Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Cholesterol, Dietary: Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Receptors, LDL: Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.Cholesterol Esters: Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.Cholesterol Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of cholesterol in the presence of molecular oxygen to 4-cholesten-3-one and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme is not specific for cholesterol, but will also oxidize other 3-hydroxysteroids. EC 22.214.171.124.Cholesterol 7-alpha-Hydroxylase: A membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 7-alpha-hydroxylation of CHOLESTEROL in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP7, converts cholesterol to 7-alpha-hydroxycholesterol which is the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)TriglyceridesCholesterol, VLDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). High circulating levels of VLDL cholesterol are found in HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE IIB. The cholesterol on the VLDL is eventually delivered by LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS to the tissues after the catabolism of VLDL to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LDL.Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.Anticholesteremic Agents: Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.Lipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC 126.96.36.199.Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Apolipoprotein A-I: The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.Apolipoproteins B: Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Sitosterols: A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1: A superfamily of large integral ATP-binding cassette membrane proteins whose expression pattern is consistent with a role in lipid (cholesterol) efflux. It is implicated in TANGIER DISEASE characterized by accumulation of cholesteryl ester in various tissues.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.beta-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Apolipoproteins: Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Hydroxycholesterols: Cholesterol which is substituted by a hydroxy group in any position.Esterification: The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Phytosterols: A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Lovastatin: A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.Apolipoproteins E: A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Phosphatidylcholine-Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC 188.8.131.52.Cyclodextrins: A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins: Proteins that bind to and transfer CHOLESTEROL ESTERS between LIPOPROTEINS such as LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Cholestyramine Resin: A strongly basic anion exchange resin whose main constituent is polystyrene trimethylbenzylammonium Cl(-) anion.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Mevalonic AcidHyperlipoproteinemia Type II: A group of familial disorders characterized by elevated circulating cholesterol contained in either LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS alone or also in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (pre-beta lipoproteins).Desmosterol: An intermediate in the synthesis of cholesterol.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Filipin: A complex of polyene antibiotics obtained from Streptomyces filipinensis. Filipin III alters membrane function by interfering with membrane sterols, inhibits mitochondrial respiration, and is proposed as an antifungal agent. Filipins I, II, and IV are less important.Foam Cells: Lipid-laden macrophages originating from monocytes or from smooth muscle cells.Diet, Atherogenic: A diet that contributes to the development and acceleration of ATHEROGENESIS.AzetidinesSterol Esterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Scavenger Receptors, Class B: A family of scavenger receptors that are predominately localized to CAVEOLAE of the PLASMA MEMBRANE and bind HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Hypolipidemic Agents: Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Cholestanol: A cholesterol derivative found in human feces, gallstones, eggs, and other biological matter.Receptors, Lipoprotein: Cell surface proteins that bind lipoproteins with high affinity. Lipoprotein receptors in the liver and peripheral tissues mediate the regulation of plasma and cellular cholesterol metabolism and concentration. The receptors generally recognize the apolipoproteins of the lipoprotein complex, and binding is often a trigger for endocytosis.Membrane Microdomains: Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Cholelithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).Sphingomyelins: A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Androstenes: Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.Lanosterol: A triterpene that derives from the chair-boat-chair-boat folding of 2,3-oxidosqualene. It is metabolized to CHOLESTEROL and CUCURBITACINS.Simvastatin: A derivative of LOVASTATIN and potent competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It may also interfere with steroid hormone production. Due to the induction of hepatic LDL RECEPTORS, it increases breakdown of LDL CHOLESTEROL.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Orphan Nuclear Receptors: A broad category of receptor-like proteins that may play a role in transcriptional-regulation in the CELL NUCLEUS. Many of these proteins are similar in structure to known NUCLEAR RECEPTORS but appear to lack a functional ligand-binding domain, while in other cases the specific ligands have yet to be identified.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Dehydrocholesterols: Cholesterol derivatives having an additional double bond in any position. 24-Dehydrocholesterol is DESMOSTEROL. The other most prevalent dehydrocholesterol is the 7-isomer. This compound is a precursor of cholesterol and of vitamin D3.Niemann-Pick Diseases: A group of autosomal recessive disorders in which harmful quantities of lipids accumulate in the viscera and the central nervous system. They can be caused by deficiencies of enzyme activities (SPHINGOMYELIN PHOSPHODIESTERASE) or defects in intracellular transport, resulting in the accumulation of SPHINGOMYELINS and CHOLESTEROL. There are various subtypes based on their clinical and genetic differences.Embolism, Cholesterol: Blocking of a blood vessel by CHOLESTEROL-rich atheromatous deposits, generally occurring in the flow from a large artery to small arterial branches. It is also called arterial-arterial embolization or atheroembolism which may be spontaneous or iatrogenic. Patients with spontaneous atheroembolism often have painful, cyanotic digits of acute onset.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Apolipoprotein B-100: A 513-kDa protein synthesized in the LIVER. It serves as the major structural protein of low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). It is the ligand for the LDL receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL) that promotes cellular binding and internalization of LDL particles.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 2: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates GENES involved in CHOLESTEROL synthesis and uptake.Apolipoproteins A: Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Dyslipidemias: Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.Pravastatin: An antilipemic fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Nocardia autotrophica. It acts as a competitive inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES).Heptanoic Acids: 7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase: An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.Receptors, Scavenger: A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.StigmasterolSteroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Ketocholesterols: Cholesterol substituted in any position by a keto moiety. The 7-keto isomer inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity and inhibits cholesterol uptake in the coronary arteries and aorta in vitro.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.SqualeneLipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Cholestanes: Derivatives of the saturated steroid cholestane with methyl groups at C-18 and C-19 and an iso-octyl side chain at C-17.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Lipoproteins, HDL3: Intermediate-density subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes between 7 to 8 nm. As the larger lighter HDL2 lipoprotein, HDL3 lipoprotein is lipid-rich.Gallbladder: A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.Hypertriglyceridemia: A condition of elevated levels of TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated: Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder of CHOLESTEROL metabolism. It is caused by a deficiency of 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, the enzyme that converts 7-dehydrocholesterol to cholesterol, leading to an abnormally low plasma cholesterol. This syndrome is characterized by multiple CONGENITAL ABNORMALITIES, growth deficiency, and INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Xanthomatosis: A condition marked by the development of widespread xanthomas, yellow tumor-like structures filled with lipid deposits. Xanthomas can be found in a variety of tissues including the SKIN; TENDONS; joints of KNEES and ELBOWS. Xanthomatosis is associated with disturbance of LIPID METABOLISM and formation of FOAM CELLS.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Lipoprotein(a): A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Chylomicrons: A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Probucol: A drug used to lower LDL and HDL cholesterol yet has little effect on serum-triglyceride or VLDL cholesterol. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p993).Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Mice, Inbred C57BLLecithin Acyltransferase Deficiency: An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that facilitates the esterification of lipoprotein cholesterol and subsequent removal from peripheral tissues to the liver. This defect results in low HDL-cholesterol level in blood and accumulation of free cholesterol in tissue leading to a triad of CORNEAL OPACITY, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), and PROTEINURIA.Tangier Disease: An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS involved in cellular cholesterol removal (reverse-cholesterol transport). It is characterized by near absence of ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins) in blood. The massive tissue deposition of cholesterol esters results in HEPATOMEGALY; SPLENOMEGALY; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; large orange tonsils; and often sensory POLYNEUROPATHY. The disorder was first found among inhabitants of Tangier Island in the Chesapeake Bay, MD.TritiumOrganosilicon Compounds: Organic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Vitamin E: A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Pyrroles: Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.Mesocricetus: A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.Oleic Acids: A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Hyperlipoproteinemias: Conditions with abnormally elevated levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. They may be inherited, acquired, primary, or secondary. Hyperlipoproteinemias are classified according to the pattern of lipoproteins on electrophoresis or ultracentrifugation.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 184.108.40.206.Apolipoprotein A-II: The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Fats, Unsaturated: Fats containing one or more double bonds, as from oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Colestipol: Highly crosslinked and insoluble basic anion exchange resin used as anticholesteremic. It may also may reduce triglyceride levels.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Triparanol: Antilipemic agent with high ophthalmic toxicity. According to Merck Index, 11th ed, the compound was withdrawn from the market in 1962 because of its association with the formation of irreversible cataracts.Lipoproteins, IDL: A mixture of very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), particularly the triglyceride-poor VLDL, with slow diffuse electrophoretic mobilities in the beta and alpha2 regions which are similar to that of beta-lipoproteins (LDL) or alpha-lipoproteins (HDL). They can be intermediate (remnant) lipoproteins in the de-lipidation process, or remnants of mutant CHYLOMICRONS and VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS which cannot be metabolized completely as seen in FAMILIAL DYSBETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Hyperlipidemia, Familial Combined: A type of familial lipid metabolism disorder characterized by a variable pattern of elevated plasma CHOLESTEROL and/or TRIGLYCERIDES. Multiple genes on different chromosomes may be involved, such as the major late transcription factor (UPSTREAM STIMULATORY FACTORS) on CHROMOSOME 1.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Eggs: Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.Cholestenones: CHOLESTENES with one or more double bonds and substituted by any number of keto groups.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.trans-1,4-Bis(2-chlorobenzaminomethyl)cyclohexane Dihydrochloride: An anticholesteremic agent that inhibits sterol biosynthesis in animals.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.EstersOleic Acid: An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Biliary Tract: The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Farnesyl-Diphosphate Farnesyltransferase: The first committed enzyme of the biosynthesis pathway that leads to the production of STEROLS. it catalyzes the synthesis of SQUALENE from farnesyl pyrophosphate via the intermediate PRESQUALENE PYROPHOSPHATE. This enzyme is also a critical branch point enzyme in the biosynthesis of ISOPRENOIDS that is thought to regulate the flux of isoprene intermediates through the sterol pathway.Cholic Acid: A major primary bile acid produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption and cholesterol excretion.Diet, Fat-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)Dietary Fats, Unsaturated: Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.Cholic Acids: The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.Pregnenolone: A 21-carbon steroid, derived from CHOLESTEROL and found in steroid hormone-producing tissues. Pregnenolone is the precursor to GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Hypolipoproteinemias: Conditions with abnormally low levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. This may involve any of the lipoprotein subclasses, including ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins); BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low-density lipoproteins); and PREBETA-LIPOPROTEINS (very-low-density lipoproteins).Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Soybean Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from SOYBEANS.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Niemann-Pick Disease, Type C: An autosomal recessive lipid storage disorder that is characterized by accumulation of CHOLESTEROL and SPHINGOMYELINS in cells of the VISCERA and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Type C (or C1) and type D are allelic disorders caused by mutation of gene (NPC1) encoding a protein that mediate intracellular cholesterol transport from lysosomes. Clinical signs include hepatosplenomegaly and chronic neurological symptoms. Type D is a variant in people with a Nova Scotia ancestry.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Corn Oil: Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.Proprotein Convertases: Proteolytic enzymes that are involved in the conversion of protein precursors such as peptide prohormones into PEPTIDE HORMONES. Some are ENDOPEPTIDASES, some are EXOPEPTIDASES.Lipoprotein Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 220.127.116.11.Caveolin 1: A tyrosine phosphoprotein that plays an essential role in CAVEOLAE formation. It binds CHOLESTEROL and is involved in LIPIDS transport, membrane traffic, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Lymph: The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Taurocholic Acid: The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Margarine: A butterlike product made of refined vegetable oils, sometimes blended with animal fats, and emulsified usually with water or milk. It is used as a butter substitute. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)FluorobenzenesDiabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Egg Yolk: Cytoplasm stored in an egg that contains nutritional reserves for the developing embryo. It is rich in polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins.Chenodeoxycholic Acid: A bile acid, usually conjugated with either glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption and is reabsorbed by the small intestine. It is used as cholagogue, a choleretic laxative, and to prevent or dissolve gallstones.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Cholestenes: Steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a branched 8-carbon chain at C-17. Members include compounds with any degree of unsaturation; however, CHOLESTADIENES is available for derivatives containing two double bonds.Diosgenin: A spirostan found in DIOSCOREA and other plants. The 25S isomer is called yamogenin. Solasodine is a natural derivative formed by replacing the spiro-ring with a nitrogen, which can rearrange to SOLANINE.Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine: A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Proteins: Sterol regulatory element binding proteins are basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factors that bind the sterol regulatory element TCACNCCAC. They are synthesized as precursors that are threaded into the MEMBRANES of the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Psyllium: Dried, ripe seeds of PLANTAGO PSYLLIUM; PLANTAGO INDICA; and PLANTAGO OVATA. Plantain seeds swell in water and are used as demulcents and bulk laxatives.Butter: The fatty portion of milk, separated as a soft yellowish solid when milk or cream is churned. It is processed for cooking and table use. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Niacin: A water-soluble vitamin of the B complex occurring in various animal and plant tissues. It is required by the body for the formation of coenzymes NAD and NADP. It has PELLAGRA-curative, vasodilating, and antilipemic properties.
Serum triglyceride: a possible risk factor for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. (1/4426)BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the relationship between ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and serum concentrations of lipids and apolipoproteins. METHODS: A cohort of 21 520 men, aged 35-64 years, was recruited from men attending the British United Provident Association (BUPA) clinic in London for a routine medical examination in 1975-1982. Smoking habits, weight, height and blood pressure were recorded at entry. Lipids and apolipoproteins were measured in stored serum samples from the 30 men who subsequently died of ruptured AAA and 150 matched controls. RESULTS: Triglyceride was strongly related to risk of ruptured AAA. In univariate analyses the risk in men on the 90th centile of the distribution relative to the risk in men on the 10th (RO10-90) was 12 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 3.8-37) for triglyceride, 5.5 (95% CI: 1.8-17) for apolipoprotein B (apoB) (the protein component of low density lipoprotein [LDL]), 0.15 (95% CI : 0.04-0.56) for apo A1 (the protein component of high density lipoprotein [HDL]), 3.7 (95% CI: 1.4-9.4) for body mass index and 3.0 (95% CI: 1.1-8.5) for systolic blood pressure. Lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) was not a significant risk factor (RO10-90 = 1.6, 95% CI: 0.6-3.0). In multivariate analysis triglyceride retained its strong association. CONCLUSION: Triglyceride appears to be a strong risk factor for ruptured AAA, although further studies are required to clarify this. If this and other associations are cause and effect, then changing the distribution of risk factors in the population (by many people stopping smoking and adopting a lower saturated fat diet and by lowering blood pressure) could achieve an important reduction in mortality from ruptured AAA. (+info)
The impact of an amino acid-based peritoneal dialysis fluid on plasma total homocysteine levels, lipid profile and body fat mass. (2/4426)BACKGROUND: The caloric load from glucose-based peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluids contributes to hypertriglyceridaemia, adiposity and, as result of anorexia, protein malnutrition in PD patients. It has been suggested that replacement of a glucose-based by an amino acids-based PD fluid (AA-PDF) for one exchange per day might improve the nutritional status and lipid profile. Due to the uptake of methionine from the dialysate, however, exposure to AA-PDF might aggravate hyperhomocysteinaemia, a frequently occurring risk factor for atherosclerosis in uraemic patients. METHODS: We studied the impact of a once daily exchange with 1.1% AA-PDF instead of glucose-based PD fluid for 2 months on plasma methionine and total homocysteine (tHcy) levels, lipid profile, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and body fat mass of seven stable PD patients. Results are expressed as mean+/-SEM. RESULTS: Methionine levels did not increase significantly during therapy, but tHcy levels increased substantially from 60+/-12 to 84+/-19 micromol/l after 1 month (P=0.039), and to 85+/-22 micromol/l after 2 months of AA-PDF treatment. Serum triglyceride concentration decreased from 3.0+/-0.4 mmol/l at entry to 2.6+/-0.5 mmol/l (at 1 month, P=0.041 vs baseline). Serum BChE also decreased from 6.9+/-0.4 U/ml at entry to 6.3+/-0.4 U/ml after 2 months (P=0.014). Total cholesterol concentration and cholesterol fractions did not change. The reduced exposure to glucose-based PD fluid for 2 months resulted in a 0.5 kg reduction in fat mass which was due mainly to a reduction in fat mass of the trunk region (0.3 kg, P=0.031). CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that methionine-containing AA-PDF induces an increase in the plasma tHcy level. This might, potentially, offset the beneficial effects of an improved serum lipid profile and reduced fat mass on the risk of cardiovascular disease in PD patients. Lowering the methionine content of the fluid, therefore, may be required to overcome this adverse effect. (+info)
Socioeconomic status and determinants of hemostatic function in healthy women. (3/4426)Hemostatic factors are reported to be associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). Socioeconomic status (SES) is 1 of the determinants of the hemostatic profile, but the factors underlying this association are not well known. Our aim was to examine determinants of the socioeconomic differences in hemostatic profile. Between 1991 and 1994, we studied 300 healthy women, aged 30 to 65 years, who were representative of women living in the greater Stockholm area. Fibrinogen, factor VII mass concentration (FVII:Ag), activated factor VII (FVIIa), von Willebrand factor (vWF), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were measured. Educational attainment was used as a measure of SES. Low educational level and an unfavorable hemostatic profile were both associated with older age, unhealthful life style, psychosocial stress, atherogenic biochemical factors, and hypertension. Levels of hemostatic factors increased with lower educational attainment. Independently of age, the differences between the lowest (mandatory) and highest (college/university) education in FVII:Ag levels were 41 microg/L (95% confidence interval [CI], 15 to 66 microg/L, P=0.001), 0.26 g/L (95% CI, 0.10 to 0.42 g/L, P=0.001) in fibrinogen levels, and 0.11 U/mL (95% CI, 0.09 to 0.12 U/mL, P=0.03) in levels of vWF. The corresponding differences in FVIIa and PAI-1 were not statistically significant. With further adjustment for menopausal status, family history of CHD, marital status, psychosocial stress, lifestyle patterns, biochemical factors, and hypertension, statistically significant differences between mandatory and college/university education were observed in FVII:Ag (difference=34 microg/L; 95% CI, 2 to 65 microg/L, P=0.05) but not in fibrinogen (difference=0.03 g/L; 95% CI, -0.13 to 0.19 g/L, P=0.92) or in vWF (difference=0.06 U/mL; 95% CI, -0.10 to 0.22 U/mL, P=0.45). An educational gradient was most consistent and statistically significant for FVII:Ag, fibrinogen, and vWF. Age, psychosocial stress, unhealthful life style, atherogenic biochemical factors, and hypertension mediated the association of low educational level with elevated levels of fibrinogen and vWF. Psychosocial stress and unhealthful life style were the most important contributing factors. There was an independent association between education and FVII:Ag, which could not be explained by any of these factors. (+info)
ApoA1 reduces free cholesterol accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions of ApoE-deficient mice transplanted with ApoE-expressing macrophages. (4/4426)Along with apolipoprotein (apo) E, which promotes cholesterol efflux from foam cells, apoA1-containing high density lipoprotein (HDL) is thought to facilitate the transport of cholesterol from lesions. This role for apoA1 was tested in vivo by lethally irradiating apoE-deficient and apoE- plus apoA1-deficient mice and reconstituting them with bone marrow cells isolated from wild-type (WT) mice. ApoE, but not apoA1, was synthesized by the transplanted bone marrow-derived cells. Therefore, this transplantation procedure generated apoE-deficient animals with atherosclerotic lesions that contained both apoE and apoA1 (E/A1 mice) and apoE-deficient animals with lesions that contained apoE but no apoA1 (E/A1o mice). As shown previously, the transplanted WT macrophage-derived apoE dramatically lowered the plasma hypercholesterolemia in both groups. On feeding with an atherogenic diet after transplantation, plasma cholesterol levels were raised in both groups of mice, but the levels in the E/A1 mice at 20 weeks were 2- to 3-fold higher than in E/A1o mice. Immunohistochemical staining verified that apoE was abundant in lesions of both groups, whereas apoA1 was detected in the lesions of E/A1 mice only. Despite a 2- to 3-fold lower total plasma cholesterol in the E/A1o mice, the free cholesterol recovered from isolated aortas was approximately 60% higher and the mean lesion area in serial sections of the aortic valves 45% larger. Therefore, apoA1 reduces free cholesterol accumulation in vivo in atherosclerotic lesions. (+info)
Identification of megalin/gp330 as a receptor for lipoprotein(a) in vitro. (5/4426)Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is an atherogenic lipoprotein of unknown physiological function. The mechanism of Lp(a) atherogenicity as well as its catabolic pathways are only incompletely understood at present. In this report, we show that the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene family member megalin/glycoprotein (gp) 330 is capable of binding and mediating the cellular uptake and degradation of Lp(a) in vitro. A mouse embryonic yolk sac cell line with native expression of megalin/gp330 but genetically deficient in LDLR-related protein (LRP) and a control cell line carrying a double knockout for both LRP and megalin/gp330 were compared with regard to their ability to bind, internalize, and degrade dioctadecyltetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI)-fluorescence-labeled Lp(a) as well as equimolar amounts of 125I-labeled Lp(a) and LDL. Uptake and degradation of radiolabeled Lp(a) by the megalin/gp330-expressing cells were, on average, 2-fold higher than that of control cells. This difference could be completely abolished by addition of the receptor-associated protein, an inhibitor of ligand binding to megalin/gp330. Mutual suppression of the uptake of 125I-Lp(a) and of 125I-LDL by both unlabeled Lp(a) and LDL suggested that Lp(a) uptake is mediated at least partially by apolipoprotein B100. Binding and uptake of DiI-Lp(a) resulted in strong signals on megalin/gp330-expressing cells versus background only on control cells. In addition, we show that purified megalin/gp330, immobilized on a sensor chip, directly binds Lp(a) in a Ca2+-dependent manner with an affinity similar to that for LDL. We conclude that megalin/gp330 binds Lp(a) in vitro and is capable of mediating its cellular uptake and degradation. (+info)
Effects of alcohol and cholesterol feeding on lipoprotein metabolism and cholesterol absorption in rabbits. (6/4426)Alcohol fed to rabbits in a liquid formula at 30% of calories increased plasma cholesterol by 36% in the absence of dietary cholesterol and by 40% in the presence of a 0.5% cholesterol diet. The increase was caused almost entirely by VLDL, IDL, and LDL. Cholesterol feeding decreased the fractional catabolic rate for VLDL and LDL apoprotein by 80% and 57%, respectively, and increased the production rate of VLDL and LDL apoprotein by 75% and 15%, respectively. Alcohol feeding had no effect on VLDL apoprotein production but increased LDL production rate by 55%. The efficiency of intestinal cholesterol absorption was increased by alcohol. In the presence of dietary cholesterol, percent cholesterol absorption rose from 34.4+/-2.6% to 44.9+/-2.5% and in the absence of dietary cholesterol, from 84.3+/-1.4% to 88.9+/-1.0%. Increased cholesterol absorption and increased LDL production rate may be important mechanisms for exacerbation by alcohol of hypercholesterolemia in the cholesterol-fed rabbit model. (+info)
Low-density lipoprotein particle size is inversely related to plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels. The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. (7/4426)High levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and preponderance of small dense low-density lipoproteins (LDL) have both been associated with atherosclerotic disease and with the insulin resistance syndrome (IRS). In vitro studies have shown a stimulatory effect of various lipoproteins on PAI-1 release from different cells, including endothelial cells and adipocytes. The authors sought to investigate the relation of PAI-1 to LDL particle size in a large tri-ethnic population (n=1549) across different states of glucose tolerance. LDL size was determined by gradient gel electrophoresis, and PAI-1 was measured by a 2-site immunoassay, sensitive to free PAI-1. PAI-1 was inversely related to LDL size in the overall population (r=-0.21, P<0.0001), independent of gender and ethnicity. However, the authors found a significant interaction with glucose tolerance status (P=0.035). In univariate analysis, the association between PAI-1 and LDL size was most pronounced in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT, r=-0.22, P<0.0001) and weaker in impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, r=-0.12, P=0.03) and type-2 diabetes (r=-0.10, P=0.02). After adjustment for demographic variables and metabolic variables known to influence PAI-1 levels (triglyceride and insulin sensitivity), a significant inverse relation of LDL size to PAI-1 levels was only present in NGT (P=0. 023). In subjects with IGT or overt diabetes, who usually have elevated PAI-1 levels, additional factors other than LDL size seem to contribute more importantly to PAI-1 levels. The demonstrated inverse relation of LDL size and PAI-1 levels provides one possible explanation for the atherogeneity of small dense LDL particles. (+info)
Induction of monocyte binding to endothelial cells by MM-LDL: role of lipoxygenase metabolites. (8/4426)Treatment of human aortic endothelial cells (EC) with minimally oxidized LDL (or minimally modified LDL, MM-LDL) produces a specific pattern of endothelial cell activation distinct from that produced by LPS, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-1, but similar to other agents that elevate cAMP. The current studies focus on the signal transduction pathways by which MM-LDL activates EC to bind monocytes. We now demonstrate that, in addition to an elevation of cAMP, lipoxygenase products are necessary for the MM-LDL response. Treatment of EC with inhibitors of the lipoxygenase pathway, 5,8,11, 14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA) or cinnamyl-3, 4-dihydroxy-alpha-cyanocinnamate (CDC), blocked monocyte binding in MM-LDL-treated EC (MM-LDL=118+/-13%; MM-LDL+ETYA=33+/-4%; MM-LDL+CDC=23+/-4% increase in monocyte binding) without reducing cAMP levels. To further investigate the role of the lipoxygenase pathway, cellular phospholipids were labeled with arachidonic acid. Treatment of cells for 4 hours with 50 to 100 microg/mL MM-LDL, but not native LDL, caused a 60% increase in arachidonate release into the medium and increased the intracellular formation of 12(S)-HETE (approximately 100% increase). There was little 15(S)-HETE present, and no increase in its levels was observed. We demonstrated that 12(S)-HETE reversed the inhibitory effect of CDC. We also observed a 70% increase in the formation of 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (11, 12-EET) in cells treated with MM-LDL. To determine the mechanism of arachidonate release induced by MM-LDL, we examined the effects of MM-LDL on intracellular calcium levels. Treatment of EC with both native LDL and MM-LDL caused a rapid release of intracellular calcium from internal stores. However, several pieces of evidence suggest that calcium release alone does not explain the increased arachidonate release in MM-LDL-treated cells. The present studies suggest that products of 12-lipoxygenase play an important role in MM-LDL action on the induction of monocyte binding to EC. (+info)
To determine the level of cholesterol enough to donate blood from a vein in the treatment room of any clinic.Take direction from a doctor for analysis of LDL cholesterol.It is available at the reception at the therapist, cardiologist, surgeon or pre-medical study.. blood for analysis of LDL cholesterol in the morning on an empty stomach surrenders.The day before it is advisable not to eat fatty foods, and dinner must be no later than 19.00.Otherwise the true cholesterol levels may be somewhat distorted.. result of the analysis may be obtained on the following day.If you find that elevated LDL cholesterol, the treatment prescribed by a doctor.When the rate of total cholesterol greater than 10 mg / dL and high LDL fraction may be offered admission to the cardiology department or outpatient treatment is scheduled.Most likely it will be recommended statins.If elevated LDL cholesterol, as well as general and non-drug methods do not help, statins may be appointed for life.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Contribution of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase to the regulation of lipoprotein metabolism. AU - Cohen, Jonathan C.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - Clinical studies have clearly established a relationship between bile acid synthesis and plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations. Interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids leads to increased bile acid synthesis and a reduction in plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations. New studies indicate that genetic variation in cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase activity accounts for a significant fraction of the inter-individual variation in plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations in the general population, and a specific CYP7A1 allele associated with increased plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations has been identified. Studies in which cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase was transiently overexpressed in hamsters and mice indicate that direct manipulation of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase leads to changes in plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations. ...
