The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.
Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
Low-density subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes between 8 to 13 nm.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of cholesterol in the presence of molecular oxygen to 4-cholesten-3-one and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme is not specific for cholesterol, but will also oxidize other 3-hydroxysteroids. EC
A membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 7-alpha-hydroxylation of CHOLESTEROL in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP7, converts cholesterol to 7-alpha-hydroxycholesterol which is the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS.
The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). High circulating levels of VLDL cholesterol are found in HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE IIB. The cholesterol on the VLDL is eventually delivered by LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS to the tissues after the catabolism of VLDL to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LDL.
Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.
A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC
A superfamily of large integral ATP-binding cassette membrane proteins whose expression pattern is consistent with a role in lipid (cholesterol) efflux. It is implicated in TANGIER DISEASE characterized by accumulation of cholesteryl ester in various tissues.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)
Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.
Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.
An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.
Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.
Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.
Cholesterol which is substituted by a hydroxy group in any position.
A family of scavenger receptors that are predominately localized to CAVEOLAE of the PLASMA MEMBRANE and bind HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.
Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.
A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.
The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.
A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.
A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.
A strongly basic anion exchange resin whose main constituent is polystyrene trimethylbenzylammonium Cl(-) anion.
An intermediate in the synthesis of cholesterol.
Cell surface proteins that bind lipoproteins with high affinity. Lipoprotein receptors in the liver and peripheral tissues mediate the regulation of plasma and cellular cholesterol metabolism and concentration. The receptors generally recognize the apolipoproteins of the lipoprotein complex, and binding is often a trigger for endocytosis.
Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.
Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.
Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.
A complex of polyene antibiotics obtained from Streptomyces filipinensis. Filipin III alters membrane function by interfering with membrane sterols, inhibits mitochondrial respiration, and is proposed as an antifungal agent. Filipins I, II, and IV are less important.
A diet that contributes to the development and acceleration of ATHEROGENESIS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.
A highly dense subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes below 7 nm. They are also known as nascent HDL, composed of a few APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I molecules which are complexed with PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The lipid-poor pre-beta-HDL particles serve as progenitors of HDL3 and then HDL2 after absorption of free cholesterol from cell membranes, cholesterol esterification, and acquisition of apolipoproteins A-II, Cs, and E. Pre-beta-HDL initiate the reverse cholesterol transport process from cells to liver.
A cholesterol derivative found in human feces, gallstones, eggs, and other biological matter.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A broad category of receptor-like proteins that may play a role in transcriptional-regulation in the CELL NUCLEUS. Many of these proteins are similar in structure to known NUCLEAR RECEPTORS but appear to lack a functional ligand-binding domain, while in other cases the specific ligands have yet to be identified.
Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.
A triterpene that derives from the chair-boat-chair-boat folding of 2,3-oxidosqualene. It is metabolized to CHOLESTEROL and CUCURBITACINS.
An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS involved in cellular cholesterol removal (reverse-cholesterol transport). It is characterized by near absence of ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins) in blood. The massive tissue deposition of cholesterol esters results in HEPATOMEGALY; SPLENOMEGALY; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; large orange tonsils; and often sensory POLYNEUROPATHY. The disorder was first found among inhabitants of Tangier Island in the Chesapeake Bay, MD.
Lipid-laden macrophages originating from monocytes or from smooth muscle cells.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A derivative of LOVASTATIN and potent competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It may also interfere with steroid hormone production. Due to the induction of hepatic LDL RECEPTORS, it increases breakdown of LDL CHOLESTEROL.
A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
Cholesterol derivatives having an additional double bond in any position. 24-Dehydrocholesterol is DESMOSTEROL. The other most prevalent dehydrocholesterol is the 7-isomer. This compound is a precursor of cholesterol and of vitamin D3.
Blocking of a blood vessel by CHOLESTEROL-rich atheromatous deposits, generally occurring in the flow from a large artery to small arterial branches. It is also called arterial-arterial embolization or atheroembolism which may be spontaneous or iatrogenic. Patients with spontaneous atheroembolism often have painful, cyanotic digits of acute onset.
Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A group of autosomal recessive disorders in which harmful quantities of lipids accumulate in the viscera and the central nervous system. They can be caused by deficiencies of enzyme activities (SPHINGOMYELIN PHOSPHODIESTERASE) or defects in intracellular transport, resulting in the accumulation of SPHINGOMYELINS and CHOLESTEROL. There are various subtypes based on their clinical and genetic differences.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Relating to the size of solids.
A group of familial disorders characterized by elevated circulating cholesterol contained in either LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS alone or also in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (pre-beta lipoproteins).
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates GENES involved in CHOLESTEROL synthesis and uptake.
An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that facilitates the esterification of lipoprotein cholesterol and subsequent removal from peripheral tissues to the liver. This defect results in low HDL-cholesterol level in blood and accumulation of free cholesterol in tissue leading to a triad of CORNEAL OPACITY, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), and PROTEINURIA.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
A condition of elevated levels of TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.
An antilipemic fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Nocardia autotrophica. It acts as a competitive inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES).
Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
Derivatives of the saturated steroid cholestane with methyl groups at C-18 and C-19 and an iso-octyl side chain at C-17.
A ubiquitous family of proteins that transport PHOSPHOLIPIDS such as PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE between membranes. They play an important role in phospholipid metabolism during vesicular transport and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.
Conditions with abnormally low levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. This may involve any of the lipoprotein subclasses, including ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins); BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low-density lipoproteins); and PREBETA-LIPOPROTEINS (very-low-density lipoproteins).
An autosomal recessive disorder of CHOLESTEROL metabolism. It is caused by a deficiency of 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, the enzyme that converts 7-dehydrocholesterol to cholesterol, leading to an abnormally low plasma cholesterol. This syndrome is characterized by multiple CONGENITAL ABNORMALITIES, growth deficiency, and INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY.
Conditions with abnormally elevated levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. They may be inherited, acquired, primary, or secondary. Hyperlipoproteinemias are classified according to the pattern of lipoproteins on electrophoresis or ultracentrifugation.
An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of an aryl-dialkyl phosphate to form dialkyl phosphate and an aryl alcohol. It can hydrolyze a broad spectrum of organophosphate substrates and a number of aromatic carboxylic acid esters. It may also mediate an enzymatic protection of LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS against oxidative modification and the consequent series of events leading to ATHEROMA formation. The enzyme was previously regarded to be identical with Arylesterase (EC
Cholesterol substituted in any position by a keto moiety. The 7-keto isomer inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity and inhibits cholesterol uptake in the coronary arteries and aorta in vitro.
Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.
Organic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Glucose in blood.
Intermediate-density subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes between 7 to 8 nm. As the larger lighter HDL2 lipoprotein, HDL3 lipoprotein is lipid-rich.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A condition marked by the development of widespread xanthomas, yellow tumor-like structures filled with lipid deposits. Xanthomas can be found in a variety of tissues including the SKIN; TENDONS; joints of KNEES and ELBOWS. Xanthomatosis is associated with disturbance of LIPID METABOLISM and formation of FOAM CELLS.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
A water-soluble vitamin of the B complex occurring in various animal and plant tissues. It is required by the body for the formation of coenzymes NAD and NADP. It has PELLAGRA-curative, vasodilating, and antilipemic properties.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
A drug used to lower LDL and HDL cholesterol yet has little effect on serum-triglyceride or VLDL cholesterol. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p993).
A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
Fats containing one or more double bonds, as from oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid.
Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.
A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Antilipemic agent with high ophthalmic toxicity. According to Merck Index, 11th ed, the compound was withdrawn from the market in 1962 because of its association with the formation of irreversible cataracts.
A major primary bile acid produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption and cholesterol excretion.
The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
An anticholesteremic agent that inhibits sterol biosynthesis in animals.
Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.
The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.
A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
CHOLESTENES with one or more double bonds and substituted by any number of keto groups.
A 21-carbon steroid, derived from CHOLESTEROL and found in steroid hormone-producing tissues. Pregnenolone is the precursor to GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
A tyrosine phosphoprotein that plays an essential role in CAVEOLAE formation. It binds CHOLESTEROL and is involved in LIPIDS transport, membrane traffic, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)
Abstaining from all food.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.
An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.
(Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.
Cytoplasm stored in an egg that contains nutritional reserves for the developing embryo. It is rich in polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The first committed enzyme of the biosynthesis pathway that leads to the production of STEROLS. it catalyzes the synthesis of SQUALENE from farnesyl pyrophosphate via the intermediate PRESQUALENE PYROPHOSPHATE. This enzyme is also a critical branch point enzyme in the biosynthesis of ISOPRENOIDS that is thought to regulate the flux of isoprene intermediates through the sterol pathway.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and CHYLOMICRON REMNANTS. Apo C-III, synthesized in the liver, is an inhibitor of LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE. Apo C-III modulates the binding of chylomicron remnants and VLDL to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) thus decreases the uptake of triglyceride-rich particles by the liver cells and subsequent degradation. The normal Apo C-III is glycosylated. There are several polymorphic forms with varying amounts of SIALIC ACID (Apo C-III-0, Apo C-III-1, and Apo C-III-2).
A lipid-regulating agent that lowers elevated serum lipids primarily by decreasing serum triglycerides with a variable reduction in total cholesterol.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
An autosomal recessive lipid storage disorder that is characterized by accumulation of CHOLESTEROL and SPHINGOMYELINS in cells of the VISCERA and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Type C (or C1) and type D are allelic disorders caused by mutation of gene (NPC1) encoding a protein that mediate intracellular cholesterol transport from lysosomes. Clinical signs include hepatosplenomegaly and chronic neurological symptoms. Type D is a variant in people with a Nova Scotia ancestry.
Proteins which are present in or isolated from SOYBEANS.
The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.
The main structural proteins of CAVEOLAE. Several distinct genes for caveolins have been identified.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a branched 8-carbon chain at C-17. Members include compounds with any degree of unsaturation; however, CHOLESTADIENES is available for derivatives containing two double bonds.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
A spirostan found in DIOSCOREA and other plants. The 25S isomer is called yamogenin. Solasodine is a natural derivative formed by replacing the spiro-ring with a nitrogen, which can rearrange to SOLANINE.
Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A butterlike product made of refined vegetable oils, sometimes blended with animal fats, and emulsified usually with water or milk. It is used as a butter substitute. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A bile acid, usually conjugated with either glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption and is reabsorbed by the small intestine. It is used as cholagogue, a choleretic laxative, and to prevent or dissolve gallstones.
Endocytic/exocytic CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURES rich in glycosphingolipids, cholesterol, and lipid-anchored membrane proteins that function in ENDOCYTOSIS (potocytosis), transcytosis, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Caveolae assume various shapes from open pits to closed vesicles. Caveolar coats are composed of CAVEOLINS.

Serum triglyceride: a possible risk factor for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. (1/5144)

BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the relationship between ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and serum concentrations of lipids and apolipoproteins. METHODS: A cohort of 21 520 men, aged 35-64 years, was recruited from men attending the British United Provident Association (BUPA) clinic in London for a routine medical examination in 1975-1982. Smoking habits, weight, height and blood pressure were recorded at entry. Lipids and apolipoproteins were measured in stored serum samples from the 30 men who subsequently died of ruptured AAA and 150 matched controls. RESULTS: Triglyceride was strongly related to risk of ruptured AAA. In univariate analyses the risk in men on the 90th centile of the distribution relative to the risk in men on the 10th (RO10-90) was 12 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 3.8-37) for triglyceride, 5.5 (95% CI: 1.8-17) for apolipoprotein B (apoB) (the protein component of low density lipoprotein [LDL]), 0.15 (95% CI : 0.04-0.56) for apo A1 (the protein component of high density lipoprotein [HDL]), 3.7 (95% CI: 1.4-9.4) for body mass index and 3.0 (95% CI: 1.1-8.5) for systolic blood pressure. Lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) was not a significant risk factor (RO10-90 = 1.6, 95% CI: 0.6-3.0). In multivariate analysis triglyceride retained its strong association. CONCLUSION: Triglyceride appears to be a strong risk factor for ruptured AAA, although further studies are required to clarify this. If this and other associations are cause and effect, then changing the distribution of risk factors in the population (by many people stopping smoking and adopting a lower saturated fat diet and by lowering blood pressure) could achieve an important reduction in mortality from ruptured AAA.  (+info)

Association of the inflammatory state in active juvenile rheumatoid arthritis with hypo-high-density lipoproteinemia and reduced lipoprotein-associated platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase activity. (2/5144)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the quantitative and qualitative abnormalities of apolipoprotein B (Apo B)- and Apo A-I-containing lipoproteins and between lipoprotein-associated platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) activity in patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) as a function of the inflammatory state. METHODS: Twenty-six JRA patients and 22 age- and sex-matched control subjects with normal lipid levels participated in the study. Fourteen patients had active disease, and 12 had inactive disease. Plasma lipoproteins were fractionated by gradient ultracentrifugation into 9 subfractions, and their chemical composition and mass were determined. The PAF-AH activity associated with lipoprotein subfractions and the activity in plasma were also measured. RESULTS: Patients with active JRA had significantly lower plasma total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels as compared with controls, due to the decrease in the mass of both the HDL2 and HDL3 subfractions. Patients with active JRA also had higher plasma triglyceride levels, mainly due to the higher triglyceride content of the very low-density lipoprotein plus the intermediate-density lipoprotein subfraction. The plasma PAF-AH activity in patients with active JRA was lower than that in controls, mainly due to the decrease in PAF-AH activity associated with the intermediate and dense low-density lipoprotein subclasses. The lipid abnormalities and the reduction in plasma PAF-AH activity were significantly correlated with plasma C-reactive protein levels and were not observed in patients with inactive JRA. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to show that patients with active JRA exhibit low levels of HDL2 and HDL3 and are deficient in plasma PAF-AH activity. These alterations suggest that active JRA is associated with partial loss of the antiinflammatory activity of plasma Apo B- and Apo A-I-containing lipoproteins.  (+info)

Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies are associated with an atherogenic lipid profile. (3/5144)

OBJECTIVE: To determine, within a representative population group of men and women, whether alteration of the lipid profile might underlie the reported association between Chlamydia pneumoniae and ischaemic heart disease. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross sectional survey in an area with a high incidence of ischaemic heart disease. SUBJECTS: 400 randomly selected participants in the World Health Organisation MONICA project's third population survey in Northern Ireland. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Stored sera were examined by microimmunofluorescence for IgG antibodies to C pneumoniae at a dilution of 1 in 64. Mean total and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were compared between seropositive and seronegative individuals with adjustment for age, measures of socioeconomic status, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and the season during which blood had been taken. RESULTS: In seropositive men, adjusted mean serum total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were 0.5 mmol/l (9.2%) higher and 0.11 mmol/l (9.3%) lower, respectively, than in seronegative men. Differences in women did not achieve statistical significance, but both total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were higher (3.6% and 5.8%, respectively) in seropositive than in seronegative individuals. CONCLUSIONS: There is serological evidence that C pneumoniae infection is associated with an atherogenic lipid profile in men. Altered lipid levels may underlie the association between C pneumoniae and ischaemic heart disease.  (+info)

Effect of fasting on temporal variation in the nephrotoxicity of amphotericin B in rats. (4/5144)

Evidence for temporal variation in the nephrotoxicity of amphotericin B was recently reported in experimental animals. The role of food in these variations was determined by studying the effect of a short fasting period on the temporal variation in the renal toxicity of amphotericin B. Twenty-eight normally fed and 28 fasted female Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Food was available ad libitum to the fed rats, while the fasted animals were fasted 12 h before and 24 h after amphotericin B injection to minimize stress for the animals. Water was available ad libitum to both groups of rats, which were maintained on a 14-h light, 10-h dark regimen (light on at 0600 h). Renal toxicity was determined by comparing the levels of excretion of renal enzyme and the serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels at the time of the maximal (0700 h) or the minimal (1900 h) nephrotoxicity after the intraperitoneal administration of a single dose of dextrose (5%; control group) or amphotericin B (50 mg/kg of body weight; treated group) to the rats. The nephrotoxicities obtained after amphotericin B administration at both times of day were compared to the nephrotoxicities observed for time-matched controls. In fed animals, the 24-h urinary excretion of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase and beta-galactosidase was significantly higher when amphotericin B was injected at 0700 and 1900 h. The excretion of these two enzymes was reduced significantly (P < 0.05) in fasting rats, and this effect was larger at 0700 h (P < 0.05) than at 1900 h. The serum creatinine level was also significantly higher (P < 0.05) in fed animals treated at 0700 h than in fed animals treated at 1900 h. Fasting reduced significantly (P < 0.05) the increase in the serum creatinine level, and this effect was larger in the animals treated at 0700 h. Similar data were obtained for BUN levels. Amphotericin B accumulation was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the renal cortexes of fed rats than in those of fasted animals, but there was no difference according to the time of injection. These results demonstrated that fasting reduces the nephrotoxicity of amphotericin B and that food availability is of crucial importance in the temporal variation in the renal toxicity of amphotericin B in rats.  (+info)

The impact of an amino acid-based peritoneal dialysis fluid on plasma total homocysteine levels, lipid profile and body fat mass. (5/5144)

BACKGROUND: The caloric load from glucose-based peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluids contributes to hypertriglyceridaemia, adiposity and, as result of anorexia, protein malnutrition in PD patients. It has been suggested that replacement of a glucose-based by an amino acids-based PD fluid (AA-PDF) for one exchange per day might improve the nutritional status and lipid profile. Due to the uptake of methionine from the dialysate, however, exposure to AA-PDF might aggravate hyperhomocysteinaemia, a frequently occurring risk factor for atherosclerosis in uraemic patients. METHODS: We studied the impact of a once daily exchange with 1.1% AA-PDF instead of glucose-based PD fluid for 2 months on plasma methionine and total homocysteine (tHcy) levels, lipid profile, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and body fat mass of seven stable PD patients. Results are expressed as mean+/-SEM. RESULTS: Methionine levels did not increase significantly during therapy, but tHcy levels increased substantially from 60+/-12 to 84+/-19 micromol/l after 1 month (P=0.039), and to 85+/-22 micromol/l after 2 months of AA-PDF treatment. Serum triglyceride concentration decreased from 3.0+/-0.4 mmol/l at entry to 2.6+/-0.5 mmol/l (at 1 month, P=0.041 vs baseline). Serum BChE also decreased from 6.9+/-0.4 U/ml at entry to 6.3+/-0.4 U/ml after 2 months (P=0.014). Total cholesterol concentration and cholesterol fractions did not change. The reduced exposure to glucose-based PD fluid for 2 months resulted in a 0.5 kg reduction in fat mass which was due mainly to a reduction in fat mass of the trunk region (0.3 kg, P=0.031). CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that methionine-containing AA-PDF induces an increase in the plasma tHcy level. This might, potentially, offset the beneficial effects of an improved serum lipid profile and reduced fat mass on the risk of cardiovascular disease in PD patients. Lowering the methionine content of the fluid, therefore, may be required to overcome this adverse effect.  (+info)

Survey of total error of precipitation and homogeneous HDL-cholesterol methods and simultaneous evaluation of lyophilized saccharose-containing candidate reference materials for HDL-cholesterol. (6/5144)

BACKGROUND: Standardization of HDL-cholesterol is needed for risk assessment. We assessed for the first time the accuracy of HDL-cholesterol testing in The Netherlands and evaluated 11 candidate reference materials (CRMs). METHODS: The total error (TE) of HDL-cholesterol measurements was assessed in native human sera by 25 Dutch clinical chemistry laboratories. Concomitantly, the suitability of lyophilized, saccharose-containing CRMs (n = 11) for HDL-cholesterol was evaluated. RESULTS: In the precipitation method group, which included 25 laboratories and four methods, the mean (minimum-maximum) TE was 11.5% (2.7-25.2%), signifying that 18 of 25 laboratories satisfied the TE goal of +info)

Elevated hepatic lipase activity and low levels of high density lipoprotein in a normotriglyceridemic, nonobese Turkish population. (7/5144)

Low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and, in the United States, are often associated with hypertriglyceridemia and obesity. In Turkey, low HDL-C levels are highly prevalent, 53% of men and 26% of women having HDL-C levels <35 mg/dl, in the absence of hypertriglyceridemia and obesity. In this study to investigate the cause of low HDL-C levels in Turks, various factors affecting HDL metabolism were assessed in normotriglyceridemic Turkish men and women living in Istanbul and in non-Turkish men and women living in San Francisco. Turkish men and women had significantly lower HDL-C levels than the San Francisco men and women, as well as markedly lower apolipoprotein A-I levels (25 and 39 mg/dl lower, respectively). In both Turkish and non-Turkish subjects, the mean body mass index was <27 kg/m2, the mean triglyceride level was <120 mg/dl, and the mean total cholesterol was 170-180 mg/dl. The mean hepatic triglyceride lipase activity was 21% and 31% higher in Turkish men and women, respectively, than in non-Turkish men and women, and remained higher even after subjects with a body mass index >50th percentile for men and women in the United States were excluded from the analysis. As no dietary or behavioral factors have been identified in the Turkish population that account for increased hepatic triglyceride lipase activity, the elevation most likely has a genetic basis. high density lipoprotein in a normotriglyceridemic, nonobese Turkish population.  (+info)

Comparison of synthetic saponin cholesterol absorption inhibitors in rabbits: evidence for a non-stoichiometric, intestinal mechanism of action. (8/5144)

The hypocholesterolemic activities of pamaqueside and tiqueside, two structurally similar saponins, were evaluated in cholesterol-fed rabbits. The pharmacological profiles of the saponins were virtually identical: both dose-dependently decreased the intestinal absorption of labeled cholesterol 25-75%, increased fecal neutral sterol excretion up to 2.5-fold, and decreased hepatic cholesterol content 10-55%. High doses of pamaqueside (>5 mg/kg) or tiqueside (>125 mg/kg) completely prevented hypercholesterolemia. Decreases in plasma and hepatic cholesterol levels were strongly correlated with increased neutral sterol excretion. Ratios of neutral sterol excreted to pamaqueside administered were greater than 1:1 at all doses, in opposition to the formation of a stoichiometric complex previously suggested for tiqueside and other saponins. Ratios in tiqueside-treated rabbits were less than unity, a reflection of its lower potency. Pamaqueside-treated rabbits exhibited a more rapid decline in plasma cholesterol concentrations than control animals fed a cholesterol-free diet, indicating that the compound also inhibited the absorption of biliary cholesterol. Intravenous administration of pamaqueside had no effect on plasma cholesterol levels despite plasma levels twice those observed in rabbits given pamaqueside orally. These data indicate that pamaqueside and tiqueside induce hypocholesterolemia by blocking lumenal cholesterol absorption via a mechanism that apparently differs from the stoichiometric complexation of cholesterol hypothesized for other saponins.  (+info)

MalaCards based summary : High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Level Quantitative Trait Locus 6, is also known as high density lipoprotein cholesterol level qtl6. An important gene associated with High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Level Quantitative Trait Locus 6 is SCARB1 (Scavenger Receptor Class B Member 1 ...
Triglycerides (TG)/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio is a marker of small/dense low-density lipoprotein particles, which are closely associated with various metabolic and vascular diseases. However, the role of TG/HDL cholesterol ratio in cerebrovascular diseases has not been well studied. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between TG/HDL cholesterol ratio and the presence of silent brain infarct (SBI) in a neurologically healthy population. We retrospectively evaluated consecutive participants in health check-ups between January 2006 and December 2013. SBI was defined as an asymptomatic, well-defined lesion with a diameter of ≥3 mm on T1- or T2-weighted images. TG/HDL cholesterol ratio was calculated after dividing absolute TG levels by absolute HDL cholesterol levels. Of 3172 healthy participants, 263 (8.3%) had SBI lesions. In multivariate analysis, TG/HDL cholesterol ratio was independently associated with SBI (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]
Triglycerides (TG)/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio is a marker of small/dense low-density lipoprotein particles, which are closely associated with various metabolic and vascular diseases. However, the role of TG/HDL cholesterol ratio in cerebrovascular diseases has not been well studied. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between TG/HDL cholesterol ratio and the presence of silent brain infarct (SBI) in a neurologically healthy population. We retrospectively evaluated consecutive participants in health check-ups between January 2006 and December 2013. SBI was defined as an asymptomatic, well-defined lesion with a diameter of ≥3 mm on T1- or T2-weighted images. TG/HDL cholesterol ratio was calculated after dividing absolute TG levels by absolute HDL cholesterol levels. Of 3172 healthy participants, 263 (8.3%) had SBI lesions. In multivariate analysis, TG/HDL cholesterol ratio was independently associated with SBI (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effectiveness of low-dose crystalline nicotinic acid in men with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. AU - Martin-Jadraque, Raquel. AU - Tato, Federico. AU - Mostaza, Jose M.. AU - Vega, Gloria L. AU - Grundy, Scott M. PY - 1996/5/27. Y1 - 1996/5/27. N2 - Background: Hypoalphalipoproteinemia (low serum concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C]) is a common pattern of dyslipidemia associated with coronary heart disease. High doses of nicotinic acid effectively raise HDL-C levels in this condition, but they are commonly accompanied by side effects. The efficacy of low doses of nicotinic acid that may produce fewer side effects has not been adequately studied. Objective: To determine the effects of low-dose nicotinic acid on HDL-C levels in patients with hypoalphalipoproteinemia. Methods: Forty-four men with low HDL-C levels (, 1.03 mmol/L [,40 mg/dL]) entered the study. Twenty-four patients otherwise had normal lipid levels, and 20 were moderately ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - High density lipoprotein cholesterol levels are an independent predictor of the progression of chronic kidney disease. AU - Baragetti, A.. AU - Norata, G. D.. AU - Sarcina, C.. AU - Rastelli, F.. AU - Grigore, L.. AU - Garlaschelli, K.. AU - Uboldi, P.. AU - Baragetti, I.. AU - Pozzi, C.. AU - Catapano, A. L.. PY - 2013/9. Y1 - 2013/9. N2 - Objectives: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) often present with reduced plasma HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Whether this reduction in an epiphenomenon or is involved in disease progression is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between HDL-C levels/function and CKD progression in patients with different degrees of disease. Design: A total of 176 patients with CKD [glomerular filtration rate (GFR) 50.3 ± 29.1 mL min-1] were recruited and followed for up to 84 months. Lipid profile, metabolic status and kidney function were evaluated at predetermined times. Age-matched control subjects were selected from ...
Dive into the research topics of Patient-level discordance in population percentiles of the total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio in comparison with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: The very large database of lipids study (VLDL-2B). Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
METHODS AND RESULTS During a mean follow-up of 9 months (range, 7-11 months), 28 (41%) patients developed restenosis. A low high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level was independently and strongly related to both the risk of restenosis (p less than 0.001) and to the time of restenosis (p = 0.03). The mean HDL cholesterol level was 33 +/- 12 mg% in the restenosis group compared with 45 +/- 12 mg% in the nonrestenosis group (p less than 0.001). Restenosis developed in 22 of 34 (64%) patients with an HDL cholesterol less than or equal to 40 mg% compared with six of 34 (17%) patients with an HDL cholesterol greater than 40 mg% (p less than 0.002). The only other variable that was significantly related to restenosis was a low PAI-1 level (p = 0.04). ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The predictive role of serum triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio according to renal function in patients with acute myocardial infarction. AU - Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry Investigators. AU - Kim, Jin Sug. AU - Kim, Weon. AU - Woo, Jong Shin. AU - Lee, Tae Won. AU - Ihm, Chun Gyoo. AU - Kim, Yang Gyoon. AU - Moon, Joo Young. AU - Lee, Sang Ho. AU - Jeong, Myung Ho. AU - Jeong, Kyung Hwan. AU - Ahn, Young Keun. AU - Chae, Sung Chull. AU - Kim, Jong Hyun. AU - Hur, Seung Ho. AU - Kim, Young Jo. AU - Seong, In Whan. AU - Choi, Dong Hoon. AU - Chae, Jei Keon. AU - Hong, Taek Jong. AU - Rhew, Jae Young. AU - Kim, Doo Il. AU - Chae, In Ho. AU - Yoon, Jung Han. AU - Koo, Bon Kwon. AU - Kim, Byung Ok. AU - Lee, Myoung Yong. AU - Kim, Kee Sik. AU - Hwang, Jin Yong. AU - Cho, Myeong Chan. AU - Oh, Seok Kyu. AU - Lee, Nae Hee. AU - Jeong, Kyoung Tae. AU - Tahk, Seung Jea. AU - Bae, Jang Ho. AU - Rha, Seung Woon. AU - Park, Keum Soo. AU - Kim, Chong ...
The average increase in high density lipoprotein concentrations of 3.99 mg/dl for an intake of 30 g of alcohol a day would be associated with a risk reduction of 13.5% (4.3% to 24.2%) among men in the physicians health study29; a similar reduction of 13.3% (10.6% to 15.9%) would be expected on the basis of results from the lipids research clinics study.32 If we adjust the effect estimate for intraindividual variability in high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations20 we estimate a 16.8% reduction in risk of coronary heart disease directly attributable to increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration from consuming 30 g of alcohol a day Because the effect of alcohol on high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration was stronger in those with lower baseline concentrations the predicted 5.09 mg/dl increase for those with an average concentration of 35 mg/dl would lower the risk of coronary heart disease by 20.9% after adjustment for intraindividual variability. Because ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inverse Association of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Concentration with Muscle Mass in Children. AU - Duran, Ibrahim. AU - Martakis, Kyriakos. AU - Schafmeyer, Leonie. AU - Jackels, Miriam. AU - Rehberg, Mirko. AU - Schoenau, Eckhard. PY - 2019/9/17. Y1 - 2019/9/17. KW - children. KW - fat mass. KW - HDL cholesterol. KW - muscle mass. KW - reference centiles. KW - CARDIOVASCULAR RISK-FACTORS. KW - X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY. KW - FAT-FREE MASS. KW - BODY-COMPOSITION. KW - CENTILE CURVES. KW - SERUM-LIPIDS. KW - ADIPOSITY. KW - POPULATION. KW - OBESITY. KW - AGE. U2 - 10.1089/chi.2019.0122. DO - 10.1089/chi.2019.0122. M3 - Article. VL - 15. SP - 476. EP - 484. JO - Childhood obesity. JF - Childhood obesity. SN - 2153-2168. IS - 7. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - High-density lipoprotein cholesterol. T2 - a potential therapeutic target for prevention of coronary artery disease.. AU - Chernobelsky, Alexander. AU - Ashen, M. Dominique. AU - Blumenthal, Roger S.. AU - Coplan, Neil L.. PY - 2007/1/1. Y1 - 2007/1/1. N2 - High-density lipoprotein cholesterol has an important role in the pathophysiology of coronary artery disease. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol is becoming an increasingly important prognostic and therapeutic target. The purpose of this paper is to review the biochemical pathways involved in reverse cholesterol transport and to discuss potential, clinically based high-density lipoprotein therapies that may contribute to reduction in risk of atherosclerosis.. AB - High-density lipoprotein cholesterol has an important role in the pathophysiology of coronary artery disease. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol is becoming an increasingly important prognostic and therapeutic target. The purpose of this paper is to review the ...
Abstract BACKGROUND: Compared to whites, insulin-resistant African Americans have worse outcomes. Screening programs that could identify insulin resistance early enough for intervention to affect outcome often rely on triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Racial differences in TG and HDL-C may compromise the efficacy of these programs in African Americans. A recommendation currently exists to use the TG/HDL-C ratio ≥2.0 to predict insulin resistance in African Americans. The validity of this recommendation needs examination. Therefore, our aim was to determine the ability of TG/HDL-C ratio to predict insulin resistance in African Americans. METHODS: In 1,903 African Americans [895 men, 1,008 women, age 55 ± 12 years, mean ± standard deviation (SD), range 35-80 years, body mass index (BMI) 31.0 ± 6.4 kg/m(2), range 18.5-55 kg/m(2)] participating in the Jackson Heart Study, a population-based study of African Americans, Jackson, Mississippi tricounty region,
Fifty-five healthy, sedentary, nonsmoking, and nonobese 24- to 26-year-old men who had low plasma concentrations of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were selected for a study of the effect of short-term exercise on plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations. The participants were randomized into two groups. Of these, 28 were assigned to a 9-week program of submaximal aerobic exercise three times weekly, and 27 were assigned to a nonexercising control group. Changes in physical fitness were assessed by increments in estimated maximal oxygen consumption; this increased by 15% in the exercise group (p less than 0.001) but remained unchanged in the control group. During the study, body weights and skinfold thicknesses of both groups remained essentially unchanged after 9 weeks. There was no significant difference between the trial groups in total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, calculated low density lipoprotein cholesterol, or in the HDL2 and HDL3 subfractions. Triglyceride levels were ...
Introduction: Low level of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) has been identified as a residual risk of cardiovascular events after lowering low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) in patients with stable coronary artery disease. Further, high HDL-C level is proven to have a protective effect for cardiovascular events in primary prevention studies.. Hypothesis: We assessed the hypothesis that we evaluated whether the HDL-C level may have predictive and protective value in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) who had percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and statin treatment.. Methods: A total of 15,938 patients who had PCI and statin treatment were selected from the Korean Myocardial Infarction registry. According to the ATP III criteria, baseline HDL-C level was used to identify patients with low HDL-C (,40 mg/dL, Group A), normal HDL-C (≥40 to , 60 mg/dL, Group B), or high HDL-C (≥60 mg/dL, Group C). Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at one-year, the primary ...
BACKGROUND: Triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio was a surrogate marker of IR; however, the relationship of TG/HDL-C with IR might vary by ethnicity. This study aims to investigate whether lipid ratios-TG/HDL-C, cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) ratio, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C)) could be potential clinical markers of insulin resistance (IR) and β cell function and further to explore the optimal cut-offs in a Chinese population with different levels of glucose tolerance.. METHODS: Four hundred seventy-nine subjects without a history of diabetes underwent a 75 g 2 h Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT). New-onset diabetes (n = 101), pre-diabetes (n = 186), and normal glucose tolerance (n = 192) were screened. IR was defined by HOMA-IR , 2.69. Based on indices (HOMA-β, early-phase disposition index [DI30], (ΔIns30/ΔGlu30)/HOMA-IR and total-phase index [DI120]) that indicated ...
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An increase in HDL-C level by 6% reduces the incidence of cardiovascular disease by 22-24%, which is similar to the effect of reduced LDL-C level decreasing cardiovascular disease by 28%.19,20) In addition, low HDL-C level has been blamed as the main cause of recent increasing prevalence dyslipidemia in Korea.21) Though pharmacological treatment options to increase HDL-C such as cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor and apo A1 mimetic peptide are under development, basic epidemiological evidences required to define HDL-C cut-off levels are still not sufficient in Korea. If the study subjects are categorized by the NCEP ATP III guideline, 43.8% of men and 23.6% of women belong to the low HDL-C group. When the ADA guideline is used, 43.8% of men and 62.6% of women have low HDL-C group; resulting in a markedly higher prevalence of low HDL-C level in women. Musha et al.5) from Japanproposes a higher cut-off value of HDL-C of 50 mg/dL so that the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in ...
This study aimed to estimate the relationship between various lipid abnormalities and albuminuria in hypertensive Korean adults. Data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011 to 2012 were analyzed. The study included 2330 hypertensive participants. Total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were measured. Dyslipidemia parameters were defined as high TG ≥200 mg/dL, low HDL-C as HDL-C ,40 mg/dL, high TC/HDL-C as TC/HDL-C ratio ≥4, high TG/HDL-C as TG/HDL-C ratio ≥3.8, and high LDL-C/HDL-C as LDL-C/HDL-C ratio ≥2.5. Albuminuria was defined as a urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) ≥30 mg/g. Women with albuminuria showed significantly higher levels of TG, TC/HDL-C, and TG/HDL-C and a lower level of HDL-C than women without albuminuria (all P , 0.05). LogTG, TC/HDL-C, and logTG/HDL-C were positively correlated with ACR in both men and women; ...
Despite the long-held knowledge of an inverse relationship between plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels and rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in populations, the HDL hypothesis has recently been shaken to its foundations by a barrage of controversial data. For example, clinical trials of an agent (torcetrapib) that increases HDL cholesterol by inhibiting cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), an essential transferase that moves cholesterol from HDL to apolipoprotein B (apo B)-containing lipoproteins, have shown unexpected harm with increased cardiovascular events after ,1 year of treatment among subjects who were already taking protective doses of atorvastatin (1). In addition, coronary and carotid imaging studies with the same agent failed to show vascular improvements attributable to the drug or to the increase in HDL cholesterol (2,3). Moreover, genetic studies have challenged the role of HDL in atherogenesis by providing observations contrary to the dogma that HDL ...
Objective - It is stated that high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are low in Turkish people and that this may be related to genetic factors. Low HDL-C is a parameter of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). In this study, the relationship between low HDL-C levels and MetS has been investigated. ...
5.Once the mince is starting to look like it is nearly there, put the cooked squash into a separate pan and mash with the butter until you have a smooth paste. If the mix is very wet then place over a medium heat and steam some of the water off for a few minutes while stirring continuously to prevent the squash mash from burning ...
A low plasma level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C) is associated with cardiovascular risk. A key cardioprotective property of HDL is cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC), the ability of HDL to accept cholesterol from macrophages. In this study, we aimed to identify the predictive value of CEC for cardiovascular risk. The relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled to analyze the association between CEC and the incidence of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were pooled to estimate the association of CEC and the prevalence of cardiovascular events. A total of 15 studies were included. Results showed that the highest CEC was significantly associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular events incidents compared to the lowest CEC (RR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.85; I 2, 89%); the pooled RR of cardiovascular risk for per unit SD increase was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.73 to 1.04; I
How Does Obesity Affect Cancer Cavity High Blood. Prozac And Teratogens Asthma International Rugby Olanzapine Fluoxetine Combination Depressive Disorder.Un taux élevé de cholestérol ne provoque généralement pas de symptômes, mais constitue un facteur de risque de maladie coronarienne.Path: Acute fibrinous organizing pneumonia (AFOP-pattern) (see also If).anti-cholesterol: escroqueries,. en raison des «effets similaires de la fluoxétine à. ou encore si vous vous sentez agité et même «high» quelques.. Rosiglitazone-fenofibrate interaction: severe paradoxical decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Deux antidépresseurs, la fluoxétine.Avec la fluoxétine (inhibiteur du CYP2D6), des doses uniques danti-acides (aluminium, magnésium). augmentation des taux de prolactine, de cholestérol,.. Depressive retardation and treatment with fluoxetine: assessment of the motor component. SABBE B.,. Lower serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ...
High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) (LabCorp). Get know how much does lab test cost. Direct access testing with or without insurance.
EDITOR, - Jane Patmore and colleagues lesson of the week raises many issues on the diagnosis and current management of lipid disorders.1 Firstly, several consensus guidelines recommend that a lipid diagnosis should be established before drug treatment is started and that the lipid profile should include measurement of the high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration.2,3. Secondly, the case reported was complicated by many confounding factors known to influence total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, including the administration of β blockers, prednisolone, and high dose oral hormone replacement treatment and the coexistence of renal disease (the patient had received a transplant). These factors would confuse any diagnosis of a primary hyper-(alpha)-lipoproteinaemia. The authors measured the apolipoprotein A1 concentrations, but other apolipoproteins (apolipoprotein A2 (present in high density lipoprotein) and apolipoprotein (a)/ B(sub100)) are independent risk ...
This is the first study to describe 18F-NaF uptake in the coronary arteries with PET/CT. We have demonstrated that this technique is both feasible and repeatable and that it can provide key insights into coronary artery plaque biology. Activity was higher in patients with atherosclerosis compared with control subjects, displaying a progressive rise with increasing atherosclerotic burden. Furthermore, 18F-NaF uptake can be used to discriminate between those patients with active and inactive coronary calcification. Those with active calcification (38%) were more likely to have clinically significant CAD, a higher incidence of previous MACE, lower serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, and higher Framingham risk prediction scores. Therefore, 18F-NaF holds promise as a means of identifying high-risk populations and refining the predictive power of CAC scoring. Finally, the spatial resolution of PET/CT allows localization of the 18-NaF signal to specific coronary territories and ...
Deedwania P, Singh V, Davidson MH. Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased cardiovascular disease risk: an analysis of statin clinical trials. Am J Cardiol. 2009 Nov 16; 104(10 Suppl):3E-9E ...
Modification of the effects of estrogen therapy on HDL cholesterol levels by polymorphisms of the HDL-C receptor, SR-BI: the Rancho Bernardo Study.
Prevalence, Predictors, and Impact of Low High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol on in-Hospital Outcomes Among Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients in the Middle East
|i|Obejective|/i|. To examine the discriminatory power of triglyceride (TG) and triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-C) for insulin resistance (IR) in a normoglycaemic Chinese population. |i|Methods|/i|. The data were collected from 711 individuals. The normoglycaemic individuals were eventually included in the study (|i|n|/i| = 533, age: 62.8 ± 6.6 years, male: 56.8%), who were with a fasting plasma glucose < 6.1 mmol/L and without a history of diabetes. IR was defined as the upper quintile (≥1.6) of homeostasis model assessment of IR. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AROC) was used to examine the discriminatory power. |i|Results|/i|. The discriminatory power of TG/HDL-C for IR was acceptable in women with a BMI < 24 kg/m|sup|2|/sup| or waist circumference < 80 cm (AROCs: 0.718 and 0.713, resp.); however, the discriminatory power was not acceptable in the obese women. TG/HDL-C was not an acceptable
The novel findings of this study are as follows. First, a GGT1 variant, rs4820599, the G allele and a low HDL-C level were identified to be risk factors for a high baPWV in Japanese subjects with T2DM in the longitudinal analysis. Interestingly, a significant interactive effect of the GGT1 genotype and low HDL-C level on the risks of both a high baPWV and DR was found. Second, the HDL-C level at baseline was identified to be a significant predictor of a high baPWV only in G allele carriers according to the ROC analysis. This result in the T2DM patients was also noted in the general population. Third, the GGT1 genotype was not associated with the risk of DR, although it affected the principal factors involved in the risk of DR. Fourth, the associations between the levels of GGT and fasting plasma glucose, HDL-C and LDL-C and between dyslipidemia and a high baPWV were significant only in G allele carriers among the general subjects. In this study, the triglyceride levels were positively associated ...
Arti kata dari hdl cholesterol. Definisi dari hdl cholesterol. Pengertian dari hdl cholesterol: the cholesterol in high-density lipoproteins; the `good cholesterol; a high level in the blood is thought to lower the risk of coronary artery disease;
Obese Childhood Dyslipidemia Management Beyond Statins - MUFA, PUFA, and Sea-buckthorn Supplements. By Bogdana Virgolici, Laura Anca Popescu, Horia Virgolici, Daniela Elena Casariu, Olivia Timnea and Maria Mohora. The dyslipidemia pattern usually associated with childhood obesity consists of a combination of elevated triglyceridemia, decreased plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and LDL-c concentration at the upper limit of the normal range. This type of dyslipidemia is associated with dense and small LDL, which are proatherogenic. High circulating levels of oxidized LDL were described in extreme pediatric obesity, in children with high fructose intake and are associated with insulin resistance. The worst effect on blood lipids have trans and saturated fatty acids. But the amount of total energy intake plays more important role in lipid profiles. In childhood obesity it seems that insulin resistance precedes the development of the metabolic syndrome feature and insulin ...
Background. Our aim was to determine whether the common variants within the coding sequence of ABCA1 gene affects low plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in Turkish patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). The study group was composed of 552 CAD patients, of which 251 had HDL-C levels 40 mg/dL. ...
Particularly noteworthy is that intake of fermented milk products such as yogurt and soured milk and cheese were associated with lower rates of fracture and mortality. Furthermore, we observed a positive association only between milk intake and markers of oxidative stress (urine 8-iso-PGF2α) and inflammation (serum interleukin 6). Previously, we found a negative relation between bone mineral density and 8-iso-PGF2α.42 63 Interleukin 6 seems to be causally related to cardiovascular disease64 and may influence bone loss and osteoporosis.65 Importantly, those who consume high amounts of non-fermented milk have a more non-favourable cardiovascular risk factor profile, with higher blood pressure, lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and higher insulin resistance.18 In contrast, intake of cheese and fermented milk products is related to higher high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, less insulin resistance, and a lower risk of myocardial infarction.18 22 23 24 In addition, a ...
PHILADELPHIA) - The discovery that high levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (the good cholesterol) is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease has fostered intensive research to modify HDL levels for therapeutic gain. However, recent findings have called into question the notion that pharmacologic increases in HDL cholesterol levels are necessarily beneficial to patients. Now, a new study from researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine shows that a different metric, a measure of HDL function called cholesterol efflux capacity, is more closely associated with protection against heart disease than HDL cholesterol levels themselves. Findings from the study could lead to new therapeutic interventions in the fight against heart disease. The new research will be published in the January 13 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.. Atherosclerosis, a component of heart disease, occurs with a build-up along the artery wall of fatty materials ...
Regarding high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, the study found that women with HDL cholesterol levels below 1.29 mmol/L (50 mg/dL) had a 10% increased risk of breast cancer compared to women with HDL cholesterol levels above 1.29 mmol/L (50 mg/dL ...
Agents that increase HDL-C via reverse cholesterol transport could provide a new therapeutic option for the prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The investigators propose to investigate the effects of LY518674 on components that may likely affect atherogenesis in patients with the metabolic syndrome including HDL-C metabolism and reverse cholesterol transport pathways, the inflammatory response, and oxidative stress in human subjects.. As an agonist of the nuclear peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) alpha, LY518674 may affect the transcription of genes that encode various proteins involved in atherogenesis. This study will explore the consequences of altered transcription such as changes in messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein levels as well as protein activity. ...
Science Daily) The discovery that high levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (the good cholesterol) is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease has fostered intensive research to modify HDL levels for therapeutic gain. However, recent findings have called into question the notion that pharmacologic increases in HDL cholesterol levels are necessarily beneficial to patients. Now, a new study from researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine shows that a different metric, a measure of HDL function called cholesterol efflux capacity, is more closely associated with protection against heart disease than HDL cholesterol levels themselves. ...
We report the case of a 55-year-old man who presented to the outpatient lipid clinic for his scheduled follow-up with severely low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of new onset. Diagnostic workup showed that he was infected by visceral leishmaniasis. He was treated with liposomal amphotericin B and serum lipid levels returned to usual values.
LOW HDL CHOLESTEROL FROM GENE VARIATION NOT ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED RISK OF ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE CHICAGO-Lower levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol due to a gene mutation is not
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Kenji Okumura, Hideto Tsukamoto, Hideyuki Tsuboi, Haruo Hirayama, Haruo Kamiya, Masato Watarai, Ryoji Ishiki, Toyoaki Murohara].
Nevertheless, some aspect of treatment with intravenous agents is suggested. Further, uncircumcised men aged 4170 years, baseline cigarette smoking, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol as important to note that the increased dysfunction or problems in women, there are many points of view the goal of the penis and avoids reducing the level of interest in developing a therapeutic measure and, except where contraindicated, should be excluded in clinical trials. Do you use them at the base of the device and become comfortable with the levels of b-t and/or lh may be due to problems with extrusion and discomfort as compared to those seen in some men with pd experience erectile dysfunction, acquired with a single receptor, the 5-ht1b receptor is expressed as a member of a gay swim team and church allowed him to talk about personal issues and to the audience his own level of the. 7c). Intravaginal ejaculatory latency time. Prevalence and predictors of outcome data, there is a more accurate ...
When we think of good cholesterol foods, we typically think of those that will not contribute to an increase in cholesterol levels but help to lower them.
Diabetic Dyslipidaemia is a condition where a person is diabetic and has elevated levels of the total cholesterol, the bad low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and the triglycerides and a decrease in the good high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration in the blood. Optimal LDL cholesterol levels for adults with diabetes are less than 100 mg/dL, optimal HDL cholesterol levels are equal to or greater than 40 mg/dL, and desirable triglycerides levels are less than 150 mg/dL.Over 80 per cent of all diabetic patients are estimated to be suffering from diabetic dyslipidaemia. There are more than 350 million diabetics globally - so the people suffering from diabetic dyslipidaemia could be around 300 million. ...
Unclog your arteries with these ideas on how to raise HDL cholesterol levels to combat cardiovascular diseases and reduce your risk of a stroke.
TY - JOUR. T1 - ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) R219K (G1051A, rs2230806) polymorphism and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in a large Japanese population. T2 - Cross-sectional data from the Daiko study. AU - Mokuno, Junichiro. AU - Hishida, Asahi. AU - Morita, Emi. AU - Sasakabe, Tae. AU - Hattori, Yuta. AU - Suma, Shino. AU - Okada, Rieko. AU - Kawai, Sayo. AU - Naito, Mariko. AU - Wakai, Kenji. PY - 2015/4/11. Y1 - 2015/4/11. N2 - Among polymorphisms in ATP-binding cassette transporter Al (ABCA1) gene, the available evidence demonstrates that the ABCA1 R219K polymorphism (G1051A, rs2230806) K allele is associated with a higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL- C) level and may play a protective role against coronary artery disease (CAD) risk in Asians and Caucasians. The findings from many underpowered studies from Asian countries (n=71-597), however, still remain inconsistent. The objective of this study was to overcome the limitations of previous ...
Danladi I. Musa, Samuel A. Adenirn, A. U. Dikko and Stephen P. Sayers. ​. Purpose: Examine the impact of an 8-week program of high-intensity interval training on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol (TC) and the atherogenic index (TC/HDL-C) in 36 untrained men ages 21 - 36.. ​. Conclusions: Findings support the recommendations of high-intensity interval training as an alternative mode of exercise to improve blood lipid profiles for individuals with acceptable physical fitness levels.. ​. IN PLAIN ENGLISH: Having high levels of HDL cholesterol can play a protective role against coronary atherosclerosis since it acts as a lipid scavenger. In past studies, continuous activity endurance training has been proven to elevate HDL-C. To also elevate HDL-C levels and protect against coronary issues, high-intensity interval training can also be used. ...
How is Non-High Density Lipoprotein abbreviated? NHDL stands for Non-High Density Lipoprotein. NHDL is defined as Non-High Density Lipoprotein rarely.
Case Report: Patient 1, a 42-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus, was referred for evaluation of a very low HDL cholesterol level (Table). He had been taking insulin; troglitazone, 400 mg/d; and metformin, 850 mg/d. Gemfibrozil was initially prescribed for hypertriglyceridemia, but fenofibrate, 201 mg, was then substituted. When the patient was first seen, his HDL cholesterol level was 0.39 mmol/L (15 mg/dL) and his apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) level, 0.29 g/L, was very low. Fenofibrate therapy was discontinued, and therapy with atorvastatin, 10 mg, was started. His HDL cholesterol level increased to 1.06 mmol/L (41 mg/dL). Currently, the patient is receiving simvastatin, 20 mg/d; gemfibrozil, 600 mg twice daily; fish oil, 1 g/d; pioglitazone, 45 mg/d; metformin, 500 mg three times per day; and ramipril, 10 mg/d. His apo A-I level has increased to 1.14 g/L, and his HDL cholesterol level is 1.19 mmol/L (46 mg/dL ...
A cross-sectional study of a random sample of 976 coloureds (mixed race) of the Cape Peninsula, ages 15 to 64 years old, revealed a population with unexpectedly high levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. The mean level for men was 55.4 +/- 16.1 mg/dl (SD) and for women, 60.8 +/- 16.0 mg/dl. The ratio of HDL cholesterol to total cholesterol expressed as a percentage was 26.3% +/- 9.5% for men and 28.1% +/- 9.3% for women. The HDL cholesterol levels were apparently lower than those of black and Negro populations, yet higher than those of Caucasian populations. Men with levels of HDL cholesterol above the median reported a personal history and a family history of coronary heart disease less frequently than did men with lower levels, while women with high levels of HDL cholesterol were less likely to have a history of hypertension or diabetes. Stepwise multiple regression analysis of variables significantly associated with HDL cholesterol levels showed that they explained 29.7% and ...
Frost G, Leeds A, Dore C, Madeiros S, Braading S, Dornhorst A. Glycemic index as a predictor of serum HDL-cholesterol concentration . J Am Osteopath Assoc 1999;99(4):194. doi: 10.7556/jaoa.1999.99.4.194.. Download citation file:. ...
Whats a Healthy Cholesterol Ratio?. Jan 15, The ratio of total cholesterol to HDL is an easy way to get an idea of whether your cholesterol levels are healthy. If you can achieve a healthy ratio of total cholesterol to HDL, and maintain this long-term, this can help to reduce your risk of heart problems in the future. Apr 25, How to lower your cholesterol? Get regular aerobic physical exercise. It has been proven that regular exercises increase HDL cholesterol (good) and decrease LDL cholesterol (bad). Diet. Eat foods low in fatty acids, saturated fats, and cholesterol. Dont forget to .. High cholesterol is one of the biggest risk factors for heart attack, stroke and cardiovascular disease, how to calculate total cholesterol and hdl ratio to the Cleveland Clinic. Your cholesterol ratio, which compares how to calculate total cholesterol and hdl ratio total cholesterol to your HDL, or good, cholesterol, can help better assess your risk. Heres what you need to know.. In order to understand ...
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is a plasma glycoprotein that promotes reverse cholesterol transport via the exchange of cholesteryl ester (CE) and triglyceride (TG) among lipoproteins. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) promotes reverse cholesterol transport via exchange of cholesteryl ester and triglyceride among lipoproteins. CETP has a central role in lipoprotein metabolism.. CETP, a hydrophobic plasma glycoprotein, is a promising target for raising circulating HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations in humans. CETP is secreted primarily from the liver and plays a critical role in HDL metabolism by facilitating the exchange of cholesteryl esters (CE) from HDL for triglycerides (TG) in apoB-containing lipoproteins, such as LDL and VLDL.. CETP catalyses the exchange of cholesteryl ester and triglyceride between HDL and apoB containing lipoprotein particles. The role of CETP in modulating plasma HDL cholesterol levels in humans is well established and there have been significant ...
Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) disease with unknown etiology has a high prevalence in the Xinjiang Kazak population. In this study, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) that might play a role in low HDL-C disease were identified. Plasma samples from 10 eligible individuals with low HDL disease and 10 individuals with normal HDL-C levels were collected. The lncRNA profiles for 20 Xinjiang Kazak individuals were measured using microarray analysis. Differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs with fold-change values not less than 1.5 and FDR-adjusted P-values less than 0.05 were screened. Bioinformatic analyses, including Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and network analyses, were used to determine relevant signaling pathways and predict potential target genes. In total, 381 lncRNAs and 370 mRNAs were differentially expressed based on microarray analysis. Compared with those in healthy individuals, several lncRNAs were upregulated or downregulated in patients
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sex differences in high density lipoprotein cholesterol among low-level alcohol consumers. AU - Weidner, Gerdi. AU - Connor, Sonja L.. AU - Chesney, Margaret A.. AU - Burns, John W.. AU - Connor, William E.. AU - Matarazzo, Joseph. AU - Mendell, Nancy R.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - The purpose of this study was to examine high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in a sample of community-living women and men who consumed 1 drink of alcohol/day or less. Self-reports of alcohol consumption and clinical assessments of plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels were obtained twice, at 12 months apart. Among men, consumption of 1 drink/day or less was unrelated to levels in HDL-C. In contrast, among women alcohol consumption throughout this relatively low consumption range was positively associated with HDL-C levels. These findings indicate that the association of alcohol and higher levels of HDL-C may occur at lower intakes of alcohol in women than in men.. AB - The purpose of ...
The percentage of adults aged 20 and over with high total cholesterol has declined substantially since 1999-2000. For 2009-2010, the percentage of adults with high total cholesterol was 13.4%, thus meeting the Healthy People 2010 target of 17% or less [Objective (12-14)]. Substantial and steady decreases in the prevalence of high total cholesterol among men aged 40 and over and women aged 60 and over during the 1999-2010 period resulted in achievement of the Healthy People 2010 objective in all sex and racial-and-ethnic groups and in all sex and age groups except for women aged 40 and over. For 2009-2010, only 11.9% of women compared with 31.4% of men aged 20 and over had low HDL cholesterol. The percentage with low HDL cholesterol is consistently higher in men than in women within each race and ethnicity group. Because women typically have higher HDL cholesterol levels than men, the percentage with low HDL cholesterol is expected to be lower in women than in men. The percentage of adult men ...
Ivanhoe Newswire) -- It has been well-known that high levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, the good kind, are associated with a lower risk of heart disease. Recent studies have asked if pharmacologic increases in HDL cholesterol levels are beneficial to the patient. A new study shows that a different metric, a measure of HDL function called cholesterol efflux capacity, is more closely associated with protection against heart disease than HDL cholesterol levels themselves.. Atherosclerosis typically occurs with a build-up of cholesterol along the artery wall. Cholesterol efflux capacity, an integrated measure of HDL function, is a direct calculation of the efficiency by which a persons HDL removes cholesterol from cholesterol-loaded macrophages (a type of white blood cell) -- the sort that accumulate in arterial plaque.. Recent scientific findings have directed increasing interest toward the concept that measures of the function of HDL, rather than simply its level in the ...
Prevalence of Low Levels of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) at Presentation in Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) and its Relation to In-Hospital Mortality: Results from the NCDR (R)
Background-Endothelial lipase is a phospholipase with activity against high-density lipoprotein. Although a small number of mutations in LIPG have been described, the role of LIPG in protection against atherosclerosis is unclear. Methods and Results-We identified 8 loss-of-function (LOF) mutations in LIPG in individuals with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Functional analysis confirmed that most rare mutations abolish lipase activity in vitro, indicating complete LOF, whereas 2 more common mutations N396S and R476W reduce activity by ≈50%, indicating partial LOF and implying ≈50% and ≈75% remaining endothelial lipase function in heterozygous complete LOF and partial LOF mutation carriers, respectively. complete LOF mutation carriers had significantly higher plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared with partial LOF mutation carriers. Apolipoprotein B-depleted serum from complete LOF carriers showed significantly enhanced cholesterol efflux acceptor capacity, whereas ...
BACKGROUND: Patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease remain at high risk for cardiovascular events despite effective statin-based treatment of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. The inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) by anacetrapib reduces LDL cholesterol levels and increases high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. However, trials of other CETP inhibitors have shown neutral or adverse effects on cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 30,449 adults with atherosclerotic vascular disease who were receiving intensive atorvastatin therapy and who had a mean LDL cholesterol level of 61 mg per deciliter (1.58 mmol per liter), a mean non-HDL cholesterol level of 92 mg per deciliter (2.38 mmol per liter), and a mean HDL cholesterol level of 40 mg per deciliter (1.03 mmol per liter). The patients were assigned to receive either 100 mg of anacetrapib once daily (15,225 patients) or matching
Treatment with a new drug called torcetrapib increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL; good) cholesterol in individuals with low HDL levels, as well as decreasing the levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL; bad) cholesterol. Torcetrapib is a blocker of a cell chemical called cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP). Individuals who do not have CETP because of a genetic defect have significantly elevated HDL levels. This discovery led to the finding that CETP inhibition may be a novel way of raising HDL, the researchers explained in the New England Journal of Medicine, April 8, 2004. The investigators treated 19 participants who had low HDL levels with an inactive placebo for 4 weeks. After 4 weeks, the participants were given another 4 weeks of either torcetrapib alone or in combination with the statin atorvastatin. The results showed a 46% HDL increase in the once-daily torcetrapib-only group and a 61% rise in the once-daily torcetrapib/atorvastatin group. The third phase of the study ...
Thesis, English, High density lipoprotein cholesterol as a predictor of clinical outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with normal initial low density lipoprotein cholesterol for Abdel mawgood Rany Elsayed
What is cholesterol?. Cholesterol is a fatty substance that is found in the blood. Cholesterol is made naturally in the body, and is also introduced to the body through the foods you eat. Most people consider cholesterol to be a bad thing, but not all cholesterol is created equal. There is actually good and bad cholesterol. To have healthy cholesterol is to have enough or a higher amount of good cholesterol, and low bad cholesterol.. Good Cholesterol. HDL (high density lipids) is also known as good cholesterol. HDL cholesterol actually helps to clean blood vessels and transport bad cholesterol out of the body.. Foods that have good cholesterol include fish, avocado, oats, some nuts, and berries. These foods can help you raise your HDL cholesterol levels and lower the bad.. Bad Cholesterol. LDL, or low density lipids is bad cholesterol. This is the kind of cholesterol that creates plaque that can clog your blood vessels and create problems such as high blood pressure, stroke and heart ...
Fifteen middle-aged, untrained (defined as no regular exercise) men (mean age 49.9 years, range 42-67) cycled on a cycle ergometer at 50 rpm for 30 min at an intensity producing 60% predicted maximum heart rate [(fc,max), where fc, max = 220 - age]. Total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (Tg) concentrations were measured from fasting fingertip capillary blood samples collected at rest, after 15 and 30 min of exercise, and at 15 min post-exercise. The mean HDL-C level increased significantly from the resting level of 0.85 mmol · l-1 to 0.97 mmol · 1-1 ( ...
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When your doctor spouts off your cholesterol levels in terms of LDL and HDL, does your brain shut off? You know in the back of your mind that one is good and one is bad, but which is which? And why is one better that the other? In order to understand the difference between LDL and HDL cholesterol, you need a basic understanding of how cholesterol works with and affects your body chemistry.. First, cholesterol in itself - whether LDL or HDL cholesterol - is not a bad thing. Although cholesterol is most well known for the role it plays in contributing to heart disease, it is actually a substance needed by and naturally produced by the body. For instance, cholesterol is responsible for building cell membranes and for maintaining the fluidity of these membranes. Cholesterol also plays an important part in helping to metabolize fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamins A, D, E, and K. Scientists also say cholesterol helps in the production of bile, which, in turn, helps to digest fat. Although we hear so ...
BACKGROUND: Patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease remain at high risk for cardiovascular events despite effective statin-based treatment of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. The inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) by anacetrapib reduces LDL cholesterol levels and increases high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. However, trials of other CETP inhibitors have shown neutral or adverse effects on cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 30,449 adults with atherosclerotic vascular disease who were receiving intensive atorvastatin therapy and who had a mean LDL cholesterol level of 61 mg per deciliter (1.58 mmol per liter), a mean non-HDL cholesterol level of 92 mg per deciliter (2.38 mmol per liter), and a mean HDL cholesterol level of 40 mg per deciliter (1.03 mmol per liter). The patients were assigned to receive either 100 mg of anacetrapib once daily (15,225 patients) or matching
As we can see cholesterol performs vital functions in our body. However, there are two types of cholesterol, the good and the bad.. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), is also known as good cholesterol. This form takes the excess from our blood and transports it to the liver so it can be removed from our body. (4). Then you have, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), otherwise called bad cholesterol. It also transports cholesterol around the body to where it might be needed. However, as well as depositing it to repair cells it leaves excess cholesterol behind in the arteries. Very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL) is another bad form of cholesterol. When levels of this substance are high it can contribute to cardiovascular disease. Triglycerides are another fatty substance in our blood, in fact its the most common type of lipid (fat) in the body. Their role is to store excess energy we produce from our diet. VLDL is responsible for carrying triglycerides around ...
When you have a health checkup, cholesterol levels are definitely on the list to ensure that your lipid profile is at target levels. High triglyceride levels put you at risk for a number of serious health issues. The lipid profile measures the fat in your blood, and there are three types to check. The LDL or bad cholesterol, the HDL or good cholesterol and triglycerides.. Ideally, total cholesterol should be less than 200 mg/dL, HDL should be 60 mg/dL or more and triglycerides should be below 150 mg/dL. A deviation from these readings leads to the build up of unhealthy cholesterol levels resulting in blocked arteries, putting you at risk for a heart attack or stroke.. Triglycerides are a crucial source of energy in the body, but high triglyceride levels are risky for heart health. This leads to a condition called metabolic syndrome characterized by low HDL cholesterol, high blood pressure, belly fat and high blood sugar, increasing increases the risk for heart disease, stroke and ...
The joint consensus panel of the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) and the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) recently addressed present and future challenges in the laboratory diagnostics of atherogenic lipoproteins. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and calculated non-HDL cholesterol (=total - HDL cholesterol) constitute the primary lipid panel for estimating risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and can be measured in the nonfasting state. LDL cholesterol is the primary target of lipid-lowering therapies. For on-treatment follow-up, LDL cholesterol shall be measured or calculated by the same method to attenuate errors in treatment decisions due to marked between-method variations. Lipoprotein(a)-cholesterol is part of measured or calculated LDL cholesterol and should be estimated at least once in all patients at risk of ASCVD, especially in those whose LDL cholesterol decline poorly upon statin ...
Ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ (PPARβ/δ) increase skeletal muscle fatty acid catabolism, improve insulin sensitivity, increase serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elicit anti-inflammatory activity and induce terminal differentiation. Contradictory findings are also reported suggesting that PPARβ/δ ligands potentiate tumorigenesis by increasing cell proliferation, by inhibiting apoptosis through phosphorylation of Akt and by increasing cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. The contradictory findings could be due to differences in the model system (cancer cell line versus in vivo), differences in cell culture conditions (with and without serum) or differences in ligands. The present study examined the effect of two different PPARβ/δ ligands (GW0742 and GW501516) in human cancer cell lines (HT29, HCT116, LS-174T, HepG2 and HuH7) cultured in the presence or absence of serum and compared in vitro analysis with in ...
Title: Dyslipidemia as a Risk Factor for Ischemic Stroke. VOLUME: 9 ISSUE: 14. Author(s):Konstantinos Tziomalos, Vasilios G. Athyros, Asterios Karagiannis and Dimitri P. Mikhailidis. Affiliation:Head of Atherosclerosis and Metabolic Syndrome Units, Second Propedeutic Department of Internal Medicine, Aristotle University, Hippocration Hospital, Thessaloniki, 55 132, Greece.. Keywords:ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, statins, fibrates, nicotinic acid, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides. Abstract: Ischemic stroke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Whereas dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), its role in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke is less clear. Epidemiological studies have provided conflicting findings regarding the association of dyslipidemia with ischemic stroke. Overall, elevated LDL-C levels appear to increase the risk of ischemic stroke. Low HDL-C levels also appear to be associated ...
High blood cholesterol is typically considered a feature of wealthy western countries1,2. However, dietary and behavioural determinants of blood cholesterol are changing rapidly throughout the world3 and countries are using lipid-lowering medications at varying rates. These changes can have distinct effects on the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol, which have different effects on human health4,5. However, the trends of HDL and non-HDL cholesterol levels over time have not been previously reported in a global analysis. Here we pooled 1,127 population-based studies that measured blood lipids in 102.6 million individuals aged 18 years and older to estimate trends from 1980 to 2018 in mean total, non-HDL and HDL cholesterol levels for 200 countries. Globally, there was little change in total or non-HDL cholesterol from 1980 to 2018. This was a net effect of increases in low- and middle-income countries, especially in east and southeast Asia, and decreases ...
Data were collected and analyzed from a cross-sectional study using the World Health Organizations STEPwise approach, to estimate the prevalence of various types of dyslipidemia and determine their associated factors among adults in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study population included 4490 Saudi adults aged 15 years and older who were selected by a stratified, multistage, cluster random sampling technique. Lipid profile was determined by spectrophotometrically by biochemical methods, high total cholesterol (TC) was defined as TC of 5.2 mmol/L or more, hypertriglyceridemia as serum triglycerides level 1.7 mmol/L or more and. low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as serum HDL-C 0.9 mmol/L or less, LDL-C 3.35 mmol/L or more and TC/HDL ratio 5 or more. Of the 4490 subjects (94.4 % of total sample) included in the final analysis, 51% were females, 23% of study subjects were less than 25years and 11% were 55 or more years of age. The overall prevalence of dyslipidemia ranged from about 20% to 40
MEDICAL ANIMATION TRANSCRIPT: If you or someone you know has been diagnosed with high cholesterol, its important to understand what cholesterol is and why its important to keep it under control. Cholesterol is a fat-like substance made by your liver and also comes from foods you intake that is then packaged into particles called lipoproteins. Your body needs cholesterol to make hormones, vitamin D, and a substance that helps you digest food, called bile. This video discusses two types of lipoproteins that carry cholesterol-- low density lipid protein, or LDL cholesterol, also known as bad cholesterol, and high density lipoprotein, or HDL cholesterol, also known as good cholesterol. LDL travels through your bloodstream, delivering cholesterol to the cells that need it. If your body has too much LDL, it can build up in the walls of your arteries. LDL and other substances in your artery wall form a fatty deposit called plaque. Over time, plaque can narrow the artery and reduce blood flow. LDL ...
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These healthy choices can lower high cholesterol, and they may even end up preventing diabetes.. If your doctor has told you that you have high cholesterol levels, it may be time to take action. Having high total or bad LDL cholesterol or low good HDL cholesterol can increase risk for heart attacks and stroke, but the condition is usually treatable. Therapeutic lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, are the first line of defense, while medications may be necessary to lower higher levels of cholesterol or for patients who cannot lower cholesterol when they make lifestyle changes.. The following strategies can help lower high total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and/or triglycerides, and/or raise HDL cholesterol. As you will see, many of these choices can also help prevent diabetes if you have prediabetes or slightly high blood sugar, and Lark DPP can help you establish these choices as healthy habits.. ...
Clinical and pathologic studies have shown that elevated levels of total cholesterol (Total-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and apolipoprotein B (ApoB - a membrane transport complex for LDL) promote human atherosclerosis. Similarly, decreased levels of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and its transport complex, apolipoprotein A, are associated with the development of atherosclerosis. Epidemiologic investigations have established that cardiovascular morbidity and mortality vary directly with the level of Total-C and LDL-C and inversely with the level of HDL-C. Like LDL, cholesterol-enriched triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, including VLDL, IDL, and remnants, can also promote atherosclerosis. Elevated plasma TG are frequently found in a triad with low HDL-C levels and small LDL particles, as well as in association with non-lipid metabolic risk factors for coronary heart disease. As such, total plasma TG has not consistently been shown to be an independent risk factor for CHD. Furthermore, ...
Diet plans that are low in hydrogenated fat and cholesterol, high in fiber, and also reduced in salt are the most effective options for a healthy and balanced diet regimen. Lowering cholesterol via diet alone can lower the risk of heart diseases such as coronary artery condition (CAD) and stroke. People with hypertension need to also make an effort to keep their blood pressure reduced. Blood pressure increases the threat of creating cholesterol-related problems, so it should be managed as well. Describe How Cholesterol Buildup Can Impact Blood Flow Through Arteries. Smoking cigarettes or utilizing other tobacco items has been shown in countless researches to raise LDL cholesterol degrees and also lower HDL cholesterol levels. This is why quitting cigarette smoking is so crucial. Various other contributors to cholesterol include obesity, physical inactivity, alcohol consumption, and also the existence of various other danger elements, such as diabetes mellitus, heart problem, and cancer. ...
PubMed journal article: Exercise attenuates the increase in plasma monounsaturated fatty acids and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol but not high-density lipoprotein 2b cholesterol caused by high-oleic ground beef in women. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Cholesterol is a fat-like substance in the blood. The bodys cells need cholesterol, but too much of it creates problems. Approximately two thirds of the bodys cholesterol is made and stored in the liver; the remaining cholesterol comes from diet, especially from meat, chicken, fish, and dairy products. A simple blood test measures cholesterol, and laboratory tests report 3 values: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, called LDL; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, called HDL; and total cholesterol, which is the sum of LDL and HDL.. LDL and HDL have very different functions, and problems occur when patients have either too much LDL or too little HDL. Think of LDL as the carriers taking cholesterol from the liver to cells. Once the cells have what they need, they refuse delivery. The carriers do not know what to do with the extra cholesterol, so they dump it in the bloodstream and return to the liver for another batch.. Now think of HDL as the clean-up crew; they travel the bloodstream hauling ...
Background: The main goal of using statins is to reduce the level of plasma cholesterol, meanwhile they have a wide spectrum of actions. Objectives: To identify the effect of statins on fractional cholesterol esterification (FCE) as well as the complete profile of lipids and (apo)lipoproteins. Design and methods: In an age and sex matched case-control study, 400 subjects who were referred for coronary angiography were divided into two groups according using statins. Results: Total cholesterol was decreased significantly following treatment with statins (165.6 38.0 mg/dL vs. 205.3 48.4, p 0.001). About 90% of the reduction was occurred in nonHDL and 10% in HDL fraction. Reduction of nonHDL cholesterol (125.2 35.2 mg/dL vs. 162.8 45.2, p 0.001) occurred on both unesterified (52.4 21.5 mg/dL vs. 65.2 25.5, p 0.001) and esterified cholesterol (74.7 27.3 mg/dL vs. 96.6 34.1, p 0.001). But the decrease in HDL cholesterol (40.4 10.0 mg/dL vs. 42.3 9.9, p 0.079) happened exclusively in unesterified ...
Principle #6: Policies at eliminating artificial trans fats in the diet - The authors expect to further reduce the level of trans fats that increase LDL cholesterol levels, lower HDL cholesterol levels that increases the risk of heart attacks. This principle requires the authors to accept the cholesterol theory of reducing heart attacks, but recent studies are debunking that theory. Take the recent high-profile NIH-sponsored AIM-HIGH trial comparing statin to statin plus niacin therapy in patients with cardiovascular disease and low HDL levels. (This study was designed to show that increasing HDL levels with niacin would improve heart attack and stroke outcomes.) This study was stopped 18 months ahead of schedule not only because it was determined to be extremely unlikely that the increase in HDL produced by niacin would improve outcomes, but also because of an unexpected increase in strokes among the patients receiving niacin, a drug known to increase HDL. Support for the results of this ...
Principle #6: Policies at eliminating artificial trans fats in the diet - The authors expect to further reduce the level of trans fats that increase LDL cholesterol levels, lower HDL cholesterol levels that increases the risk of heart attacks. This principle requires the authors to accept the cholesterol theory of reducing heart attacks, but recent studies are debunking that theory. Take the recent high-profile NIH-sponsored AIM-HIGH trial comparing statin to statin plus niacin therapy in patients with cardiovascular disease and low HDL levels. (This study was designed to show that increasing HDL levels with niacin would improve heart attack and stroke outcomes.) This study was stopped 18 months ahead of schedule not only because it was determined to be extremely unlikely that the increase in HDL produced by niacin would improve outcomes, but also because of an unexpected increase in strokes among the patients receiving niacin, a drug known to increase HDL. Support for the results of this ...
Diet plans that are reduced in saturated fat and cholesterol, high in fiber, and also reduced in salt are the best choices for a healthy diet plan. Reducing cholesterol via diet regimen alone can decrease the danger of heart problem such as coronary artery illness (CAD) and also stroke. Individuals with hypertension must additionally make an effort to keep their high blood pressure reduced. High blood pressure raises the danger of developing cholesterol-related problems, so it needs to be regulated too. Lab Corp Vap Test. Smoking cigarettes or making use of other cigarette products has been displayed in many researches to raise LDL cholesterol degrees and also lower HDL cholesterol levels. This is why giving up cigarette smoking is so crucial. Various other contributors to cholesterol include obesity, physical lack of exercise, alcohol intake, as well as the presence of various other risk elements, such as diabetic issues, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Additionally, some drugs, including ...
Various cholesterol medications may be useful if LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and/or HDL cholesterol is abnormal. Dietary ... