25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 1-alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as 25-hydroxycholecalciferol) in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP27B1 gene, converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 which is the active form of VITAMIN D in regulating bone growth and calcium metabolism. This enzyme is also active on plant 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).Milk Substitutes: Food BEVERAGES that are used as nutritional substitutes for MILK.Cholesterol 7-alpha-Hydroxylase: A membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 7-alpha-hydroxylation of CHOLESTEROL in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP7, converts cholesterol to 7-alpha-hydroxycholesterol which is the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Cholesterol, Dietary: Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.Steroid 21-Hydroxylase: An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Phenylalanine Hydroxylase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the formation of L-TYROSINE, dihydrobiopterin, and water from L-PHENYLALANINE, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen. Deficiency of this enzyme may cause PHENYLKETONURIAS and PHENYLKETONURIA, MATERNAL. EC 1.14.16.1.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Cholesterol Esters: Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Tryptophan Hydroxylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of TRYPTOPHAN to 5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN in the presence of NADPH and molecular oxygen. It is important in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN.Cholesterol Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of cholesterol in the presence of molecular oxygen to 4-cholesten-3-one and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme is not specific for cholesterol, but will also oxidize other 3-hydroxysteroids. EC 1.1.3.6.Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Procollagen-Proline Dioxygenase: A mixed-function oxygenase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of a prolyl-glycyl containing peptide, usually in PROTOCOLLAGEN, to a hydroxyprolylglycyl-containing-peptide. The enzyme utilizes molecular OXYGEN with a concomitant oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate to SUCCINATE. The enzyme occurs as a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits. The beta subunit of procollagen-proline dioxygenase is identical to the enzyme PROTEIN DISULFIDE-ISOMERASES.Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase: An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.Corpus Luteum: The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.Progesterone Congeners: Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.Mifepristone: A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Receptors, Steroid: Proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind steroid hormones and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. The steroid receptor-steroid hormone complex regulates the transcription of specific genes.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Cholesterol, VLDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). High circulating levels of VLDL cholesterol are found in HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE IIB. The cholesterol on the VLDL is eventually delivered by LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS to the tissues after the catabolism of VLDL to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LDL.Progestins: Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.TriglyceridesKinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Pregnenolone: A 21-carbon steroid, derived from CHOLESTEROL and found in steroid hormone-producing tissues. Pregnenolone is the precursor to GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Anticholesteremic Agents: Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC 2.3.1.26.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Hydroxyprogesterones: Metabolites or derivatives of PROGESTERONE with hydroxyl group substitution at various sites.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Lipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.Dinoprost: A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.alpha 1-Antitrypsin: Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.Luteal Phase: The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.Benzopyrene Hydroxylase: A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-448 (P-450) enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of benzopyrene to 3-hydroxybenzopyrene in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. Also acts on certain anthracene derivatives. An aspect of EC 1.14.14.1.Hydroxycholesterols: Cholesterol which is substituted by a hydroxy group in any position.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Pregnancy, Animal: The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.4-Hydroxybenzoate-3-Monooxygenase: A flavoprotein that catalyzes the synthesis of protocatechuic acid from 4-hydroxybenzoate in the presence of molecular oxygen. EC 1.14.13.2.Apolipoprotein A-I: The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Hormone Antagonists: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.beta-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone: A metabolite of PROGESTERONE with a hydroxyl group at the 17-alpha position. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of HYDROCORTISONE and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES.Sitosterols: A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Menstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1: A superfamily of large integral ATP-binding cassette membrane proteins whose expression pattern is consistent with a role in lipid (cholesterol) efflux. It is implicated in TANGIER DISEASE characterized by accumulation of cholesteryl ester in various tissues.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha: One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Androstenedione: A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Phytosterols: A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Granulosa Cells: Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).Pseudopregnancy: An acyclic state that resembles PREGNANCY in that there is no ovarian cycle, ESTROUS CYCLE, or MENSTRUAL CYCLE. Unlike pregnancy, there is no EMBRYO IMPLANTATION. Pseudopregnancy can be experimentally induced to form DECIDUOMA in the UTERUS.Pregnanes: Saturated derivatives of the steroid pregnane. The 5-beta series includes PROGESTERONE and related hormones; the 5-alpha series includes forms generally excreted in the urine.Luteal Cells: PROGESTERONE-producing cells in the CORPUS LUTEUM. The large luteal cells derive from the GRANULOSA CELLS. The small luteal cells derive from the THECA CELLS.Cyclodextrins: A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.Androstenes: Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Pregnanolone: A pregnane found in the urine of pregnant women and sows. It has anesthetic, hypnotic, and sedative properties.Ovarian Follicle: An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Castration: Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mice, Inbred C57BLSheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Cholestanol: A cholesterol derivative found in human feces, gallstones, eggs, and other biological matter.Esterification: The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Gonanes: Steroids containing the fundamental tetracyclic unit with no methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and with no side chain at C-17. The concept includes both saturated and unsaturated derivatives.