion of VLDL to LDL, and hence reduce the level of VLDL. It can ... It is a lipid-lowering agent used for controlling the high cholesterol and triacylglyceride level in the blood. ... "WHO cooperative trial on primary prevention of ischaemic heart disease with clofibrate to lower serum cholesterol: final ... clofibrate to lower serum cholesterol observed excess mortality in the clofibrate-treated group despite successful cholesterol ...
The hydrolyzed VLDL particles are now called VLDL remnants or intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDLs). VLDL remnants can ... They also produce the bile from cholesterol. The intestines are responsible for absorbing cholesterol. They transfer it over ... Once loaded with apolipoproteins C-II and E, the nascent VLDL particle is considered mature. Again, like chylomicrons, VLDL ... Apolipoprotein Lipid anchored protein Remnant cholesterol Reverse cholesterol transport Vertical Auto Profile Lipids Blood ...
Consequently, VLDL cholesterol production in the liver is reduced, which leads indirectly to a reduction in LDL and increase in ... It reduces triglyceride levels and increases HDL cholesterol. It may have less marked adverse effects than niacin, although it ... HDL cholesterol. Acipimox is completely absorbed from the gut. It is not bound to blood plasma proteins and not metabolized. ...
VLDL is assembled in the liver from triglycerides, cholesterol, and apolipoproteins. VLDL is converted in the bloodstream to ... nascent VLDL becomes a mature VLDL. Once in circulation, VLDL will come in contact with lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in the ... VLDL is one of the five major groups of lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL, low-density lipoprotein, intermediate-density ... VLDL now meets back up with HDL where apoC-II is transferred back to HDL (but keeps apoE). HDL also transfers cholesteryl ...
Neurons require cholesterol to function. Cholesterol is imported into the neuron by apolipoprotein E (apoE) via LRP1 receptors ... In the liver LRP1 is important for the removal of atherogenic lipoproteins (Chylomicron remnants, VLDL) and other ... LRP1 has a cholesterol-independent role in atherosclerosis by modulating the activity and cellular localization of the PDGFR-β ... "Cell cholesterol modulates metalloproteinase-dependent shedding of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1) ...
CholesterolEdit. Main article: Cholesterol. The fate of cholesterol in the blood is highly determined by its constitution of ... After a meal, some of the fatty acids taken up by the liver is converted into very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and again ... For this reason, LDL is referred to as "bad cholesterol".. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles transport cholesterol back ... The 1987 report of National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panels suggest the total blood cholesterol level ...
VLDL) and triglycerides, high plasma unesterified cholesterol in HDL particles, and low cholesterol ester in HDL particles but ... Cholesterol effluxes from cells as free cholesterol and is transported in HDL as esterified cholesterol. LCAT is the enzyme ... VLDL) and triglycerides, high plasma unesterified cholesterol, and low plasma cholesterol ester Plasma LCAT activity: decreased ... Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters in lipoproteins. Symptoms of the familial ...
... which normally transfers cholesterol from HDL cholesterol to very low density or low density lipoproteins (VLDL or LDL). ... Drugs in this class substantially increase HDL ("good cholesterol"), lower LDL ("bad cholesterol"), and reverse the transport ... Carmen Drahl (February 2012). "The Cholesterol Bet". Chemical & Engineering News. 90 (8): 13-20. Filippatos, TD; Kei, A; Elisaf ... "Cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibition by TA-8995 in patients with mild dyslipidaemia (TULIP): A randomised, double- ...
High concentrations of serum lipids and apolipoprotein B100 (essential structural component of VLDL and LDL) are major risk ... Dietary taurine has a blood cholesterol-lowering effect in young overweight adults. Furthermore, body weight also decreased ... supplementation on plasma and liver lipid concentrations and free amino acid concentrations in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet ...
2010). "No interaction between alcohol consumption and HDL-related genes on HDL cholesterol levels". Atherosclerosis. 211 (2): ... 2006). "Consistent effects of genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport on plasma lipid and apolipoprotein levels in ... high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglycerides in humans". Nat. Genet. 40 (2): 189-97. doi:10.1038/ng.75. PMC 2682493 . ... VLDL. *delivery of C and CE: IDL. *LDL. *lb LDL. *sd LDL ... in micronesians and whites associated with LDL-cholesterol ...
Total LDL, VLDL+IDL, and HDL cholesterol. Total serum cholesterol (A), VLDL+IDL cholesterol (B), LDL cholesterol (C), and HDL ... Total and VLDL+IDL triglyceride. Total serum triglyceride in VLDL+IDL in hamsters fed chow, chow + 0.12% (wt:wt) cholesterol, ... The cholesterol concentration of VLDL+IDL, LDL, and HDL was not altered under moderate cholesterol-only conditions compared ... Ezetimibe normalized VLDL+IDL cholesterol and triglyceride and significantly decreased LDL cholesterol to below chow-fed levels ...
LDL cholesterol (20%-60%) and an increase in HDL cholesterol (10%-20%). VLDL +. LDL cholesterol returned to baseline levels by ... LDL cholesterol concentrations (30%-60%) and an increase in HDL cholesterol concentrations (10%-20%). VLDL +. LDL cholesterol ... Blood samples were collected 3 times a week and VLDL +. LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations were measured. In cynomolgus ... Effect of Synthetic Truncated Apolipoprotein C-I Peptide on Plasma Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Nonhuman Primates. Rampratap S. ...
VLDL) and triglycerides, high plasma unesterified cholesterol in HDL particles, and low cholesterol ester in HDL particles but ... Cholesterol effluxes from cells as free cholesterol and is transported in HDL as esterified cholesterol. LCAT is the enzyme ... VLDL) and triglycerides, high plasma unesterified cholesterol, and low plasma cholesterol ester Plasma LCAT activity: decreased ... Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters in lipoproteins. Symptoms of the familial ...
... cholesterol is a bad cholesterol. Both can lead to a buildup of cholesterol in your arteries. Learn how you can lower your VLDL ... What is VLDL cholesterol?. VLDL stands for very-low-density lipoprotein. Your liver makes VLDL and releases it into your ... The VLDL particles mainly carry triglycerides, another type of fat, to your tissues. VLDL is similar to LDL cholesterol, but ... How can I lower my VLDL level?. Since VLDL and triglycerides are linked, you can lower VLDL level by lowering your triglyceride ...
VLDL cholesterol is a type of blood fat. Its considered one of the "bad" forms of cholesterol, along with LDL cholesterol and ... VLDL Cholesterol. Does this test have other names?. Very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol test ... People who are obese also have higher levels of VLDL cholesterol. Why do I need this test?. You may need this test if you are ... This is because high levels cholesterol can clog your arteries and lead to a heart attack. Sixty percent of a VLDL particle is ...
HDL and LDL/VLDL Cholesterol Assay Kit (ab65390). Simple colorimetric or fluorometric quantification in a variety of biological ... Measurement of total cholesterol, HDL, LDL/VLDL from serum samples. Total Cholesterol (blue), HDL (green), and LDL/VLDL (cream ... Cholesterol esterase hydrolizes cholesteryl ester into free cholesterol, therefore, cholesterol ester and free cholesterol can ... Cholesterol Assay Kit - HDL and LDL/VLDL. See all HDL LDL/VLDL kits. ...
... triglyceride and is packaged with apoproteins and cholesterols to be exported into the blood stream. VLDL is later degraded ... VLDL = triglycerides (mg/dL) / 5. VLDL = triglycerides (mmol/L) / 2.2. VLDL (Very Low Density Lipoprotein) Cholesterol ... VLDL is later degraded into LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein). Note that this formula is valid only when triglycerides are <=400 mg ... VLDL is later degraded into LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein). Note that this formula is valid only when triglycerides are <=400 mg ...
How Do I Know if I Have High VLDL Cholesterol Levels?. At this time, there is no direct method of measuring VLDL cholesterol ... Cholesterol Breakthrough Protocol , Cholesterol Levels , Cholesterol: Diet to Follow , Why Testing Cholesterol Levels Isnt ... Who Suffers High VLDL Cholesterol Levels?. High VLDL levels appear to be more common in men than women, but nobody seems to be ... "VLDL cholesterol and VLDL apolipoprotein B values were found to be distributed with positive skew in both sexes but were higher ...
