An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of cholesterol in the presence of molecular oxygen to 4-cholesten-3-one and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme is not specific for cholesterol, but will also oxidize other 3-hydroxysteroids. EC 1.1.3.6.
A gram-positive organism found in dairy products, fresh and salt water, marine organisms, insects, and decaying organic matter.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
CHOLESTENES with one or more double bonds and substituted by any number of keto groups.
Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.
Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
Steroids in which fission of one or more ring structures and concomitant addition of a hydrogen atom at each terminal group has occurred.
Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
A colorless liquid made by oxidation of aliphatic hydrocarbons that is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
A genus of fleshy shelf basidiomycetous fungi, family Schizophyllaceae, order POLYPORALES, growing on woody substrata. It is pathogenic in humans.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.
A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)
Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.
Six-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives. Various polyneuropathies are caused by hexane poisoning.
A species of RHODOCOCCUS found in soil, herbivore dung, and in the intestinal tract of cows, horses, sheep, and pigs. It causes bronchopneumonia in foals and can be responsible for infection in humans compromised by immunosuppressive drug therapy, lymphoma, or AIDS.
A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.
Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)
Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.
A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
An extensive order of basidiomycetous fungi whose fruiting bodies are commonly called mushrooms.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 7-alpha-hydroxylation of CHOLESTEROL in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP7, converts cholesterol to 7-alpha-hydroxycholesterol which is the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS.
An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.
A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria whose species are widely distributed and are abundant in soil. Some strains are pathogenic opportunists for humans and animals.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC 1.4.3.4.
Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.
A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
A 21-carbon steroid, derived from CHOLESTEROL and found in steroid hormone-producing tissues. Pregnenolone is the precursor to GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
An organized procedure carried out by a select committee of professionals in evaluating the performance of other professionals in meeting the standards of their specialty. Review by peers is used by editors in the evaluation of articles and other papers submitted for publication. Peer review is used also in the evaluation of grant applications. It is applied also in evaluating the quality of health care provided to patients.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.
Rare cutaneous eruption characterized by extensive KERATINOCYTE apoptosis resulting in skin detachment with mucosal involvement. It is often provoked by the use of drugs (e.g., antibiotics and anticonvulsants) or associated with PNEUMONIA, MYCOPLASMA. It is considered a continuum of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.
Fluids restored to the body in order to maintain normal water-electrolyte balance.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.
Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.

Scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) mediates free cholesterol flux independently of HDL tethering to the cell surface. (1/160)

In addition to its effect on high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesteryl ester (CE) uptake, scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) was recently reported to stimulate free cholesterol (FC) flux from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing mouse SR-BI, a novel function of SR-BI that may play a role in cholesterol removal from the vessel wall where the receptor can be found. It is possible that SR-BI stimulates flux simply by tethering acceptor HDL particles in close apposition to the cell surface thereby facilitating the movement of cholesterol between the plasma membrane and HDL. To test this, we used transiently transfected cells and compared the closely related class B scavenger receptors mouse SR-BI and rat CD36 for their ability to stimulate cholesterol efflux as both receptors bind HDL with high affinity. The results showed that, although acceptor binding to SR-BI may contribute to efflux to a modest extent, the major stimulation of FC efflux occurs independently of acceptor binding to cell surface receptors. Instead our data indicate that SR-BI mediates alterations to membrane FC domains which provoke enhanced bidirectional FC flux between cells and extracellular acceptors.  (+info)

Two moles of O2 consumption and one mole of H2O2 formation during cholesterol peroxidation with cholesterol oxidase from Pseudomonas sp. strain ST-200. (2/160)

Cholesterol oxidase from Pseudomonas sp. strain ST-200 oxidized cholesterol and cholestanol to 6beta-hydroperoxycholest-4-en-3-one and 5alpha-cholestan-3-one respectively. The former was converted spontaneously to several oxysteroids such as 6-hydroxycholest-4-en-3-one and cholest-4-ene-3,6-dione, with the consumption of 2 mol of O(2) and the formation of 1 mol of H(2)O(2) for each mole of cholesterol oxidized. An oxidized form of the cholesterol oxidase dehydrogenates cholesterol, probably to the 5-en-3-one derivative. A reduced form of the enzyme, yielded from the cholesterol dehydrogenation reaction, dioxygenated cholest-5-en-3-one to 6beta-hydroperoxycholest-4-en-3-one.  (+info)

Kinetic mechanisms of cholesterol oxidase from Streptomyces hygroscopicus and Brevibacterium sterolicum. (3/160)

The kinetic properties of two cholesterol oxidases, one from Brevibacterium sterolicum (BCO) the other from Streptomyces hygroscopicus (SCO) were investigated. BCO works via a ping-pong mechanism, whereas the catalytic pathway of SCO is sequential. The turnover numbers at infinite cholesterol and oxygen concentrations are 202 s-1 and 105 s-1 for SCO and BCO, respectively. The rates of flavin reduction extrapolated to saturating substrate concentration, under anaerobic conditions, are 235 s-1 for BCO and 232 s-1 for SCO (in the presence of 1% Thesit and 10% 2-propanol). With reduced SCO the rate of Delta5-6-->Delta4-5 isomerization of the intermediate 5-cholesten-3-one to final product is slow (0.3 s-1). With oxidized SCO and BCO the rate of isomerization is much faster ( approximately 300 s-1), thus it is not rate-limiting for catalysis. The kinetic behaviour of both reduced COs towards oxygen is unusual in that they exhibit apparent saturation with increasing oxygen concentrations (extrapolated rates approximately 250 s-1 and 1.3 s-1, for BCO and SCO, respectively): too slow to account for catalysis. For BCO the kinetic data are compatible with a step preceding the reaction with oxygen, involving interconversion of reactive and nonreactive forms of the enzyme. We suggest that the presence of micelles in the reaction medium, due to the necessary presence of detergents to solubilize the substrate, influence the availability or reactivity of oxygen towards the enzyme. The rate of re-oxidation of SCO in the presence of product is also too slow to account for catalysis, probably due to the impossibility of producing quantitatively the reduced enzyme-product complexes.  (+info)

Increased proximal tubular cholesterol content: implications for cell injury and "acquired cytoresistance". (4/160)

BACKGROUND: Acute renal failure (ARF) leads to secondary adaptive changes that serve to protect proximal tubules from subsequent ischemic or toxic damage [so-called "acquired cytoresistance" (CR)]. A characteristic of CR is increased plasma membrane resistance to attack. Therefore, this study sought to identify potential changes in plasma membrane lipid composition in CR tubules/renal cortex and, if present, to test whether they might mechanistically contribute to the CR state. METHODS: Renal cortices/isolated tubules were obtained from CR mouse kidneys (18-hr postinduction of ischemia reperfusion, myoglobinuria, or ureteral obstruction). Their plasma membrane phospholipid/cholesterol profiles were compared with those observed in either control tissues or tissues obtained one to two hours post-renal damage (that is, prior to emergence of CR). RESULTS: Either no changes or inconsistent changes in phospholipid profiles were observed in CR tissues. Conversely, CR (vs. control) tissues demonstrated a consistent 25 to 50% increase in membrane cholesterol content. To ascertain whether cholesterol impacts tubule susceptibility to injury, its levels were reduced in proximal tubule (HK-2) cells with either (a) mevastatin, (b) a cholesterol "stripping" agent, (c) cholesterol oxidase, or (d) cholesterol esterase. Then cell susceptibility to injury [adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) depletion; Fe-mediated oxidant stress] was assessed. In each instance, cholesterol reductions dramatically sensitized to superimposed injury (for example, a 2 to 3 times increase in the % of lactate dehydrogenase release). When cholesterol levels were restored to normal in CR tubules (with a "stripping" agent), an increased tubule susceptibility to injury resulted. Because cholesterol decreases membrane fluidity, the impact of a membrane-fluidizing agent (A2C) on cell injury was assessed. A2C dramatically sensitized HK-2 cells to superimposed attack. CONCLUSIONS: ARF leads to an up-regulation of proximal tubule cholesterol content. The latter may then contribute to acquired CR, possibly by stabilizing the plasma membrane via its antifluidizing effect.  (+info)

Cholesterol oxidation switches the internalization pathway of endothelin receptor type A from caveolae to clathrin-coated pits in Chinese hamster ovary cells. (5/160)

We investigated the mechanism of endothelin receptor type A (ETA) internalization in Chinese hamster ovary cells using two assays; flow cytometric quantification of cell surface myc-ETA and in situ localization of Cy5-labeled ET-1. In both assays, agonist-dependent internalization of myc-ETA was inhibited by nystatin and filipin, both of which disrupt internalization via caveolae, whereas it was barely affected by chlorpromazine and hypertonic sucrose, both of which disrupt internalization via clathrin-coated pits. In addition to myc-ETA, ET-1 caused intracellular translocation of caveolin-1 and this translocation was also blocked by nystatin but not by chlorpromazine. These results strongly argue that ETA is internalized via caveolae but not clathrin-coated pits. Treatment of the cells with cholesterol oxidase reduced cellular cholesterol and caused intracellular translocation of caveolin-1 but did not affect cell surface localization of myc-ETA. In cholesterol oxidase-treated cells, however, both chlorpromazine and hypertonic sucrose effectively blocked ET-1-induced myc-ETA internalization and nystatin was less effective than in untreated cells. Accordingly, expression of a dominant negative form of beta-arrestin blocked myc-ETA internalization in cholesterol oxidase-treated cells but not in untreated cells. These results suggest that, in Chinese hamster ovary cells, 1) agonist-occupied ETA can be internalized either via caveolae or clathrin-coated pits; 2) of the two, the former is the default pathway; and 3) the oxidative state of cell surface cholesterol is one of the factors involved in the pathway selection.  (+info)

Comparison of a new method for the direct and simultaneous assessment of LDL- and HDL-cholesterol with ultracentrifugation and established methods. (6/160)

BACKGROUND: Automated electrophoresis combined with enzymatic cholesterol staining might improve routine assessment of LDL- and HDL-cholesterol (LDLC and HDLC), as an alternative to the Friedewald equation and precipitation. A new method (Hydrasys; SEBIA) that adapts the cholesterol esterase/cholesterol oxidase reaction within urea-free gels was evaluated. METHODS: Fresh sera from 725 subjects (512 dyslipidemics) were analyzed by electrophoresis, in parallel with sequential ultracentrifugation, beta-quantification, calculation, and precipitation. RESULTS: Electrophoresis was linear up to 4 g/L cholesterol, with a detection limit of 0.042 g/L cholesterol/band. Within-run, between-run, between-batch, and between-operator imprecision (CVs) were 1.6%, 2.0%, 1.5%, and 2.7% for LDLC, and 3.9%, 4.3%, 5.5%, and 4.9% for HDLC, and remained unchanged up to 6.3 g/L plasma triglycerides (TGs). Precision decreased with very low HDLC (<0.25 g/L). Serum storage for 3-7 days at +4 or -80 degrees C did not interfere significantly with the assay. Agreement with beta-quantification was stable for LDLC up to 5.07 g/L (r = 0.94), even at TG concentrations >4 g/L (r = 0.91). Bias (2.88% +/- 12%) and total error (7.84%) were unchanged at TG concentrations up to 18.5 g/L. Electrophoresis predicted National Cholesterol Education Program cut-points with <0.04 g/L error, exactly and appropriately classified 79% and 96% of the subjects, and divided by 2.4 (all subjects) and 5.8 (TGs >1.5 g/L) the percentage of subjects underestimated by calculation. One-half of the patients with TGs >4 g/L had LDLC >1.30 g/L. For HDLC, correlation was better with precipitation (r = 0.87) than ultracentrifugation (r = 0.76). Error (-0.10% +/- 26%) increased when HDLC decreased (<0.35 g/L). Direct assessment of the LDLC/HDLC ratio detected 45% more high-risk subjects than the calculation/precipitation combination. CONCLUSIONS: Electrophoresis provides reliable quantification of LDLC, improving precision, accuracy, and concordance over calculation, particularly with increasing plasma TGs. Implementation of methods to detect low cholesterol concentrations could extend the applications for HDLC assessment.  (+info)

Plasma membrane cholesterol: a critical determinant of cellular energetics and tubular resistance to attack. (7/160)

BACKGROUND: Cholesterol is a major component of plasma membranes, forming membrane microdomains ("rafts" or "caveolae") via hydrophobic interactions with sphingolipids. We have recently demonstrated that tubule cholesterol levels rise by 18 hours following diverse forms of injury, and this change helps to protect kidneys from further damage (so-called acquired cytoresistance). The present study was undertaken to better define the effects of membrane cholesterol/microdomains on tubule homeostasis and cell susceptibility to superimposed attack. METHODS: Plasma membrane cholesterol was perturbed in normal mouse proximal tubular segments with either cholesterol esterase (CE) or cholesterol oxidase (CO). Alternatively, cholesterol-sphingomyelin complexes were altered by sphingomyelinase (SMase) treatment. Changes in cell energetics (ATP/ADP ratios + ouabain), viability [lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release], phospholipid profiles, and susceptibility to injury (Fe-induced oxidant stress, PLA2, Ca2+ ionophore) were determined. The impacts of selected cytoprotectants were also assessed. RESULTS: Within 15 minutes, CE and CO each induced approximately 90% ATP/ADP ratio suppressions. These were seen prior to lethal cell injury (LDH release), and it was ouabain resistant (suggesting decreased ATP production, not increased consumption). SMase also depressed ATP without inducing cell death. After 45 minutes, CE and CO each caused marked cytotoxicity (up to 70% LDH release). However, different injury mechanisms were operative since (1) CE, but not CO, toxicity significantly altered cell phospholipid profiles, and (2) 2 mmol/L glycine completely blocked CE- but not CO-mediated cell death. Antioxidants also failed to attenuate CO cytotoxicity. Disturbing cholesterol/microdomains with a sublytic CE dose dramatically increased tubule susceptibility to Fe-mediated oxidative stress and Ca2+ overload, but not PLA2-mediated damage. CONCLUSION: Intact plasma membrane cholesterol/microdomains are critical for maintaining cell viability both under basal conditions and during superimposed attack. When perturbed, complex injury pathways can be impacted, with potential implications for both the induction of acute tubular damage and the emergence of the postinjury cytoresistance state.  (+info)

Presence of oxidized cholesterol in caveolae uncouples active platelet-derived growth factor receptors from tyrosine kinase substrates. (8/160)

Platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRbeta) in fibroblasts is concentrated in caveolae where it controls the tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple proteins. Caveolae are enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids, but the role of these lipids in PDGFR signal transduction is unknown. We report that introduction of cholest-4-en-3-one into caveolae membranes uncouples PDGFR autophosphorylation from tyrosine phosphorylation of neighboring proteins. Cholest-4-en-3-one appears to interfere with the normal interaction between PDGFR and its partners. The results suggest that tightly packed caveolae lipids form a membrane platform that functions as a lipid scaffold for organizing the molecular interactions of multiple signaling pathways.  (+info)

Cholesterol Oxidase, 0.1 mg. Cholesterol oxidases exist as both type I and type II oxidases and are implicated in bacterial pathogenesis.
Cholesterol Oxidase, 0.1 mg. Cholesterol oxidases exist as both type I and type II oxidases and are implicated in bacterial pathogenesis.
Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that is found in all cells of the body. Cholesterol enters the human body mainly through food [1], and the majority of the cholesterol in the body originates from the liver [2]. Cholesterol is required for the formation of sex hormones [3], Cholesterol can also be converted to bile acids in the liver and vitamin D in the skin and kidney [4] and the formation of bile acids that help the body to digest fat [5]. Many studies have reported the ability of different bacteria to reduce the cholesterol levels in aqueous systems, such as liquid media [6] and the blood serum [7].. Some bacteria not only utilize cholesterol as a sole carbon source [8] but also decompose cholesterol via the cholesterol oxidase enzyme (ChoX) and produce different intermediate compounds [9]. Enterococcus faecium CX and Lactobacillus acidophilus N5, which colonise the intestinal tract and survive under gastric conditions, assimilate cholesterol and reduce its level in serum [10]. ...
1. Cholesteryl 3beta-sulphate is oxidized in vitro by preparations of bovine adrenal-cortex mitochondria to pregnenolone sulphate and isocaproic acid (4-methyl-pentanoic acid) without hydrolysis of the ester linkage. 2. Free cholesterol is the preferred substrate for adrenal-cortex cholesterol oxidase; the apparent K(m) for cholesteryl sulphate is 500mum and for free cholesterol 50mum under the same conditions. 3. Cholesteryl 3beta-acetate is hydrolysed by bovine adrenal-cortex mitochondria in vitro to free cholesterol, which is subsequently oxidized to more polar steroids and isocaproic acid. Evidence was obtained that other cholesterol esters behave similarly. Cholesterol esters may thus act as precursors of steroid hormones. 4. Cholest-4-en-3-one is only poorly oxidized to isocaproic acid and more polar steroids and thus is probably not a significant precursor of steroid hormones. 5. Cholesteryl esters inhibit the oxidation of cholesterol competitively (K(i) for cholesteryl phosphate 28mum, ...
Cholesterol oxidase (CHO) is one of the valuable enzymes that play an important role in: measurement of serum cholesterol, food industry as a biocatal..
1MXT: Sub-atomic resolution crystal structure of cholesterol oxidase: What atomic resolution crystallography reveals about enzyme mechanism and the role of FAD cofactor in redox activity
1COY: Crystal structure of cholesterol oxidase complexed with a steroid substrate: implications for flavin adenine dinucleotide dependent alcohol oxidases.
The Open Biotechnology Journal is an Open Access online journal, which publishes research articles, reviews, letters, case reports and guest-edited single topic issues in all areas of biotechnology. Bentham Open ensures speedy peer review process and accepted papers are published within 2 weeks of final acceptance.. The Open Biotechnology Journal is committed to ensuring high quality of research published. We believe that a dedicated and committed team of editors and reviewers make it possible to ensure the quality of the research papers. The overall standing of a journal is in a way, reflective of the quality of its Editor(s) and Editorial Board and its members.. The Open Biotechnology Journal is seeking energetic and qualified researchers to join its editorial board team as Editorial Board Members or reviewers.. The essential criteria to become Editorial Board Members of The Open Biotechnology Journal are as follows ...
Catalog #: P2010002 - 250 U Cholesterol oxidase is a flavoprotein involved in the first step of cholesterol catabolism. The enzyme first oxidizes cholesterol to cholest-5-en-3-one then isomerizes it to cholest-4-en-3-one while producing hydrogen peroxide H2O2. Available in a 250 Units and custom bulk sizes. Live Enquiry about this product via Text/SMS: 1-858-900-3210 (8 am - 8 pm PST ...
The layer-by-layer technique is one of the most used in the immobilization of molecules of biological interest, being largely employed in the fabrication of modified electrodes for biosensors. One of the main challenges in the development of biosensors is to eliminate interfering electroactive species within the detection system, therefore, this problem can be solved with the introduction of inorganic or organic electron mediators. Here, we carried out systematic studies for the application of hemoglobin acting as an electron mediator, and the self-assembly technique was used to immobilize haemoglobin in nanostructured thin films. The LbL films were tested with two polyelectrolytes, obtaining uniform films with activity kept during 15 days, without responses to possible interfering phospholipids. The layer-bylayer technique was also used to immobilize the enzyme cholesterol oxidase, alternated with different polyelectrolytes. The thin films showed a good performance as an amperometric biosensor ...
Our single-molecule experiments have shown that an enzyme is a dynamical entity whose conformation and enzymatic rate undergo constant fluctuation over a broad range of time scales. The phenomenon has been observed in several systems: cholesterol oxidase,
putative cholesterol oxidase [RimD] GTGATCGAGAACCAGCACCTGTCACGGCGCCGTCTGCTCGGACTGGCCGCCCTCGGCGGC GCCGCCGTCGCCGGAATGACCACGATTTCCGTCGCCCCGCGCGCCGCGGCCGCCGGGCAG GGAAGCCCGCGGGCCGGTGACGGCGCGTTCGTACCGGCGGTGGTGATCGGCACCGGTTAC GGTGCGGCGGTCTCCGCGCTGCGGCTCGGCGAGGCGGGAATTCCGACGCTCATGCTCGAA ATGGGCCAGCTGTGGAACAAGCCGGCCGACGACGGCAACATCTTCTGCGGAATGCTCAAG CCCGACCGCAGGTCCAGCTGGTTCAAGTCGCGCACCGAAGCCCCGCTGGGCTCGTTCCTG TGGCTGGATGTCATCAACCGCAACATCGACCCGTACGCGGGCGTCCTCGACAAGGTGCAC TTCGACGAGATGTCGGTGTACGTGGGACGGGGCGTCGGCGGCGGCTCGCTGGTCAACGGC GGCATGGCCGTCGTACCGAAGCGCTCGTACTTCGAAGAGGTCCTCCCACGGGTGGACGCC GCCCAGATGTACGACCGGTACTTCCCGCGCGCCAACTCCATGCTCAAGGTGAACCACATC GACAAGGGGTGGTTCGAGGACACGGAGTGGTACAAGTACGCGCGGGTCTCGCGCGAGCAG GCGGGCAAGGCGGGCCTGAGCACCACCTTCGTCCCCAACGTCTACGACTTCGACCACATG CGGCGCGAGGCGGACGGCACGGCGCCCAAGTCGGCGCTGGCCGGCGAGGTGATCTACGGC AACAACCACGGCAAGCAGAGCCTGGACAAGACCTATCTGGCCGCCGCGCTGGGCACCGGC AAGGTCACCATCGAGACGCTGCACCAGGTCAAGGCGATCCGGCGGCAGCCGGACGGCAGC ...
3-oxo-5 beta-steroid delta 4-dehydrogenase: do not confuse with EC 1.3.1.23 (cholestenone 5 beta-reductase) which is also steroid 5 beta-reductase in Chemline; do not use for enzyme using NAD(P)-see EC 1.3.1.23 & EC 1.3.1.3
Cindy A. Verberkt, Marieke H.J. van den Beuken-van Everdingen, Jos M.G.A. Schols, Sushma Datla, Carmen D. Dirksen, Miriam J. Johnson, Sander M.J. van Kuijk, Emiel F.M. Wouters, Daisy J.A. Janssen ...
Stabilized enzymes useful in the diagnostic assay of total cholesterol are prepared by dissolving a salt of cholic acid in a buffer solution providing a pH within the range of about 4 to about 9, to the solution is added a cholesterol esterase. The solution is then mixed with a polyhydroxy organic compound and TRITON-X-100. A cholesterol oxidase and a peroxidase are each dissolved in separate portions of buffer solution and introduced into the buffered solution containing the cholesterol esterase. 4-aminoantipyrine is then added to the solution. The resultant solution is a stabilized enzyme solution which can be used in the total cholesterol assay of a serum sample. The stabilized solution can be used in combination with a chromogen diluent solution which is made by dissolving phenol and TRITON-X-100 in water or a buffer solution. The combination of the stabilized enzyme solution and the chromogen diluent solution provides a solution which has utility
Chicken, fish, and egg powder in processed foods present greater risk from cholesterol oxidation byproducts, but there are things you can do to reduce exposure. Find out about the latest research on cholesterol, delivered in free, easy to understand videos.
In this paper, a novel amperometric cholesterol biosensor with immobilization of cholesterol oxidase on electrochemically polymerized polypyrrole-polyvinylsulphonate (PPy-PVS) films has been accomplished via the entrapment technique on the surface of a platinum electrode. Electropolymerization of pyrrole and polyvinylsulphonate on the Pt surface was carried out by cyclic voltammetry between -1.0 and +2.0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) at a scan rate of 100 mV upon the Pt electrode with an electrochemical cell containing pyrrole and polyvinylsulphonate. The amperometric determination is based on the electrochemical detection of H2O2 generated in the enzymatic reaction of cholesterol. Determination of cholesterol was carried out by the oxidation of enzymatically produced H2O2 at 0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The effects of pH and temperature were investigated and optimum parameters were found to be 7.25 and 35 °C, respectively. The storage stability and operational stability of the enzyme electrode were also studied. The results
AbstractFor a commercially viable recombinant intracellular protein production process, efficient cell lysis and protein release is a major bottleneck. The recovery of recombinant protein, cholesterol oxidase (COD) was studied in a continuous bead milling process. A full factorial Response Surface Model (RSM) design was employed and compared to Artificial Neural Networks coupled with Genetic Algorithm (ANN-GA). Significant process variables, cell slurry feed rate (A), bead load (B), cell load (C) and run time (D), were investigated and optimized for maximizing COD recovery. RSM predicted an optimum of feed rate of 310.73 mL/h, bead loading of 79.9% (v/v), cell loading OD600 nm of 74, and run time of 29.9 min with a recovery of ~3.2 g/L. ANN coupled with GA predicted a maximum COD recovery of ~3.5 g/L at an optimum feed rate (mL/h): 258.08, bead loading (%, v/v): 80%, cell loading (OD600 nm): 73.99, and run time of 32 min. An overall 3.7-fold increase in productivity is obtained when compared to a batch
Chemistry Tree: mentors, trainees, research areas and affiliations for Senyon Choe, Structural Biology Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies
The world of Choe Pho is young. The Council of Enlightenment came to Choe Pho seeking refuge from a terrible place known as the Fallen World. Carrying the soul energy, known as Marrow, of as many people as they could, the Council fled to a remote and hidden corner of the cosmos in the hopes of building a better world. Choe Pho would be a place where each soul would have the... [click here for more ...
Jeong Wan Seo (Seo JW), Ji A Jung (Jung JA), Hye Sook Park (Park HS), Jae Sung Ko (Ko JS), Yong Joo Kim (Kim YJ), Jae Young Kim (Kim JY), Eell Ryoo (Ryoo E), Sun Hwan Bae (Bae SH), Jae Geon Sim (Sim JG), Hye Ran Yang (Yang HR), Byung Ho Choe (Choe BH), Ky Young Cho (Cho KY ...
Han Choe, Yu-Kyung Lee, Yong-Tae Lee, Huhn Choe, Seong-Hoon Ko, Chan-Uhng Joo, Min-Ho Kim, Gong-Soo Kim, Jae-Soon Eun, Jong-Hyun Kim, Soo-Wan Chae and Yong-Geun Kwak ...
Lee, K., Choe, J., Iaia, D., Li, J., Zhao, J., Shi, M., Ma, J., Yao, M., Wang, Z., Huang, C. L., Ochi, M., Arita, R., Chatterjee, U., Morosan, E., Madhavan, V. & Trivedi, N., 2021 十二月, 於: npj Quantum Materials. 6, 1, 8.. 研究成果: Article › 同行評審 ...
PAPER Cho SH, Choe YS, Kim HJ, Jang H, Kim Y, Kim SE, Kim SJ, Kim JP, Jung YH, Kim BC, Baker SL, Lockhart SN, Na DL, Park S, Seo SW ...
by Bae, Sang-Cheol and Cha, Jin-Hye and Choe, Jung-Yoon and Choi, Sung Jae and Cho, Soo-Kyung and Chung, Won-Tae and Joung, Chung-Il and Jung, Young-Ok and Kang, Young Mo and Kim, Dong-Wook and Kim, Jinseok and Kim, Young-Joo and Lee, Choong-Ki and Lee, Hye-Soon and Lee, Jisoo and Lee, Sang-Heon and Lee, Sang-Hoon and Lee, Shin-Seok and Lee, Yeon-Ah and Nah, Seong-Su and Shim, Seung Cheol and Song, Gwan-Gyu and Suh, Chang-Hee and Won, Soyoung and Yoo, Wan-Hee and Yoon, Bo Young ...
Most dogs go through periods of extreme exuberance. In my experience, my boys have always shown much more of this than my girls, but even Choe and Mia had
TY - JOUR. T1 - Block Copolymer Microdomains. T2 - A Novel Medium for Enzymatic Reactions. AU - Gupte, A.. AU - Nagarajan, R.. AU - Kilara, A.. PY - 1991/1/1. Y1 - 1991/1/1. N2 - Block copolymers exhibit the phenomenon of microdomain formation in pure states as well as in solutions. The microdomains vest the block copolymer assemblies with the intriguing characteristics of microheterogeneous media. We demonstrate that this microheterogeneity in hydrophobic‐hydrophilic block copolymer systems can be exploited for immobilizing enzymes and to carry out enzymatic reactions. Examples involving cholesterol oxidase and horseradish peroxidase are provided here. The observed changes in the enzymatic activity in block copolymer microdomains from that in the aqueous media are interpreted in terms of the hydrophobicity of the reaction microenvironment. The block copolymer microdomains are simple to generate, well defined, and easily reproducible. Therefore, they hold significant potential as media for ...