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Oviducts: Ducts that serve exclusively for the passage of eggs from the ovaries to the exterior of the body. In non-mammals, they are termed oviducts. In mammals, they are highly specialized and known as FALLOPIAN TUBES.Estrous Cycle: The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Phosphatidylcholine-Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC 2.3.1.43.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-Proline Dioxygenases: Dioxygenase enzymes that specifically hydroxylate a PROLINE residue on the HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT. They are OXYGEN-dependent enzymes that play an important role in mediating cellular adaptive responses to HYPOXIA.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Desmosterol: An intermediate in the synthesis of cholesterol.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Apolipoproteins: Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.Dehydroepiandrosterone: A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.20-alpha-Dihydroprogesterone: A biologically active 20-alpha-reduced metabolite of PROGESTERONE. It is converted from progesterone to 20-alpha-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one by the 20-ALPHA-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASE in the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA.Phenylketonurias: A group of autosomal recessive disorders marked by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE or less frequently by reduced activity of DIHYDROPTERIDINE REDUCTASE (i.e., atypical phenylketonuria). Classical phenylketonuria is caused by a severe deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase and presents in infancy with developmental delay; SEIZURES; skin HYPOPIGMENTATION; ECZEMA; and demyelination in the central nervous system. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p952).Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Cholestyramine Resin: A strongly basic anion exchange resin whose main constituent is polystyrene trimethylbenzylammonium Cl(-) anion.Lovastatin: A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.Follicular Phase: The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Norpregnadienes: Pregnadienes which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19.Luteolysis: Degradation of CORPUS LUTEUM. In the absence of pregnancy and diminishing trophic hormones, the corpus luteum undergoes luteolysis which is characterized by the involution and cessation of its endocrine function.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Receptors, LDL: Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.Estrone: An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.20-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction-oxidation reaction of 20-hydroxysteroids, such as from a 20-ketosteroid to a 20-alpha-hydroxysteroid (EC 1.1.1.149) or to a 20-beta-hydroxysteroid (EC 1.1.1.53).Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins: Proteins that bind to and transfer CHOLESTEROL ESTERS between LIPOPROTEINS such as LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Mevalonic AcidSwine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Oxytocin: A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.TritiumFilipin: A complex of polyene antibiotics obtained from Streptomyces filipinensis. Filipin III alters membrane function by interfering with membrane sterols, inhibits mitochondrial respiration, and is proposed as an antifungal agent. Filipins I, II, and IV are less important.Myometrium: The smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ.Progesterone Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of a 3 beta-hydroxy-delta(5)-steroid to 3-oxo-delta(4)-steroid in the presence of NAD. It converts pregnenolone to progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone to androstenedione. EC 1.1.1.145.Aniline Hydroxylase: A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-450 enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of aniline to hydroxyaniline in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. EC 1.14.14.-.Prostaglandins F: (9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.Apolipoproteins B: Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Pregnanediones: Pregnane derivatives in which two side-chain methyl groups or two methylene groups in the ring skeleton (or a combination thereof) have been oxidized to keto groups.Sterol Esterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.Apolipoproteins E: A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Cholestanes: Derivatives of the saturated steroid cholestane with methyl groups at C-18 and C-19 and an iso-octyl side chain at C-17.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Pregnanediol: An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: A member of the NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR subfamily of the LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL family. It consists entirely of pentameric a7 subunits expressed in the CNS, autonomic nervous system, vascular system, lymphocytes and spleen.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Orphan Nuclear Receptors: A broad category of receptor-like proteins that may play a role in transcriptional-regulation in the CELL NUCLEUS. Many of these proteins are similar in structure to known NUCLEAR RECEPTORS but appear to lack a functional ligand-binding domain, while in other cases the specific ligands have yet to be identified.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)AzetidinesDexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Membrane Microdomains: Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.5-alpha-Dihydroprogesterone: A biologically active 5-alpha-reduced metabolite of plasma PROGESTERONE. It is the immediate precursor of 5-alpha-pregnan-3-alpha-ol-20-one (ALLOPREGNANOLONE), a neuroactive steroid that binds with GABA(A) RECEPTOR.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Trans-Cinnamate 4-Monooxygenase: A member of the P450 superfamily, this enzyme catalyzes the first oxidative step of the phenylpropanoid pathway in higher PLANTS by transforming trans-cinnamate into p-coumarate.Cholelithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Administration, Intravaginal: The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.Dehydrocholesterols: Cholesterol derivatives having an additional double bond in any position. 24-Dehydrocholesterol is DESMOSTEROL. The other most prevalent dehydrocholesterol is the 7-isomer. This compound is a precursor of cholesterol and of vitamin D3.Dihydrotestosterone: A potent androgenic metabolite of TESTOSTERONE. It is produced by the action of the enzyme 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE.Lanosterol: A triterpene that derives from the chair-boat-chair-boat folding of 2,3-oxidosqualene. It is metabolized to CHOLESTEROL and CUCURBITACINS.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases: A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Xanthomatosis, Cerebrotendinous: An autosomal recessive lipid storage disorder due to mutation of the gene CYP27A1 encoding a CHOLESTANETRIOL 26-MONOOXYGENASE. It is characterized by large deposits of CHOLESTEROL and CHOLESTANOL in various tissues resulting in xanthomatous swelling of tendons, early CATARACT, and progressive neurological symptoms.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Medroxyprogesterone: (6 alpha)-17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A synthetic progestational hormone used in veterinary practice as an estrus regulator.
The precursor of steroids synthesized in the adrenal cortex is cholesterol that is stored in vesicles. Cholesterol can be ... Progesterone → (hydroxylation at C17) → 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone → (hydroxylation at C21) → 11-Deoxycortisol → ( ... Zhou M, Gomez-Sanchez CE (July 1993). "Cloning and expression of a rat cytochrome P-450 11 beta-hydroxylase/aldosterone ... Yet, the major source of cholesterol appears to be cholesterol that is taken up with circulating lipoproteins. [13] ...
"DHEA metabolites activate estrogen receptors alpha and beta". Steroids. 78 (1): 15-25. doi:10.1016/j.steroids.2012.10.002. PMC ... Binge eating is associated with decreased estradiol and increased progesterone. Klump et al. Progesterone may moderate the ... In contrast, granulosa cells lack 17α-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase, whereas theca cells express these enzymes and 17β-HSD but ... by the synthesis of androstenedione from cholesterol. Androstenedione is a substance of weak androgenic activity which serves ...
All adrenocortical steroid hormones are synthesized from cholesterol. Cholesterol is transported into the adrenal gland. The ... Aldosterone Progesterone → (hydroxylation at C17) → 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone → (hydroxylation at C21) → 11-Deoxycortisol ... Zhou M, Gomez-Sanchez CE (July 1993). "Cloning and expression of a rat cytochrome P-450 11 beta-hydroxylase/aldosterone ... Rainey WE, Nakamura Y (February 2008). "Regulation of the adrenal androgen biosynthesis". J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 108 (3 ...
7alpha-diol 12alpha-hydroxylase EC 1.14.13.97: taurochenodeoxycholate 6α-hydroxylase EC 1.14.13.98: cholesterol 24-hydroxylase ... alpha-humulene 10-hydroxylase EC 1.14.13.151: linalool 8-monooxygenase EC 1.14.13.152: geraniol 8-hydroxylase EC 1.14.13.153 ... 8-hydroxylase EC 1.14.99.3: heme oxygenase (decyclizing) EC 1.14.99.4: progesterone monooxygenase EC 1.14.99.5: now EC 1.14. ... steroid 15beta-monooxygenase EC 1.14.15.9: spheroidene monooxygenase EC 1.14.15.10: (+)-camphor 6-endo-hydroxylase EC 1.14. ...
... the biosynthesis of endogenous steroids and steroid hormones. They may inhibit the production of cholesterol and other sterols ... 21-Hydroxylase (CYP21A2) inhibitors prevent the production of corticosteroids from progesterone and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone. 11 ... Metabolism of 5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3 beta-ol-15-one after intravenous administration to bile duct-cannulated rats". J. Biol ... Steroid sulfotransferase (SST) inhibitors prevent the conversion of steroid hormones such as estrone and DHEA into hormonally ...
... steroid 16-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.748 - steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.760 ... cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.212 - cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme MeSH D12.776.422.220. ... Type XII collagen MeSH D12.776.860.300.250.600 - procollagen MeSH D12.776.860.300.250.700 - tropocollagen MeSH D12.776.860.300. ... progesterone-binding globulin MeSH D12.776.377.715.085.750 - retinol-binding proteins MeSH D12.776.377.715.085.901 - ...
... steroid 16-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.244.453.915.748 --- steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.244.453.915.760 --- steroid 21- ... cholesterol oxidase MeSH D08.811.682.047.436.350.700 --- progesterone reductase MeSH D08.811.682.047.436.375 --- 17- ... steroid 16-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170.915.748 --- steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170 ... steroid 16-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.783.745 --- steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.783.760 ...
... like all other steroid hormones, is synthesized from pregnenolone, which itself is derived from cholesterol. Cholesterol ... Relatively small portions of progesterone are hydroxylated via 17α-hydroxylase (CYP17A1) and 21-hydroxylase (CYP21A2) into 17α- ... "Comparison of progesterone and glucocorticoid receptor binding and stimulation of gene expression by progesterone, 17-alpha ... Progesterone is used as a medication, mainly in hormone replacement therapy. Progesterone is a pregnane (C21) steroid and is ...
... and does not affect cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase, 21-hydroxylase, or 11β- ... doi:10.1016/j.steroids.2008.10.016. PMID 19028512. Many synthetic steroids with high myotrophic activity exhibit myotrophic- ... That is, it is a potent agonist of the progesterone receptor (PR) and a weak agonist of the androgen receptor (AR) and the ... Chu YH, Li QA, Zhao ZF, Zhou YP, Cao DC (1985). "[Antiprogestational action of 5 alpha-dihydronorethisterone]". Zhongguo Yao Li ...
