A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.
The 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis may be sporadic or familial. Familial XX gonadal dysgenesis is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait and its locus was mapped to chromosome 2. Mutation in the gene for the FSH receptor (RECEPTORS, FSH) was detected. Sporadic XX gonadal dysgenesis is heterogeneous and has been associated with trisomy-13 and trisomy-18. These phenotypic females are characterized by a normal stature, sexual infantilism, bilateral streak gonads, amenorrhea, elevated plasma LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH concentration.
Steroid-producing cells in the interstitial tissue of the TESTIS. They are under the regulation of PITUITARY HORMONES; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. TESTOSTERONE is the major androgen (ANDROGENS) produced.
A 21-carbon steroid, derived from CHOLESTEROL and found in steroid hormone-producing tissues. Pregnenolone is the precursor to GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.
A microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 17-alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone or pregnenolone and subsequent cleavage of the residual two carbons at C17 in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP17 gene, generates precursors for glucocorticoid, androgen, and estrogen synthesis. Defects in CYP17 gene cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL) and abnormal sexual differentiation.
Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Cell surface proteins that bind FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
A synthetic steroid with antigonadotropic and anti-estrogenic activities that acts as an anterior pituitary suppressant by inhibiting the pituitary output of gonadotropins. It possesses some androgenic properties. Danazol has been used in the treatment of endometriosis and some benign breast disorders.
A common and benign breast disease characterized by varying degree of fibrocystic changes in the breast tissue. There are three major patterns of morphological changes, including FIBROSIS, formation of CYSTS, and proliferation of glandular tissue (adenosis). The fibrocystic breast has a dense irregular, lumpy, bumpy consistency.
A combination of distressing physical, psychologic, or behavioral changes that occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Symptoms of PMS are diverse (such as pain, water-retention, anxiety, cravings, and depression) and they diminish markedly 2 or 3 days after the initiation of menses.
Excessive uterine bleeding during MENSTRUATION.
Pregnane derivatives containing two double bonds anywhere within the ring structures.
Thrombocytopenia occurring in the absence of toxic exposure or a disease associated with decreased platelets. It is mediated by immune mechanisms, in most cases IMMUNOGLOBULIN G autoantibodies which attach to platelets and subsequently undergo destruction by macrophages. The disease is seen in acute (affecting children) and chronic (adult) forms.
Any form of purpura in which the PLATELET COUNT is decreased. Many forms are thought to be caused by immunological mechanisms.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
A transcription factor and member of the nuclear receptor family NR5 that is expressed throughout the adrenal and reproductive axes during development. It plays an important role in sexual differentiation, formation of primary steroidogenic tissues, and their functions in post-natal and adult life. It regulates the expression of key steroidogenic enzymes.
An iron-sulfur protein which serves as an electron carrier in enzymatic steroid hydroxylation reactions in adrenal cortex mitochondria. The electron transport system which catalyzes this reaction consists of adrenodoxin reductase, NADP, adrenodoxin, and cytochrome P-450.
The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Autoimmune diseases affecting multiple endocrine organs. Type I is characterized by childhood onset and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, CHRONIC MUCOCUTANEOUS), while type II exhibits any combination of adrenal insufficiency (ADDISON'S DISEASE), lymphocytic thyroiditis (THYROIDITIS, AUTOIMMUNE;), HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; and gonadal failure. In both types organ-specific ANTIBODIES against a variety of ENDOCRINE GLANDS have been detected. The type II syndrome differs from type I in that it is associated with HLA-A1 and B8 haplotypes, onset is usually in adulthood, and candidiasis is not present.
A clinical syndrome characterized by development, usually in infancy or childhood, of a chronic, often widespread candidiasis of skin, nails, and mucous membranes. It may be secondary to one of the immunodeficiency syndromes, inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, or associated with defects in cell-mediated immunity, endocrine disorders, dental stomatitis, or malignancy.
An adrenal disease characterized by the progressive destruction of the ADRENAL CORTEX, resulting in insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Clinical symptoms include ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; WEIGHT LOSS; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; and HYPERPIGMENTATION of the SKIN due to increase in circulating levels of ACTH precursor hormone which stimulates MELANOCYTES.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Candidiasis of the skin manifested as eczema-like lesions of the interdigital spaces, perleche, or chronic paronychia. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
CHOLESTENES with one or more double bonds and substituted by any number of keto groups.
Steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a branched 8-carbon chain at C-17. Members include compounds with any degree of unsaturation; however, CHOLESTADIENES is available for derivatives containing two double bonds.
An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.
Cholesterol which is substituted by a hydroxy group in any position.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
A phosphorus-oxygen lyase found primarily in BACTERIA. The enzyme catalyzes the cleavage of a phosphoester linkage in 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol to form 1D-myo-inositol 1,2-cyclic phosphate and diacylglycerol. The enzyme was formerly classified as a phosphoric diester hydrolase (EC 3.1.4.10) and is often referred to as a TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. However it is now known that a cyclic phosphate is the final product of this enzyme and that water does not enter into the reaction.
A type C phospholipase with specificity towards PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS that contain INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE. Many of the enzymes listed under this classification are involved in intracellular signaling.
A genus of tree shrews of the family TUPAIIDAE which consists of about 12 species. One of the most frequently encountered species is T. glis. Members of this genus inhabit rain forests and secondary growth areas in southeast Asia.
A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.
PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.
Chlorinated ethanes which are used extensively as industrial solvents. They have been utilized in numerous home-use products including spot remover preparations and inhalant decongestant sprays. These compounds cause central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and are hepatotoxic. Include 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-isomers.
An insecticide. Methoxychlor has estrogenic effects in mammals, among other effects.
A polychlorinated pesticide that is resistant to destruction by light and oxidation. Its unusual stability has resulted in difficulties in residue removal from water, soil, and foodstuffs. This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
An organochlorine pesticide, it is the ethylene metabolite of DDT.

Hormonal regulation of messenger ribonucleic acid expression for steroidogenic factor-1, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, and cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage in bovine luteal cells. (1/519)

To examine hormonal regulation of genes pertinent to luteal steroidogenesis, bovine theca and granulosa cells derived from preovulatory follicles were cultured with various combinations of forskolin and insulin. On Day 8 of culture, progesterone production was measured, and mRNA levels of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1), cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) were determined by means of semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Notably, the combination of forskolin plus insulin stimulated progesterone production in luteinized theca cells. This was probably a result of a synergistic interaction between forskolin and insulin, observed on both StAR and P450scc mRNA levels. However, in luteinized granulosa cells (LGC), forskolin and insulin each independently were able to up-regulate the levels of P450scc and StAR mRNA levels, respectively. Moreover, insulin alone was sufficient to maintain the high steady-state levels of StAR mRNA in LGC. Both insulin and insulin-like growth factor I enhanced StAR gene expression in LGC. SF-1 was constitutively expressed in bovine luteal cells; its amounts did not vary between the two luteal cell types or with hormonal treatments. In summary, this study demonstrates a distinct, cell-type specific regulation of StAR and P450scc mRNA in the two bovine luteal cell types.  (+info)

Luteinizing hormone inhibits conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone in luteal cells from rats on day 19 of pregnancy. (2/519)

We have previously reported that intrabursal ovarian administration of LH at the end of pregnancy in rats induces a decrease in luteal progesterone (P4) synthesis and an increase in P4 metabolism. However, whether this local luteolytic effect of LH is exerted directly on luteal cells or on other structures, such as follicular or stromal cells, to modify luteal function is unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of LH on isolated luteal cells obtained on Day 19 of pregnancy. Incubation of luteal cells with 1, 10, 100, or 1000 ng/ml of ovine LH (oLH) for 6 h did not modify basal P4 production. The addition to the culture medium of 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol (22R-HC, 10 microgram/ml), a membrane-permeable P4 precursor, or pregnenolone (10(-2) microM) induced a significant increase in P4 accumulation in the medium in relation to the control value. When luteal cells were preincubated for 2 h with oLH, a significant (p < 0.01) reduction in the 22R-HC- or pregnenolone-stimulated P4 accumulation was observed. Incubation of luteal cells with dibutyryl cAMP (1 mM, a cAMP analogue) plus isobutylmethylxanthine (1 mM, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor) also inhibited pregnenolone-stimulated P4 accumulation. Incubation with an inositol triphosphate synthesis inhibitor, neomycin (1 mM), or an inhibitor of intracellular Ca2+ mobilization, (8,9-N, N-diethylamino)octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate (1 mM), did not prevent the decrease in pregnenolone-stimulated P4 secretion induced by oLH. It was concluded that the luteolytic action of LH in late pregnancy is due, at least in part, to a direct action on the luteal cells and that an increase in intracellular cAMP level might mediate this effect.  (+info)

Identification of 17-methyl-18-norandrosta-5,13(17-dien-3beta-ol, the C19 fragment formed by adrenal side chain cleavage of a 20-aryl analog of (20S)-20-hydroxycholesterol. (3/519)

Incubation of (20R)-20-phenyl-5-pregnene-3beta,20-diol, an aromatic analog of (23S)-20-hydroxycholesterol, with an adrenal mitochondrial preparation leads to the formation of four compounds: pregnenolone, phenol, a C8 ketone, acetophenone, and a nonpolar C19 compound. This latter compound has now been identified by reverse isotope dilution analysis and by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as 17-methyl-18-norandrosta-5,13(17)-dien-3beta-ol. From these results it is evident that enzymatic fission of the C-17,20 bond of this synthetic derivative occurs. On the other hand, when (20S)-20-hydroxy[21-14C]cholesterol was used as substrate, the analogous cleavage did not take place. Thus, substitution of an aromatic group on C-20 facilitates side chain cleavage between that carbon atom and the nucleus whereas neither of the naturally occuring precursors, cholesterol or its 20-hydroxylated counterpart, are metabolized to a C8 fragment.  (+info)

Enzymatic properties of vesicle-reconstituted human cytochrome P450SCC (CYP11A1) differences in functioning of the mitochondrial electron-transfer chain using human and bovine adrenodoxin and activation by cardiolipin. (4/519)

The recently reported heterologous expression and purification of both human cytochrome P450SCC and adrenodoxin [Woods, S.T., Sadleir, J., Downs, T., Triantopoulos, T., Haedlam, M.J. & Tuckey, R.C. (1998) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 353, 109-115] has enabled us to perform studies with the membrane-reconstituted human enzymes to better understand the side-chain cleavage reaction in humans. Human P450SCC was successfully reconstituted into dioleoylphosphatidylcholine vesicles with and without cardiolipin and its enzymatic properties characterized in the membrane-bound state. Enhancement of the P450SCC activity and significant activation by cardiolipin were observed when human adrenodoxin instead of bovine adrenodoxin was used as electron donor. In the absence of cardiolipin, Km for cholesterol was decreased twice in the case of human adrenodoxin indicating enhanced cholesterol binding. On the other hand, in the presence of cardiolipin in the membrane both Km and V for cholesterol were decreased with human adrenodoxin as electron donor. Kinetic analysis of the interaction between human P450SCC and its redox partners provided evidence for enhanced binding of the human electron donor to human P450SCC indicated by both an increased V and decreased Kd for human adrenodoxin compared with the values with bovine adrenodoxin. Because no similar effects were observed in Tween 20 micelles, these results suggest that the phospholipid membrane may play an important role in the interaction of human adrenodoxin with human P450SCC.  (+info)

Dynamics of periovulatory steroidogenesis in the rhesus monkey follicle after ovarian stimulation. (5/519)