When hens consume a diet low in omega-6 fatty acids and high in antioxidants, eating their eggs causes less artery-clogging cholesterol oxidation in your blood, compared to when the hens eat a high-omega-6 diet, the study finds.. Turns out, people who ate two of the high-antioxidant eggs a day had the same LDL oxidation as those who ate two to four unhealthy eggs once a week.. More from MensHealth.com: The Best and Worst Foods for Your Cholesterol. Antioxidants in the eggs reduce the oxidation of cholesterol in the blood, says Niva Shapira, Ph.D., and professor of nutrition at Tel Aviv University. On the other hand, omega-6s increase inflammation, which can trigger oxidation.. Likewise, a 2008 experiment by Shapira showed that eating eggs high in omega-3s caused 30 percent less cholesterol oxidation than eating eggs higher in omega-6s. (Though omega-6s arent necessarily bad, Americans tend to eat too many omega-6s and not enough omega-3s.). So, how do you decode the labels on the carton to ...
Kim, H.Y., Choe, J.W., Kim, H.K., Bae, S.J., Kim, B.J., et al. (2010) Negative Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Bone Mineral Density in Koreans, Especially in Men. Calcified Tissue International, 86, 350-358.
Heo, D. H., Kang, Y. M., Song, K. H., Seo, J. W., Kim, J. H., Chun, J. Y., Jun, K. I., Kang, C. K., Moon, S. M., Choe, P. G., Park, W. B., Bang, J. H., Kim, E. S., Kim, H. B., Park, S. W., Oh, W. S., Kim, N. J. & Oh, M. D., 23 Mar 2020, In : Journal of Korean Medical Science. 35, 11, p. e77 e77.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
With TimeAware, we could decide whether the data would be shown in a positive way by highlighting productivity, or in a negative way by highlighting unproductive time, said Choe. I was curious which version might be more helpful in encouraging people to be more productive.. Quantifying the self. Choe has long been interested in self-monitoring - when a person collects personal data to learn more about themselves and make positive changes. After using an activity tracker like a FitBit, for example, a person might see theyre not walking as much as theyd like and then make an effort to fit in more exercise.. But with so many options for gadgets and apps that promise to help improve sleep, encourage exercise and increase productivity, Choe wanted to learn more about what makes them effective or not.. I like to look at lots of different types of data - such as sleep and exercise data - and create tools for people to collect this information and then make sense of it, said Choe. The data ...
There has been a lot to process, unpack, and make sense of - obviously for my entire life, more obviously this past year, and then most obviously these past few weeks, culminating last Tuesday with…
Journal of colloid and interface science. VOL 308; NUMBER 1, ; 2007, 130-141 -- Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam Part: Part 1; (pages 130-141) -- ...
MUSCLE (3.6) multiple sequence alignment 2799,gene,hut --MSQESERSPGDLTATGMALRHDREWDYELDRISEAVEERNANSVGLQFPEGLKRRGPA 854,chp,nrc1 --MSNEEARSAGDLRNTGLSLRHDRTWDYELDRIVDEVERKDAEKVGLQFPEGLKRRGPA 3154,hp,nph MSQQPESDRTEGDLRNTGMELKHERTWDYELDRIVDAVEERDAMKVGLQFPEGLKRRAGR 10405,hp,hma ----MSQERTDGDLRNTGLSLKHDREWDYELDRIVEAVEERDAEKVGLQFPEGLKRRGPA 1224,gene,hhi ----MSQERTDGDLRNTGLSLKHDREWDYELDRIVEAVEERDAEKVGLQFPEGLKRRGPA 813,gene,hla -----MSDSTEGDLTKTGMALKHDREWDYELDRIVEAIEERDASKVGLQFPEGLKRRGPK 2590,gene,hwa -MIMSQETATEGDLRNTGMSLKHDREWDYELDRIVEEIEERDADRVGLQFPEGLKRRGPA 15900,gene,hbo ------------------MSLKHDREWDYELERIVEEVEDRDAKRVGLQFPEGLKRRGPA : *.*:* *****:** : :* .:* ************. 2799,gene,hut VADDLRRTLPDDVTVMLSGEPCYGACDLDTELMRHSEVFVHFGHSPMNESEQIIYVPLFS 854,chp,nrc1 VADDLRARL-DDTRIMLSGQPCYGACDLDTYLMRRTDVFVHFGHSPMKESDSIIYVPLFS 3154,hp,nph VADDLRRLLPDETTVLLSGQPCYGACDLDTYMMRRTDVFVHFGHSPMKESDKIIYVPLFS 10405,hp,hma VADDLREELPDDVTVLLSGQPCYGACDLDTYMMRRTDVFVHFGHSPMKESDKIIYVPLFS 1224,gene,hhi ...
Ou, H. D.; Kwiatkowski, W.; Deerinck, T. J.; Noske, A.; Blain, K. Y.; Land, H. S.; Soria, C.; Powers, C. J.; May, A. P.; Shu, X.; Tsien, R. Y.; Fitzpatrick, J. A. J.; Long, J. A.; Ellisman, M. H.; Choe, S.; OSheaemail, C. C.. ...
By Zeke Miller And Linda A. Johnson, The Associated Press on June 11th, 2021. U.S. regulators are allowing for the release of 10 million doses of Johnson & Johnsons COVID-19 vaccine from a troubled Baltimore factory, but material to make many more must be thrown out because of possible contamination, a person familiar with the decision told The Associated Press on Friday. The Food and Drug Administration announced that ... Read More ». Be the first to comment! ...
Lachke, Salil A.; OConnell, Daniel J.; Aboukhalil, Anton; Choe, Sung E.; Turbe-Doan, Annick; Robertson, Erin A.; Amendt, Brad A. et al. (PLoS ONE, 2012) Link to Published Version ...
Tina Choe, Ph.D., is dean of the Frank R. Seaver College of Science and Engineering at Loyola Marymount University. As a champion of student success, she has dedicated her professional career to developing, supporting, and leading programs and initiatives that advance inclusive excellence in STEM education. Prior to joining the faculty at LMU, she was the Camille and Henry Dreyfus Fellow at Occidental College and a research chemist at Dow Chemical USA.. Dean Choe earned her bachelor and doctoral degrees in chemistry from UCLA. Her research focused on the synthesis of a class of glycosidase inhibitors that have shown to possess important biological activities. She synthesized a natural product called cyclophellitol from readily available glucopyranoside. Cyclophellitol displayed inhibitory activity against a key enzyme in Gauchers disease. She also developed a novel synthetic methodology to prepare modified carbohydrate molecules that serve as templates for the synthesis of complex organic ...
Boudreaux, H. B. 1979. Arthropod phylogeny, with special reference to insects. Wiley Interscience; New York, NY. Caudell, A.N. 1920. Zoraptera not an apterous order. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 22: 84-97.. Chao, R. F., and C. S. Chen. 2000. Formosozoros newi, a new genus and species of Zoraptera (Insecta) from Taiwan. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 76(1): 24-27.. Choe, J. C. 1989. Zorotypus gurneyi, new species, from Panama and redescription of Zorotypus barberi Gurney (Zoraptera, Zorotypidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 82(2): 149-155.. Choe, J. C. 1994a. Sexual selection and mating system in Zorotypus gurneyi Choe (Insecta: Zoraptera). I. Dominance hierarchy and mating success. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 34: 87-93.. Choe, J. C. 1994b. Sexual selection and mating system in Zorotypus gurneyi Choe (Insecta: Zoraptera). II. Determinants and dynamics of dominance. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 34: 233-237. Choe, J. C. 1995. Courtship feeding ...
EC 1.3.1.22. Accepted name: 3-oxo-5α-steroid 4-dehydrogenase (NADP+). Reaction: a 3-oxo-5α-steroid + NADP+ = a 3-oxo-Δ4-steroid + NADPH + H+. Other name(s): cholestenone 5α-reductase; testosterone Δ4-5α-reductase; steroid 5α-reductase; 3-oxosteroid Δ4-dehydrogenase; 5α-reductase; steroid 5α-hydrogenase; 3-oxosteroid 5α-reductase; testosterone Δ4-hydrogenase; 4-ene-3-oxosteroid 5α-reductase; reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate:Δ4-3-ketosteroid 5α-oxidoreductase; 4-ene-5α-reductase; Δ4-3-ketosteroid 5α-oxidoreductase; cholest-4-en-3-one 5α-reductase; testosterone 5α-reductase; 3-oxo-5α-steroid 4-dehydrogenase. Systematic name: 3-oxo-5α-steroid:NADP+ Δ4-oxidoreductase. Comments: The enzyme catalyses the conversion of assorted 3-oxo-Δ4 steroids into their corresponding 5α form. Substrates for the mammalian enzyme include testosterone, progesterone, and corticosterone. Substrates for the plant enzyme are brassinosteroids such as campest-4-en-3-one and ...
DUGi: Viewing Item from repository Recercat: Cholesterol is ubiquitous and necessary for the biosynthesis of steroidal hormones, bile salts and to maintain the stability of biological membranes in animal cells. Its regulation and homeostasis is ensured by the conjugated action of specific factors/enzymes/receptors such as SREBP, HMG-CoA or LXR. LDL and HDL are responsible to transport cholesterol and provide the cells to build and maintain the membranes, etc. Cholesterol, as lipids in general, is susceptible to oxidation and some positions in the chemical structure are more prone to oxidative attack; the most common cholesterol derivatives produced by oxidative attack are hydroxyl derivatives, keto derivatives, hydroperoxydes, epoxides and carboxyl derivatives. Those oxidized cholesterol derivatives are called Oxysterols or Cholesterol Oxides. Cholesterol oxidation occurs by autoxidation processes in dietary food exposed to heating treatments in the presence of oxygen or have been stored for long
Its all about inflammation. If there is one thing to worry about instead of cholesterol, Moore argues, we should be much more concerned about inflammation in the body and the things that cause it. This is the true cause of atherosclerosis. In his words, without inflammation, cholesterol cant harm you. Its really all about cholesterol oxidation, which is nearly a two-fold better predictor of heart disease risk than simply looking at cholesterol alone. So, we should be focusing more on things that cause chronic inflammation in the body, which results from poor diet, smoking, lack of sleep, infrequent exercise, elevated stress, and a compromised gut, just to name a few that Moore references. One of the best blood markers for determining the amount of chronic inflammation in the body is something called high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, or hs-CRP. Many experts have argued that hs-CRP is a much better biomarker to track because its a much better predictor of heart disease and health ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
MUSCLE (3.6) multiple sequence alignment 2028,gene,nph MVTFLAGGTGTPKLRYGAETVFDTADTPVVCNTGDDVELGGLVVCPDVDTVLFAAADRLD 1429,chp,nrc1 MTTFLAGGTGTPKLLAGARRVFDPAETTVVGNTGDDVALGGLLVCPDLDTVLFEGGGVLD 3012,gene,hwa MVTFLAGGTGTPKLLQGAPAVFDPAATTVIANTGDDVELAGHLVCPDVDTVLFSEGGVLN 762,gene,hut MITFLAGGTGTPKLLAGADDVFPPSETTVVANTGDDVELGGLLVCPDVDTCLFQAGEILD 2334,gene,hla MVTFLAGGTGTPKLLDGATRVWHPDEIAVVANTGDDIELGGHLVCPDVDTVLFAGGGVLD 11120,gene,hbo MVTFLAGGTGTPKLLDGSSEVFGPSETTVVANTGDDVELGGHLVCPDVDTVLFHGGGVLD 10051,gene,hma MVTFLAGGTGTPKLLAGADDVFSPAATTVVANTGDDIELGGHLVCPDLDTVLFLDGEVLD 810,gene,hhi MVTFLAGGTGTPKLLAGADDVFWPAATTVVANTGDDIELGGHLVCPDLDTVLFLDGEVLD * ************ *: *: . .*: *****: *.* :****:** ** . *: 2028,gene,nph RETWWGIDGDTTETHEELRALADAADLDTG-PRYLPDKKQTAGRDIARWRRFSGVAEFME 1429,chp,nrc1 RETWWGIADDGSTTHDYLTDLAAAADIDPDTPRYLPDDAQTAGRDIARWRRFSAASEFMF 3012,gene,hwa TNRWWGIEDDTTETHTEIAKLANKAGLADD-PRYLSADEQTSGREISRWRRFSGVAEFME 762,gene,hut TDTWWGIDGDTAETHEYVRTLSERAGLDGG-PRYLPDERQTAGRDLADWRRFSAVGEFMY 2334,gene,hla ...
Zhang, L., Jackson, C. B., Mou, H., Ojha, A., Rangarajan, E. S., Izard, T., Farzan, M., & Choe, H. (2020). The D614G mutation in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein reduces S1 shedding and increases infectivity. BioRxiv, 2020.06.12.148726. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.06.12.148726. ...
You-Jung Choi, Eue-Keun Choi, Kyung-Do Han, Jiesuck Park, Inki Moon, Euijae Lee, Won-Seok Choe, So-Ryoung Lee, Myung-Jin Cha, Woo-Hyun Lim, Seil Oh ...
Sang Su Hong, Byung Chul Son, Byung Gil Choi, Euy Nyeng Kim, Bum Soo Kim, Chun Kum Park, Bo Young Choe, Moon Chan Kim, Joon Ki ...
Hyun Jin Jo, Nayoung Kim, Ryoung Hee Nam, Jung Mook Kang, Joo-Hyon Kim, Gheeyoung Choe, Hye Seung Lee, Ji Hyun Park, Hyun Chang, Hyunjin Kim, Moon Young Lee, Yong Sung Kim, Joo Sung Kim, Hyun Chae Jung ...
Porphocyanines are tetrapyrrolic macrocycles containing two dipyrromethene units linked together by two C=N-C bridges. The syntheses of 2,3,7,8,14,15,19,20-octaethylporphocyanine 5,17-diphenylporphocyanine, 2,3,7,8-tetraethyl-17-phenylporphocyanine and other meso-aryl and beta-alkyl, including a tetra-beta-propionate, derivatives and metal complexes are described. The physical and chemical properties of porphocyanines show them to be aromatic. The aromaticity is reflected in the large deshielding of the outer beta-protons and shielding of the inner pyrrolic protons in their NMR spectra. The optical spectra of these compounds exhibit Soret and Q bands similar to porphyrins but all significantly bathochromically shifted. The ability of porphocyanines to act as catalysts for the generation of singlet molecular oxygen was investigated using a cholesterol oxidation assay.. ...
This application focuses on upgrading the E. coli-based cell-free expression system and on optimizing the synergy between cell-free and NMR to screen and evalua...
Hi, my name is Jenneke and Im an illustrator/animator specialized in creating visual artwork that will help you communicate your (business) message in a fresh and playful way. I have years of experience with a broad range of media, ranging from web to animation to games. My biggest passion is creating cute characters.
How ants prove they\re alive. I\m Bob Hirshon and this is Science Update.. Like many social insects, Argentinian ants operate a sort of morgue: they pile their dead outside the nest, to reduce the spread of disease. Now, scientists have figured out how they tell truly dead nest-mates from merely sluggish ones. Dong-Hwan Choe and his colleagues at the University of California, Riverside, found that when ants that had died just a few minutes ago were dropped in a nest, the other ants left them alone.. DONG-HWAN CHOE (University of California, Riverside ...
German family-run drugmaker Boehringer Ingelheim has stressed its determination to remain independent and keep its pipeline stocked with innovative products as it posted solid financial results for 2006 at its annual press conference. - News - PharmaTimes
TARGET PharmaSolutions, Inc., a real-world clinical data company, is pleased to announce that Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH has entered into a multi-year strategic partnership