Steroidal AR antagonists are structurally related to steroid hormones like testosterone and progesterone, whereas nonsteroidal ... which is responsible for the conversion of cholesterol into pregnenolone and by extension the production of all steroid ... Ketoconazole and abiraterone acetate are inhibitors of the enzyme CYP17A1, also known as 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase, which is ... "Adverse Effects and Safety of 5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors (Finasteride, Dutasteride): A Systematic Review". J Clin Aesthet ...
One of the primary functions of FXR activation is the suppression of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate- ... steroid hormone mediated signaling pathway. • fatty acid homeostasis. • positive regulation of insulin receptor signaling ... Retinoid X receptor alpha.[10]. Ligands[edit]. A number of ligands for FXR are known, of both natural and synthetic origin.[11] ... "Correlation of farnesoid X receptor coactivator recruitment and cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase gene repression by bile acids". ...
... including cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc/CYP11A1) and 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17A1), were not found to ... "Effects in vitro of medroxyprogesterone acetate on steroid metabolizing enzymes in the rat: selective inhibition of 3 alpha- ... MPA is a potent agonist of the progesterone receptor with similar affinity and efficacy relative to progesterone. While both ... The only continuing action is to book subsequent follow-up injections every twelve weeks, and to monitor side effects to ensure ...
5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone and [3H]cortisol binding to plasma proteins". J. Steroid Biochem. 33 (2): 251-5. doi:10.1016/0022- ... also known as 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase, which is responsible for the conversion of pregnane steroids into androgens, as well ... which is responsible for the conversion of cholesterol into pregnenolone and by extension the production of all steroid ... Steroidal AR antagonists are structurally related to steroid hormones like testosterone and progesterone, whereas nonsteroidal ...
... and does not affect cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase, 21-hydroxylase, or 11β- ... Raynaud JP, Ojasoo T (1986). "The design and use of sex-steroid antagonists". J. Steroid Biochem. 25 (5B): 811-33. doi:10.1016/ ... and hence is an agonist of the progesterone receptor, the biological target of progestogens like progesterone.[4][5] It has ... Chu YH, Li QA, Zhao ZF, Zhou YP, Cao DC (1985). "[Antiprogestational action of 5 alpha-dihydronorethisterone]". Zhongguo Yao Li ...
... steroid 11β-hydroxylase, and their associated electron transfer proteins.[8] This effect is observed over several hours.[8] ... The rapid actions of ACTH include stimulation of cholesterol delivery to the mitochondria where the P450scc enzyme is located. ... melanotropin alpha. melanocyte-stimulating hormone. α-MSH. 138-150 corticotropin-like intermediate peptide. CLIP. 156-176 ... Postorgasmic illness syndrome (POIS), through production of tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine β-hydroxylase, which two enzymes ...
... undergoes further steroid metabolism in one of several ways: *Pregnenolone can be converted into progesterone. The ... To assay conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone, radiolabeled cholesterol has been used.[16] Pregnenolone product can be ... Pregnenolone can be converted to 17α-hydroxypregnenolone by the enzyme 17α-hydroxylase (CYP17A1). Using this pathway, termed Δ5 ... On the other hand there were no significant changes in serum levels of the steroid precursors pregnenolone and progesterone ...
Endogenous steroids. Precursors. *Cholesterol. *22R-Hydroxycholesterol. *20α,22R-Dihydroxycholesterol ... This step is performed by the mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme 17α-hydroxylase (CYP17A1) that is present in the adrenal and ... 17α-Hydroxypregnenolone is a pregnane (C21) steroid that is obtained by hydroxylation of pregnenolone at the C17α position. ... while in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 17α-hydroxylase deficiency levels are low to absent. ...
Cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase. *Methane monooxygenase. *3A4. *Lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase. *24-hydroxycholesterol 7α- ... Oxidoreductases: dioxygenases, including steroid hydroxylases (EC 1.14). 1.14.11: 2-oxoglutarate. *Prolyl hydroxylase *HIF ... PHF8 belongs to the family of ferrous iron and alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent hydroxylases superfamily.,[6] and is active as a ... 12][13][14] A chromosomal microdeletion on Xp11.22 encompassing all of the PHF8 and FAM120C genes and a part of the WNK3 gene ...
"DHEA metabolites activate estrogen receptors alpha and beta". Steroids. 78 (1): 15-25. doi:10.1016/j.steroids.2012.10.002. PMC ... Binge eating is associated with decreased estradiol and increased progesterone.[56] Klump et al.[57] Progesterone may moderate ... In contrast, granulosa cells lack 17α-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase, whereas theca cells express these enzymes and 17β-HSD but ... by the synthesis of androstenedione from cholesterol. Androstenedione is a substance of weak androgenic activity which serves ...
... between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid ... A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the ... Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase (17 alpha Hydroxylase) 2. Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System (Cytochrome P450) ... 02/25/2013 - "This down-regulation of STAR, CYP11A1 and PGR in endometrial cancer may lead to decreased progesterone ...