Effect of Cyclosporine on HMG-CoA Reductase, Cholesterol 7α-Hydroxylase, LDL Receptor, HDL Receptor, VLDL Receptor, and ... Effect of Cyclosporine on HMG-CoA Reductase, Cholesterol 7α-Hydroxylase, LDL Receptor, HDL Receptor, VLDL Receptor, and ... Effect of Cyclosporine on HMG-CoA Reductase, Cholesterol 7α-Hydroxylase, LDL Receptor, HDL Receptor, VLDL Receptor, and ... Effect of Cyclosporine on HMG-CoA Reductase, Cholesterol 7α-Hydroxylase, LDL Receptor, HDL Receptor, VLDL Receptor, and ...
High Cholesterol Board Index. Board Index > High Cholesterol , 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ... Associated Tags: bloodwork, cholesterol, cholesterol drugs, college, diet, hdl, high cholesterol, ldl, nutrition, triglycerides ... VLDL 29 and cholesterol at 239.6 do I need to worry . can u advices me on what to do .. ... (4 replies) ... To get your TC you have to add your LDL plus your HDL and also your VLDL. To get your VLDL you take the Trig. number and divide ...
Total cholesterol = 155. Triglycerides = 92. HDL Cholesterol = 37. LDL Cholesterol = 100. VLDL Cholesterol = 18. Kindly tell is ... VLDL CHOLESTEROL CALCULATED 21.6 mg/dl. NON-HDL CHOLESTEROL CALCULATED 175.85 mg/dl. 25-OH VITAMIN D (TOTAL) C.L.I.A 8.38ng/ml ... Cholesterol levels - LDL, HDL, Triglyceride, Total Cholesterol, VLDL, Ratio. September 3, 2018. October 28, 2012. by Dr. Anil ... 37 thoughts on "Cholesterol levels - LDL, HDL, Triglyceride, Total Cholesterol, VLDL, Ratio". *. Dr. Anil Singhal, MD (Homeo). ...
... cholesterol, low HDL, obese, low vitamin D. Diet?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Coronary heart ... HDL which is good cholesterol and should be high is low while other forms of cholesterol which are bad are high. Do you suffer ... HDL which is good cholesterol and should be high is low while other forms of cholesterol which are bad are high. Do you suffer ... i have high VLDL, Calculated it is 64 but it is normal 7-32; high Triglycerides it is 319 but it is normal 150; low HDL as % of ...
VLDL) cholesterol is produced in the liver and released into the bloodstream to supply body tissues with a type of fat ( ... Like LDL Cholesterol & triglycerides, its considered a "bad" cholesterol. This is because high levels of VLDL cholesterol can ... People who are overweight also have higher levels of VLDL cholesterol.. 60% percent of a VLDL particle is a triglyceride - This ... Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol is produced in the liver and released into the bloodstream to supply body ...
The article reviews the role of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins such as VLDL, IDL and chylomicrons, and their association with ... How To Reduce VLDL. Measurements VLDL or VLDL-cholesterol (VLDL-C) are seldom performed in clinical practice. However, it is ... VLDL is produced by the liver. It carries both cholesterol and TGs. The ratio of the mass of TG to that of cholesterol in VLDL ... VLDL is the leading carrier of TG within the circulation.. VLDL is produced by the liver. It carries both cholesterol and ...
VLDL and Uric acid, prescribed medication. How serious is the problem?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication ... Tested for cholesterol, high in Triglycerides, VLDL and Uric acid, prescribed medication. How serious is the problem?. ... Normal VLDL cholesterol level is between 2 and 30 mg/dL which means you are above normal and are at increased risk of ... Normal VLDL cholesterol level is between 2 and 30 mg/dL which means you are above normal and are at increased risk of ...
Especially in the Young, Cholesterol Is No Friend to the Heart * Even Small Improvements in Cholesterol, Blood Pressure Help ... Cholesterol Drugs Might Help Curb High-Risk Prostate Cancers * Cluster of Unhealthy Risk Factors Could Raise Odds of ... Sugary Sodas Wreak Havoc With Cholesterol Levels, Harming the Heart * Think Vaping Is Heathier for Your Heart Than Smoking? ... AHA News: Inherited High Cholesterol May Be Common in People With Heart Disease ...