Determination of seroreactivity of human sera against recombinant HPV 16L1 protein / Yong Hee Lee; Mi Ri Yoon; Joo Hyun Kang; Dur Han Kwon; In Seong Choe; Tai Wha Chung; Sue Nie Park , 1994 ...
"Pfam entry: Cholesterol oxidase". Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2007-01-25. "Pfam entry: Retinal pigment ... phospholipases and cholesterol oxidases), cell wall oligosaccharides (glycosyltransferase and transglycosidases), or proteins ( ... and cholesterol. Protein association with membranes through the use of acylated residues is a reversible process, as the acyl ... "Modulation of the bilayer thickness of exocytic pathway membranes by membrane proteins rather than cholesterol". Proc Natl Acad ...
Abbreviations CHOD = cholesterol oxidase GOD = glucose oxidase GPO = glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase PAP = phenol + aminophenazone ... Cholesterol (CHOD-PAP method) Cholesterol + oxygen --(enzyme cholesterol oxidase)--> cholestenone + hydrogen peroxide Hydrogen ... enzyme glucose oxidase)--> gluconate + hydrogen peroxide Hydrogen peroxide + ABTS --(enzyme peroxidase)--> colored complex In ... enzyme glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase) --> dihydroxyacetone phosphate + hydrogen peroxide Hydrogen peroxide + 4-aminophenazone + ...
Biosensors/diagnostics, e.g. glucose oxidase and cholesterol oxidase biosensors. Delivery of proteins as therapeutic agents or ...
"Cloning and sequencing of partial segment of cholesterol oxidase encoding gene fromStreptomyces luridus". Annals of ...
Li J, Vrielink A, Brick P, Blow DM (November 1993). "Crystal structure of cholesterol oxidase complexed with a steroid ... Vrielink A, Lloyd LF, Blow DM (1991). "Crystal structure of cholesterol oxidase from Brevibacterium sterolicum refined at 1.8 A ... These enzymes include a variety of proteins; choline dehydrogenase (CHD) EC 1.1.99.1, methanol oxidase (MOX) EC 1.1.3.13 and ... Bannwarth M, Bastian S, Heckmann-Pohl D, Giffhorn F, Schulz GE (2004). "Crystal structure of pyranose 2-oxidase from the white- ...
"Covalent attachment of cholesterol oxidase and horseradish peroxidase on perlite through silanization: Activity, stability and ...
Horii, M; Ishizaki, T; Paik, SY; Manome, T; Murooka, Y (July 1990). "An operon containing the genes for cholesterol oxidase and ... s cholesterol oxidase promoter region. Nebert, DW; Nelson, DR; Coon, MJ; Estabrook, RW; Feyereisen, R; Fujii-Kuriyama, Y; ...
Sampson, NS; Kass, IJ; Ghoshroy, KB (21 Apr 1998). "Assessment of the role of an omega loop of cholesterol oxidase: a truncated ...
MacLachlan, J., Wotherspoon, A.T., Ansell, R.O. and Brooks, C.J. (2000). "Cholesterol oxidase: sources, physical properties and ...
Genes such as Apolipoprotein E (APO E), which controls cholesterol metabolism, NADPH Oxidase which regulates oxidative stress, ... NADPH Oxidase regulates oxidative stress by conjugating with reactive oxygen species in cells. Polymorphisms in NADPH Oxidase ... atherosclerosis refers to the buildup of cholesterol and fats in the artery walls. Because the blood vessels carry oxygen and ...
In enzymology, a cholesterol oxidase (EC 1.1.3.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction cholesterol + O2 ⇌ {\ ... Coulombe R, Yue KQ, Ghisla S, Vrielink A (August 2001). "Oxygen access to the active site of cholesterol oxidase through a ... The substrate-binding domain found in some bacterial cholesterol oxidases is composed of an eight-stranded mixed beta-pleated ... Richmond W (1973). "Preparation and properties of a cholesterol oxidase from Nocardia sp. and its application to the enzymatic ...
7-cholestadien-3-β-ol in Cholesterol Biosynthesis". J. Biol. Chem. 239: 1381-7. PMID 14189869. Nishino H, Nakaya J, Nishi S, ... In enzymology, a lathosterol oxidase (EC 1.14.21.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 5α-cholest-7-en-3β-ol + ...
Atherosclerosis is caused by the accumulation of macrophages containing cholesterol (foam cells) in artery walls (in the intima ... NADPH oxidase (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase) is a membrane-bound enzyme complex that faces the ... In mammals, NADPH oxidase is found in two types: one in white blood cells (neutrophilic) and the other in vascular cells, ... June 2018). "NADPH Oxidase 5 Is a Pro-Contractile Nox Isoform and a Point of Cross-Talk for Calcium and Redox Signaling- ...
... cholesterol oxidase MeSH D08.811.682.047.436.350.700 - progesterone reductase MeSH D08.811.682.047.436.375 - 17-hydroxysteroid ... sarcosine oxidase MeSH D08.811.682.662.640 - proline oxidase MeSH D08.811.682.662.680 - pyridoxamine-phosphate oxidase MeSH ... d-amino-acid oxidase MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.261 - d-aspartate oxidase MeSH D08.811.682.664.500.398 - glutamate dehydrogenase ... cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.783.212 - cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme MeSH D08.811.682.690. ...
Steroidogenic enzyme Cytochrome P450 oxidase ENSG00000288362 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000140459, ENSG00000288362 - ... however its activity is limited by the supply of cholesterol in the inner membrane. The supplying of cholesterol to this ... Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme is commonly referred to as P450scc, where "scc" is an acronym for side-chain cleavage. ... Cholesterol Pregnenolone Cytochrome+P450scc at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Biology ...
... then coupling the products of a cholesterol oxidase reaction to an indicator reaction. The reference method still uses a ... "National Reference System for Cholesterol - Cholesterol Reference Method Laboratory Network - HDL Cholesterol Certification ... Cholesterol: The name cholesterol originates from the Greek chole (bile) and stereos (solid), and the chemical suffix -ol for ... The remainder of the serum cholesterol after subtracting the HDL is the non-HDL cholesterol. The concentration of these other ...
Lathosterol oxidase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SC5DL gene. This gene encodes an enzyme of cholesterol ... 2004). "Lathosterolosis: an inborn error of human and murine cholesterol synthesis due to lathosterol 5-desaturase deficiency ...
... bc1 complex Cytochrome c Cytochrome c oxidase F-ATPase ATP-ADP translocase ATP-binding cassette transporter Cholesterol side- ... HtrA serine peptidase 2 Adrenodoxin reductase Heme biosynthesis Protoporphyrinogen oxidase Ferrochelatase Uncoupling protein ... Electron-transferring-flavoprotein dehydrogenase Electron-transferring flavoprotein Succinate dehydrogenase Alternative oxidase ...
The first step in the biosynthesis involves the oxidative cleavage of the side-chain of cholesterol by cholesterol side-chain ... cleavage enzyme (P450scc, CYP11A1), a mitochondrial cytochrome P450 oxidase with the loss of six carbon atoms to give ... It is biosynthesized in several steps from cholesterol and is converted in the liver to inactive metabolites.[5] It exerts its ... The chemical synthesis of testosterone from cholesterol was achieved in August that year by Butenandt and Hanisch.[180] Only a ...
... is a cholesterol-like molecule. Sterol-C5-desaturase-like acts upon it. It is accumulated in lathosterolosis. ... Lathosterol oxidase v t e. ...
When the two methyl groups and eight carbon side chains (at C-17, as shown for cholesterol) are present, the steroid is said to ... The expression of the oxidase gene can be upregulated by the steroid sensor PXR when there is a high blood concentration of ... Steroids such as cholesterol decrease membrane fluidity. Similar to lipids, steroids are highly concentrated energy stores. ... Steroid metabolism in humans is also the target of cholesterol-lowering drugs, such as statins. In humans and other animals the ...
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) for lowering LDL cholesterol inhibitors: hypolipidaemic agents. Drugs affecting the ... monoamine oxidase inhibitors, lithium salts, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)), antiemetics, Anticonvulsants ...
... cholesterol 25-hydroxylase activity, cholesterol 7-alpha-monooxygenase activity, cholesterol oxidase activity, cholesterol 24- ... cholesterol binding, cholesterol biosynthetic process, cholesterol catabolic process, response to cholesterol, cellular ... intestinal cholesterol absorption, cholesterol transport, lysosome to ER cholesterol transport, cholesterol transfer activity, ... cholesterol import, cholesterol metabolic process, cholesterol biosynthetic process via 24,25-dihydrolanosterol, cholesterol ...
The NADPH system is also responsible for generating free radicals in immune cells by NADPH oxidase. These radicals are used to ... such as cholesterol synthesis, steroid synthesis, ascorbic acid synthesis, xylitol synthesis, cytosolic fatty acid synthesis ...
... monoamine oxidase [MAO]-B inhibitors), corticosteroids, estrogens, digoxin, iron, and opioids. The role of Helicobacter pylori ... cholesterol-lowering agents (niacin, fibrates), neuropsychiatric medications (cholinesterase inhibitors [donepezil, ...
... medications to control cholesterol, and medications for hypertension contributed to low levels of desire. However, in men, only ... monoamine-oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, and sedative drugs. However, the most severe decreases in sexual desire relating to ...
Regarding the isoforms of monoamine oxidase, it shows slight preference for the MAOB isoenzyme over MAOA. This leads to an ... an enzyme that controls cholesterol turnover in the brain". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 285 (41): 31783-95. doi: ... Baker GB, Urichuk LJ, McKenna KF, Kennedy SH (June 1999). "Metabolism of monoamine oxidase inhibitors". Cellular and Molecular ... Tranylcypromine (sold under the trade name Parnate among others) is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI); more specifically, ...
nov., a novel cholesterol-oxidizing, denitrifying member of the -Proteobacteria". International Journal of Systematic and ... Sterolibacterium is a genus of gram-negative, oxidase- and catalase-positive rod-shaped bacteria from the family of ...
It produces oxidase, catalase, and urease. H. pylori possesses five major outer membrane protein families. The largest family ... McGee DJ, George AE, Trainor EA, Horton KE, Hildebrandt E, Testerman TL (June 2011). "Cholesterol enhances Helicobacter pylori ... The outer membrane also contains cholesterol glucosides, which are present in few other bacteria. Helicobacter pylori consists ...
... (sold under the trade name Parnate among others)[1] is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI); more specifically ... "Structural basis of drug binding to CYP46A1, an enzyme that controls cholesterol turnover in the brain". The Journal of ... Tranylcypromine acts as a nonselective and irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase.[4] Regarding the isoforms of monoamine ... Al-Nuaimi, SK; Mackenzie, EM; Baker, GB (November 2012). "Monoamine oxidase inhibitors and neuroprotection: a review". American ...
"Cytochrome c oxidase deficiency". Genetics Home Reference.. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the ... Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme. *Steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase. *Aldosterone synthase. *Frataxin ... also known as the cytochrome c oxidase deficiency. Cytochrome c oxidase deficiency is a rare genetic condition that can affect ... "Focal cytochrome c oxidase deficiency in the brain and dorsal root ganglia in a case with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy (tRNA ...
... s contain oxidative enzymes, such as D-amino acid oxidase and uric acid oxidase.[9] However the last enzyme is absent ... It is vigorously debated whether peroxisomes are involved in isoprenoid and cholesterol synthesis in animals.[4] Other known ...
Monoamine oxidase B reversible inhibition (by all six of the major kavalactones). ... "but may relate to interference with cholesterol metabolism".[84] The condition is easily treatable with abstinence or lowering ...
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) for lowering LDL cholesterol inhibitors: hypolipidaemic agents. ... monoamine oxidase inhibitors, lithium salts, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)), antiemetics, Anticonvulsants ...
Xanthine oxidase deficiencyEdit. Main article: Xanthine oxidase deficiency. Another possible cause of Kidney disease is due to ... Higher dietary intake of animal protein, animal fat, and cholesterol may increase risk for microalbuminuria, a sign of kidney ... Xanthine oxidase inhibitors, like allopurinol, can cause nephropathy. Polycystic disease of the kidneysEdit. Main article: ... Xanthine oxidase will degrade hypoxanthine to xanthine and then to uric acid. Xanthine is not very soluble in water; therefore ...
... monoamine oxidase inhibitors or food-drug interactions, glomerulonephritis, head trauma, neoplasias, preeclampsia and eclampsia ...
... and for the contribution to the maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol levels by replacing saturated fats in the diet with ... Monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Hidden categories: *Articles containing Ancient Greek-language text. *Articles containing ... HDL cholesterol, malondialdehyde, and oxidized LDL when compared to low-polyphenol olive oils.[117] ... "Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to olive oil and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol ...
The final step requires oxygen and involves the action of the enzyme ACC-oxidase (ACO), formerly known as the ethylene forming ... the ACC releases ethylene with ACC oxidase. ...
Reactive hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), the byproduct of oxalate oxidase reaction, can be neutralized by catalase. Alarm ... oxalate released from calcium oxalate crystals is converted to CO2 by an oxalate oxidase enzyme and the produced CO2 can ...