The temporal relationships and regulation of events in the primate follicle during the periovulatory interval are poorly understood. This study was designed to elucidate the dynamics of steroid synthesis in the macaque follicle during ovarian stimulation cycles in which serum/follicular fluid aspirates were collected at precise intervals before (0 h) and after (up to 36 h) administration of the ovulatory human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) bolus. Serum concentrations of progesterone increased (P < 0.05) within 30 min, and follicular fluid progesterone concentrations were elevated 180-fold within 12 h, of HCG injection, and remained elevated until the time of ovulation. In contrast, 17beta-oestradiol concentrations increased initially, but then declined (P < 0.05) by 36 h post-HCG. Acute incubation of granulosa cells with and without steroidogenic substrates demonstrated that: (i) 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and aromatase activities were present in equivalent amounts before and after HCG; whereas (ii) P450 side-chain cleavage activity increased (P < 0.05) within 12 h of HCG; and (iii) exogenous low-density lipoprotein and cholesterol were not utilized for steroidogenesis. This model should be useful for further studies on ovulation and luteinization in primates, and enable elucidation of the local actions of progesterone and other steroids at specific time points during the periovulatory interval.  (+info)

Paracrine glucocorticoid activity produced by mouse thymic epithelial cells. (6/519)

Previous data have suggested that glucocorticoids (GCs) are involved in the differentiation of thymocytes into mature T cells. In this report we demonstrate that the mouse thymic epithelial cells (TEC) express the cytochrome P450 hydroxylases Cyp11A1, Cyp21, and Cyp11B1. These enzymes, in combination with 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3betaHSD), convert cholesterol into corticosterone, the major GC in rodents. In addition, when TEC were cocultured with 'reporter cells' containing the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and a GR-dependent reporter gene, a specific induction of reporter gene activity was observed. Induction of reporter gene activity was blocked when the TEC and reporter cells were incubated in the presence of the Cyp11B1 inhibitor metyrapone or the 3betaHSD inhibitor trilostane, as well as by the GR antagonist RU486. Coculturing of TEC with thymocytes induced apoptosis in the latter, which was partially blocked by the enzyme inhibitors and RU486. We conclude that TEC secrete a GC hormone activity and suggest a paracrine role for this in thymocyte development.  (+info)

Steroidogenic enzyme expression in human corpora lutea in the presence and absence of exogenous human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG). (7/519)

In a human conception cycle, the expected decline in progesterone production by the corpus luteum during the late luteal phase is prevented by human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) secreted by the implanting blastocyst. This study investigated the expression of components of the synthetic pathway for progesterone in human corpora lutea in the presence and absence of HCG in vivo. Corpora lutea were obtained from: (i) normally cycling women at the time of hysterectomy and classified on the basis of the urinary luteinizing hormone (LH) surge as early (n = 3), mid- (n = 3), or late luteal (n = 3); or (ii) women who had received daily doubling doses of HCG (n = 3) to 'rescue' the corpus luteum. Expression patterns of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage (P450scc) and 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) were investigated by Northern blotting, in-situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Luteal 'rescue' with HCG was associated with the continued expression of these components. In the late luteal phase, in the absence of HCG, expression remained but was more variable. The expression of 3beta-HSD mRNA was significantly reduced during the luteal phase (P<0.01). In conclusion, during luteal 'rescue', HCG acts to maintain the steroidogenic pathway. In the absence of HCG, the decline in progesterone production begins in the presence of the main components of the steroidogenic pathway. While unlikely to initiate this decline, the altered expression levels of these components, particularly that of 3beta-HSD, may contribute to the continued reduction in progesterone production.  (+info)

Growth factor modulation of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and luteinization in the pig ovary. (8/519)