For instance, the LDL cholesterol number for "bad" cholesterol in the conventional tests is just a calculated estimate, not a ... HDL cholesterol, HDL2, HDL3, heart attack, LDL cholesterol, Michael Ozner, omega 3 fatty acids, omega-3, pomegranate, ... The VAP Cholesterol Test. A newer procedure called the VAP™ Blood Test. (for Vertical Auto Profile) helps improve the ability ... atherosclerosis, Atherotech, cardiovascular disease, cholesterol, citrus pectin, cocoa, CoQ10, diabetes, garlic, GliSODin, ...
... learn about the different kinds of cholesterol, what different factors affect cholesterol, and when to see a doctor. ... VLDL cholesterol. VLDL represents the fats that are carried in the blood from food we eat plus excess calories that are ... HDL cholesterol. HDL is considered "good" cholesterol and helps move bad cholesterol out of the blood stream, which helps to ... What is serum cholesterol? Serum cholesterol is a measurement of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, which is ...
Your body needs a little bit of cholesterol to work properly. But too much cholesterol can clog your arteries and lead to heart ... Cholesterol is a soft, wax-like substance found in all parts of the body. ... VLDL contains the highest amount of triglycerides. VLDL is considered a type of bad cholesterol, because it helps cholesterol ... Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL cholesterol) Lipoproteins are made of fat and protein. They carry cholesterol, triglycerides ...
Foods high in cholesterol include fatty meats, milk products, egg yolks, snacks, crackers, muffins, and fast foods. LDL (bad) ... cholesterol can be lowered with diet, medications, exercise, weight loss, and quitting smoking. ... Foods in the diet that lower cholesterol are foods high in fiber, low in saturated fats, olive oil, soy, and nuts. ... cholesterol, HDL (high -ensity) cholesterol, VLDL (very low-density) cholesterol, and IDL (intermediate density) cholesterol. ...
VLDL Cholesterol. VLDL stands for very low density lipoprotein. It is one of three commonly known types of cholesterol. The two ... The first basic formula for creating a VLDL estimate is as follows: Total Cholesterol -- HDL -- LDL = VLDL ... This is because VLDL can morph into a few other lesser known types of cholesterol. These include IDL (intermediate density ... There is no simple way to directly measure VLDL. It is usually inferred from your other serum cholesterol numbers. Although ...
Know the types (HDL and LDL), and how to lower high cholesterol. ... Your body needs some cholesterol, but too much can raise your ... VLDL stands for very low-density lipoprotein. Some people also call VLDL a "bad" cholesterol because it too contributes to the ... But VLDL and LDL are different; VLDL mainly carries triglycerides and LDL mainly carries cholesterol. ... Dietary Fat and Cholesterol (Childrens Hospital Boston) Also in Spanish * What Is Cholesterol? (Nemours Foundation) Also in ...
... cholesterolYour cholesterol levels are an important measure of heart health. For HDL cholesterol, also known as your ... VLDL cholesterol is usually estimated as a percentage of your triglyceride value. A normal VLDL cholesterol level is between 5 ... Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol is a type of lipoprotein. Although you may hear about VLDL, your VLDL level ... cholesterol and increasing HDL cholesterol may lower your risk of heart disease.. Understanding HDL cholesterol. Cholesterol is ...
VLDL) cholesterol is produced in the liver and released into the bloodstream to supply body tissues with a type of fat ( ... VLDL cholesterol is usually estimated as a percentage of your triglyceride value. An elevated VLDL cholesterol level is more ... About half of a VLDL particle is made up of triglycerides.. High levels of VLDL cholesterol have been associated with the ... direct way to measure VLDL cholesterol, which is why its normally not mentioned during a routine cholesterol screening. ...
... how to reduce cholesterol, hdl cholesterol, ldl cholesterol, vldl cholesterol, normal cholesterol levels, lipid profile ... how to reduce cholesterol, cholesterol range, vldl cholesterol, normal cholesterol levels, cholesterol diet, lipid profile test ... hdl cholesterol levels, cholesterol reducing foods, hdl cholesterol low, serum cholesterol, total cholesterol, ldl cholesterol ... Tags: bad cholesterol, cholesterol, good cholesterol, hdl cholesterol, ldl cholesterol, lipid, lipid profile, lipoprotein, ...
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