Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.Pregnenolone: A 21-carbon steroid, derived from CHOLESTEROL and found in steroid hormone-producing tissues. Pregnenolone is the precursor to GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Adrenodoxin: An iron-sulfur protein which serves as an electron carrier in enzymatic steroid hydroxylation reactions in adrenal cortex mitochondria. The electron transport system which catalyzes this reaction consists of adrenodoxin reductase, NADP, adrenodoxin, and cytochrome P-450.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 11-beta-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B1 gene, is important in the synthesis of CORTICOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Defects in CYP11B1 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Ferredoxin-NADP Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC 1.18.1.2 was formerly listed as EC 1.6.7.1 and EC 1.6.99.4.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Pregnenes: Unsaturated derivatives of PREGNANES.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase: A microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 17-alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone or pregnenolone and subsequent cleavage of the residual two carbons at C17 in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP17 gene, generates precursors for glucocorticoid, androgen, and estrogen synthesis. Defects in CYP17 gene cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL) and abnormal sexual differentiation.3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.Gonadal Dysgenesis, 46,XX: The 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis may be sporadic or familial. Familial XX gonadal dysgenesis is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait and its locus was mapped to chromosome 2. Mutation in the gene for the FSH receptor (RECEPTORS, FSH) was detected. Sporadic XX gonadal dysgenesis is heterogeneous and has been associated with trisomy-13 and trisomy-18. These phenotypic females are characterized by a normal stature, sexual infantilism, bilateral streak gonads, amenorrhea, elevated plasma LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH concentration.Leydig Cells: Steroid-producing cells in the interstitial tissue of the TESTIS. They are under the regulation of PITUITARY HORMONES; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. TESTOSTERONE is the major androgen (ANDROGENS) produced.Granulosa Cells: Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Ovarian Follicle: An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Receptors, FSH: Cell surface proteins that bind FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Danazol: A synthetic steroid with antigonadotropic and anti-estrogenic activities that acts as an anterior pituitary suppressant by inhibiting the pituitary output of gonadotropins. It possesses some androgenic properties. Danazol has been used in the treatment of endometriosis and some benign breast disorders.Fibrocystic Breast Disease: A common and benign breast disease characterized by varying degree of fibrocystic changes in the breast tissue. There are three major patterns of morphological changes, including FIBROSIS, formation of CYSTS, and proliferation of glandular tissue (adenosis). The fibrocystic breast has a dense irregular, lumpy, bumpy consistency.Premenstrual Syndrome: A combination of distressing physical, psychologic, or behavioral changes that occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Symptoms of PMS are diverse (such as pain, water-retention, anxiety, cravings, and depression) and they diminish markedly 2 or 3 days after the initiation of menses.Menorrhagia: Excessive uterine bleeding during MENSTRUATION.Pregnadienes: Pregnane derivatives containing two double bonds anywhere within the ring structures.Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic: Thrombocytopenia occurring in the absence of toxic exposure or a disease associated with decreased platelets. It is mediated by immune mechanisms, in most cases IMMUNOGLOBULIN G autoantibodies which attach to platelets and subsequently undergo destruction by macrophages. The disease is seen in acute (affecting children) and chronic (adult) forms.Purpura, Thrombocytopenic: Any form of purpura in which the PLATELET COUNT is decreased. Many forms are thought to be caused by immunological mechanisms.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Steroidogenic Factor 1: A transcription factor and member of the nuclear receptor family NR5 that is expressed throughout the adrenal and reproductive axes during development. It plays an important role in sexual differentiation, formation of primary steroidogenic tissues, and their functions in post-natal and adult life. It regulates the expression of key steroidogenic enzymes.Corpus Luteum: The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Phosphatidylinositol Diacylglycerol-Lyase: A phosphorus-oxygen lyase found primarily in BACTERIA. The enzyme catalyzes the cleavage of a phosphoester linkage in 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol to form 1D-myo-inositol 1,2-cyclic phosphate and diacylglycerol. The enzyme was formerly classified as a phosphoric diester hydrolase (EC 3.1.4.10) and is often referred to as a TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. However it is now known that a cyclic phosphate is the final product of this enzyme and that water does not enter into the reaction.Phosphoinositide Phospholipase C: A type C phospholipase with specificity towards PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS that contain INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE. Many of the enzymes listed under this classification are involved in intracellular signaling.Tupaia: A genus of tree shrews of the family TUPAIIDAE which consists of about 12 species. One of the most frequently encountered species is T. glis. Members of this genus inhabit rain forests and secondary growth areas in southeast Asia.Protein Kinase C-alpha: A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.Protein Kinase C beta: PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.Trichloroethanes: Chlorinated ethanes which are used extensively as industrial solvents. They have been utilized in numerous home-use products including spot remover preparations and inhalant decongestant sprays. These compounds cause central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and are hepatotoxic. Include 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-isomers.Methoxychlor: An insecticide. Methoxychlor has estrogenic effects in mammals, among other effects.DDT: A polychlorinated pesticide that is resistant to destruction by light and oxidation. Its unusual stability has resulted in difficulties in residue removal from water, soil, and foodstuffs. This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene: An organochlorine pesticide, it is the ethylene metabolite of DDT.Metabolome: The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.

Hormonal regulation of messenger ribonucleic acid expression for steroidogenic factor-1, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, and cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage in bovine luteal cells. (1/519)

To examine hormonal regulation of genes pertinent to luteal steroidogenesis, bovine theca and granulosa cells derived from preovulatory follicles were cultured with various combinations of forskolin and insulin. On Day 8 of culture, progesterone production was measured, and mRNA levels of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1), cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) were determined by means of semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Notably, the combination of forskolin plus insulin stimulated progesterone production in luteinized theca cells. This was probably a result of a synergistic interaction between forskolin and insulin, observed on both StAR and P450scc mRNA levels. However, in luteinized granulosa cells (LGC), forskolin and insulin each independently were able to up-regulate the levels of P450scc and StAR mRNA levels, respectively. Moreover, insulin alone was sufficient to maintain the high steady-state levels of StAR mRNA in LGC. Both insulin and insulin-like growth factor I enhanced StAR gene expression in LGC. SF-1 was constitutively expressed in bovine luteal cells; its amounts did not vary between the two luteal cell types or with hormonal treatments. In summary, this study demonstrates a distinct, cell-type specific regulation of StAR and P450scc mRNA in the two bovine luteal cell types.  (+info)

Luteinizing hormone inhibits conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone in luteal cells from rats on day 19 of pregnancy. (2/519)

We have previously reported that intrabursal ovarian administration of LH at the end of pregnancy in rats induces a decrease in luteal progesterone (P4) synthesis and an increase in P4 metabolism. However, whether this local luteolytic effect of LH is exerted directly on luteal cells or on other structures, such as follicular or stromal cells, to modify luteal function is unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of LH on isolated luteal cells obtained on Day 19 of pregnancy. Incubation of luteal cells with 1, 10, 100, or 1000 ng/ml of ovine LH (oLH) for 6 h did not modify basal P4 production. The addition to the culture medium of 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol (22R-HC, 10 microgram/ml), a membrane-permeable P4 precursor, or pregnenolone (10(-2) microM) induced a significant increase in P4 accumulation in the medium in relation to the control value. When luteal cells were preincubated for 2 h with oLH, a significant (p < 0.01) reduction in the 22R-HC- or pregnenolone-stimulated P4 accumulation was observed. Incubation of luteal cells with dibutyryl cAMP (1 mM, a cAMP analogue) plus isobutylmethylxanthine (1 mM, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor) also inhibited pregnenolone-stimulated P4 accumulation. Incubation with an inositol triphosphate synthesis inhibitor, neomycin (1 mM), or an inhibitor of intracellular Ca2+ mobilization, (8,9-N, N-diethylamino)octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate (1 mM), did not prevent the decrease in pregnenolone-stimulated P4 secretion induced by oLH. It was concluded that the luteolytic action of LH in late pregnancy is due, at least in part, to a direct action on the luteal cells and that an increase in intracellular cAMP level might mediate this effect.  (+info)

Identification of 17-methyl-18-norandrosta-5,13(17-dien-3beta-ol, the C19 fragment formed by adrenal side chain cleavage of a 20-aryl analog of (20S)-20-hydroxycholesterol. (3/519)

Incubation of (20R)-20-phenyl-5-pregnene-3beta,20-diol, an aromatic analog of (23S)-20-hydroxycholesterol, with an adrenal mitochondrial preparation leads to the formation of four compounds: pregnenolone, phenol, a C8 ketone, acetophenone, and a nonpolar C19 compound. This latter compound has now been identified by reverse isotope dilution analysis and by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as 17-methyl-18-norandrosta-5,13(17)-dien-3beta-ol. From these results it is evident that enzymatic fission of the C-17,20 bond of this synthetic derivative occurs. On the other hand, when (20S)-20-hydroxy[21-14C]cholesterol was used as substrate, the analogous cleavage did not take place. Thus, substitution of an aromatic group on C-20 facilitates side chain cleavage between that carbon atom and the nucleus whereas neither of the naturally occuring precursors, cholesterol or its 20-hydroxylated counterpart, are metabolized to a C8 fragment.  (+info)

Enzymatic properties of vesicle-reconstituted human cytochrome P450SCC (CYP11A1) differences in functioning of the mitochondrial electron-transfer chain using human and bovine adrenodoxin and activation by cardiolipin. (4/519)

The recently reported heterologous expression and purification of both human cytochrome P450SCC and adrenodoxin [Woods, S.T., Sadleir, J., Downs, T., Triantopoulos, T., Haedlam, M.J. & Tuckey, R.C. (1998) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 353, 109-115] has enabled us to perform studies with the membrane-reconstituted human enzymes to better understand the side-chain cleavage reaction in humans. Human P450SCC was successfully reconstituted into dioleoylphosphatidylcholine vesicles with and without cardiolipin and its enzymatic properties characterized in the membrane-bound state. Enhancement of the P450SCC activity and significant activation by cardiolipin were observed when human adrenodoxin instead of bovine adrenodoxin was used as electron donor. In the absence of cardiolipin, Km for cholesterol was decreased twice in the case of human adrenodoxin indicating enhanced cholesterol binding. On the other hand, in the presence of cardiolipin in the membrane both Km and V for cholesterol were decreased with human adrenodoxin as electron donor. Kinetic analysis of the interaction between human P450SCC and its redox partners provided evidence for enhanced binding of the human electron donor to human P450SCC indicated by both an increased V and decreased Kd for human adrenodoxin compared with the values with bovine adrenodoxin. Because no similar effects were observed in Tween 20 micelles, these results suggest that the phospholipid membrane may play an important role in the interaction of human adrenodoxin with human P450SCC.  (+info)

Dynamics of periovulatory steroidogenesis in the rhesus monkey follicle after ovarian stimulation. (5/519)

The temporal relationships and regulation of events in the primate follicle during the periovulatory interval are poorly understood. This study was designed to elucidate the dynamics of steroid synthesis in the macaque follicle during ovarian stimulation cycles in which serum/follicular fluid aspirates were collected at precise intervals before (0 h) and after (up to 36 h) administration of the ovulatory human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) bolus. Serum concentrations of progesterone increased (P < 0.05) within 30 min, and follicular fluid progesterone concentrations were elevated 180-fold within 12 h, of HCG injection, and remained elevated until the time of ovulation. In contrast, 17beta-oestradiol concentrations increased initially, but then declined (P < 0.05) by 36 h post-HCG. Acute incubation of granulosa cells with and without steroidogenic substrates demonstrated that: (i) 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and aromatase activities were present in equivalent amounts before and after HCG; whereas (ii) P450 side-chain cleavage activity increased (P < 0.05) within 12 h of HCG; and (iii) exogenous low-density lipoprotein and cholesterol were not utilized for steroidogenesis. This model should be useful for further studies on ovulation and luteinization in primates, and enable elucidation of the local actions of progesterone and other steroids at specific time points during the periovulatory interval.  (+info)

Paracrine glucocorticoid activity produced by mouse thymic epithelial cells. (6/519)

Previous data have suggested that glucocorticoids (GCs) are involved in the differentiation of thymocytes into mature T cells. In this report we demonstrate that the mouse thymic epithelial cells (TEC) express the cytochrome P450 hydroxylases Cyp11A1, Cyp21, and Cyp11B1. These enzymes, in combination with 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3betaHSD), convert cholesterol into corticosterone, the major GC in rodents. In addition, when TEC were cocultured with 'reporter cells' containing the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and a GR-dependent reporter gene, a specific induction of reporter gene activity was observed. Induction of reporter gene activity was blocked when the TEC and reporter cells were incubated in the presence of the Cyp11B1 inhibitor metyrapone or the 3betaHSD inhibitor trilostane, as well as by the GR antagonist RU486. Coculturing of TEC with thymocytes induced apoptosis in the latter, which was partially blocked by the enzyme inhibitors and RU486. We conclude that TEC secrete a GC hormone activity and suggest a paracrine role for this in thymocyte development.  (+info)

Steroidogenic enzyme expression in human corpora lutea in the presence and absence of exogenous human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG). (7/519)

In a human conception cycle, the expected decline in progesterone production by the corpus luteum during the late luteal phase is prevented by human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) secreted by the implanting blastocyst. This study investigated the expression of components of the synthetic pathway for progesterone in human corpora lutea in the presence and absence of HCG in vivo. Corpora lutea were obtained from: (i) normally cycling women at the time of hysterectomy and classified on the basis of the urinary luteinizing hormone (LH) surge as early (n = 3), mid- (n = 3), or late luteal (n = 3); or (ii) women who had received daily doubling doses of HCG (n = 3) to 'rescue' the corpus luteum. Expression patterns of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage (P450scc) and 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) were investigated by Northern blotting, in-situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Luteal 'rescue' with HCG was associated with the continued expression of these components. In the late luteal phase, in the absence of HCG, expression remained but was more variable. The expression of 3beta-HSD mRNA was significantly reduced during the luteal phase (P<0.01). In conclusion, during luteal 'rescue', HCG acts to maintain the steroidogenic pathway. In the absence of HCG, the decline in progesterone production begins in the presence of the main components of the steroidogenic pathway. While unlikely to initiate this decline, the altered expression levels of these components, particularly that of 3beta-HSD, may contribute to the continued reduction in progesterone production.  (+info)

Growth factor modulation of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and luteinization in the pig ovary. (8/519)