In 1985, both drugs were also reported to increase serum levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, total ... Taking primidone with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) such as isocarboxazid (Marplan), phenelzine (Nardil), procarbazine ( ... cholesterol, and apolipoproteins A and B.[24]. It was first reported to exacerbate hepatic porphyria in 1975. In 1981, it was ...
... is a synthetic form of the isolated major active metabolite of venlafaxine, and is categorized as a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI). When most normal metabolizers take venlafaxine, approximately 70% of the dose is metabolized into desvenlafaxine, so the effects of the two drugs are expected to be very similar.[5] It works by blocking the "reuptake" transporters for key neurotransmitters affecting mood, thereby leaving more active neurotransmitters in the synapse. The neurotransmitters affected are serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). It is approximately 10 times more potent at inhibiting serotonin uptake than norepinephrine uptake.[6]. ...
Steroidogenesis entails processes by which cholesterol is converted to biologically active steroid hormones. Recent study shows ... inhibit monoamine oxidase (MAO) in the pineal gland, leading to increased melatonin and reduced LH and FSH by melatonin-induced ...
Copper required component of many redox enzymes, including cytochrome c oxidase Main article: Copper in health ... Cholesterol None Cardiovascular Disease Macrominerals Calcium Osteoporosis, tetany, carpopedal spasm, laryngospasm, cardiac ...
Free radicals and pro-oxidants in cigarettes damage blood vessels and oxidize LDL cholesterol.[186] Only oxidized LDL ... Guillem K, Vouillac C, Azar MR, Parsons LH, Koob GF, Cador M, Stinus L (September 2005). "Monoamine oxidase inhibition ... Smoking tends to increase blood cholesterol levels. Furthermore, the ratio of high-density lipoprotein (HDL, also known as the ... "good" cholesterol) to low-density lipoprotein (LDL, also known as the "bad" cholesterol) tends to be lower in smokers compared ...
Cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase. *Methane monooxygenase. *3A4. *Lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase. *24-hydroxycholesterol 7α- ...
CoQ10 shares a biosynthetic pathway with cholesterol. The synthesis of an intermediary precursor of CoQ10, mevalonate, is ... The "statin" family of cholesterol-reducing medications inhibits HMG-CoA reductase. One possible side effect of statins is ... inhibited by some beta blockers, blood pressure-lowering medication,[10] and statins, a class of cholesterol-lowering drugs.[11 ... Complex IV/Cytochrome c oxidase. *Coenzyme Q10 synthesis: COQ2. *COQ3. *COQ4. *COQ5 ...
Cytochrome P-450 is the terminal oxidase component of an electron transport chain. It is not a single enzyme, but rather ... cholesterol, steroid hormones, fatty acids, proteins) and exogenous substances (e.g., drugs, alcohol).[36] The central role ...
Ocsaíodáis Oxidase. *Ocsatóicin Oxytocin. P[cuir in eagar , athraigh foinse]. *p53. *Aigéid para-aimínbeansóch Para- ... Colaistéaról Cholesterol. *Coilín Choline. *Chondroitin sulfate. *Cinnamaldehyde. *Ciotral Citral. *Aigéad citreach Citric acid ...
Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase *Glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase. *1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase ... Complex IV/Cytochrome c oxidase. *Coenzyme Q10 synthesis: COQ2. *COQ3. *COQ4. *COQ5 ...
Most are oxidase-negative and catalase-negative, and many are facultative anaerobes. ... and interacts with cholesterol in the membrane of eukaryotic cells (mainly red and white blood cells, macrophages, and ...
Cholesterol during development: deficiencies in myelinization of the brain; demyelination of the brain and neurodegenerative ... Molybdenum required for xanthine oxidase and related oxidases. *Selenium required for peroxidase (antioxidant proteins) ... and reduced HDL cholesterol.[medical citation needed] ... including cytochrome c oxidase. *Chromium required for sugar ...
A. Glucose oxidase G. l. u. c. o. s. e. +. O. 2. →. O. x. i. d. a. t. i. o. n. g. l. u. c. o. s. e. o. x. i. d. a. s. e. D- ... a b What are mg/dl and mmol/l? How to convert? Glucose? Cholesterol? Advameg, Inc. ... The two most common employed enzymes are glucose oxidase and hexokinase.[28] Average blood glucose concentrations can also be ... More specific than glucose oxidase method due to G-6PO4, which inhibits interfering substances except when sample is hemolyzed ...
Dzugan, S. A. Is low cholesterol dangerous? Life Extension. December 2004. *↑ Mercola, J. Low cholesterol causes aggressive ... Piperine from the fruits of Piper longum with inhibitory effect on monoamine oxidase and antidepressant-like activity.». ... Relationship between cholesterol levels and depression in the elderly. Minerva Med. 86:251-256, 1995. ... Further evidence for low serum cholesterol and suicidal behaviour. J Affect Disord. 61(1-2):69-71, 2000. ...
The cytosolic acetyl-CoA is used for fatty acid synthesis and the production of cholesterol. Cholesterol can, in turn, be used ... Complex IV/Cytochrome c oxidase. *Coenzyme Q10 synthesis: COQ2. *COQ3. *COQ4. *COQ5 ...
GABA can also be synthesized from putrescine[48][49] by diamine oxidase and aldehyde dehydrogenase.[48] ... Neuroactive steroids (e.g., allopregnanolone, cholesterol, THDOC). *Niacin. *Nicotinamide (niacinamide). *Nonbenzodiazepines (e ...
... reacts with a wide variety of biomolecules, including DNA, RNA,[8][15][16][17] fatty acid groups, cholesterol ... Later studies[38] revealed that Ubiquinol oxidase activity ceases first, and the still-active cytochromes reduce the remaining ... Carr, AC; Van Den Berg, JJ; Winterbourn, CC (1996). "Chlorination of cholesterol in cell membranes by hypochlorous acid". ... Cholesterol chlorohydrin have also been observed,[19][22] but do not greatly affect permeability, and it is believed that Cl2 ...
Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme. *Cytochrome b6f complex. *Electron transport chain. *Fatty acid synthetase complex ... Aldehyde oxidase. 1.2.4: disulfide. *Oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. *Pyruvate dehydrogenase. *Branched-chain alpha-keto ...
Begum R, Powner MB, Hudson N, Hogg C, Jeffery G.: Treatment with 670 nm light up regulates cytochrome C oxidase expression and ... "Anti-hypercholesterolemic and anti-atherosclerotic effects of polarized-light therapy in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet". ...
cholesterol 24-hydroxylase. 1 subfamily, 1 gene. CYP46A1 CYP51. cholesterol biosynthesis. 1 subfamily, 1 gene, 3 pseudogenes. ... They are, in general, the terminal oxidase enzymes in electron transfer chains, broadly categorized as P450-containing systems ... cholesterol synthesis, and vitamin D metabolism. Cytochrome P450 enzymes also function to metabolize potentially toxic ...
In enzymology, a cholesterol oxidase (EC 1.1.3.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction cholesterol + O2 ⇌ {\ ... Coulombe R, Yue KQ, Ghisla S, Vrielink A (August 2001). "Oxygen access to the active site of cholesterol oxidase through a ... The substrate-binding domain found in some bacterial cholesterol oxidases is composed of an eight-stranded mixed beta-pleated ... Richmond W (1973). "Preparation and properties of a cholesterol oxidase from Nocardia sp. and its application to the enzymatic ...
... the global Cholesterol Oxidase market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of ... 1 Cholesterol Oxidase Market Overview. 1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Cholesterol Oxidase. 1.2 Cholesterol Oxidase Segment ... 2.5.1 Cholesterol Oxidase Market Concentration Rate. 2.5.2 Cholesterol Oxidase Market Share of Top 3 and Top 5 Manufacturers. ... 1.4 Global Cholesterol Oxidase Market by Region (2012-2022). 1.4.1 Global Cholesterol Oxidase Market Size (Value) and CAGR (%) ...
... Katarzyna Bednarska, Michal Kielbik, ... Katarzyna Bednarska, Michal Kielbik, Zofia Sulowska, Jaroslaw Dziadek, and Magdalena Klink, "Cholesterol Oxidase Binds TLR2 and ...
... between asparagine 485 and the pi system of FAD modulates the redox potential in the reaction catalyzed by cholesterol oxidase. ...
... between asparagine 485 and the pi system of FAD modulates the redox potential in the reaction catalyzed by cholesterol oxidase. ... CHOLESTEROL OXIDASE A 504 Streptomyces sp. EC#: 1.1.3.6 IUBMB Mutation: N485L Details: FAD COFACTOR NON-COVALENTLY BOUND TO THE ...
Cholesterol oxidases exist as both type I and type II oxidases and are implicated in bacterial pathogenesis. ... Product Description for Cholesterol Oxidase. Goat anti Bacteria Cholesterol Oxidase.. Presentation: Ig Fraction. Product is ... This product detects Cholesterol oxidase (microorganism). Cross reactivity against Cholesterol oxidase from other sources is ... Cholesterol oxidases exist as both type I and type II oxidases and are implicated in bacterial pathogenesis. In addition, they ...
There was a strong correlation between cell cholesterol content and NADPH oxidase lag phase (R(s) = 0.76, P , 0.01). Cell ... Cell cholesterol was in the unesterified from indicating that it was membrane-associated. Pre-treatment mean cell cholesterol ... Cholesterol Levels: What You Need to Know - MedlinePlus Health Information. *How to Lower Cholesterol - MedlinePlus Health ... Cell membrane cholesterol is an important determinant of membrane fluidity. Changes in fluidity have important consequences for ...
Global Cholesterol Oxidase Sales Market Report 2017 Size and Share Published in 2014-05-03 Available for US$ 4000 at ... 1 Cholesterol Oxidase Market Overview. 1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Cholesterol Oxidase. 1.2 Classification of Cholesterol ... 2.2 Global Cholesterol Oxidase (Volume and Value) by Type. 2.2.1 Global Cholesterol Oxidase Sales and Market Share by Type ( ... 4 China Cholesterol Oxidase (Volume, Value and Sales Price). 4.1 China Cholesterol Oxidase Sales and Value (2012-2017). 4.1.1 ...
2. Free cholesterol is the preferred substrate for adrenal-cortex cholesterol oxidase; the apparent K(m) for cholesteryl ... Substrate and inhibitor specificity of the cholesterol oxidase in bovine adrenal cortex. PR Raggatt, MW Whitehouse ... Substrate and inhibitor specificity of the cholesterol oxidase in bovine adrenal cortex ... Substrate and inhibitor specificity of the cholesterol oxidase in bovine adrenal cortex ...
Cholesterol Oxidase, Streptomyces sp. CAS 9028-76-6, is a native cholesterol oxidase that catalyzes the oxidation of ... cholesterol to cholesterone and hydrogen peroxide. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information. ... More,, Cholesterol Oxidase, Streptomyces sp. CAS 9028-76-6, is a native cholesterol oxidase that catalyzes the oxidation of ... Cholesterol Oxidase, Streptomyces sp. CAS 9028-76-6, is a native cholesterol oxidase that catalyzes the oxidation of ...
CgChoA is a true cholesterol oxidase which activity ranges among the high performing described cholesterol oxidases from other ... The N-terminally His-tagged cholesterol oxidase (CgChoA) was assigned to be a monomer in solution by size exclusion ... The gene choA encoding a cholesterol oxidase from Chryseobacterium gleum DSM 16776 was cloned into the pQE-30 expression vector ... Thus, the enzyme broadens the available toolbox of cholesterol oxidases for e.g. synthetic and biosensing applications. ...
Cholesterol Oxidase from Streptomyces sp ctalyzing the two-step transformation of cholesterol to cholest-4-en-3-one and H2O2. ... Cholesterol + O₂ -, Cholest-4-en-3-one + H₂O₂. Unit Definition. One enzymatic unit of cholesterol oxidase converts 1.0 μmole of ... Cholesterol oxidase is a flavoprotein involved in the first step of cholesterol catabolism. The enzyme first oxidizes ... cholesterol to cholest-5-en-3-one then isomerizes it to cholest-4-en-3-one while producing hydrogen peroxide H2O2. Available in ...
... rabbit PAb against Nocardia erythropolis Cholesterol oxidase \ NE033/PAb for more molecular products just contact us ... WP632: Cholesterol metabolism. WP659: Cholesterol metabolism. WP833: Cholesterol Biosynthesis. WP952: Cholesterol Biosynthesis ... WP103: Cholesterol Biosynthesis. WP1070: Cholesterol Biosynthesis. WP1186: Cholesterol Biosynthesis. WP132: Cholesterol ... WP1795: Cholesterol biosynthesis. WP197: Cholesterol Biosynthesis. WP2011: SREBF and miR33 in cholesterol and lipid homeostasis ...
Use Cholesterol Oxidase in diagnostic tests for the determination of cholesterol in combination with Cholesterol Esterase, ... Contaminants (expressed as percentage of Cholesterol Oxidase activity):. Glucose oxidase: ≤0.01. Catalase: ≤1.00. Uricase: ≤ ... Will be supplied as "Cholesterol Oxidase, Streptomyces species". Unit of measure is "kU". +- ... Cholesterol Esterase. from Candida cylindracea, solution. Cholesterol Esterase. from Candida cylindracea, lyophilizate. ...
Cholesterol oxidases are bacterial oxidases widely used commercially for their application in the detection of cholesterol in ... Immobilization of Cholesterol Oxidase: An Overview Shubhrima Ghosh, Razi Ahmad, Sunil Kumar Khare*. Enzyme and Microbial ... However, the soluble form of cholesterol oxidases are found to be less stable when applied at higher temperatures, broader pH ... This review focuses on the immobilization of cholesterol oxidases on various macro/micro matrices as well as nanoparticles and ...
Recombinant Cholesterol Oxidase belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-OH group of donor ... cholesterol: oxygen oxidoreductase; cholesterol oxidase; EC 1.1.3.6 ... Recombinant Cholesterol Oxidase belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-OH group of donor ... Recombinant Cholesterol Oxidase produced in E.coli has a molecular mass of about 34,000 Da. ...
Recombinant Cholesterol Oxidase belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-OH group of donor ... Recombinant Cholesterol Oxidase belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-OH group of donor ... EC 1.1.3.6, cholesterol-O2 oxidoreductase; 3β-hydroxy steroid oxidoreductase; 3β-hydroxysteroid:oxygen oxidoreductase; 9028-76- ... Creatinase/Creatininase/Sarcosine Oxidase Enzyme Discovery Collagen and Collagenase Enzyme Assays Tn5 Transposase Enzyme ...