In vivo and in vitro luteinization were investigated in the porcine ovary, with emphasis on expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). StAR mRNA and protein as well as cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage mRNA (P450scc) increased during the luteal phase in the corpus luteum (CL) and were absent in regressed CL. Cytochrome P450 aromatase mRNA (P450arom) was not detectable at any time in CL. In vitro luteinization of granulosa cells occurred over 96 h in culture, during which P450arom mRNA was present at 1 h after cell isolation but not detectable at 6 h; and P450scc and StAR mRNAs were first detectable at 6 h and 48 h, respectively. Incubation of cultures with insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I, 10 ng/ml), dibutyryl cAMP (cAMP, 300 microM), or their combination, induced measurable StAR mRNA at 24 h (p < 0.05), increased progesterone accumulation at 48 h, and elevated both StAR and P450scc expression through 96 h. Incubation of luteinized granulosa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF, 10 nM) changed their phenotype from epithelioid to fibroblastic, eliminated steady-state StAR expression, and interfered with cAMP induction of StAR mRNA and progesterone accumulation. EGF had little apparent effect on P450scc mRNA abundance. It is concluded that StAR expression characterizes luteinization, and early luteinization is induced by cAMP and IGF-I in vitro. Further, EGF induces a morphological and functional phenotype that appears similar to an earlier stage of granulosa cell function.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - The orphan nuclear receptor, liver receptor homolog-1, regulates cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 enzyme in human granulosa cells. AU - Kim, Joung W.. AU - Havelock, Jon C.. AU - Carr, Bruce R.. AU - Attia, George R.. PY - 2005/3/1. Y1 - 2005/3/1. N2 - After ovulation, there is a shift in ovarian steroidogenesis from an estrogen-producing ovarian follicle to a progesterone-producing corpus luteum. The first step in human ovarian steroidogenesis is catalyzed by cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 (CYP11A1) enzyme. Steroidogenic factor-1 is an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates several steroidogenic enzymes, including CYP11A1. Liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1) is another orphan nuclear receptor that is expressed in the human ovary. After ovulation there is a down-regulation in steroidogenic factor-1, which is associated with an up-regulation of LRH-1 expression. These changes coincide with increased level of CYP11A1 expression in human corpus luteum. ...
Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The mitochondrial environment is required for activity of the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, cytochrome P450scc. AU - Black, Stephen Matthew. AU - Harikrishna, Jennifer A.. AU - Szklarz, Grazyna D.. AU - Miller, Walter L.. PY - 1994/7/19. Y1 - 1994/7/19. N2 - Steroidogenesis is initiated by the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone by mitochondrial cytochrome P450scc [cholesterol, reduced- adrenal-ferredoxin:oxygen oxidoreductase (side-chain-cleaving); EC 1.14.15.6]. Several subsequent steroidal conversions occur in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but the last step in the production of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids again occurs in the mitochondria. Although cellular compartmentalization of steroidogenic enzymes appears to be a feature of all steroidogenic pathways, some reports indicate that cholesterol can be converted to pregnenolone outside the mitochondria. To investigate whether P450scc can function outside the mitochondria, we constructed vectors ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Follicle-stimulating hormone increases concentrations of messenger ribonucleic acid encoding cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme in primary cultures of porcine granulosa cells. AU - Urban, Randall J.. AU - Garmey, James C.. AU - Shupnik, Margaret A.. AU - Veldhuis, Johannes D. PY - 1991/4. Y1 - 1991/4. N2 - FSH is the primary hormonal inducer of ovarian follicle maturation and a critically important regulator of steroidogenesis in granulosa cells. We examined possible molecular mechanisms subserving FSH action by assessing concentrations of cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage (P450scc) mRNA in porcine granulosa cells maintained in serum-free culture. Cellular concentrations of specific P450scc mRNA were measured by Northern blot hybridization using a 32P-labeled 1-kilobase porcine cDNA clone. Specificity was tested by estimating the granulosa cell mRNA content of the constitutively expressed enzyme, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. ...
Pregnenolone is biochemically, the mother hormone, made directly from cholesterol within the mitochondria of the adrenal glands and, in small part, of the nervous system, with the help of the cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme, p450scc. Pregnenolone being a precursor to various hormones, such as progesterone, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, androgens, and estrogens, can help the body to maintain normal hormone levels, which in turn help numerous body functions. Supplement Facts Serving Size 1 capsule Servings Per Container 100 Amount Per Serving Pregnenolone 100 mg Dosage and Use Take one capsule daily preferably early in the day on an empty stomach, or as recommended by a healthcare practitioner. Warning Keep out of reach of childern. Do not exceed recommended dose. Do not purchase if outer seal is broken or damaged. If you have a bad reaction to product discontinue use immediately. When using nutritional supplements, please inform your physician if you are undergoing treatment
0081]The term self-antigen refers to an immunogenic peptide derived from a protein of said individual. It may be, by way of example, an auto-antigen of the following non-limiting list: acetylcholine receptor, actin, adenin nucleotide translocator, β-adrenoreceptor, aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, asioaloglycoprotein receptor, bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPi), calcium sensing receptor, cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme, collagen type IV Oy-chain, cytochrome P450 2D6, desmin, desmoglein-1, desmoglein-3, F-actin, GM-gangliosides, glutamate decarboxylase, glutamate receptor, H/K ATPase, 17-[alpha]-hydroxylase, 21-hydroxylase, IA-2 (ICAS 12), insulin, insulin receptor, intrinsic factor type 1, leucocyte function antigen 1, myelin associated glycoprotein, myelin basic protein, myelin oligodendrocyte protein, myosin, P80-coilin, pyruvate deshydrogenase complex E2 (PDC-E2), sodium iodide symporter, SOX-10, thyroid and eye muscle shared protein, thyroglobulin, thyroid ...
Steroid hormones derived from cholesterol are a class of biologically active compounds in vertebrates. The cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme CYP11A1 catalyzes conversion of cholesterol, a C27 compound, to the first C21 steroid, pregnenolone, which is converted by a bifunctional enzyme complex to the gestagen hormone, progesterone [MD:M00107]. Pregnenolone and progesterone are the starting materials for the three groups of steroids: C21 steroids of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids, C19 steroids of androgens, and C18 steroids of estrogens. (i) Progesterone is converted by hydroxylations at carbons 21 and 11 to corticosterone, which is further modified by hydroxylation and oxydoreduction at carbon 18 to yield aldosterone, a mineralcorticoid [MD:M00108]. Cortisol, the main glucocorticoid, is formed from 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone with 11-deoxycortisol as an intermediate [MD:M00109]. (ii) Male hormone testosterone is formed from pregnenolone by two pathways, delta5 pathway via ...
Steroid hormones derived from cholesterol are a class of biologically active compounds in vertebrates. The cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme CYP11A1 catalyzes conversion of cholesterol, a C27 compound, to the first C21 steroid, pregnenolone, which is converted by a bifunctional enzyme complex to the gestagen hormone, progesterone [MD:M00107]. Pregnenolone and progesterone are the starting materials for the three groups of steroids: C21 steroids of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids, C19 steroids of androgens, and C18 steroids of estrogens. (i) Progesterone is converted by hydroxylations at carbons 21 and 11 to corticosterone, which is further modified by hydroxylation and oxydoreduction at carbon 18 to yield aldosterone, a mineralcorticoid [MD:M00108]. Cortisol, the main glucocorticoid, is formed from 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone with 11-deoxycortisol as an intermediate [MD:M00109]. (ii) Male hormone testosterone is formed from pregnenolone by two pathways, delta5 pathway via ...
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With an annual worldwide production exceeding 1,000,000 tons, steroid drugs are the second most marketed medical agents next to antibiotics [32]. The biotechnological steroid production is one of the best examples of the successful combination of microbial conversions and chemical reaction steps [1], since some specific modifications of the steroid skeleton cannot be performed by the latter. Examples of such reactions are stereo- and regioselective hydroxylations, dehydrogenations, and the steroid side-chain cleavage presented in this paper. Although there are many microorganisms of different taxa, which are able to convert cholesterol or phytosterols to androstenedione, androstadienedione or other C19-steroids, the efficient microbial conversion of these substrates to pregnenolone has not been described so far [33, 34]. The most abundant steroid in vertebrates, cholesterol, can be obtained in huge amounts by extraction of wool grease or bovine spinal cords [35].. In this study we developed a ...
The research in the Schlinger lab focuses on two questions: 1) How are steroids made available in active forms to distinct neural circuits at appropriate periods of the animals life? 2) How have some neural circuits, but not others, become sensitive to control by steroidal signalling molecules? Experimental Approaches: We study birds in the lab and in the field to explore these questions, examining species that have evolved unique behavioral strategies to optimize their reproductive potential. Techniques regularly used by members of the laboratory include: biochemical assays of steroidogenic enzyme activity, steroidogenic enzyme mRNA expression via Northern blots, rtPCR/Southern blots, in situ hybridization, protein expression via immunocytochemistry, Western blots, neuroanatomical measures via light and fluorescence microscopy and image analysis, and steroid-autoradiography. Please click on the links to learn more about our lab! ...
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Platform enables new and innovative ways employing combined unique expertise to perform cleavage of proteins with a fusion partner. This eliminates the need to use expensive cleavage enzymes in the production of a product resulting in intact N and C terminal end protein ...
Cloning, Expression and Hormonal Regulation of Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein Gene in Buffalo Ovary - StAR Gene;StAR mRNA;Semi-quantitative RT-PCR;Granulosa Cells;Ovary;Buffalo;
Progesterone biosynthesis as a function of AA(OOH) concentration in placental mitochondria (measured as percentage of substrate conversion). Progesterone biosyn
TY - JOUR. T1 - The roles of circulating high-density lipoproteins and trophic hormones in the phenotype of knockout mice lacking the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein. AU - Ishii, Tomohiro. AU - Hasegawa, Tomonobu. AU - Pai, Chin I.. AU - Yvgi-Ohana, Natalie. AU - Timberg, Rina. AU - Zhao, Liping. AU - Majdic, Gregor. AU - Chung, Bon Chu. AU - Orly, Joseph. AU - Parker, Keith L.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2002/10/1. Y1 - 2002/10/1. N2 - The steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is essential for the regulated production of steroid hormones, mediating the translocation of intracellular cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane where steroidogenesis begins. Steroidogenic cells lacking StAR have impaired steroidogenesis and progressively accumulate lipid, ultimately causing cytopathic changes and deterioration of steroidogenic capacity. Developmental studies of StAR knockout (KO) mice have correlated gonadal lipid deposits with ...
The long term objective of this project is a thorough understanding of how steroid hormone synthesis is regulated in a developmental and tissue-specific fashion, and how dysregulation may result in reproductive disorders such as polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The genes for steroidogenic enzymes are transcriptionally regulated at several levels: developmentally, tissue specifically, and hormonally. This regulation shares common features but also differs among the various genes for the steroidogenic enzymes and among various mammals. We will focus on the gene encoding P450c17 (17alpha hydroxylase/17,2 lyase) as it is the key branch point in steroidogenesis, it has been implicated in the etiology of PCOS, and it may be involved in early development of nervous and reproductive systems. Its expression in the human adrenal is required for the synthesis of 17 hydroxy C21 steroids (e.g. cortisol) and for synthesis of C19 sex steroids in the gonads and brain. In the nervous system, expression of ...
The conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone is a physiologically essential process which initiates with two sequential hydroxylation processes catalyzed by cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450SCC). Extensive efforts have been exerted; however, the mechanistic details remain obscure. In this work, we employed the dispersion-corrected density functional theoretical (DFT-D) calculations to investigate the mechanistic details of such hydroxylation processes. Calculated results reveal that the active intermediate Compound I (CpdI) of P450SCC hydroxylates cholesterol efficiently, which coincides with previous spectrometric observations. The hydrogen bond effect of water molecule within the active site lowers the energy barrier significantly. Intriguingly, the adjacent hydrogen bond (H-bond) between the hydroxyl group of the substrate and the oxo group of CpdI in the second hydroxylation affects the H-abstraction significantly. Such H-bond was weakened during the C-H bond activation ...
Looking for online definition of StAR protein in the Medical Dictionary? StAR protein explanation free. What is StAR protein? Meaning of StAR protein medical term. What does StAR protein mean?
EM (fig. S1, C to H) and biochemical fractionation (fig. S2) experiments show the localization of StAR and GRP78 in the ER, MAM, and mitochondria. Because GRP78 is a highly abundant chaperone at the ER that interacts with StAR, it is likely facilitating its folding and subsequent activity (17). We next knocked down the expression of GRP78 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) in COS-1 cells (Fig. 1C) or adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cAMP)-stimulated MA-10 cells (Fig. 1D) and identified changes in StAR expression by Western blotting. In the absence of GRP78, the expression of StAR was greatly reduced, but the negative control siRNA had no effect, suggesting that GRP78 is responsible for StAR expression. As expected, the absence of GRP78 did not affect the expression of mitochondrial VDAC2 or the ER proteins PACS2 and calnexin (Caln) (Fig. 1, C and D). As shown in Fig. 1E, pregnenolone synthesis in MA-10 cells decreased from 25 ng/ml in control cells to 2 ng/ml in the absence of GRP78. The ...
The proposed primary cause of Alzheimers disease (AD) is the cleavage of the Amyloid-β precursor protein by the β- Amyloid cleavage enzyme 1 (BACE1). As such it has been proposed that inhibiting this enzyme would help ...