Background: We and others have demonstrated that the reduced function *5 variant (rs4149056, defined by the minor, C allele) in the hepatic transporter SLCO1B1 impairs statin clearance and is associated with myopathy and premature drug discontinuation, effects that may depend on statin type. Because statins are powerful medications that lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) and prevent cardiovascular (CV) events, we hypothesized that *5 carriers would have higher LDLc and an increased risk of CV events compared to noncarriers, in a statin specific manner.. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 3416 Caucasians from the Duke CATHGEN biorepository. Death/myocardial infarction (MI), genotype, and patient-reported statin usage data were available in 2864 patients. Of these, we identified two independent cohorts (C1, n=498; C2, n=907) with available LDLc at baseline and at 1, 2, and 3 years after cardiac catheterization. Linear mixed models tested the association between *5 and ...
In a linked research paper (doi:10.1136/bmj.e8707), Ramsden and colleagues report "new" data from an old trial that shed light on the long running debate on whether increasing dietary linoleic acid intake reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) or death.1 Research conducted in the 1960s and 1970s suggested that some of the commonly occurring dietary saturated fatty acids raise total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, whereas the omega 6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) linoleic acid lowers total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations.2 Linoleic acid is present in high amounts in vegetable oils such as corn, sunflower, safflower, and soybean oils and in margarines made from these oils. It is the most prevalent PUFA and omega 6 PUFA in most Western diets. As a result of the effects of linoleic acid on cholesterol concentrations, lowering intake of saturated fat and increasing that of PUFAs has been a cornerstone of dietary advice, with the aim of ...
The exposure allele for each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was associated with a lower LDL-C level that varied significantly between 2.6 and 16.7 mg/dl. Among the included SNPs, the reduction in risks of CHD ranged between 6% and 28%. All nine polymorphisms were associated with a highly consistent reduction in the risk of CHD per 38.7 mg/dl lower LDL-C, with no evidence of heterogeneity of effect (I2 = 0.0%). In a meta-analysis combining nonoverlapping data from 312,321 participants, naturally random allocation to long-term exposure to lower LDL-C was associated with a 54.5% (95% confidence interval, 48.8-59.5%) reduction in the risk of CHD for each 38.7 mg/dl lower LDL-C. This represents a three-fold greater reduction in the risk of CHD per unit lower LDL-C than that observed during treatment with a statin started later in life (p = 8.43 × 10-19).. ...
This study shows that elevated LDL cholesterol levels in a Utah kindred, indicative of clinical FH, are linked to a region on chromosome 1p32. We have previously shown that this pedigree is clearly not linked to the LDL receptor or apo B gene,8 and additional markers near each gene in this study confirm the absence of linkage. A gene within a 17-cM region on chromosome 1 appears to be the major determinant of the observed elevated LDL cholesterol. There may be additional genes with minor effects on LDL cholesterol levels on chromosomes 3 and 17 in this pedigree. The LDL cholesterol levels of this pedigree are similar to those of FH pedigrees with known LDL receptor mutations, and penetrance is complete even at young ages. Triglyceride levels are significantly lower than in FH pedigrees, but mean age and body mass index are also lower. There were no differences in the frequency of tendon xanthomas. Therefore, genotyping to determine linkage or the presence of mutations appears to be necessary to ...
Does anyone know what could cause high LDL cholesterol related to this disease? IE could it be from impaired detox, an infection, related to...
Whether lipid profiles should be measured in the fasting or nonfasting state is a hot topic (1)(2). The fasting state is that used conventionally (3)(4); however, it would be much simpler for patients worldwide if a lipid profile could be taken at any time of the day, irrespective of the time since and the content of the last meal. In both the US and Europe, LDL cholesterol is currently considered the most important measurement in a lipid profile (3)(5).. Direct assays for measuring LDL cholesterol are widely available and used in many laboratories; however, even if LDL cholesterol measured with a direct method gives results similar to those calculated with the Friedewald equation, it is unclear how the 2 measurements compare in predicting ischemic cardiovascular disease. In this issue of Clinical Chemistry, Mora et al. report on an evaluation of fasting LDL cholesterol concentrations calculated with the Friedewald equation vs direct measurement of fasting and nonfasting LDL cholesterol ...
This is a phase 1 study in otherwise healthy participants with high LDL cholesterol. Following multiple doses of LY3015014, the safety and tolerability of the drug, how the body handles the drug, and the drugs effect on the body will be evaluated. Participants will participate in the study for approximately 3 months not including screening. Screening is required within 42 days prior to the start of the study ...
ldl cholesterol - MedHelps ldl cholesterol Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for ldl cholesterol. Find ldl cholesterol information, treatments for ldl cholesterol and ldl cholesterol symptoms.
I have reviewed messages and literature on the connection between french press preparation and elevated ldl cholesterol levels. What alternative brewing methods/systems are recommended in order to best avoid such cholesterol raising worries? thanks, Matt ...
Goldberg says the therapy reduces LDL cholesterol levels by at least 50 percent. Sometimes as much as three-quarters of a patients LDL will be removed during treatment. Since LDL tends to build up again, patients must receive treatment twice a month. The H.E.L.P. system is designed primarily for people with inherited genetic defects that cause their LDL cholesterol levels to be extremely high. To be eligible for the H.E.L.P. therapy, a person must have an LDL cholesterol level of more than 300 after at least six months of drug treatment to lower cholesterol along with diet and lifestyle changes. People who already have been diagnosed with cardiovascular disease are eligible if their LDL cholesterol levels remain above 200 after maximum tolerated therapy.. For more information on H.E.L.P. treatments, call 314-362-3500.. ...
PhotoCredit:istock. Older humans with high stages of "Awful" or low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) Cholesterol stay as long, andoften longer, than their peers with low levels of the same Ldl cholesterol, a College of South Florida professor and an worldwide team of professionals have determined.The findings, which got here after analysing past research involving more than 68,000 participants over 60 years of age, call into questionthe "Ldl cholesterol hypothesis," which counseled that human beings with high Cholesterol are greaterat risk of loss of life and could need statin capsules to lower Ldl cholesterol.Appearing inside theBritish Medical Magazine (BMJ), the groups evaluation represents the primary overview of a biginstitution of earlier studies on this difficulty."Weve recognised for decades that high generalCholesterol becomes a much weaker danger for cardiovascular disorder with advancing age. In thisanalysis, we centered on the so-referred to as "Bad Ldl cholesterol" which has been ...
BACKGROUND: Reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels lowers the risk of consequences of cardiovascular disease. Research has confirmed these benefits in elderly patients. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A inhibitors (ie, statins) have long-standing proven efficacy in reducing levels of LDL-C and total cholesterol.. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to compare change in LDL-C from baseline and National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III LDL-C goal attainment in a population of elderly patients (aged , or =65 years) treated with rosuvastatin versus other statins in routine clinical practice.. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort analysis using medical and pharmacy claims data linked to clinical laboratory results from a large managed care health plan of commercial and Medicare Advantage members in the United States. Included were members aged , or =65 years who were newly treated with statins (index date) from August 1, 2003, ...
So why is it that doctors dont tell patients who suffer from elevated LDL or bad cholesterol levels to stop eating foods high in saturated fat and cholesterol and advise them to take statins like Zocor, Crestor and Lipitor when in reality doctors should be telling patients about policosanol and CoQ10? The truth is that of course your doctor should be recommending that their patients who suffer from elevated LDL cholesterol levels to eat healthier with proper diet, to lose weight and exercise but perhaps doctors know that patients may not comply to their recommendations about proper diet to lower unhealthy cholesterol levels. But why would doctors recommend that their patients take statins like Zocor, Lipitor or Crestor is unimaginable, simply because of what drugs like Lipitor, Crestor and Zocor do to necessary CoQ10 production. What good will statins like Crestor, Zocor and Lipitor do for cholesterol levels and CoQ10 production? They will lower LDL cholesterol levels with a hit or miss ...
Simvastatin is a cholesterol-lowering agent that has been demonstrated to reduce both normal and elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations.
their meta-analysis included 3 studies with major limitations: a significant decrement in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels over the study period in the placebo arm (Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial [ALLHAT]), old age at therapy initiation (Pravastatin in Elderly Individuals at Risk of Vascular Disease [PROSPER] Study), and incomplete information on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels over the follow-up period (Air Force/Texas Coronary Atherosclerosis Prevention Study [AFCAPS/TexCAPS]). All these studies showed negative results; their inclusion would have biased against finding a benefit to statin treatment ...
Those wondering how to lower LDL cholesterol are not alone. Millions of people struggle with higher than normal LDL (low density lipoprotein) numbers, high
Naturally lower ldl cholesterol cleanse - Naturally Lower Your Cholesterol By 30 Pts. In 30 Days. The idea behind a colon cleanse process is to eliminate the toxins which have built up in your digestive system..
Aim of the study Although low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) has been consistently demonstrated a predictor of atherosclerotic disease in a large spectrum of clinical settings, among individuals aged of 80 years or older this concept is uncertain. This study was evaluated in a carefully selected population if the association between LDL-C and coronary atherosclerotic burden remains significant in the very elderly. Methods Individuals aged of 80 years or older (n = 208) who spontaneously sought primary prevention care and have never manifested cardiovascular disease, malnutrition, neoplastic or consumptive disease were enrolled for a cross-sectional analysis. Medical evaluation, anthropometric measurements, blood tests and cardiac computed tomography were obtained. Results In analyses adjusted for age, gender, diabetes, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, smoking and statin therapy, no association was found between coronary calcium score (CCS) and LDL-C [1.79 (0.75-4.29)]. There was ...
Treatments for high ldl cholesterol consists of increasing bodily exercise, a change in weight-reduction plan, and taking medications. In a 2013 clinical study published in the British Medical Journal, Canadian researchers compared the diabetes risk of five standard statins to the danger of Pravachol, a statin found to significantly cut back the likelihood of developing diabetes in a earlier research. Ezetimibe reduces whole ldl cholesterol, LDL or dangerous ldl cholesterol and triglycerides, and increases HDL (good) ldl cholesterol. Fibrates may also assist improve the quantity of good ldl cholesterol (HDL ldl cholesterol). In the brain, however, cholesterol performs a crucial role in the formation of neuronal connections-the important links that underlie reminiscence and studying.. However, for those who nonetheless insist to cease taking your ldl cholesterol medicine, you may also need to vary your way of life as nicely. With cumulative gross sales exceeding $a hundred thirty billion, ...
One of the aims of this study was to assess the association of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels with diabetes risk. The study included 6,011 individuals, (average age 50 years), who were not treated with cholesterol lowering or antihypertensive medications and who were free from cardiovascular disease at the start of the study. Diabetes was assessed at the next examination (average 4.5 years later ...
Variants in the cholesterol ester transfer healthy protein and also lipoprotein lipase genes are predictors of plasma cholesterol feedback to dietary change. A meta-analysis of 67 regulated trials of nutritional soluble fiber as a single intervention revealed that the effects on complete cholesterol as well as LDL cholesterol levels were small. An extensive review of plant get more info stanols as well as sterols showed that these materials lower LDL cholesterol degrees in persons at danger of coronary heart disease.15 This evaluation included a meta-analysis of 41 trials revealing that 2 g per day of either stanols or sterols lowers LDL cholesterol levels by 10 percent. Exec Summary of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education and learning Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Discovery, Assessment, and also Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Grownups (Grownup Treatment Panel III). Private irregularity in cardiovascular condition risk element feedbacks to low-fat as well as ...
The truth is, weve always had reason to question the idea that cholesterol is an agent of disease. Indeed, what the Framingham researchers meant in 1977 when they described LDL cholesterol as a "marginal risk factor" is that a large proportion of people who suffer heart attacks have relatively low LDL cholesterol. So how did we come to believe strongly that LDL cholesterol is so bad for us? It was partly due to the observation that eating saturated fat raises LDL cholesterol, and weve assumed that saturated fat is bad for us. This logic is circular, though: saturated fat is bad because it raises LDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol is bad because it is the thing that saturated fat raises. In clinical trials, researchers have been unable to generate compelling evidence that saturated fat in the diet causes heart disease. The other important piece of evidence for the cholesterol hypothesis is that statin drugs like Zocor and Lipitor lower LDL cholesterol and also prevent heart attacks. The ...
So why is it that doctors dont tell patients who suffer from elevated LDL or bad cholesterol levels to stop eating foods high in saturated fat and cholesterol and advise them to take statins like Zocor, Crestor and Lipitor when in reality doctors should be telling patients about policosanol and CoQ10? The truth is that of course your doctor should be recommending that their patients who suffer from elevated LDL cholesterol levels to eat healthier with proper diet, to lose weight and exercise but perhaps doctors know that patients may not comply to their recommendations about proper diet to lower unhealthy cholesterol levels. But why would doctors recommend that their patients take statins like Zocor, Lipitor or Crestor is unimaginable, simply because of what drugs like Lipitor, Crestor and Zocor do to necessary CoQ10 production. What good will statins like Crestor, Zocor and Lipitor do for cholesterol levels and CoQ10 production? They will lower LDL cholesterol levels with a hit or miss ...
Context The associations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), and apolipoprotein B (apoB) levels with the risk of cardiovascular events among patients treated with statin therapy have not been reliably documented.. Objective To evaluate the relative strength of the associations of LDL-C, non-HDL-C, and apoB with cardiovascular risk among patients treated with statin therapy.. Design Meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomized controlled statin trials in which conventional lipids and apolipoproteins were determined in all study participants at baseline and at 1-year follow-up.. Data Sources Relevant trials were identified by a literature search updated through December 31, 2011. Investigators were contacted and individual patient data were requested and obtained for 62154 patients enrolled in 8 trials published between 1994 and 2008.. Data Extraction Hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% CIs for risk of major ...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
A remaining problem involves the laboratory aspects of measuring triglyceride-rich lipoproteins or lipoprotein subclass distribution. One method for determining the presence of triglyceride-rich particles is by determination of apoproteins associated with these particles. However, only a few large clinical trials have used this approach.19 28 The presence of large or small LDL and IDL and VLDL mass in many of the investigations mentioned above has been determined by ANUC at the LBNL. This is the same method as that pioneered by Drs John Gofman and Frank Lindgren. Although it provides tremendous detail, its clinical use is hindered by the expense and the expertise required to maintain and operate the system. Other techniques are available, including density gradient ultracentrifugation and GGE. Of these, GGE has been used in the largest number of clinical trials and can provide detailed information on LDL particle size and percent distribution in seven LDL subclasses.29 The GGE method at the LBNL ...
A total of 3,481 participants (45-74 years, 53.1% women) were included. In men, all baseline risk factors showed a significant association with CAC except for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), serum creatinine, and glomerular filtration rate. For women, the association to risk factors was similar, but not significant for smoking and serum creatinine. After 5 years, the demographics in men showed a higher body mass index with a higher prevalence of obesity and diabetes and higher glycated hemoglobin level. Systolic blood pressure was higher and diastolic blood pressure was lower despite a higher use of antihypertensive agents. A lower prevalence of smoking as well as lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels with a higher rate of lipid-lowering medication was also observed. The 5-year follow-up data in women showed very similar trends. The difference between observed and predicted CAC5y (log-scale, mean ± standard deviation) was 0.08 ± 1.11 and 0.06 ± 1.29 in men and women. ...
Variations in the cholesterol ester transfer healthy protein and also lipoprotein lipase genes are forecasters of plasma cholesterol action to dietary change. A meta-analysis of 67 regulated tests of dietary soluble fiber as a single treatment showed that the results on overall cholesterol as well as LDL cholesterol levels were small. A detailed review of plant stanols and also sterols showed that these more info materials lower LDL cholesterol degrees in persons at threat of coronary heart illness.15 This testimonial included a meta-analysis of 41 tests showing that 2 g each day of either stanols or sterols reduces LDL cholesterol degrees by 10 percent. Executive Summary of the Third Record of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Specialist Panel on Detection, Examination, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Grownups (Adult Treatment Panel III). Individual irregularity in cardiovascular illness threat factor actions to low-fat and low-saturated-fat diet plans in males: body ...
Ever since Anitschkows pioneering experiments on the role of cholesterol in the causation of atherosclerotic plaques in rabbits (2), this intriguing molecule has been at the heart of debate and controversy (3). Initially, the total cholesterol level was used as a measure of risk, then a distinction between α- and β-lipoproteins emerged. As the role of specific lipoproteins became clear, attention focused on the cholesterol content of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which constitutes the major cholesterol-carrying lipoprotein in serum. The National Cholesterol Education Programs Adult Treatment Program (ATP), first published in 1988, recommended using the LDL cholesterol level as the marker for initiating treatment as well as for gauging therapeutic target goals (4). The well orchestrated campaign that followed these guidelines familiarized the medical community with LDL cholesterol. Since then numerous clinical studies have confirmed the value of nutritional and pharmacologic treatment of ...
Caring about your heart and overall health? Having low LDL cholesterol levels is crucial. Learn how to achieve that naturally with a healthy diet plan.
According to the data behind that chart, a person could have a relatively high level of LDL cholesterol, such as greater than 160 mg/dL, and not be affected by a high level of cardiac risk. A person with elevated levels of CRP, indicating systemic inflammation, would be likely to have a higher level of cardiac risk even if his/her LDL cholesterol level was moderate, lower than 130 mg/dL. But if both the LDL cholesterol and the CRP levels were in the highest range, the cardiac risk would be apt to be very high indeed.. The LDL-C levels considered as low in these graphics are based on the guidelines promulgated by the National Cholesterol Educational Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III in 2001, which used 130 mg/dL as the cutpoint for borderline high LDL-C. More recently, many clinicians have argued for a target LDL-C reading of about 100 mg/dL in individuals with no specific cardiac risk factors, and below 70 mg/dL in persons with one or more risk factors. Thus, the data above could be ...
Actemra recommended use is limited to patients who have failed other approved therapies because of serious safety concerns that were noted in clinical studies. These safety concerns include elevated liver enzymes, elevated Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) or bad cholesterol, hypertension, and gastrointestinal perforations.. "Physicians and patients need to be aware of the risk of serious adverse effects of Actemra and make informed decisions regarding its benefits and risks in the treatment of individual patients," said Bob Rappaport, M.D., director of the Division of Analgesics, Anesthetics and Rheumatology Products in the FDAs Center for Drug Evaluation and Research.. The FDA is requiring the sponsor to conduct a post-marketing clinical trial to further evaluate the long-term safety of Actemra. Specifically, the FDA wants to evaluate the impact of elevated LDL cholesterol and blood pressure seen in some patients in shorter-term trials on the cardiovascular health of patients treated with ...
Katcher HI, Hill AM, Lanford JL, Yoo JS, Kris-Etherton PM. Lifestyle approaches and dietary strategies to lower LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides and raise HDL-cholesterol. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America 2009; 38:45-78. Bazzano LA. Effects of soluble dietary fiber on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary heart disease risk. Current Atherosclerosis Reports 2008; 10:473-7. Harland JI, Haffner TA. Systematic review, meta-analysis and regression of randomised controlled trials reporting an association between an intake of circa 25 g soya protein per day and blood cholesterol. Atherosclerosis 2008; 200:13-27. (Locked) More » ...
...according to Drs. Thomas Dayspring and James Underberg. I dont know if these guys are right or not. I bet its more complicated than LDL particle number. Im always skeptical of grand unification theories. People with diabetes tend to have shorter life spans than average. One reason is a predisposition to heart disease, specifically coronary…
Ronald Krauss, M.D., is the director of atherosclerosis research at Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute and an adjunct professor at UCSF and UC Berkeley.
The article discusses use of statin medications for lowering ldl cholesterol - should you take them and what are good and bad points?