Oxidase Dropper Pk. 50, OxiDrop™, Oxidase Test, Oxidase Reagent according to Gaby-Hadley A, for microbiology, Oxidase.. ... Cholesterol Oxidase from Streptomyces sp. MP Biomedicals. Cholesterol oxidase (CHOD) catalyzes the first step in cholesterol ... Oxidase Dropper Pk. 50 BD. Oxidase Reagent Droppers are used in the Kovacs oxidase test as a qualitative reaction in the ... Bilirubin Oxidase from Myrothecium species MP Biomedicals. …oxidase system, Acyl coenzyme A oxidase system, and Glycerol-3- ...
... flavoprotein cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) [EC 1.1.3.6], aryl alcohol oxidase (AAO) [EC 1.1.3.7] and hydroxymethylfurfural oxidase ... such as alditol oxidase (AldO), aryl alcohol oxidase (AAO), hydroxymethyl furfuryl oxidase (HMFO), hexose oxidase (HOX, Dbv29 ... 2012). In contrast to galactose oxidase, which does not accept sec-allylic alcohols, cholesterol oxidase from Rhodococcus ... Murooka Y, Yamashita M (2001) Genetic and protein engineering of diagnostic enzymes, cholesterol oxidase and xylitol oxidase. J ...
An amperometric cholesterol biosensor based on epoxy resin membrane bound cholesterol oxidase. ... Cholesterol / Cholesterol Oxidase / Electrodes / Enzymes, Immobilized / Epoxy Resins Language: English Year: 2012 Type: Article ... Cholesterol / Cholesterol Oxidase / Electrodes / Enzymes, Immobilized / Epoxy Resins Language: English Year: 2012 Type: Article ... Cholesterol/chemistry , Cholesterol Oxidase/chemistry , Electrodes , Enzymes, Immobilized/metabolism , Epoxy Resins/metabolism ...
... * ... The functional role of the histidyl-FAD bond in the latter cholesterol oxidase was addressed by studying the properties of the ... The functional role of the histidyl-FAD bond in the latter cholesterol oxidase was addressed by studying the properties of the ... Cholesterol oxidase from Brevibacterium sterolicum : the relationship between covalent flavinylation and redox properties. Type ...
Cholesterol Oxidase Cholesterol Oxidase View options Request a quote Add to Favorites ...
Cholesteryl ester + H2O -------------------------------------,cholesterol + fatty acid cholesterol oxidase Cholesterol + O2 ... LBDHDL - HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL). Variable Name: LBDHDL. SAS Label: HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL). English Text: HDL-cholesterol (mg/ ... LBXTC - Total cholesterol (mg/dL). Variable Name: LBXTC. SAS Label: Total cholesterol (mg/dL). English Text: Total cholesterol ... PEG-cholesterol oxidase Unesterified cholesterol + O2 -------------------------------------, cholestenone + H2O2 ...
Cholesteryl ester + H2O -------------------------------------,cholesterol + fatty acid cholesterol oxidase Cholesterol + O2 ... LBXTC - Total cholesterol (mg/dL). Variable Name: LBXTC. SAS Label: Total cholesterol (mg/dL). English Text: Total cholesterol ... Total Cholesterol( mmol/L). English Text: Total Cholesterol( mmol/L). Target: Both males and females 6 YEARS - 150 YEARS. Code ... Total Cholesterol There were changes in the instruments used to measure total cholesterol, but the method and lab site were the ...
Glucose oxidase. β-glucose. Cholesterol esterase; cholesterol oxidase. Cholesterol. Lipoprotein lipase; glycerol kinase; ... Polarographic analysis of cholesterol and other macromolecular substances. US4053381 *. 19 May 1976. 11 Oct 1977. Eastman Kodak ... The ionizing agent may be an analyte specific enzyme, such as glucose oxidase or glucose dehydrogenase, to catalyze the ... Thus, for a glucose sensor system including glucose oxidase and a ferricyanide mediator as reagents, additional ferrocyanide ( ...
... and total cholesterol (P=0.015). conclusion: Overall, these results suggest that while milk and yogurt consumption is ... total cholesterol (cholesterol oxidase); high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (direct clearance) and glucose (glucose oxidase). A ... Of note, total cholesterol and triglycerides were higher in the Reduced fat milk and yogurts cluster. This was surprising, ... Intra- and interassay coefficients of variations were ⩽4.9% for triacylglycerol, ⩽4.1% for total cholesterol, ⩽6.2% for HDL- ...
Decomposition process of cholesterol by this strain results from its production of cholesterol oxidase enzyme (ChoX). The ... The cholesterol oxidase enzyme (ChoX) produced by E. hirae was extracted at an (NH4)2SO4 saturation level of 80 % and purified ... The bacterial isolate that displayed the highest cholesterol oxidase activity was identified as Enterococcus hirae. The maximal ... E. hirae Mil-31 isolated from milk had a great capacity to decompose cholesterol in basal medium supplemented with cholesterol ...
Improvement of a diagnostic enzyme, Streptomyces cholesterol oxidase, by site-directed mutagenesis. Default journal. 2000 Nov 1 ... Improvement of a diagnostic enzyme, Streptomyces cholesterol oxidase, by site-directed mutagenesis. In: Default journal. 2000. ... Improvement of a diagnostic enzyme, Streptomyces cholesterol oxidase, by site-directed mutagenesis. / Yamashita, Mitsuo; Toyama ... title = "Improvement of a diagnostic enzyme, Streptomyces cholesterol oxidase, by site-directed mutagenesis", ...
... measurement of serum cholesterol, food industry as a biocatal.. ... Cholesterol oxidase (CHO) is one of the valuable enzymes that ... Cholesterol oxidase (CHO) is one of the valuable enzymes that play an important role in: measurement of serum cholesterol, food ... The goal of the study was cloning, expression, and enzymatic activity evaluation of cholesterol oxidase gene isolated from a ... Cloning, expression, and enzymatic activity evaluation of cholesterol oxidase gene isolated from a native Rhodococcus sp. ...
Ascorbate oxidase; Cholesterol esterase; Cholinesterase; Collagenase; DNase I; DNase II; Enterokinase; Glucose-6-phosphate ... Xanthine oxidase; Superoxide dismutase; Fibronectin; Restriction Endonucleases; Reverse transcriptase; M-MuLV; Monoclonal ... dehydrogenase; Glucose oxidase; Glucose Isomerase; Glutamate dehydrogenase; Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; ...
  • 228250 Cholesterol Oxidase, Streptomyces sp. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Alteration of substrate specificity of cholesterol oxidase from Streptomyces sp. (elsevier.com)
  • Despite the structural similarities between cholesterol oxidase from Streptomyces and that from Brevibacterium, both enzymes exhibit different characteristics, such as catalytic activity, optimum pH and temperature. (elsevier.com)
  • The amino acid substitutions chosen were based on structural comparisons of cholesterol oxidases from Streptomyces and Brevibacterium. (elsevier.com)
  • In this study, expression optimization of cholesterol oxidase from Streptomyces sp. (springeropen.com)
  • SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified cholesterol oxidase protein from Streptomyces aegyptia NEAE 102. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In enzymology, a cholesterol oxidase (EC 1.1.3.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction cholesterol + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } cholest-4-en-3-one + H2O2 Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are cholesterol and O2, whereas its two products are cholest-4-en-3-one and H2O2. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is cholesterol:oxygen oxidoreductase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether treatment with simvastatin affects membrane cholesterol and the activity of the polymorphonuclear cell membrane enzyme NADPH oxidase. (nih.gov)
  • One unit is defined as the amount of enzyme that will oxidize 1.0 µmol of cholesterol per min at 25°C, pH 7.0. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Thus, the enzyme broadens the available toolbox of cholesterol oxidases for e.g. synthetic and biosensing applications. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cholesterol oxidase (EC 1.1.3.6, ChoA) is a FAD-dependent bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and isomerization of cholesterol (Figure 1 , 1 ) to cholest-4-en-3-one ( 3 ) while dioxygen is finally reduced to H 2 O 2 as by-product. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The enzyme first oxidizes cholesterol to cholest-5-en-3-one then isomerizes it to cholest-4-en-3-one while producing hydrogen peroxide H 2 O 2 . (moleculardepot.com)
  • The functional role of the histidyl-FAD bond in the latter cholesterol oxidase was addressed by studying the properties of the H69A mutant in which the FAD is bound tightly, but not covalently, and by comparison with native enzyme. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • The cholesterol oxidase enzyme (ChoX) produced by E. hirae was extracted at an (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 saturation level of 80 % and purified with 79 % yield, resulting in 2.3-fold purification. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Decomposition process of cholesterol by this strain results from its production of cholesterol oxidase enzyme (ChoX). (beds.ac.uk)
  • The mutant enzymes created by the replacement of V145 by Asp and Glu had much lower catalytic efficiency for cholesterol and pregnenolone as substrates than the wild-type enzyme. (elsevier.com)
  • In contrast, the catalytic efficiencies (k cat /K m ) of the S379T mutant enzyme for cholesterol and pregnenolone were 1.8- and 6.0-fold higher, respectively, than those of the wild-type enzyme. (elsevier.com)
  • This enzyme has a great commercial value because of its wide applications in cholesterol analysis of clinical samples, synthesis of steroid-derived drugs, food industries, and potentially insecticidal activity. (springeropen.com)
  • Applying the optimized protocol, the production of recombinant cholesterol oxidase was significantly enhanced from 3.2 to 158 U/L. Under the optimized condition, the enzyme was produced on a large-scale, and highly expressed cholesterol oxidase was purified from cell lysate by column nickel affinity chromatography. (springeropen.com)
  • K m and V max values of the purified enzyme for cholesterol were estimated using Lineweaver-Burk plot. (springeropen.com)
  • Cholesterol oxidase is the second most widely used enzyme in clinical laboratories (Doukyu et al. (springeropen.com)
  • 2009 ). This enzyme is commonly used for determining cholesterol levels both in serum and in other biological samples (MacLachlan et al. (springeropen.com)
  • 2000 ). On the other hand, the ability of cholesterol oxidase in bioconversion of 3β-hydroxysteroids makes it a valuable enzyme for transformation of sterols and non-sterols in the pharmaceutical industry (Doukyu 2009 ). (springeropen.com)
  • Pathogenic bacteria employ this enzyme for infection of host macrophages by oxidation of membrane cholesterol, while nonpathogenic bacteria tend to utilize ChO as a metabolic tool for obtaining carbon sources from cholesterol decomposition (Pollegioni et al. (springeropen.com)
  • A spray-dry method of preparation of the enzyme inducer cholesterol in Tween 20 was found to be superior in both convenience and enzyme synthesis yield to one of heat-mixing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Due to the high cell-bound to extracellular ratio of cholesterol oxidase produced by Rhodococcus, even in those strains that also produce extracellular enzyme, the use of detergents is compulsory in the cost-effective extraction of this enzyme. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The protein is an enzyme called cholesterol oxidase, which attacks cholesterol and other steroid-based compounds. (newscientist.com)
  • Bioelectrodes combining both a colloidal gold-adsorbed oxidase and colloidal gold-adsorbed HRP located on an electrode surface are efficient biodetectors, particularly for the measurement of low glucose levels in samples when glucose oxidase is employed as the sensing enzyme. (google.com)
  • The resultant solution is a stabilized enzyme solution which can be used in the total cholesterol assay of a serum sample. (patentgenius.com)
  • The combination of the stabilized enzyme solution and the chromogen diluent solution provides a solution which has utility in the spectrophotometric assay of total cholesterol. (patentgenius.com)
  • 2. A stabilized aqueous enzyme solution as claimed in claim 1 in which an effective amount of oxidase is present. (patentgenius.com)
  • 7. The test strip of claim 6 for quantitatively determining in a liquid sample a substrate for an oxidase enzyme reaction that produces hydrogen peroxide, wherein said reagent system comprises said oxidase enzyme. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Endogenous cholesterol was reduced by short time applications (30 min) of MBCD (10 mM) or cholesterol oxidase enzyme (Chol Ox, 10 U/ml). (europa.eu)
  • A reusable and mediator-free cholesterol biosensor based on cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) was fabricated based on self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of thioglycolic acid (TGA) (covalent enzyme immobilization by dropping method) using bio-chips. (jove.com)
  • 4. The bioelectrode of claim 1 wherein the oxidase is cholesterol oxidase, xanthine oxidase, amino acid oxidase, lactic acid oxidase, alcohol oxidase, glycolate oxidase, pyridoxal-4-oxidase, sorbose oxidase, gulonolactose oxidase or galactose oxidase. (google.com)
  • Cholesterol oxidases are important enzymes for applications such as the analysis of cholesterol in clinical samples, the synthesis of steroid derived drugs, and are considered as potential antibacterial drug targets. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Turner 2011 ), and oxidases are a prominent subclass of redox enzymes, which use oxygen either as oxidant or as electron acceptor. (springer.com)
  • Cholesterol oxidase (CHO) is one of the valuable enzymes that play an important role in: measurement of serum cholesterol, food industry as a biocatalyst and agriculture as a biological larvicide. (ijmrhs.com)