In vivo and in vitro luteinization were investigated in the porcine ovary, with emphasis on expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). StAR mRNA and protein as well as cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage mRNA (P450scc) increased during the luteal phase in the corpus luteum (CL) and were absent in regressed CL. Cytochrome P450 aromatase mRNA (P450arom) was not detectable at any time in CL. In vitro luteinization of granulosa cells occurred over 96 h in culture, during which P450arom mRNA was present at 1 h after cell isolation but not detectable at 6 h; and P450scc and StAR mRNAs were first detectable at 6 h and 48 h, respectively. Incubation of cultures with insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I, 10 ng/ml), dibutyryl cAMP (cAMP, 300 microM), or their combination, induced measurable StAR mRNA at 24 h (p < 0.05), increased progesterone accumulation at 48 h, and elevated both StAR and P450scc expression through 96 h. Incubation of luteinized granulosa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF, 10 nM) changed their phenotype from epithelioid to fibroblastic, eliminated steady-state StAR expression, and interfered with cAMP induction of StAR mRNA and progesterone accumulation. EGF had little apparent effect on P450scc mRNA abundance. It is concluded that StAR expression characterizes luteinization, and early luteinization is induced by cAMP and IGF-I in vitro. Further, EGF induces a morphological and functional phenotype that appears similar to an earlier stage of granulosa cell function.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - The orphan nuclear receptor, liver receptor homolog-1, regulates cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 enzyme in human granulosa cells. AU - Kim, Joung W.. AU - Havelock, Jon C.. AU - Carr, Bruce R.. AU - Attia, George R.. PY - 2005/3/1. Y1 - 2005/3/1. N2 - After ovulation, there is a shift in ovarian steroidogenesis from an estrogen-producing ovarian follicle to a progesterone-producing corpus luteum. The first step in human ovarian steroidogenesis is catalyzed by cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 (CYP11A1) enzyme. Steroidogenic factor-1 is an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates several steroidogenic enzymes, including CYP11A1. Liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1) is another orphan nuclear receptor that is expressed in the human ovary. After ovulation there is a down-regulation in steroidogenic factor-1, which is associated with an up-regulation of LRH-1 expression. These changes coincide with increased level of CYP11A1 expression in human corpus luteum. ...
Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The mitochondrial environment is required for activity of the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, cytochrome P450scc. AU - Black, Stephen Matthew. AU - Harikrishna, Jennifer A.. AU - Szklarz, Grazyna D.. AU - Miller, Walter L.. PY - 1994/7/19. Y1 - 1994/7/19. N2 - Steroidogenesis is initiated by the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone by mitochondrial cytochrome P450scc [cholesterol, reduced- adrenal-ferredoxin:oxygen oxidoreductase (side-chain-cleaving); EC 1.14.15.6]. Several subsequent steroidal conversions occur in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but the last step in the production of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids again occurs in the mitochondria. Although cellular compartmentalization of steroidogenic enzymes appears to be a feature of all steroidogenic pathways, some reports indicate that cholesterol can be converted to pregnenolone outside the mitochondria. To investigate whether P450scc can function outside the mitochondria, we constructed vectors ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Follicle-stimulating hormone increases concentrations of messenger ribonucleic acid encoding cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme in primary cultures of porcine granulosa cells. AU - Urban, Randall J.. AU - Garmey, James C.. AU - Shupnik, Margaret A.. AU - Veldhuis, Johannes D. PY - 1991/4. Y1 - 1991/4. N2 - FSH is the primary hormonal inducer of ovarian follicle maturation and a critically important regulator of steroidogenesis in granulosa cells. We examined possible molecular mechanisms subserving FSH action by assessing concentrations of cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage (P450scc) mRNA in porcine granulosa cells maintained in serum-free culture. Cellular concentrations of specific P450scc mRNA were measured by Northern blot hybridization using a 32P-labeled 1-kilobase porcine cDNA clone. Specificity was tested by estimating the granulosa cell mRNA content of the constitutively expressed enzyme, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. ...
Pregnenolone is biochemically, the mother hormone, made directly from cholesterol within the mitochondria of the adrenal glands and, in small part, of the nervous system, with the help of the cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme, p450scc. Pregnenolone being a precursor to various hormones, such as progesterone, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, androgens, and estrogens, can help the body to maintain normal hormone levels, which in turn help numerous body functions. Supplement Facts Serving Size 1 capsule Servings Per Container 100 Amount Per Serving Pregnenolone 100 mg Dosage and Use Take one capsule daily preferably early in the day on an empty stomach, or as recommended by a healthcare practitioner. Warning Keep out of reach of childern. Do not exceed recommended dose. Do not purchase if outer seal is broken or damaged. If you have a bad reaction to product discontinue use immediately. When using nutritional supplements, please inform your physician if you are undergoing treatment
0081]The term "self-antigen" refers to an immunogenic peptide derived from a protein of said individual. It may be, by way of example, an auto-antigen of the following non-limiting list: acetylcholine receptor, actin, adenin nucleotide translocator, β-adrenoreceptor, aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, asioaloglycoprotein receptor, bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPi), calcium sensing receptor, cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme, collagen type IV Oy-chain, cytochrome P450 2D6, desmin, desmoglein-1, desmoglein-3, F-actin, GM-gangliosides, glutamate decarboxylase, glutamate receptor, H/K ATPase, 17-[alpha]-hydroxylase, 21-hydroxylase, IA-2 (ICAS 12), insulin, insulin receptor, intrinsic factor type 1, leucocyte function antigen 1, myelin associated glycoprotein, myelin basic protein, myelin oligodendrocyte protein, myosin, P80-coilin, pyruvate deshydrogenase complex E2 (PDC-E2), sodium iodide symporter, SOX-10, thyroid and eye muscle shared protein, thyroglobulin, thyroid ...
Steroid hormones derived from cholesterol are a class of biologically active compounds in vertebrates. The cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme CYP11A1 catalyzes conversion of cholesterol, a C27 compound, to the first C21 steroid, pregnenolone, which is converted by a bifunctional enzyme complex to the gestagen hormone, progesterone [MD:M00107]. Pregnenolone and progesterone are the starting materials for the three groups of steroids: C21 steroids of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids, C19 steroids of androgens, and C18 steroids of estrogens. (i) Progesterone is converted by hydroxylations at carbons 21 and 11 to corticosterone, which is further modified by hydroxylation and oxydoreduction at carbon 18 to yield aldosterone, a mineralcorticoid [MD:M00108]. Cortisol, the main glucocorticoid, is formed from 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone with 11-deoxycortisol as an intermediate [MD:M00109]. (ii) Male hormone testosterone is formed from pregnenolone by two pathways, delta5 pathway via ...
Shop Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
With an annual worldwide production exceeding 1,000,000 tons, steroid drugs are the second most marketed medical agents next to antibiotics [32]. The biotechnological steroid production is one of the best examples of the successful combination of microbial conversions and chemical reaction steps [1], since some specific modifications of the steroid skeleton cannot be performed by the latter. Examples of such reactions are stereo- and regioselective hydroxylations, dehydrogenations, and the steroid side-chain cleavage presented in this paper. Although there are many microorganisms of different taxa, which are able to convert cholesterol or phytosterols to androstenedione, androstadienedione or other C19-steroids, the efficient microbial conversion of these substrates to pregnenolone has not been described so far [33, 34]. The most abundant steroid in vertebrates, cholesterol, can be obtained in huge amounts by extraction of wool grease or bovine spinal cords [35].. In this study we developed a ...
The research in the Schlinger lab focuses on two questions: 1) How are steroids made available in active forms to distinct neural circuits at appropriate periods of the animals life? 2) How have some neural circuits, but not others, become sensitive to control by steroidal signalling molecules? Experimental Approaches: We study birds in the lab and in the field to explore these questions, examining species that have evolved unique behavioral strategies to optimize their reproductive potential. Techniques regularly used by members of the laboratory include: biochemical assays of steroidogenic enzyme activity, steroidogenic enzyme mRNA expression via Northern blots, rtPCR/Southern blots, in situ hybridization, protein expression via immunocytochemistry, Western blots, neuroanatomical measures via light and fluorescence microscopy and image analysis, and steroid-autoradiography. Please click on the links to learn more about our lab! ...
Platform enables new and innovative ways employing combined unique expertise to perform cleavage of proteins with a fusion partner. This eliminates the need to use expensive cleavage enzymes in the production of a product resulting in intact N and C terminal end protein ...
Cloning, Expression and Hormonal Regulation of Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein Gene in Buffalo Ovary - StAR Gene;StAR mRNA;Semi-quantitative RT-PCR;Granulosa Cells;Ovary;Buffalo;
Progesterone biosynthesis as a function of AA(OOH) concentration in placental mitochondria (measured as percentage of substrate conversion). Progesterone biosyn
The long term objective of this project is a thorough understanding of how steroid hormone synthesis is regulated in a developmental and tissue-specific fashion, and how dysregulation may result in reproductive disorders such as polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The genes for steroidogenic enzymes are transcriptionally regulated at several levels: developmentally, tissue specifically, and hormonally. This regulation shares common features but also differs among the various genes for the steroidogenic enzymes and among various mammals. We will focus on the gene encoding P450c17 (17alpha hydroxylase/17,2 lyase) as it is the key branch point in steroidogenesis, it has been implicated in the etiology of PCOS, and it may be involved in early development of nervous and reproductive systems. Its expression in the human adrenal is required for the synthesis of 17 hydroxy C21 steroids (e.g. cortisol) and for synthesis of C19 sex steroids in the gonads and brain. In the nervous system, expression of ...
The conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone is a physiologically essential process which initiates with two sequential hydroxylation processes catalyzed by cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450SCC). Extensive efforts have been exerted; however, the mechanistic details remain obscure. In this work, we employed the dispersion-corrected density functional theoretical (DFT-D) calculations to investigate the mechanistic details of such hydroxylation processes. Calculated results reveal that the active intermediate Compound I (CpdI) of P450SCC hydroxylates cholesterol efficiently, which coincides with previous spectrometric observations. The hydrogen bond effect of water molecule within the active site lowers the energy barrier significantly. Intriguingly, the adjacent hydrogen bond (H-bond) between the hydroxyl group of the substrate and the oxo group of CpdI in the second hydroxylation affects the H-abstraction significantly. Such H-bond was weakened during the C-H bond activation ...
Looking for online definition of StAR protein in the Medical Dictionary? StAR protein explanation free. What is StAR protein? Meaning of StAR protein medical term. What does StAR protein mean?
EM (fig. S1, C to H) and biochemical fractionation (fig. S2) experiments show the localization of StAR and GRP78 in the ER, MAM, and mitochondria. Because GRP78 is a highly abundant chaperone at the ER that interacts with StAR, it is likely facilitating its folding and subsequent activity (17). We next knocked down the expression of GRP78 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) in COS-1 cells (Fig. 1C) or adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cAMP)-stimulated MA-10 cells (Fig. 1D) and identified changes in StAR expression by Western blotting. In the absence of GRP78, the expression of StAR was greatly reduced, but the negative control siRNA had no effect, suggesting that GRP78 is responsible for StAR expression. As expected, the absence of GRP78 did not affect the expression of mitochondrial VDAC2 or the ER proteins PACS2 and calnexin (Caln) (Fig. 1, C and D). As shown in Fig. 1E, pregnenolone synthesis in MA-10 cells decreased from 25 ng/ml in control cells to 2 ng/ml in the absence of GRP78. The ...
There are no specific protocols for Recombinant Human Adrenodoxin protein (ab87670). Please download our general protocols booklet
Side-chain details from regions in subunit B shown with map and model.Comparable regions from the other two capsid subunits are shown in Supplementary Fig. 5.