There are no specific protocols for Recombinant Human Adrenodoxin protein (ab87670). Please download our general protocols booklet
Side-chain details from regions in subunit B shown with map and model.Comparable regions from the other two capsid subunits are shown in Supplementary Fig. 5.
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17a-Hydroxypregnenolone is a 21-carbon steroid that is converted from pregnenolone by cytochrome P450 17alpha hydroxylase/C17,20 lyase (CYP17, EC 1.14.99.9). 17a-Hydroxypregnenolone is an intermediate in the delta-5 pathway of biosynthesis of gonadal steroid hormones and the adrenal corticosteroids. The first, rate-limiting and hormonally regulated step in the biosynthesis of all steroid hormones is the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone. The conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone is accomplished by the cleavage of the cholesterol side chain, catalyzed by a mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme termed P450scc where scc designates Side Chain Cleavage. All steroid hormones are made from the pregnenolone produced by P450scc; thus, the presence or absence of each of the activities of CYP17 directs this pregnenolone towards its final metabolic pathway. While all cytochrome P450 enzymes can catalyze multiple reactions on a single active site, CYP17 is the only one described to date in which ...
The more fat you eat, the more testosterone your body produces. More fat, more testosterone. The best source of testosterone boosting fat, Argentinean researchers concluded after a study on rats, is olive oil. Olive oil helps the testes to absorb more cholesterol.
Analytical procedures.Metabolites were analyzed with a GC 8060 gas chromatograph (Fisons Instruments, Milan, Italy) coupled to an MD 800 single-quadrupole MS (Fisons Instruments, Manchester, United Kingdom). Interface and source temperatures were set at 250 and 200°C, respectively. Substances were ionized with electron impact (EI; 70 eV, if not otherwise specified) and data acquired in the full-scan mode. For the analysis of nonanols, 2 μl of an appropriately diluted CH2Cl2 extract of the culture was introduced into a splitless injector heated to 270°C. The separation of the analytes was achieved on a 60-m DB-17 MS capillary column (2 by 30 m, 0.25-mm internal diameter, 0.25-μm film thickness; J&W Scientific, Folsom, CA), linked to a 2-m guard and a 2-m transfer column (0.32-mm and 0.18-mm internal diameters, respectively; deactivated with OV-1701-OH; BGB Analytic Ag, Böckten, Switzerland). Helium was used as the carrier gas at a constant flow of 1.2 ml/min. The following temperature ...
By catalyzing the first steps in different pathways of cholesterol degradation, cytochromes P450 (P450s) 7A1, 27A1, 11A1, and 46A1 play key roles in cholesterol homeostasis. CYP7A1 is a microsomal liver-specific enzyme that converts cholesterol to 7α-hydroxycholesterol. CYP27A1 is a ubiquitously expressed mitochondrial P450 that metabolizes cholesterol to 27-hydroxycholesterol. CYP11A1 also resides in mitochondria but is expressed mainly in steroidogenic tissues, where it catalyzes the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone. Finally, CYP46A1 is a brain-selective microsomal monooxygenase producing 24S-hydroxycholesterol from cholesterol. Catalytic efficiencies of cholesterol-metabolizing P450s vary significantly and probably reflect physiological requirements of different organs for the rate of cholesterol turnover. P450s 7A1, 27A1, 11A1, and 46A1 represent a unique system for elucidation of how different enzymes have adapted to fit their specific roles in cholesterol elimination. Studies of ...
The cytotoxic response of several types of neoplastic cells to analogues of unnatural alkyl phospholipids (e.g., rac-1-hexadecyl-2-methoxy-glycero-3-phosphocholine) has been partially attributed to their accumulation as a result of the low activity of the alkyl cleavage enzyme (a tetrahydropteridine-dependent monooxygenase) in tumor cells. We tested this possibility by comparing the alkyl cleavage enzyme activity in cells that exhibit differences in sensitivity toward the cytotoxic effects of the rac-1-hexadecyl-2-methoxy-glycero-3-phosphocholine. Human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60), a cell line highly sensitive to the cytotoxic alkyl phospholipid analogue, possessed an alkyl cleavage enzyme activity (0.25 pmol/min/µg protein) similar to that found in three cell types known to be relatively resistant to the cytotoxic activity of the analogue: immature human promyeloblastic leukemia cells (K562) (0.22 pmol/min/µg protein), human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (0.34 pmol/min/µg protein), ...
Present mainly in the mitochondrial compartment of peripheral tissues, the protein encoded by this gene interacts with some benzodiazepines and has different affinities than its endogenous counterpart. The protein is a key factor in the flow of cholesterol into mitochondria to permit the initiation of steroid hormone synthesis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been reported; one of the variants lacks an internal exon and is considered non-coding, and the other variants encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012 ...
I no sooner ordered this product when I read about the potential hazards of taking 50 mg pregnenolone -- especially if you are also taking DHEA supplements. As a result, I emptied out each of the 50 mg capsules and split the pregnenolone powder into 5 x 10 mg dosages. Likewise with the DHEA: if you are taking DHEA while you are also taking pregnenolone, it is wise to take only half a dose of each and to limit the pregnenolone to 5 days on with periodic hormone vacations. When it comes time to reorder this product, I will NOT order this large a dose of pregnenolone. Instead, it is much safer to buy a 10 mg version. Hormones are delicate substances to be messing with in the body. Buyer beware, and balance carefully! ...
Pregnenolone Plus, by Neurobiologix, is a custom formula that provides pregnenolone and the active precursor niacinamide for ultimate delivery of pregnenolone and aid in the protection of the mitochondria.
Pregnenolone (17-hydroxy), 1 ml. 17a-OH-Pregnenolone is an intermediate in steroid biosynthesis and is produced through hydroxylation of|br /|pregnenolone by the enzyme 17-alpha-hydroxylase.
Unger, C.; Eibl, H.; Kim, D. J.; Fleer, E.; Kötting, J.; Bartsch, H. H.; Nagel, G. A.; Pfizenmaier, K.: Sensitivity of leukemia cell lines to cytotoxic alkyl-lysophospholipids in relation to O-alkyl cleavage enzyme activities. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 78 (2), pp. 219 - 222 (1987 ...
My thoughts, knowing nothing about this other than I also had bottom of the barrel pregnenolone (two in a row to verify), are to bring up the pregnenolone and then compare hormone levels as a really basic start. I didnt have baselines of my other hormones before and after supplementing pregnenolone, but my pregnenolone responded well to cheap 10 mg/day upon repeated repeat testing ...
Cholesterol is among one of the most decorated molecules in biology today, the study of which produced not only a number of Nobel Prizes but also key findings that influence our study of physiology and medicine today. It is the single starting substrate of the steroidogenic pathway, the synthesis of steroid hormones such as progesterone, testosterone, and corticosterone, which control a variety of essential physiological and metabolic functions including salt and water balance, spermatogenesis, follicular development and maintenance of pregnancy. Steroidogenesis is a unique process in which all of the steroid hormones are derived from a single substrate, cholesterol, by the CYP11A1 enzyme located on the matrix side of the inner mitochondrial membrane. Steroidogenesis is rapidly triggered in response to induction by tropic hormones such as ACTH or LH binding to their respective G-protein coupled receptors on the plasma membrane, triggering a rise in intracellular cAMP. This process, however, ...
Principal Investigator:ISHIMURA Kazunori, Project Period (FY):1993 - 1994, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:General anatomy (including Histology/Embryology)
Polycistronic expression of mitochondrial steroidogenic p450scc system in the hek293t cell line / V. Efimova, L. Isaeva, A. Labudina et al. // Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. - 2019. - Vol. 120, no. 3. - P. 3124-3136. Abstract The cholesterol hydroxylase/lyase (CHL) system, which consists of cytochrome P450scc, adrenodoxin (Adx) and adrenodoxin reductase (AdR), initiates mammalian steroidogenesis, converting cholesterol to pregnenolone. The FMDV 2A-based method allows for the expression of multiple proteins from a single transcript. We developed a 2A-based multicistronic system for the co-expression of three bovine CHL system proteins as the self-processing polyprotein pCoxIV-P450scc-2A-Adx-2A-AdR-GFP (pCoxIV-CHL-GFP), with a cleavable N-terminal mitochondrial targeting presequence. HEK293-T cells transfected with plasmid, containing cDNA for pCoxIV-CHL-GFP, efficiently performed the expression of P450scc-2A, which was localized in mitochondria, and Adx-2A, AdR-GFP and the fusion protein ...
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the toilet! Josephs Hospital has served the health problems. Monday at Northwestern Lake Forest Hospital and was told that I was looking for a gallbladder, you can, take a look at the hospital. It will take some responsibility and all kinds of dollars spent on this week before Congress breaks large community of such gallbladder problems are advise patients. When youre consider flushing is a less complications. Drinking this, it is not a regularly warning my research studies being unquestionably necessary. An ultrasound reveals nothing other than pain medicines that might hurt. Garnish with the same ability to view it but for improved surgery which is nothing that updated dukan diet any kind sudden weight loss. As I told him that can help convert cholesterol into bile. Apart from all these in the upper abdominal issues. Take one part each of these herbs listed to interact with medication and help your body in healing gallbladder has stress, tired, caffeine. Imagine saving thousands of people ...
Walter Miller, a pediatric endocrinologist who is recognized internationally for his studies of the genetics and cell biology of steroid hormone synthesis, will deliver the Ninth Annual Distinguished Clinical Research Lectureship on September 29.
1E1M: Crystal Structures of Adrenodoxin Reductase in Complex with Nadp+ and Nadph Suggesting a Mechanism for the Electron Transfer of an Enzyme Family
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Transcription factor that recognizes and binds to the enhancer heptamer motif 5-TGA[CG]TCA-3. Promotes activity of NR5A1 when phosphorylated by HIPK3 leading to increased steroidogenic gene expression upon cAMP signaling pathway stimulation ...
Author: Kulminskaya, N. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2016-01-07; Open Access; Title: Access to side-chain carbon information in deuterated solids under fast MAS through non-rotor-synchronized mixing.
The first step of the synthesis of cardiac glycosides is the cleavage of the side-chain of the sterol serving as the substrate of the reaction. Radio-labelled cholesterol is metabolised in Digitalis-plants to pregnenolone and further to cardiac glycosides. Nothing is known of the mechanism of side-chain cleavage in the plant. The side-chain cleavage is the first step of the synthesis of sex hormones, mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids in vertebrates. The components of these system of side-chain cleavage are well known. It consists of adrenodoxin reductase, adrenodoxin and the side-chain cleaving enzyme CYP11A1. Aim of the work presented here was to gain the sequence of the side-chain cleaving enzyme of Digitalis lanata by use of bovine adrenodoxin as a bait in a two-hybrid screening. The two-hybrid cDNA library that was to be used was generated. Homology search of the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana with the sequence of bovine adrenodoxin resulted in the finding of two sequences of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Congenital Lipoid Adrenal Hyperplasia Caused by a Novel Splicing Mutation in the Gene for the Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein. AU - GONZALEZ PARRA, ALEXIS ANTONIO. AU - Reyes, M. Loreto. AU - Carvajal, Cristian A.. AU - Tobar, Jaime A.. AU - Mosso, Lorena M.. AU - Baquedano, Paulina. AU - Solar, Antonieta. AU - Venegas, Alejandro. AU - Fardella, Carlos E.. PY - 2004/2/1. Y1 - 2004/2/1. N2 - Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) plays a crucial role in the transport of cholesterol from the cytoplasm to the inner mitochondrial membrane, facilitating its conversion to pregnenolone by cytochrome P450scc. Its essential role in steroidogenesis was demonstrated after observing that StAR gene mutations gave rise to a potentially lethal disease named congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia, in which virtually no steroids are produced. We report here a 2-month-old female patient, karyotype 46XY, who presented with growth failure, convulsions, dehydration, hypoglycemia, ...
Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2 (HCA2), also known as niacin receptor 1 (NIACR1) and GPR109A, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the HCAR2 gene. HCA2 is a high-affinity Gi/Go-coupled G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for nicotinic acid (niacin), and is a member of the nicotinic acid receptor family of GPCRs. HCA2 activation inhibits lipolytic and atherogenic activity (i.e., it inhibits the breakdown of fats and the development of atherosclerosis), induces vasodilation (i.e., the dilation of blood vessels), and is responsible for niacin-induced flushing. The mouse ortholog of HCA2, Niacr1, has been proposed to mediate the ability of 5-oxo-ETE, a member of the 5-HETE family of eicosanoids, to stimulate the production of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein mRNA, Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, and thereby progesterone in mouse cultured MA-10 Leydig cells. Human tissues respond to 5-oxo-ETE and other 5-HETE family members though the OXER1 G protein-coupled receptor. The roles, ...
Cytochrome P-450scc (CYP11A1) is known to exist in various conformational states. To study the accessibility of tyrosine residues to the solvent, second and fourth derivatives of cytochrome absorption spectra in the ultraviolet region were used. The measurements were carried out in the temperature range -10 to 40 °C and at two pH values (6.8 and 7.4). Our results indicate that the tyrosine residues of this enzyme are less accessible at higher temperatures as well as at higher pH, that is at conditions where the conformational equilibrium shifts to low-spin Fe(III) form(s). In other words, a more compact structure is attributable to the low-spin Fe(III) form(s) of P-450scc.. Keywords: Enzymes; Cytochromes P-450; CYP11A1; Derivative spectra; Steroid hormones biosynthesis. ...
Time and Date: 10:25 - 10:45 am ET, Thursday, November 8, 2018. About ContraFect:. ContraFect is a biotechnology company focused on discovering and developing therapeutic protein and antibody products for life-threatening, drug-resistant infectious diseases, particularly those treated in hospital settings. An estimated 700,000 deaths worldwide each year are attributed to antimicrobial-resistant infections. We intend to address life threatening infections using our therapeutic product candidates from our lysin and monoclonal antibody platforms to target conserved regions of either bacteria or viruses (regions that are not prone to mutation). ContraFects initial product candidates include new agents to treat antibiotic-resistant infections such as MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staph aureus) and influenza. ContraFects lead product candidate, CF-301, is currently in a Phase 2 clinical trial for the treatment of Staph aureus bacteremia, including endocarditis and is the first lysin to enter clinical ...
Self-Assembly of Low-Angle∧-Shaped Molecule Based on Long Side-Chain and Alkylthio Tails. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
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Pregnenolone itself is produced from cholesterol via cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme. Pregnenolone sulfate, also known ... as pregn-5-en-3β-ol-20-one 3β-sulfate, is a naturally occurring pregnane steroid and a derivative of cholesterol. It is the C3β ...
DHEA is synthesized from cholesterol via the enzymes cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1; P450scc) and 17α- ... DHEA is transformed into DHEA-S by sulfation at the C3β position via the sulfotransferase enzymes SULT2A1 and to a lesser ... including the enzymes CYP2C11 and 11β-HSD1 - the latter of which is essential for the biosynthesis of the glucocorticoids such ...
DHEA is synthesized from cholesterol via the enzymes cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1; P450scc) and 17α- ... Then, DHEA-S is formed by sulfation of DHEA at the C3β position via the sulfotransferase enzymes SULT2A1 and to a lesser extent ...
Examples of desmolases are: Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, also called 20,22-desmolase; converts cholesterol to ... Steroidogenic enzyme Wallerstein, Leo (1939). "Enzyme Preparations from Microorganisms: Commercial Production and Industrial ... These enzymes play a significant role in cellular respiration and in fermentation. Desmolases are involved in steroidogenesis. ... A desmolase is any of various enzymes that catalyze the formation or destruction of carbon-carbon bonds within a molecule. ...
... and ambiguous genitalia Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme Cholesterol, sex hormone ... cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme). However, few cases of lipoid CAH due to a mutation and defect of P450scc have been ... "Heterozygous mutation in the cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme (p450scc) gene in a patient with 46,XY sex reversal and ... "Severe combined adrenal and gonadal deficiency caused by novel mutations in the cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme, P450scc ...
Enzyme. Affinity (Ki). Inhibition type. Estimated inhibition at 2 μM Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme. 20 μM. Competitive ... including cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-4 isomerase, 17α-hydroxylase, 17,20-lyase ... Side effects[edit]. See also: Anabolic steroid § Adverse effects. Androgenic side effects are of concern, as some women taking ... Inhibition of steroidogenesis enzymes[edit]. Danazol has been found to act as an inhibitor, to varying extents, of a variety of ...
This family contains many enzymes involved in steroidogenesis, such as Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1), ... Roles of promiscuity and co-evolution of enzymes and steroid receptors". The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular ...
... has also been found to inhibit CYP11A1 (cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme) and CYP51A1 (lanosterol-14α- ... Levoketoconazole is an inhibitor of the enzymes CYP11B1 (11β-hydroxylase), CYP17A1 (17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase), and CYP21A2 ( ... cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase), theoretically resulting in further reduced interference with bile acid production and metabolite ...
Effect of vitamin A deprivation on the cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme activity of testes and ovaries of rats: M. ... Fatty acid specificity for the etherification of vitamin A and cholesterol by intestinal and pancreatic enzymes in rats: S. K. ... 1961 High cholesterol diet and esterification of cholesterol by the intestinal mucosa of rats: S. K. Murthy, S. Mahadevan and J ... 1985 Mechanism of conversion of carotene to vitamin A: Central cleavage versus random cleavage: J. Ganguly and P. S. Sastry, ...
Specifically, ketoconazole has been shown to inhibit cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, which converts cholesterol to ... Common side effects when applied to the skin include redness. Common side effects when taken by mouth include nausea, headache ... All of these enzymes are mitochondrial cytochrome p450 enzymes. Based on these antiandrogen and antiglucocorticoid effects, ... it potently inhibits the activity of several enzymes necessary for the conversion of cholesterol to steroid hormones such as ...
It acts as an inhibitor of cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc, CYP11A1), and also of 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1), 18 ... The use of mitotane is unfortunately limited by side effects, which, as reported by Schteinberg et al., include anorexia and ...
... cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.212 - cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme MeSH D12.776.422.220. ... alpha-crystallin b chain MeSH D12.776.306.366.300.100 - beta-crystallin a chain MeSH D12.776.306.366.300.200 - beta-crystallin ... myosin heavy chains MeSH D12.776.210.500.600.200 - myosin light chains MeSH D12.776.210.500.600.300 - myosin subfragments MeSH ... myosin heavy chains MeSH D12.776.220.525.475.200 - myosin light chains MeSH D12.776.220.525.475.300 - myosin subfragments MeSH ...
Cholesterol ((3β)-cholest-5-en-3-ol) is hydroxylated by cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) to form 22R- ... "The catalytic cycle of cytochrome P-450scc and intermediates in the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone". European ... metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of the steroid hormones from cholesterol. ...
... c Cytochrome c oxidase F-ATPase ATP-ADP translocase ATP-binding cassette transporter Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme ... Cristae membranes are studded on the matrix side with small round protein complexes known as F1 particles, the site of proton- ... Electron transport chain NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Electron-transferring-flavoprotein dehydrogenase Electron-transferring ...
... and does not affect other steroidogenesis enzymes such as cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), 17α-hydroxylase/17, ... 1, 34), a synthetic 19-nor-17α-ethynyl testosterone derivative, which also undergoes enzyme-mediated 5α-reduction and exerts ... and its effect on steroid-producing enzymes". Eur. J. Endocrinol. 130 (6): 634-40. doi:10.1530/eje.0.1300634. PMID 8205267.. ...
... an inhibitor of cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme and to a lesser extent of other steroidogenic enzymes, which ... was found to cause adrenal insufficiency in patients due to inhibition of cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme and ... as well as of cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, thereby inhibiting the production of steroid hormones including ... ISBN 978-0-323-15511-3. Hiroshi I, Bun-Ichi T (April 1970). "Studies on enzyme reactions related to steroid biosynthesis: II. ...
Inhibitors of cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), such as aminoglutethimide and ketoconazole, may block ... Traish AM, Mulgaonkar A, Giordano N (June 2014). "The dark side of 5α-reductase inhibitors' therapy: sexual dysfunction, high ... Steroidogenic enzyme Steroidogenesis inhibitor List of steroid metabolism modulators Reddy, Doodipala Samba (2010). ... Inhibitory neurosteroids are biosynthesized from steroid hormones by the action of two enzymes, 5α-reductase and 3α- ...
... and does not affect cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase, 21-hydroxylase, or 11β- ... including significant elevations in liver enzymes. These liver enzymes included lactate dehydrogenase and glutamate pyruvate ... Other side effects have included periodic abdominal bloating and breast tenderness, both of which are thought to be due to ... The enzymes involved in these metabolic processes are 5α- and 5β-reductase as well as 3α- and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase ( ...
... other human steroidogenic enzymes, including cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc/CYP11A1) and 17α-hydroxylase/17,20 ... Common side effects include menstrual disturbances such as absence of periods, abdominal pain, and headaches. More serious side ... As such, levels of MPA have been found to vary with age, and MPA may have an increased risk of side effects in elderly ... Lowered libido has been reported as a side effect of MPA in women. DMPA can affect menstrual bleeding. After a year of use, 55 ...
... and cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein deficiency) and functional amenorrhea.[ ...
Aminoglutethimide inhibits cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, also known as P450scc or CYP11A1, which is responsible for ... In males, the major side effects of antiandrogens are demasculinization and feminization. These side effects include breast ... The side effects of antiandrogens vary depending on the type of antiandrogen - namely whether it is a selective AR antagonist ... Side effects of antiandrogens depend on the type of antiandrogen and the specific antiandrogen in question. In any case, common ...
Steroid desmolases Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (20,22-desmolase) - steroid synthesis 17,20-Lyase (17,20-desmolase ... Payne AH, Hales DB (2004). "Overview of steroidogenic enzymes in the pathway from cholesterol to active steroid hormones". ... Steroidogenic enzymes are enzymes that are involved in steroidogenesis and steroid biosynthesis. They are responsible for the ... from cholesterol. Steroidogenic enzymes are most highly expressed in classical steroidogenic tissues, such as the testis, ovary ...
... side-chain cleavage enzyme). Cortisol is metabolized by the 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase system (11-beta HSD), which ... It also stimulates the main rate-limiting step in cortisol synthesis, in which cholesterol is converted to pregnenolone and ... Cortisol stimulates many copper enzymes (often to 50% of their total potential), including lysyl oxidase, an enzyme that cross- ... Cortisol is synthesized from cholesterol. Synthesis takes place in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex. (The name ...
Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc, CYP11A1) inhibitors such as aminoglutethimide, ketoconazole, and mitotane ... lowers serum cholesterol and alters distributions of cholesterol in lipoproteins in baboons". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79 ... and thereby inhibit cholesterol production. They notably do not significantly lower circulating levels of cholesterol however, ... Other early-stage cholesterol synthesis inhibitors like colestolone. 7-Dehydrocholesterol reductase (7-DHCR) inhibitors such as ...
P450scc catalyzes the first step of steroidogenesis that is cleavage of the side-chain of cholesterol. ACTH also stimulates ... The rapid actions of ACTH include stimulation of cholesterol delivery to the mitochondria where the P450scc enzyme is located. ... As indicated above, ACTH is a cleavage product of the pro-hormone, proopiomelanocortin (POMC), which also produces other ... Postorgasmic illness syndrome (POIS), through production of tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine β-hydroxylase, which two enzymes ...
Cells Through Suppression of Steady-State Messenger Ribonucleic Acid Levels of the Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme". ... Some metabolites may have unwanted side effects. Banned[edit]. The use of methoxychlor as a pesticide was banned in the United ... Methoxychlor is ingested and absorbed by living organisms, and it accumulates in the food chain. ...
Aminoglutethimide inhibits cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, also known as P450scc or CYP11A1, which is responsible for ... Side effectsEdit. The side effects of antiandrogens vary depending on the type of antiandrogen - namely whether it is a ... In males, the major side effects of antiandrogens are demasculinization and feminization.[74] These side effects include breast ... Side effects of antiandrogens depend on the type of antiandrogen and the specific antiandrogen in question. In any case, common ...
Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme. *Steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase. *Aldosterone synthase. *Frataxin ... MT-TI mutations have been associated with complex IV deficiency of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, also known as the ... that transfers the amino acid isoleucine to a growing polypeptide chain at the ribosome site of protein synthesis during ...
... where R1 and R2 are fatty acid side chains ... by the enzyme phospholipase C (PLC) (a membrane-bound enzyme) ... PIP2 cleavage to IP3 and DAG initiates intracellular calcium release and PKC activation. Note: PLC is not an intermediate like ... A diglyceride, or diacylglycerol (DAG), is a glyceride consisting of two fatty acid chains covalently bonded to a glycerol ...
"Mycobacterium tuberculosis utilizes a unique heterotetrameric structure for dehydrogenation of the cholesterol side chain". ... and it has been demonstrated that novel enzyme architectures have evolved to bind and modify steroid compounds like cholesterol ... Thus, the Box and Paa pathways illustrate the prevalence of non-oxygenolytic ring-cleavage strategies in aerobic aromatic ... Cholesterol biodegradation[edit]. Many synthetic steroidic compounds like some sexual hormones frequently appear in municipal ...
... and does not affect cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase, 21-hydroxylase, or 11β- ... Side effects[edit]. At contraceptive and hormone replacement dosages (0.35 to 1 mg/day), norethisterone has essentially ... Jeffrey K. Aronson (21 February 2009). Meyler's Side Effects of Endocrine and Metabolic Drugs. Elsevier. pp. 217, 253, 275. ... Side effects of norethisterone include menstrual irregularities, headaches, nausea, breast tenderness, mood changes, acne, ...
Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme. *Steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase. *Aldosterone synthase. *Frataxin ... This conversion begins with the negatively charged carboxylate side chain oxygen atom of Asp-375 deprotonating acetyl CoA's ... Oxaloacetate is the first substrate to bind to the enzyme. This induces the enzyme to change its conformation, and creates a ... The enzyme citrate synthase E.C. 2.3.3.1 (previously 4.1.3.7)] exists in nearly all living cells and stands as a pace-making ...
... with cleavage of the side chain.[14] The enzyme performing this task is cytochrome P450scc, located in the mitochondria, and ... Pregnenolone is synthesized from cholesterol.[14] This conversion involves hydroxylation of the side chain at the C20 and C22 ... To assay conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone, radiolabeled cholesterol has been used.[16] Pregnenolone product can be ... The critical enzyme step is two-fold using a 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and a Δ5-4 isomerase. The latter transfers the ...
The side perspective is a view from above and to the side of the GPCR as it is set in the plasma membrane (the membrane lipids ... The enzyme adenylate cyclase is an example of a cellular protein that can be regulated by a G protein, in this case the G ... The effector of the Gαq/11 pathway is phospholipase C-β (PLCβ), which catalyzes the cleavage of membrane-bound ... Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases (protein kinase A) are activated by the signal chain coming from the G protein (that was ...
... , like other steroid hormones, is derived from cholesterol. After side chain cleavage and using the Δ5 or the Δ4- ... enzymes and metabolic transformations also being involved.[55] ... Estradiol is produced in the body from cholesterol through a ... Holzer G, Riegler E, Hönigsmann H, Farokhnia S, Schmidt JB, Schmidt B (September 2005). "Effects and side-effects of 2% ... a partial synthesis of estradiol from cholesterol was developed by Inhoffen and Hohlweg in 1940, and a total synthesis was ...
... reacts readily with amino acids that have amino group side-chains, with the chlorine from HClO displacing a ... Hypochlorous acid reacts with a wide variety of biomolecules, including DNA, RNA,[8][15][16][17] fatty acid groups, cholesterol ... A second slower reaction that results in cleavage of the pyridine ring occurs when excess HClO is present. NAD+ is inert to ... This group was also the first to note that chlorine solutions (HOCl) inhibit sulfhydryl enzymes. Later studies have shown that ...
Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme. *Cytochrome b6f complex. *Electron transport chain. *Fatty acid synthetase complex ... is catalyzed by the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKD; EC 1.2.4.4), an inner-mitochondrial enzyme ... 2-oxoisovalerate dehydrogenase subunit alpha, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the BCKDHA gene.[5] ... "Altered phosphorylation state of branched-chain 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase in a branched-chain acyltransferase deficient human ...
Cis-double bonds cause the fatty acid chain to bend, an effect that is compounded with more double bonds in the chain. Three ... Bach D, Wachtel E (March 2003). "Phospholipid/cholesterol model membranes: formation of cholesterol crystallites". Biochimica ... The enzymes of fatty acid biosynthesis are divided into two groups, in animals and fungi all these fatty acid synthase ... are characterized by cleavage of the B ring of the core structure.[45] Other examples of sterols are the bile acids and their ...
Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme. *Steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase. *Aldosterone synthase. *Frataxin ... The side chains Thr254, His354, and Arg399 of subunit A stabilize the molecule while FAD oxidizes and carries the electrons to ... This chain extends over 40 Å through the enzyme monomer. All edge-to-edge distances between the centers are less than the ... Ubiquinone is stabilized by the side chains of His207 of subunit B, Ser27 and Arg31 of subunit C, and Tyr83 of subunit D. The ...
... cholesterol side chain cleavage) system". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 305 (2): 489-98. doi:10.1006/abbi.1993.1452. PMID 8396893.. ... of the corpus luteum is accompanied by an increase in the level of the steroidogenic enzyme P450scc that converts cholesterol ... Cholesterol is released and stored within the cell as cholesterol ester. LDL is recycled for further cholesterol transport. ... Progesterone is synthesized from cholesterol by both the large and small luteal cells upon luteal maturation. Cholesterol-LDL ...
The first enzymatic step in the production of all steroid hormones is cleavage of the cholesterol side chain, a reaction that ... The initial part of conversion of cholesterol into steroid hormones involves a number of enzymes of the cytochrome P450 family ... The main source is through dietary cholesterol transported via the blood as cholesterol esters within low density lipoproteins ... After the production of pregnenolone, specific enzymes of each cortical layer further modify it. Enzymes involved in this ...
Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme. *Steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase. *Aldosterone synthase. *Frataxin ... Kynureninase or L-Kynurenine hydrolase (KYNU) (EC 3.7.1.3) is a PLP dependent enzyme that catalyses the cleavage of kynurenine ... This is followed by Cβ-Cγ bond cleavage to generate an acyl-enzyme intermediate together with a tautomerized Ala-PLP adduct. ... Humans express one kynureninase enzyme that is encoded by the KYNU gene located on chromosome 2.[6][7] ...
This DAG is 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol, which contains side-chains derived from palmitic acid and oleic acid. ... The glycolytic enzyme triose phosphate isomerase converts this compound to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, which is oxidized via ... Thus NADPH is also required for the synthesis of cholesterol from acetyl-CoA; while NADH is generated during glycolysis.) The ... The prostaglandins are synthesized in the cell membrane by the cleavage of arachidonate from the phospholipids that make up the ...
Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme. *Steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase. *Aldosterone synthase. *Frataxin ... Complex I is the first enzyme of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. There are three energy-transducing enzymes in the ... NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 1 EC 1.6.5.3. Pfam PF00146 9. ND2 / NU2M. NU2M_HUMAN. NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain ... After exposure of idle enzyme to elevated, but physiological temperatures (,30 °C) in the absence of substrate, the enzyme ...
Side effects[edit]. See also: Estradiol (medication) § Side effects. Systematic studies of the side effects of PEP are lacking. ... Straight-chain fatty acid. 3 (×2). 1.41. 0.71. 6. Short Estradiol valerate. C17β. Pentanoic acid. Straight-chain fatty acid. 5 ... PEP significantly increases levels of HDL cholesterol and significantly decreases levels of LDL cholesterol, changes which are ... PEP is a strong inhibitor of several enzymes, including acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, and hyaluronidase.[37][38][39] ...
Although 97-98% of lipids are triacylglycerols, small amounts of di- and monoacylglycerols, free cholesterol and cholesterol ... Some convenience store chains in the United States (such as Kwik Trip in the Midwest) sell milk in half-gallon bags, while ... A side effect of the heating of pasteurization is that some vitamin and mineral content is lost. Soluble calcium and phosphorus ... The enzyme needed to digest lactose, lactase, reaches its highest levels in the human small intestine after birth and then ...
Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme. *Cytochrome b6f complex. *Electron transport chain. *Fatty acid synthetase complex ...
... in the biosynthesis involves the oxidative cleavage of the side-chain of cholesterol by cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme ... Common side effects from testosterone medication include acne, swelling, and breast enlargement in males.[10] Serious side ... It is biosynthesized in several steps from cholesterol and is converted in the liver to inactive metabolites.[5] It exerts its ... The brain is also affected by this sexual differentiation;[13] the enzyme aromatase converts testosterone into estradiol that ...
Symmetric and asymmetric cleavage[edit]. In the molecular chain between the two cyclohexyl rings, β-carotene cleaves either ... Symmetric cleavage with the enzyme β,β-carotene-15,15'-dioxygenase requires an antioxidant such as α-tocopherol.[13] This ... Side effects[edit]. Excess β-carotene is predominantly stored in the fat tissues of the body. The most common side effect of ... β-Carotene can interact with medication used for lowering cholesterol. Taking them together can lower the effectiveness of ...
... cholesterol synthesis, gluconeogenesis, and glycogenolysis. Insulin has the opposite effect on these enzymes.[26] The ... The intra-mitochondrial NADH + H+ is oxidized to NAD+ by the electron transport chain, using oxygen as the final electron ... Step 5 in the figure is shown behind the other steps, because that step is a side-reaction that can decrease or increase the ... Electrons delocalized in the carbon-carbon bond cleavage associate with the alcohol group. The resulting carbanion is ...
Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme. *Steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase. *Aldosterone synthase. *Frataxin ... Creatine kinase (CK), also known as creatine phosphokinase (CPK) or phosphocreatine kinase, is an enzyme (EC 2.7.3.2) expressed ... In the cells, the "cytosolic" CK enzymes consist of two subunits, which can be either B (brain type) or M (muscle type). There ... Normal values at rest are usually between 60 and 174 IU/L,[7] where one unit is enzyme activity, more specifically the amount ...
The homolytic cleavage of the breaking bond is drawn with a 'fish-hook' arrow to distinguish from the usual movement of two ... Chain reactions involving radicals can usually be divided into three distinct processes. These are initiation, propagation, and ... Broderick, J.B.; Duffus, B.R.; Duschene, K.S.; Shepard, E.M. (2014). "Radical S-Adenosylmethionine Enzymes". Chemical Reviews. ... However, because of their reactivity, these same radicals can participate in unwanted side reactions resulting in cell damage. ...
Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme is commonly referred to as P450scc, where "scc" is an acronym for side-chain cleavage. ... side-chain-cleaving). Other names include: The highest level of the cholesterol side-chain cleavage system is found in the ... Chung BC, Matteson KJ, Voutilainen R, Mohandas TK, Miller WL (December 1986). "Human cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, ... cholesterol-side-chain cleavage enzyme) in cultured cell lines detected by antibody against bacterially expressed human protein ...
GO:0008386 cholesterol monooxygenase (side-chain-cleaving) activity GO:0016705 oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors ...
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the ... This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in ... Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme (CYP11A1). Subscribe to New Research on Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme ... Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: 3623*Steroid Hydroxylases: 4*Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: 108 ...
Inhibition of sterol utilization by the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme had no effect on basal or FSH-stimulated ... Inhibition of sterol utilization by the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme had no effect on basal or FSH-stimulated ... Inhibition of sterol utilization by the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme had no effect on basal or FSH-stimulated ... Inhibition of sterol utilization by the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme had no effect on basal or FSH-stimulated ...
Enzyme. Affinity (Ki). Inhibition type. Estimated inhibition at 2 μM Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme. 20 μM. Competitive ... including cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-4 isomerase, 17α-hydroxylase, 17,20-lyase ... Side effects[edit]. See also: Anabolic steroid § Adverse effects. Androgenic side effects are of concern, as some women taking ... Inhibition of steroidogenesis enzymes[edit]. Danazol has been found to act as an inhibitor, to varying extents, of a variety of ...
Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc; CYP11A1) (~20,000 nM). Inhibits the conversion of cholesterol into ... In terms of the latter property, it inhibits enzymes such as cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1, P450scc) and ... AG has many side effects and is a relatively toxic medication, although its side effects are described as usually relatively ... AG is discontinued in 5 to 10% of people due to intolerable side effects. The central nervous system side effects of AG are due ...
T1 - The orphan nuclear receptor, liver receptor homolog-1, regulates cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 enzyme in ... The orphan nuclear receptor, liver receptor homolog-1, regulates cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 enzyme in ... The orphan nuclear receptor, liver receptor homolog-1, regulates cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 enzyme in ... The orphan nuclear receptor, liver receptor homolog-1, regulates cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 enzyme in ...
In this study, full-length CYP11A1 cDNA of Zhedong goose was obtained using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT ... Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis revealed CYP11A1 mRNA was expressed ubiquitously in every ... CYP11A1, a gene belonging to the family 11 of cytochrome P450, encodes a crucial steroidogenic enzyme that catalyzes the ... Molecular cloning and expression patterns of the cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1) gene during the reproductive ...
The mitochondrial environment is required for activity of the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, cytochrome P450scc. ... The mitochondrial environment is required for activity of the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, cytochrome P450scc. / ... T1 - The mitochondrial environment is required for activity of the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, cytochrome P450scc ... The mitochondrial environment is required for activity of the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, cytochrome P450scc. ...
Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, mitochondrial. MLAKGLPPRSVLVKGCQTFLSAPREGLGRLRVPTGEGAGISTRSPRPFNE.... unknown. ...
Structural Basis for Three-step Sequential Catalysis by the Cholesterol Side Chain Cleavage Enzyme CYP11A1 journal, December ... Cytochrome P450 systems-biological variations of electron transport chains journal, March 2007 * Hannemann, Frank; Bichet, ... Sterol 14α-Demethylase as a Potential Target for Antitrypanosomal Therapy: Enzyme Inhibition and Parasite Cell Growth journal, ... A similar movement most likely occurs in the wild-type enzyme in the course of transferring electrons from FAD to its ...
Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme * Aromatic-L-Amino-Acid Decarboxylases ... Five of eight women (age , 13 years) had ovarian failure, and all of these had antibodies against side-chain cleavage enzyme (P ...
side chain cleavage enzyme. first step in ovarian steriodogenesis, converts cholesterol to pregnenolone. ... StAR is needed to transport cholesterol from outer to inner mintochondral, adrenal, and gonadal membranes. manifest at young ... like penicillins, inhibit cell wall synthasis by blocking transpeptidaton enzymes. not as susceptible to beta lactams (aka ...
Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme. *RTPCR. *Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 2. *Adrenal Rest Tumor ... cholesterol side-chain cleavage, cytochrome P450 17alpha-hydroxylase-17, 20-lyase, 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II, ... The results show that ACTH can have a direct effect on transcription and gene expression of NE biosynthetic enzymes even ... RESULTS: Nearly all genes were highly expressed in TART tissue, including all genes that encode the key steroidogenic enzymes. ...
The oxysterol profile of the retina suggests that all known pathways of cholesterol elimination in extraocular organs are ... Cholesterol 24-Hydroxylase * Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme / metabolism * Female * Gas Chromatography-Mass ... Cholestenoic Acid is an important elimination product of cholesterol in the retina: comparison of retinal cholesterol ... For comparison, they measured cholesterol oxidation products in two regions of the bovine and human brain and in the bovine ...
102487565 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme 102490722 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme 102472543 steroid 17-alpha- ... 102487565 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme 102490722 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme 102470981 3 beta- ... cholesterol monooxygenase (side-chain-cleaving) [EC:1.14.15.6] K00498 CYP11A; cholesterol monooxygenase (side-chain-cleaving) [ ... K00498 CYP11A; cholesterol monooxygenase (side-chain-cleaving) [EC:1.14.15.6] K00498 CYP11A; cholesterol monooxygenase (side- ...
Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, mitochondrial. Protein Accession:. P05108. Secondary Accessions: *A8K8D5 ... Severe combined adrenal and gonadal deficiency caused by novel mutations in the cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme, P450scc ... Catalyzes the side-chain cleavage reaction of cholesterol to pregnenolone, the precursor of most steroid hormones. *CP11A_HUMAN ... Catalyzes the side-chain cleavage reaction of cholesterol to pregnenolone, the precursor of most steroid hormones. ...
Leydig cell aging: steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme. ... and P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) during Leydig cell aging. ... protein and cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc) enzyme. ... glands and gonads but express P450 side-chain-cleavage enzyme ... Impaired testicular cytochrome P450 side-chain-cleavage (P450scc) and steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein expression ...
The cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme CYP11A1 catalyzes conversion of cholesterol, a C27 co... ... The cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme CYP11A1 catalyzes conversion of cholesterol, a C27 co... ... The enzymes display overlapping but distinct substrate specificity. This enzyme binds bile acid with high affinity, and shows ... These enzymes catalyze the conversion of aldehydes and ketones to their corresponding alcohols using NADH and/or NADPH as ...
Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme / antagonists & inhibitors*, metabolism. Chorionic Gonadotropin / pharmacology. Dose- ... The main effects of HPTE appeared to be localized to the cholesterol side-chain cleavage step which converts cholesterol to ... EC 1.14.15.6/Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme ...
ACholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, mitochondrial. inhibitor. Human. Absorption. Rapidly and completely absorbed from ... Catalyzes the side-chain cleavage reaction of cholesterol to pregnenolone.. Gene Name. CYP11A1. Uniprot ID. P05108. Uniprot ... In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of ... In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of ...
Testosterone undecanoate is an esterified form of testosterone which is attached to a long fatty acid chain. The lack of a ... Details4. Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, mitochondrial. Kind. Protein. Organism. Human. Pharmacological action. ... Catalyzes the side-chain cleavage reaction of cholesterol to pregnenolone.. Gene Name. CYP11A1. Uniprot ID. P05108. Uniprot ... To start its activity, testosterone undecanoate has to be processed by enzymes in the bloodstream. These enzymes will break the ...
Cholesterol desmolase. *cholesterol monooxygenase (side-chain-cleaving). *cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, mitochondrial ...
2011) Structural basis for three-step sequential catalysis by the cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme CYP11A1. J Biol Chem ... 1993) Electron leakage from the mitochondrial NADPH-adrenodoxin reductase-adrenodoxin-P450scc (cholesterol side chain cleavage ... The configuration of the five-residue Tyr/Trp chain in CYP11A1 can protect the enzyme from such damaging side reactions. The ... of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (15⇓-17). The side chains of select amino acids also can serve as waystations for redox ...
Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme. CYP17A1. Steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase ... testicular cholesterol, and genes/proteins. Microsc Res Tech 73:409-494. https://doi.org/10.1002/jemt.20786CrossRefPubMedGoogle ...
i] GST, glutathione S-transferase; SOD, superoxide dismutase; P450scc, cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme; ... cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), cytochrome P450 17A1 (P450c17) and follicle-stimulating ... There was a significant downregulation in the mRNA expression levels of cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme ... allows the synthesis of cholesterol by activating the enzymes of cholesterol biosynthesis, including cholesterol ester ...
Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, mitochondrial. P05108 CYP11A1. 15q23-q24. Unknown. *Guryev O, Carvalho RA, Usanov S, ... Enzyme. *Honda M, Tint GS, Honda A, Nguyen LB, Chen TS, Shefer S: 7-Dehydrocholesterol down-regulates cholesterol biosynthesis ... Enzyme. *Morin RJ, Brun MJ, Srikantaiah MV: Effect of age and cholestyramine feeding on rat liver 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl ... Enzyme. *Porter FD: Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome: pathogenesis, diagnosis and management. Eur J Hum Genet. 2008 May;16(5):535-41 ...
Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme (CYP11A1) 4. Calcitriol Receptors (Calcitriol Receptor) 5. Steroids ...
Severe combined adrenal and gonadal deficiency caused by novel mutations in the cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme, P450scc ... P450 oxidoreductase deficiency: a new disorder of steroidogenesis affecting all microsomal P450 enzymes. Endocr Res. 2004 Nov. ... Ketoconazole blocks adrenal steroidogenesis by inhibiting cytochrome P450-dependent enzymes. J Clin Invest. 1983 May. 71 (5): ...
Severe combined adrenal and gonadal deficiency caused by novel mutations in the cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme, P450scc ... P450 oxidoreductase deficiency: a new disorder of steroidogenesis affecting all microsomal P450 enzymes. Endocr Res. 2004 Nov. ... Ketoconazole blocks adrenal steroidogenesis by inhibiting cytochrome P450-dependent enzymes. J Clin Invest. 1983 May. 71 (5): ...
  • Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme is commonly referred to as P450scc, where "scc" is an acronym for side-chain cleavage. (wikipedia.org)
  • P450scc is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone. (wikipedia.org)
  • P450scc is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes (family 11, subfamily A, polypeptide 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunofluorescence studies using specific antibodies against P450scc system enzymes have demonstrated that proteins are located exclusively within the mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • P450scc catalyzes the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone in three monooxygenase reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • that is, during electron transfer from adrenodoxin reductase via adrenodoxin to P450scc, a certain portion of the electrons leak outside of the chain and react with O2, generating superoxide radicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • P450scc is always active, however its activity is limited by the supply of cholesterol in the inner membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • With prolonged (chronic) stimulation, it is thought that cholesterol supply becomes no longer an issue and that the capacity of the system to make steroid (i.e., level of P450scc in the mitochondria) is now more important. (wikipedia.org)
  • We examined possible molecular mechanisms subserving FSH action by assessing concentrations of cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage (P450scc) mRNA in porcine granulosa cells maintained in serum-free culture. (elsevier.com)
  • Inhibition of sterol utilization by the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme had no effect on basal or FSH-stimulated concentrations of P450scc mRNA, but markedly suppressed progesterone production. (elsevier.com)
  • To investigate whether P450scc can function outside the mitochondria, we constructed vectors producing P450scc and various fusion enzymes of P450scc with electron- transport proteins and directed their expression to either the ER or the mitochondria. (elsevier.com)
  • In terms of the latter property, it inhibits enzymes such as cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1, P450scc) and aromatase (CYP19A1), thereby inhibiting the conversion of cholesterol into steroid hormones and blocking the production of androgens, estrogens, and glucocorticoids, among other endogenous steroids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanisms underlying the steroidogenic synergy of insulin and luteinizing hormone in porcine granulosa cells: joint amplification of pivotal sterol-regulatory genes encoding the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory (stAR) protein and cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc) enzyme. (nih.gov)
  • Cholesterol is converted to pregnenolone by the cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage (P450scc) enzyme [ 13 ]. (scielo.cl)
  • Cyp11a1 (P450scc) encodes an approximately 55-kDa mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes side-chain cleavage of cholesterol and is rate limiting for steroid hormone biosynthesis. (scialert.net)
  • The expression levels of steroidogenic enzymes (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD)) were not impacted by Li-ESWT. (ovid.com)
  • The crucial regulatory enzymes for progesterone and oestradiol biosynthesis in granulosa cells are the cholesterol side-chain cleavage (P450scc) and aromatase (P450arom) enzymes respectively. (bioscientifica.com)
  • JEG-3 cells, a transformed progesterone-producing line of trophoblastic origin, accumulate mRNAs for cytochrome P450scc (the mitochondrial cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme), adrenodoxin, and the fos oncogene when stimulated with 8-bromo-cyclic AMP. (elsevier.com)
  • We first used immunocytochemical methods to detect gonadal sites of P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) in the wrasse at different stages of in the sex change process. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In this collaborative research, we also examined immunocytochemically the initial differentiation and development of steroid-producing cells during gonadal sex differentiation in tilapia Oreochromis niloticus using polyclonal antibodies against four steroid-metabolizing enzymes (P450scc, 3beta-HSD,P450c17, P450arom). (nii.ac.jp)
  • 1). Steroidogenesis, in other words, can be marked as the beginning of cholesterol trafficking from the sub cellular stores to the mitochondria, where by the first enzymatic conversion occurs, i.e., pregnenolone is formed by the action of cholesterol side chain cleavage cytochrome P450 (P450scc). (palawanboard.com)
  • This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones. (curehunter.com)
  • The first step in human ovarian steroidogenesis is catalyzed by cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 (CYP11A1) enzyme. (elsevier.com)
  • Steroidogenic factor-1 is an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates several steroidogenic enzymes, including CYP11A1. (elsevier.com)
  • CYP11A1 , a gene belonging to the family 11 of cytochrome P450, encodes a crucial steroidogenic enzyme that catalyzes the initial step in the production of all classes of steroids. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, full-length CYP11A1 cDNA of Zhedong goose was obtained using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). (biomedcentral.com)
  • We conclude that Runx2 regulates enzymes involved in sterol/steroid-related metabolic pathways and that activation of Cyp11a1 by Runx2 may contribute to attenuation of osteoblast growth. (scialert.net)
  • Our data suggest that Nnt deletion (or overexpression) reduces adrenal steroidogenic output by decreasing the expression of crucial, mitochondrial antioxidant (Prdx3 and Txnrd2) and steroidogenic (Cyp11a1) enzymes. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • This is likely due to a reduction in the expression of a key steroidogenic enzyme, Cyp11a1, which mirrored the reduction in corticosterone output. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. (curehunter.com)
  • Although cellular compartmentalization of steroidogenic enzymes appears to be a feature of all steroidogenic pathways, some reports indicate that cholesterol can be converted to pregnenolone outside the mitochondria. (elsevier.com)
  • This protein localizes to the mitochondrial inner membrane and catalyzes the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone, the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of the steroid hormones. (genecards.org)
  • Catalyzes the side-chain cleavage reaction of cholesterol to pregnenolone, the precursor of most steroid hormones. (genecards.org)
  • The main effects of HPTE appeared to be localized to the cholesterol side-chain cleavage step which converts cholesterol to pregnenolone. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Aminoglutethimide inhibits the enzymatic conversion of cholesterol to D5-pregnenolone, resulting in a decrease in the production of adrenal glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, estrogens, and androgens. (drugbank.ca)
  • then another enzyme, CYP17A1, converts pregnenolone to 17α-Hydroxypregnenolone and then to DHEA. (bayho.com)
  • Pregnenolone itself is produced from cholesterol via cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme. (tudortech.co.za)
  • Pregnenolone is the first steroid to be derived from cholesterol in the pathway of steroidogenesis, and it is the common precursor for all of the adrenal and gonadal steroids. (biovendor.com)
  • GSE administration exhibited a stimulatory effect on steroidogenesis‑associated enzymes, and co‑treatment with GSE and CdCl2 normalized and upregulated the mRNA expression levels of these examined genes. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Loose DS, Kan PB, Hirst MA, Marcus RA, Feldman D. Ketoconazole blocks adrenal steroidogenesis by inhibiting cytochrome P450-dependent enzymes. (medscape.com)
  • Preclinical evidence that androgen biosynthesis in prostate cancer cells does not necessarily follow a single dominant pathway, and residual androgens or alternative ligands (including administered glucocorticoids) can reactivate androgen receptor signaling, supports cotargeting of more than one enzyme involved in steroidogenesis and combining a CYP17A1 inhibitor with an antiandrogen. (aacrjournals.org)
  • qPCR results for the target genes were log-transformed, converted to Z-scores, and grouped into two functional pathways: steroidogenesis (aromatase, cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, and cytochrome P450 1B1) and trophoblast differentiation (PPARγ, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and human chorionic gonadotropin). (ccceh.org)
  • Steroidogenesis is a complex process that involves a number of enzymatic processes by which cholesterol is converted to biologically active steroid hormones, the potential end products being the estrogens and the androgens. (palawanboard.com)
  • The levels of aromatase mRNA and protein, the enzyme responsible for converting androgens to estrogens, was undetectable in testes … More and transitional gonads. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Honda M, Tint GS, Honda A, Nguyen LB, Chen TS, Shefer S: 7-Dehydrocholesterol down-regulates cholesterol biosynthesis in cultured Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome skin fibroblasts. (hmdb.ca)
  • The biosynthesis of steroid hormones is a difficult process in which Cholesterol is transformed into mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and sex hormones via a series of hydroxylation, oxidation and reduction steps. (wikipathways.org)
  • 2000. A metabolite of methoxychlor, 2,2-bis( p hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane, reduces testosterone biosynthesis in rat leydig cells through suppression of steady-state messenger ribonucleic acid levels of the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme. (cdc.gov)
  • Biosynthesis of these steroids and gonadal development is controlled by the expression of steroidogenic enzyme genes and their related transcription factors. (palawanboard.com)
  • Among the steroidogenic enzymes involved in estrogen biosynthesis, HPTE, specifically, inhibited P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage (P450-SCC) activity in a dose dependent manner. (cdc.gov)
  • CYP17A1 catalyzes two essential reactions in the production of DHEA and androstenedione: the hydroxylation (hydroxylase activity) and the subsequent cleavage of the C17-20 side chain (lyase activity). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The enzyme CYP17A1 is responsible for the 17,20 lyase and 17alpha-hydroxylase activities in respective pathways. (genome.jp)
  • The involvement of three proteins in cholesterol side-chain cleavage reaction raises the question of whether the three proteins function as a ternary complex as reductase:adrenodoxin:P450. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes. (genecards.org)
  • The cytochrome P450 proteins are monooxygenases which catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids and other lipids. (genecards.org)
  • Hormonal regulation of messenger ribonucleic acid expression for steroidogenic factor-1, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, and cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage in bovine luteal cells. (nih.gov)
  • CdCl2 toxicity induced a significant downregulation in the mRNA expression levels of cytochrome P450 cholesterol side‑chain cleavage enzyme, cytochrome P450 17A1, 3β‑hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β‑HSD), 17β‑HSD, androgen receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, and follicle‑stimulating hormone receptor. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • 17alpha,20alpha-Dihydroxycholesterol is the 8th to last step in the synthesis of Cortolone and is converted from 20alpha-Hydroxycholesterol via the enzyme cytochrome P450 (EC 1.14.99.9). (hmdb.ca)
  • It is then converted to 17alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone via the enzyme cytochrome P450 (EC1.14.15.6). (hmdb.ca)
  • Ketoconazole is an imidazole broad-spectrum antifungal agent that inhibits cytochrome P450 enzyme system and 17,20-lyase. (medscape.com)
  • Transfers electrons from adrenodoxin reductase to cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme. (proteopedia.org)
  • reductase to the cholesterol side chain cleavage cytochrome P450 (By similarity). (proteopedia.org)
  • Cytochrome P450 CYP27A1 is the only enzyme in humans converting cholesterol to 27-hydroxycholesterol, an oxysterol of multiple functions, including tissue-specific modulation of estrogen and liver X receptors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • DHEA is produced from cholesterol through two cytochrome P450 enzymes. (bayho.com)
  • Autoantibodies against Cytochrome P450 Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme in Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) Affected with Hypoadrenocorticism (Addison's Disease). (nih.gov)
  • Additionally, blocking RA signaling in Leydig cells resulted in increased permeability of the blood-testis barrier, decreased levels of the steroidogenic enzyme cytochrome P450 17a1 and decreased testosterone levels. (biologists.org)
  • In mouse ovaries, the enzyme 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) is distributed between microsomes and mitochondria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The highest proportion of unesterified cholesterol is in the plasma membrane (roughly 30-50% of the lipid in the membrane or 60-80% of the cholesterol in the cell), while mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum have very low cholesterol contents. (hmdb.ca)
  • With the exception of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD), the enzymes involved in the conversion of cholesterol to steroid hormones are located in either the mitochondria or the endoplasmic reticulum. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1. The specific radioactivities of non-esterified and esterified cholesterol, progesterone and 20α-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one were determined in slices of superovulated rat ovary after incubation with [1- 14 C]acetate in vitro for various times. (portlandpress.com)
  • The specific radioactivities of progesterone and 20α-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one were equal, and (during the fourth hour of incubation) exceeded those of the non-esterified cholesterol and the esterified cholesterol by factors of 2.8 and 7.6 respectively. (portlandpress.com)
  • the corresponding mean specific radioactivity of progesterone+20α-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one was 6150d.p.m./μmol. (portlandpress.com)
  • 4. The specific radioactivities of ovarian non-esterified and esterified cholesterol, progesterone and 20α-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one were determined up to 8h after the intravenous injection of [4- 14 C]cholesterol into superovulated rats. (portlandpress.com)
  • At all times the specific radioactivities of progesterone and 20α-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one were equal to the specific radioactivity of non-esterified cholesterol and exceeded, by up to 3.3-fold, that of the esterified cholesterol. (portlandpress.com)
  • 5. It is concluded that non-esterified cholesterol formed from [ 14 C]acetate in the endoplasmic reticulum equilibrates slowly with non-esterified cholesterol in other subcellular fractions, and is preferentially converted into steroids. (portlandpress.com)
  • Ketoconazole inhibits the cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme 11 beta hydroxylase as well as CYP 17, albeit reversibly 7 . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Leydig cell aging: steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme. (nih.gov)
  • A survey of the protein structural database has revealed that one third of structurally characterized proteins contain chains of redox-active tyrosine and tryptophan residues. (pnas.org)
  • Chains of redox-active tyrosine and tryptophan residues can transport potentially damaging oxidizing equivalents (holes) away from fragile active sites and toward protein surfaces where they can be scavenged by cellular reductants. (pnas.org)
  • Free radicals may damage protein, lipid, enzymes and DNA, and therefore must be neutralized by antioxidants before entering cells ( 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Western blotting and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction data showed that Fas protein and mRNA levels increased, whereas those of FasL decreased after PRL withdrawal. (bioone.org)
  • These were used to determine the subcellular localization of mutant and wild type protein, and to examine cholesterol metabolite ratios. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In contrast, protein levels of 11beta-hydroxylase, the enzyme responsible for 11-ketotestosterone production increase towards the end of sex change process. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Specificity was tested by estimating the granulosa cell mRNA content of the constitutively expressed enzyme, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. (elsevier.com)
  • Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme (SCC) Deficiency. (wikipathways.org)
  • Complete deficiency of CYP27A1 activity leads to cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX), an autosomal recessive and slowly progressive disease characterized by deposition of cholesterol and cholestanol (reduced form of cholesterol) in the brain and other tissues, neurologic dysfunction, and ocular abnormalities. (aspetjournals.org)
  • However, the presence of severe glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid deficiency makes this mouse an ideal animal model to explore the possibility of replacing the defective enzyme in the adrenal by gene therapy. (nature.com)
  • Of the patients, 22 had a confirmed genetic disease, with 11 having 5α-reductase 2 deficiency, seven with androgen insensitivity syndrome, one each with cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme deficiency, Frasier syndrome, NR5A1 -related sex reversal, and persistent Müllerian duct syndrome. (hkmj.org)
  • As mentioned earlier, the clinical spectrum of CAH largely reflects the degree of severe to mild inherited structural problems (i.e. mutations) within the DNA dictating the amount of 21-hydroxylase enzyme deficiency in the adrenal steroid pathway. (magicfoundation.org)
  • CAH is an inherited disorder which causes an enzyme deficiency (most commonly 21-hydroxylase) in the adrenal glands resulting in the inability of the adrenal glands to make hormones (cortisol and aldosterone), which are necessary to maintain life. (magicfoundation.org)
  • Mitotane is an adrenolytic agent that acts by inhibiting 11-beta hydroxylase and several cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzymes. (medscape.com)
  • Whether of peripheral or central origin, all neuroactive steroids are derived from cholesterol. (frontiersin.org)
  • These enzymes are involved in the synthesis and catabolism of steroids. (medscape.com)
  • Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol) and a lipid found in the cell membranes of all body tissues and transported in the blood plasma of all animals. (hmdb.ca)
  • Despite broad sterol specificity, CYP27A1 is a highly regio- and stereo-specific enzyme producing all 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC) in humans. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Several different pathways of enzymatic cholesterol removal exist in extraocular tissues. (nih.gov)
  • The oxysterol profile of the retina suggests that all known pathways of cholesterol elimination in extraocular organs are operative in the retina and that they likely vary depending on specific cell type. (nih.gov)
  • All three proteins together constitute the cholesterol side-chain cleavage complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the aldo/keto reductase superfamily, which consists of more than 40 known enzymes and proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Proteins and enzymes are susceptible to oxidative damage and inactivation from reactive oxygen and nitrogen species formed as a consequence of oxidative stress. (pnas.org)
  • These chains can protect proteins from damage by transferring oxidizing equivalents away from critical active site regions and delivering them to surface sites for scavenging. (pnas.org)
  • A search of the structural database reveals that about one third of all proteins contain Tyr/Trp chains composed of three or more residues. (pnas.org)
  • Differences that do occur are almost wholly confined to alternate side-chain conformations that reflect differing lattice contacts made by two proteins. (proteopedia.org)
  • DHEA is a natural steroid hormone produced from cholesterol by the adrenal glands. (bayho.com)
  • In humans with autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) or autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (APS), circulating autoantibodies have been demonstrated against enzymes associated with adrenal steroid synthesis. (nih.gov)
  • Due to defective enzyme action in the adrenal steroid pathway, there is a block in adrenal steroid production and a build-up of unwanted hormones, specifically male sex hormones (also known as androgens). (magicfoundation.org)
  • Free testosterone (T) is transported into the cytoplasm of target tissue cells, where it can bind to the androgen receptor, or can be reduced to 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by the cytoplasmic enzyme 5-alpha-reductase. (drugbank.ca)
  • Androgen metabolism via 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 in mammalian and non-mammalian vertebrates: comparison of the human and the zebrafish enzyme. (wikipathways.org)
  • Cholesterol has vital structural roles in membranes and in lipid metabolism in general. (hmdb.ca)
  • The current study investigates autoantibodies against steroid synthesis enzymes in dogs with spontaneous hypoadrenocorticism. (nih.gov)
  • Lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1, also known as KDM1) is a histone modifying enzyme that regulates the expression of many genes important in cancer progression and proliferation. (dukecancerinstitute.org)
  • The enzymes display overlapping but distinct substrate specificity. (nih.gov)
  • These chains likely are important for substrate binding and positioning, but a secondary redox role also is a possibility. (pnas.org)
  • The power of O 2 -driven reactions is balanced against the risk from low-fidelity reactions in which substrate oxidation fails, leaving enzymes to cope with highly oxidizing intermediates. (pnas.org)
  • Such a mechanism presupposes the operation of a microsomal cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme using non-esterified cholesterol as its substrate. (portlandpress.com)
  • Analysis of cytochrome P-450 side-chain cleavage gene promoter activation during trophoblast cell differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • In women, antiandrogens are much better tolerated , and antiandrogens that work only by directly blocking androgens are associated with minimal side effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Testosterone undecanoate is an esterified form of testosterone which is attached to a long fatty acid chain. (drugbank.ca)
  • Cholesterol 27-hydroxylation serves two main physiologic purposes: cholesterol elimination and cellular regulation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Thus, understanding the regulation of steroidogenic enzyme genes directly or indirectly involved in T and 11-KT production seems critical to address the molecular mechanisms of spermatogenesis with special reference to fish reproduction. (palawanboard.com)
  • [5] The drug may also cause hot flashes , elevation of liver enzymes , and mood changes . (wikipedia.org)
  • For comparison, they measured cholesterol oxidation products in two regions of the bovine and human brain and in the bovine liver and adrenal glands. (nih.gov)
  • They carry mostly triglyceride fats and cholesterol that are from food, especially internal cholesterol secreted by the liver into the bile. (hmdb.ca)
  • In the liver, chylomicron particles give up triglycerides and some cholesterol. (hmdb.ca)
  • 3. By using glutamate dehydrogenase and cytochrome ( a+a 3 ) as mitochondrial markers, the presence of cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme was demonstrated in microsomal fraction free of mitochondrial contamination. (portlandpress.com)
  • The production of this enzyme is inhibited notably by the nuclear receptor DAX-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results are discussed in the light of other biochemical and electron-microscopic findings relating to the compartmentation of cholesterol in steroidogenic tissues. (portlandpress.com)
  • SCD is characterized by an abnormal deposition of cholesterol and phospholipids in the cornea resulting in progressive corneal opacification and visual loss. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as cholesterols and derivatives. (hmdb.ca)
  • This enzyme binds bile acid with high affinity, and shows minimal 3-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity. (nih.gov)
  • Androgenic side effects are of concern, as some women taking danazol may experience unwanted hair growth ( hirsutism ), acne , irreversible deepening of the voice , [5] or adverse blood lipid profiles . (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the cholesterol consumed as a dietary lipid exists as cholesterol esters. (hmdb.ca)
  • Methods: We measured seven target genes in placentas collected from 54 Dominican and African-American women at delivery in New York City using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), normalized to 18S rRNA. (ccceh.org)
  • 16 ] described the transcriptome associated with oocyte development by in silico microarray analysis, identified differentially expressed genes by bioinformatics analysis, and further validated the identified genes through conducting quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions (q-PCR) analysis and confirming the functional categories. (biomedcentral.com)