The first ATP report, published in 1988, focused on the prevention of coronary heart disease before any signs of clinical disease. This report identified LDL cholesterol as the major form of "bad" cholesterol and the primary target of treatment. In the second report in 1993, the panel reaffirmed the importance of treating high LDL cholesterol. It showed that patients who already have cardiovascular disease benefit from cholesterol-lowering therapy. The 2001 ATP report went a step further, outlining more intensive treatments for people at high risk who do not yet have cardiovascular disease. Dr. Grundy was a member of the panel that produced the first report and was chairman of the panel that wrote the second and third reports ...
BARCELONA, Spain-Just how low should physicians be targeting LDL cholesterol levels in high-risk secondary prevention patients? The answer appears to be as low as possible, even into single digits, according to a new prespecified analysis of patients treated in the FOURIER trial. Overall, there was a highly significant, nearly linear relationship between LDL cholesterol concentrations achieved at 4 weeks and risk of cardiovascular death, MI, stroke, coronary revascularization, or unstable angina, the studys primary endpoint. Patients who achieved an LDL cholesterol level of less than 0.5 mmol/L (, 19.3 mg/dL), for example, had a statistically significant 24% lower relative risk of having a clinical event when compared with individuals with an LDL cholesterol of 2.6 mmol/L or higher (≥ 100 mg/dL). Robert Giugliano, MD (Brigham and Womens Hospital, Boston, MA), who presented the data during a clinical trial update session at the European Society of Cardiology Congress 2017 in Barcelona, Spain, ...
The results of the present study demonstrate that atherosclerotic risk factors inversely correlate with the number of differentiated EPCs and CD34-/KDR-positive circulating progenitor cells. Moreover, the functional activity of isolated EPCs as measured by their migratory capacity was impaired in relation to the number of risk factors. Analysis of the individual risk factors indicated that smoking is a major factor, which contributes to reduced numbers of circulating EPCs. In contrast, the migratory capacity appears to be mainly influenced by hypertension, but independent of smoking. Serum LDL cholesterol levels, age, and a positive family history of CAD were additionally shown to determine the number of circulating CD34-/KDR-positive cells and EPC migration. However, no influence of LDL cholesterol levels, age, or a positive family history of CAD was detected when the EPCs were counted after isolation and cultivation. One may speculate that the ex vivo cultivation procedure ameliorates the ...
Results Compared with nondiabetic subjects, NIDDM patients had lower HDL cholesterol (P , 0.001), higher triglyceride concentration (P , 0.0001), and greater body mass index (P , 0.001), there were more hypertensive patients (P , 0.001) among them. The incidence of myocardial infarction and cardiac death was significantly higher among diabetic than nondiabetic participants (7.4 vs. 3.3%, respectively, P , 0.02). CHD incidence in the gemfibrozil-treated diabetic men (n = 59) was 3.4% compared with 10.5% in the placebo group (NS). In multivariate analysis, diabetes (P , 0.05), age (P , 0.0001), smoking (P , 0.0001), low HDL cholesterol (P , 0.05), and high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P , 0.005) were independently related to CHD incidence. Gemfibrozil-induced serum and lipoprotein lipid changes in diabetic patients were similar to those observed in nondiabetic subjects. ...
Diets that are high in saturated fats raise "bad" cholesterol levels in the blood. The "bad" cholesterol is called LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol. High LDL cholesterol, in turn, increases the risk for coronary heart disease. Some food choices in this group are high in saturated fat. These include fatty cuts of beef, pork, and lamb; regular (75% to 85% lean) ground beef; regular sausages, hot dogs, and bacon; some luncheon meats such as regular bologna and salami; and some poultry such as duck. To help keep blood cholesterol levels healthy, limit the amount of these foods you eat ...
Our Think Again About Cholesterol survey results have been published as a supplement in Atherosclerosis. The survey was originally launched this September in support of World Heart Day and FH Awareness Day to raise awareness of the publics understanding of cholesterol. The survey found there is a discrepancy between understanding the importance of high cholesterol and taking action against the risk for cardiovascular disease. In fact, although 89 percent of adults surveyed agreed it is important to know whether or not they have high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), 92 percent did not know their cholesterol levels or never had their cholesterol levels tested.. More information and detailed survey results ,,. ...
LDL, the so-called bad cholesterol, is certainly associated with medical problems like cardiovascular disease often, stroke and clogged arteries. In the physical body, cells in the liver make an LDL receptor that binds LDL and gets rid of it from the bloodstream, lowering cholesterol levels thereby. Nevertheless, the LDL receptors could be hindered from their objective. The scientists discovered that an enzyme known as IDOL has been proven to play an integral and specific part in the power of the LDL receptor to bind with poor cholesterol. Related StoriesNew vaccine is apparently far better in reducing awful LDL cholesterolDisclosing genetic risk for CHD outcomes in lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterolDeaths from avoidable risk elements: an interview with Dr Ali Mokdad, IHMEProfessor John Schwabe, Mind of Biochemistry at the University of Leicester, stated: Development of a medication that inhibits IDOLs activity may help lower degrees of LDL. Prof John Schwabe, Dr Ben Goult and Dr ...
High-intensity statin therapy - that which reduces LDL cholesterol by at least 50% - is indicated in the first two groups, Stone said.. For patients with diabetes, the new risk equation can be used to determine whether high-intensity of moderate-intensity statin therapy (that associated with LDL cholesterol reductions of 30% to 49%) should be used, he said.. Moderate-intensity statin therapy should be sufficient in the last group, he said.. Recommendations are also provided for patients who do not fall within one of those four groups.. Lifestyle Management. The importance of healthy dietary patterns is emphasized in the guideline on lifestyle management to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk.. There is a strong recommendation to consume a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy, legumes, fish, poultry, and nuts and low in sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages, and red meats - along the lines of the DASH or Mediterranean diets.. The writing group also found ...
|p|Los Angeles, CA—An over-the-counter probiotic that reduces total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia has also been shown to lower cholesteryl ester saturated fatty acids, according to data presented at the American Heart Association 2012 Scientific Sessions.|br /| |br /|
Bad cholesterol when on the rise can be of great threat to your heart health. You can beat it and lower the level with nutritious food.
Physical inactivity is considered one of the leading modifiable risk factors for heart disease, along with smoking status and high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. A 2012 study found physical inactivity accounted for 9 percent of premature deaths worldwide and was shown to be the reason behind 6 percent of coronary heart disease, 7 percent of Type 2 diabetes and 10 percent of both breast and colon cancer diagnoses.. In this systematic review, the authors compiled the results of 25 published reviews that addressed both personal and environmental variables related to physical activity to determine how health care professionals can empower patients to adhere to a heart-healthy lifestyle.. "Proper physical activity should be a lifelong commitment," said Gerald Fletcher, MD, professor of medicine and cardiovascular disease at Mayo Clinic Florida and the reviews lead author. "The benefits of being physically active exist regardless of sex, ethnicity or age. The most active ...
Predominant elevation of LDL-C concentration (hypercholesterolaemia). First-line therapy: HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme-A) reductase inhibitors (statins) are the first-line treatment for hypercholesterolaemia (Box 2). They inhibit cholesterol synthesis, resulting in increased low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) receptor activity with enhanced clearance of LDL particles and precursors. Statins reduce LDL-C concentration by up to 60%, while the associated reduction in triglyceride concentrations and increase in HDL-C concentration are relatively modest, but potentially useful.. A patient presenting for the first time with acute coronary syndrome (myocardial infarction or unstable angina) will usually be under specialist care, and may be prescribed 80 mg/day of atorvastatin (unless a contra-indication is present), plus other drugs. This is based on clinical trial evidence of cardiovascular disease prevention, and does not emphasise dose titration or target LDL-C levels in the acute ...
If a mother had high LDL (bad) cholesterol prior to a pregnancy, her children are almost five times as likely to also have high LDL cholesterol as adults, reveals new research.
True or False. In patients aged 40 to 75 years, findings of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels greater than 190 mg/dL exclude all secondary causes of hyperlipidemia. ...
Children with obesity are 24 percent more likely to display a risk factor for CVD than normal weight children. The most common risk factor for CVD in youth was elevated LDL cholesterol (the "bad" cholesterol that transports fat from the liver to the tissues). The other risk factors include: high total cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes, and inflammation. Formerly concerns for the aged, these warning signs are now getting causing concern for younger generations. ...
High LDL cholesterol levels are known to increase the risk of heart attack, and lowering LDL levels has been proven to help protect against heart attack.
If you have low HDL cholesterol (the kind most consider to be the "good cholesterol"), you may be able to increase your level by eating foods that are high in healthy fats, such as: real dark cocoa, grass-fed beef, eggs and fish.. 2. Get Enough Appropriate Exercise. To help with reducing inflammation, regulating hormones and possibly reaching a healthier weight, regular physical activity is almost always recommended. Regular exercise can lower high LDL cholesterol in some people and also helps maintain ideal body weight. And certain studies have found triglyceride concentrations can decrease by about 30 percent after someone follows a regular exercise program. (7). People with dyslipidemia who are mostly sedentary will usually need to start slowly and increase their exercise load gradually as their body adjusts. Aiming to start with about 30-60 minutes of moderate exercise per day, such as walking, swimming or biking, is a good jumping-off point. Lifting weights, dancing and doing yoga or ...
RESULTS A total of 335 new cardiovascular events and 385 deaths occurred during a median follow-up of 7.0 years (interquartile range 3.9-10.4). No relation was found between plasma HDL-c and cardiovascular events (hazard ratio [HR] 0.97, 95% CI 0.93-1.01) or all-cause mortality (HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.96-1.03). Subgroup analysis supported effect modification by plasma LDL-c levels. In patients with LDL-c levels ,2.0 mmol/L, higher HDL-c was related to higher risk for all-cause mortality (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.07-1.21). Higher HDL-c was also related to higher risk for cardiovascular events in patients with LDL-c levels ,2.0 mmol/L (HR 1.10, 95% CI 1.07-1.21) in contrast to patients with LDL-c levels between 2.0 and 2.5 mmol/L (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.75-0.95) and ,2.5 mmol/L (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.91-1.00 ...
Dr Oz talked to Cedric the Entertainer about his recent weight loss and the impact it has on lowering LDL cholesterol. He shared foods to lower your number!
Results Female survey participants were generally older and had a lower educational level than male participants (p,0.0001). The prevalences of obesity (p,0.0001), high blood pressure (BP) (p=0.001), elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (p,0.0001) and diabetes (p,0.0001) were significantly higher in women than in men, whereas current smoking (p,0.0001) was significantly more common in men. The use of antihypertensive and antidiabetic drugs (but not that of other drugs) was more common in women than in men. However, BP (p,0.0001), LDL-cholesterol (p,0.0001) and HbA1c (p,0.0001) targets were less often achieved in women than in men. Between 1994 and 2007, cholesterol control improved less in women than in men (interaction: p=0.009), whereas trends in BP control (p=0.32) and glycaemia (p=0.36) were similar for both genders. ...
Arteriosclerosis is a disease of the arteries. The arteries transport blood that has high oxygen content from the heart to the other organs. Today scientists assume that the artery walls are aggravated chemically and small excrescences, so-called atheromatous plaque, are formed. This plaque will constrict the arteries more and more until it becomes impossible to supply the organs with enough oxygen. High LDL cholesterol levels can be responsible for the chemical aggravation, for example. In the worst case scenario the consequence is a cardiac infarction or a stroke. Arteriosclerosis in very small arteries is often a result of a long-standing diabetes. Overweight and high blood pressure also contribute to the development of arteriosclerosis. The development of atheromatous plaque in the arteries is, however, reversible. It was discovered in studies with patients that endurance sports can lead to regression of the mutations in the arteries.. ...
Clinical Question: Does statin therapy for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease among patients with elevated low-density lipoprotein levels reduce all-cause mortality?. Bottom Line: Statins reduce all-cause mortality among patients with hyperlipidemia, whether used for primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. This is a class effect. (Level of Evidence: 1a). Reference: Mills EJ, Wu P, Chong G, et al. Efficacy and safety of statin treatment for cardiovascular disease: a network meta-analysis of 170,255 patients from 76 randomized trials. QJM 2011;104(2):109-124.. Study Design: Meta-analysis (randomized controlled trials). Funding Source: Unknown/not stated. Setting: Various (meta-analysis). Synopsis: This is a methodologically thorough meta-analysis of 76 randomized trials, including 170,255 patients, in which a statin was compared with placebo, standard therapy, or no treatment for primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The authors ...
Cardiovascular Support System. Are you finding it more difficult to walk, breathe, and walk up a flight of stairs? Are you noticing any swelling around your ankles or in your face? Could it be that you are just out of shape or is it something more? As you have gotten older, have your doctor visits and annual blood tests resulted in more discussions involving your heart? Youre here because you are concerned about the health of your heart. Maybe you are seeing your cholesterol or blood pressure rise. Perhaps you were told you have heart disease. Or, heart disease runs in your family and you want to ensure you dont fall prey to the disease like others in your family have. Youre not alone! Heart disease is common. In fact, about 600,000 people die of heart disease in the United States every year - thats 1 in every 4 deaths.. High blood pressure, high LDL cholesterol, and smoking are key risk factors for heart disease. About half of Americans (49%) have at least one of these three risk factors. ...
While you make an online search with regard to secure methods to reduce LDL cholesterol amounts, you will discover numerous items as well as guidance which
Consumption of whole almonds as snacks not only reduces low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) but also significantly improves endothelial functi...
Question - Blood tests showed elevated LDL, cholesterol, triglycerides, prescribed Statin. Is there any natural way to lower it?. Ask a Doctor about when and why Lipid profile is advised, Ask a Cardiologist
Irish moss is believed to help lower LDL cholesterol levels. It may also help inhibit arteriosclerosis, also known as hardening of the arteries. Concrete studies are needed to prove the connection between Irish moss and improved cardiovascular health. ...
Dubbed cholesterol-busters by Heart UK, these superfoods are proven to lower LDL cholesterol as part of a healthy, balanced diet.
AIMS: Individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and mixed dyslipidaemia represent a high-risk and difficult-to-treat population. ODYSSEY DM-DYSLIPIDEMIA (NCT02642159) compared alirocumab, a proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 inhibitor, with usual care (UC) in individuals with T2DM and mixed dyslipidaemia not optimally managed by maximally-tolerated statins. MATERIALS AND METHODS: UC options (no additional lipid-lowering therapy; fenofibrate; ezetimibe; omega-3 fatty acid; nicotinic acid) were selected prior to stratified randomization to open-label alirocumab 75 mg every 2 weeks (Q2W; with increase to 150 mg Q2W at Week [W]12 if W8 non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [non-HDL-C] was ≥2 ...
|p|Independently-sourced research challenges the idea that LDL (low-density lipoprotein) is the “bad cholesterol,” and causes heart disease.|/p||p|However, the theory that LDL is “bad” persists in the mainstream media and with Big Pharma, mainly because they would lose billions of dollars in drugs and treatments to admit the theory lacks merit.
BARCELONA -- Four studies testing the injectable novel lipid-lowering agent alirocumab found the drug dramatically reduced LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) among high-risk patients who had not achieved LDL tar
Statins News From Medical News Today comments, Description: Statins are a group of medicines that can help lower the level of low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol bad cholesterol in the blood. Having a high level of LDL cholesterol is potentially danger, ID: 12964, By: Feedage Forager
Replace saturated fat and trans fats in your diet with monounsaturated fats (up to 20% of calories) and polyunsaturated fats (up to 10% of total calories).
Hi, I am a Male Chinese asian. Every year, i did a health check. My LDL Cholestrol last year is 143. So i make a point of exercising. This year my LDL Cholestrol is 138. Is this significant? Thanks
ANN ARBOR, Mich., July 26, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Esperion Therapeutics, Inc. (NASDAQ:ESPR), the Lipid Management Company focused on developing and commercializing convenient, complementary, cost-effective, once-daily, oral therapies for the treatment of patients with elevated low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), today announced the i...
ANN ARBOR, Mich., Nov. 07, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Esperion Therapeutics, Inc. (NASDAQ:ESPR), the Lipid Management Company focused on developing and commercializing convenient, complementary, cost-effective, once-daily, oral therapies for the treatment of patients with elevated low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), today provided bemp...
ANN ARBOR, MI--(Marketwired - July 07, 2015) - Esperion Therapeutics, Inc. (NASDAQ: ESPR), an emerging pharmaceutical company focused on developing and commercializing first-in-class, oral, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol) lowering therapies for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and other cardiometabolic risk markers, today announced the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has...
Kovacs KR, Bajko Z, Szekeres CC, Csapo K, Olah L, Magyar MT, Molnar S, Czuriga D, Kardos L, Buraine AB, Bereczki D, Soltesz P, Csiba L: Elevated LDL-C combined with hypertension worsens subclinical vascular impairment and cognitive function., JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HYPERTENSION 8: (8) pp. 550-560 ...
Americans have seen the enemy -- LDL cholesterol -- and are beating it into submission. Moreover, they appear to be winning the battle with a combination of good diet, good medicine, and good living.
One of the problems with measuring Lp(a) is that it varies greatly in size - making the weight misleading. Lets consider 10 particles. If the 10 are smaller ones, weigh less, they are more atherogenic, so a greater weight may mean less risk.. that the Lp(a) is larger. This is probably why today they measure in particles (nmol/l) here in the USA. Do you have any more information about the Lp(a)? And in the USA we have problems in that the FDA allows labs to compute (rather than measure) Lp(a). Did you report your LDL cholesterol? ...
biolabmedika.com merupakan toko alkes online dan offline yang ada di tangerang selatan yang jual Reagen LDL-CHOLESTEROL DIRECT 200-250 Tests Biolabo
When mixed with exercise, a healthy diet may help you drop some pounds, lower your ldl cholesterol degree, and enhance the best way your body functions on a
Table I shows, firstly, the mean total cholesterol concentration of each fifth of the distribution based on the original measurements in the cohort of 21 515 men (the group of 5696 men had the same original values); secondly, the mean total cholesterol concentration; thirdly, the mean low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration of each fifth based on the repeat measurements in the group of 5696 men; and fourthly, the age adjusted death rates for ischaemic heart disease for the five groups. The threefold difference in mortality from ischaemic heart disease across the groups (1.11 to 3.11 deaths per 1000 man years) corresponded to a difference in original total cholesterol concentration of 3.1 (from 4.8 to 7.9) mmol/l but a smaller difference in repeat total cholesterol concentration of 2.2 (5.0 to 7.2) mmol/l; this is the regression dilution bias. The threefold difference in mortality from ischaemic heart disease corresponded to an even smaller difference in low density lipoprotein ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of fenofibrate in 1113 patients at lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol goal but high triglyceride levels. T2 - Real-world results and factors associated with triglyceride reduction. AU - Woo, Yeongmin. AU - Shin, Jeong Soo. AU - Shim, Chi Young. AU - Kim, Jung Sun. AU - Kim, Byeong Keuk. AU - Park, Sungha. AU - Chang, Hyuk Jae. AU - Hong, Geu Ru. AU - Ko, Young Guk. AU - Kang, Seok Min. AU - Choi, Donghoon. AU - Ha, Jong Won. AU - Hong, Myeong Ki. AU - Jang, Yangsoo. AU - Lee, Sang Hak. PY - 2018/10. Y1 - 2018/10. N2 - Fibrates are used in patients with dyslipidemia and high cardiovascular risk. However, information regarding drug response to fibrate has been highly limited. We investigated treatment results and factors associated with triglyceride reduction after fenofibrate therapy using large-scale real-world data. Patients with one or more cardiovascular risk factors, at low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol goal but with triglyceride level 150 mg/dL, and undergoing ...
Low-frequency coding DNA sequence variants in the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 gene (PCSK9) lower plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), protect against risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), and have prompted the development of a new class of therapeutics. It is uncertain whether the PCSK9 example represents a paradigm or an isolated exception. We used the Exome Array to genotype |200,000 low-frequency and rare coding sequence variants across the genome in 56,538 individuals (42,208 European ancestry [EA] and 14,330 African ancestry [AA]) and tested these variants for association with LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides. Although we did not identify new genes associated with LDL-C, we did identify four low-frequency (frequencies between 0.1% and 2%) variants (ANGPTL8 rs145464906 [c.361C|T; p.Gln121*], PAFAH1B2 rs186808413 [c.482C|T; p.Ser161Leu], COL18A1 rs114139997 [c.331G|A; p.Gly111Arg], and PCSK7 rs142953140 [c.1511G|A; p.Arg504His])
People with low levels of LDL cholesterol are more likely to have Parkinsons disease than people with high LDL levels, according to University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill researchers. LDL stands for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; low levels of LDL cholesterol are considered an indicator of good cardiovascular health. Earlier studies have found intriguing correlations between Parkinsons disease, heart attacks, stroke and smoking.. "People with Parkinsons disease have a lower occurrence of heart attack and stroke than people who do not have the disease," said Dr. Xuemei Huang, medical director of the Movement Disorder Clinic at UNC Hospitals and an assistant professor of neurology in the UNC School of Medicine. "Parkinsons patients are also more likely to carry the gene APOE-2, which is linked with lower LDL cholesterol." And for more than a decade, researchers have known that smoking, which increases a persons risk for cardiovascular disease, is also associated with a decreased ...
Lipoprotein concentrations have been associated with the major risk of bleeding events. However, whether plasma levels of LDL-C are associated with the risk of biopsy-related endobronchial hemorrhage remain elusive. Therefore, the present study was initiated to investigate the explicit association of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) with endobronchial biopsy (EBB)-induced refractory hemorrhage in patients with lung cancer. This retrospective study included a total of 659 consecutive patients with lung cancer who had undergone EBB at a tertiary hospital between January 2014 and April 2018. Using multiple regression analysis, the association between LDL-C and the risk of EBB-induced refractory hemorrhage was assessed after adjusting for potential confounding factors. A significant proportion (13.8%, 91/659) of the patients experienced refractory hemorrhage following EBB. In multivariate regression analysis, higher plasma LDL-C concentrations were associated with increased risk of EBB-induced
OBJECTIVES: Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor delta (PPARD) is a transcription factor implicated in the regulation of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism. We recently discovered a common polymorphism in the 5-untranslated region (5-UTR) of the human PPARD, +294T/C, that is associated with an increased plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration in healthy subjects. Whether the +294C allele is associated with LDL-C elevation independently of the background lipoprotein phenotype and whether it confers increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) is unknown. Against this background, we investigated the relationships between the PPARD polymorphism and plasma lipoprotein concentrations and the risk for contracting CHD in the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study (WOSCOPS). DESIGN: A nested case-control study of participants in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of pravastatin in mildly-to-moderately hypercholesterolaemic men. SUBJECTS: A total of
Non-HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol are the not the same. Non-HDL cholesterol is tested by subtracting HDL cholesterol from total cholesterol, but it is not equal to LDL cholesterol. Non-HDL...
We present experimental evidence that, in Ossabaw miniature swine, selective surgical excision of adipose tissue in direct contiguity with one of the epicardial coronary arteries attenuated the progression of atherosclerosis, thus supporting the hypothesis that cEAT could contribute to underlying coronary atherogenesis . The findings are applicable to the early stages of CAD because of the relatively young age of the animals, the short duration of atherogenic diet feeding, and the lack of observed flow-limiting coronary stenosis typical of advanced clinical disease. We acknowledge the substantially high LDL cholesterol levels (,500 m/dL) in the obese group. We have conducted other studies in which the LDL was ~250 mg/dL (e.g. [10, 12]) for a longer duration, which yielded substantial coronary atherosclerosis. We predict a similar result of adipectomy. This very high LDL cholesterol level for a short duration is similar to LDLR−/− humans, who have substantial atherosclerosis. Horton and ...