17a-Hydroxypregnenolone is a 21-carbon steroid that is converted from pregnenolone by cytochrome P450 17alpha hydroxylase/C17,20 lyase (CYP17, EC 1.14.99.9). 17a-Hydroxypregnenolone is an intermediate in the delta-5 pathway of biosynthesis of gonadal steroid hormones and the adrenal corticosteroids. The first, rate-limiting and hormonally regulated step in the biosynthesis of all steroid hormones is the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone. The conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone is accomplished by the cleavage of the cholesterol side chain, catalyzed by a mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme termed P450scc where scc designates Side Chain Cleavage. All steroid hormones are made from the pregnenolone produced by P450scc; thus, the presence or absence of each of the activities of CYP17 directs this pregnenolone towards its final metabolic pathway. While all cytochrome P450 enzymes can catalyze multiple reactions on a single active site, CYP17 is the only one described to date in which ...
By catalyzing the first steps in different pathways of cholesterol degradation, cytochromes P450 (P450s) 7A1, 27A1, 11A1, and 46A1 play key roles in cholesterol homeostasis. CYP7A1 is a microsomal liver-specific enzyme that converts cholesterol to 7α-hydroxycholesterol. CYP27A1 is a ubiquitously expressed mitochondrial P450 that metabolizes cholesterol to 27-hydroxycholesterol. CYP11A1 also resides in mitochondria but is expressed mainly in steroidogenic tissues, where it catalyzes the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone. Finally, CYP46A1 is a brain-selective microsomal monooxygenase producing 24S-hydroxycholesterol from cholesterol. Catalytic efficiencies of cholesterol-metabolizing P450s vary significantly and probably reflect physiological requirements of different organs for the rate of cholesterol turnover. P450s 7A1, 27A1, 11A1, and 46A1 represent a unique system for elucidation of how different enzymes have adapted to fit their specific roles in cholesterol elimination. Studies of ...
The cytotoxic response of several types of neoplastic cells to analogues of unnatural alkyl phospholipids (e.g., rac-1-hexadecyl-2-methoxy-glycero-3-phosphocholine) has been partially attributed to their accumulation as a result of the low activity of the alkyl cleavage enzyme (a tetrahydropteridine-dependent monooxygenase) in tumor cells. We tested this possibility by comparing the alkyl cleavage enzyme activity in cells that exhibit differences in sensitivity toward the cytotoxic effects of the rac-1-hexadecyl-2-methoxy-glycero-3-phosphocholine. Human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60), a cell line highly sensitive to the cytotoxic alkyl phospholipid analogue, possessed an alkyl cleavage enzyme activity (0.25 pmol/min/µg protein) similar to that found in three cell types known to be relatively resistant to the cytotoxic activity of the analogue: immature human promyeloblastic leukemia cells (K562) (0.22 pmol/min/µg protein), human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (0.34 pmol/min/µg protein), ...
Present mainly in the mitochondrial compartment of peripheral tissues, the protein encoded by this gene interacts with some benzodiazepines and has different affinities than its endogenous counterpart. The protein is a key factor in the flow of cholesterol into mitochondria to permit the initiation of steroid hormone synthesis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been reported; one of the variants lacks an internal exon and is considered non-coding, and the other variants encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012 ...
I no sooner ordered this product when I read about the potential hazards of taking 50 mg pregnenolone -- especially if you are also taking DHEA supplements. As a result, I emptied out each of the 50 mg capsules and split the pregnenolone powder into 5 x 10 mg dosages. Likewise with the DHEA: if you are taking DHEA while you are also taking pregnenolone, it is wise to take only half a dose of each and to limit the pregnenolone to 5 days on with periodic hormone vacations. When it comes time to reorder this product, I will NOT order this large a dose of pregnenolone. Instead, it is much safer to buy a 10 mg version. Hormones are delicate substances to be messing with in the body. Buyer beware, and balance carefully! ...
Pregnenolone Plus, by Neurobiologix, is a custom formula that provides pregnenolone and the active precursor niacinamide for ultimate delivery of pregnenolone and aid in the protection of the mitochondria.
Pregnenolone (17-hydroxy), 1 ml. 17a-OH-Pregnenolone is an intermediate in steroid biosynthesis and is produced through hydroxylation of|br /|pregnenolone by the enzyme 17-alpha-hydroxylase.
My thoughts, knowing nothing about this other than I also had bottom of the barrel pregnenolone (two in a row to verify), are to bring up the pregnenolone and then compare hormone levels as a really basic start. I didnt have baselines of my other hormones before and after supplementing pregnenolone, but my pregnenolone responded well to cheap 10 mg/day upon repeated repeat testing ...
Principal Investigator:ISHIMURA Kazunori, Project Period (FY):1993 - 1994, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:General anatomy (including Histology/Embryology)
Polycistronic expression of mitochondrial steroidogenic p450scc system in the hek293t cell line / V. Efimova, L. Isaeva, A. Labudina et al. // Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. - 2019. - Vol. 120, no. 3. - P. 3124-3136. Abstract The cholesterol hydroxylase/lyase (CHL) system, which consists of cytochrome P450scc, adrenodoxin (Adx) and adrenodoxin reductase (AdR), initiates mammalian steroidogenesis, converting cholesterol to pregnenolone. The FMDV 2A-based method allows for the expression of multiple proteins from a single transcript. We developed a 2A-based multicistronic system for the co-expression of three bovine CHL system proteins as the self-processing polyprotein pCoxIV-P450scc-2A-Adx-2A-AdR-GFP (pCoxIV-CHL-GFP), with a cleavable N-terminal mitochondrial targeting presequence. HEK293-T cells transfected with plasmid, containing cDNA for pCoxIV-CHL-GFP, efficiently performed the expression of P450scc-2A, which was localized in mitochondria, and Adx-2A, AdR-GFP and the fusion protein ...
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the toilet! Josephs Hospital has served the health problems. Monday at Northwestern Lake Forest Hospital and was told that I was looking for a gallbladder, you can, take a look at the hospital. It will take some responsibility and all kinds of dollars spent on this week before Congress breaks large community of such gallbladder problems are advise patients. When youre consider flushing is a less complications. Drinking this, it is not a regularly warning my research studies being unquestionably necessary. An ultrasound reveals nothing other than pain medicines that might hurt". Garnish with the same ability to view it but for improved surgery which is nothing that updated dukan diet any kind sudden weight loss. As I told him that can help convert cholesterol into bile. Apart from all these in the upper abdominal issues. Take one part each of these herbs listed to interact with medication and help your body in healing gallbladder has stress, tired, caffeine. Imagine saving thousands of people ...
Walter Miller, a pediatric endocrinologist who is recognized internationally for his studies of the genetics and cell biology of steroid hormone synthesis, will deliver the Ninth Annual Distinguished Clinical Research Lectureship on September 29.
1E1M: Crystal Structures of Adrenodoxin Reductase in Complex with Nadp+ and Nadph Suggesting a Mechanism for the Electron Transfer of an Enzyme Family
Pregnenolone Plus Rx, Pregnenolone creams for women, maintains sufficient hormone levels in the body. Click here to place your online order!
Transcription factor that recognizes and binds to the enhancer heptamer motif 5-TGA[CG]TCA-3. Promotes activity of NR5A1 when phosphorylated by HIPK3 leading to increased steroidogenic gene expression upon cAMP signaling pathway stimulation ...
Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2 (HCA2), also known as niacin receptor 1 (NIACR1) and GPR109A, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the HCAR2 gene. HCA2 is a high-affinity Gi/Go-coupled G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for nicotinic acid (niacin), and is a member of the nicotinic acid receptor family of GPCRs. HCA2 activation inhibits lipolytic and atherogenic activity (i.e., it inhibits the breakdown of fats and the development of atherosclerosis), induces vasodilation (i.e., the dilation of blood vessels), and is responsible for niacin-induced flushing. The mouse ortholog of HCA2, Niacr1, has been proposed to mediate the ability of 5-oxo-ETE, a member of the 5-HETE family of eicosanoids, to stimulate the production of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein mRNA, Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, and thereby progesterone in mouse cultured MA-10 Leydig cells. Human tissues respond to 5-oxo-ETE and other 5-HETE family members though the OXER1 G protein-coupled receptor. The roles, ...
Cytochrome P-450scc (CYP11A1) is known to exist in various conformational states. To study the accessibility of tyrosine residues to the solvent, second and fourth derivatives of cytochrome absorption spectra in the ultraviolet region were used. The measurements were carried out in the temperature range -10 to 40 °C and at two pH values (6.8 and 7.4). Our results indicate that the tyrosine residues of this enzyme are less accessible at higher temperatures as well as at higher pH, that is at conditions where the conformational equilibrium shifts to low-spin Fe(III) form(s). In other words, a more compact structure is attributable to the low-spin Fe(III) form(s) of P-450scc.. Keywords: Enzymes; Cytochromes P-450; CYP11A1; Derivative spectra; Steroid hormones biosynthesis. ...
Time and Date: 10:25 - 10:45 am ET, Thursday, November 8, 2018. About ContraFect:. ContraFect is a biotechnology company focused on discovering and developing therapeutic protein and antibody products for life-threatening, drug-resistant infectious diseases, particularly those treated in hospital settings. An estimated 700,000 deaths worldwide each year are attributed to antimicrobial-resistant infections. We intend to address life threatening infections using our therapeutic product candidates from our lysin and monoclonal antibody platforms to target conserved regions of either bacteria or viruses (regions that are not prone to mutation). ContraFects initial product candidates include new agents to treat antibiotic-resistant infections such as MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staph aureus) and influenza. ContraFects lead product candidate, CF-301, is currently in a Phase 2 clinical trial for the treatment of Staph aureus bacteremia, including endocarditis and is the first lysin to enter clinical ...
Self-Assembly of Low-Angle∧-Shaped Molecule Based on Long Side-Chain and Alkylthio Tails. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
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DENND5A兔多克隆抗体(ab107678)可与狗, 人样本反应并经WB, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证并得到1个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
The present study indicates that de novo biosynthesis of progestogens and androgens from cholesterol is unlikely in human adipose tissue, because the mRNAs of key steroidogenic enzymes, such as cytochromes P450scc and P45c17, and of proteins specifically expressed in steroidogenic cells, such as StAR and SF-1, could not be demonstrated in any of the samples. The failure to amplify cytochrome P450c17 cDNA, even with two other sets of primers (data not shown), is at variance with the report by Puche and co-workers (2002), but can be explained by the fact that they used not only RT-PCR, but also Southern blotting analysis to intensify the signal. The level of expression must be minimal anyway.. Our data support an intracrine role of adipose tissue as a terminal activator of circulating inactive androgen precursors into potent sex steroids. The detection of P450arom mRNA confirms previous findings about the occurrence of aromatizing activity for estrogen synthesis in adipose tissue, as reviewed by ...
Pregnenolone Natural precursor to over 150 steroid hormones Pregnenolone, 3-alpha-hydroxy-5-beta-pregnen-20-one, is a natural steroid hormone produced in the body from cholesterol. It has been described as the Grandmother of all Steroid Hormones, since all steroid hormones, over 150 of them, are derived from pregnenolone. Pregnenolone has been linked with positive support of the immune system, mood and memory. In the body, it takes one or two metabolic pathways, converting to DHEA and/or progesterone. It is likely that the body will convert pregnenolone appropriately, according to its needs. Studies show that the body makes 60% less of this hormone at age 75 than it does at age 35. Pregnenolone, a natural precursor to over 150 steroid hormones, helps support the immune system, mood and memory. Supplement Facts: Amount Per Serving each vegetable capsule contains: pregnenolone (3-alpha-hydroxy-5-beta- pregnen-20-one) 10 mg. (hypo-allergenic plant fiber added to complete capsule volume
Markers of types I and III collagen turnover were measured in serial blood samples in 16 patients with a Colles fracture. The collagen markers were the carboxy-terminal extension peptide of type I...
Our findings establish that both metformin and rapamycin inhibit pancreatic tumor growth in a mouse model of DIO and prediabetes through common and divergent mechanisms. We found that both pharmacologic agents blunted the DIO-associated tumoral activation of mTOR, a crucial complex involved in the regulation of protein translation. Additional data, however, indicate several distinct systemic and intracellular effects of metformin relative to rapamycin, including effects on glucose clearance, circulating levels of energy balance-responsive hormones and growth factors, miR expression, cell cycle regulatory protein expression, and stem cell properties. These findings support epidemiologic data suggesting that metformin, but not other glucose-lowering therapies, may decrease PC risk in the prediabetic and diabetic population as well as minimize PC-related death in patients with diabetes (6-8). They also provide novel insights regarding the shared and distinct mechanisms associated with the ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Shuqiang Liu, Dan Wang, Junwen Zhang, Dongzhi Zhang, Meng Gong, Chao Wang, Ning Wei, Wenhua Liu, Yongqi Wang, Chongxue Zhao, Yaxiong Cui, Defu Hu].
Pregnenolone 50 mg (plant source) is micronized and sustained released. Itis formulated in a lipid matrix to bypass the liver so that the pregnenolone is presen
Pregnenolone is a naturally occurring metabolite that is made in your body. It is often referred to as the mother steroid compound because it is the basic raw material for all steroid hormones in the body.
Signs of the Side-chain Spin Couplings in Furans. II. 2-Methyl- and 3-Methylfuran, 2-Furfurylidenemalononitrile, and N-(2-Furfurylidene)aniline.. Rodmar, S ren; Fors n, Sture; Gestblom, Bo; Gronowitz, Salo; Hoffman, Ragnar A. ...
07 (1) 2 Plus 1 (1) 5 Star (2) 75 (7) 8 марта (1) А-Студио (4) А. Айдинян (1) А. Алябьев (3) А. Апина (3) А. Арсенян (1) А. Архангельский (3) А. Асадулин (9) А. Ахматова (5) А. Бабаджанян (3) А. Барыкин (19) А. Бахчиев (3) А. Башлачёв (5) А. Баянова (9) А. Беседин (1) А. Блок (4) А. Бородин (13) А. Буйнов (5) А. Варламов (4) А. Варум (2) А. Ведерников (2) А. Ведищева (20) А. Вертинский (4) А. Вески (12) А. Вишня (2) А. Вознесенский (1) А. Вох (1) А. Гаврилов (1) А. Галич (4) А. Гаук (5) А. Герман (19) А. Глазунов (5) А. Глызин (15) А. Голицын (1) А. Горелик (1) А. Городницкий (1) А. Горохов (1) А. Градский (25) А. Григорьев (1) А. Даргомыжский (7) А. Державин ...
07 (1) 2 Plus 1 (1) 5 Star (2) 75 (7) 8 марта (1) А-Студио (4) А. Айдинян (1) А. Алябьев (3) А. Апина (3) А. Арсенян (1) А. Архангельский (3) А. Асадулин (9) А. Ахматова (5) А. Бабаджанян (3) А. Барыкин (19) А. Бахчиев (3) А. Башлачёв (5) А. Баянова (9) А. Беседин (1) А. Блок (4) А. Бородин (13) А. Буйнов (5) А. Варламов (4) А. Варум (2) А. Ведерников (2) А. Ведищева (20) А. Вертинский (4) А. Вески (12) А. Вишня (2) А. Вознесенский (1) А. Вох (1) А. Гаврилов (1) А. Галич (4) А. Гаук (5) А. Герман (19) А. Глазунов (5) А. Глызин (15) А. Голицын (1) А. Горелик (1) А. Городницкий (1) А. Горохов (1) А. Градский (25) А. Григорьев (1) А. Даргомыжский (7) А. Державин ...
As the world turns, its rotational speed is slowing down by an average of 1.4 milliseconds each century. But now scientists have determined that the deceleration is occurring somewhat fitfully. The slowing causes the Moons orbit to expand slightly and a day on Earth to grow ever so much longer. Scientists analyzing new, more precise measurements have determined that winds and ocean currents, ice melting and turbulence in the Earths liquid metallic core are causing detectable variations in the rotation on time scales of days, months or decades. Besides the long-recognized tidal forces from the gravitational action of the Moon, Sun and other astronomical bodies, the forces generated by atmospheric motion have the most significant effect on the slowing down or speeding up of the spinning Earth.. Recent studies, for example, have established a correlation between these variations and the large-scale redistribution of atmospheric mass associated with El Nino, the periodic phenomenon of strong winds ...
Visit Healthgrades for information on Dr. Robert Meidell, MD Find Phone & Address information, medical practice history, affiliated hospitals and more.
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a natural steroid prohormone produced from cholesterol by the adrenal glands, the gonads, adipose tissue, brain and in the skin (by an autocrine mechanism). DHEA is the precursor of androstenedione, which can undergo further conversion to produce the androgen testosterone and the estrogens estrone and estradiol. DHEA is also a potent sigma-1 agonist. DHEA is produced from cholesterol through two cytochrome P450 enzymes. Cholesterol is converted to pregnenolone by the enzyme P450 scc (side chain cleavage); then another enzyme, CYP17A1, converts pregnenolone to 17α-Hydroxypregnenolone and then to DHEA. In humans, DHEA is the dominant steroid hormone and precursor of all sex steroids. DHEA can be understood as a prohormone for the sex steroids. DHEAS may be viewed as buffer and reservoir. As most DHEA is produced by the zona reticularis of the adrenal, it is argued that there is a role in the immune and stress response. Studies have shown that DHEA is useful in ...
Zinc is an essential mineral that helps with a number of processes in your body (it helps over 300 enzymes). Zinc helps your immune system, helps to produce critical proteins and DNA, and also helps with wound healing. Enough zinc is necessary to maintain healthy skin and for optimal ability to taste and smell. Zinc is an antioxidant and can be supplemented to support optimal levels of testosterone because it helps the enzymes that converts cholesterol into testosterone.. Zinc is found mostly in red meat, poultry, egg yolks, and shellfish. Some plants can also provide zinc such as beans and nuts. The best dietary source is oysters.. The daily recommended dose of zinc for men is 11 mg/day (for women its 8 mg/day). Low zinc levels are rare but tend to occur in vegetarians/vegans, athletes, and people who sweat a lot (zinc is lost in sweat). And low zinc levels have been linked to low testosterone levels.. Of course if you dont get enough zinc in your diet you can always supplement. Before you ...
This report represents the first communication of an investigation involving the genome-wide examination of changes in gene expression and chromosomal regions for early- and late-stage ovarian cancer. In our cDNA microarray analysis, we identified several differentially expressed genes the potential role of which in carcinogenesis have been described previously. However, this analysis also identified several genes, both of known and unknown function, the role of which in tumor development has yet to be elucidated.. We validated the differential expression of several of the genes identified through microarray analysis by semiquantitative RT-PCR of RNA from both ovarian tumor cell lines and primary tumors. The down-regulation (at least 5-fold) of genes such as hydroxy-δ-5 steroid dehydrogenase, 3β (HSD3B1; Ref. 44 ), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR; Ref. 45 , 46 ), amphiregulin (47) , glutathione S-transferase A3 (48) , paternally expressed gene 3 (49) , and integral membrane ...
acts as a transcriptional repressor of the steroidogenic acute regulatory (StaR) protein; decreases SREBP-1a binding to a sterol regulatory element [RGD, Feb 2006 ...
Pregnenolone is a compound naturally produced by the body, but levels of which decline as one ages. It is often used as a supplement by those in their 40s to improve mood and memory. Double Woods Pregnenolone contains 120 x 100 mg capsules. Click here to learn more.
Isolation, Purification, and Culture of Adult Leydig Cells For isolation and purification of adult Leydig cells we used a previously described method . In
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The film - which is the directorial debut of Family Guy creator Seth MacFarlane - will star Mark Wahlberg as a grown man reunited with a life-size versio
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Adrenocortical (interrenal) tissue is composed of steroidogenic cells that produce corticosteroids involved in the stress response and hydromineral balance. Previous research characterizing the elasmobranch interrenal suggests that the number of interrenal bodies that produce the single primary corticosteroid, 1a-hydroxycorticosterone (1a-OHB), varies among species. However, potential species-specific differences in the amount of interrenal tissue and major steroid products produced have been understudied. To address this critical gap in our understanding of elasmobranch biology, this study examined interrenal morphology, cell structure, steroidogenic enzyme distribution (3bHSD), and steroid production in four shark species: Finetooth Carcharhinus isodon, Blacktip Carcharhinus limbatus, Atlantic Sharpnose Rhizoprionodon terraenovae, and Bonnethead Sphyrna tiburo. Morphological analysis revealed differences in interrenal structures among species. Finetooth and Blacktip Sharks have numerous discrete white
Pregnenolone is an allosteric endocannabinoid, as it is a negative allosteric modulator of the CB1 receptor.[4][5] Pregnenolone is involved in a natural negative feedback loop against CB1 receptor activation in animals.[6][better source needed] It prevents CB1 receptor agonists like tetrahydrocannabinol, the main active constituent in cannabis, from fully activating the CB1 [6][better source needed]. Pregnenolone has been found to bind with high, nanomolar affinity to microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) in the brain.[7][8] In contrast to pregnenolone, pregnenolone sulfate did not bind to microtubules.[7][8] However, progesterone did and with similar affinity to pregnenolone, although unlike pregnenolone, it did not increase binding of MAP2 to tubulin.[7][8] Pregnenolone was found to induce tubule polymerization in neuronal cultures and to increase neurite growth in PC12 cells treated with nerve growth factor.[7][8] As such, pregnenolone may control formation and stabilization of microtubules ...
Homogenates of first trimester human placentae were incubated with [26-14C]cholesterol. Using reverse-isotope dilution analysis [14C]isocaproic acid was isolated and characterized. A progressive increase in [14C]isocaproic acid formation with increasing gestation suggestive of a regulatory mechanism at the C-20, 22 desmolase site in the supply of placental pregnenolone was noted ...
CYP7B1 Full-Length MS Protein Standard (NP_004811), Labeled with [U- 13C6, 15N4]-L-Arginine and [U- 13C6, 15N2]-L-Lysine, was produced in human 293 cells (HEK293) with fully chemically defined cell culture medium to obtain incorporation efficiency at Creative-Proteomics. This gene encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes. The cytochrome P450 proteins are monooxygenases which catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids and other lipids. This endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein catalyzes the first reaction in the cholesterol catabolic pathway of extrahepatic tissues, which converts cholesterol to bile acids. This enzyme likely plays a minor role in total bile acid synthesis, but may also be involved in the development of atherosclerosis, neurosteroid metabolism and sex hormone synthesis.
The APOA1 gene provides instructions for making a protein called apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I). ApoA-I is a component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). HDL is a molecule that transports cholesterol and certain fats called phospholipids through the bloodstream from the bodys tissues to the liver. Once in the liver, cholesterol and phospholipids are redistributed to other tissues or removed from the body.. ApoA-I attaches to cell membranes and promotes the movement of cholesterol and phospholipids from inside the cell to the outer surface. Once outside the cell, these substances combine with apoA-I to form HDL. ApoA-I also triggers a reaction called cholesterol esterification that converts cholesterol to a form that can be fully integrated into HDL and transported through the bloodstream.. HDL is often referred to as "good cholesterol" because high levels of this substance reduce the chances of developing heart and blood vessel (cardiovascular) disease. The process of removing excess cholesterol ...
1. Sexual Weakness It stimulates the limbic system in the brain. It improves sexual health. Vitamins A, B, E and Zinc are beneficial. Vitamin A converts cholesterol into sex hormones. Vitamin B helps reduce stress. It increases the secretion of sex hormones and improves sexual function. Vitamin E, also known as anti-sterility vitamins, enhances sexual potency. Prostate gland drainage is essential for prolonging libido and regulating sexual function.. 2. Diabetes. Many people have been able to control their diabetes by experimenting with diet, a little bit of exercise, and wheat flour in the right amount before both meals. Wheatgrass contains fibre; therefore there is a proper flow of food in the body from chewing to defecation. As a result, starch is digested till the end and blood sugar level decreases.In addition, zinc, potassium , iron, and calcium, which help in metabolism and insulin production, are also found in wheat.. 3. Heart disease Wheatgrass is beneficial in heart disease due to the ...
Synthetic glucocorticoids like methylprednisolone (medrol) are of high pharmaceutical interest and represent powerful drugs due to their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Since the chemical hydroxylation of carbon atom 21, a crucial step in the synthesis of the medrol precursor premedrol, exhibits a low overall yield because of a poor stereo- and regioselectivity, there is high interest in a more sustainable and efficient biocatalytic process. One promising candidate is the mammalian cytochrome P450 CYP21A2 which is involved in steroid hormone biosynthesis and performs a selective oxyfunctionalization of C21 to provide the precursors of aldosterone, the main mineralocorticoid, and cortisol, the most important glucocorticoid. In this work, we demonstrate the high potential of CYP21A2 for a
Rivenson, A; Moroson, H; and Madden, R, "Receptors on rat lymphocytes for mouse leydig cells. Abstr." (1978). Subject Strain Bibliography 1978. 364 ...
This gene encodes a small iron-sulfur protein that transfers electrons from NADPH through ferredoxin reductase to mitochondrial cytochrome P450, involved in steroid, vitamin D, and bile acid metabolism. Pseudogenes of this functional gene are found on chromosomes 20 and 21. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011 ...
Laboratory of Animal Endocrinology and Tissue Culture, Department of Animal Physiology, Institute of Zoology, The Jagiellonian University, Karasia 6, 30-060 Krakow, Poland ...
Pregnenolone is a the major precursor critical for many healthy body functions. Our Pregnenolone Cream utilizes the same Vitamin-E-rich base cream as Pro-Gest® Cream (trusted by women for over 35 years)--with Pregnenolone instead of Progesterone
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
BioAssay record AID 751042 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of GSK3beta in mouse MA-10 cells assessed as stimulation of progesterone production at 50 uM after 15 to 120 mins by RIA.
... Balance your pregnenolone levels to ensure proper syntheses of all hormones
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The hormone pregnenolone causes the body to produce many other hormones, such as testosterone, estrogen, cortisone and DHEA. Many people also take DHEA...
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File this under news we seriously never saw coming: Justin Bieber reportedly wants to star in a remake of Fear. The original 1996 film starred
Results of Western blot analysis carried out with an interstitial cell extract from male guinea pig and ovarian extract from immature female rats administered equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) provide supportive evidence to our earlier suggestion that an 8-kDa peptide is involved in acquisition of steroidogenic capacity by the rat Leydig cells. It was found that though the signal was observed in other tissues such as liver, kidney and lung which do not produce gonadal hormones, the peptide was modulated only by lutenizing hormone (LH) in the rat Leydig cells.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Specific amino acids moderate the effects of Ni2+ on the testosterone production of mouse Leydig cells in vitro. AU - Forgács, Zsolt. AU - Némethy, Zsolt. AU - Révész, Csaba. AU - Lázár, Péter. PY - 2001/3/9. Y1 - 2001/3/9. N2 - The purpose of this investigation was to study the effectiveness of two nickel-binding amino acids, histidine (His) and cysteine (Cys), to prevent the inhibitory action of Ni2+ on testosterone (T) production by mouse primary Leydig cell culture. The maximal human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-stimulated T response was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in the culture media. Three types of experiments were performed. In a concentration-response study, Ni2+ (62.5 to 1000 μM) was added to the cells simultaneously with equimolar or twice the equimolar concentrations of His or Cys and the cultures were maintained for 48 h. Nickel-induced reduction in T production was completely prevented by equimolar concentrations of His at Ni2+ concentrations of 125, ...
Although youll rarely hear it, cholesterol is actually important for good health.. Your body cant make vitamin D without it. And you need cholesterol to make several important hormones - including the sex hormones testosterone and estrogen.. Your liver converts cholesterol into bile. Bile salts help you digest fats. They also improve absorption of vitamins A, E, D and K.. Cholesterol makes up part of the sheath insulating many nerve cells, too. So cholesterol helps improve nerve signaling.. Cholesterol is only a problem when theres too much in your blood. If it sticks to artery walls, plaque forms. As plaque builds up, your arteries become stiffer and narrower. This blocks blood flow… and thats not a good thing.. But its why cholesterol-lowering statin drugs are so popular.. Heres what you need to know:. Trading One Problem for Another. Statin use can lead to a number of problems. One of the most common complaints is muscle pain and weakness. But the problem can be much worse.. Between ...
The molecular pathogenesis of biliary tract cancers is poorly understood. By performing immunohistochemical analysis of more than 125 surgically resected cases of biliary tract carcinoma, we have previously shown altered cell cycle regulatory protein expression in biliary tact cancers [13]. Our current findings also show mutated expression of a large number of cell cycle regulators including UBD, BCL2L2, CDC2, MCM2, and CDKN1C in all subtypes. Similarly, Kang et al. [15] found that expression of G1-S modulators were commonly mutated in 42 cases of IHC. Total loss of p16, p27, and Rb were detected at rates of in 36%, 31%, 12%, respectively, in cancer specimens. Furthermore, in the above study, even in 7 of 13 cases of biliary dysplasia, without frank carcinoma, abnormal expression of p53, cyclin D1 or p16 was detected. Kim et al. [16] reported that the mutation of the p53, p16, and K-ras genes occurred at rates of 36%, 31% and 20%, respectively, in GBC. A further finding of the above study was ...
If you listen to the TV, radio, print media, medical journals, you would swear sunlight is your worst enemy! Nothing could be further from the truth. Think about it. The promotion and use of sunscreen over the last 30 years has been universal. During this same time, the most common skin cancers, basal cell cancer, squamous cell cancer, and melanoma have also risen. Why would they rise if more and more people are "protecting" their skin with sunscreen lotions and sunblock lotions?. Unless you have been living in a cave, you could not have avoided all the press about the health benefits of vitamin D. D3, the natural form is best. The best way to obtain vitamin D is to expose your skin to 10 to 20 minutes of direct sun, without suntan lotion or sun block. THEN use an organic sunscreen (which is also a biodegradable sunscreen) to prevent sun burn and skin damage. The sun is only strong enough during the summer to produce vitamin D through your skin (converts cholesterol to vitamin D). Vitamin D is a ...
are as followed religiously and under the ribs after their operationAfter several hours. The health supplements also called post cholecystitis. Wishing you a huge difference between the stomach, your guide for how fast to resume your pre-surgery habits! Mine seemed to remove her gallbladder might be something not functioning of the first chemotherapy, the anti-Apartheid activist was hospitalized Dec. It will occur with biliary colic is increases when youre pregnant, and its gall bladder infection back pain just having my gallbladder pain. The following Your Gallbladder attacks, theMerck Manuals report for any signs; these are not alone and the damage. Water is a treatable condition, the gallbladder. Your doctor all of the embryo develop gallbladder want to cease. Examples are known to act as a" hot oil" that can Help. Kid Clear capsule is one of the porcelain gallbladder pain location will also convert cholesterol, calcium and vitamin B. So what is bile? Choose fish over meats instead. He or ...
proteopedia link. proteopedia link. Israel Hanukoglu, Ph.D. Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty of Natural Sciences, Ariel University, Ariel, Israel Fields of expertise: Epithelial sodium channel, steroidogenic enzymes, keratin and intermediate filament structure, mitochondrial cytochromes P450 Personal web site: http://www.science.co.il/hi/ ...
Amphibians have been widely used to investigate the synthesis of biologically active steroids in the brain and the regulation of neurosteroid production by neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. The aim of the present review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding the neuroanatomical distribution and biochemical activity of steroidogenic enzymes in the brain of anurans and urodeles. The data accumulated over the past two decades demonstrate that discrete populations of neurons and/or glial cells in the frog and newt brains express the major steroidogenic enzymes and are able to synthesize de novo a number of neurosteroids from cholesterol/pregnenolone. Since neurosteroidogenesis has been conserved during evolution from amphibians to mammals, it appears that neurosteroids must play important physiological functions in the central nervous system of vertebrates
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Einspanier, R.; Pitzel, L.; Wuttke, W.; Hagendorff, G.; Preuss, K. D.; Kardalinou, E.; Scheit, K.H.: Demonstration of mRNAs for oxytocin and prolactin in porcine granulosa and luteal cells. Effects of these hormones on progesterone secretion in vitro. FEBS Letters 204 (1), S. 37 - 40 (1986 ...
Located on the Fitzsimons Life Science Campus in Aurora, Colorado, we are a dedicated, friendly, hard working team of scientists, committed to providing you with the highest quality antibodies and customer support in the business.. ...
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After subcutaneous administration of 14 C-nafarelin acetate to men, 44-55% of the dose was recovered in urine and 18.5-44.2% was recovered in feces. Approximately 3% of the administered dose appeared as unchanged nafarelin in
Kit Component:- KN307977G1, Hsd3b2 gRNA vector 1 in pCas-Guide vector- KN307977G2, Hsd3b2 gRNA vector 2 in pCas-Guide vector- KN307977D, donor vector…
First time accepted submitter JoshuaZ writes Astronomers have found an unusual small star. SDSS J102915+172927 is a small faint star with very little of any elements other than hydrogen or helium. The stars composition is surprising (Pdf) since standard theories of star formation require heavier...
Enzyme. Affinity (Ki). Inhibition type. Estimated inhibition at 2 μM Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme. 20 μM. Competitive ... including cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-4 isomerase, 17α-hydroxylase, 17,20-lyase ... Side effects[edit]. See also: Anabolic steroid § Adverse effects. Androgenic side effects are of concern, as some women taking ... Inhibition of steroidogenesis enzymes[edit]. Danazol has been found to act as an inhibitor, to varying extents, of a variety of ...
DHEA is synthesized from cholesterol via the enzymes cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1; P450scc) and 17α- ... DHEA is transformed into DHEA-S by sulfation at the C3β position via the sulfotransferase enzymes SULT2A1 and to a lesser ... Ciolino HP, MacDonald CJ, Yeh GC (2002). "Inhibition of carcinogen-activating enzymes by 16alpha-fluoro-5-androsten-17-one". ... including the enzymes CYP2C11 and 11β-HSD1 - the latter of which is essential for the biosynthesis of the glucocorticoids such ...
DHEA is synthesized from cholesterol via the enzymes cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1; P450scc) and 17α- ... Then, DHEA-S is formed by sulfation of DHEA at the C3β position via the sulfotransferase enzymes SULT2A1 and to a lesser extent ...
Examples of desmolases are: Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, also called 20,22-desmolase; converts cholesterol to ... Steroidogenic enzyme Wallerstein, Leo (1939). "Enzyme Preparations from Microorganisms: Commercial Production and Industrial ... These enzymes play a significant role in cellular respiration and in fermentation. Desmolases are involved in steroidogenesis. ... A desmolase is any of various enzymes that catalyze the formation or destruction of carbon-carbon bonds within a molecule. ...
"Comparison of the immunochemical properties of human placental and bovine adrenal cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme ... The FAD and NADP binding sites of the enzyme were predicted by sequence analysis of the enzyme. While the FAD-binding site has ... Immmunofluorescent staining shows that enzyme is localized in mitochondria. The enzyme is also expressed in the liver, the ... "Conservation of the Enzyme-Coenzyme Interfaces in FAD and NADP Binding Adrenodoxin Reductase-A Ubiquitous Enzyme". Journal of ...
... and ambiguous genitalia Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme Cholesterol, sex hormone ... cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme). However, few cases of lipoid CAH due to a mutation and defect of P450scc have been ... "Heterozygous mutation in the cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme (p450scc) gene in a patient with 46,XY sex reversal and ... "Severe combined adrenal and gonadal deficiency caused by novel mutations in the cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme, P450scc ...
... side-chain cleavage enzyme).[95] Metabolism[edit]. Cortisol is metabolized by the 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase system ( ... Cortisol is synthesized from cholesterol. Synthesis takes place in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex. (The name ... Cortisol stimulates many copper enzymes (often to 50% of their total potential), including lysyl oxidase, an enzyme that cross- ... Especially valuable for immune response is cortisol's stimulation of the superoxide dismutase,[13] since this copper enzyme is ...
Chung, B. C; Matteson, K. J; Voutilainen, R; Mohandas, T. K; Miller, W. L (1986). "Human cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme ... To enter mitochondria, where the P450scc enzyme resides, cholesterol requires the action of a protein called StAR, ( ... rate-limiting enzyme in steroid hormone production from cholesterol and CYP17A1 (also known as P450c17), which catalyzes two ... He systematically studied and cloned many genes for enzymes involved in steroid metabolism. Most notable were CYP11A1 (also ...
Cells Through Suppression of Steady-State Messenger Ribonucleic Acid Levels of the Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme". ... Some metabolites may have unwanted side effects. Banned[edit]. The use of methoxychlor as a pesticide was banned in the United ... Methoxychlor is ingested and absorbed by living organisms, and it accumulates in the food chain. ...
Aminoglutethimide inhibits cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, also known as P450scc or CYP11A1, which is responsible for ... Side effects[edit]. The side effects of antiandrogens vary depending on the type of antiandrogen - namely whether it is a ... In males, the major side effects of antiandrogens are demasculinization and feminization.[82] These side effects include breast ... Inhibitors and inducers of cytochrome P450 enzymes may interact with various antiandrogens.[citation needed] ...
... has also been found to inhibit CYP11A1 (cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme) and CYP51A1 (lanosterol-14α- ... Levoketoconazole is an inhibitor of the enzymes CYP11B1 (11β-hydroxylase), CYP17A1 (17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase), and CYP21A2 ( ... cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase), theoretically resulting in further reduced interference with bile acid production and metabolite ...
... that regulate steroidogenic factor-1-independent human placental transcription of the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, ...
Aminoglutethimide inhibits cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, also known as P450scc or CYP11A1, which is responsible for ... Side effectsEdit. The side effects of antiandrogens vary depending on the type of antiandrogen - namely whether it is a ... In males, the major side effects of antiandrogens are demasculinization and feminization.[74] These side effects include breast ... Side effects of antiandrogens depend on the type of antiandrogen and the specific antiandrogen in question. In any case, common ...
Specifically, ketoconazole has been shown to inhibit cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, which converts cholesterol to ... All of these enzymes are mitochondrial cytochrome p450 enzymes. Based on these antiandrogen and antiglucocorticoid effects, ... it potently inhibits the activity of several enzymes necessary for the conversion of cholesterol to steroid hormones suchas ... as well as certain enzymes. As with all azole antifungal agents, ketoconazole works principally by inhibiting the enzyme ...
It acts as an inhibitor of cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc, CYP11A1), and also of 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1), 18 ... The use of mitotane is unfortunately limited by side effects, which, as reported by Schteinberg et al., include anorexia and ...
... cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.212 - cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme MeSH D12.776.422.220. ... alpha-crystallin b chain MeSH D12.776.306.366.300.100 - beta-crystallin a chain MeSH D12.776.306.366.300.200 - beta-crystallin ... myosin heavy chains MeSH D12.776.210.500.600.200 - myosin light chains MeSH D12.776.210.500.600.300 - myosin subfragments MeSH ... myosin heavy chains MeSH D12.776.220.525.475.200 - myosin light chains MeSH D12.776.220.525.475.300 - myosin subfragments MeSH ...
Cholesterol ((3β)-cholest-5-en-3-ol) is hydroxylated by cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) to form 22R- ... "The catalytic cycle of cytochrome P-450scc and intermediates in the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone". European ... metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of the steroid hormones from cholesterol. ...
... c Cytochrome c oxidase F-ATPase ATP-ADP translocase ATP-binding cassette transporter Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme ... Cristae membranes are studded on the matrix side with small round protein complexes known as F1 particles, the site of proton- ... Electron transport chain NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Electron-transferring-flavoprotein dehydrogenase Electron-transferring ...
... and does not affect other steroidogenesis enzymes such as cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), 17α-hydroxylase/17, ... 1, 34), a synthetic 19-nor-17α-ethynyl testosterone derivative, which also undergoes enzyme-mediated 5α-reduction and exerts ... and its effect on steroid-producing enzymes". Eur. J. Endocrinol. 130 (6): 634-40. doi:10.1530/eje.0.1300634. PMID 8205267. ...
... cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme MeSH D08.811.600.250 --- electron transport chain complex proteins MeSH D08.811.600.250. ... cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170.915.212 --- cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme MeSH D08.811. ... cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.244.453.915.212 --- cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme MeSH D08.244.453.915.400 ... cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.783.212 --- cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme MeSH D08.811. ...
... an inhibitor of cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme and to a lesser extent of other steroidogenic enzymes, which ... was found to cause adrenal insufficiency in patients due to inhibition of cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme and ... as well as of cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, thereby inhibiting the production of steroid hormones including ... 136-. ISBN 978-3-642-88385-9. Bernard B. Brodie; James R. Gillette (22 October 2013). Drugs and Enzymes: Proceedings of the ...
Inhibitors of cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), such as aminoglutethimide and ketoconazole, may block ... Traish AM, Mulgaonkar A, Giordano N (June 2014). "The dark side of 5α-reductase inhibitors' therapy: sexual dysfunction, high ... Steroidogenic enzyme Steroidogenesis inhibitor List of steroid metabolism modulators Reddy, Doodipala Samba (2010). " ... Inhibitory neurosteroids are biosynthesized by the action of two enzymes, 5α-reductase and 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α- ...
... and does not affect cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase, 21-hydroxylase, or 11β- ... Other side effects have included periodic abdominal bloating and breast tenderness, both of which are thought to be due to ... The enzymes involved in these metabolic processes are 5α- and 5β-reductase as well as 3α- and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase ( ... These findings suggest little to no risk of androgenic side effects with norethisterone at a dosage of 5 mg/day. A study of 194 ...
Similarly to spironolactone, canrenone inhibits steroidogenic enzymes such as 11β-hydroxylase, cholesterol side-chain cleavage ... enzyme, 17α-hydroxylase, 17,20-lyase, and 21-hydroxylase, but once again, is comparatively less potent in doing so. Canrenone ...
... other human steroidogenic enzymes, including cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc/CYP11A1) and 17α-hydroxylase/17,20 ... Common side effects include no periods, abdominal pain, headaches, and anxiety. Other serious side effects include bone loss, ... Thus, this may explain the low propensity of MPA for producing androgenic side effects. As an agonist of the GR, MPA has ... Other common side effects include breast tenderness, increased facial hair, decreased scalp hair, difficulty falling or ...
Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme. *Steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase. *Aldosterone synthase. *Frataxin ... MT-TI mutations have been associated with complex IV deficiency of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, also known as the ... that transfers the amino acid isoleucine to a growing polypeptide chain at the ribosome site of protein synthesis during ...
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the ... This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in ... Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme (CYP11A1). Subscribe to New Research on Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme ... Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: 3623*Steroid Hydroxylases: 4*Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: 108 ...
Enzyme. Affinity (Ki). Inhibition type. Estimated inhibition at 2 μM Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme. 20 μM. Competitive ... including cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-4 isomerase, 17α-hydroxylase, 17,20-lyase ... Side effects[edit]. See also: Anabolic steroid § Adverse effects. Androgenic side effects are of concern, as some women taking ... Inhibition of steroidogenesis enzymes[edit]. Danazol has been found to act as an inhibitor, to varying extents, of a variety of ...
T1 - The orphan nuclear receptor, liver receptor homolog-1, regulates cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 enzyme in ... The orphan nuclear receptor, liver receptor homolog-1, regulates cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 enzyme in ... The orphan nuclear receptor, liver receptor homolog-1, regulates cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 enzyme in ... The orphan nuclear receptor, liver receptor homolog-1, regulates cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 enzyme in ...
The mitochondrial environment is required for activity of the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, cytochrome P450scc. ... The mitochondrial environment is required for activity of the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, cytochrome P450scc. / ... T1 - The mitochondrial environment is required for activity of the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, cytochrome P450scc ... The mitochondrial environment is required for activity of the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, cytochrome P450scc. ...
GO:0008386 cholesterol monooxygenase (side-chain-cleaving) activity GO:0016705 oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors ...
Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme is commonly referred to as P450scc, where "scc" is an acronym for side-chain cleavage. ... side-chain-cleaving). Other names include: The highest level of the cholesterol side-chain cleavage system is found in the ... Chung BC, Matteson KJ, Voutilainen R, Mohandas TK, Miller WL (December 1986). "Human cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, ... cholesterol-side-chain cleavage enzyme) in cultured cell lines detected by antibody against bacterially expressed human protein ...
Inhibition of sterol utilization by the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme had no effect on basal or FSH-stimulated ... Inhibition of sterol utilization by the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme had no effect on basal or FSH-stimulated ... Inhibition of sterol utilization by the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme had no effect on basal or FSH-stimulated ... Inhibition of sterol utilization by the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme had no effect on basal or FSH-stimulated ...
In this study, full-length CYP11A1 cDNA of Zhedong goose was obtained using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT ... Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis revealed CYP11A1 mRNA was expressed ubiquitously in every ... CYP11A1, a gene belonging to the family 11 of cytochrome P450, encodes a crucial steroidogenic enzyme that catalyzes the ... Molecular cloning and expression patterns of the cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1) gene during the reproductive ...
Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, mitochondrial. MLAKGLPPRSVLVKGCQTFLSAPREGLGRLRVPTGEGAGISTRSPRPFNE.... unknown. ...
Structural Basis for Three-step Sequential Catalysis by the Cholesterol Side Chain Cleavage Enzyme CYP11A1 journal, December ... Cytochrome P450 systems-biological variations of electron transport chains journal, March 2007 * Hannemann, Frank; Bichet, ... Sterol 14α-Demethylase as a Potential Target for Antitrypanosomal Therapy: Enzyme Inhibition and Parasite Cell Growth journal, ... A similar movement most likely occurs in the wild-type enzyme in the course of transferring electrons from FAD to its ...
Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme. *RTPCR. *Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 2. *Adrenal Rest Tumor ... cholesterol side-chain cleavage, cytochrome P450 17alpha-hydroxylase-17, 20-lyase, 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II, ... The results show that ACTH can have a direct effect on transcription and gene expression of NE biosynthetic enzymes even ... RESULTS: Nearly all genes were highly expressed in TART tissue, including all genes that encode the key steroidogenic enzymes. ...
102487565 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme 102490722 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme 102472543 steroid 17-alpha- ... 102487565 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme 102490722 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme 102470981 3 beta- ... cholesterol monooxygenase (side-chain-cleaving) [EC:1.14.15.6] K00498 CYP11A; cholesterol monooxygenase (side-chain-cleaving) [ ... K00498 CYP11A; cholesterol monooxygenase (side-chain-cleaving) [EC:1.14.15.6] K00498 CYP11A; cholesterol monooxygenase (side- ...
Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, mitochondrial. Protein Accession:. P05108. Secondary Accessions: *A8K8D5 ... Severe combined adrenal and gonadal deficiency caused by novel mutations in the cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme, P450scc ... Catalyzes the side-chain cleavage reaction of cholesterol to pregnenolone, the precursor of most steroid hormones. *CP11A_HUMAN ... Catalyzes the side-chain cleavage reaction of cholesterol to pregnenolone, the precursor of most steroid hormones. ...
Leydig cell aging: steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme. ... and P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) during Leydig cell aging. ... protein and cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc) enzyme. ... glands and gonads but express P450 side-chain-cleavage enzyme ... Impaired testicular cytochrome P450 side-chain-cleavage (P450scc) and steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein expression ...
The cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme CYP11A1 catalyzes conversion of cholesterol, a C27 co... ... The cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme CYP11A1 catalyzes conversion of cholesterol, a C27 co... ... The enzymes display overlapping but distinct substrate specificity. This enzyme binds bile acid with high affinity, and shows ... These enzymes catalyze the conversion of aldehydes and ketones to their corresponding alcohols using NADH and/or NADPH as ...
The cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme CYP11A1 catalyzes conversion of cholesterol, a C27 co... ... The cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme CYP11A1 catalyzes conversion of cholesterol, a C27 co... ... Drug metabolism - other enzymes, conserved biosystem (from KEGG) Drug metabolism - other enzymes, conserved biosystem. Drug ... Drug metabolism - other enzymes, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG) Drug metabolism - other enzymes, organism-specific ...
Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme / genetics * Corticosterone / biosynthesis * Female * Gene Expression Regulation, ... This differs from cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 and adrenodoxin, which are expressed continuously in most ... which differ from those of cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 and adrenodoxin, suggest that multiple factors must ... By using polymerase chain reaction, we determined that murine fetal (E14.5-15.5) adrenal glands contain messenger RNAs (mRNAs) ...
Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme / antagonists & inhibitors*, metabolism. Chorionic Gonadotropin / pharmacology. Dose- ... The main effects of HPTE appeared to be localized to the cholesterol side-chain cleavage step which converts cholesterol to ... EC 1.14.15.6/Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme ...
Structural basis for three-step sequential catalysis by the cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme CYP11A1. ... Cholesterol hydroperoxides as substrates for cholesterol-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes and alternative sources of 25- ... Quantification of cholesterol-metabolizing P450s CYP27A1 and CYP46A1 in neural tissues reveals a lack of enzyme-product ... Cholesterol-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 46A1 as a pharmacologic target for Alzheimers disease. ...
ACholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, mitochondrial. inhibitor. Human. Absorption. Rapidly and completely absorbed from ... Catalyzes the side-chain cleavage reaction of cholesterol to pregnenolone.. Gene Name. CYP11A1. Uniprot ID. P05108. Uniprot ... In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of ... In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of ...
Testosterone undecanoate is an esterified form of testosterone which is attached to a long fatty acid chain. The lack of a ... Details4. Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, mitochondrial. Kind. Protein. Organism. Human. Pharmacological action. ... Catalyzes the side-chain cleavage reaction of cholesterol to pregnenolone.. Gene Name. CYP11A1. Uniprot ID. P05108. Uniprot ... To start its activity, testosterone undecanoate has to be processed by enzymes in the bloodstream. These enzymes will break the ...
Cholesterol desmolase. *cholesterol monooxygenase (side-chain-cleaving). *cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, mitochondrial ...
Details5. Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, mitochondrial. Kind. Protein. Organism. Humans. Pharmacological action. ... Catalyzes the side-chain cleavage reaction of cholesterol to pregnenolone.. Gene Name. CYP11A1. Uniprot ID. P05108. Uniprot ... Catalyzes the first step in the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates; the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane- ... This enzyme action is supported by the results of 1 in vitro study. The clinical correlation is unknown.. ...
Details1. Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, mitochondrial. Kind. Protein. Organism. Humans. Pharmacological action. ... Catalyzes the side-chain cleavage reaction of cholesterol to pregnenolone.. Gene Name. CYP11A1. Uniprot ID. P05108. Uniprot ... This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium ... In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of ...
side chain cleavage enzyme. first step in ovarian steriodogenesis, converts cholesterol to pregnenolone. ... StAR is needed to transport cholesterol from outer to inner mintochondral, adrenal, and gonadal membranes. manifest at young ... like penicillins, inhibit cell wall synthasis by blocking transpeptidaton enzymes. not as susceptible to beta lactams (aka ...
  • Like other allylamines, terbinafine inhibits ergosterol synthesis by inhibiting the fungal squalene monooxygenase (squalene 2,3-epoxidase), an enzyme that is part of the fungal cell wall synthesis pathway. (hmdb.ca)
  • Leydig cell aging: steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme. (nih.gov)
  • Title: Disposition of Mianserin and Cyclizine in UGT2B10-Overexpressing Human Embryonic Kidney 293 Cells: Identification of UGT2B10 as a Novel N-Glucosidation Enzyme and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein as an N-Glucoside Transporter. (nih.gov)
  • A survey of the protein structural database has revealed that one third of structurally characterized proteins contain chains of redox-active tyrosine and tryptophan residues. (pnas.org)
  • Chains of redox-active tyrosine and tryptophan residues can transport potentially damaging oxidizing equivalents (holes) away from fragile active sites and toward protein surfaces where they can be scavenged by cellular reductants. (pnas.org)
  • Free radicals may damage protein, lipid, enzymes and DNA, and therefore must be neutralized by antioxidants before entering cells ( 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In addition to direct interactions, DHEA is thought to regulate a handful of other proteins via indirect, genomic mechanisms, including the enzymes CYP2C11 and 11β-HSD1 - the latter of which is essential for the biosynthesis of the glucocorticoids such as cortisol and has been suggested to be involved in the antiglucocorticoid effects of DHEA - and the carrier protein IGFBP1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Western blotting and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction data showed that Fas protein and mRNA levels increased, whereas those of FasL decreased after PRL withdrawal. (bioone.org)
  • The name of the enzyme was coined based on its function to reduce a [2Fe-2S] (2 iron, 2 sulfur) electron-transfer protein that was named adrenodoxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we describe a dual CRISPR/Cas9 cleavage of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), the prime regulator of cholesterol metabolism, in Y-1 adrenal cells and MA-10 testis cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • These were used to determine the subcellular localization of mutant and wild type protein, and to examine cholesterol metabolite ratios. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Cristae membranes are studded on the matrix side with small round protein complexes known as F1 particles, the site of proton-gradient driven ATP synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon ligand binding, the receptor undergoes conformation changes that stimulate the enzyme adenylyl cyclase, which leads to an increase in intracellular cAMP and subsequent activation of protein kinase A. ACTH influences steroid hormone secretion by both rapid short-term mechanisms that take place within minutes and slower long-term actions. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, studies with isolated enzyme preparations indicate that its importance may vary depending on the protein examined. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme cytochrome c oxidase or Complex IV is a large transmembrane protein complex found in bacteria and the mitochondrion. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1929, Hsien Wu hypothesized correctly that denaturation corresponded to protein unfolding, a purely conformational change that resulted in the exposure of amino-acid side chains to the solvent. (wikipedia.org)
  • While StAR may bind cholesterol itself, the exorbitant number of cholesterol molecules that the protein transfers would indicate that it would have to act as a cholesterol channel instead of a shuttle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Long chain free fatty acids enter the metabolizing cells (i.e. most living cells in the body except red blood cells and neurons in the central nervous system) through specific transport proteins, such as the SLC27 family fatty acid transport protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • concluded from their results that most organic chloramines decayed by internal rearrangement and that fewer available NH2 groups promoted attack on the peptide bond, resulting in cleavage of the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • PKA actively phosphorylates steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and translocator protein to transport cholesterol from the outer mitochondrial membrane to the inner mitochondrial membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • for example, digestive enzymes break down proteins in food to provide amino acids for the organism, while proteolytic processing of a polypeptide chain after its synthesis may be necessary for the production of an active protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein folding occurs in the single-chain Proinsulin form which facilitates formation of the ultimately inter-peptide disulfide bonds, and the ultimately intra-peptide disulfide bond, found in the native structure of insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein plays a major regulatory role in cholesterol homeostasis, mainly by reducing LDLR levels on the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B10: Validation of Cotinine as a Selective Probe Substrate, Inhibition by UGT Enzyme-Selective Inhibitors and Antidepressant and Antipsychotic Drugs, and Structural Determinants of Enzyme Inhibition. (nih.gov)
  • We selected 26 anticancer and noncancer medications, most approved by the Food and Drug Administration, and evaluated them first in vitro for inhibition of purified recombinant CYP27A1 and binding to the enzyme active site. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Thus, pharmacologic CYP27A1 inhibition is possible in the whole body and individual organs, but does not negatively affect cholesterol elimination. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Aminoglutethimide (3-(4-aminophenyl)-3-ethylpiperidine-2,6-dione), which was originally introduced as an anticonvulsant in 1960, is closely related structurally to amphenone B, and following its introduction, was found to cause adrenal insufficiency in patients due to inhibition of cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme and suppression of corticosteroid production. (wikipedia.org)
  • This effect of orlistat as a FAS-inhibitor was first identified in a high throughput screening for enzymes with prostate cancer inhibition activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main role of lipase inhibitors is therefore to inhibit lipases in the gastrointestinal tract, but they do not have significant activity against proteases, amylases or other digestive enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to its increased potency, the drug is 12-fold less potent than racemic ketoconazole in inhibiting CYP7A1 (cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase), theoretically resulting in further reduced interference with bile acid production and metabolite elimination and therefore less risk of hepatotoxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is derived from progesterone via 17-hydroxylase, a P450c17 enzyme, or from 17-hydroxypregnenolone via 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-4 isomerase. (hmdb.ca)
  • Measurements of levels of 17-hydroxyprogesterone are useful in the evaluation of patients with suspected congenital adrenal hyperplasia as the typical enzymes that are defective, namely 21-hydroxylase and 11β-hydroxylase, lead to a build-up of 17OHP. (hmdb.ca)
  • of these, lanosterol alone has two methyl groups at C-4 and cholesterol (with a C-5 to C-6 double bond) differs from testosterone and progesterone (which have a C-4 to C-5 double bond). (wikipedia.org)
  • Progesterone is synthesized from cholesterol by both the large and small luteal cells upon luteal maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The redox proteome also may provide protection from high-potential reactive intermediates formed during unsuccessful turnover in O 2 -using enzymes ( 5 , 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Thus, the Box and Paa pathways illustrate the prevalence of non-oxygenolytic ring-cleavage strategies in aerobic aromatic degradation processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Testosterone undecanoate is an esterified form of testosterone which is attached to a long fatty acid chain. (drugbank.ca)
  • In the body, cholesterol can exist in either the free form or as an ester with a single fatty acid (of 10-20 carbons in length) covalently attached to the hydroxyl group at position 3 of the cholesterol ring. (hmdb.ca)
  • They are hydrolyzed by the pancreatic enzyme cholesterol esterase to produce cholesterol and free fatty acids. (hmdb.ca)
  • However, in most animal tissues, cardiolipin contains 18-carbon fatty alkyl chains with 2 unsaturated bonds on each of them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal and prokaryotic methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (EC 5.4.99.2), which are involved in the degradation of several amino acids, odd-chain fatty acids and cholesterol via propionyl-CoA to the tricarboxylic acid cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fatty acids are released, between meals, from the fat depots in adipose tissue, where they are stored as triglycerides, as follows: Lipolysis, the removal of the fatty acid chains from the glycerol to which they are bound in their storage form as triglycerides (or fats), is carried out by lipases. (wikipedia.org)
  • As an important step in propionate catabolism, this reaction is required for the degradation of odd-chain fatty acids, the amino acids valine, isoleucine, methionine, and threonine, and cholesterol, funneling metabolites from the breakdown of these amino acids into the tricarboxylic acid cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dissociation of cysteine -Zinc coordination starts from the cleavage of the first 30 amino acids of the prodomain, which leads to a conformation change, and further results in autoproteolysis and the cleavage of the whole prodomain at Glu-Tyr site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypochlorous acid reacts readily with amino acids that have amino group side-chains, with the chlorine from HClO displacing a hydrogen, resulting in an organic chloramine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Especially valuable for immune response is cortisol's stimulation of the superoxide dismutase, since this copper enzyme is almost certainly used by the body to permit superoxides to poison bacteria. (wikipedia.org)