Either a conversion from progesterone to 17 alpha hydroxyprogesterone via the 17-alpha hydroxylase enzyme (sex steroids) or to ... Basically all steroids convert to progesterone from cholesterol. Then they can go two ways one they reach progesterone: Either ... Either a conversion from progesterone to 17 alpha hydroxyprogesterone via the 17-alpha hydroxylase enzyme (sex steroids) or to ... a conversion from progesterone to 17 alpha hydroxyprogesterone via the 17-alpha hydroxylase enzyme (sex steroids) or to 11- ...
Cholesterol side-chain cleavage deficiency. 17-Alpha-hydroxylase / 17-lyase deficiency. 18. 3-beta-HSD type II deficiency. 15. ... Parsa AA, New MI; Steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency in congenital adrenal hyperplasia.; J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol, 2017 ... Progesterone. POR. P450Aro. Pregnenolone. 5-alpha-Reductase2. Oestradiol. Cytochrome b5. H6PD. 18-hydroxycorticosterone. 11- ... Kim SM, Rhee JH; A case of 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency.; Clin Exp Reprod Med, 2015 PubMed Europe PMC*Carvajal CA, ...
Cholesterol side-chain cleavage deficiency. 7. 17-Alpha-hydroxylase / 17-lyase deficiency. 3-beta-HSD type II deficiency. 16. ... Parsa AA, New MI; Steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency in congenital adrenal hyperplasia.; J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol, 2017 ... Progesterone. Cholesterol. Cortisol. Dihydrotestosterone. POR. 17-beta-HSD3. 11beta-HSD1. Corticosterone Methyl Oxidase II. ... 21-Hydroxylase deficiency. 18. 23. 11-beta-hydroxylase type I deficiency. Corticosterone methyl oxidase deficiency. 14. ...
7. Steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase. General function:. Involved in monooxygenase activity. Specific function:. ... Catalyzes the side-chain cleavage reaction of cholesterol to pregnenolone. Gene Name:. CYP11A1. Uniprot ID:. P05108 Molecular ... Has steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase activity. In addition to this activity, the 18 or 19-hydroxylation of steroids and the ... Progesterone. Description. The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the corpus luteum and the placenta. ...
2. Steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase. General function:. Involved in monooxygenase activity. Specific function:. ... Efficiently catalyzes the transformation of pregnenolone to progesterone, 17-alpha-hydroxypregnenolone to 17-alpha- ... The conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone is accomplished by the cleavage of the cholesterol side chain, catalyzed by a ... The ratio of the 17,20 lyase to 17 alpha-hydroxylase activity of CYP17 determines the ratio of C21 to C19 steroids produced. ...
... alpha (17 alpha-hydroxylase/C17-20 lyase). J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1994; 50: 267-73. ... 3) or by the de novo intratumoral synthesis of androgens from substrates such as cholesterol or progesterone ( 4). Steroid ... Because abiraterone suppressed both 17-alpha-hydroxylase and C-17,20-lyase CYP17 activity ( Fig. 1A), its continuous ... 9) or with daily low dose steroids that suppress ACTH. Importantly, abiraterone suppressed downstream C-21 androgenic steroids ...
... steroid 17.alpha.-hydroxylase, steroid 21-hydroxylase and steroid 11.beta.-hydroxylase to generate a hydrocortisone. 11. The ... progesterone is 10% or more, and the conversion rate from cholesterol to pregnenolone is 10% or more;. Claims:. 1. A protein ... steroid 17.alpha.-hydroxylase, steroid 21-hydroxylase and steroid 11.beta.-hydroxylase, and the yeast has any one additional ... steroid 17.alpha.-hydroxylase, steroid 21-hydroxylase and steroid 11.beta.-hydroxylase, and the yeast having any one additional ...
Steroids and steroid derivatives. Sub Class. Steroid lactones. Direct Parent. Cardenolide glycosides and derivatives. ... Details2. Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, mitochondrial. Kind. Protein. Organism. Human. Pharmacological action. ... Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity. Specific Function. Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver ... Chen JJ, Wang PS, Chien EJ, Wang SW: Direct inhibitory effect of digitalis on progesterone release from rat granulosa cells. Br ...
... independent of the cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17A1) enzyme activity found in the periphery. This ... independent of the cytochrome P450 17a-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17A1) enzyme activity found in the periphery. This ... Neurosteroids are steroids made by brain cells independently of peripheral steroidogenic sources. The biosynthesis of most ... Neurosteroids are steroids made by brain cells independently of peripheral steroidogenic sources. The biosynthesis of most ...
Kadis, B. 1966 Steroid hydroxylations V. Intracellular location of 16 alpha-hydroxylase and its substrate specificity in sow ... Toren, D., K. M. J. Menon, E. Forchielli and R. I. Dorfman 1964 112 nitro enzymatic cleavage of the cholesterol side chain in ... Because the lutein cells are thought to be involved i n the synthesis of progesterone and its intermediates and because these ... 81 LITERATURE CITED Ball, H., and B. Kadis 1965 Steroid hydroxylation. 11. Intracellular location of 17 alpha hydroxylase and ...
anti-fungal drug! But, can be used for non-fungal treatments: inhibits desmolase (17-alpha-hydroxylase) so inhibits steroid ... Enzyme that converts cholesterol Androstenedione in Theca cells of ovary Desmolase = 17-alpha-hydorxylase ... maintains corpus luteum (and progesterone) during 1st trimester by secreting LH. During 2nd and 3rd trimesters, placenta ... Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (21-hydroxylase or 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency) -Exogenous steroids during pregnancy ...