Green tea consumption is linked to reduce incidence of cardiovascular disease. The meta-analysis at hand suggests that the benefits are related to reduced total and LDL cholesterol. I suspect its more complicated than that. Collectively, consumption of green tea lowers LDL cholesterol and TC, but not HDL cholesterol or triglycerides in both normal weight subjects…
Researchers find that eating almonds regularly may help improve HDL cholesterol levels, functionality. Eating almonds on a regular basis may help boost levels of HDL cholesterol while simultaneously improving the way it removes cholesterol from the body, according to researchers.. In a study, researchers compared the levels and function of high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol) in people who ate almonds every day, to the HDL levels and function of the same group of people when they ate a muffin instead. The researchers found that while participants were on the almond diet, their HDL levels and functionality improved.. Penny Kris-Etherton, distinguished professor of nutrition at Penn State, said the study, published in the Journal of Nutrition, builds on previous research on the effects of almonds on cholesterol-lowering diets.. "Theres a lot of research out there that shows a diet that includes almonds lowers low-density lipoprotein, or LDL cholesterol, which is a major risk factor for ...
Having high cholesterol levels may be risky for people with a history of heart disease. In the same way, people should also know that there are two kinds of cholesterol- the good, or HDL cholesterol and the bad, or LDL cholesterol. And since your body needs a certain amount of cholesterol to function properly, you need to raise the HDL cholesterol and lower your LDL cholesterol levels. Here are some simple tips tha ...
The Treating to New Targets (TNT) trial compared atorvastatin 80 mg (aiming at reducing LDL cholesterol | or = 75 mg/dl) and atorvastatin 10 mg (LDL | or = 100 mg/dl as target) in 10,001 patients with stable coronary heart disease followed up for 5 years. A reduction of major cardiovascular events of 22% was observed in the atorvastatin 80 mg group as compared to the atorvastatin 10 mg group (hazard ratio: 0.78; 95 % interval of confidence: 0.69-0.89; p | 0.001). Such clinical efficacy was obtained while a good drug safety profile was maintained. Total mortality was not significantly different between the two groups. However, and remarkably, cardiovascular death was not the first cause of death anymore in this atorvastatin-treated population. The results of TNT in patients with stable coronary heart disease thus confirm the results of PROVE-IT in patients with acute coronary syndrome. These two randomised controlled trials should encourage considering a LDL cholesterol level of 75 mg/dl (rather than
Technically, there is no pure cholesterol in your bloodstream. Cholesterol is transported by lipoproteins. LDL (reduced-density lipoproteins) and HDL (high-density lipoprotiens) are the lipoprotiens utilised to transport cholesterol.. Tests can be run that really test for the cholesterol, which offers you the total cholesterol number (direct measurement). Or you can run a test for the HDL and LDL cholesterol complexes. You add these values to get a computed total cholesterol. If you run a total cholesterol AND calculate it from summing the HDL and LDL cholesterols they need to be close, but will not concur exactly. Tests have a margin of error. This is why they will not match exactly.. Though triglyerides are typically transported by lipoproteins, I do not know why they would use it to calculate total cholesterol.. We employed to run total cholesterol then and HDL, computing the LDL as a distinction among the total and HDL.. A correction to the answer above this - folic acid is not a fatty ...
The type of surgery the patients received is now only available to a few patients at high risk for heart attack and who cannot tolerate cholesterol lowering medications. The study commenced in 1975. Follow up 25 years later showed that lowering cholesterol added one more year of life for the study participants.. Anti-cholesterol medications called statins are given to lower bad LDL cholesterol levels and are the treatment of choice for preventing heart disease, peripheral vascular disease and for preventing heart attack. Henry Buchwald, M.D., Ph.D., bariatric surgeon at the University of Minnesota Medical School, and lead investigator says the study..."contributes to a long path of findings from the POSCH trial, that is, high levels of LDL cholesterol are detrimental to your health." The scientists say the study finding is the only trial that looked at the life-extending benefits of lowering cholesterol over a twenty-five year span. They also say it is the only randomized controlled trial that ...
Limited research has been available to support a link between elevated cholesterol concentrations and risk of ischaemic stroke. The study by Collins et al provides nurses with definitive evidence that supports the use of statins to reduce stroke in high risk populations. Reduced risk of stroke was reported within just 2 years of simvastatin use. The resultant reduction in low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations of 1.0 mmol/l was associated with a 21% risk reduction in stroke. These reductions were reported in patients with and without elevated LDL cholesterol concentrations at baseline and with overall medication adherence rates of 85%.. High risk patients are often confused when they are prescribed statins by consultants if their cholesterol concentrations are known to be within normal range and if they have remained untreated by family physicians. When patients are not confident about the need for a prescribed medication or are concerned about side effects, there is a risk of ...
in reply: We appreciate the comments regarding our article.1 With regards to our recommendations for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia using statins, Dr. Raghavan suggests that fibrates, niacin, or fish oil should play a more prominent role. We agree with his comments about the pharmacotherapy of patients with very high levels of serum triglycerides (at least 500 mg per dL [5.65 mmol per L]), which is supported in our article. However, for patients with lower degrees of triglyceride elevation (between 200 and 499 mg per dL [2.26 to 5.64 mmol per L]) the current treatment guidelines emphasize low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol as the main target of therapy, followed by non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.1 The overwhelming literature on the benefit of statins recommends it as a first-line option in patients with no contraindications who are at moderate to high cardiovascular risk and have elevated LDL cholesterol levels.. Dr. Raghavan also purports that our algorithm is ...
Methods Totally 445 subjects were investigated during physical examination by recording genders and age, measuring height, weight, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), concentrations of serum uric acid (SUA), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and fasting blood glucose (FBG). The physical examination results were analysed with statistical method.. ...
The preferred first-line treatment in pharmacologically altering cholesterol is by use of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, more commonly referred to the a "statins.". Following over four decades of clinical use, Statin experts acknowledge that statins are the most prominent factor in increasing longevity in individuals with excess cholesterol, regardless of the source.. In stating the benefits of lowering cholesterol, cholesterol experts and statin experts reference clinical studies, the accumulation of which now exceed 100,000 patients in published, peer-reviewed clinically-controlled studies, that using statins to meaningfully lower LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, will prevent early death in those with high LDL cholesterol.. The clinical outcomes data is overwhelmingly positive with regards to the benefits of cholesterol-lowering through the use of statins. Experts will concur that although the lowering of LDL-levels with statins, the complete and full ability to use statins to treat ...
HDL, or "good" cholesterol picks up excess cholesterol and takes it back to your liver.. Factors within your control - such as inactivity, obesity and an unhealthy diet - contribute to high LDL cholesterol and low HDL cholesterol. Factors beyond your control may play a role, too. For example, your genetic makeup may keep cells from removing LDL cholesterol from your blood efficiently or cause your liver to produce too much cholesterol.. ...
Though statins rule the roost when it comes to carry down and controlling the blood ranges of bad ldl cholesterol, the option of utilizing various medicine is at all times there - for its effectiveness, lesser value and minimal unintended effects. Me how low/excessive my cholesterol is. They do the lipo fasting kind and undecided if that is the same factor. Nicotinic acids are used to lower levels of cholesterol to treat high ldl cholesterol, excessive triglycerides, and coronary artery illness. Statins additionally increase the amount of cholesterol that the liver takes up and removes from the blood. And some medicine of this sort may very well raise levels of cholesterol in individuals with liver illness ...
Tendon xanthomas; elevated LDL cholesterol; premature heart disease *Fanconi anaemia. Predisposition of acute myeloid leukemia ... Elevation of both serum cholesterol and triglycerides; accelerated atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease; cutaneous xanthomas ...
"LDL Cholesterol and Oatmeal". WebMD. 2 February 2009. "Title 21--Chapter 1, Subchapter B, Part 101 - Food labeling - Specific ... Its daily consumption over weeks lowers LDL ("bad") and total cholesterol, possibly reducing the risk of heart disease. One ... After reports of research finding that dietary oats can help lower cholesterol, the United States Food and Drug Administration ... Oats are a nutrient-rich food associated with lower blood cholesterol when consumed regularly. Avenins present in oats ( ...
LDL-cholesterol, from her bloodstream. As a result, her LDL-cholesterol levels became very high and caused her two heart ... was able to clear the LDL-cholesterol from her blood. Indeed, after the transplant, Stormie's LDL-cholesterol declined by 81%- ... The case showed that the liver controls blood cholesterol and that high cholesterol is controllable, and was part of the ... Stormie had a condition which raised her blood cholesterol to 10 times normal levels. The condition, a severe form of familial ...
Cholesterol is released and stored within the cell as cholesterol ester. LDL is recycled for further cholesterol transport. ... Progesterone is synthesized from cholesterol by both the large and small luteal cells upon luteal maturation. Cholesterol-LDL ... PKA actively phosphorylates steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and translocator protein to transport cholesterol ... cholesterol side chain cleavage) system". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 305 (2): 489-98. doi:10.1006/abbi.1993.1452. PMID 8396893.. ...
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) for lowering LDL cholesterol inhibitors: hypolipidaemic agents. ...
A. It increases HDL ("good") cholesterol. B. It decreases LDL ("bad") cholesterol. C. It improves cholesterol (both HDL and LDL ...
Friedman, M., Fitch, T.E., Yokoyama, W.E.; Lowering of plasma LDL cholesterol in hamsters by the tomato glycoalkaloid tomatine ... The amount of plasma LDL cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein) decreases as the amount of dietary tomatine increases. The LD50 ... Cholesterol seems to protect the erythrocytes. Intraperitoneal injection of tomatine results in a decrease of diuresis in rats ... These compounds consist of an aglycon, which is a cholesterol derivative, and a carbohydrate chain, which in the case of α- ...
Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL-cholesterol were reduced, while HDL-cholesterol increased. ... A study of 80 subjects with moderate hypercholesterolemia (high cholesterol) found that a daily dose of a Bergamot extract ... such as triglycerides and cholesterol) in the blood. In a group of 107 patients with confirmed non-alcoholic fatty liver ... "Bergamot Reduces Plasma Lipids, Atherogenic Small Dense LDL, and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Subjects with Moderate ...
"LDL Cholesterol and Oatmeal". WebMD. 2 February 2009.. *^ a b c "Title 21--Chapter 1, Subchapter B, Part 101 - Food labeling - ... Its daily consumption over weeks lowers LDL and total cholesterol, possibly reducing the risk of heart disease. ... The established property of their cholesterol-lowering effects has led to acceptance of oats as a health food. ... After reports of research finding that dietary oats can help lower cholesterol, the United States Food and Drug Administration ...
As a consequence, circulating total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol are lowered. In a meta-analysis of 91 randomized clinical ... In the treated group, LDL-cholesterol declined 21%. Two patients dropped out because of myalgia, 1 for diarrhea, and 1 for ... reported LDL-cholesterol lowered by 1.02 mmol/L (39.4 mg/dL) compared to placebo. The incidence of reported adverse effects ... LDL-cholesterol was lowered by 24-49% depending on the statin. Different strains of Monascus fungus will produce different ...
Betteridge, John (2013). "PCSK9-an exciting target for reducing LDL-cholesterol levels". Nature Reviews Endocrinology. 9: 76-78 ...
... partly through increasing HDL cholesterol whilst reducing LDL cholesterol. In 1999, Malcolm Law and Nicholas Wald published a ... In his 2009 book Cholesterol and The French Paradox, Frank Cooper argues that the French paradox is due to the lack of ... Second, Law and Wald presented a time-lag hypothesis: if there were a delay in serum cholesterol concentrations increasing and ... Consumption of animal fat and serum cholesterol concentrations increased only recently in France but did so decades ago in ...
TMG supplementation lowers homocysteine but also raises LDL-cholesterol. Trimethylglycine can act as an adjuvant of the ...
suppress cholesterol synthesis by the liver and reduce blood levels of LDL cholesterol and triglycerides responsible for ... Lowers total and LDL cholesterol, which may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease ... this in turn lowers cholesterol levels in the blood from the actions of cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation of cholesterol. ... Dietary fiber and cholesterol metabolism. Dietary fiber may act on each phase of ingestion, digestion, absorption and ...
... "bad cholesterol") and LDL-C values (always only a calculated estimate; not measured by labs from person's blood sample for ...
... is approved in the United States for the treatment of high LDL cholesterol (dyslipidemia), total cholesterol ( ... The effects of rosuvastatin on LDL cholesterol are dose-related. Higher doses were more efficacious in improving the lipid ... Meta-analysis showed that rosuvastatin is able to modestly increase levels of HDL cholesterol as well, as with other statins. A ... "FDA Drug Safety Communication: Important safety label changes to cholesterol-lowering statin drugs". "Annual Report and Form 20 ...
LDL), transports a variety of triglyceride fats and cholesterol and, like LDL, can also promote the growth of atheroma.[ ... IDL is one of the five major groups of lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL, IDL, LDL, HDL) that enable fats and cholesterol to ... The multiple copies of ApoE allow IDL to bind to the LDL receptor with a very high affinity. When IDL is converted to LDL, the ... Their size is, in general, 25 to 35 nm in diameter, and they contain primarily a range of triacylglycerols and cholesterol ...
Male homozygotes had decreased circulating cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels. "SEC24 family, member A (S. cerevisiae)". ...
Obesity is associated with increased LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol) and lowered HDL cholesterol (good cholesterol). Obesity ... According to NIH, obesity causes the amount of cholesterol in bile to rise, in turn the formation of stone can occur Due to its ...
LDL) receptor and LDL cholesterol". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (47): 48865-75. doi:10.1074/jbc.M409699200. PMID 15358785. Lalanne F, ... and thus excessive removal of the LDL receptor, leaving people carrying the mutations with too much LDL cholesterol. Meanwhile ... "Therapeutic RNAi targeting PCSK9 acutely lowers plasma cholesterol in rodents and LDL cholesterol in nonhuman primates". Proc. ... Variants of PCSK9 can reduce or increase circulating cholesterol. LDL-particles are removed from the blood when they bind to ...
Boger RH, Sydow K, Borlak J, Thum T, Lenzen H, Schubert B, Tsikas D, Bode-Boger SM (21 July 2000). "LDL cholesterol upregulates ... ADMA concentrations are substantially elevated by native or oxidized LDL cholesterol. Thus a spiralling effect occurs with high ... Statins, as well as affecting circulating cholesterol levels, also increase nitric oxide levels and so have a direct effect on ... endothelial LDL levels causing greater ADMA values, which in turn inhibit NO production needed to promote vasodilation. The ...
Overall, the result is a reduction in circulating cholesterol and LDL. A minor reduction in triglycerides and an increase in ... LDL). These reductions increase the number of cellular LDL receptors, thus LDL uptake increases, removing it from the ... have not improved cholesterol levels. The evidence for the use of pravastatin is generally weaker than for other statins. The ... Additional cholesterol-lowering medications such as: fenofibrate (Tricor), gemfibrozil (Lopid), cholestyramine (Questran, ...
... can also cause changes in total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol. Uncommon side effects of desogestrel may include vaginal ...
Statins are more effective than other lipid-regulating drugs at lowering LDL-cholesterol concentration, but they are less ... Pedersen, TR (2010). "Pleiotropic effects of statins: Evidence against benefits beyond LDL-cholesterol lowering". American ... or stroke but having relatively low LDL cholesterol. In this trial, which lasted 5.4 years, overall mortality was reduced by 13 ... simvastatin reduced overall mortality in people with existing cardiovascular disease and high LDL cholesterol by 30% and ...
... as well as an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and creatinine ... These diets are generally associated with higher intakes of total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol because the protein is ... Potential favorable changes in triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol values should be weighed against potential ... unfavorable changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol values when low-carbohydrate diets to induce ...
... s are a class of compounds that prevents the uptake of cholesterol from the small intestine into the circulatory system. Most of these molecules are monobactams but show no antibiotic activity. An example is ezetimibe (SCH 58235) Another example is Sch-48461. The "Sch" is for Schering-Plough, where these compounds were developed. Phytosterols are also cholesterol absorption inhibitors. There are two sources of cholesterol in the upper intestine: dietary (from food) and biliary (from bile). Dietary cholesterol, in the form of lipid emulsions, combines with bile salts, to form bile salt micelles from which cholesterol can then be absorbed by the intestinal enterocyte. Once absorbed by the enterocyte, cholesterol is reassembled into intestinal lipoproteins called chylomicrons. These chylomicrons are then secreted into the lymphatics and circulated to the liver. These cholesterol particles ...
According to the lipid hypothesis, abnormally high cholesterol levels (hypercholesterolemia), or, more correctly, higher concentrations of LDL and lower concentrations of functional HDL are strongly associated with cardiovascular disease because these promote atheroma development in arteries (atherosclerosis). This disease process leads to myocardial infarction (heart attack), stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Since higher blood LDL, especially higher LDL particle concentrations and smaller LDL particle size, contribute to this process more than the cholesterol content of the LDL particles, LDL particles are often termed "bad cholesterol" because they have been linked to atheroma formation. On the other hand, high concentrations of functional HDL, which can remove cholesterol from cells and atheroma, offer ...
Cholesterol is a molecule that is found in animal cells and body fluids. Cholesterol is not found in plant sources. It is a type of lipid which is a fat or fat-like molecule. Cholesterol is a soft waxy substance. Cholesterol is a special type of lipid that is called a steroid. Steroids are lipids that have a special chemical structure. This structure is made of four rings of carbon atoms. Cholesterol is found especially in animal fats.. Other steroids include hormone steroids like cortisol, estrogen, and testosterone. In fact, all steroid hormones are made from changing the basic chemical structure of cholesterol. When scientists talk about making one molecule from changing simpler ones, they sometimes call it chemical synthesis.. Hypercholesterolemia means that cholesterol level is too high in the blood. High cholesterol levels show that heart disease may ...
The National Cholesterol Education Program is a program managed by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, a division of the National Institutes of Health. Its goal is to reduce increased cardiovascular disease rates due to hypercholesterolemia (elevated cholesterol levels) in the United States of America. The program has been running since 1985. The assigned goal of the NCEP committee is to meet on a recurring basis, review ongoing scientific research about atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and make simplified, consensus, committee recommendations to be promoted by the NIH, the American Heart Association and other groups to both physicians and the public about how to reduce the incidence of disability and death resulting from atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. NCEP main page Third Report of the Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) Final Report, ...
... or lipid panel is a panel of blood tests that serves as an initial broad medical screening tool for abnormalities in lipids, such as cholesterol and triglycerides. The results of this test can identify certain genetic diseases and can determine approximate risks for cardiovascular disease, certain forms of pancreatitis, and other diseases. Lipid panels are commonly ordered as part of a physical exam, along with other panels such as the complete blood count (CBC) and basic metabolic panel (BMP). The lipid profile typically includes: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) High-density lipoprotein (HDL) Triglycerides Total cholesterol Using these values, a laboratory may also calculate: Very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) Cholesterol:HDL ratio The lipid profile tests are of 7 types: Total lipids Serum total cholesterol serum HDL cholesterol Total cholesterol/HDL ...
Hypolipidemic agents, or antihyperlipidemic agents, are a diverse group of pharmaceuticals that are used in the treatment of high levels of fats (lipids), such as cholesterol, in the blood (hyperlipidemia). They are called lipid-lowering drugs. There are several classes of hypolipidemic drugs. They may differ in both their impact on the cholesterol profile and adverse effects. For example, some may lower the "bad cholesterol" low density lipoprotein (LDL) more so than others, while others may preferentially increase high density lipoprotein (HDL), "the good cholesterol". Clinically, the choice of an agent will depend on the patient's cholesterol profile, cardiovascular risk, and the liver and kidney functions of the patient, evaluated against the balancing of risks and benefits of the medications. In the United States, this is guided by the evidence-based guideline from the National ...
... is a therapeutic vegetarian diet created by Canadian researcher David Jenkins in 2003 to lower blood cholesterol. This diet emphasizes using a portfolio of foods or food components that have found to associate with cholesterol lowering to enhance this effect. Viscous fiber, soy protein, plant sterols, and nuts are the four essential components of Portfolio diet. This diet is low in saturated fat, high in fibre. Researches have found it has comparable blood cholesterol effect to statin treatment. Background Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. Several risk factors, such as high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, overweight or obese, smoking, have been identified to promote the cardiovascular diseases. American Heart Association (AHA) and American College of Cardiology (ACC) have suggested life style management to control risk factors in order to reduce cardiovascular risk. One of the strategies is ...
According to the lipid hypothesis, since cholesterol (like all fat molecules) is transported around the body (in the water outside cells) inside lipoprotein particles, elevated cholesterol concentrations (hypercholesterolemia) - potentially offers a lower cost way to estimate concentrations of LDL particles; possibly even low concentrations of functional HDL particles - both variations strongly associated with cardiovascular disease because LDL particles promote atheroma development in arteries (atherosclerosis).. This atherosclerotic disease process, over decades, leads to myocardial infarction (heart attack), stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. Since higher blood LDL, especially higher LDL particle concentrations and smaller LDL particle size, contribute to this process more than the cholesterol content of the HDL particles, ...
All corticosteroid hormones share cholesterol as a common precursor. Therefore, the first step in steroidogenesis is cholesterol uptake or synthesis. Cells that produce steroid hormones can acquire cholesterol through two paths. The main source is through dietary cholesterol transported via the blood as cholesterol esters within low density lipoproteins (LDL). LDL enters the cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis. The other source of cholesterol is synthesis in the cell's endoplasmic reticulum. Synthesis can compensate when LDL levels are abnormally low. In the lysosome, cholesterol esters are converted to free cholesterol, which is then used for steroidogenesis or stored in the cell.. The initial part of conversion of cholesterol into steroid hormones involves a number of enzymes of the ...
The several classes of hypolipidemic drugs may differ in both their impact on the cholesterol profile and adverse effects. For example, some may lower the "bad cholesterol" low density lipoprotein (LDL) more so than others, while others may preferentially increase high density lipoprotein (HDL), "the good cholesterol". Clinically, the choice of an agent depends on the patient's cholesterol profile, cardiovascular risk, and the liver and kidney functions of the patient, evaluated against the balancing of risks and benefits of the medications. In the United States, this is guided by the evidence-based guideline most recently updated in 2018 by the American College of Cardiology & American Heart Association. . ...
240 mg/dl high cholesterol. The average amount of blood cholesterol varies with age, typically rising gradually until one is about 60 years old. There appear to be seasonal variations in cholesterol levels in humans, more, on average, in winter. These seasonal variations seem to be inversely linked to vitamin C intake. In lipid digestion, cholesterol is packed into Chylomicrons in the small intestine, which are delivered to the Portal vein and Lymph. The chylomicrons are ultimately taken up by liver hepatocytes via interaction between apolipoproteinE and the LDL receptor or Lipoprotein receptor-related proteins. Cholesterol is minimally soluble in water; it cannot dissolve and travel in the water-based bloodstream. Instead, it is transported in the bloodstream by lipoproteins that are water-soluble and carry cholesterol and triglycerides internally. The apolipoproteins forming the surface of ...
The role of cholesterol in the development of cardiovascular disease was elucidated in the second half of the 20th century. This lipid hypothesis prompted attempts to reduce cardiovascular disease burden by lowering cholesterol. Treatment consisted mainly of dietary measures, such as a low-fat diet, and poorly tolerated medicines, such as clofibrate, cholestyramine, and nicotinic acid. Cholesterol researcher Daniel Steinberg writes that while the Coronary Primary Prevention Trial of 1984 demonstrated cholesterol lowering could significantly reduce the risk of heart attacks and angina, physicians, including cardiologists, remained largely unconvinced. Scientists in academic settings and the pharmaceutical industry began trying to develop a drug to reduce cholesterol more effectively. There were several potential targets, with 30 steps in the synthesis of cholesterol from acetyl-coenzyme A. In ...