  • These findings will provide several ideas for the design of more powerful enzymes that can be applied to clinical determination of serum cholesterol levels and as sterol probes. (elsevier.com)
  • 12. The bioelectrode of claim 1 further comprising depositing at least two oxidase enzymes atop the deposited monolayer-coated colloidal gold peroxidase layer. (google.com)
  • Stabilized enzymes useful in the diagnostic assay of total cholesterol are prepared by dissolving a salt of cholic acid in a buffer solution providing a pH within the range of about 4 to about 9, to the solution is added a cholesterol esterase. (patentgenius.com)
  • Other diverse functions the filters perform include separation of erythrocytes from plasma, addition of enzymes and detergents to the resulting plasma with complete mixing, retention of the plasma solution sufficiently long to ensure complete conversion of cholesterol and cholesterol esters into cholestenone and hydrogen peroxide, and subsequent release of the reacted plasma into the measurement area of the detection zone. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Each organism elaborates lipid hydrolyzing enzymes (cholesterol oxidase by R. equi and sphingomyelinase D by A. haemolyticum ) that are toxic to animals and humans and damaging to mammalian cell membranes. (cdc.gov)
  • The result of this facile approach was investigated for the biomedical applications for real samples at room conditions with significant assembly (Au/TGA/ChOx) towards the development of selected cholesterol biosensors, which can offer analytical access to a large group of enzymes for wide range of biomedical applications in health-care fields. (jove.com)
  • EC Number: 2006-250-9 MDL Number: MFCD00599413 PubChem Substance ID: 24278141 Biochem/physiol Actions Inhibitor of xanthine oxidase and de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis. (thomassci.com)
  • glucose oxidase, cholesterol, urease and peroxidase. (igi-global.com)
  • 5. The bioelectrode of claim 1 wherein the oxidase is glucose oxidase. (google.com)
  • 9. A bioelectrode for mediatorless electrochemical detection of glucose comprising a conducting surface having a first deposited layer of monolayer-coated colloidal gold-adsorbed horseradish peroxidase and a second deposited layer of colloidal gold-adsorbed glucose oxidase atop said first layer. (google.com)
  • 11. The bioelectrode of claim 9 wherein the first layer of colloidal gold-adsorbed horseradish peroxidase is evaporatively deposited onto the electrode surface prior to evaporative deposition of the second layer of colloidal gold-adsorbed glucose oxidase. (google.com)
  • In particular, mediatorless detection of glucose is possible with colloidal gold adsorbed horseradish peroxidase in the presence of glucose oxidase. (google.com)
  • Study of the deactivation process of the glucose oxidase-catalase enzymatic system by means of simulation (L.E. Romero, D. Cantero). (elsevier.com)
  • The enzymatic overall cholesterol oxidation comprises three steps. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One enzymatic unit of cholesterol oxidase converts 1.0 μmole of cholesterol to 4-cholesten-3-one per min at pH 7.5 at 25 °C. (moleculardepot.com)
  • The apolipoprotein B containing lipoproteins in the specimen are reacted with a blocking reagent that renders them non-reactive with the enzymatic cholesterol reagent under conditions of the assay. (cdc.gov)
  • The goal of the study was cloning, expression, and enzymatic activity evaluation of cholesterol oxidase gene isolated from a native Rhodococcus sp. (ijmrhs.com)
  • The reduction of food cholesterol levels may occur via enzymatic methods (Yehia et al. (springeropen.com)
  • Enzymatic properties of cholesterol oxidase from Rhodococcus strains (some of which named formerly as Nocardid ) are particularly suitable for use in the analytical determination of cholesterol, in which the hydrogen peroxide formed is used in a chromogenic reaction catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The amperometric determination is based on the electrochemical detection of H 2 O 2 generated in the enzymatic reaction of cholesterol. (mdpi.com)
  • and its application to the enzymatic assay of total cholesterol in serum," Clinical Chemistry , vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 1350-1356, 1973. (hindawi.com)
  • Enzymatic Determination of Total Serum Cholesterol", Clinical Chem. (patentgenius.com)
  • To alter cholesterol content we employed acute pharmacological approaches to remove cholesterol, rather than slower genetic interventions or inhibitors of enzymatic activities, to bypass compensatory effects and/or accumulation of intermediary products. (europa.eu)
  • Both protocols produce a moderate but significant decrease of cholesterol levels in hippocampal slices, as probed by a fluorescence quantitative enzymatic assay. (europa.eu)
  • Cholesterol oxidases are found exclusively in bacteria and have been described in various species including Brevibacterium sp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Brevibacterium sterolicum possesses two forms of cholesterol oxidase, one containing noncovalently bound FAD, the second containing a FAD covalently linked to His69 of the protein backbone. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • 11. A solution as claimed in claim 1 or 8 wherein the cholesterol oxidase is recovered from a microorganism selected from the group consisting of pseudomonas sp, nocardia erythropolis, and brevibacterium stero licum. (patentgenius.com)
  • The substrate-binding domain found in some bacterial cholesterol oxidases is composed of an eight-stranded mixed beta-pleated sheet and six alpha-helices. (wikipedia.org)
  • This product has been assayed against 1.0 µg of Cholesterol oxidase [microorganism] in a standard sandwich ELISA using peroxidase conjugated affinity purified anti-Goat IgG and ABTS as a substrate for 30 minutes at room temperature. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • The maximal growth and cholesterol decomposition were achieved with a 1-day incubation under static conditions at 37 °C in cholesterol basal medium adjusted to pH 7 supplemented with 1 g/l cholesterol as the substrate, no additional carbon or nitrogen sources and 0.5 % CaSO 4 . (beds.ac.uk)
  • From previous studies and this study, the V145 residue seems to be important for the stability and substrate binding of the cholesterol oxidase. (elsevier.com)
  • 15. An instrument for measuring concentrations of oxidase substrate comprising the bioelectrode of claim 1. (google.com)
  • The method uses sulfated alpha-cyclodextrin in the presence of Mg +2 , which forms complexes with apoB containing lipoproteins, and polyethylene glycol-coupled cholesteryl esterase and cholesterol oxidase for the HDL-cholesterol measurement. (cdc.gov)
  • This enhances the applicability of cholesterol oxidases for various industrial and clinical applications such as in biosensors. (openbiotechnologyjournal.com)
  • The aim was to explore an array of amperometric biosensors for the discrimination of the biomarkers glucose, cholesterol and urea in blood. (igi-global.com)
  • Suitable for determination of total cholesterol when coupled with cholinesterase and peroxidase. (emdmillipore.com)
  • an oxidase layer atop the deposited colloidal gold adsorbed peroxidase wherein direct electron transfer to the conducting surface occurs in the presence of an analyte when the bioelectrode is suitably coupled with a reference/counter electrode. (google.com)
  • 3. The bioelectrode of claim 1 wherein colloidal gold adsorbed oxidase is deposited atop the peroxidase. (google.com)
  • A cholesterol oxidase and a peroxidase are each dissolved in separate portions of buffer solution and introduced into the buffered solution containing the cholesterol esterase. (patentgenius.com)
  • rabbit PAb against Nocardia erythropolis Cholesterol oxidase polyclonal antibodies polyclonal antobodies can be directed against a recombinant proteine, the natural protein or an epitope. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • The suitability of the strain Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 25544 grown in a two-liter fermentor as a source of cholesterol oxidase has been investigated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Abstract Macrophage uptake of oxidatively modified LDL (Ox-LDL), unlike the uptake of acetylated LDL (Ac-LDL), resulted in lysosomal accumulation of unesterified cholesterol (UC). (ahajournals.org)
  • Recombinant Cholesterol Oxidase belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-OH group of donor with oxygen as acceptor. (creative-enzymes.com)
  • Recombinant Cholesterol Oxidase produced in E.coli has a molecular mass of about 34,000 Da. (creative-enzymes.com)
  • In attempts to define the molecular basis of differences in catalytic activity or stability, substitutions at six amino acid residues were introduced into cholesterol oxidase using site-directed mutagenesis of its gene. (elsevier.com)
  • We identified six highly hydrophobic regions in this domain that may be important for receptor activity and performed site-directed mutagenesis to investigate the importance of these regions in SR-BI-mediated cholesterol transport. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • sterols) together with suitable alcohol oxidases, their microbial source, relative activities and (stereo)selectivities. (springer.com)
  • Microbial cholesterol oxidases (EC 1.1.3.6) (COX) catalyze the oxidation and isomerization of cholesterol to 4-cholesten-3-one. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Preparation and properties of a cholesterol oxidase from Nocardia sp. (wikipedia.org)
  • The strain produces both cell-linked and extracellular cholesterol oxidase in a high amount, that can be extracted, purified and concentrated by using the detergent Triton X-114. (biomedcentral.com)
  • More recent reports have demonstrated the production of both extracellular and cell-bound cholesterol oxidase by strains of this genus such as Rhodococcus sp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The extracellular domain of SR-BI is required for HDL binding and selective uptake of HDL-cholesterol. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We conclude that the hydrophobicity of N-terminal extracellular regions of SR-BI is critical for cholesterol transport, possibly by mediating receptor-ligand and/or receptor-membrane interactions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Step 3: incubation of cells with extracellular acceptor and quantitation of movement of labelled cholesterol from cells to the acceptor. (jove.com)
  • Other names in common use include cholesterol- O2 oxidoreductase, 3beta-hydroxy steroid oxidoreductase, and 3beta-hydroxysteroid:oxygen oxidoreductase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxidoreductase that catalyzes the interconversion of cholesterol to cholest-4-en-3-one. (roche.com)
  • Cholesterol oxidases (EC 1.1.3.6) are bifunctional bacterial flavoenzymes belonging to the family of oxidoreductase which catalyze the first step in the catabolism of cholesterol. (springeropen.com)
  • Choline Oxidase from Alcaligenes sp. (thomassci.com)
  • has also been used in spectroscopic studies on the photoreaction of choline oxidase with covalently bound flavin. (thomassci.com)
  • Use Cholesterol Oxidase in diagnostic tests for the determination of cholesterol in combination with Cholesterol Esterase, Catalog Nos. (roche.com)
  • The present work was aimed to prepare an improved amperometric biosensor for determination of serum cholesterol required in the diagnostics and management of certain pathological conditions. (bvsalud.org)
  • Determination of cholesterol was carried out by the oxidation of enzymatically produced H 2 O 2 at 0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl. (mdpi.com)
  • the cholesterol determination was also performed. (europa.eu)
  • 5. Cholesteryl esters inhibit the oxidation of cholesterol competitively (K(i) for cholesteryl phosphate 28mum, for cholesteryl sulphate 110mum, for cholesteryl acetate 65mum) but pregnenolone esters do not inhibit this system. (biochemj.org)
  • 6. Pregnenolone and 20alpha-hydroxycholesterol (both metabolites of cholesterol in this system) inhibit the oxidation of cholesterol non-competitively. (biochemj.org)
  • CAS 9028-76-6, is a native cholesterol oxidase that catalyzes the oxidation of cholesterol to cholesterone and hydrogen peroxide. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Catalyzes oxidation of cholesterol to cholesterone and hydrogen peroxide (isoelectric points: 6.1 and 7.3). (emdmillipore.com)
  • Cholesterol in the HDL-containing supernatant is measured as described above for total cholesterol. (cdc.gov)
  • There were changes in the instruments used to measure total cholesterol, but the method and lab site were the same as 2003- 2004. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2005, total cholesterol was measured enzymatically in serum using the Roche Hitachi 717. (cdc.gov)
  • No adjustment was necessary for the change in instrumentation for total cholesterol. (cdc.gov)
  • The total cholesterol in mg/dL (LBXTC) was converted to mmol/L (LBDTCSI) by multiplying by 0.02586. (cdc.gov)
  • The Lipid Laboratory Total Cholesterol data file contains laboratory test results for total cholesterol (LBXTC), which uses the reference analytic method. (cdc.gov)
  • However, the NHANES standard biochemistry profile laboratory also includes measurements of total cholesterol. (cdc.gov)
  • The biochemistry profile total cholesterol variable name is LBXSCH. (cdc.gov)
  • The 'Reduced fat milks and yogurt' cluster had the highest scores on a Healthy Eating Index, and lower-fat and saturated fat intakes, but greater triglyceride levels ( P =0.028) and total cholesterol ( P =0.015). (nature.com)
  • LDL-cholesterol=Total cholesterol-HDL-colesterol-0.46X triglycerides (all values are in m mol/l). (scribd.com)
  • They catalyze oxidation as well as isomerization of cholesterol and produce equimolar amounts of cholest-4-en-3-one coupled with hydrogen peroxide as the final products (Moradpour and Ghasemian 2016 ). (springeropen.com)
  • oxidase to dihydroxyacetone and hydrogen peroxide. (scribd.com)
  • Oxidation by hydrogen peroxide of D-amino acid oxidase from Rhodotorula gracilis (V. Obregón et al. ). (elsevier.com)
  • Cholesterol Oxidase (Pseudomonas sp. (creative-enzymes.com)
  • 10. A solution as claimed in claim 1 or 8 wherein the cholesterol esterase is from the microorganism pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 21156. (patentgenius.com)
  • Oxidase Reagent Droppers are used in the Kovacs oxidase test as a qualitative reaction in the identification of nonfermenters and miscellaneous gram-negative bacteria. (thomassci.com)
  • OxiDrop™, Oxidase Test is a liquid ready-to-use reagent that is used in procedures to detect cytochrome oxidase activity in bacteria. (thomassci.com)
  • Oxidase Test is an important differential procedure which should be performed on all gram-negative bacteria that are to be identified. (thomassci.com)
  • BBL DrySlide Oxidase is used for determining the oxidase reaction of bacteria. (thomassci.com)
  • This product detects Cholesterol oxidase (microorganism). (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Immunoelectrophoresis give a single precipitin arc against anti-goat serum as well as purified and partially purified Cholesterol oxidase [microorganism]. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • The recovery of recombinant protein, cholesterol oxidase (COD) was studied in a continuous bead milling process. (frontiersin.org)
  • The protein-free filtrate containing cholesterol is treated with concentrated sulphuric acid. (scribd.com)
  • Cholesterol oxidase is really the first new protein or gene with very potent insecticidal activity that's been discovered for fifty years," Fraley said. (newscientist.com)
  • Investigation of the structure and function of cholesterol oxidase protein-membrane interactions, and its relationship to Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis. (stonybrook.edu)
  • This phenotype was conferred by a single amino acid change in the E1 spike protein subunit, proline 226 to serine, that increased the cholesterol independence of both srf-3 fusion and exit. (rupress.org)
  • The srf-3 mutant emphasizes the relationship between the role of cholesterol in membrane fusion and virus exit, and most significantly, identifies a novel spike protein region involved in the virus cholesterol requirement. (rupress.org)
  • A striking example of a defined lipid requirement in membrane fusion is the Semliki Forest virus (SFV) 1 fusion protein, which mediates the cholesterol and sphingolipid- dependent fusion of the virus membrane with the cellular membrane during virus infection. (rupress.org)
  • Fatty acids and cholesterol were removed by a dilute acid / organic solvent partition procedure in which the contaminants passed into the organic phase leaving glycerol in the aqueous phase. (scribd.com)
  • Cholesterol is measured enzymatically in serum or plasma in a series of coupled reactions that hydrolyze cholesteryl esters and oxidize the 3-OH group of cholesterol. (cdc.gov)
  • The SFV cholesterol requirement does not involve the general membrane fluidizing properties of cholesterol, but seems to be specific for the sterol 3β-hydroxyl group ( Kielian and Helenius, 1984 ). (rupress.org)
  • 1991 ). In addition, other investigations have addressed the role of cholesterol oxidase as an approach to pest control strategies (Cho et al. (springeropen.com)
  • We focused on the role of cholesterol in the regulation of STIM1-mediated Orai1 currents. (sciencemag.org)
  • Therefore, we believe that advancing our understanding of the role of cholesterol in neuronal mechanisms for learning and memory is of the outmost importance. (europa.eu)
  • In this study, we investigated the role of cholesterol and its contribution to the modification of synaptic functions. (europa.eu)
  • Increased cholesterol also increased aqueous content transfer between HAS cells and RBC over a broad range of HA expression levels, suggesting that cholesterol also favors fusion pore expansion. (rupress.org)
  • Cholesterol oxidase is a flavoprotein involved in the first step of cholesterol catabolism. (moleculardepot.com)
  • Cholesterol oxidase, cholesterol, flavoprotein. (moleculardepot.com)
  • In this review, the mechanism of copper-containing and flavoprotein alcohol oxidases is discussed in view of their ability to accept electronically activated or non-activated alcohols and their propensity towards over-oxidation of aldehydes yielding carboxylic acids. (springer.com)
  • In flavoprotein oxidases, the oxidation proceeds via two half reactions, where the alcohol is first oxidised by a two-electron transfer during the reductive half reaction , yielding reduced flavin. (springer.com)
  • Single point mutations in the Orai1 amino terminus that would be expected to abolish cholesterol binding enhanced SOCE to a similar extent as did cholesterol depletion. (sciencemag.org)
  • Cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) has been electrochemically entrapped onto p -toluene sulphonate (PTS) doped poly (pyrrole-co- N -methyl pyrrole) (1:1) on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass plates. (springer.com)
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first statement with a very high sensitivity, low-detection limit, and low-sample volumes are required for cholesterol biosensor using Au/TGA/ChOx-chips assembly. (jove.com)
  • Chemically induced cholesterol depletion enhanced store-operated Ca 2+ entry (SOCE) and Orai1 currents. (sciencemag.org)
  • 3. Cholesteryl 3beta-acetate is hydrolysed by bovine adrenal-cortex mitochondria in vitro to free cholesterol, which is subsequently oxidized to more polar steroids and isocaproic acid. (biochemj.org)
  • 9 19 20 21 Although flavonoids in red wine and purple GJ reduce the susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to oxidative stress in vitro, antioxidant effects in humans have been demonstrated only after ingestion of red wine, not purple GJ. (ahajournals.org)
  • the apparent K(m) for cholesteryl sulphate is 500mum and for free cholesterol 50mum under the same conditions. (biochemj.org)
  • Cells have two options to reduce their cholesterol content: to convert cholesterol into cholesteryl esters, an option with limited capacity as overloading cells with cholesteryl esters is also toxic, and cholesterol efflux, an option with potentially unlimited capacity. (jove.com)
  • The biosensor measured serum cholesterol . (bvsalud.org)
  • The group of Prof. Nikolelis group has recently utilized graphene and ZnO (Zinc Oxide) to develop chemical nanosensors for species of clinical or food significance, such as urea, uric acid, cholesterol, etc. (benthamscience.com)
  • the detection of the cytochrome oxidase activity of microorganisms within 1 minute. (thomassci.com)
  • A number of other Delta(5)-3beta-hydroxy steroids inhibit cholesterol oxidation and evidence was obtained that the 3beta-hydroxyl group was necessary for inhibitory activity. (biochemj.org)
  • The natural acceptor of cholesterol in plasma is high density lipoprotein (HDL) and apolipoprotein A-I. The cholesterol efflux assay is designed to quantitate the rate of cholesterol efflux from cultured cells. (jove.com)
  • The assay delivers the following information: (i) how a particular treatment (a mutation, a knock-down, an overexpression or a treatment) affects the capacity of cell to efflux cholesterol and (ii) how the capacity of plasma acceptors to accept cholesterol is affected by a disease or a treatment. (jove.com)
  • Cell-linked cholesterol oxidase was extracted with Triton X-114, and this detergent was also used for purification and concentration, following temperature-induced detergent phase separation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The results of this work may make attractive and cost-effective the implementation of this bacterial strain and this detergent in a purification-based industrial production scheme of commercial cholesterol oxidase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • If cholesterol precursors were used to label newly synthesized cholesterol, a fourth step, purification of cholesterol, may be required. (jove.com)
  • A virulência deste pode estar associada a fatores como a cápsula de polissacarídeo, fosfolipase C e à enzima colesterol oxidase (fator equi). (scielo.br)
  • Evidence was obtained that other cholesterol esters behave similarly. (biochemj.org)
  • Cholesterol esters may thus act as precursors of steroid hormones. (biochemj.org)
  • Sponification liberated glycerol from triglycerides and phospholipids and converted the fatty acid from them and from cholesterol esters to soaps. (scribd.com)
  • In each case phospholipids and cholesterol esters had to be determined and the fatty acids present in them calculated and subtracted using factors derived from the average mol.wt. (scribd.com)
  • 14. A solution as recited in claim 1 or 8 wherein the cholesterol esterase is provided at least in an amount sufficient to complete the deesterification of cholesterol esters within a time of about ten minutes at a temperature of about37.degree. (patentgenius.com)
  • Effect of simvastatin therapy on cell membrane cholesterol content and membrane function as assessed by polymorphonuclear cell NADPH oxidase activity. (nih.gov)
  • Cell membrane cholesterol is an important determinant of membrane fluidity. (nih.gov)
  • Treatment of hypercholesterolaemia could therefore affect membrane function by reducing cell membrane cholesterol levels. (nih.gov)
  • The size of this confinement area is regulated by actin and membrane cholesterol. (jneurosci.org)
  • Pharmacological disruption of the cytoskeleton or membrane cholesterol significantly increased the dimensions of the confinement domain of Ca V channels, suggesting that macromolecular scaffolds are important for organizing the synapse. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, testing for a selective effect of native microdomains on the efficiency of fusion, without affecting membrane cholesterol density, has not been assessed. (biologists.org)
  • Semliki Forest virus (SFV) is an enveloped alphavirus that requires cellular membrane cholesterol for both membrane fusion and efficient exit of progeny virus from infected cells. (rupress.org)
  • Although cofactor-lacking oxidases are reported (Fetzner and Steiner 2010 ), commonly used alcohol oxidases depend on flavin (Macheroux et al. (springer.com)
  • It is concluded that the flavin 8α-linkage to a (N1)histidine is a pivotal factor in the modulation of the redox properties of this cholesterol oxidase to increase its oxidative power. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • In this paper, a novel amperometric cholesterol biosensor with immobilization of cholesterol oxidase on electrochemically polymerized polypyrrole-polyvinylsulphonate (PPy-PVS) films has been accomplished via the entrapment technique on the surface of a platinum electrode. (mdpi.com)
  • An amperometric cholesterol biosensor based on epoxy resin membrane bound cholesterol oxidase. (bvsalud.org)
  • This working electrode along with Ag/AgCl as reference and Ag wire as an auxiliary electrode were connected through a three terminal electrometer to construct a cholesterol biosensor . (bvsalud.org)
  • The sensor showed optimum response within 25 sec at pH 7.0 and 45°C. The linear working range of biosensor was 1.0 to 8.0 mM cholesterol . (bvsalud.org)
  • The use of epoxy resin membrane as a support for immobilization of cholesterol oxidase has resulted into an improved amperometric cholesterol biosensor . (bvsalud.org)
  • In this work, the concentration dependent response of amperometric biosensor array for the biomarkers glucose, cholesterol and urease was explored, using artificial neural nets (ANN). (igi-global.com)
  • Reusable and mediator-free cholesterol biosensor based on cholesterol oxidase immobilized onto TGA-SAM modified smart bio-chips. (jove.com)
  • This review focuses on the immobilization of cholesterol oxidases on various macro/micro matrices as well as nanoparticles and their potential applications. (openbiotechnologyjournal.com)
  • In this review, immobilization of cholesterol oxidase on nanomaterials and other matrices are discussed. (openbiotechnologyjournal.com)
  • The color intensity is proportional to cholesterol concentration. (cdc.gov)
  • The cholesterol bioelectrode shows response time of 19 s, linearity from 50 to 400 mg/dL as a function of cholesterol concentration. (springer.com)
  • The gene choA encoding a cholesterol oxidase from Chryseobacterium gleum DSM 16776 was cloned into the pQE-30 expression vector and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli JM109 co-transformed with pRARE2. (biomedcentral.com)
  • On the other hand, a 50% reduction in SR-BI expression [ 17 ] or full disruption of the SR-BI gene in mice increased plasma HDL-cholesterol levels and reduced neutral lipid stores in the adrenal gland and ovary [ 24 , 25 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Inserting the gene for cholesterol oxidase into test plants such as tobacco renders them lethal to a variety of pests. (newscientist.com)
  • By contrast, cotton containing the cholesterol oxidase gene should be resistant to both pests. (newscientist.com)
  • Ultimately, the Monsanto scientists plan to genetically engineer cotton and other crops to contain both Bt genes and the cholesterol oxidase gene. (newscientist.com)
  • Fusion requires cholesterol, with optimal concentrations of one cholesterol molecule per two phospholipids ( White and Helenius, 1980 ). (rupress.org)
  • Potential association of SUG-induced alteration in cholesterol homeostasis with oxidative stress and apoptosis activation occurs. (medsci.org)
  • In NHANES 1999-2000, HDL-cholesterol was measured using two methods. (cdc.gov)