Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Cholesterol, Dietary: Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Receptors, LDL: Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.Cholesterol Esters: Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.Cholesterol Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of cholesterol in the presence of molecular oxygen to 4-cholesten-3-one and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme is not specific for cholesterol, but will also oxidize other 3-hydroxysteroids. EC 1.1.3.6.Cholesterol 7-alpha-Hydroxylase: A membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 7-alpha-hydroxylation of CHOLESTEROL in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP7, converts cholesterol to 7-alpha-hydroxycholesterol which is the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)TriglyceridesCholesterol, VLDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). High circulating levels of VLDL cholesterol are found in HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE IIB. The cholesterol on the VLDL is eventually delivered by LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS to the tissues after the catabolism of VLDL to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LDL.Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.Anticholesteremic Agents: Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.Lipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC 2.3.1.26.Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Apolipoprotein A-I: The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.Apolipoproteins B: Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Sitosterols: A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1: A superfamily of large integral ATP-binding cassette membrane proteins whose expression pattern is consistent with a role in lipid (cholesterol) efflux. It is implicated in TANGIER DISEASE characterized by accumulation of cholesteryl ester in various tissues.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.beta-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Apolipoproteins: Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Hydroxycholesterols: Cholesterol which is substituted by a hydroxy group in any position.Esterification: The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Phytosterols: A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Lovastatin: A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.Apolipoproteins E: A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Phosphatidylcholine-Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC 2.3.1.43.Cyclodextrins: A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins: Proteins that bind to and transfer CHOLESTEROL ESTERS between LIPOPROTEINS such as LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Cholestyramine Resin: A strongly basic anion exchange resin whose main constituent is polystyrene trimethylbenzylammonium Cl(-) anion.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Mevalonic AcidHyperlipoproteinemia Type II: A group of familial disorders characterized by elevated circulating cholesterol contained in either LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS alone or also in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (pre-beta lipoproteins).Desmosterol: An intermediate in the synthesis of cholesterol.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Filipin: A complex of polyene antibiotics obtained from Streptomyces filipinensis. Filipin III alters membrane function by interfering with membrane sterols, inhibits mitochondrial respiration, and is proposed as an antifungal agent. Filipins I, II, and IV are less important.Foam Cells: Lipid-laden macrophages originating from monocytes or from smooth muscle cells.Diet, Atherogenic: A diet that contributes to the development and acceleration of ATHEROGENESIS.AzetidinesSterol Esterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Scavenger Receptors, Class B: A family of scavenger receptors that are predominately localized to CAVEOLAE of the PLASMA MEMBRANE and bind HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Hypolipidemic Agents: Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Cholestanol: A cholesterol derivative found in human feces, gallstones, eggs, and other biological matter.Receptors, Lipoprotein: Cell surface proteins that bind lipoproteins with high affinity. Lipoprotein receptors in the liver and peripheral tissues mediate the regulation of plasma and cellular cholesterol metabolism and concentration. The receptors generally recognize the apolipoproteins of the lipoprotein complex, and binding is often a trigger for endocytosis.Membrane Microdomains: Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Cholelithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).Sphingomyelins: A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Androstenes: Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.Lanosterol: A triterpene that derives from the chair-boat-chair-boat folding of 2,3-oxidosqualene. It is metabolized to CHOLESTEROL and CUCURBITACINS.Simvastatin: A derivative of LOVASTATIN and potent competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It may also interfere with steroid hormone production. Due to the induction of hepatic LDL RECEPTORS, it increases breakdown of LDL CHOLESTEROL.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Orphan Nuclear Receptors: A broad category of receptor-like proteins that may play a role in transcriptional-regulation in the CELL NUCLEUS. Many of these proteins are similar in structure to known NUCLEAR RECEPTORS but appear to lack a functional ligand-binding domain, while in other cases the specific ligands have yet to be identified.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Dehydrocholesterols: Cholesterol derivatives having an additional double bond in any position. 24-Dehydrocholesterol is DESMOSTEROL. The other most prevalent dehydrocholesterol is the 7-isomer. This compound is a precursor of cholesterol and of vitamin D3.Niemann-Pick Diseases: A group of autosomal recessive disorders in which harmful quantities of lipids accumulate in the viscera and the central nervous system. They can be caused by deficiencies of enzyme activities (SPHINGOMYELIN PHOSPHODIESTERASE) or defects in intracellular transport, resulting in the accumulation of SPHINGOMYELINS and CHOLESTEROL. There are various subtypes based on their clinical and genetic differences.Embolism, Cholesterol: Blocking of a blood vessel by CHOLESTEROL-rich atheromatous deposits, generally occurring in the flow from a large artery to small arterial branches. It is also called arterial-arterial embolization or atheroembolism which may be spontaneous or iatrogenic. Patients with spontaneous atheroembolism often have painful, cyanotic digits of acute onset.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Apolipoprotein B-100: A 513-kDa protein synthesized in the LIVER. It serves as the major structural protein of low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). It is the ligand for the LDL receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL) that promotes cellular binding and internalization of LDL particles.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 2: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates GENES involved in CHOLESTEROL synthesis and uptake.Apolipoproteins A: Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Dyslipidemias: Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.Pravastatin: An antilipemic fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Nocardia autotrophica. It acts as a competitive inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES).Heptanoic Acids: 7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase: An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.Receptors, Scavenger: A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.StigmasterolSteroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Ketocholesterols: Cholesterol substituted in any position by a keto moiety. The 7-keto isomer inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity and inhibits cholesterol uptake in the coronary arteries and aorta in vitro.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.SqualeneLipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Cholestanes: Derivatives of the saturated steroid cholestane with methyl groups at C-18 and C-19 and an iso-octyl side chain at C-17.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Lipoproteins, HDL3: Intermediate-density subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes between 7 to 8 nm. As the larger lighter HDL2 lipoprotein, HDL3 lipoprotein is lipid-rich.Gallbladder: A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.Hypertriglyceridemia: A condition of elevated levels of TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated: Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder of CHOLESTEROL metabolism. It is caused by a deficiency of 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, the enzyme that converts 7-dehydrocholesterol to cholesterol, leading to an abnormally low plasma cholesterol. This syndrome is characterized by multiple CONGENITAL ABNORMALITIES, growth deficiency, and INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Xanthomatosis: A condition marked by the development of widespread xanthomas, yellow tumor-like structures filled with lipid deposits. Xanthomas can be found in a variety of tissues including the SKIN; TENDONS; joints of KNEES and ELBOWS. Xanthomatosis is associated with disturbance of LIPID METABOLISM and formation of FOAM CELLS.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Lipoprotein(a): A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Chylomicrons: A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Probucol: A drug used to lower LDL and HDL cholesterol yet has little effect on serum-triglyceride or VLDL cholesterol. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p993).Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Mice, Inbred C57BLLecithin Acyltransferase Deficiency: An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that facilitates the esterification of lipoprotein cholesterol and subsequent removal from peripheral tissues to the liver. This defect results in low HDL-cholesterol level in blood and accumulation of free cholesterol in tissue leading to a triad of CORNEAL OPACITY, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), and PROTEINURIA.Tangier Disease: An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS involved in cellular cholesterol removal (reverse-cholesterol transport). It is characterized by near absence of ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins) in blood. The massive tissue deposition of cholesterol esters results in HEPATOMEGALY; SPLENOMEGALY; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; large orange tonsils; and often sensory POLYNEUROPATHY. The disorder was first found among inhabitants of Tangier Island in the Chesapeake Bay, MD.TritiumOrganosilicon Compounds: Organic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Vitamin E: A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Pyrroles: Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.Mesocricetus: A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.Oleic Acids: A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Hyperlipoproteinemias: Conditions with abnormally elevated levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. They may be inherited, acquired, primary, or secondary. Hyperlipoproteinemias are classified according to the pattern of lipoproteins on electrophoresis or ultracentrifugation.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.Apolipoprotein A-II: The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Fats, Unsaturated: Fats containing one or more double bonds, as from oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Colestipol: Highly crosslinked and insoluble basic anion exchange resin used as anticholesteremic. It may also may reduce triglyceride levels.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Triparanol: Antilipemic agent with high ophthalmic toxicity. According to Merck Index, 11th ed, the compound was withdrawn from the market in 1962 because of its association with the formation of irreversible cataracts.Lipoproteins, IDL: A mixture of very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), particularly the triglyceride-poor VLDL, with slow diffuse electrophoretic mobilities in the beta and alpha2 regions which are similar to that of beta-lipoproteins (LDL) or alpha-lipoproteins (HDL). They can be intermediate (remnant) lipoproteins in the de-lipidation process, or remnants of mutant CHYLOMICRONS and VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS which cannot be metabolized completely as seen in FAMILIAL DYSBETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Hyperlipidemia, Familial Combined: A type of familial lipid metabolism disorder characterized by a variable pattern of elevated plasma CHOLESTEROL and/or TRIGLYCERIDES. Multiple genes on different chromosomes may be involved, such as the major late transcription factor (UPSTREAM STIMULATORY FACTORS) on CHROMOSOME 1.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Eggs: Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.Cholestenones: CHOLESTENES with one or more double bonds and substituted by any number of keto groups.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.trans-1,4-Bis(2-chlorobenzaminomethyl)cyclohexane Dihydrochloride: An anticholesteremic agent that inhibits sterol biosynthesis in animals.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.EstersOleic Acid: An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Biliary Tract: The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Farnesyl-Diphosphate Farnesyltransferase: The first committed enzyme of the biosynthesis pathway that leads to the production of STEROLS. it catalyzes the synthesis of SQUALENE from farnesyl pyrophosphate via the intermediate PRESQUALENE PYROPHOSPHATE. This enzyme is also a critical branch point enzyme in the biosynthesis of ISOPRENOIDS that is thought to regulate the flux of isoprene intermediates through the sterol pathway.Cholic Acid: A major primary bile acid produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption and cholesterol excretion.Diet, Fat-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)Dietary Fats, Unsaturated: Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.Cholic Acids: The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.Pregnenolone: A 21-carbon steroid, derived from CHOLESTEROL and found in steroid hormone-producing tissues. Pregnenolone is the precursor to GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Hypolipoproteinemias: Conditions with abnormally low levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. This may involve any of the lipoprotein subclasses, including ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins); BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low-density lipoproteins); and PREBETA-LIPOPROTEINS (very-low-density lipoproteins).Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Soybean Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from SOYBEANS.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Niemann-Pick Disease, Type C: An autosomal recessive lipid storage disorder that is characterized by accumulation of CHOLESTEROL and SPHINGOMYELINS in cells of the VISCERA and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Type C (or C1) and type D are allelic disorders caused by mutation of gene (NPC1) encoding a protein that mediate intracellular cholesterol transport from lysosomes. Clinical signs include hepatosplenomegaly and chronic neurological symptoms. Type D is a variant in people with a Nova Scotia ancestry.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Corn Oil: Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.Proprotein Convertases: Proteolytic enzymes that are involved in the conversion of protein precursors such as peptide prohormones into PEPTIDE HORMONES. Some are ENDOPEPTIDASES, some are EXOPEPTIDASES.Lipoprotein Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.Caveolin 1: A tyrosine phosphoprotein that plays an essential role in CAVEOLAE formation. It binds CHOLESTEROL and is involved in LIPIDS transport, membrane traffic, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Lymph: The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Taurocholic Acid: The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Margarine: A butterlike product made of refined vegetable oils, sometimes blended with animal fats, and emulsified usually with water or milk. It is used as a butter substitute. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)FluorobenzenesDiabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Egg Yolk: Cytoplasm stored in an egg that contains nutritional reserves for the developing embryo. It is rich in polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins.Chenodeoxycholic Acid: A bile acid, usually conjugated with either glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption and is reabsorbed by the small intestine. It is used as cholagogue, a choleretic laxative, and to prevent or dissolve gallstones.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Cholestenes: Steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a branched 8-carbon chain at C-17. Members include compounds with any degree of unsaturation; however, CHOLESTADIENES is available for derivatives containing two double bonds.Diosgenin: A spirostan found in DIOSCOREA and other plants. The 25S isomer is called yamogenin. Solasodine is a natural derivative formed by replacing the spiro-ring with a nitrogen, which can rearrange to SOLANINE.Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine: A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Proteins: Sterol regulatory element binding proteins are basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factors that bind the sterol regulatory element TCACNCCAC. They are synthesized as precursors that are threaded into the MEMBRANES of the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Psyllium: Dried, ripe seeds of PLANTAGO PSYLLIUM; PLANTAGO INDICA; and PLANTAGO OVATA. Plantain seeds swell in water and are used as demulcents and bulk laxatives.Butter: The fatty portion of milk, separated as a soft yellowish solid when milk or cream is churned. It is processed for cooking and table use. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Niacin: A water-soluble vitamin of the B complex occurring in various animal and plant tissues. It is required by the body for the formation of coenzymes NAD and NADP. It has PELLAGRA-curative, vasodilating, and antilipemic properties.

Serum triglyceride: a possible risk factor for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. (1/4426)

BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the relationship between ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and serum concentrations of lipids and apolipoproteins. METHODS: A cohort of 21 520 men, aged 35-64 years, was recruited from men attending the British United Provident Association (BUPA) clinic in London for a routine medical examination in 1975-1982. Smoking habits, weight, height and blood pressure were recorded at entry. Lipids and apolipoproteins were measured in stored serum samples from the 30 men who subsequently died of ruptured AAA and 150 matched controls. RESULTS: Triglyceride was strongly related to risk of ruptured AAA. In univariate analyses the risk in men on the 90th centile of the distribution relative to the risk in men on the 10th (RO10-90) was 12 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 3.8-37) for triglyceride, 5.5 (95% CI: 1.8-17) for apolipoprotein B (apoB) (the protein component of low density lipoprotein [LDL]), 0.15 (95% CI : 0.04-0.56) for apo A1 (the protein component of high density lipoprotein [HDL]), 3.7 (95% CI: 1.4-9.4) for body mass index and 3.0 (95% CI: 1.1-8.5) for systolic blood pressure. Lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) was not a significant risk factor (RO10-90 = 1.6, 95% CI: 0.6-3.0). In multivariate analysis triglyceride retained its strong association. CONCLUSION: Triglyceride appears to be a strong risk factor for ruptured AAA, although further studies are required to clarify this. If this and other associations are cause and effect, then changing the distribution of risk factors in the population (by many people stopping smoking and adopting a lower saturated fat diet and by lowering blood pressure) could achieve an important reduction in mortality from ruptured AAA.  (+info)

The impact of an amino acid-based peritoneal dialysis fluid on plasma total homocysteine levels, lipid profile and body fat mass. (2/4426)

BACKGROUND: The caloric load from glucose-based peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluids contributes to hypertriglyceridaemia, adiposity and, as result of anorexia, protein malnutrition in PD patients. It has been suggested that replacement of a glucose-based by an amino acids-based PD fluid (AA-PDF) for one exchange per day might improve the nutritional status and lipid profile. Due to the uptake of methionine from the dialysate, however, exposure to AA-PDF might aggravate hyperhomocysteinaemia, a frequently occurring risk factor for atherosclerosis in uraemic patients. METHODS: We studied the impact of a once daily exchange with 1.1% AA-PDF instead of glucose-based PD fluid for 2 months on plasma methionine and total homocysteine (tHcy) levels, lipid profile, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and body fat mass of seven stable PD patients. Results are expressed as mean+/-SEM. RESULTS: Methionine levels did not increase significantly during therapy, but tHcy levels increased substantially from 60+/-12 to 84+/-19 micromol/l after 1 month (P=0.039), and to 85+/-22 micromol/l after 2 months of AA-PDF treatment. Serum triglyceride concentration decreased from 3.0+/-0.4 mmol/l at entry to 2.6+/-0.5 mmol/l (at 1 month, P=0.041 vs baseline). Serum BChE also decreased from 6.9+/-0.4 U/ml at entry to 6.3+/-0.4 U/ml after 2 months (P=0.014). Total cholesterol concentration and cholesterol fractions did not change. The reduced exposure to glucose-based PD fluid for 2 months resulted in a 0.5 kg reduction in fat mass which was due mainly to a reduction in fat mass of the trunk region (0.3 kg, P=0.031). CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that methionine-containing AA-PDF induces an increase in the plasma tHcy level. This might, potentially, offset the beneficial effects of an improved serum lipid profile and reduced fat mass on the risk of cardiovascular disease in PD patients. Lowering the methionine content of the fluid, therefore, may be required to overcome this adverse effect.  (+info)

Socioeconomic status and determinants of hemostatic function in healthy women. (3/4426)

Hemostatic factors are reported to be associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). Socioeconomic status (SES) is 1 of the determinants of the hemostatic profile, but the factors underlying this association are not well known. Our aim was to examine determinants of the socioeconomic differences in hemostatic profile. Between 1991 and 1994, we studied 300 healthy women, aged 30 to 65 years, who were representative of women living in the greater Stockholm area. Fibrinogen, factor VII mass concentration (FVII:Ag), activated factor VII (FVIIa), von Willebrand factor (vWF), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were measured. Educational attainment was used as a measure of SES. Low educational level and an unfavorable hemostatic profile were both associated with older age, unhealthful life style, psychosocial stress, atherogenic biochemical factors, and hypertension. Levels of hemostatic factors increased with lower educational attainment. Independently of age, the differences between the lowest (mandatory) and highest (college/university) education in FVII:Ag levels were 41 microg/L (95% confidence interval [CI], 15 to 66 microg/L, P=0.001), 0.26 g/L (95% CI, 0.10 to 0.42 g/L, P=0.001) in fibrinogen levels, and 0.11 U/mL (95% CI, 0.09 to 0.12 U/mL, P=0.03) in levels of vWF. The corresponding differences in FVIIa and PAI-1 were not statistically significant. With further adjustment for menopausal status, family history of CHD, marital status, psychosocial stress, lifestyle patterns, biochemical factors, and hypertension, statistically significant differences between mandatory and college/university education were observed in FVII:Ag (difference=34 microg/L; 95% CI, 2 to 65 microg/L, P=0.05) but not in fibrinogen (difference=0.03 g/L; 95% CI, -0.13 to 0.19 g/L, P=0.92) or in vWF (difference=0.06 U/mL; 95% CI, -0.10 to 0.22 U/mL, P=0.45). An educational gradient was most consistent and statistically significant for FVII:Ag, fibrinogen, and vWF. Age, psychosocial stress, unhealthful life style, atherogenic biochemical factors, and hypertension mediated the association of low educational level with elevated levels of fibrinogen and vWF. Psychosocial stress and unhealthful life style were the most important contributing factors. There was an independent association between education and FVII:Ag, which could not be explained by any of these factors.  (+info)

ApoA1 reduces free cholesterol accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions of ApoE-deficient mice transplanted with ApoE-expressing macrophages. (4/4426)

Along with apolipoprotein (apo) E, which promotes cholesterol efflux from foam cells, apoA1-containing high density lipoprotein (HDL) is thought to facilitate the transport of cholesterol from lesions. This role for apoA1 was tested in vivo by lethally irradiating apoE-deficient and apoE- plus apoA1-deficient mice and reconstituting them with bone marrow cells isolated from wild-type (WT) mice. ApoE, but not apoA1, was synthesized by the transplanted bone marrow-derived cells. Therefore, this transplantation procedure generated apoE-deficient animals with atherosclerotic lesions that contained both apoE and apoA1 (E/A1 mice) and apoE-deficient animals with lesions that contained apoE but no apoA1 (E/A1o mice). As shown previously, the transplanted WT macrophage-derived apoE dramatically lowered the plasma hypercholesterolemia in both groups. On feeding with an atherogenic diet after transplantation, plasma cholesterol levels were raised in both groups of mice, but the levels in the E/A1 mice at 20 weeks were 2- to 3-fold higher than in E/A1o mice. Immunohistochemical staining verified that apoE was abundant in lesions of both groups, whereas apoA1 was detected in the lesions of E/A1 mice only. Despite a 2- to 3-fold lower total plasma cholesterol in the E/A1o mice, the free cholesterol recovered from isolated aortas was approximately 60% higher and the mean lesion area in serial sections of the aortic valves 45% larger. Therefore, apoA1 reduces free cholesterol accumulation in vivo in atherosclerotic lesions.  (+info)

Identification of megalin/gp330 as a receptor for lipoprotein(a) in vitro. (5/4426)

Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is an atherogenic lipoprotein of unknown physiological function. The mechanism of Lp(a) atherogenicity as well as its catabolic pathways are only incompletely understood at present. In this report, we show that the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene family member megalin/glycoprotein (gp) 330 is capable of binding and mediating the cellular uptake and degradation of Lp(a) in vitro. A mouse embryonic yolk sac cell line with native expression of megalin/gp330 but genetically deficient in LDLR-related protein (LRP) and a control cell line carrying a double knockout for both LRP and megalin/gp330 were compared with regard to their ability to bind, internalize, and degrade dioctadecyltetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI)-fluorescence-labeled Lp(a) as well as equimolar amounts of 125I-labeled Lp(a) and LDL. Uptake and degradation of radiolabeled Lp(a) by the megalin/gp330-expressing cells were, on average, 2-fold higher than that of control cells. This difference could be completely abolished by addition of the receptor-associated protein, an inhibitor of ligand binding to megalin/gp330. Mutual suppression of the uptake of 125I-Lp(a) and of 125I-LDL by both unlabeled Lp(a) and LDL suggested that Lp(a) uptake is mediated at least partially by apolipoprotein B100. Binding and uptake of DiI-Lp(a) resulted in strong signals on megalin/gp330-expressing cells versus background only on control cells. In addition, we show that purified megalin/gp330, immobilized on a sensor chip, directly binds Lp(a) in a Ca2+-dependent manner with an affinity similar to that for LDL. We conclude that megalin/gp330 binds Lp(a) in vitro and is capable of mediating its cellular uptake and degradation.  (+info)

Effects of alcohol and cholesterol feeding on lipoprotein metabolism and cholesterol absorption in rabbits. (6/4426)

Alcohol fed to rabbits in a liquid formula at 30% of calories increased plasma cholesterol by 36% in the absence of dietary cholesterol and by 40% in the presence of a 0.5% cholesterol diet. The increase was caused almost entirely by VLDL, IDL, and LDL. Cholesterol feeding decreased the fractional catabolic rate for VLDL and LDL apoprotein by 80% and 57%, respectively, and increased the production rate of VLDL and LDL apoprotein by 75% and 15%, respectively. Alcohol feeding had no effect on VLDL apoprotein production but increased LDL production rate by 55%. The efficiency of intestinal cholesterol absorption was increased by alcohol. In the presence of dietary cholesterol, percent cholesterol absorption rose from 34.4+/-2.6% to 44.9+/-2.5% and in the absence of dietary cholesterol, from 84.3+/-1.4% to 88.9+/-1.0%. Increased cholesterol absorption and increased LDL production rate may be important mechanisms for exacerbation by alcohol of hypercholesterolemia in the cholesterol-fed rabbit model.  (+info)

Low-density lipoprotein particle size is inversely related to plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels. The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. (7/4426)

High levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and preponderance of small dense low-density lipoproteins (LDL) have both been associated with atherosclerotic disease and with the insulin resistance syndrome (IRS). In vitro studies have shown a stimulatory effect of various lipoproteins on PAI-1 release from different cells, including endothelial cells and adipocytes. The authors sought to investigate the relation of PAI-1 to LDL particle size in a large tri-ethnic population (n=1549) across different states of glucose tolerance. LDL size was determined by gradient gel electrophoresis, and PAI-1 was measured by a 2-site immunoassay, sensitive to free PAI-1. PAI-1 was inversely related to LDL size in the overall population (r=-0.21, P<0.0001), independent of gender and ethnicity. However, the authors found a significant interaction with glucose tolerance status (P=0.035). In univariate analysis, the association between PAI-1 and LDL size was most pronounced in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT, r=-0.22, P<0.0001) and weaker in impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, r=-0.12, P=0.03) and type-2 diabetes (r=-0.10, P=0.02). After adjustment for demographic variables and metabolic variables known to influence PAI-1 levels (triglyceride and insulin sensitivity), a significant inverse relation of LDL size to PAI-1 levels was only present in NGT (P=0. 023). In subjects with IGT or overt diabetes, who usually have elevated PAI-1 levels, additional factors other than LDL size seem to contribute more importantly to PAI-1 levels. The demonstrated inverse relation of LDL size and PAI-1 levels provides one possible explanation for the atherogeneity of small dense LDL particles.  (+info)

Induction of monocyte binding to endothelial cells by MM-LDL: role of lipoxygenase metabolites. (8/4426)

Treatment of human aortic endothelial cells (EC) with minimally oxidized LDL (or minimally modified LDL, MM-LDL) produces a specific pattern of endothelial cell activation distinct from that produced by LPS, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-1, but similar to other agents that elevate cAMP. The current studies focus on the signal transduction pathways by which MM-LDL activates EC to bind monocytes. We now demonstrate that, in addition to an elevation of cAMP, lipoxygenase products are necessary for the MM-LDL response. Treatment of EC with inhibitors of the lipoxygenase pathway, 5,8,11, 14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA) or cinnamyl-3, 4-dihydroxy-alpha-cyanocinnamate (CDC), blocked monocyte binding in MM-LDL-treated EC (MM-LDL=118+/-13%; MM-LDL+ETYA=33+/-4%; MM-LDL+CDC=23+/-4% increase in monocyte binding) without reducing cAMP levels. To further investigate the role of the lipoxygenase pathway, cellular phospholipids were labeled with arachidonic acid. Treatment of cells for 4 hours with 50 to 100 microg/mL MM-LDL, but not native LDL, caused a 60% increase in arachidonate release into the medium and increased the intracellular formation of 12(S)-HETE (approximately 100% increase). There was little 15(S)-HETE present, and no increase in its levels was observed. We demonstrated that 12(S)-HETE reversed the inhibitory effect of CDC. We also observed a 70% increase in the formation of 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (11, 12-EET) in cells treated with MM-LDL. To determine the mechanism of arachidonate release induced by MM-LDL, we examined the effects of MM-LDL on intracellular calcium levels. Treatment of EC with both native LDL and MM-LDL caused a rapid release of intracellular calcium from internal stores. However, several pieces of evidence suggest that calcium release alone does not explain the increased arachidonate release in MM-LDL-treated cells. The present studies suggest that products of 12-lipoxygenase play an important role in MM-LDL action on the induction of monocyte binding to EC.  (+info)

To determine the level of cholesterol enough to donate blood from a vein in the treatment room of any clinic.Take direction from a doctor for analysis of LDL cholesterol.It is available at the reception at the therapist, cardiologist, surgeon or pre-medical study.. blood for analysis of LDL cholesterol in the morning on an empty stomach surrenders.The day before it is advisable not to eat fatty foods, and dinner must be no later than 19.00.Otherwise the true cholesterol levels may be somewhat distorted.. result of the analysis may be obtained on the following day.If you find that elevated LDL cholesterol, the treatment prescribed by a doctor.When the rate of total cholesterol greater than 10 mg / dL and high LDL fraction may be offered admission to the cardiology department or outpatient treatment is scheduled.Most likely it will be recommended statins.If elevated LDL cholesterol, as well as general and non-drug methods do not help, statins may be appointed for life.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Contribution of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase to the regulation of lipoprotein metabolism. AU - Cohen, Jonathan C.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - Clinical studies have clearly established a relationship between bile acid synthesis and plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations. Interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids leads to increased bile acid synthesis and a reduction in plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations. New studies indicate that genetic variation in cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase activity accounts for a significant fraction of the inter-individual variation in plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations in the general population, and a specific CYP7A1 allele associated with increased plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations has been identified. Studies in which cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase was transiently overexpressed in hamsters and mice indicate that direct manipulation of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase leads to changes in plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations. ...
Background: We and others have demonstrated that the reduced function *5 variant (rs4149056, defined by the minor, C allele) in the hepatic transporter SLCO1B1 impairs statin clearance and is associated with myopathy and premature drug discontinuation, effects that may depend on statin type. Because statins are powerful medications that lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) and prevent cardiovascular (CV) events, we hypothesized that *5 carriers would have higher LDLc and an increased risk of CV events compared to noncarriers, in a statin specific manner.. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 3416 Caucasians from the Duke CATHGEN biorepository. Death/myocardial infarction (MI), genotype, and patient-reported statin usage data were available in 2864 patients. Of these, we identified two independent cohorts (C1, n=498; C2, n=907) with available LDLc at baseline and at 1, 2, and 3 years after cardiac catheterization. Linear mixed models tested the association between *5 and ...
In a linked research paper (doi:10.1136/bmj.e8707), Ramsden and colleagues report "new" data from an old trial that shed light on the long running debate on whether increasing dietary linoleic acid intake reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) or death.1 Research conducted in the 1960s and 1970s suggested that some of the commonly occurring dietary saturated fatty acids raise total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, whereas the omega 6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) linoleic acid lowers total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations.2 Linoleic acid is present in high amounts in vegetable oils such as corn, sunflower, safflower, and soybean oils and in margarines made from these oils. It is the most prevalent PUFA and omega 6 PUFA in most Western diets. As a result of the effects of linoleic acid on cholesterol concentrations, lowering intake of saturated fat and increasing that of PUFAs has been a cornerstone of dietary advice, with the aim of ...
The exposure allele for each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was associated with a lower LDL-C level that varied significantly between 2.6 and 16.7 mg/dl. Among the included SNPs, the reduction in risks of CHD ranged between 6% and 28%. All nine polymorphisms were associated with a highly consistent reduction in the risk of CHD per 38.7 mg/dl lower LDL-C, with no evidence of heterogeneity of effect (I2 = 0.0%). In a meta-analysis combining nonoverlapping data from 312,321 participants, naturally random allocation to long-term exposure to lower LDL-C was associated with a 54.5% (95% confidence interval, 48.8-59.5%) reduction in the risk of CHD for each 38.7 mg/dl lower LDL-C. This represents a three-fold greater reduction in the risk of CHD per unit lower LDL-C than that observed during treatment with a statin started later in life (p = 8.43 × 10-19).. ...
This study shows that elevated LDL cholesterol levels in a Utah kindred, indicative of clinical FH, are linked to a region on chromosome 1p32. We have previously shown that this pedigree is clearly not linked to the LDL receptor or apo B gene,8 and additional markers near each gene in this study confirm the absence of linkage. A gene within a 17-cM region on chromosome 1 appears to be the major determinant of the observed elevated LDL cholesterol. There may be additional genes with minor effects on LDL cholesterol levels on chromosomes 3 and 17 in this pedigree. The LDL cholesterol levels of this pedigree are similar to those of FH pedigrees with known LDL receptor mutations, and penetrance is complete even at young ages. Triglyceride levels are significantly lower than in FH pedigrees, but mean age and body mass index are also lower. There were no differences in the frequency of tendon xanthomas. Therefore, genotyping to determine linkage or the presence of mutations appears to be necessary to ...
Does anyone know what could cause high LDL cholesterol related to this disease? IE could it be from impaired detox, an infection, related to...
Whether lipid profiles should be measured in the fasting or nonfasting state is a hot topic (1)(2). The fasting state is that used conventionally (3)(4); however, it would be much simpler for patients worldwide if a lipid profile could be taken at any time of the day, irrespective of the time since and the content of the last meal. In both the US and Europe, LDL cholesterol is currently considered the most important measurement in a lipid profile (3)(5).. Direct assays for measuring LDL cholesterol are widely available and used in many laboratories; however, even if LDL cholesterol measured with a direct method gives results similar to those calculated with the Friedewald equation, it is unclear how the 2 measurements compare in predicting ischemic cardiovascular disease. In this issue of Clinical Chemistry, Mora et al. report on an evaluation of fasting LDL cholesterol concentrations calculated with the Friedewald equation vs direct measurement of fasting and nonfasting LDL cholesterol ...
This is a phase 1 study in otherwise healthy participants with high LDL cholesterol. Following multiple doses of LY3015014, the safety and tolerability of the drug, how the body handles the drug, and the drugs effect on the body will be evaluated. Participants will participate in the study for approximately 3 months not including screening. Screening is required within 42 days prior to the start of the study ...
ldl cholesterol - MedHelps ldl cholesterol Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for ldl cholesterol. Find ldl cholesterol information, treatments for ldl cholesterol and ldl cholesterol symptoms.
I have reviewed messages and literature on the connection between french press preparation and elevated ldl cholesterol levels. What alternative brewing methods/systems are recommended in order to best avoid such cholesterol raising worries? thanks, Matt ...
Goldberg says the therapy reduces LDL cholesterol levels by at least 50 percent. Sometimes as much as three-quarters of a patients LDL will be removed during treatment. Since LDL tends to build up again, patients must receive treatment twice a month. The H.E.L.P. system is designed primarily for people with inherited genetic defects that cause their LDL cholesterol levels to be extremely high. To be eligible for the H.E.L.P. therapy, a person must have an LDL cholesterol level of more than 300 after at least six months of drug treatment to lower cholesterol along with diet and lifestyle changes. People who already have been diagnosed with cardiovascular disease are eligible if their LDL cholesterol levels remain above 200 after maximum tolerated therapy.. For more information on H.E.L.P. treatments, call 314-362-3500.. ...
PhotoCredit:istock. Older humans with high stages of "Awful" or low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) Cholesterol stay as long, andoften longer, than their peers with low levels of the same Ldl cholesterol, a College of South Florida professor and an worldwide team of professionals have determined.The findings, which got here after analysing past research involving more than 68,000 participants over 60 years of age, call into questionthe "Ldl cholesterol hypothesis," which counseled that human beings with high Cholesterol are greaterat risk of loss of life and could need statin capsules to lower Ldl cholesterol.Appearing inside theBritish Medical Magazine (BMJ), the groups evaluation represents the primary overview of a biginstitution of earlier studies on this difficulty."Weve recognised for decades that high generalCholesterol becomes a much weaker danger for cardiovascular disorder with advancing age. In thisanalysis, we centered on the so-referred to as "Bad Ldl cholesterol" which has been ...
BACKGROUND: Reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels lowers the risk of consequences of cardiovascular disease. Research has confirmed these benefits in elderly patients. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A inhibitors (ie, statins) have long-standing proven efficacy in reducing levels of LDL-C and total cholesterol.. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to compare change in LDL-C from baseline and National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III LDL-C goal attainment in a population of elderly patients (aged , or =65 years) treated with rosuvastatin versus other statins in routine clinical practice.. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort analysis using medical and pharmacy claims data linked to clinical laboratory results from a large managed care health plan of commercial and Medicare Advantage members in the United States. Included were members aged , or =65 years who were newly treated with statins (index date) from August 1, 2003, ...
So why is it that doctors dont tell patients who suffer from elevated LDL or bad cholesterol levels to stop eating foods high in saturated fat and cholesterol and advise them to take statins like Zocor, Crestor and Lipitor when in reality doctors should be telling patients about policosanol and CoQ10? The truth is that of course your doctor should be recommending that their patients who suffer from elevated LDL cholesterol levels to eat healthier with proper diet, to lose weight and exercise but perhaps doctors know that patients may not comply to their recommendations about proper diet to lower unhealthy cholesterol levels. But why would doctors recommend that their patients take statins like Zocor, Lipitor or Crestor is unimaginable, simply because of what drugs like Lipitor, Crestor and Zocor do to necessary CoQ10 production. What good will statins like Crestor, Zocor and Lipitor do for cholesterol levels and CoQ10 production? They will lower LDL cholesterol levels with a hit or miss ...
Simvastatin is a cholesterol-lowering agent that has been demonstrated to reduce both normal and elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations.
their meta-analysis included 3 studies with major limitations: a significant decrement in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels over the study period in the placebo arm (Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial [ALLHAT]), old age at therapy initiation (Pravastatin in Elderly Individuals at Risk of Vascular Disease [PROSPER] Study), and incomplete information on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels over the follow-up period (Air Force/Texas Coronary Atherosclerosis Prevention Study [AFCAPS/TexCAPS]). All these studies showed negative results; their inclusion would have biased against finding a benefit to statin treatment ...
Those wondering how to lower LDL cholesterol are not alone. Millions of people struggle with higher than normal LDL (low density lipoprotein) numbers, high
Naturally lower ldl cholesterol cleanse - Naturally Lower Your Cholesterol By 30 Pts. In 30 Days. The idea behind a colon cleanse process is to eliminate the toxins which have built up in your digestive system..
Aim of the study Although low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) has been consistently demonstrated a predictor of atherosclerotic disease in a large spectrum of clinical settings, among individuals aged of 80 years or older this concept is uncertain. This study was evaluated in a carefully selected population if the association between LDL-C and coronary atherosclerotic burden remains significant in the very elderly. Methods Individuals aged of 80 years or older (n = 208) who spontaneously sought primary prevention care and have never manifested cardiovascular disease, malnutrition, neoplastic or consumptive disease were enrolled for a cross-sectional analysis. Medical evaluation, anthropometric measurements, blood tests and cardiac computed tomography were obtained. Results In analyses adjusted for age, gender, diabetes, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, smoking and statin therapy, no association was found between coronary calcium score (CCS) and LDL-C [1.79 (0.75-4.29)]. There was ...
Treatments for high ldl cholesterol consists of increasing bodily exercise, a change in weight-reduction plan, and taking medications. In a 2013 clinical study published in the British Medical Journal, Canadian researchers compared the diabetes risk of five standard statins to the danger of Pravachol, a statin found to significantly cut back the likelihood of developing diabetes in a earlier research. Ezetimibe reduces whole ldl cholesterol, LDL or dangerous ldl cholesterol and triglycerides, and increases HDL (good) ldl cholesterol. Fibrates may also assist improve the quantity of good ldl cholesterol (HDL ldl cholesterol). In the brain, however, cholesterol performs a crucial role in the formation of neuronal connections-the important links that underlie reminiscence and studying.. However, for those who nonetheless insist to cease taking your ldl cholesterol medicine, you may also need to vary your way of life as nicely. With cumulative gross sales exceeding $a hundred thirty billion, ...
One of the aims of this study was to assess the association of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels with diabetes risk. The study included 6,011 individuals, (average age 50 years), who were not treated with cholesterol lowering or antihypertensive medications and who were free from cardiovascular disease at the start of the study. Diabetes was assessed at the next examination (average 4.5 years later ...
Variants in the cholesterol ester transfer healthy protein and also lipoprotein lipase genes are predictors of plasma cholesterol feedback to dietary change. A meta-analysis of 67 regulated trials of nutritional soluble fiber as a single intervention revealed that the effects on complete cholesterol as well as LDL cholesterol levels were small. An extensive review of plant get more info stanols as well as sterols showed that these materials lower LDL cholesterol degrees in persons at danger of coronary heart disease.15 This evaluation included a meta-analysis of 41 trials revealing that 2 g per day of either stanols or sterols lowers LDL cholesterol levels by 10 percent. Exec Summary of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education and learning Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Discovery, Assessment, and also Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Grownups (Grownup Treatment Panel III). Private irregularity in cardiovascular condition risk element feedbacks to low-fat as well as ...
The truth is, weve always had reason to question the idea that cholesterol is an agent of disease. Indeed, what the Framingham researchers meant in 1977 when they described LDL cholesterol as a "marginal risk factor" is that a large proportion of people who suffer heart attacks have relatively low LDL cholesterol. So how did we come to believe strongly that LDL cholesterol is so bad for us? It was partly due to the observation that eating saturated fat raises LDL cholesterol, and weve assumed that saturated fat is bad for us. This logic is circular, though: saturated fat is bad because it raises LDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol is bad because it is the thing that saturated fat raises. In clinical trials, researchers have been unable to generate compelling evidence that saturated fat in the diet causes heart disease. The other important piece of evidence for the cholesterol hypothesis is that statin drugs like Zocor and Lipitor lower LDL cholesterol and also prevent heart attacks. The ...
So why is it that doctors dont tell patients who suffer from elevated LDL or bad cholesterol levels to stop eating foods high in saturated fat and cholesterol and advise them to take statins like Zocor, Crestor and Lipitor when in reality doctors should be telling patients about policosanol and CoQ10? The truth is that of course your doctor should be recommending that their patients who suffer from elevated LDL cholesterol levels to eat healthier with proper diet, to lose weight and exercise but perhaps doctors know that patients may not comply to their recommendations about proper diet to lower unhealthy cholesterol levels. But why would doctors recommend that their patients take statins like Zocor, Lipitor or Crestor is unimaginable, simply because of what drugs like Lipitor, Crestor and Zocor do to necessary CoQ10 production. What good will statins like Crestor, Zocor and Lipitor do for cholesterol levels and CoQ10 production? They will lower LDL cholesterol levels with a hit or miss ...
Context The associations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), and apolipoprotein B (apoB) levels with the risk of cardiovascular events among patients treated with statin therapy have not been reliably documented.. Objective To evaluate the relative strength of the associations of LDL-C, non-HDL-C, and apoB with cardiovascular risk among patients treated with statin therapy.. Design Meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomized controlled statin trials in which conventional lipids and apolipoproteins were determined in all study participants at baseline and at 1-year follow-up.. Data Sources Relevant trials were identified by a literature search updated through December 31, 2011. Investigators were contacted and individual patient data were requested and obtained for 62154 patients enrolled in 8 trials published between 1994 and 2008.. Data Extraction Hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% CIs for risk of major ...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
A remaining problem involves the laboratory aspects of measuring triglyceride-rich lipoproteins or lipoprotein subclass distribution. One method for determining the presence of triglyceride-rich particles is by determination of apoproteins associated with these particles. However, only a few large clinical trials have used this approach.19 28 The presence of large or small LDL and IDL and VLDL mass in many of the investigations mentioned above has been determined by ANUC at the LBNL. This is the same method as that pioneered by Drs John Gofman and Frank Lindgren. Although it provides tremendous detail, its clinical use is hindered by the expense and the expertise required to maintain and operate the system. Other techniques are available, including density gradient ultracentrifugation and GGE. Of these, GGE has been used in the largest number of clinical trials and can provide detailed information on LDL particle size and percent distribution in seven LDL subclasses.29 The GGE method at the LBNL ...
A total of 3,481 participants (45-74 years, 53.1% women) were included. In men, all baseline risk factors showed a significant association with CAC except for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), serum creatinine, and glomerular filtration rate. For women, the association to risk factors was similar, but not significant for smoking and serum creatinine. After 5 years, the demographics in men showed a higher body mass index with a higher prevalence of obesity and diabetes and higher glycated hemoglobin level. Systolic blood pressure was higher and diastolic blood pressure was lower despite a higher use of antihypertensive agents. A lower prevalence of smoking as well as lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels with a higher rate of lipid-lowering medication was also observed. The 5-year follow-up data in women showed very similar trends. The difference between observed and predicted CAC5y (log-scale, mean ± standard deviation) was 0.08 ± 1.11 and 0.06 ± 1.29 in men and women. ...
Variations in the cholesterol ester transfer healthy protein and also lipoprotein lipase genes are forecasters of plasma cholesterol action to dietary change. A meta-analysis of 67 regulated tests of dietary soluble fiber as a single treatment showed that the results on overall cholesterol as well as LDL cholesterol levels were small. A detailed review of plant stanols and also sterols showed that these more info materials lower LDL cholesterol degrees in persons at threat of coronary heart illness.15 This testimonial included a meta-analysis of 41 tests showing that 2 g each day of either stanols or sterols reduces LDL cholesterol degrees by 10 percent. Executive Summary of the Third Record of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Specialist Panel on Detection, Examination, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Grownups (Adult Treatment Panel III). Individual irregularity in cardiovascular illness threat factor actions to low-fat and low-saturated-fat diet plans in males: body ...
Ever since Anitschkows pioneering experiments on the role of cholesterol in the causation of atherosclerotic plaques in rabbits (2), this intriguing molecule has been at the heart of debate and controversy (3). Initially, the total cholesterol level was used as a measure of risk, then a distinction between α- and β-lipoproteins emerged. As the role of specific lipoproteins became clear, attention focused on the cholesterol content of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which constitutes the major cholesterol-carrying lipoprotein in serum. The National Cholesterol Education Programs Adult Treatment Program (ATP), first published in 1988, recommended using the LDL cholesterol level as the marker for initiating treatment as well as for gauging therapeutic target goals (4). The well orchestrated campaign that followed these guidelines familiarized the medical community with LDL cholesterol. Since then numerous clinical studies have confirmed the value of nutritional and pharmacologic treatment of ...
Caring about your heart and overall health? Having low LDL cholesterol levels is crucial. Learn how to achieve that naturally with a healthy diet plan.
According to the data behind that chart, a person could have a relatively high level of LDL cholesterol, such as greater than 160 mg/dL, and not be affected by a high level of cardiac risk. A person with elevated levels of CRP, indicating systemic inflammation, would be likely to have a higher level of cardiac risk even if his/her LDL cholesterol level was moderate, lower than 130 mg/dL. But if both the LDL cholesterol and the CRP levels were in the highest range, the cardiac risk would be apt to be very high indeed.. The LDL-C levels considered as low in these graphics are based on the guidelines promulgated by the National Cholesterol Educational Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III in 2001, which used 130 mg/dL as the cutpoint for borderline high LDL-C. More recently, many clinicians have argued for a target LDL-C reading of about 100 mg/dL in individuals with no specific cardiac risk factors, and below 70 mg/dL in persons with one or more risk factors. Thus, the data above could be ...
Actemra recommended use is limited to patients who have failed other approved therapies because of serious safety concerns that were noted in clinical studies. These safety concerns include elevated liver enzymes, elevated Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) or bad cholesterol, hypertension, and gastrointestinal perforations.. "Physicians and patients need to be aware of the risk of serious adverse effects of Actemra and make informed decisions regarding its benefits and risks in the treatment of individual patients," said Bob Rappaport, M.D., director of the Division of Analgesics, Anesthetics and Rheumatology Products in the FDAs Center for Drug Evaluation and Research.. The FDA is requiring the sponsor to conduct a post-marketing clinical trial to further evaluate the long-term safety of Actemra. Specifically, the FDA wants to evaluate the impact of elevated LDL cholesterol and blood pressure seen in some patients in shorter-term trials on the cardiovascular health of patients treated with ...
Katcher HI, Hill AM, Lanford JL, Yoo JS, Kris-Etherton PM. Lifestyle approaches and dietary strategies to lower LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides and raise HDL-cholesterol. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America 2009; 38:45-78. Bazzano LA. Effects of soluble dietary fiber on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary heart disease risk. Current Atherosclerosis Reports 2008; 10:473-7. Harland JI, Haffner TA. Systematic review, meta-analysis and regression of randomised controlled trials reporting an association between an intake of circa 25 g soya protein per day and blood cholesterol. Atherosclerosis 2008; 200:13-27. (Locked) More » ...
...according to Drs. Thomas Dayspring and James Underberg. I dont know if these guys are right or not. I bet its more complicated than LDL particle number. Im always skeptical of grand unification theories. People with diabetes tend to have shorter life spans than average. One reason is a predisposition to heart disease, specifically coronary…
Ronald Krauss, M.D., is the director of atherosclerosis research at Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute and an adjunct professor at UCSF and UC Berkeley.
The article discusses use of statin medications for lowering ldl cholesterol - should you take them and what are good and bad points?
The first ATP report, published in 1988, focused on the prevention of coronary heart disease before any signs of clinical disease. This report identified LDL cholesterol as the major form of "bad" cholesterol and the primary target of treatment. In the second report in 1993, the panel reaffirmed the importance of treating high LDL cholesterol. It showed that patients who already have cardiovascular disease benefit from cholesterol-lowering therapy. The 2001 ATP report went a step further, outlining more intensive treatments for people at high risk who do not yet have cardiovascular disease. Dr. Grundy was a member of the panel that produced the first report and was chairman of the panel that wrote the second and third reports ...
BARCELONA, Spain-Just how low should physicians be targeting LDL cholesterol levels in high-risk secondary prevention patients? The answer appears to be as low as possible, even into single digits, according to a new prespecified analysis of patients treated in the FOURIER trial. Overall, there was a highly significant, nearly linear relationship between LDL cholesterol concentrations achieved at 4 weeks and risk of cardiovascular death, MI, stroke, coronary revascularization, or unstable angina, the studys primary endpoint. Patients who achieved an LDL cholesterol level of less than 0.5 mmol/L (, 19.3 mg/dL), for example, had a statistically significant 24% lower relative risk of having a clinical event when compared with individuals with an LDL cholesterol of 2.6 mmol/L or higher (≥ 100 mg/dL). Robert Giugliano, MD (Brigham and Womens Hospital, Boston, MA), who presented the data during a clinical trial update session at the European Society of Cardiology Congress 2017 in Barcelona, Spain, ...
The results of the present study demonstrate that atherosclerotic risk factors inversely correlate with the number of differentiated EPCs and CD34-/KDR-positive circulating progenitor cells. Moreover, the functional activity of isolated EPCs as measured by their migratory capacity was impaired in relation to the number of risk factors. Analysis of the individual risk factors indicated that smoking is a major factor, which contributes to reduced numbers of circulating EPCs. In contrast, the migratory capacity appears to be mainly influenced by hypertension, but independent of smoking. Serum LDL cholesterol levels, age, and a positive family history of CAD were additionally shown to determine the number of circulating CD34-/KDR-positive cells and EPC migration. However, no influence of LDL cholesterol levels, age, or a positive family history of CAD was detected when the EPCs were counted after isolation and cultivation. One may speculate that the ex vivo cultivation procedure ameliorates the ...
Results Compared with nondiabetic subjects, NIDDM patients had lower HDL cholesterol (P , 0.001), higher triglyceride concentration (P , 0.0001), and greater body mass index (P , 0.001), there were more hypertensive patients (P , 0.001) among them. The incidence of myocardial infarction and cardiac death was significantly higher among diabetic than nondiabetic participants (7.4 vs. 3.3%, respectively, P , 0.02). CHD incidence in the gemfibrozil-treated diabetic men (n = 59) was 3.4% compared with 10.5% in the placebo group (NS). In multivariate analysis, diabetes (P , 0.05), age (P , 0.0001), smoking (P , 0.0001), low HDL cholesterol (P , 0.05), and high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P , 0.005) were independently related to CHD incidence. Gemfibrozil-induced serum and lipoprotein lipid changes in diabetic patients were similar to those observed in nondiabetic subjects. ...
Diets that are high in saturated fats raise "bad" cholesterol levels in the blood. The "bad" cholesterol is called LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol. High LDL cholesterol, in turn, increases the risk for coronary heart disease. Some food choices in this group are high in saturated fat. These include fatty cuts of beef, pork, and lamb; regular (75% to 85% lean) ground beef; regular sausages, hot dogs, and bacon; some luncheon meats such as regular bologna and salami; and some poultry such as duck. To help keep blood cholesterol levels healthy, limit the amount of these foods you eat ...
Our Think Again About Cholesterol survey results have been published as a supplement in Atherosclerosis. The survey was originally launched this September in support of World Heart Day and FH Awareness Day to raise awareness of the publics understanding of cholesterol. The survey found there is a discrepancy between understanding the importance of high cholesterol and taking action against the risk for cardiovascular disease. In fact, although 89 percent of adults surveyed agreed it is important to know whether or not they have high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), 92 percent did not know their cholesterol levels or never had their cholesterol levels tested.. More information and detailed survey results ,,. ...
LDL, the so-called bad cholesterol, is certainly associated with medical problems like cardiovascular disease often, stroke and clogged arteries. In the physical body, cells in the liver make an LDL receptor that binds LDL and gets rid of it from the bloodstream, lowering cholesterol levels thereby. Nevertheless, the LDL receptors could be hindered from their objective. The scientists discovered that an enzyme known as IDOL has been proven to play an integral and specific part in the power of the LDL receptor to bind with poor cholesterol. Related StoriesNew vaccine is apparently far better in reducing awful LDL cholesterolDisclosing genetic risk for CHD outcomes in lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterolDeaths from avoidable risk elements: an interview with Dr Ali Mokdad, IHMEProfessor John Schwabe, Mind of Biochemistry at the University of Leicester, stated: Development of a medication that inhibits IDOLs activity may help lower degrees of LDL. Prof John Schwabe, Dr Ben Goult and Dr ...
High-intensity statin therapy - that which reduces LDL cholesterol by at least 50% - is indicated in the first two groups, Stone said.. For patients with diabetes, the new risk equation can be used to determine whether high-intensity of moderate-intensity statin therapy (that associated with LDL cholesterol reductions of 30% to 49%) should be used, he said.. Moderate-intensity statin therapy should be sufficient in the last group, he said.. Recommendations are also provided for patients who do not fall within one of those four groups.. Lifestyle Management. The importance of healthy dietary patterns is emphasized in the guideline on lifestyle management to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk.. There is a strong recommendation to consume a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy, legumes, fish, poultry, and nuts and low in sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages, and red meats - along the lines of the DASH or Mediterranean diets.. The writing group also found ...
|p|Los Angeles, CA—An over-the-counter probiotic that reduces total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia has also been shown to lower cholesteryl ester saturated fatty acids, according to data presented at the American Heart Association 2012 Scientific Sessions.|br /| |br /|
Bad cholesterol when on the rise can be of great threat to your heart health. You can beat it and lower the level with nutritious food.
Physical inactivity is considered one of the leading modifiable risk factors for heart disease, along with smoking status and high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. A 2012 study found physical inactivity accounted for 9 percent of premature deaths worldwide and was shown to be the reason behind 6 percent of coronary heart disease, 7 percent of Type 2 diabetes and 10 percent of both breast and colon cancer diagnoses.. In this systematic review, the authors compiled the results of 25 published reviews that addressed both personal and environmental variables related to physical activity to determine how health care professionals can empower patients to adhere to a heart-healthy lifestyle.. "Proper physical activity should be a lifelong commitment," said Gerald Fletcher, MD, professor of medicine and cardiovascular disease at Mayo Clinic Florida and the reviews lead author. "The benefits of being physically active exist regardless of sex, ethnicity or age. The most active ...
Predominant elevation of LDL-C concentration (hypercholesterolaemia). First-line therapy: HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme-A) reductase inhibitors (statins) are the first-line treatment for hypercholesterolaemia (Box 2). They inhibit cholesterol synthesis, resulting in increased low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) receptor activity with enhanced clearance of LDL particles and precursors. Statins reduce LDL-C concentration by up to 60%, while the associated reduction in triglyceride concentrations and increase in HDL-C concentration are relatively modest, but potentially useful.. A patient presenting for the first time with acute coronary syndrome (myocardial infarction or unstable angina) will usually be under specialist care, and may be prescribed 80 mg/day of atorvastatin (unless a contra-indication is present), plus other drugs. This is based on clinical trial evidence of cardiovascular disease prevention, and does not emphasise dose titration or target LDL-C levels in the acute ...
If a mother had high LDL (bad) cholesterol prior to a pregnancy, her children are almost five times as likely to also have high LDL cholesterol as adults, reveals new research.
True or False. In patients aged 40 to 75 years, findings of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels greater than 190 mg/dL exclude all secondary causes of hyperlipidemia. ...
Children with obesity are 24 percent more likely to display a risk factor for CVD than normal weight children. The most common risk factor for CVD in youth was elevated LDL cholesterol (the "bad" cholesterol that transports fat from the liver to the tissues). The other risk factors include: high total cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes, and inflammation. Formerly concerns for the aged, these warning signs are now getting causing concern for younger generations. ...
High LDL cholesterol levels are known to increase the risk of heart attack, and lowering LDL levels has been proven to help protect against heart attack.
If you have low HDL cholesterol (the kind most consider to be the "good cholesterol"), you may be able to increase your level by eating foods that are high in healthy fats, such as: real dark cocoa, grass-fed beef, eggs and fish.. 2. Get Enough Appropriate Exercise. To help with reducing inflammation, regulating hormones and possibly reaching a healthier weight, regular physical activity is almost always recommended. Regular exercise can lower high LDL cholesterol in some people and also helps maintain ideal body weight. And certain studies have found triglyceride concentrations can decrease by about 30 percent after someone follows a regular exercise program. (7). People with dyslipidemia who are mostly sedentary will usually need to start slowly and increase their exercise load gradually as their body adjusts. Aiming to start with about 30-60 minutes of moderate exercise per day, such as walking, swimming or biking, is a good jumping-off point. Lifting weights, dancing and doing yoga or ...
RESULTS A total of 335 new cardiovascular events and 385 deaths occurred during a median follow-up of 7.0 years (interquartile range 3.9-10.4). No relation was found between plasma HDL-c and cardiovascular events (hazard ratio [HR] 0.97, 95% CI 0.93-1.01) or all-cause mortality (HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.96-1.03). Subgroup analysis supported effect modification by plasma LDL-c levels. In patients with LDL-c levels ,2.0 mmol/L, higher HDL-c was related to higher risk for all-cause mortality (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.07-1.21). Higher HDL-c was also related to higher risk for cardiovascular events in patients with LDL-c levels ,2.0 mmol/L (HR 1.10, 95% CI 1.07-1.21) in contrast to patients with LDL-c levels between 2.0 and 2.5 mmol/L (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.75-0.95) and ,2.5 mmol/L (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.91-1.00 ...
Dr Oz talked to Cedric the Entertainer about his recent weight loss and the impact it has on lowering LDL cholesterol. He shared foods to lower your number!
Results Female survey participants were generally older and had a lower educational level than male participants (p,0.0001). The prevalences of obesity (p,0.0001), high blood pressure (BP) (p=0.001), elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (p,0.0001) and diabetes (p,0.0001) were significantly higher in women than in men, whereas current smoking (p,0.0001) was significantly more common in men. The use of antihypertensive and antidiabetic drugs (but not that of other drugs) was more common in women than in men. However, BP (p,0.0001), LDL-cholesterol (p,0.0001) and HbA1c (p,0.0001) targets were less often achieved in women than in men. Between 1994 and 2007, cholesterol control improved less in women than in men (interaction: p=0.009), whereas trends in BP control (p=0.32) and glycaemia (p=0.36) were similar for both genders. ...
Arteriosclerosis is a disease of the arteries. The arteries transport blood that has high oxygen content from the heart to the other organs. Today scientists assume that the artery walls are aggravated chemically and small excrescences, so-called atheromatous plaque, are formed. This plaque will constrict the arteries more and more until it becomes impossible to supply the organs with enough oxygen. High LDL cholesterol levels can be responsible for the chemical aggravation, for example. In the worst case scenario the consequence is a cardiac infarction or a stroke. Arteriosclerosis in very small arteries is often a result of a long-standing diabetes. Overweight and high blood pressure also contribute to the development of arteriosclerosis. The development of atheromatous plaque in the arteries is, however, reversible. It was discovered in studies with patients that endurance sports can lead to regression of the mutations in the arteries.. ...
Clinical Question: Does statin therapy for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease among patients with elevated low-density lipoprotein levels reduce all-cause mortality?. Bottom Line: Statins reduce all-cause mortality among patients with hyperlipidemia, whether used for primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. This is a class effect. (Level of Evidence: 1a). Reference: Mills EJ, Wu P, Chong G, et al. Efficacy and safety of statin treatment for cardiovascular disease: a network meta-analysis of 170,255 patients from 76 randomized trials. QJM 2011;104(2):109-124.. Study Design: Meta-analysis (randomized controlled trials). Funding Source: Unknown/not stated. Setting: Various (meta-analysis). Synopsis: This is a methodologically thorough meta-analysis of 76 randomized trials, including 170,255 patients, in which a statin was compared with placebo, standard therapy, or no treatment for primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The authors ...
Cardiovascular Support System. Are you finding it more difficult to walk, breathe, and walk up a flight of stairs? Are you noticing any swelling around your ankles or in your face? Could it be that you are just out of shape or is it something more? As you have gotten older, have your doctor visits and annual blood tests resulted in more discussions involving your heart? Youre here because you are concerned about the health of your heart. Maybe you are seeing your cholesterol or blood pressure rise. Perhaps you were told you have heart disease. Or, heart disease runs in your family and you want to ensure you dont fall prey to the disease like others in your family have. Youre not alone! Heart disease is common. In fact, about 600,000 people die of heart disease in the United States every year - thats 1 in every 4 deaths.. High blood pressure, high LDL cholesterol, and smoking are key risk factors for heart disease. About half of Americans (49%) have at least one of these three risk factors. ...
While you make an online search with regard to secure methods to reduce LDL cholesterol amounts, you will discover numerous items as well as guidance which
Consumption of whole almonds as snacks not only reduces low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) but also significantly improves endothelial functi...
Question - Blood tests showed elevated LDL, cholesterol, triglycerides, prescribed Statin. Is there any natural way to lower it?. Ask a Doctor about when and why Lipid profile is advised, Ask a Cardiologist
Irish moss is believed to help lower LDL cholesterol levels. It may also help inhibit arteriosclerosis, also known as hardening of the arteries. Concrete studies are needed to prove the connection between Irish moss and improved cardiovascular health. ...
Dubbed cholesterol-busters by Heart UK, these superfoods are proven to lower LDL cholesterol as part of a healthy, balanced diet.
AIMS: Individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and mixed dyslipidaemia represent a high-risk and difficult-to-treat population. ODYSSEY DM-DYSLIPIDEMIA (NCT02642159) compared alirocumab, a proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 inhibitor, with usual care (UC) in individuals with T2DM and mixed dyslipidaemia not optimally managed by maximally-tolerated statins. MATERIALS AND METHODS: UC options (no additional lipid-lowering therapy; fenofibrate; ezetimibe; omega-3 fatty acid; nicotinic acid) were selected prior to stratified randomization to open-label alirocumab 75 mg every 2 weeks (Q2W; with increase to 150 mg Q2W at Week [W]12 if W8 non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [non-HDL-C] was ≥2 ...
|p|Independently-sourced research challenges the idea that LDL (low-density lipoprotein) is the “bad cholesterol,” and causes heart disease.|/p||p|However, the theory that LDL is “bad” persists in the mainstream media and with Big Pharma, mainly because they would lose billions of dollars in drugs and treatments to admit the theory lacks merit.
BARCELONA -- Four studies testing the injectable novel lipid-lowering agent alirocumab found the drug dramatically reduced LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) among high-risk patients who had not achieved LDL tar
Statins News From Medical News Today comments, Description: Statins are a group of medicines that can help lower the level of low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol bad cholesterol in the blood. Having a high level of LDL cholesterol is potentially danger, ID: 12964, By: Feedage Forager
Replace saturated fat and trans fats in your diet with monounsaturated fats (up to 20% of calories) and polyunsaturated fats (up to 10% of total calories).
Hi, I am a Male Chinese asian. Every year, i did a health check. My LDL Cholestrol last year is 143. So i make a point of exercising. This year my LDL Cholestrol is 138. Is this significant? Thanks
ANN ARBOR, Mich., July 26, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Esperion Therapeutics, Inc. (NASDAQ:ESPR), the Lipid Management Company focused on developing and commercializing convenient, complementary, cost-effective, once-daily, oral therapies for the treatment of patients with elevated low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), today announced the i...
ANN ARBOR, Mich., Nov. 07, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Esperion Therapeutics, Inc. (NASDAQ:ESPR), the Lipid Management Company focused on developing and commercializing convenient, complementary, cost-effective, once-daily, oral therapies for the treatment of patients with elevated low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), today provided bemp...
ANN ARBOR, MI--(Marketwired - July 07, 2015) - Esperion Therapeutics, Inc. (NASDAQ: ESPR), an emerging pharmaceutical company focused on developing and commercializing first-in-class, oral, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol) lowering therapies for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and other cardiometabolic risk markers, today announced the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has...
Kovacs KR, Bajko Z, Szekeres CC, Csapo K, Olah L, Magyar MT, Molnar S, Czuriga D, Kardos L, Buraine AB, Bereczki D, Soltesz P, Csiba L: Elevated LDL-C combined with hypertension worsens subclinical vascular impairment and cognitive function., JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HYPERTENSION 8: (8) pp. 550-560 ...
Americans have seen the enemy -- LDL cholesterol -- and are beating it into submission. Moreover, they appear to be winning the battle with a combination of good diet, good medicine, and good living.
One of the problems with measuring Lp(a) is that it varies greatly in size - making the weight misleading. Lets consider 10 particles. If the 10 are smaller ones, weigh less, they are more atherogenic, so a greater weight may mean less risk.. that the Lp(a) is larger. This is probably why today they measure in particles (nmol/l) here in the USA. Do you have any more information about the Lp(a)? And in the USA we have problems in that the FDA allows labs to compute (rather than measure) Lp(a). Did you report your LDL cholesterol? ...
biolabmedika.com merupakan toko alkes online dan offline yang ada di tangerang selatan yang jual Reagen LDL-CHOLESTEROL DIRECT 200-250 Tests Biolabo
When mixed with exercise, a healthy diet may help you drop some pounds, lower your ldl cholesterol degree, and enhance the best way your body functions on a
Table I shows, firstly, the mean total cholesterol concentration of each fifth of the distribution based on the original measurements in the cohort of 21 515 men (the group of 5696 men had the same original values); secondly, the mean total cholesterol concentration; thirdly, the mean low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration of each fifth based on the repeat measurements in the group of 5696 men; and fourthly, the age adjusted death rates for ischaemic heart disease for the five groups. The threefold difference in mortality from ischaemic heart disease across the groups (1.11 to 3.11 deaths per 1000 man years) corresponded to a difference in original total cholesterol concentration of 3.1 (from 4.8 to 7.9) mmol/l but a smaller difference in repeat total cholesterol concentration of 2.2 (5.0 to 7.2) mmol/l; this is the regression dilution bias. The threefold difference in mortality from ischaemic heart disease corresponded to an even smaller difference in low density lipoprotein ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of fenofibrate in 1113 patients at lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol goal but high triglyceride levels. T2 - Real-world results and factors associated with triglyceride reduction. AU - Woo, Yeongmin. AU - Shin, Jeong Soo. AU - Shim, Chi Young. AU - Kim, Jung Sun. AU - Kim, Byeong Keuk. AU - Park, Sungha. AU - Chang, Hyuk Jae. AU - Hong, Geu Ru. AU - Ko, Young Guk. AU - Kang, Seok Min. AU - Choi, Donghoon. AU - Ha, Jong Won. AU - Hong, Myeong Ki. AU - Jang, Yangsoo. AU - Lee, Sang Hak. PY - 2018/10. Y1 - 2018/10. N2 - Fibrates are used in patients with dyslipidemia and high cardiovascular risk. However, information regarding drug response to fibrate has been highly limited. We investigated treatment results and factors associated with triglyceride reduction after fenofibrate therapy using large-scale real-world data. Patients with one or more cardiovascular risk factors, at low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol goal but with triglyceride level 150 mg/dL, and undergoing ...
Low-frequency coding DNA sequence variants in the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 gene (PCSK9) lower plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), protect against risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), and have prompted the development of a new class of therapeutics. It is uncertain whether the PCSK9 example represents a paradigm or an isolated exception. We used the Exome Array to genotype |200,000 low-frequency and rare coding sequence variants across the genome in 56,538 individuals (42,208 European ancestry [EA] and 14,330 African ancestry [AA]) and tested these variants for association with LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides. Although we did not identify new genes associated with LDL-C, we did identify four low-frequency (frequencies between 0.1% and 2%) variants (ANGPTL8 rs145464906 [c.361C|T; p.Gln121*], PAFAH1B2 rs186808413 [c.482C|T; p.Ser161Leu], COL18A1 rs114139997 [c.331G|A; p.Gly111Arg], and PCSK7 rs142953140 [c.1511G|A; p.Arg504His])
People with low levels of LDL cholesterol are more likely to have Parkinsons disease than people with high LDL levels, according to University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill researchers. LDL stands for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; low levels of LDL cholesterol are considered an indicator of good cardiovascular health. Earlier studies have found intriguing correlations between Parkinsons disease, heart attacks, stroke and smoking.. "People with Parkinsons disease have a lower occurrence of heart attack and stroke than people who do not have the disease," said Dr. Xuemei Huang, medical director of the Movement Disorder Clinic at UNC Hospitals and an assistant professor of neurology in the UNC School of Medicine. "Parkinsons patients are also more likely to carry the gene APOE-2, which is linked with lower LDL cholesterol." And for more than a decade, researchers have known that smoking, which increases a persons risk for cardiovascular disease, is also associated with a decreased ...
Lipoprotein concentrations have been associated with the major risk of bleeding events. However, whether plasma levels of LDL-C are associated with the risk of biopsy-related endobronchial hemorrhage remain elusive. Therefore, the present study was initiated to investigate the explicit association of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) with endobronchial biopsy (EBB)-induced refractory hemorrhage in patients with lung cancer. This retrospective study included a total of 659 consecutive patients with lung cancer who had undergone EBB at a tertiary hospital between January 2014 and April 2018. Using multiple regression analysis, the association between LDL-C and the risk of EBB-induced refractory hemorrhage was assessed after adjusting for potential confounding factors. A significant proportion (13.8%, 91/659) of the patients experienced refractory hemorrhage following EBB. In multivariate regression analysis, higher plasma LDL-C concentrations were associated with increased risk of EBB-induced
OBJECTIVES: Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor delta (PPARD) is a transcription factor implicated in the regulation of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism. We recently discovered a common polymorphism in the 5-untranslated region (5-UTR) of the human PPARD, +294T/C, that is associated with an increased plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration in healthy subjects. Whether the +294C allele is associated with LDL-C elevation independently of the background lipoprotein phenotype and whether it confers increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) is unknown. Against this background, we investigated the relationships between the PPARD polymorphism and plasma lipoprotein concentrations and the risk for contracting CHD in the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study (WOSCOPS). DESIGN: A nested case-control study of participants in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of pravastatin in mildly-to-moderately hypercholesterolaemic men. SUBJECTS: A total of
Non-HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol are the not the same. Non-HDL cholesterol is tested by subtracting HDL cholesterol from total cholesterol, but it is not equal to LDL cholesterol. Non-HDL...
We present experimental evidence that, in Ossabaw miniature swine, selective surgical excision of adipose tissue in direct contiguity with one of the epicardial coronary arteries attenuated the progression of atherosclerosis, thus supporting the hypothesis that cEAT could contribute to underlying coronary atherogenesis [13]. The findings are applicable to the early stages of CAD because of the relatively young age of the animals, the short duration of atherogenic diet feeding, and the lack of observed flow-limiting coronary stenosis typical of advanced clinical disease. We acknowledge the substantially high LDL cholesterol levels (,500 m/dL) in the obese group. We have conducted other studies in which the LDL was ~250 mg/dL (e.g. [10, 12]) for a longer duration, which yielded substantial coronary atherosclerosis. We predict a similar result of adipectomy. This very high LDL cholesterol level for a short duration is similar to LDLR−/− humans, who have substantial atherosclerosis. Horton and ...
Green tea consumption is linked to reduce incidence of cardiovascular disease. The meta-analysis at hand suggests that the benefits are related to reduced total and LDL cholesterol. I suspect its more complicated than that. Collectively, consumption of green tea lowers LDL cholesterol and TC, but not HDL cholesterol or triglycerides in both normal weight subjects…
Researchers find that eating almonds regularly may help improve HDL cholesterol levels, functionality. Eating almonds on a regular basis may help boost levels of HDL cholesterol while simultaneously improving the way it removes cholesterol from the body, according to researchers.. In a study, researchers compared the levels and function of high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol) in people who ate almonds every day, to the HDL levels and function of the same group of people when they ate a muffin instead. The researchers found that while participants were on the almond diet, their HDL levels and functionality improved.. Penny Kris-Etherton, distinguished professor of nutrition at Penn State, said the study, published in the Journal of Nutrition, builds on previous research on the effects of almonds on cholesterol-lowering diets.. "Theres a lot of research out there that shows a diet that includes almonds lowers low-density lipoprotein, or LDL cholesterol, which is a major risk factor for ...
Having high cholesterol levels may be risky for people with a history of heart disease. In the same way, people should also know that there are two kinds of cholesterol- the good, or HDL cholesterol and the bad, or LDL cholesterol. And since your body needs a certain amount of cholesterol to function properly, you need to raise the HDL cholesterol and lower your LDL cholesterol levels. Here are some simple tips tha ...
The Treating to New Targets (TNT) trial compared atorvastatin 80 mg (aiming at reducing LDL cholesterol | or = 75 mg/dl) and atorvastatin 10 mg (LDL | or = 100 mg/dl as target) in 10,001 patients with stable coronary heart disease followed up for 5 years. A reduction of major cardiovascular events of 22% was observed in the atorvastatin 80 mg group as compared to the atorvastatin 10 mg group (hazard ratio: 0.78; 95 % interval of confidence: 0.69-0.89; p | 0.001). Such clinical efficacy was obtained while a good drug safety profile was maintained. Total mortality was not significantly different between the two groups. However, and remarkably, cardiovascular death was not the first cause of death anymore in this atorvastatin-treated population. The results of TNT in patients with stable coronary heart disease thus confirm the results of PROVE-IT in patients with acute coronary syndrome. These two randomised controlled trials should encourage considering a LDL cholesterol level of 75 mg/dl (rather than
Technically, there is no pure cholesterol in your bloodstream. Cholesterol is transported by lipoproteins. LDL (reduced-density lipoproteins) and HDL (high-density lipoprotiens) are the lipoprotiens utilised to transport cholesterol.. Tests can be run that really test for the cholesterol, which offers you the total cholesterol number (direct measurement). Or you can run a test for the HDL and LDL cholesterol complexes. You add these values to get a computed total cholesterol. If you run a total cholesterol AND calculate it from summing the HDL and LDL cholesterols they need to be close, but will not concur exactly. Tests have a margin of error. This is why they will not match exactly.. Though triglyerides are typically transported by lipoproteins, I do not know why they would use it to calculate total cholesterol.. We employed to run total cholesterol then and HDL, computing the LDL as a distinction among the total and HDL.. A correction to the answer above this - folic acid is not a fatty ...
The type of surgery the patients received is now only available to a few patients at high risk for heart attack and who cannot tolerate cholesterol lowering medications. The study commenced in 1975. Follow up 25 years later showed that lowering cholesterol added one more year of life for the study participants.. Anti-cholesterol medications called statins are given to lower bad LDL cholesterol levels and are the treatment of choice for preventing heart disease, peripheral vascular disease and for preventing heart attack. Henry Buchwald, M.D., Ph.D., bariatric surgeon at the University of Minnesota Medical School, and lead investigator says the study..."contributes to a long path of findings from the POSCH trial, that is, high levels of LDL cholesterol are detrimental to your health." The scientists say the study finding is the only trial that looked at the life-extending benefits of lowering cholesterol over a twenty-five year span. They also say it is the only randomized controlled trial that ...
Limited research has been available to support a link between elevated cholesterol concentrations and risk of ischaemic stroke. The study by Collins et al provides nurses with definitive evidence that supports the use of statins to reduce stroke in high risk populations. Reduced risk of stroke was reported within just 2 years of simvastatin use. The resultant reduction in low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations of 1.0 mmol/l was associated with a 21% risk reduction in stroke. These reductions were reported in patients with and without elevated LDL cholesterol concentrations at baseline and with overall medication adherence rates of 85%.. High risk patients are often confused when they are prescribed statins by consultants if their cholesterol concentrations are known to be within normal range and if they have remained untreated by family physicians. When patients are not confident about the need for a prescribed medication or are concerned about side effects, there is a risk of ...
in reply: We appreciate the comments regarding our article.1 With regards to our recommendations for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia using statins, Dr. Raghavan suggests that fibrates, niacin, or fish oil should play a more prominent role. We agree with his comments about the pharmacotherapy of patients with very high levels of serum triglycerides (at least 500 mg per dL [5.65 mmol per L]), which is supported in our article. However, for patients with lower degrees of triglyceride elevation (between 200 and 499 mg per dL [2.26 to 5.64 mmol per L]) the current treatment guidelines emphasize low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol as the main target of therapy, followed by non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.1 The overwhelming literature on the benefit of statins recommends it as a first-line option in patients with no contraindications who are at moderate to high cardiovascular risk and have elevated LDL cholesterol levels.. Dr. Raghavan also purports that our algorithm is ...
Methods Totally 445 subjects were investigated during physical examination by recording genders and age, measuring height, weight, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), concentrations of serum uric acid (SUA), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and fasting blood glucose (FBG). The physical examination results were analysed with statistical method.. ...
The preferred first-line treatment in pharmacologically altering cholesterol is by use of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, more commonly referred to the a "statins.". Following over four decades of clinical use, Statin experts acknowledge that statins are the most prominent factor in increasing longevity in individuals with excess cholesterol, regardless of the source.. In stating the benefits of lowering cholesterol, cholesterol experts and statin experts reference clinical studies, the accumulation of which now exceed 100,000 patients in published, peer-reviewed clinically-controlled studies, that using statins to meaningfully lower LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, will prevent early death in those with high LDL cholesterol.. The clinical outcomes data is overwhelmingly positive with regards to the benefits of cholesterol-lowering through the use of statins. Experts will concur that although the lowering of LDL-levels with statins, the complete and full ability to use statins to treat ...
HDL, or "good" cholesterol picks up excess cholesterol and takes it back to your liver.. Factors within your control - such as inactivity, obesity and an unhealthy diet - contribute to high LDL cholesterol and low HDL cholesterol. Factors beyond your control may play a role, too. For example, your genetic makeup may keep cells from removing LDL cholesterol from your blood efficiently or cause your liver to produce too much cholesterol.. ...
Though statins rule the roost when it comes to carry down and controlling the blood ranges of bad ldl cholesterol, the option of utilizing various medicine is at all times there - for its effectiveness, lesser value and minimal unintended effects. Me how low/excessive my cholesterol is. They do the lipo fasting kind and undecided if that is the same factor. Nicotinic acids are used to lower levels of cholesterol to treat high ldl cholesterol, excessive triglycerides, and coronary artery illness. Statins additionally increase the amount of cholesterol that the liver takes up and removes from the blood. And some medicine of this sort may very well raise levels of cholesterol in individuals with liver illness ...
Tendon xanthomas; elevated LDL cholesterol; premature heart disease *Fanconi anaemia. Predisposition of acute myeloid leukemia ... Elevation of both serum cholesterol and triglycerides; accelerated atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease; cutaneous xanthomas ...
"LDL Cholesterol and Oatmeal". WebMD. 2 February 2009. "Title 21--Chapter 1, Subchapter B, Part 101 - Food labeling - Specific ... Its daily consumption over weeks lowers LDL ("bad") and total cholesterol, possibly reducing the risk of heart disease. One ... After reports of research finding that dietary oats can help lower cholesterol, the United States Food and Drug Administration ... Oats are a nutrient-rich food associated with lower blood cholesterol when consumed regularly. Avenins present in oats ( ...
LDL-cholesterol, from her bloodstream. As a result, her LDL-cholesterol levels became very high and caused her two heart ... was able to clear the LDL-cholesterol from her blood. Indeed, after the transplant, Stormie's LDL-cholesterol declined by 81%- ... The case showed that the liver controls blood cholesterol and that high cholesterol is controllable, and was part of the ... Stormie had a condition which raised her blood cholesterol to 10 times normal levels. The condition, a severe form of familial ...
Cholesterol is released and stored within the cell as cholesterol ester. LDL is recycled for further cholesterol transport. ... Progesterone is synthesized from cholesterol by both the large and small luteal cells upon luteal maturation. Cholesterol-LDL ... PKA actively phosphorylates steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and translocator protein to transport cholesterol ... cholesterol side chain cleavage) system". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 305 (2): 489-98. doi:10.1006/abbi.1993.1452. PMID 8396893.. ...
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) for lowering LDL cholesterol inhibitors: hypolipidaemic agents. ...
A. It increases HDL ("good") cholesterol. B. It decreases LDL ("bad") cholesterol. C. It improves cholesterol (both HDL and LDL ...
Friedman, M., Fitch, T.E., Yokoyama, W.E.; Lowering of plasma LDL cholesterol in hamsters by the tomato glycoalkaloid tomatine ... The amount of plasma LDL cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein) decreases as the amount of dietary tomatine increases. The LD50 ... Cholesterol seems to protect the erythrocytes. Intraperitoneal injection of tomatine results in a decrease of diuresis in rats ... These compounds consist of an aglycon, which is a cholesterol derivative, and a carbohydrate chain, which in the case of α- ...
Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL-cholesterol were reduced, while HDL-cholesterol increased.[30] ... A study of 80 subjects with moderate hypercholesterolemia (high cholesterol) found that a daily dose of a Bergamot extract ... such as triglycerides and cholesterol) in the blood. In a group of 107 patients with confirmed non-alcoholic fatty liver ... "Bergamot Reduces Plasma Lipids, Atherogenic Small Dense LDL, and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Subjects with Moderate ...
"LDL Cholesterol and Oatmeal". WebMD. 2 February 2009.. *^ a b c "Title 21--Chapter 1, Subchapter B, Part 101 - Food labeling - ... Its daily consumption over weeks lowers LDL and total cholesterol, possibly reducing the risk of heart disease.[1][16] ... The established property of their cholesterol-lowering effects[1] has led to acceptance of oats as a health food.[15] ... After reports of research finding that dietary oats can help lower cholesterol, the United States Food and Drug Administration ...
As a consequence, circulating total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol are lowered. In a meta-analysis of 91 randomized clinical ... In the treated group, LDL-cholesterol declined 21%. Two patients dropped out because of myalgia, 1 for diarrhea, and 1 for ... reported LDL-cholesterol lowered by 1.02 mmol/L (39.4 mg/dL) compared to placebo. The incidence of reported adverse effects ... LDL-cholesterol was lowered by 24-49% depending on the statin. Different strains of Monascus fungus will produce different ...
Betteridge, John (2013). "PCSK9-an exciting target for reducing LDL-cholesterol levels". Nature Reviews Endocrinology. 9: 76-78 ...
... partly through increasing HDL cholesterol whilst reducing LDL cholesterol. In 1999, Malcolm Law and Nicholas Wald published a ... In his 2009 book Cholesterol and The French Paradox, Frank Cooper argues that the French paradox is due to the lack of ... Second, Law and Wald presented a time-lag hypothesis: if there were a delay in serum cholesterol concentrations increasing and ... Consumption of animal fat and serum cholesterol concentrations increased only recently in France but did so decades ago in ...
TMG supplementation lowers homocysteine but also raises LDL-cholesterol. Trimethylglycine can act as an adjuvant of the ...
suppress cholesterol synthesis by the liver and reduce blood levels of LDL cholesterol and triglycerides responsible for ... Lowers total and LDL cholesterol, which may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease[1] ... this in turn lowers cholesterol levels in the blood from the actions of cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation of cholesterol.[6] ... Dietary fiber and cholesterol metabolism[edit]. Dietary fiber may act on each phase of ingestion, digestion, absorption and ...
... "bad cholesterol") and LDL-C values (always only a calculated estimate; not measured by labs from person's blood sample for ...
... is approved in the United States for the treatment of high LDL cholesterol (dyslipidemia), total cholesterol ( ... The effects of rosuvastatin on LDL cholesterol are dose-related. Higher doses were more efficacious in improving the lipid ... Meta-analysis showed that rosuvastatin is able to modestly increase levels of HDL cholesterol as well, as with other statins. A ... "FDA Drug Safety Communication: Important safety label changes to cholesterol-lowering statin drugs". "Annual Report and Form 20 ...
LDL), transports a variety of triglyceride fats and cholesterol and, like LDL, can also promote the growth of atheroma.[ ... IDL is one of the five major groups of lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL, IDL, LDL, HDL) that enable fats and cholesterol to ... The multiple copies of ApoE allow IDL to bind to the LDL receptor with a very high affinity. When IDL is converted to LDL, the ... Their size is, in general, 25 to 35 nm in diameter, and they contain primarily a range of triacylglycerols and cholesterol ...
Male homozygotes had decreased circulating cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels. "SEC24 family, member A (S. cerevisiae)". ...
Obesity is associated with increased LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol) and lowered HDL cholesterol (good cholesterol). Obesity ... According to NIH, obesity causes the amount of cholesterol in bile to rise, in turn the formation of stone can occur Due to its ...
LDL) receptor and LDL cholesterol". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (47): 48865-75. doi:10.1074/jbc.M409699200. PMID 15358785. Lalanne F, ... and thus excessive removal of the LDL receptor, leaving people carrying the mutations with too much LDL cholesterol. Meanwhile ... "Therapeutic RNAi targeting PCSK9 acutely lowers plasma cholesterol in rodents and LDL cholesterol in nonhuman primates". Proc. ... Variants of PCSK9 can reduce or increase circulating cholesterol. LDL-particles are removed from the blood when they bind to ...
Boger RH, Sydow K, Borlak J, Thum T, Lenzen H, Schubert B, Tsikas D, Bode-Boger SM (21 July 2000). "LDL cholesterol upregulates ... ADMA concentrations are substantially elevated by native or oxidized LDL cholesterol. Thus a spiralling effect occurs with high ... Statins, as well as affecting circulating cholesterol levels, also increase nitric oxide levels and so have a direct effect on ... endothelial LDL levels causing greater ADMA values, which in turn inhibit NO production needed to promote vasodilation. The ...
Overall, the result is a reduction in circulating cholesterol and LDL. A minor reduction in triglycerides and an increase in ... LDL). These reductions increase the number of cellular LDL receptors, thus LDL uptake increases, removing it from the ... have not improved cholesterol levels. The evidence for the use of pravastatin is generally weaker than for other statins. The ... Additional cholesterol-lowering medications such as: fenofibrate (Tricor), gemfibrozil (Lopid), cholestyramine (Questran, ...
... can also cause changes in total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol. Uncommon side effects of desogestrel may include vaginal ...
Statins are more effective than other lipid-regulating drugs at lowering LDL-cholesterol concentration, but they are less ... Pedersen, TR (2010). "Pleiotropic effects of statins: Evidence against benefits beyond LDL-cholesterol lowering". American ... or stroke but having relatively low LDL cholesterol. In this trial, which lasted 5.4 years, overall mortality was reduced by 13 ... simvastatin reduced overall mortality in people with existing cardiovascular disease and high LDL cholesterol by 30% and ...
... as well as an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and creatinine ... These diets are generally associated with higher intakes of total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol because the protein is ... Potential favorable changes in triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol values should be weighed against potential ... unfavorable changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol values when low-carbohydrate diets to induce ...
... s are a class of compounds that prevents the uptake of cholesterol from the small intestine into the circulatory system. Most of these molecules are monobactams but show no antibiotic activity. An example is ezetimibe (SCH 58235) Another example is Sch-48461. The "Sch" is for Schering-Plough, where these compounds were developed. Phytosterols are also cholesterol absorption inhibitors. There are two sources of cholesterol in the upper intestine: dietary (from food) and biliary (from bile). Dietary cholesterol, in the form of lipid emulsions, combines with bile salts, to form bile salt micelles from which cholesterol can then be absorbed by the intestinal enterocyte. Once absorbed by the enterocyte, cholesterol is reassembled into intestinal lipoproteins called chylomicrons. These chylomicrons are then secreted into the lymphatics and circulated to the liver. These cholesterol particles ...
According to the lipid hypothesis, abnormally high cholesterol levels (hypercholesterolemia), or, more correctly, higher concentrations of LDL and lower concentrations of functional HDL are strongly associated with cardiovascular disease because these promote atheroma development in arteries (atherosclerosis). This disease process leads to myocardial infarction (heart attack), stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Since higher blood LDL, especially higher LDL particle concentrations and smaller LDL particle size, contribute to this process more than the cholesterol content of the LDL particles,[18] LDL particles are often termed "bad cholesterol" because they have been linked to atheroma formation. On the other hand, high concentrations of functional HDL, which can remove cholesterol from cells and atheroma, offer ...
Cholesterol is a molecule that is found in animal cells and body fluids. Cholesterol is not found in plant sources. It is a type of lipid which is a fat or fat-like molecule. Cholesterol is a soft waxy substance. Cholesterol is a special type of lipid that is called a steroid. Steroids are lipids that have a special chemical structure. This structure is made of four rings of carbon atoms. Cholesterol is found especially in animal fats.. Other steroids include hormone steroids like cortisol, estrogen, and testosterone. In fact, all steroid hormones are made from changing the basic chemical structure of cholesterol. When scientists talk about making one molecule from changing simpler ones, they sometimes call it chemical synthesis.. Hypercholesterolemia means that cholesterol level is too high in the blood. High cholesterol levels show that heart disease may ...
The National Cholesterol Education Program is a program managed by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, a division of the National Institutes of Health. Its goal is to reduce increased cardiovascular disease rates due to hypercholesterolemia (elevated cholesterol levels) in the United States of America. The program has been running since 1985. The assigned goal of the NCEP committee is to meet on a recurring basis, review ongoing scientific research about atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and make simplified, consensus, committee recommendations to be promoted by the NIH, the American Heart Association and other groups to both physicians and the public about how to reduce the incidence of disability and death resulting from atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. NCEP main page Third Report of the Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) Final Report, ...
... or lipid panel is a panel of blood tests that serves as an initial broad medical screening tool for abnormalities in lipids, such as cholesterol and triglycerides. The results of this test can identify certain genetic diseases and can determine approximate risks for cardiovascular disease, certain forms of pancreatitis, and other diseases. Lipid panels are commonly ordered as part of a physical exam, along with other panels such as the complete blood count (CBC) and basic metabolic panel (BMP). The lipid profile typically includes: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) High-density lipoprotein (HDL) Triglycerides Total cholesterol Using these values, a laboratory may also calculate: Very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) Cholesterol:HDL ratio The lipid profile tests are of 7 types: Total lipids Serum total cholesterol serum HDL cholesterol Total cholesterol/HDL ...
Hypolipidemic agents, or antihyperlipidemic agents, are a diverse group of pharmaceuticals that are used in the treatment of high levels of fats (lipids), such as cholesterol, in the blood (hyperlipidemia). They are called lipid-lowering drugs. There are several classes of hypolipidemic drugs. They may differ in both their impact on the cholesterol profile and adverse effects. For example, some may lower the "bad cholesterol" low density lipoprotein (LDL) more so than others, while others may preferentially increase high density lipoprotein (HDL), "the good cholesterol". Clinically, the choice of an agent will depend on the patient's cholesterol profile, cardiovascular risk, and the liver and kidney functions of the patient, evaluated against the balancing of risks and benefits of the medications. In the United States, this is guided by the evidence-based guideline from the National ...
... is a therapeutic vegetarian diet created by Canadian researcher David Jenkins in 2003 to lower blood cholesterol. This diet emphasizes using a portfolio of foods or food components that have found to associate with cholesterol lowering to enhance this effect. Viscous fiber, soy protein, plant sterols, and nuts are the four essential components of Portfolio diet. This diet is low in saturated fat, high in fibre. Researches have found it has comparable blood cholesterol effect to statin treatment. Background Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. Several risk factors, such as high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, overweight or obese, smoking, have been identified to promote the cardiovascular diseases. American Heart Association (AHA) and American College of Cardiology (ACC) have suggested life style management to control risk factors in order to reduce cardiovascular risk. One of the strategies is ...
According to the lipid hypothesis, since cholesterol (like all fat molecules) is transported around the body (in the water outside cells) inside lipoprotein particles, elevated cholesterol concentrations (hypercholesterolemia) - potentially offers a lower cost way to estimate concentrations of LDL particles; possibly even low concentrations of functional HDL particles - both variations strongly associated with cardiovascular disease because LDL particles promote atheroma development in arteries (atherosclerosis).[citation needed]. This atherosclerotic disease process, over decades, leads to myocardial infarction (heart attack), stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. Since higher blood LDL, especially higher LDL particle concentrations and smaller LDL particle size, contribute to this process more than the cholesterol content of the HDL particles,[61] ...
All corticosteroid hormones share cholesterol as a common precursor. Therefore, the first step in steroidogenesis is cholesterol uptake or synthesis. Cells that produce steroid hormones can acquire cholesterol through two paths. The main source is through dietary cholesterol transported via the blood as cholesterol esters within low density lipoproteins (LDL). LDL enters the cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis. The other source of cholesterol is synthesis in the cell's endoplasmic reticulum. Synthesis can compensate when LDL levels are abnormally low.[4] In the lysosome, cholesterol esters are converted to free cholesterol, which is then used for steroidogenesis or stored in the cell.[29]. The initial part of conversion of cholesterol into steroid hormones involves a number of enzymes of the ...
The several classes of hypolipidemic drugs may differ in both their impact on the cholesterol profile and adverse effects. For example, some may lower the "bad cholesterol" low density lipoprotein (LDL) more so than others, while others may preferentially increase high density lipoprotein (HDL), "the good cholesterol". Clinically, the choice of an agent depends on the patient's cholesterol profile, cardiovascular risk, and the liver and kidney functions of the patient, evaluated against the balancing of risks and benefits of the medications. In the United States, this is guided by the evidence-based guideline most recently updated in 2018 by the American College of Cardiology & American Heart Association. [1]. ...
240 mg/dl high cholesterol. The average amount of blood cholesterol varies with age, typically rising gradually until one is about 60 years old. There appear to be seasonal variations in cholesterol levels in humans, more, on average, in winter. These seasonal variations seem to be inversely linked to vitamin C intake. In lipid digestion, cholesterol is packed into Chylomicrons in the small intestine, which are delivered to the Portal vein and Lymph. The chylomicrons are ultimately taken up by liver hepatocytes via interaction between apolipoproteinE and the LDL receptor or Lipoprotein receptor-related proteins. Cholesterol is minimally soluble in water; it cannot dissolve and travel in the water-based bloodstream. Instead, it is transported in the bloodstream by lipoproteins that are water-soluble and carry cholesterol and triglycerides internally. The apolipoproteins forming the surface of ...
The role of cholesterol in the development of cardiovascular disease was elucidated in the second half of the 20th century.[138] This lipid hypothesis prompted attempts to reduce cardiovascular disease burden by lowering cholesterol. Treatment consisted mainly of dietary measures, such as a low-fat diet, and poorly tolerated medicines, such as clofibrate, cholestyramine, and nicotinic acid. Cholesterol researcher Daniel Steinberg writes that while the Coronary Primary Prevention Trial of 1984 demonstrated cholesterol lowering could significantly reduce the risk of heart attacks and angina, physicians, including cardiologists, remained largely unconvinced.[139] Scientists in academic settings and the pharmaceutical industry began trying to develop a drug to reduce cholesterol more effectively. There were several potential targets, with 30 steps in the synthesis of cholesterol from acetyl-coenzyme A.[140] In ...
A basic metabolic panel measures sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), magnesium, creatinine, glucose, and sometimes calcium. Tests focusing on cholesterol levels can determine LDL and HDL cholesterol levels, as well as triglyceride levels.[5]. Some tests, such as those that measure glucose or a lipid profile, require fasting (or no food consumption) eight to twelve hours prior to the drawing of the blood sample.[6]. For the majority of tests, blood is usually obtained from the patient's vein. Other specialized tests, such as the arterial blood gas test, require blood extracted from an artery. Blood gas analysis of arterial blood is primarily used to monitor carbon dioxide and oxygen levels related to pulmonary function, but is also used to measure blood pH and bicarbonate levels for certain metabolic conditions.[7]. While the regular glucose test is taken at a certain point in time, the glucose tolerance test involves repeated ...
... is caused by the shedding of cholesterol crystals into the bloodstream, and it has been recently recognized as a serious ... Acute renal failure due to cholesterol crystal embolism treated with LDL apheresis followed by corticosteroid and candesartan. ... Cholesterol crystal embolism (CCE) is caused by the shedding of cholesterol crystals into the bloodstream, and it has been ... Key words Cholesterol crystal embolism Acute renal failure Low-density lipoprotein apheresis Corticosteroid Angiotensin II type ...
... condition in which affected members of a family have high levels of LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol) in their blood. ... A blood cholesterol test can be used to detect abnormal cholesterol levels. In people with familial hypercholesterolaemia, LDL ... Cholesterol: what is your target?. Your cholesterol target levels can differ from other peoples cholesterol goals, because ... Cholesterol: treatments for high cholesterol. If you have high cholesterol, your doctor may prescribe lipid-lowering medicines ...
... cholesterol. A high LDL level can lead to a buildup of cholesterol in your arteries. ... LDL, or low-density lipoprotein, is the bad ... LDL (Bad) Cholesterol Level. LDL Cholesterol Category. Less ... What should my LDL level be?. With LDL cholesterol, lower numbers are better, because a high LDL level can raise your risk for ... If you have a high LDL level, this means that you have too much LDL cholesterol in your blood. This extra LDL, along with other ...
Treatments and Tools for ldl cholesterol. Find ldl cholesterol information, treatments for ldl cholesterol and ldl cholesterol ... MedHelps ldl cholesterol Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, ... Posts on ldl cholesterol. Levothyroxine and increasing LDL, Cholesterol - Thyroid Disorders Community ... My total cholesterol was 253....good cholesterol was 106 (hdl ) and 133 (ldl) which the doc... ...
LDL (low-density lipoprotein), sometimes called "bad" cholesterol, makes up most of your bodys cholesterol. High levels of LDL ... When your body has too much LDL cholesterol, the LDL cholesterol can build up on the walls of your blood vessels. This buildup ... A cholesterol test, or screening, tells your health care provider the levels of LDL and HDL cholesterol in your blood. This ... If you have high LDL cholesterol levels, your health care team may recommend cholesterol-lowering medicine and lifestyle ...
The new cholesterol guidelines identify four major groups of patients in whom statins should be used and recommend either ... "Patients could have a completely normal lipid profile, with normal triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol, but ... Similarly, for those with LDL cholesterol levels ,190 mg/dL, a high-intensity statin should be used with the goal of achieving ... For those with diabetes aged 40 to 75 years of age, a moderate-intensity statin, defined as a drug that lowers LDL cholesterol ...
Find HDL cholesterol LDL information, treatments for HDL cholesterol LDL and HDL cholesterol LDL symptoms. ... MedHelps HDL cholesterol LDL Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for HDL cholesterol LDL. ... Posts on HDL cholesterol LDL. Blood test results: Is this a cholesterol problem - Cholesterol Community ... hello..i want to ask about my cholesterol..my LDL cholesterol is 4.5 is that normal?dangero... ...
LDL cholesterol, LDL-C) is one type of lipoprotein that carries cholesterol in the blood. LDL-C consists mostly of cholesterol ... LDL; LDL-C Formal name:. Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Related tests:. Cholesterol; HDL Cholesterol; Triglycerides; Lipid ... see the article on Direct LDL Cholesterol).. Of all the forms of cholesterol in the blood, the LDL-C is considered the most ... LDL-C is considered to be undesirable and is often called "bad" cholesterol because it deposits excess cholesterol in blood ...
And even those who dont have high cholesterol can benefit. ... a way to help you lower your cholesterol through smart food ... Articles OnHigh Cholesterol Diet. High Cholesterol Diet High Cholesterol Diet - Whats the TLC Program for High Cholesterol? * ... High-density lipoprotein (HDL). Thats the "good cholesterol.". When levels of LDL are too high, your chance of heart disease ... Less than 200 milligrams of dietary cholesterol.. You do this to lower your LDL level. You can always talk to your doctor or ...
In this article, learn about the difference between HDL and LDL - ... but too much bad cholesterol can be harmful and is a major risk factor for heart disease and stroke. ... LDL cholesterol. HDL cholesterol can move LDL cholesterol from the blood.. LDL cholesterol is often called bad cholesterol. If ... Causes of high LDL cholesterol. High LDL cholesterol may be caused by inactivity. ...
HDL CHOLESTEROL 67 REFERNCE RANGE 40 MG/DL CHOLESTEROL/HDL RATIO 2.6 REFERENCE RANGE 5.0 LDL CHOLESTEROL 84 REFERENCE RAN... ... MY TOTAL CHOLESTEROL WAS 171 REFERENCE RANGE 125 -200MG/DL ... CHOLESTEROL/HDL RATIO 2.6 REFERENCE RANGE 5.0 LDL CHOLESTEROL ... HDL CHOLESTEROL 67 REFERNCE RANGE 40 MG/DL CHOLESTEROL/HDL RATIO 2.6 REFERENCE RANGE 5.0 LDL CHOLESTEROL 84 REFERENCE RANGE 130 ... HDL LDL TESTS RESULTS. MY TOTAL CHOLESTEROL WAS 171 REFERENCE RANGE 125 -200MG/DL ...
LDL) cholesterol, according to a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. ... Legumes Lower LDL Cholesterol. A diet rich in legumes lowered low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, according to a meta- ... Men may have responded more favorably to the intervention because they tend to have higher levels of LDL cholesterol than women ... In that study, a 1% reduction in LDL cholesterol translated to a 1% reduction in cardiovascular mortality, the authors said. " ...
... nutrition with ldl cholesterol news, facts, tips, & other information. Educate yourself about ldl cholesterol & help yourself ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Diabetes Care.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Joint effects of serum triglyceride and LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol concentrations on coronary heart disease risk in ... Success of LDL-C Reduction. Within the past decade, clinical trials of LDL-C reduction have convincingly demonstrated that LDL- ... gemfibrozil has been reported to have little to no effect on total LDL mass in LDL pattern A and B individuals.24 In LDL ... there was a significant reduction in small LDL counterbalanced by a significant increase in large LDL, whereas LDL pattern A ...
Tag: LDL cholesterol. NutritionPharmaceuticalsScience and Medicine. Cholesterol Skeptics Strike Again. Im really tired of ... It was a re-hash of the same kind of misinformation that is being spread by The International Network of Cholesterol Skeptics ( ... Lewis Joness article "Cholesterol-shmesterol" in Skeptical Briefs (December 2007) included errors and misconceptions about ... arguing about cholesterol, but I feel obliged to stand up once more to defend science-based medicine from unfair calumny. ...
Low LDL Cholesterol (Hypobetalipoproteinemia) Q&A What are the sexual predilections of low LDL cholesterol syndromes?. Updated ...
Statins have long been the drug of choice to reduce LDL cholesterol. While statins are effective for many people, they dont ... Remember that oil (LDL) and water (blood) dont mix. PCSK9 inhibitors, which allow receptors to pull LDL from blood, include ... As bile acids decrease, the liver generates more LDL receptors. Thats good because the receptors latch onto LDL and pull it ... including high LDL, the bad cholesterol that increases risk for heart attack and stroke. ...
Inulin helps lower levels of lousy LDL cholesterol and boosts the production of a weight-controlling compound in your gut ...
A diet high in LDL cholesterol may hinder the therapeutic efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in cancer patients. ... A diet high in LDL cholesterol may hinder the therapeutic efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in cancer patients. ...
At one point in time we thought cholesterol was bad for us. While we were correct, now we understand that there are two types. ... Simply by having higher HDL cholesterol it will naturally lower your LDL. The HDL basically pushes the LDL into your liver so ... Since we already know that HDL lowers LDL then this is a great but indirect way of reducing your LDL cholesterol. ... By simply changing your diet around a bit you can also further cut your LDL cholesterol. For example, by cutting out some red ...
My total cholesterol was 220 but that is because my HDL was 150, a bit more than twice as high as the LDL at 70. In his words ... My total cholesterol number is high but that is because I have excellent HDL, so a higher LDL is irrelevant. Plenty of ... LDL is supposed to be much lower than HDL. Easy to remember if you think the H means Healthy and the L means Lousy! My LDL ... Ive used panethine to lower my LDL cholesterol by 20%. As has another of my family members. This is an excellent article on ...
Low LDL Cholesterol (Hypobetalipoproteinemia) Q&A How is a diagnosis of a low LDL cholesterol syndrome confirmed?. Updated: Mar ...
LBDLDL - LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL). Variable Name: LBDLDL. SAS Label: LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL). English Text: LDL-cholesterol (mg/ ... LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L). Variable Name: LBDLDLSI. SAS Label: LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L). English Text: LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) ... and HDL-cholesterol according to the Friedewald calculation: [LDL-cholesterol] = [total cholesterol] - [HDL-cholesterol] - [ ... LDL-cholesterol is calculated from measured values of total cholesterol, triglycerides, ...
Foods high in cholesterol include fatty meats, milk products, egg yolks, snacks, crackers, muffins, and fast foods. LDL (bad) ... cholesterol can be lowered with diet, medications, exercise, weight loss, and quitting smoking. ... Foods in the diet that lower cholesterol are foods high in fiber, low in saturated fats, olive oil, soy, and nuts. ... What is LDL cholesterol or the bad cholesterol?. *LDL cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein) is called bad cholesterol, ...
  • After low-density lipoprotein apheresis (LDL-A), the skin lesions, including livedo reticularis and pain from the acrocyanotic toes, dramatically improved, with partial recovery of renal function. (springer.com)
  • The LDL-cholesterol in mg/dL (LBDLDL) was converted to mmol/L (LBDLDLSI) by multiplying by 0.02586. (cdc.gov)
  • The randomized crossover study included 32 participants who had high cholesterol, were aged 21 to 79 years, had a fasting LCL-C level between 3.4 and 5.7 mmol/L, and were in good general health. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • Results indicate that 57% of patients were not meeting the European guideline LDL target of 1.8 mmol/L at follow-up. (uspharmacist.com)
  • 0·0001), including those with LDL cholesterol lower than 2 mmol/L on the less intensive or control regimen. (nih.gov)
  • Patients with reductions in both LDL cholesterol and CRP that were greater than the median had significantly slower rates of progression than patients with reductions in both biomarkers that were less than the median (P=0.001). (nih.gov)
  • OVER THE PAST YEAR, new evidence for the cholesterol- fighting class of therapy called proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors has generated discussion about the usefulness of these powerful drugs in diabetes care. (ajmc.com)
  • Meanwhile, the recent availability of PCSK9 inhibitors has revalidated the discussion on further lowering of LDL and has brought back the age-old question: how low is in fact low enough to bring the CV risk to the minimum? (hindawi.com)
  • PROFICIO, which stands for the Program to Reduce LDL-C and Cardiovascular Outcomes Following Inhibition of PCSK9 In Different POpulations, is a large and comprehensive clinical trial program evaluating evolocumab in 22 clinical trials, with a combined planned enrollment of approximately 35,000 patients. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • The prospect of lowering cholesterol with about the same potency as the monoclonal antibodies that block PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) activity but administered as a biannual injection "enables provider control over medication adherence, and may offer patients a meaningful new choice that is safe and convenient and has assured results," Kausik K. Ray, MD, said at the annual congress of the European Society of Cardiology. (natap.org)
  • development code RN316) is a drug that was in development by Pfizer targeting PCSK9 to reduce LDL cholesterol. (wikipedia.org)
  • This discovery helped lead to cholesterol-lowering drugs that mimicked the effects of the PCSK9 mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2013 meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of low- and high-fat diets showed low-fat diets decreased total cholesterol and LDL, but these decreases were not found when only considering low-calorie diets. (wikipedia.org)
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