A basic metabolic panel measures sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), magnesium, creatinine, glucose, and sometimes calcium. Tests focusing on cholesterol levels can determine LDL and HDL cholesterol levels, as well as triglyceride levels.. Some tests, such as those that measure glucose or a lipid profile, require fasting (or no food consumption) eight to twelve hours prior to the drawing of the blood sample.. For the majority of tests, blood is usually obtained from the patient's vein. Other specialized tests, such as the arterial blood gas test, require blood extracted from an artery. Blood gas analysis of arterial blood is primarily used to monitor carbon dioxide and oxygen levels related to pulmonary function, but is also used to measure blood pH and bicarbonate levels for certain metabolic conditions.. While the regular glucose test is taken at a certain point in time, the glucose tolerance test involves repeated ...
... is caused by the shedding of cholesterol crystals into the bloodstream, and it has been recently recognized as a serious ... Acute renal failure due to cholesterol crystal embolism treated with LDL apheresis followed by corticosteroid and candesartan. ... Cholesterol crystal embolism (CCE) is caused by the shedding of cholesterol crystals into the bloodstream, and it has been ... Key words Cholesterol crystal embolism Acute renal failure Low-density lipoprotein apheresis Corticosteroid Angiotensin II type ...
... condition in which affected members of a family have high levels of LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol) in their blood. ... A blood cholesterol test can be used to detect abnormal cholesterol levels. In people with familial hypercholesterolaemia, LDL ... Cholesterol: what is your target?. Your cholesterol target levels can differ from other peoples cholesterol goals, because ... Cholesterol: treatments for high cholesterol. If you have high cholesterol, your doctor may prescribe lipid-lowering medicines ...
... cholesterol. A high LDL level can lead to a buildup of cholesterol in your arteries. ... LDL, or low-density lipoprotein, is the bad ... LDL (Bad) Cholesterol Level. LDL Cholesterol Category. Less ... What should my LDL level be?. With LDL cholesterol, lower numbers are better, because a high LDL level can raise your risk for ... If you have a high LDL level, this means that you have too much LDL cholesterol in your blood. This extra LDL, along with other ...
Treatments and Tools for ldl cholesterol. Find ldl cholesterol information, treatments for ldl cholesterol and ldl cholesterol ... MedHelps ldl cholesterol Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, ... Posts on ldl cholesterol. Levothyroxine and increasing LDL, Cholesterol - Thyroid Disorders Community ... My total cholesterol was 253....good cholesterol was 106 (hdl ) and 133 (ldl) which the doc... ...
LDL (low-density lipoprotein), sometimes called "bad" cholesterol, makes up most of your bodys cholesterol. High levels of LDL ... When your body has too much LDL cholesterol, the LDL cholesterol can build up on the walls of your blood vessels. This buildup ... A cholesterol test, or screening, tells your health care provider the levels of LDL and HDL cholesterol in your blood. This ... If you have high LDL cholesterol levels, your health care team may recommend cholesterol-lowering medicine and lifestyle ...
The new cholesterol guidelines identify four major groups of patients in whom statins should be used and recommend either ... "Patients could have a completely normal lipid profile, with normal triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol, but ... Similarly, for those with LDL cholesterol levels ,190 mg/dL, a high-intensity statin should be used with the goal of achieving ... For those with diabetes aged 40 to 75 years of age, a moderate-intensity statin, defined as a drug that lowers LDL cholesterol ...
Find HDL cholesterol LDL information, treatments for HDL cholesterol LDL and HDL cholesterol LDL symptoms. ... MedHelps HDL cholesterol LDL Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for HDL cholesterol LDL. ... Posts on HDL cholesterol LDL. Blood test results: Is this a cholesterol problem - Cholesterol Community ... hello..i want to ask about my cholesterol..my LDL cholesterol is 4.5 is that normal?dangero... ...
LDL cholesterol, LDL-C) is one type of lipoprotein that carries cholesterol in the blood. LDL-C consists mostly of cholesterol ... LDL; LDL-C Formal name:. Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Related tests:. Cholesterol; HDL Cholesterol; Triglycerides; Lipid ... see the article on Direct LDL Cholesterol).. Of all the forms of cholesterol in the blood, the LDL-C is considered the most ... LDL-C is considered to be undesirable and is often called "bad" cholesterol because it deposits excess cholesterol in blood ...
And even those who dont have high cholesterol can benefit. ... a way to help you lower your cholesterol through smart food ... Articles OnHigh Cholesterol Diet. High Cholesterol Diet High Cholesterol Diet - Whats the TLC Program for High Cholesterol? * ... High-density lipoprotein (HDL). Thats the "good cholesterol.". When levels of LDL are too high, your chance of heart disease ... Less than 200 milligrams of dietary cholesterol.. You do this to lower your LDL level. You can always talk to your doctor or ...
In this article, learn about the difference between HDL and LDL - ... but too much bad cholesterol can be harmful and is a major risk factor for heart disease and stroke. ... LDL cholesterol. HDL cholesterol can move LDL cholesterol from the blood.. LDL cholesterol is often called bad cholesterol. If ... Causes of high LDL cholesterol. High LDL cholesterol may be caused by inactivity. ...
HDL CHOLESTEROL 67 REFERNCE RANGE 40 MG/DL CHOLESTEROL/HDL RATIO 2.6 REFERENCE RANGE 5.0 LDL CHOLESTEROL 84 REFERENCE RAN... ... MY TOTAL CHOLESTEROL WAS 171 REFERENCE RANGE 125 -200MG/DL ... CHOLESTEROL/HDL RATIO 2.6 REFERENCE RANGE 5.0 LDL CHOLESTEROL ... HDL CHOLESTEROL 67 REFERNCE RANGE 40 MG/DL CHOLESTEROL/HDL RATIO 2.6 REFERENCE RANGE 5.0 LDL CHOLESTEROL 84 REFERENCE RANGE 130 ... HDL LDL TESTS RESULTS. MY TOTAL CHOLESTEROL WAS 171 REFERENCE RANGE 125 -200MG/DL ...
LDL) cholesterol, according to a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. ... Legumes Lower LDL Cholesterol. A diet rich in legumes lowered low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, according to a meta- ... Men may have responded more favorably to the intervention because they tend to have higher levels of LDL cholesterol than women ... In that study, a 1% reduction in LDL cholesterol translated to a 1% reduction in cardiovascular mortality, the authors said. " ...
... nutrition with ldl cholesterol news, facts, tips, & other information. Educate yourself about ldl cholesterol & help yourself ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Diabetes Care.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Joint effects of serum triglyceride and LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol concentrations on coronary heart disease risk in ... Success of LDL-C Reduction. Within the past decade, clinical trials of LDL-C reduction have convincingly demonstrated that LDL- ... gemfibrozil has been reported to have little to no effect on total LDL mass in LDL pattern A and B individuals.24 In LDL ... there was a significant reduction in small LDL counterbalanced by a significant increase in large LDL, whereas LDL pattern A ...
Tag: LDL cholesterol. NutritionPharmaceuticalsScience and Medicine. Cholesterol Skeptics Strike Again. Im really tired of ... It was a re-hash of the same kind of misinformation that is being spread by The International Network of Cholesterol Skeptics ( ... Lewis Joness article "Cholesterol-shmesterol" in Skeptical Briefs (December 2007) included errors and misconceptions about ... arguing about cholesterol, but I feel obliged to stand up once more to defend science-based medicine from unfair calumny. ...
Low LDL Cholesterol (Hypobetalipoproteinemia) Q&A What are the sexual predilections of low LDL cholesterol syndromes?. Updated ...
Statins have long been the drug of choice to reduce LDL cholesterol. While statins are effective for many people, they dont ... Remember that oil (LDL) and water (blood) dont mix. PCSK9 inhibitors, which allow receptors to pull LDL from blood, include ... As bile acids decrease, the liver generates more LDL receptors. Thats good because the receptors latch onto LDL and pull it ... including high LDL, the bad cholesterol that increases risk for heart attack and stroke. ...
Inulin helps lower levels of lousy LDL cholesterol and boosts the production of a weight-controlling compound in your gut ...
A diet high in LDL cholesterol may hinder the therapeutic efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in cancer patients. ... A diet high in LDL cholesterol may hinder the therapeutic efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in cancer patients. ...
At one point in time we thought cholesterol was bad for us. While we were correct, now we understand that there are two types. ... Simply by having higher HDL cholesterol it will naturally lower your LDL. The HDL basically pushes the LDL into your liver so ... Since we already know that HDL lowers LDL then this is a great but indirect way of reducing your LDL cholesterol. ... By simply changing your diet around a bit you can also further cut your LDL cholesterol. For example, by cutting out some red ...
My total cholesterol was 220 but that is because my HDL was 150, a bit more than twice as high as the LDL at 70. In his words ... My total cholesterol number is high but that is because I have excellent HDL, so a higher LDL is irrelevant. Plenty of ... LDL is supposed to be much lower than HDL. Easy to remember if you think the H means Healthy and the L means Lousy! My LDL ... Ive used panethine to lower my LDL cholesterol by 20%. As has another of my family members. This is an excellent article on ...
Low LDL Cholesterol (Hypobetalipoproteinemia) Q&A How is a diagnosis of a low LDL cholesterol syndrome confirmed?. Updated: Mar ...
LBDLDL - LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL). Variable Name: LBDLDL. SAS Label: LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL). English Text: LDL-cholesterol (mg/ ... LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L). Variable Name: LBDLDLSI. SAS Label: LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L). English Text: LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) ... and HDL-cholesterol according to the Friedewald calculation: [LDL-cholesterol] = [total cholesterol] - [HDL-cholesterol] - [ ... LDL-cholesterol is calculated from measured values of total cholesterol, triglycerides, ...
Foods high in cholesterol include fatty meats, milk products, egg yolks, snacks, crackers, muffins, and fast foods. LDL (bad) ... cholesterol can be lowered with diet, medications, exercise, weight loss, and quitting smoking. ... Foods in the diet that lower cholesterol are foods high in fiber, low in saturated fats, olive oil, soy, and nuts. ... What is LDL cholesterol or the bad cholesterol?. *LDL cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein) is called bad cholesterol, ...
BloodstreamDensityLowered low-density lipVLDLLevelsStatinReductionCoronarySerumReceptorArteriesStands for low-density lipMmolParticleReductionsPCSK9MetabolismAtherogenicDietaryAtheroscleroticPlasma LDL cholesterolLowers LDL CholesterolBloodSignificantlyDietHyperlipidemiaIncreasesReducesMedicationsLevelRandomized controPlant sterolsHelp lower your LDL cholesterol
- Similarly to LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol can also build up inside the walls of blood vessels, which is undesirable. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Abcam's Cholesterol Assay Kit (ab65390) provides a simple quantification method of HDL and LDL/VLDL after a convenient separation of HDL from LDL and VLDL (very low-density lipoprotein) in serum samples. (abcam.com)
- Serum HDL (top) and LDL/VLDL cholesterol (bottom) from 5-7 mice/group was measured using ab65390 following protocol instructions. (abcam.com)
- VLDL is later degraded into LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein). (easycalculation.com)
- VLDL (Very Low Density Lipoprotein) Cholesterol Calculation is made easier. (easycalculation.com)
- Remnant cholesterol, also known as remnant lipoprotein, is a very atherogenic lipoprotein composed primarily of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL). (wikipedia.org)
- They are present in various lipoprotein complexes, including HDL, LDL and VLDL. (wikipedia.org)
- ApoB is a protein involved with the assembly and secretion of very-low-density lipoprotein(VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein(LDL), and it is expressed primarily in the liver and jejunum. (wikipedia.org)
- Both VLDL and LDL are important in cholesterol transport and its metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
- Through catalysis, VLDL is converted to IDL and then to LDL. (wikipedia.org)
- VLDL is converted in the bloodstream to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL). (wikipedia.org)
- Apolipoprotein B is the primary apolipoprotein of chylomicrons, VLDL, IDL, and LDL particles (LDL - known commonly by the misnomer "bad cholesterol" when in reference to both heart disease and vascular disease in general), which is responsible for carrying fat molecules (lipids), including cholesterol, around the body (within the water outside cells) to all cells within all tissues. (wikipedia.org)
- These cholesterol particles are then secreted by the liver into the blood as VLDL particles, precursors to LDL. (wikipedia.org)
- It increases lipoprotein lipase activity to promote the conversion of VLDL to LDL, and hence reduce the level of VLDL. (wikipedia.org)
- Consequently, VLDL cholesterol production in the liver is reduced, which leads indirectly to a reduction in LDL and increase in HDL cholesterol. (wikipedia.org)
- Familial hypercholesterolaemia (or familial hyperlipidaemia) is an inherited (genetic) condition in which affected members of a family have high levels of LDL cholesterol, the so-called 'bad' cholesterol, in their blood. (mydr.com.au)
- This is because high cholesterol levels by themselves often don't cause any symptoms. (mydr.com.au)
- Some families carry genes that lead to high levels of LDL cholesterol. (mydr.com.au)
- Other conditions that can cause high cholesterol levels (such as thyroid or kidney problems) need to be ruled out before a diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolaemia can be made. (mydr.com.au)
- A blood cholesterol test can be used to detect abnormal cholesterol levels. (mydr.com.au)
- In people with familial hypercholesterolaemia, LDL levels are generally very high for their age. (mydr.com.au)
- People with very high LDL cholesterol levels usually need to take a combination of medicines to effectively lower their cholesterol levels. (mydr.com.au)
- Regular physical activity can improve cholesterol levels and lower your risk of coronary heart disease. (mydr.com.au)
- Regular monitoring of your cholesterol levels, and for evidence of blood vessel disease, is important. (mydr.com.au)
- A blood test can measure your cholesterol levels, including LDL. (medlineplus.gov)
- As women and men get older, their cholesterol levels rise. (medlineplus.gov)
- Before the age of menopause, women have lower total cholesterol levels than men of the same age. (medlineplus.gov)
- After the age of menopause, women's LDL levels tend to rise. (medlineplus.gov)
- For example, African Americans typically have higher HDL and LDL cholesterol levels than whites. (medlineplus.gov)
- High levels of LDL cholesterol raise your risk for heart disease and stroke. (cdc.gov)
- If you have high LDL cholesterol levels, your health care team may recommend cholesterol-lowering medicine and lifestyle changes to lower your risk for heart disease and stroke. (cdc.gov)
- If you have low HDL cholesterol levels, talk to your doctor about lifestyle changes that may help raise your levels. (cdc.gov)
- A cholesterol test, or screening, tells your health care provider the levels of LDL and HDL cholesterol in your blood. (cdc.gov)
- Individuals with diabetes aged 40 to 75 years old with LDL-cholesterol levels between 70 and 189 mg/dL and without evidence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. (medscape.com)
- In most cases, the formula provides a good estimate of the LDL-C, but it becomes less accurate with increased triglyceride levels (i.e., above 400 mg/dL). (labcorp.com)
- LDL-C levels may be ordered as part a Lipid Profile when a person has a routine health exam. (labcorp.com)
- When levels of LDL are too high, your chance of heart disease increases. (webmd.com)
- The program tries to lower your LDL levels. (webmd.com)
- They can help lower your LDL levels. (webmd.com)
- While they lower LDL levels, which you want to happen, they can also lower HDL levels, which is what you don't want. (webmd.com)
- Some cholesterol is needed in the body, but high levels can be dangerous. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- In this article, we look at HDL and LDL in detail, including what makes one good and the other bad, as well as what a person can do to keep levels in check. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The lower this number is, the healthier a person's cholesterol levels are. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Studies suggest that the total cholesterol to HDL ratio is a better marker of the risk of heart disease than LDL cholesterol levels alone. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Another method of assessing cholesterol levels is calculating a non-HDL cholesterol level. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- People whose diets included a median intake of 130 g/d of "pulses" -- such as beans, chickpeas, lentils and peas -- had lower LDL cholesterol levels than those on a control diet (mean difference -0.17 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.25 to -0.09), according to the study published online in CMAJ . (medpagetoday.com)
- This is important especially for patients with hypercholesterolemia who prefer dietary approaches to managing their cholesterol levels, or for those who cannot tolerate statin therapies," wrote Sievenpiper and his colleagues. (medpagetoday.com)
- Men may have responded more favorably to the intervention because they tend to have higher levels of LDL cholesterol than women "and they tend to have poorer dietary habits and thus better responses to healthier diets," the authors said. (medpagetoday.com)
- Start by consulting with a board-certified doctor to obtain cholesterol levels and determine risk for heart attack and stroke. (healthcentral.com)
- Inulin helps lower levels of lousy LDL cholesterol and boosts the production of a weight-controlling compound in your gut called propionate. (newsmax.com)
- These trans fats are now known to cause very high LDL cholesterol levels. (infobarrel.com)
- These are found in fish oil and is commonly used to cut bad cholesterol along with triglyceride levels. (infobarrel.com)
- Much better indicator of potential heart problems than cholesterol levels. (essentialdayspa.com)
- Serum LDL-cholesterol levels were derived on examinees that were examined in the morning session only. (cdc.gov)
- A high blood cholesterol levels is also referred to as hypercholesterolemia, and is found in the blood circulation of humans. (medicinenet.com)
- LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol is called 'bad' cholesterol because elevated levels of LDL cholesterol are associated with an increased risk of stroke , peripheral artery disease , or coronary heart disease ( atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease , ASCVD). (medicinenet.com)
- Should elevated cholesterol levels be found, testing may need to occur more frequently. (medicinenet.com)
- People with cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes , LDL cholesterol levels greater 190 mg/dL, and those with a 10-year heart disease risk of greater than 7.5% would benefit from moderate- to high-intensity statin drug therapy. (medicinenet.com)
- The liver is able to regulate cholesterol levels in the bloodstream and can secrete cholesterol if the body needs it. (medicinenet.com)
- What are "normal" cholesterol blood levels? (medicinenet.com)
- There are no established 'normal' blood levels for total and LDL cholesterol. (medicinenet.com)
- High levels of LDL cholesterol can build up in your arteries, causing heart disease. (healthline.com)
- It's important to have healthy levels of both types of cholesterol. (healthline.com)
- If your cholesterol levels are too high, deposits can occur in your arteries. (healthline.com)
- What are healthy levels of cholesterol? (healthline.com)
- Cholesterol levels are measured in milligrams (mg) per tenth-liter (dL) of blood. (healthline.com)
- Healthy total cholesterol levels - the sum of your HDL and LDL - should stay below 200 mg/dL. (healthline.com)
- Over 73.5 million Americans, roughly 32 percent of the American population, have high levels of LDL cholesterol. (healthline.com)
- People with high cholesterol have twice the risk of heart disease as people with healthy levels of cholesterol. (healthline.com)
- Men should begin monitoring their cholesterol levels more closely starting at age 45. (healthline.com)
- Women tend to have lower cholesterol levels than men until menopause, at which point their levels begin to rise. (healthline.com)
- Cholesterol levels rise with age, especially in women after menopause. (healthline.com)
- Physical activity reduces cholesterol levels, as does reducing the amount of saturated fat in your diet. (healthline.com)
- Exercise lowers your LDL levels and boosts your HDL levels. (healthline.com)
- It also helps you lose weight, which can help lower your cholesterol levels. (healthline.com)
- People with low levels of LDL cholesterol are more likely to have Parkinson's disease than people with high LDL levels, according to University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill researchers. (emaxhealth.com)
- low levels of LDL cholesterol are considered an indicator of good cardiovascular health. (emaxhealth.com)
- Participants with lower LDL levels (less than 114 milligrams per deciliter) had a 3.5-fold higher occurrence of Parkinson's than the participants with higher LDL levels (more than 138 milligrams per deciliter). (emaxhealth.com)
- It has been suggested by clinical trials that eating oats can lower cholesterol levels. (emaxhealth.com)
- Genetics can affect LDL levels and health risks. (snpedia.com)
- Researchers say they have proven definitely that lowering bad LDL cholesterol levels can extend life. (emaxhealth.com)
- contributes to a long path of findings from the POSCH trial, that is, high levels of LDL cholesterol are detrimental to your health. (emaxhealth.com)
- 2 Many patients who have diabetes with dyslipidemia remain poorly controlled despite recommendations for lower LDL cholesterol levels. (uspharmacist.com)
- With so many patients in need of lipid-lowering therapy, this question arises: Are we treating LDL cholesterol levels sufficiently to achieve the desired goals? (uspharmacist.com)
- See Table 1 for risk levels and corresponding LDL cholesterol goals). (uspharmacist.com)
- Both HPS and PROVE IT, as well as the recent Treating to New Targets (TNT) study, suggest that there is additional benefit by reducing LDL cholesterol levels to below 100 mg/dL. (uspharmacist.com)
- Feeding C57BL/6 mice the lipid-lowering drug probucol (0.25% wt/wt) for 2 wk induced a 90% decrease in plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels and a 77% reduction in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. (wellnessresources.com)
- In conclusion, we have shown that lipoprotein deficiency in mice as a result of probucol feeding is associated with decreased adrenal cortex cholesterol levels, a lower basal and stress-induced plasma glucocorticoid level, and an increased susceptibility to LPS-induced inflammation. (wellnessresources.com)
- The correlation between the reduction in LDL cholesterol levels and that in CRP levels was weak but significant in the group as a whole (r=0.13, P=0.005), but not in either treatment group alone. (nih.gov)
- Weight loss and the amount of weight lost parallel improvements in triglyceride and cholesterol levels. (healthcentral.com)
- Even low amounts of exercise such as walking 30minutes/day 5-7days/wk has been shown to have a positive impact on cholesterol levels. (healthcentral.com)
- Levels of LDL and its subtypes are directly related to the risk of heart attack and stroke . (healthcentral.com)
- Studies have shown that non-HDL cholesterol is a better predictor of coronary heart disease than LDL cholesterol, especially in individuals with high triglyceride levels, or people with diabetes who have lower LDL cholesterol levels. (reference.com)
- Reducing the intake of certain types of fats is the best way to improve cholesterol levels, according to WebMD. (reference.com)
- Your doctor may prescribe nicotinic acid to improve your total blood lipid profile, meaning it can affect both forms of cholesterol and your triglyceride levels. (livestrong.com)
- Niacin is especially helpful for patients who have low levels of the beneficial form of cholesterol, called high-density lipoprotein. (livestrong.com)
- High concentrations of LDL cholesterol are associated with increased plaque formation in the arteries, and it is these plaques that can narrow arteries or rupture and cause heart attacks and strokes and the higher the levels the great the risk. (zocdoc.com)
- A diet high in soluble fiber, fruits, vegetables, whole grains, beans, and lean meats like fish and poultry can help you lower your LDL levels and prevent dangerous clots from forming in the arteries to your heart or brain. (zocdoc.com)
- This implies that lowering LDL levels should also reduce adverse cardiovascular events. (medindia.net)
- A meta-analysis conducted with more than 90,000 participants in 14 randomized statin trials, Cholesterol Treatment Trialists' Collaborators (CTTC) reported that on an average, a reduction of 1 mmol per liter in LDL cholesterol levels cuts the risk of adverse cardiac events by 23% over a period of 5 years. (medindia.net)
- The results of the study confirmed that combining a non-statin lipid-lowering drug with a statin can have additional benefits in lowering LDL cholesterol levels thereby reducing adverse cardiovascular events. (medindia.net)
- While the 2013 cholesterol treatment guidelines of the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association do not recommend specific agents to reduce LDL levels, it acknowledges the need to add a non-statin agent when patients do not respond to statin therapy alone. (medindia.net)
- In women who ingested more than 6 grams (g) of soy protein per day, LDL cholesterol levels were considerably lower than in women who ate less than that. (ideafit.com)
- So, in the case of HDL cholesterol, higher levels are actually better. (heart.org)
- Studies show that low levels of HDL cholesterol increase the risk of heart disease. (heart.org)
- Eat plenty of foods high in fiber and monounsaturated fats to bring your cholesterol levels down. (livestrong.com)
- One way to lower your cholesterol levels is to tweak your lifestyle . (livestrong.com)
- HDL cholesterol levels should be at least 50 milligrams per deciliter in women and 40 milligrams per deciliter or higher in men. (livestrong.com)
- Total cholesterol levels of between 125 and 200 milligrams per deciliter are considered normal for healthy adults. (livestrong.com)
- Some foods, including olive oil and fatty fish, have been shown to raise good cholesterol and lower bad cholesterol levels. (livestrong.com)
- It's important to note that dietary cholesterol has a minimal impact on blood cholesterol levels . (livestrong.com)
- Therefore, a low-cholesterol diet won't necessarily reduce total cholesterol and LDL levels . (livestrong.com)
- A 2015 clinical trial published in the Journal of the American Heart Association indicates that eating one avocado daily as part of a moderate-fat diet may lower total and LDL cholesterol and boost cardiovascular health without affecting good cholesterol levels. (livestrong.com)
- Plant sterols and stanols are thought to lower cholesterol levels by blocking absorption of cholesterol in the small intestine. (pharmacytimes.com)
- It is well known that low levels of HDL and high level of LDL are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. (abcam.com)
- With high levels of good cholesterol reducing our risk of heart disease and an increase in the bad cholesterol doing quite the opposite. (gnet.org)
- If our livers are not functioning properly or our diet contains a lot of the wrong sorts of food then high levels of cholesterol can be a problem. (gnet.org)
- Women are more likely to have high cholesterol, but the higher levels of oestrogen also mean that they have elevated levels of HDL. (gnet.org)
- A diet that is high in saturated fat can cause cholesterol levels to rise. (gnet.org)
- A simple blood test can determine the levels of good and bad cholesterol in your blood. (gnet.org)
- The changes in average HDL Cholesterol levels from 1999-2008 were seen across various age, gender and race-ethnicity groups indicating a method effect. (cdc.gov)
- The control group showed an almost 3-fold increase in serum cholesterol levels due to the atherogenic diet but no effect was seen for triglyceride levels. (springer.com)
- Stanol ester alone or together with sesamin significantly attenuated the elevation of the cholesterol levels. (springer.com)
- In particular, the identification of dietary components that can be added to foods to lower or regulate cholesterol levels has gained special interest. (springer.com)
- This model aims to reproduce homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia and it is characterized by decreased removal of cholesterol from the circulation due the lack of functional LDL receptors [ 5 ] that leads to increased serum cholesterol levels. (springer.com)
- Whether you've heard it from countless commercials or your own physician, you know that high levels of LDL cholesterol can increase your risks of heart disease . (nutralegacy.com)
- According to the studies, the benefits of niacin also include increasing levels of HDL , also known as good cholesterol, and providing results superior to those of some prescriptions. (nutralegacy.com)
- Niacin has been shown to reduce LDL cholesterol levels by up to 30% and that's for a standard dose. (nutralegacy.com)
- In comparison, Crestor and Lipitor reduced LDL levels by 30% when taken at the standard dosage. (nutralegacy.com)
- Many of the prescription medications have fewer effects on HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels but pose some serious complications in some patients. (nutralegacy.com)
- People who need to drop their LDL levels greatly should consider choosing niacin or one of the prescription medications on the market, as well as taking lifestyle changes that can also help. (nutralegacy.com)
- Losing weight and increasing exercise can have positive effects on your total cholesterol levels but these changes take time. (nutralegacy.com)
- A new form of broccoli rich in beneficial compounds known as glucosinolates has shown impressive results in two clinical trials in humans in lowering LDL cholesterol levels . (doctormurray.com)
- There probably are some people who have very mild abnormalities in cholesterol who could get by with a sterol supplement alone, but people with higher cholesterol levels will need medication, too. (medindia.net)
- High cholesterol levels or hypercholesterolemia in blood can pose a threat to life. (medindia.net)
- It can be used alone or in combination with a statin for the reduction of elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia. (aafp.org)
- In two double-blind, placebo-controlled trials 4 , 8 with 650 patients with hypercholesterolemia, colesevelam alone lowered LDL cholesterol levels in a dose-dependent manner over six to 24 weeks, with a median LDL cholesterol reduction of 20 percent at a daily dose of 4.5 g. (aafp.org)
- The mean total cholesterol levels also decreased compared with placebo in a dose-dependent manner by 10 percent from baseline with 4.5 g of colesevelam daily. (aafp.org)
- High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels increased by 3 percent over baseline. (aafp.org)
- Will taking steps early in life to keep LDL low have a greater benefit than waiting until it reaches high and sustained levels to take action? (empowher.com)
- PCSK9 is involved in regulating LDL levels. (empowher.com)
- Mutations in this gene keep LDL levels low from birth onward. (empowher.com)
- People who carry one of these mutations provide a sneak peak at the lifelong effect of a low LDL levels on CHD risk. (empowher.com)
- Their findings, reported in the March 23, 2006 New England Journal of Medicine, showed that in people with a certain PCSK9 mutation, both LDL levels and CHD risk were significantly lower than in people without this mutation. (empowher.com)
- The researchers compared LDL levels and CHD risk between the two groups. (empowher.com)
- As the researchers explain, "lifelong reduction of LDL levels confers greater benefit than does a similar reduction instituted later in life. (empowher.com)
- Male sex, hypertension, statin use, low total cholesterol and low LDL levels, current smoking, elevated glucose, and higher admission NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores were all associated with a greater risk of sHT, they found. (lww.com)
- Dr. Smith noted that the findings "are especially interesting" in light of the recent Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial, in which statin therapy was associated with an increase in hemorrhagic strokes in ischemic stroke and TIA patients ( N Engl J Med 2006;355:549-559). (lww.com)
- As they explained, these decreased levels of HDL cholesterol are especially relevant clinically for those at high cardiometabolic risk, and this may justify aggressively treating low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels as well. (ajmc.com)
- When PCSK9 inhibitors burst on the scene, the focus was on dramatically reduced levels of LDL cholesterol-up to 60% in clinical trials. (ajmc.com)
- The potential to reduce LDL cholesterol to levels never imagined in at-risk patients brought with it the need for more accurate tests, and in September, Quest Diagnostics, the major testing company, announced it would be adopting a test developed at Johns Hopkins University to replace an older method, known as the Friedewald calculation. (ajmc.com)
- 9 According to Brinton, the Friedewald method is simply not accurate once LDL cholesterol reaches the levels achieved with PCSK9 inhibitors. (ajmc.com)
- Unhealthy cholesterol levels (too much of the 'bad' fats in your blood) increase your risk of heart disease by clogging and damaging your arteries. (sharecare.com)
- If you have unhealthy cholesterol levels (or want to prevent them), one of the first things you should examine is your diet and the combination of foods you eat. (sharecare.com)
- Are you eating foods that help reduce cholesterol and avoiding the ones that cause unhealthy cholesterol levels to creep higher? (sharecare.com)
- How Can I Lower My Cholesterol Levels? (sharecare.com)
- The risk of cardiovascular disease has been reported to have a linear relationship with LDL levels. (hindawi.com)
- Previous attempts to maximally lower the LDL levels with statin monotherapy have met dejection due to the increased side effects associated with the treatment. (hindawi.com)
- Moreover, various studies aiming to lower the CV risk and mortality by lowering LDL levels have demonstrated encouraging results. (hindawi.com)
- The current challenge is to explore this arena to redefine the target LDL levels, if required, to avoid any suboptimal treatment. (hindawi.com)
- Moreover, increased LDL levels are found to be positively correlated with the increased CV risk. (hindawi.com)
- It has been found that not only elevated levels of LDL lead to coronary heart disease, but changes in composition can also result in the same. (hindawi.com)
- There is still a large unmet need among patients with high cardiovascular risk and elevated cholesterol who are unable to reach optimal LDL cholesterol levels with current therapies,' said Sean E. Harper, M.D., executive vice president of Research and Development at Amgen. (fiercebiotech.com)
- PHILADELPHIA -LDL cholesterol can be reduced to even more beneficial levels than ever before by use of a number of medications, including PCSK9 inhibitors, according to a presenter at the Heart in Diabetes CME Conference. (healio.com)
- LDL cholesterol can be reduced to even more beneficial levels than ever before by use of a number of medications, including PCSK9 inhibitors. (healio.com)
- PARIS - A small interfering RNA drug, inclisiran, safely halved LDL cholesterol levels in more than 800 patients in a phase 3, multicenter study, in a big step toward this drug coming onto the market and offering an alternative way to harness the potent cholesterol-lowering power of PCSK9 inhibition. (natap.org)
- The trick is to find the foods that will maintain proper LDL and HDL levels, while still appealing to your taste buds. (hubpages.com)
- When LDL levels are high they begin to accumulate plaque within the arteries. (hubpages.com)
- In the case of HDL, high levels in the blood are a good thing as they tend to lower cholesterol related health risks. (hubpages.com)
- Keeping HDL levels high are thought to be just as important as keeping your LDL levels low for the prevention of heart disease and other cholesterol related health risks. (hubpages.com)
- Green tea is also known to lower LDL levels and tastes good too. (hubpages.com)
- Once thought to be a hazard for maintaining proper cholesterol levels, eggs are now known to be a great source of necessary HDL cholesterol. (hubpages.com)
- Along with lowering LDL levels, soy is also known to raise HDL cholesterol. (hubpages.com)
- There are many natural cholesterol supplements that have been shown to not only reduce LDL (bad) cholesterol levels but also increase HDL, the good kind that your body needs. (healthy-heart-guide.com)
- There are a number of supplements purported to help not only regulate cholesterol levels but also improve heart health and strength. (healthy-heart-guide.com)
- Xtend-Life Lipi-Rite is a safe, effective way to balance your cholesterol levels naturally! (healthy-heart-guide.com)
- The benefit of MUFAs extends to improved heart health, lowered cholesterol, and additional benefits to blood sugar levels, so they are helpful for diabetics. (belmarrahealth.com)
- Blood samples to measure cholesterol levels are drawn after you've fasted for nine to 12 hours. (drweil.com)
- Results reveal total cholesterol as well as levels of LDL and HDL (the "bad" and "good" subtypes). (drweil.com)
- Before menopause, women tend to have lower levels than men of the same age, but after menopause, women's LDL levels often increase. (drweil.com)
- They found that in most studies there was an inverse relationship between LDL cholesterol levels and mortality for those over 60, and the authors concluded that 'our study provides the rationale for a re-evaluation of guidelines recommending pharmacological reduction of LDL-C in the elderly as a component of cardiovascular disease prevention strategies. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
- What we found in our detailed systematic review was that older people with high LDL (low-density lipoprotein) levels, the so-called "bad" cholesterol, lived longer and had less heart disease. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
- A new analysis of prior research suggests that higher levels of so-called bad LDL cholesterol is associated with longer life for older people. (peoplespharmacy.com)
- In theory, people with high levels of bad LDL cholesterol should have been at increased risk for deaths from heart attacks and strokes. (peoplespharmacy.com)
- The volunteers' total cholesterol levels were measured when they were middle-aged and again in the early 1990s, when they were elderly. (peoplespharmacy.com)
- To their surprise, the men with the lowest cholesterol levels had the highest risk of dying over the next several years. (peoplespharmacy.com)
- Those with cholesterol levels between 188 and 209 fared the best. (peoplespharmacy.com)
- Having high levels of LDL cholesterol, also known as "bad" cholesterol, can place you at risk of developing heart disease if it is left untreated. (verywellhealth.com)
- The good news is that, unlike other risk factors, you may be able to prevent high LDL levels or lower your LDL levels if they are already high. (verywellhealth.com)
- Although many cholesterol medications can lower LDL levels to varying degrees, your healthcare provider may want to use therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLC) to see how low your LDL can go before medication is needed. (verywellhealth.com)
- Being overweight or obese not only places you at risk for developing high LDL levels, it can also contribute to heart disease and other chronic medical conditions. (verywellhealth.com)
- Research hints that losing even a small amount of weight may help lower your LDL levels. (verywellhealth.com)
- More long-term studies are needed in order to determine whether or not it is the actual loss of weight or the diet and exercise that go along with it that causes the reduction in LDL levels. (verywellhealth.com)
- It is also possible that LDL cholesterol can eventually return to original levels, even when weight loss is maintained. (verywellhealth.com)
- Exercise is not only good for losing weight, but moderate amounts of it may also help lower your cholesterol levels-especially your LDL cholesterol. (verywellhealth.com)
- Other forms of exercise, such as yoga, walking, and weight-bearing exercises, have also been shown to modestly decrease LDL levels. (verywellhealth.com)
- Smoking cessation not only has a large impact on levels of HDL, or "good" cholesterol, it can also slightly lower LDL levels. (verywellhealth.com)
- Research has shown that cholesterol levels will decrease as soon as you stop smoking. (verywellhealth.com)
- With each month after quitting, LDL levels continue to lower, even partially reversing the effects of smoking on cholesterol after just 90 days. (verywellhealth.com)
- Although moderate consumption of alcohol can significantly raise HDL levels, it can also lower LDL, according to studies. (verywellhealth.com)
- With a few simple lifestyle changes, your LDL cholesterol levels can become lower. (verywellhealth.com)
- Depending on your current cholesterol levels, however, these steps may not be enough. (verywellhealth.com)
- Generally you can't pick a single reason why cholesterol levels rise or fall. (ldlhdlcholesterollevels.org)
- If high cholesterol runs in family, it is likely to be a major contributor to the sensitivity of changes in levels of cholesterol. (ldlhdlcholesterollevels.org)
- Lifestyle habits like eating unhealthy, excessive drinking, smoking, and inactivity can raise cholesterol levels. (ldlhdlcholesterollevels.org)
- There are no known symptoms to identify high cholesterol levels. (ldlhdlcholesterollevels.org)
- Such report shows person's cholesterol levels in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) of blood. (ldlhdlcholesterollevels.org)
- As a general rule, higher levels of cholesterol mean higher risk of coronary heart disease. (ldlhdlcholesterollevels.org)
- For this reason, obviously, higher HDL cholesterol levels are desirable. (ldlhdlcholesterollevels.org)
- Obviously, lower LDL cholesterol levels are desirable. (ldlhdlcholesterollevels.org)
- Non-HDL Cholesterol is a More Superior Predictor of Small-Dense LDL Cholesterol than LDL Cholesterol in Japanese Subjects with TG Levels ＜400 mg/dL. (nih.gov)
- Because small-dense LDL particles are more atherogenic than large LDL particles, we sought the better lipid parameter which was more reflective of the high small-dense LDL-C (sdLDL-C) levels in subjects with TG levels ＜400 mg/dL. (nih.gov)
- Even in subjects stratified by waist circumstance, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, TG, and F_LDL-C levels and non-HDL-C showed stronger relationships with sdLDL-C than F_LDL-C. Moreover, non-HDL-C showed a better relationship with sdLDL-C than total cholesterol (TC), TC/HDL-C, and non-HDL-C/HDL-C. (nih.gov)
- Our data suggested that non-HDL-C is superior to F_LDL-C and one of the reliable surrogate lipid markers of sdLDL-C in Japanese subjects with TG levels ＜400 mg/dL. (nih.gov)
- The serum levels of sd-LDL-C determined with a dual detection HPLC system were higher in MS than non-MS patients, while total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were similar between MS and non-MS patients. (nih.gov)
- Furthermore, weight reduction therapy through diet and exercise rapidly decreased LDL-C but slowly decreased sd-LDL-C. At 12 months after the therapy, weight reduction led to a significant decrease in the ratio sd-LDL-C/LDL-C in tandem with increasing adiponectin levels. (nih.gov)
- Stormie had a condition which raised her blood cholesterol to 10 times normal levels. (wikipedia.org)
- As a result, her LDL-cholesterol levels became very high and caused her two heart attacks by age six. (wikipedia.org)
- Second, Law and Wald presented a time-lag hypothesis: if there were a delay in serum cholesterol concentrations increasing and a subsequent increase in ischaemic heart disease mortality, then the current rate of mortality from CHD is more likely to be linked to past levels of serum cholesterol and fat consumption than to current serum cholesterol levels and patterns of fat consumption. (wikipedia.org)
- Male homozygotes had decreased circulating cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels. (wikipedia.org)
- This protein plays a major regulatory role in cholesterol homeostasis, mainly by reducing LDLR levels on the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
- Reduced LDLR levels result in decreased metabolism of LDL-particles, which could lead to hypercholesterolemia. (wikipedia.org)
- In healthy humans, plasma PCSK9 levels directly correlate with plasma sortilin levels, following a diurnal rhythm similar to cholesterol synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
- Thus a spiralling effect occurs with high endothelial LDL levels causing greater ADMA values, which in turn inhibit NO production needed to promote vasodilation. (wikipedia.org)
- It is recommended to be used only after other measures, such as diet, exercise, and weight reduction, have not improved cholesterol levels. (wikipedia.org)
- A 2008 systematic review of randomized controlled studies that compared low-carbohydrate diets to low-fat/low-calorie diets found the measurements of weight, HDL cholesterol, triglyceride levels, and systolic blood pressure were significantly better in groups that followed low-carbohydrate diets. (wikipedia.org)
- High plasma remnant cholesterol is associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels. (wikipedia.org)
- Hypolipidemic agents, or antihyperlipidemic agents, are a diverse group of pharmaceuticals that are used in the treatment of high levels of fats (lipids), such as cholesterol, in the blood (hyperlipidemia). (wikipedia.org)
- Low Fat Vegan Diets have been shown to reduce both weight and cholesterol levels. (wikipedia.org)
- If dietary and life style management is ineffective, medication such as statin will be used to in conjunction to reduce blood cholesterol levels. (wikipedia.org)
- 46 healthy individuals with high blood cholesterol levels were randomly assigned into one of three study groups: 1. (wikipedia.org)
- Studies have indicated pinto beans can lower the levels of both HDL and LDL cholesterol. (wikipedia.org)
- A Phase II study demonstrated selective sPLA2 inhibition as well as statistically significant anti-inflammatory responses and reductions in LDL cholesterol levels. (wikipedia.org)
- Two other Phase II trials, conducted in patients with coronary artery disease, found significant decreases in sPLA2 and LDL cholesterol levels, as well as C-reactive proteins (CRP) and other inflammatory biomarkers. (wikipedia.org)
- Varespladib methyl has also been shown to further reduce LDL and inflammatory biomarker levels when administered in conjunction with a cholesterol lowering statin therapy. (wikipedia.org)
- CYP7A1 is located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is important for the synthesis of bile acid and the regulation of cholesterol levels. (wikipedia.org)
- CYP7A1 is upregulated by the nuclear receptor LXR (liver X receptor) when cholesterol (to be specific, oxysterol) levels are high. (wikipedia.org)
- It is downregulated by Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP) when plasma cholesterol levels are low. (wikipedia.org)
- In the first study, the supplement-enriched juice had no discernible effect on the blood cholesterol levels of 110 hypercholesterolaemic men and women. (wikipedia.org)
- In the second study, the total and LDL-cholesterol levels of mildly hypercholesterolaemic men were lowered. (wikipedia.org)
- ApoB100 are metabolized in the bloodstream to LDL cholesterol, high levels of which are associated with artherosclerosis. (wikipedia.org)
- Since 1993, Drs. Brown, Goldstein, and their colleagues have described the unexpectedly complex machinery by which cells maintain the necessary levels of fats and cholesterol in the face of varying environmental circumstances. (wikipedia.org)
- Replacing saturated fats with unsaturated fats helps lower levels of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
- The study suggested that treatments should aim to lower LDL, or "bad" cholesterol levels as much as possible. (wikipedia.org)
- Hypobetalipoproteinemia is a disorder consisting of low levels of LDL cholesterol or apolipoprotein B, below the 5th percentile. (wikipedia.org)
- The patient can have hypobetalipoproteinemia and simultaneously have high levels of HDL cholesterol. (wikipedia.org)
- Typically in hypobetalipoproteinemia, plasma cholesterol levels will be around 80-120 mg/dL, LDL cholesterol will be around 50-80 mg/dL. (wikipedia.org)
- LDL levels are a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. (wikipedia.org)
- As a squalene synthase inhibitor, zaragozic acid produces lower plasma cholesterol levels in primates. (wikipedia.org)
- Treatment of rats with zaragozic acid A caused an increase in hepatic low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor mRNA levels. (wikipedia.org)
- Lipid deposits are encouraged by high levels of circulating LDL, often caused by inadequate removal by HDL particles. (wikipedia.org)
- Inhibition of this process results in higher HDL levels and reduces LDL levels. (wikipedia.org)
- Homozygous mutant male adults had abnormal clinical chemistry, including decreased circulating LDL cholesterol, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase levels. (wikipedia.org)
- Two Canadian studies have shown that vaccenic acid, found in beef and dairy products, could actually be beneficial compared to hydrogenated vegetable shortening, or a mixture of pork lard and soy fat, by lowering total and LDL and triglyceride levels. (wikipedia.org)
- In 1991, Merck & Co's simvastatin was approved as an HMG-COA inhibitor to lower the levels of LDL cholesterol. (wikipedia.org)
- She helped find that people with hypomorphic PCSK9 mutations had lower LDL levels, and were almost immune to heart disease. (wikipedia.org)
- In humans with genetic loss-of-function variants in one copy of ANGPTL3, the serum LDL-C levels are reduced. (wikipedia.org)
- They are added to certain oil-containing products like margarine, milk, or yogurt to make functional foods for controlling cholesterol levels. (wikipedia.org)
- Thirty-six participants with moderately elevated cholesterol levels participated in two 32-day phases where the subjects consumed their normal dietary patterns or the experimental diet consistent with the NCEP recommendations. (wikipedia.org)
- As bile acids are biosynthesized from cholesterol, disruption of bile acid reabsorption will decrease cholesterol levels, in particular, low-density lipoprotein (commonly known as "bad cholesterol") in blood. (wikipedia.org)
- High levels of lipoprotein(a), a compound formed when LDL cholesterol combines with a protein known as apolipoprotein(a). (wikipedia.org)
- Torcetrapib (CP-529,414, Pfizer) was a drug being developed to treat hypercholesterolemia (elevated cholesterol levels) and prevent cardiovascular disease. (wikipedia.org)
- One of the ways in which Lactobacillus fermentum has been seen as a probiotic is by its ability to reduce cholesterol levels. (wikipedia.org)
- These compensatory effects result in increased clearance of LDL-C from the blood, resulting in decreased serum LDL-C levels. (wikipedia.org)
- Since Colesevelam can lower total and LDL cholesterol levels (along with raising HDL - "good" cholesterol), taking it may decrease one's risk of developing certain health problems in the future. (wikipedia.org)
- The combination of Colesevelam with a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (known more commonly as a statin) can further lower cholesterol levels. (wikipedia.org)
- There appear to be seasonal variations in cholesterol levels in humans, more, on average, in winter. (wikipedia.org)
- The criteria for this (without the involvement of cholesterol-lowering drugs) are total cholesterol levels below 120 mg/dL and LDL cholesterol levels under 50 mg/dL. (wikipedia.org)
- In the setting of critical illness, low cholesterol levels are predictive of clinical deterioration, and are correlated with altered cytokine levels. (wikipedia.org)
- citation needed] In a human clinical trial published in 2003, theaflavins were found to reduce blood cholesterol levels, both total and LDL. (wikipedia.org)
- This combination drug works to reduce cholesterol levels through two different pathways. (wikipedia.org)
- It reduces triglyceride levels and increases HDL cholesterol. (wikipedia.org)
- For example, when cellular cholesterol levels fall below the level needed, the cell makes more of the enzymes necessary to make cholesterol. (wikipedia.org)
- And in these four patient groups, the new guidelines make recommendations regarding the appropriate "intensity" of statin therapy in order to achieve relative reductions in LDL cholesterol . (medscape.com)
- In secondary prevention, what if your patient is on high-intensity statin therapy and gets an LDL-cholesterol level of 78 [mg/dL] and is adhering to an excellent lifestyle? (medscape.com)
- And yet, we're not abandoning the measurement of LDL cholesterol, because it's perhaps our best marker of understanding whether patients are going to achieve as much benefit as they can for the dose of statin they can tolerate. (medscape.com)
- Stone acknowledged that the old targets might be part of the "mind-set" of physicians but said the new recommendations actually simplify treatment in that doctors won't have to fuss around with additional means to lower LDL cholesterol if the patient has been treated with an appropriate dose of statin therapy. (medscape.com)
- The American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association (AHA) published a report on the use of newer non-statin LDL-reducing therapies that have emerged in the last decade. (healthcentral.com)
- Cholesterol-lowering statin medications decrease the risk of heart disease . (medicinenet.com)
- 7 Findings from a managed care study showed that older individuals, men, and patients compliant with statin therapy were more likely to meet their LDL cholesterol goal. (uspharmacist.com)
- Plant-based diets have been shown to lower cholesterol just as effectively as first-line statin drugs, but without the risks. (nutritionfacts.org)
- The study samples were patients already on a heart-healthy diet and taking statin drugs to control cholesterol. (medindia.net)
- Researchers at the University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA), and Sungkyunkwan University and Samsung Medical Center, in Seoul, Korea, evaluated the independent effect of statin use and admission cholesterol level on the risk of symptomatic hemorrhagic transformation (sHT) after recanalization therapy for acute ischemic stroke. (lww.com)
- Ischemic stroke patients with lower LDL cholesterol had a significantly higher risk of sHT after treatment with tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), angioplasty, or clot retrieval, independent of concurrent statin therapy or smoking. (lww.com)
- Reducing LDL cholesterol concentration by 1 mmol/L for about 5 years is consistently associated with a 23%-25% lowered risk of major cardiovascular events, with statin and nonstatin therapies alike, irrespective of baseline LDL cholesterol concentration. (ajmc.com)
- With statin use, the increase in cancer deaths offset (counteract) the lower cardiac mortality associated with lower cholesterol, resulting in a neutral effect of overall mortality. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Therefore, increasing statin dosage has the direct effect of decreasing parent linoleic acid in all tissues because of the significant prevalence of cholesterol in every one of our 100 trillion cells! (medicalnewstoday.com)
- LDL, or "bad" cholesterol, has "long been the focus of treatment" with statin drugs. (californiahealthline.org)
- After one year, HDL cholesterol rose to an average of 47 for participants in the statin-Niaspan group. (californiahealthline.org)
- 00001), according to Gotto, who noted that these benefits were present regardless of baseline LDL cholesterol or previous statin use and without much difference in safety outcomes between groups. (healio.com)
- The ingredients of this special cholesterol supplement have been shown to be much safer than the statin medications prescribed by many doctors. (healthy-heart-guide.com)
- As with all health supplements, make sure you consult your physician or other qualified medical professional before taking any cholesterol lowering supplements or statin medications. (healthy-heart-guide.com)
- Lowering of LDL cholesterol with standard statin regimens reduces the risk of occlusive vascular events in a wide range of individuals. (nih.gov)
- We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of more intensive lowering of LDL cholesterol with statin therapy. (nih.gov)
- Per 1·0 mmol/L reduction in LDL cholesterol, these further reductions in risk were similar to the proportional reductions in the trials of statin versus control. (nih.gov)
- Lovastatin and other prescription "statin" drugs inhibit cholesterol synthesis by blocking action of the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase. (wikipedia.org)
- In a meta-analysis of 91 randomized clinical trials of ≥12 weeks duration, totaling 68,485 participants, LDL-cholesterol was lowered by 24-49% depending on the statin. (wikipedia.org)
- It is in the statin class of medications and works by decreasing the manufacture of cholesterol by the liver. (wikipedia.org)
- Researches have found it has comparable blood cholesterol effect to statin treatment. (wikipedia.org)
- LDL level was reduced significantly in both the statin group and the diet portfolio group. (wikipedia.org)
- It concluded that diet portfolio has comparable cholesterol-lowering effect to statin treatment. (wikipedia.org)
- The widely popular statin drugs currently used to lower LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol function by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase activity. (wikipedia.org)
- Their findings led to the development of statin drugs, the cholesterol-lowering compounds that today are used by 16 million Americans and are the most widely prescribed medications in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
- New federal cholesterol guidelines will triple the number of Americans taking statin drugs to lower their cholesterol, reducing the risk of heart disease and stroke for countless people. (wikipedia.org)
- A 2004 trial (19 subjects, non-randomised) showed that torcetrapib could increase HDL and lower LDL with and without an added statin. (wikipedia.org)
- Colesevelam is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to reduce elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in patients with primary hyperlipidemia as monotherapy and to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus, including in combination with a statin. (wikipedia.org)
- A post-hoc subgroup analysis by sex, however, did show that studies that included men tended to show a greater reduction in LDL cholesterol than those with more women, with a corresponding reduction in the I 2 value from 80% in our primary analysis to 53%," the authors wrote. (medpagetoday.com)
- In that study, a 1% reduction in LDL cholesterol translated to a 1% reduction in cardiovascular mortality, the authors said. (medpagetoday.com)
- Within the past decade, clinical trials of LDL-C reduction have convincingly demonstrated that LDL-C reduction in primary and secondary prevention trials can significantly reduce clinical cardiac events. (ahajournals.org)
- 1 Arteriographic investigations have demonstrated that LDL-C reduction can significantly reduce the rate of arteriographically defined disease progression. (ahajournals.org)
- Drug therapy is generally started after therapeutic lifestyle changes have failed to meet target cholesterol reduction or concomitantly when it is anticipated that therapeutic lifestyle changes will not solely be sufficient to minimize heart disease risk. (healthcentral.com)
- The IMPROVE-IT study also suggests that reduction in LDL cholesterol is beneficial, regardless of the agent used. (medindia.net)
- IMPROVE-IT does not specifically prove unique benefits of ezetimibe, rather it suggests that reduction in LDL cholesterol by any mechanism is useful to prevent adverse cardiovascular events. (medindia.net)
- Sesamin, a major lignan from sesame seeds has been associated with cholesterol reduction in previous reports, but recent studies suggested differences in the response to sesamin intake depending on the model studied as well as the nature of the sesamin preparation used. (springer.com)
- When compared to the cost and reduction of some of the leading LDL prescriptions on the market today, niacin seemed to pull its own weight in terms of offering health benefits. (nutralegacy.com)
- In the second study there with 93 subjects, the Beneforté broccoli diet resulted in a reduction of 5.1 percent, whereas standard broccoli reduced LDL by 2.5 percent. (doctormurray.com)
- The addition helped further lower total cholesterol and contributed to a nearly 10 percent reduction in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. (medindia.net)
- Although the reduction seen in these trials is small, at a population level, a 1% reduction in LDL cholesterol has been associated with a 1-2% reduction in risk of coronary artery disease. (medindia.net)
- Next, at the American Diabetes Association Scientific Sessions in June, came a pair of results for rival PCSK9 inhibitor alirocumab (Praluent, from Sanofi-Regeneron) that showed a 49% LDL cholesterol reduction for patients with T2D and a 32.5% reduction for patients with dyslipidemia. (ajmc.com)
- 6 Finally, follow-up results from FOURIER presented in September at the European Association for the Study of Diabetes Annual Meeting showed that those with diabetes who took evolocumab had a 57% reduction in LDL cholesterol. (ajmc.com)
- When newly diagnosed cancer cases were correlated with cholesterol reduction, a disturbing significant correspondence was found, and recently published as, "Effect of the Magnitude of Lipid Lowering on Risk of Elevated Liver Enzymes, Rhabdomyolysis, and Cancer, by Alsheikh-Ali, et al . (medicalnewstoday.com)
- A statement from the British Heart Foundation said: 'There is nothing in the current paper to support the author's suggestions that the studies they reviewed cast doubt on the idea that LDL Cholesterol is a major cause of he'rt disease or that guidelines on LDL reduction in the elderly need re-valuating. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
- Moreover, our study provides the rationale for a re-evaluation of guidelines recommending pharmacological reduction of LDL-C in the elderly as a component of cardiovascular disease prevention strategies. (peoplespharmacy.com)
- For each type of trial, we calculated not only the average risk reduction, but also the average risk reduction per 1·0 mmol/L LDL cholesterol reduction at 1 year after randomisation. (nih.gov)
- Further reductions in LDL cholesterol safely produce definite further reductions in the incidence of heart attack, of revascularisation, and of ischaemic stroke, with each 1·0 mmol/L reduction reducing the annual rate of these major vascular events by just over a fifth. (nih.gov)
- Overall, the result is a reduction in circulating cholesterol and LDL. (wikipedia.org)
- New Idol for cholesterol reduction? (wikipedia.org)
- In a more recent randomized, double blind clinical study of 58 hypercholesterolaemic volunteers, an extruded carob pulp preparation added to daily diet reduced total and LDL-cholesterol and improved the ratio of HDL:LDL cholesterol in all participants, and also showed a marked reduction in serum cholesterol in the women of the study. (wikipedia.org)
- The net result is a reduction in circulating LDL particles. (wikipedia.org)
- If you have familial hypercholesterolaemia, treatment will be directed at lowering your cholesterol and reducing your risk of coronary artery disease and stroke. (mydr.com.au)
- But having too much cholesterol in your blood raises your risk of coronary artery disease . (medlineplus.gov)
- How can a high LDL level raise my risk of coronary artery disease and other diseases? (medlineplus.gov)
- 3 Large, well-designed, placebo-controlled studies have shown that lowering LDL cholesterol level reduces coronary heart disease events. (uspharmacist.com)
- The Lipid Treatment Assessment Process (L-TAP), a multicenter survey evaluating the number of patients on lipid-lowering therapy who have reached their LDL cholesterol goals, showed that 38% of patients achieved the targets specified by NCEP for LDL cholesterol, but only 18% of those with coronary heart disease met their goal. (uspharmacist.com)
- Total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol values are used for determining the risk factors for coronary heart disease. (reference.com)
- HDL-cholesterol values less than 40 mg/dL are associated with increased coronary heart disease risk in adults. (cdc.gov)
- An LDL around 70 mg/dL corresponds to a total cholesterol reading of about 150, the level below which no deaths from coronary heart disease were reported in the famous Framingham Heart Study, a generations-long project to identify risk factors for heart disease. (nutritionfacts.org)
- If you have diabetes, family history of coronary disease or smoke, you may need treatment for high cholesterol, says Thomas Lambert, MD, a cardiologist at MountainView Hospital. (sharecare.com)
- Deranged LDL metabolism leads to coronary artery disease that is often fatal, especially in patients with diabetes. (hindawi.com)
- The beneficial effect of reducing LDL cholesterol on slowing the progression of coronary heart disease is overwhelmingly documented today in epidemiologic and randomized controlled studies," explained lead author John Munkhaugen, MD, a cardiology trainee and postdoctoral researcher at Drammen Hospital in Norway. (uspharmacist.com)
- When you think of raised cholesterol causing coronary heart disease, most of us assume that LDL cholesterol is to blame. (gnet.org)
- But a high level of cholesterol in the blood - hypercholesterolemia - is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease, which causes heart attacks. (lowfatlifestyle.com)
- Therefore, the cholesterol in LDL (hereinafter referred to as "LDL-cholesterol) is regarded as a risk factor for arteriosclerosis, and ischemic heart disease (coronary arteriosclerotic disease). (google.com)
- Regression models were used to estimate associations of demographics and comorbidities with discordance and of LDL-P and non-HDL-C with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and detectable coronary artery calcium (CAC) among discordance groups. (nih.gov)
- They go on to challenge the foundation of cholesterol-lowering treatments by questioning the idea that LDL cholesterol causes clogged coronary arteries. (peoplespharmacy.com)
- Remnant cholesterol is especially predictive of coronary artery disease in patients with normal total cholesterol. (wikipedia.org)
- High cholesterol is one of the major controllable risk factors for coronary heart disease, heart attack and stroke. (wikipedia.org)
- Epidemiologic evidence in humans supports this direct relationship between LDL cholesterol and coronary heart disease risk. (wikipedia.org)
- The distribution of serum LDL-cholesterol should be estimated only on examinees aged 12 and above who fasted at least 8.5 hours or more but less than 24 hours in the morning session. (cdc.gov)
- Green tea beverages or extracts resulted in significant reductions in serum TC and LDL-cholesterol concentrations. (greenmedinfo.com)
- Cholesterol is measured enzymatically in serum or plasma in a series of coupled reactions that hydrolyze cholesteryl esters and oxidize the 3-OH group of cholesterol. (cdc.gov)
- The effect of pure sesamin epimer on serum lipids was studied in hypercholesterolemic LDL receptor-knockout mice under cholesterol fed condition. (springer.com)
- Simultaneous lowering of serum phosphate and LDL-cholesterol by sevelamer hydrochloride (RenaGel) in dialysis patients. (nih.gov)
- We aimed to examine the changes in serum concentrations of four subclasses of LDL particles as well as shifts in LDL phenotype patterns (A, B, AB) among hypertriglyceridemic adults. (nih.gov)
- Our data accord with previous findings of increased mortality in elderly people with low serum cholesterol, and show that long-term persistence of low cholesterol concentration actually increases the risk of death. (peoplespharmacy.com)
- They wrote, We propose that the difference is due to the time lag between increases in consumption of animal fat and serum cholesterol concentrations and the resulting increase in mortality from heart disease-similar to the recognised time lag between smoking and lung cancer. (wikipedia.org)
- Consumption of animal fat and serum cholesterol concentrations increased only recently in France but did so decades ago in Britain. (wikipedia.org)
- The World Health Organization Cooperative Trial on Primary Prevention of Ischaemic Heart Disease using clofibrate to lower serum cholesterol observed excess mortality in the clofibrate-treated group despite successful cholesterol lowering (47% more deaths during treatment with clofibrate and 5% after treatment with clofibrate) than the non-treated high cholesterol group. (wikipedia.org)
- WHO cooperative trial on primary prevention of ischaemic heart disease with clofibrate to lower serum cholesterol: final mortality follow-up. (wikipedia.org)
- High blood cholesterol (specifically, serum LDL concentrations). (wikipedia.org)
- Furthermore, a compensatory two- to fivefold upregulation of LDL receptor (cholesterol uptake) and HMG-CoA reductase (cholesterol synthesis) expression was noticed in the adrenals of probucol-treated mice. (wellnessresources.com)
- Chen, C-W and Cheng, H-H. A rice bran oil diet increases LDL-receptor and HMG-CoA reductase mRNA expressions and insulin sensitivity in rats with streptozotocin/nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetes. (randox.com)
- In this study, we aimed to further investigate the hypocholesterolemic action of sesamin minimizing the above described variables and using only pure sesamin epimer and selecting low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-deficient mice as experimental animals. (springer.com)
- The Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Receptor (LDL-R) is a mosaic protein of 839 amino acids (after removal of 21-amino acid signal peptide) that mediates the endocytosis of cholesterol-rich LDL. (wikipedia.org)
- It is a cell-surface receptor that recognizes the apoprotein B100, which is embedded in the outer phospholipid layer of LDL particles. (wikipedia.org)
- In humans, the LDL receptor protein is encoded by the LDLR gene on chromosome 19. (wikipedia.org)
- The N-terminal domain of the LDL receptor, which is responsible for ligand binding, is composed of seven sequence repeats (~50% identical). (wikipedia.org)
- Mutations in the gene encoding the LDL receptor are known to cause familial hypercholesterolaemia. (wikipedia.org)
- There are 5 broad classes of mutation of the LDL receptor: Class 1 mutations affect the synthesis of the receptor in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (wikipedia.org)
- Class 3 mutations stop the binding of LDL to the receptor. (wikipedia.org)
- They are cleared from the plasma into the liver by receptor-mediated endocytosis, or further degraded to form LDL particles. (wikipedia.org)
- The multiple copies of ApoE allow IDL to bind to the LDL receptor with a very high affinity. (wikipedia.org)
- Thereafter, the affinity for the LDL receptor is much reduced. (wikipedia.org)
- A receptor-mediated pathway for cholesterol homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
- PCSK9 binds to the receptor for low-density lipoprotein particles (LDL), which typically transport 3,000 to 6,000 fat molecules (including cholesterol) per particle, within extracellular fluid. (wikipedia.org)
- The LDL receptor (LDLR), on liver and other cell membranes, binds and initiates ingestion of LDL-particles from extracellular fluid into cells, thus reducing LDL particle concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
- The conformational change causes LDLR to release its LDL ligand, and the receptor is recycled back to the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
- MYLIP is also known as IDOL "Inducible Degrader of the LDL receptor" based on its involvement in cholesterol regulation. (wikipedia.org)
- Pharmacologic inhibition of IDOL could reduce plasma LDL cholesterol by increasing plasma LDL receptor density. (wikipedia.org)
- The LDL is taken into a cell via the LDL receptor via endocytosis, where the contents are either stored, used for cell membrane structure, or converted into other products such as steroid hormones or bile acids. (wikipedia.org)
- LRPAP1 is involved with trafficking of certain members of the LDL receptor family including LRP1 and LRP2. (wikipedia.org)
- LDL-receptor-related protein-associated protein has been shown to interact with LRP2. (wikipedia.org)
- citation needed] As a result of the RNA editing, ApoB48 and ApoB100 share a common N-terminal sequence, but ApoB48 lacks ApoB100's C-terminal LDL receptor binding region. (wikipedia.org)
- The reduced delivery of cholesterol to the liver increases hepatic LDL receptor activity and thereby increases clearance of circulating LDL. (wikipedia.org)
- Later projects include investigation of LDL cholesterol receptor internalization, cellular sorting machinery, and the cellular basis for immunity. (wikipedia.org)
- This leads to decreased enterohepatic recirculation of bile acids, increased synthesis of new bile acids by the liver from cholesterol, decreased liver cholesterol, increased LDL receptor expression, and decreasing LDL in blood. (wikipedia.org)
- The chylomicrons are ultimately taken up by liver hepatocytes via interaction between apolipoproteinE and the LDL receptor or Lipoprotein receptor-related proteins. (wikipedia.org)
- The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) regulates cholesterol homeostasis in mammalian cells. (wikipedia.org)
- The ligand-binding domain contains seven LDL receptor class A repeats, each with three disulphide bonds and a coordinated Ca2+ ion. (wikipedia.org)
- The second conserved region contains two EGF repeats, followed by six YWTD or LDL receptor class B repeats and another EGF repeat. (wikipedia.org)
- The structure of the six YWTD repeats of LDL receptor have been solved. (wikipedia.org)
- The repeat is found in a variety of proteins that include, vitellogenin receptor from Drosophila melanogaster, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, preproepidermal growth factor, and nidogen (entactin). (wikipedia.org)
- It is sometimes called the "bad" cholesterol because a high LDL level leads to a buildup of cholesterol in your arteries. (medlineplus.gov)
- Since HDL helps to remove LDL from your arteries, if you have less HDL, that can contribute to you having a higher LDL level. (medlineplus.gov)
- It is considered to be undesirable and is often call "bad" cholesterol because it deposits excess cholesterol in blood vessel walls and contributes to hardening of the arteries and heart disease. (labcorp.com)
- Low-density lipoprotein is unhealthy cholesterol that results in clogged arteries, while high-density lipoprotein is healthy cholesterol that pushes LDL ou. (reference.com)
- An excess of LDL cholesterol causes fatty deposits (or plaques) to build up inside your arteries. (gnet.org)
- Indeed, LDL is called "bad" cholesterol because it's the vehicle by which cholesterol is deposited into our arteries. (nutritionfacts.org)
- When a person has too much LDL cholesterol circulating in the blood, it can slowly build up within the walls of the arteries feeding the heart and brain. (lowfatlifestyle.com)
- In fact, there's good reason to question the reigning " lipid hypothesis ", which posits that dietary cholesterol clogs the arteries and leads to heart disease. (marksdailyapple.com)
- LDL (bad) cholesterol builds up in the arteries not from how many omelets you eat, but in response to inflammation. (marksdailyapple.com)
- Resistin accelerates the accumulation of LDL in arteries, increasing the risk of heart disease. (wikipedia.org)
- This type of LDL is usually incorporated in macrophages, resulting in foam cell formation and formation of an atherosclerotic plaque which narrows or blocks the arteries. (wikipedia.org)
- This stands for low-density lipoprotein but put simply, it's the 'bad' cholesterol we're always hearing about. (mirror.co.uk)
- LDL stands for low density lipoprotein and is considered bad cholesterol. (healthcentral.com)
- LDL stands for low-density lipoprotein and is only one of the five major lipoprotein groups. (hubpages.com)
- The LDL-cholesterol in mg/dL (LBDLDL) was converted to mmol/L (LBDLDLSI) by multiplying by 0.02586. (cdc.gov)
- The randomized crossover study included 32 participants who had high cholesterol, were aged 21 to 79 years, had a fasting LCL-C level between 3.4 and 5.7 mmol/L, and were in good general health. (pharmacytimes.com)
- Results indicate that 57% of patients were not meeting the European guideline LDL target of 1.8 mmol/L at follow-up. (uspharmacist.com)
- 0·0001), including those with LDL cholesterol lower than 2 mmol/L on the less intensive or control regimen. (nih.gov)
- For more on this, see Common Questions #1 and the article on LDL Particle Testing . (labcorp.com)
- Cardiovascular risk assessment incorporates measurement of atherogenic lipids such as non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C). It remains uncertain under which circumstances atherogenic lipoprotein enumeration such as LDL particle number (LDL-P) differs from simultaneously acquired non-HDL-C. (nih.gov)
- Distribution of LDL-particle number and non-HDL-cholesterol in the overall cohort and by ethnicity. (nih.gov)
- Subgroup analysis of the prevalence of concordance and discordance between LDL-particle number and non-HDL-cholesterol. (nih.gov)
- Some doctors also order tests for LDL particle size and number. (drweil.com)
- C. It improves cholesterol (both HDL and LDL) particle size II. (wikipedia.org)
- When IDL is converted to LDL, the ApoE leaves the particle and only the ApoB-100 remains. (wikipedia.org)
- According to one study, high remnant cholesterol is more predictive of myocardial infarction than any other lipid particle. (wikipedia.org)
- The apolipoproteins forming the surface of the given lipoprotein particle determine from what cells cholesterol will be removed and to where it will be supplied. (wikipedia.org)
- OVER THE PAST YEAR, new evidence for the cholesterol- fighting class of therapy called proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors has generated discussion about the usefulness of these powerful drugs in diabetes care. (ajmc.com)
- Meanwhile, the recent availability of PCSK9 inhibitors has revalidated the discussion on further lowering of LDL and has brought back the age-old question: how low is in fact low enough to bring the CV risk to the minimum? (hindawi.com)
- PROFICIO, which stands for the Program to Reduce LDL-C and Cardiovascular Outcomes Following Inhibition of PCSK9 In Different POpulations, is a large and comprehensive clinical trial program evaluating evolocumab in 22 clinical trials, with a combined planned enrollment of approximately 35,000 patients. (fiercebiotech.com)
- The prospect of lowering cholesterol with about the same potency as the monoclonal antibodies that block PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) activity but administered as a biannual injection "enables provider control over medication adherence, and may offer patients a meaningful new choice that is safe and convenient and has assured results," Kausik K. Ray, MD, said at the annual congress of the European Society of Cardiology. (natap.org)
- development code RN316) is a drug that was in development by Pfizer targeting PCSK9 to reduce LDL cholesterol. (wikipedia.org)
- This discovery helped lead to cholesterol-lowering drugs that mimicked the effects of the PCSK9 mutations. (wikipedia.org)
- Wursch P (1979) Influence of tanninrich carob pod fiber on the cholesterol metabolism in the rat. (springer.com)
- Cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase also known as cholesterol 7-alpha-monooxygenase or cytochrome P450 7A1 (CYP7A1) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP7A1 gene which has an important role in cholesterol metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
- He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Joseph L. Goldstein in 1985 for describing the regulation of cholesterol metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
- Lactobacillus fermentum can also be a normal inhabitant of the human intestinal tract and some strains have been associated with cholesterol metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
- One area has been the metabolism of cholesterol by LABs acting as probiotics. (wikipedia.org)
- One of the mechanisms by which L. fermentum may remove cholesterol through in vivo is by the absorption of cholesterol, which as a result accelerates cholesterol metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
- SREBP-2 regulates the genes of cholesterol metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
- This finding is inconsistent with the cholesterol hypothesis (ie, that cholesterol, particularly LDL-C, is inherently atherogenic). (peoplespharmacy.com)
- Small dense low-density lipoprotein (sd-LDL) is an atherogenic lipoprotein closely associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. (nih.gov)
- Less than 200 milligrams of dietary cholesterol. (webmd.com)
- You can always talk to your doctor or dietician in more detail about how to measure how much fat and dietary cholesterol you're taking in. (webmd.com)
- With the TLC Program, you must keep your intake of dietary cholesterol to less than 200 milligrams a day. (webmd.com)
- Dietary cholesterol comes primarily from animal sources including meat, poultry, fish, and dairy products. (medicinenet.com)
- Diet alone may be able to lower total cholesterol and LDL (bad) cholesterol from 7-30% depending on how restrictive the dietary plan. (healthcentral.com)
- A variety of specific foods such as walnuts and soy proteins and dietary supplements such green tea and cholesterol lowering margarines have been shown to have a modest effect in reducing cholesterol. (healthcentral.com)
- Taking high doses of the over-the-counter dietary supplement is not how you treat high cholesterol and doing so could be dangerous. (livestrong.com)
- and dietary cholesterol, found exclusively in animal-derived foods, especially eggs . (nutritionfacts.org)
- Researchers aimed to observe the effects that dietary oil had on cholesterol. (belmarrahealth.com)
- The American Heart Association recom-mends that your average daily intake of dietary cholesterol should be less than 300 milligrams. (lowfatlifestyle.com)
- Al-though it's not the same as a saturated fatty acid, dietary cholesterol can also raise your blood cholesterol level. (lowfatlifestyle.com)
- Dietary cholesterol is found in meat, poultry, seafood and dairy products. (lowfatlifestyle.com)
- Cholesterol is often portrayed as the evil dietary villain. (juvenon.com)
- ezetimibe is a selective inhibitor of dietary cholesterol absorption. (wikipedia.org)
- One of the strategies is reducing dietary saturated fat intake to reduce blood low-density lipoprotein (LDL) which is considered as "bad" blood cholesterol. (wikipedia.org)
- It examined the effect of adding monounsaturated fatty acid to dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods in hyperlipidemia. (wikipedia.org)
- They found patients who consumed the dietary portfolio high in monounsaturated fatty acid had lower LDL level and higher high- density lipoprotein (HDL) level. (wikipedia.org)
- They found LDL in two dietary portfolio groups were significantly lower than the control group (diet low in saturated fat) and there is no difference between the regular dietary portfolio group and intense group. (wikipedia.org)
- Consumption of fibre supplements may be for: improving dietary intake, lowering blood cholesterol, alleviating irritable bowel syndrome, reducing the risk of colon cancer, and increasing feelings of satiety. (wikipedia.org)
- However, research has produced mixed results with respect to whether fibre supplements are as effective as dietary fibre in reducing blood cholesterol. (wikipedia.org)
- There are two sources of cholesterol in the upper intestine: dietary (from food) and biliary (from bile). (wikipedia.org)
- Dietary cholesterol, in the form of lipid emulsions, combines with bile salts, to form bile salt micelles from which cholesterol can then be absorbed by the intestinal enterocyte. (wikipedia.org)
- Dietary cholesterol does not appear to have a significant effect on blood cholesterol and thus recommendations about its consumption may not be needed. (wikipedia.org)
- Dietary cholesterol needs be esterified in order to be absorbed from the gut. (wikipedia.org)
- High polyphenol chocolate is effective in improving the atherosclerotic cholesterol profile in patients with diabetes by increasing HDL cholesterol and improving the cholesterol:HDL ratio. (greenmedinfo.com)
- It has been shown that most of the cholesterol stored in atherosclerotic plaques originates from LDL. (randox.com)
- According to William C. Roberts, editor in chief of the American Journal of Cardiology , the only critical risk factor for atherosclerotic plaque buildup is cholesterol , specifically elevated LDL cholesterol in our blood. (nutritionfacts.org)
- HDL is believed to help remove excess cholesterol from atherosclerotic plaques and thus slow their growth. (lowfatlifestyle.com)
- Some experts believe HDL helps remove excess cholesterol from atherosclerotic plaques and thus slows their growth. (lowfatlifestyle.com)
- It may also be effective in reducing LDL cholesterol and aortic atherosclerotic plaque, as demonstrated in a study on rabbits. (wikipedia.org)
- In the first study consisting of 37 subjects, the Beneforté broccoli diet reduced plasma LDL cholesterol by 7.1 percent, whereas standard broccoli reduced LDL by only 1.8 percent. (doctormurray.com)
- Diet rich in high glucoraphanin broccoli reduces plasma LDL cholesterol: Evidence from randomised controlled trials. (doctormurray.com)
- The abnormal genes mean the body has trouble clearing LDL cholesterol from the blood. (mydr.com.au)
- Soluble fibre, called so because it dissolves in water, is found in oat bran and psyllium husk, and is very helpful in lowering blood cholesterol. (mydr.com.au)
- If you have a high LDL level, this means that you have too much LDL cholesterol in your blood. (medlineplus.gov)
- Certain medicines, including steroids , some blood pressure medicines , and HIV/AIDS medicines , can raise your LDL level. (medlineplus.gov)
- Certain races may have an increased risk of high blood cholesterol. (medlineplus.gov)
- When your body has too much LDL cholesterol, the LDL cholesterol can build up on the walls of your blood vessels. (cdc.gov)
- Hello, I just had a blood test and these are my cholesterol results: Are they a problem? (medhelp.org)
- Of all the forms of cholesterol in the blood, the LDL-C is considered the most important form in determining risk of heart disease. (labcorp.com)
- The National Heart , Lung , and Blood Institute made it for people who want to control their cholesterol . (webmd.com)
- Along with smoking and high blood pressure, raised blood cholesterol is one of the main risk factors for heart disease. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- People can reduce their blood cholesterol with a healthful diet, exercise, and medication. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- HDL cholesterol can move LDL cholesterol from the blood. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- If there is too much LDL cholesterol in the blood, it builds up in the walls of the blood vessels, causing them to narrow and stiffen. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- A buildup of LDL cholesterol reduces blood flow and can increase the risk of heart attack or stroke . (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Total cholesterol does fluctuate, so more than one blood test might be required for an accurate assessment. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Remember that oil (LDL) and water (blood) don't mix. (healthcentral.com)
- Because cholesterol is a fat (medically referred to as lipid ), elevated blood cholesterol is sometimes referred to as hyperlipidemia . (medicinenet.com)
- Cholesterol is a waxy substance that circulates in your blood. (healthline.com)
- Cholesterol doesn't dissolve in the blood. (healthline.com)
- Look out for a family history of high cholesterol, high blood pressure, or early heart disease. (healthline.com)
- When there is an excess of LDL in the blood or when it undergoes structural changes from certain body stresses, LDL can become harmful by accumulating in blood vessels walls. (healthcentral.com)
- He wrote for HealthCentral as a health professional for Heart Disease, High Blood Pressure, and High Cholesterol. (healthcentral.com)
- Dark chocolate is known to lower blood pressure and cholesterol and is therefore considered healthy when eaten in moderation. (reference.com)
- In its guidelines on evaluating and treating high cholesterol, the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, or NHLBI, said the standard doses of immediate-release tablets or capsules, such as Niacor and Nicolar, is between 1.5 g and 3 g. (livestrong.com)
- Just like most people who have high blood pressure do not feel any symptoms, generally speaking having high cholesterol doesn't cause any symptoms either at first. (zocdoc.com)
- The amount of each type of cholesterol in your blood can be measured by a blood test. (heart.org)
- Only one-third to one-fourth of blood cholesterol is carried by HDL. (heart.org)
- The LDL (low-density lipoprotein) version builds up on the artery walls and narrows the blood vessels. (livestrong.com)
- It is LDL that can cause blockages in the blood vessels, potentially leading to heart attack and stroke. (gnet.org)
- These proteins carry cholesterol around our bodies using our blood as a means of transport. (gnet.org)
- If you have a family history of high cholesterol or high blood pressure this is worth mentioning to your doctor. (gnet.org)
- Don't wait for a blood test, take steps now to lower LDL and/or keep it low. (empowher.com)
- The study is an analysis of the NORwegian COR (NOR-COR) prevention project, which is investigating why patients fail to control risk factors including lipids and blood pressure after they have a cardiovascular event, and is focused on why LDL cholesterol targets aren't achieve in these patients. (uspharmacist.com)
- Low density lipoprotein is the major cholesterol carrier in the blood. (lowfatlifestyle.com)
- If your LDL cholesterol is more than 160 milligrams per deciliter of blood (mg/dL), it's high risk if you have 2 or more risk factors or if you have heart disease. (lowfatlifestyle.com)
- Total blood cholesterol can indicate your level of risk. (lowfatlifestyle.com)
- What Raises Your Blood Cholesterol? (lowfatlifestyle.com)
- Well, when it comes to what you eat, three main factors raise your blood cholesterol level. (lowfatlifestyle.com)
- Of these three, saturated fatty acids are the main culprit in raising blood cholesterol. (lowfatlifestyle.com)
- The buildup of cholesterol on artery walls narrows the vessels, slowing or blocking the flow of blood. (drweil.com)
- The sum of different cholesterol types in your blood is referred to as total cholesterol. (ldlhdlcholesterollevels.org)
- About 1/3 to 1/4 of blood cholesterol is carried by HDL. (ldlhdlcholesterollevels.org)
- Indeed, recent research suggests LDL cholesterol's clever accomplice is actually inflammation - the rush of white blood cells and chemicals that our immune system releases to combat damage or infection. (juvenon.com)
- The body sends LDL to heal those lesions, but it ultimately accumulates and oxidizes, causing an accumulation of plaque that can form blood clots and blockages that may result in strokes and heart attacks. (juvenon.com)
- Oats are a nutrient-rich food associated with lower blood cholesterol when consumed regularly. (wikipedia.org)
- It helps to lower LDL cholesterol and triglyceride in the blood, and increase HDL. (wikipedia.org)
- Portfolio Diet is a therapeutic vegetarian diet created by Canadian researcher David Jenkins in 2003 to lower blood cholesterol. (wikipedia.org)
- Several risk factors, such as high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, overweight or obese, smoking, have been identified to promote the cardiovascular diseases. (wikipedia.org)
- S=Soluble, I=Insoluble C=Capsule/Tablet, P=Powder Foods that are high in viscous fibres have been found to lower blood cholesterol by binding with bile acids. (wikipedia.org)
- Patients also had decreased home blood pressures (but no change in office readings) decrease total cholesterol and LDL. (wikipedia.org)
- It is a lipid-lowering agent used for controlling the high cholesterol and triacylglyceride level in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
- Colestipol (trade names Colestid, Cholestabyl) is a bile acid sequestrant used to lower blood cholesterol, specifically low-density lipoprotein (LDL). (wikipedia.org)
- Plant sterol esters have been shown to reduce the level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in blood when ingested. (wikipedia.org)
- Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) final report. (wikipedia.org)
- Retrieved from: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Cholesterol/WhyCholesterolMatters/Why-Cholesterol-Matters_UCM_001212_Article.jsp National Health, Lung, and Blood Institute. (wikipedia.org)
- Because the body uses cholesterol to make bile acids, this reduces the amount of LDL cholesterol circulating in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
- Medications for diabetes, high cholesterol, or high blood pressure are sometimes used. (wikipedia.org)
- Blood lipids are mainly fatty acids and cholesterol. (wikipedia.org)
- The average amount of blood cholesterol varies with age, typically rising gradually until one is about 60 years old. (wikipedia.org)
- High-walnut-enriched diets significantly decrease total and LDL cholesterol. (greenmedinfo.com)
- Take a look at this natural cholesterol supplement and discover how it can help significantly lower cholesterol naturally as well as promote overall heart health. (healthy-heart-guide.com)
- Our results demonstrated that disagreement between LDL-P and non-HDL-C was common and significantly associated with several clinical characteristics. (nih.gov)
- for some high cholesterol diet can increase their LDL and total cholesterol level much more significantly compared to others. (ldlhdlcholesterollevels.org)
- The correlation coefficient of non-HDL-C for sdLDL-C (r=0.760) was significantly higher than that of F_LDL-C (r=0.601). (nih.gov)
- The area under the curve (95% confidence interval) was 0.771 (0.731, 0.811) for F_LDL-C and 0.871 (0.842, 0.901) for non HDL-C, which showed significantly higher predictive value for more than fourth quartile value of sdLDL-C (46 mg/dL). (nih.gov)
- Monthly or bimonthly injections resulted in significantly reduced LDL-C at week 12. (wikipedia.org)
- Examples of eating plans that can lower your cholesterol include the Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes diet and the DASH eating plan . (medlineplus.gov)
- A diet high in LDL cholesterol may hinder the therapeutic efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in cancer patients. (sciencemag.org)
- By simply changing your diet around a bit you can also further cut your LDL cholesterol. (infobarrel.com)
- The first word on the subject of lowering LDL cholesterol is diet. (articleinsider.com)
- The study showed that patients who received a bypass in the part of the colon called the ileum where cholesterol is absorbed, along with diet instructions, lived one year longer than their counterpart who received diet instruction alone. (emaxhealth.com)
- Cholesterol can be lowered by a variety of means which traditionally begins with therapeutic lifestyle changes (diet, weight loss, exercise) followed by drug therapy . (healthcentral.com)
- What type of diet is recommended to restore the LDL level to normal values? (reference.com)
- A fruit-enriched hypocaloric diet appears to be more effective against oxidative stress and lowering LDL cholesterol than a fruit free one. (greenmedinfo.com)
- Unfortunately, our diet isn't the only contributing factor to high LDL. (gnet.org)
- Sesamin alone did not affect the elevation of the diet-induced cholesterol level and it did not enhance the effect of stanol ester. (springer.com)
- The good news is that many of the factors that affect cholesterol, such as your diet, are within your control. (sharecare.com)
- Get tips to lower high cholesterol with diet, exercise and medication, to protect your heart and reduce your stroke risk. (sharecare.com)
- It seems that through all the vicissitudes of diet fads, cholesterol has always been the outcast. (bewellbuzz.com)
- Enjoying a heart friendly diet with corn oil is an easy way to manage your cholesterol. (belmarrahealth.com)
- One of the most effective strategies for lowering LDL cholesterol is adopting an anti-inflammatory diet. (drweil.com)
- If you've been living on a diet of starchy carbohydrates, this switch will help lower your cholesterol. (marksdailyapple.com)
- It is recommended to be used as an addition to a low cholesterol diet. (wikipedia.org)
- A low-fat diet is one that restricts fat and often saturated fat and cholesterol as well. (wikipedia.org)
- This diet emphasizes using a portfolio of foods or food components that have found to associate with cholesterol lowering to enhance this effect. (wikipedia.org)
- David Jenkins believes including all of these foods in the diet is able to achieve better cholesterol lowering results. (wikipedia.org)
- The study compared the effect of cholesterol lowering effect using the portfolio diet versus Lovastatin. (wikipedia.org)
- They created the TLC diet to be used alone or in conjunction with medication management to control elevated cholesterol. (wikipedia.org)
- The diet was incorporated into the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) for high cholesterol in adults which was released in 2002. (wikipedia.org)
- This diet provided 30% calories from fat, 7% calories from saturated fat, and 75 mg cholesterol per 1,000 calories. (wikipedia.org)
- Relative to the Western diet, the TLC diet resulted in 11% lower LDL cholesterol. (wikipedia.org)
- In the United States, it was approved in May 2013 by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in patients with primary or mixed hyperlipidemia as adjunctive therapy to diet. (wikipedia.org)
- Today's drug research is informed by genomic advances that are contributing to the creation of personalized therapies for many disorders, including high LDL, the bad cholesterol that increases risk for heart attack and stroke. (healthcentral.com)
- According to NIH, obesity causes the amount of cholesterol in bile to rise, in turn the formation of stone can occur Due to its association with insulin resistance, the risk of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) increases with adiposity. (wikipedia.org)
- Angptl3 also acts as dual inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and endothelial lipase (EL), and increases plasma triglyceride and HDL cholesterol in rodents. (wikipedia.org)
- As the bile acid pool becomes depleted, the hepatic enzyme, cholesterol 7-α-hydroxylase, is upregulated, which increases the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids. (wikipedia.org)
- Research has shown that lowering LDL cholesterol reduces the risk of heart attacks , strokes , and peripheral artery disease. (medicinenet.com)
- lowering LDL reduces this risk. (empowher.com)
- Its presence, however, reduces both the amount of cholesterol the body absorbs from food and the reabsorption of the cholesterol component of bile. (wikipedia.org)
- The type of surgery the patients received is now only available to a few patients at high risk for heart attack and who cannot tolerate cholesterol lowering medications. (emaxhealth.com)
- Renal failure, for example, has been linked to one of the leading cholesterol medications. (nutralegacy.com)
- Evolocumab has the potential to provide significant additional benefit when added to existing LDL cholesterol-lowering medications for patients with high cholesterol. (fiercebiotech.com)
- Similarly to men, they do not receive medications despite high LDL-C. These gender discrepancies increase with age and diabetes duration, exposing older women to higher CHD risk. (hindawi.com)
- Cholesterol lowering medications also come with many possible adverse side effects, some of them fatal. (healthy-heart-guide.com)
- Also in the Telegraph , another author of the study, Professor Sherif Sultan from the National University of Ireland, said: 'Lowering cholesterol with medications for primary cardiovascular prevention in those aged over 60 is a total waste of time and resources, whereas altering your lifestyle is the single most important way to achieve a good quality of life. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
- How do I know what my LDL level is? (medlineplus.gov)
- What can affect my LDL level? (medlineplus.gov)
- Diseases such as chronic kidney disease , diabetes , and HIV/AIDS can cause a higher LDL level. (medlineplus.gov)
- What should my LDL level be? (medlineplus.gov)
- How can I lower my LDL level? (medlineplus.gov)
- My LDL level is 132 and cholesterol is 210 and HDL is 63. (medhelp.org)
- There have been no clinical trials in which they've taken an approach where they've titrated medication dosing to achieve a certain LDL level," said Lloyd-Jones. (medscape.com)
- Is it possible that a person have high LDL and Low HDL despite of normal cholesterol level? (medhelp.org)
- You do this to lower your LDL level. (webmd.com)
- It can be measured by dividing the total cholesterol by the HDL level. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- To break down that number, your acceptable level of LDL ("bad") cholesterol should be less than 160 mg/dl, 130 mg/dL, or 100 mg/dl. (healthline.com)
- Now researchers say keeping your LDL or bad cholesterol level lower definitely leads to a longer lifespan, supporting multiple journal studies and found in what the scientist say is the only randomized controlled trial that lowering LDL cholesterol can help people live longer. (emaxhealth.com)
- On the other hand, women, high-risk younger patients, and patients with fewer outpatient visits associated with dyslipidemia and cholesterol lab testing had a much lower level of compliance. (uspharmacist.com)
- 8 Additionally, a retrospective review of 600 patients followed by cardiologists at a heart clinic revealed that only about 76% of patients achieved the recommended LDL cholesterol level of less than 100 mg/dL. (uspharmacist.com)
- The duration and level of exercise also parallel improvement in all aspects of cholesterol profile. (healthcentral.com)
- After 1 year, the mean LDL cholesterol level was 53.2 mg per decilitre in the simvastatin-plus-ezetimibe group and 69.9 mg per decilitre in the simvastatin monotherapy group. (medindia.net)
- A healthy HDL cholesterol level may protect against heart attack and stroke. (heart.org)
- Your LDL level should be 100 or lower, however if you have excessive risk factors (eg. (gnet.org)
- The optimal LDL cholesterol level is probably 50 or 70 mg/dL, and apparently, the lower, the better. (nutritionfacts.org)
- The population target should therefore be a total cholesterol level under 150 mg/dL. (nutritionfacts.org)
- One-sixth of all Americans have a total cholesterol level above the recommended 240 mg/dL, which doubles their heart disease risk. (sharecare.com)
- As we all know, cholesterol is an integral part of the plasma membrane, and a minimum level of LDL needs to be present to maintain structural integrity and sustain normal function of cells. (hindawi.com)
- In addition, at 48 months, those taking alirocumab had an average LDL cholesterol level of 66 mg/dL compared with an average of 103 mg/dL among those taking placebo. (healio.com)
- You have no doubt heard about total cholesterol level but what does it mean and what impact does the figure have on our health? (gnet.org)
- For this reason it is very important that your body keeps a higher level of HDL cholesterol. (hubpages.com)
- A high level of LDL cholesterol reflects an increased risk of heart disease. (lowfatlifestyle.com)
- A desirable level of LDL is less than 100 mg/dL. (drweil.com)
- If you are in poor health or have cancer cholesterol level does go down. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
- Your optimal LDL level depend on your other heart disease risk factors. (ldlhdlcholesterollevels.org)
- It's necessary to consult your doctor to determine the optimal LDL level for you. (ldlhdlcholesterollevels.org)
- Compared with the sd-LDL-C and LDL-C level, the ratio sd-LDL-C/LDL-C was more closely correlated with various parameters associated with MS. A multivariate regression analysis revealed that the ratio sd-LDL-C/LDL-C is the strongest independent determinant of hypoadiponectinemia. (nih.gov)
- The development of the corpus luteum is accompanied by an increase in the level of the steroidogenic enzyme P450scc that converts cholesterol to pregnenolone in the mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
- The effect of this upregulation is to increase the production of bile acids and reduce the level of cholesterol in hepatocytes. (wikipedia.org)
- In human, ANGPTL3 is a determinant factor of HDL level and positively correlates with plasma HDL cholesterol. (wikipedia.org)
- Conversely, when there is enough cholesterol around, the cell stops making those mRNAs and the level of the enzymes falls. (wikipedia.org)
- Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have investigated the role of plant sterols in cholesterol lowering ability. (medindia.net)
- Those who started with higher LDL got a bigger response, a bigger drop in their LDL, when they added plant sterols to their regimen. (medindia.net)
- Furthermore, corn oil contains plant sterols which have been shown to reduce cholesterol. (belmarrahealth.com)
- LDL-Cholesterol Lowering of Plant Sterols and Stanols-Which Factors Influence Their Efficacy? (mdpi.com)
- Ras, R.T. LDL-Cholesterol Lowering of Plant Sterols and Stanols-Which Factors Influence Their Efficacy? (mdpi.com)