Steroid 17-alpha-monooxygenase activity. Specific Function. Conversion of pregnenolone and progesterone to their 17-alpha- ... Steroid hydroxylase activity. Specific Function. Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the ... Transmembrane glycoprotein that is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis as well as in the biosynthesis of ... Catalyzes both the 17-alpha-hydroxylation .... Gene Name. CYP17A1. Uniprot ID. P05093. Uniprot Name. Steroid 17-alpha- ...
90% 21-hydroxylase deficiency (prevents conversion of progesterone - 11-deoxycorticosterone AND 17-hydroxyprogesterone ... alpha-agonist (some selectivity for alpha-1). encourage trigone & sphincter to contract promotes urinary retention. ... rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia w/ impaired synthesis of all steroid hormones. ... 2) 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors: finasteride, dutasteride; reduce prostate volume. work on FIXED component of bladder outlet ...
The precursor of steroids synthesized in the adrenal cortex is cholesterol that is stored in vesicles. Cholesterol can be ... Progesterone → (hydroxylation at C17) → 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone → (hydroxylation at C21) → 11-Deoxycortisol → ( ... Zhou M, Gomez-Sanchez CE (July 1993). "Cloning and expression of a rat cytochrome P-450 11 beta-hydroxylase/aldosterone ... Yet, the major source of cholesterol appears to be cholesterol that is taken up with circulating lipoproteins. [13] ...
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2000;73(3-4):171-181.. Mauvais-Jarvis P, Kuttenn F, Gompel A. Antiestrogen action of progesterone ... Genetic predisposition to carcinoma of the breast: multiple human genotypes for estrogen 16 alpha hydroxylase activity in ... Effects of natural and synthetic hormones on subfractions of HDL cholesterol and liver proteins. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ... Campagnoli C, Abba C, Ambroggio S, Peris C. Pregnancy, progesterone and progestins in relation to breast cancer risk. J Steroid ...
Represses the transcription of the cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase gene (CYP7A1) through the induction of NR0B2 or FGF19 ... Works in concert with the 5-alpha/5-beta-steroid reductases to convert steroid hormones into the 3-alpha/5-alpha and 3-alpha/5- ... Converts progesterone to its inactive form, 20-alpha-dihydroxyprogesterone (20-alpha-OHP). In the liver and intestine, may have ... Catalyzes the inactivation of the most potent androgen 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5-alpha-DHT) to 5-alpha-androstane-3-alpha, ...
The triglyceride level was too high to calculate the low density lipoprotein cholesterol. A diagnosis of severe intrahepatic ... fasting serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels 58 IU,79 IU/L,18.37 mmol/L and 25.7 mmol/L respectively. ... Up regulation of BA synthesis by lipoprotein cholesterol through increased cholesterol 7-alpha hydroxylase (the rate ... it is also the precursor for the synthesis of steroid hormones and BA. Exported cholesterol from the liver and intestines ...
"DHEA metabolites activate estrogen receptors alpha and beta". Steroids. 78 (1): 15-25. doi:10.1016/j.steroids.2012.10.002. PMC ... Binge eating is associated with decreased estradiol and increased progesterone. Klump et al. Progesterone may moderate the ... In contrast, granulosa cells lack 17α-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase, whereas theca cells express these enzymes and 17β-HSD but ... by the synthesis of androstenedione from cholesterol. Androstenedione is a substance of weak androgenic activity which serves ...
All adrenocortical steroid hormones are synthesized from cholesterol. Cholesterol is transported into the adrenal gland. The ... Aldosterone Progesterone → (hydroxylation at C17) → 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone → (hydroxylation at C21) → 11-Deoxycortisol ... Zhou M, Gomez-Sanchez CE (July 1993). "Cloning and expression of a rat cytochrome P-450 11 beta-hydroxylase/aldosterone ... Rainey WE, Nakamura Y (February 2008). "Regulation of the adrenal androgen biosynthesis". J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 108 (3 ...
Cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase of rat liver. Studies on the solubilisation, resolution and reconstitution of the enzyme ... Effect of LH factors regulating ovarian cholesterol metabolism and progesterone synthesis in PMSG-primed immature rats. ... The suppressive effect of the catatoxic steroid, pregnenolone-16alpha-carbonitrile, on liver microsomal cholesterol-7alpha- ... Partial characterization of a protein from rat liver 100 000 g supernatant which stimulates cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase [ ...
Failure to increase steroids. *. Failure to appropriately increase daily replacement steroid doses in patients with ... Steven B Nagelberg, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Association of Clinical ... Patients with CAH respond with a marked increase in 17-OH progesterone levels, an increase in other precursors preceding the ... The steroidogenic enzyme 21-hydroxylase (21OH) is the main autoantigen, but antibodies against this enzyme are not directly ...
Steroids arent stored in secretory glands. Cholesterol is the precursor molecule of all steroids. C17 and C=O, H-C=O. ... Cholesterol to progesterone. Progesterone to cortisol or aldosterone or testosterone. Testosterone to estradiol. ... Blocking steroid synthesis: AMINOGLUTETHIMIDE (inhibits the rate limiting step). METYRAPONE (inhibits hydroxylase enzyme). ... Alpha 2 agonists and parasympathomimetics for glau. *They decrease secretion of aqueous humour by decreasing cAMP, which ...
... including 11-beta-hydroxylase and 17-alpha-hydroxylase, which in turn inhibit steroid synthesis. ... In addition, darolutamide functioned as a progesterone receptor (PR) antagonist in vitro. Darolutamide decreased prostate ... cholesterol side-chain cleavage, and conversion of 11-deoxycortisol to cortisol. It may inhibit adrenocorticotropic hormone ( ... Abiraterone is an androgen biosynthesis inhibitor that inhibits 17-alpha-hydroxylase/C17,20-lyase (CYP17); this enzyme is ...
... boosts progesterone). Support the liver with bitter herbs, as well as quercetin, alpha-lipoic acid, and N-acetylcysteine. ... Cholesterol is the building block of sex hormones, so healthy, cholesterol-rich foods should be encouraged. Vitamin and mineral ... Steroids. 2007;72(2):124-134.. *Kotyk MW, Wiltshire WA. An investigation into bisphenol-A leaching from orthodontic materials. ... These 2 estrogens can convert back and forth into each other via hepatic hydroxylases, and are then prepared for elimination ...
  • The classical pathway is meant to produce an important steroid called Androgen, which is a synthetic steroid hormone that regulates sexual development and the maintenance of the male sex organs via binding to androgen receptors. (wikipathways.org)
  • AR, and other nuclear steroid receptors including ERα, have been implicated in impacting the expression of the ETS oncogenes that could be critical to prostate carcinogenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In males, testosterone works via androgen receptors to increase insulin receptor expression and glycogen synthesis, decrease glucose uptake and lipogenesis, and promote cholesterol storage in the liver. (hindawi.com)
  • Ovary cells demonstrated over-expression of genes related to stem cell maintenance, while in testis cells, transcripts encoding for reproduction-associated receptors, sex steroids and hormone synthesis and signaling genes were over-expressed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Increased oxidative stress within the artery wall modifies low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to a form recognised by macrophage scavenger receptors, resulting in the unregulated uptake of excess cholesterol and cholesteryl esters within macrophage 'foam cells', a hallmark of early and developing atheroma[ 1 - 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2000. Human first trimester fetal ovaries express oncofetal antigens and steroid receptors. (endocrinedisruption.org)
  • These neuroactive steroid derivatives enhance GABA via allosteric modulation at GABA(A) receptors and have anticonvulsant, antidepressant and anxiolytic effects, and also alter sexual and alcohol related behavior. (wikidoc.org)
  • This study aims to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of palbociclib resistance and to identify the key genes and pathways mediating progesterone resistance in breast cancer (BC). (lww.com)
  • In 1939, Windhaus determined the structure and initial pathways by which vitamin D 3 was synthesized from 7-dehydrocholesterol [ 11 , 12 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • These 2 estrogens can convert back and forth into each other via hepatic hydroxylases, and are then prepared for elimination from the body by being metabolized through glucuronidation, sulfation, and/or methylation. (ndnr.com)
  • One major reason for a lack of conclusive data is that, until recently, progestogens were lumped together because of a commonly held belief that different forms of progestogens would have identical physiological effects and risks, because they all mediate effects via the same (progesterone) receptor. (completehormonesolutions.com)
  • The low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) is the primary pathway for removal of cholesterol from the circulation ( 2 ) and its activity is accurately controlled by intracellular cholesterol levels ( 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • We sought to determine the relation between 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate plasma concentrations, progesterone receptor (show PGR ELISA Kits ) single nucleotide polymorphisms and single nucleotide polymorphisms in CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 (show CYP3A5 ELISA Kits ) and spontaneous preterm birth. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Retinoid X receptor α (RXRα), the most highly expressed RXR isoform in liver, plays a central role in regulating bile acid, cholesterol, fatty acid, steroid and xenobiotic metabolism and homeostasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 50 ng/dL, has remained the most effective treatment for this disease for more than 60 years, recent studies indicate that prostate cancers may generate intracrine androgenic steroids or become "hypersensitive" to low steroid levels through AR gene mutations or amplification supporting continued tumor growth ( 1 , 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Molecular study showed no pathogenic variants in the CYP21A2 gene (21 Hydroxylase). (bvsalud.org)
  • Other genes are located in the class III region, including the 21-hydroxylase genes, two complement factor 4 genes (C4), properidine factor B gene (Bf), and complement factor 2 gene (C2). (glowm.com)
  • The latter comprise a subset of the cytochrome P450 " Cyp " gene family that metabolize fatty acids, steroids, as well as endogenous and exogenous toxicants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, given the drawbacks of 17α-hydroxylase inhibition, there is considerable interest in developing new CYP17A1 inhibitors that more specifically inhibit lyase activity and are therefore less likely to require glucocorticoid coadministration. (aacrjournals.org)
  • OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to develop a mechanistic computational model of the metabolic network of adrenal steroidogenesis to estimate the synthesis and secretion of adrenal steroids in human H295R cells and their biochemical response to steroidogenesis-disrupting EAC. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Hepatic steatosis, a major manifestation of metabolic syndrome, is associated with imbalance between lipid formation and breakdown, glucose production and catabolism, and cholesterol synthesis and secretion. (hindawi.com)
  • The effects of steroid-free bovine follicular fluid (bFF) and sodium phenobarbitone on spontaneous LH releasing hormone (LHRH)-induced secretion of FSH and LH were studied in ovariectomized rats. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Downstream products of mevalonate, include cholesterol, ubiquinone, dolichol, and the isoprenoids geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) and farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) that bind to several small GTP-binding proteins such as Ras and Rho. (frontiersin.org)
  • This was an observational study of steroids, messenger RNA transcripts and proteins in adrenals from up to 109 second trimester fetuses (11 weeks to 21 weeks) at the Universities of Aberdeen and Glasgow. (springer.com)
  • BACKGROUND: An in vitro steroidogenesis assay using the human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line H295R is being evaluated as a possible screening assay to detect and assess the impact of endocrine-active chemicals (EACs) capable of altering steroid biosynthesis. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In vitro and animal models suggest subsequent 3alpha-reduction of DHT, DHP and DHDOC lead to steroid metabolites with effects on cerebral function achieved by enhancing GABA ergic inhibition. (wikidoc.org)
  • DHEA is manufactured from Cholesterol in the body. (npaf.ca)
  • Interestingly, while DHEA levels decline with age, Cholesterol levels tend to rise. (npaf.ca)
  • El DHEA es una hormona producida naturalmente en el cuerpo. (medlineplus.gov)
  • El DHEA es una hormona que es producida en forma natural por el cuerpo. (medlineplus.gov)
  • El uso de óvulos vaginales que contienen DHEA puede disminuir el dolor durante las relaciones sexuales en hasta un 15% en mujeres posmenopáusicas. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cierta investigación nuestra que la ingesta de DHEA o su aplicación en la piel podría mejorar la apariencia de la piel en mujeres posmenopáusicas y en personas mayores de 60 años. (medlineplus.gov)
  • No obstante, otra investigación muestra que la ingesta de DHEA no parece prevenir el aborto espontáneo en mujeres que han tenido un FIV. (medlineplus.gov)
  • La ingesta de DHEA durante un máximo de 2 años no parece mejorar la forma del cuerpo, la fuerza ósea, la fuerza muscular o la calidad de vida en personas mayores de 60 años con bajos niveles de DHEA. (medlineplus.gov)
  • La mayoría de la investigación muestra que el DHEA no mejora la fuerza muscular en los adultos. (medlineplus.gov)
  • La mayoría de la investigación preliminar muestra que la DHEA no reduce el rendimiento físico en los adultos mayores. (medlineplus.gov)
  • La investigación preliminar sugiere que la ingesta de DHEA no reduce los síntomas de la artritis reumatoide en los ancianos. (medlineplus.gov)
  • La mayoría de la investigación muestra que la ingesta de DHEA no parece mejorar ni empeorar la función mental o detener el deterioro mental en los ancianos sanos, pacientes con VIH o en adultos jóvenes sanos. (medlineplus.gov)
  • La investigación muestra que la ingesta de DHEA no disminuye los síntomas de una condición llamada síndrome de Sjögren, que causa sequedad en los ojos y en la boca. (medlineplus.gov)
  • No son claros los efectos del DHEA en los síntomas de la enfermedad de Addison. (medlineplus.gov)
  • No son claros los efectos del DHEA en mujeres con síntomas relacionados con la carencia de hormona suprarrenal. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Biochemical and pharmacogenetic dissection of human steroid 5 alpha-reductase type II. (wikipathways.org)
  • The Fine Structure of Sow Lutein Cells PAUL GOODMAN,3 JOHN S. LATTA, RICHARD B. WILSON AND BARNEY KADIS Departments of Anatomy, Pathology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, a7zd the Eppley Cancer Re.search Institute, University of Nebraska College of Medicine, Omaha, Nebraska ABSTRACT The morphological observations described in this reuort are part of a biochemical study of progesterone intermediates using sow ovary. (docme.ru)
  • Biochemical and pharmacological evidence is presented to demonstrate the existence of more than one human steroid 5α-reductase. (google.co.uk)
  • In this review starting from recent acquired findings on the role that cholesterol and its metabolites fulfill in the contest of cancer cells, we discuss the results of studies focused to investigate the use of statins in order to prevent cancer growth and metastasis. (frontiersin.org)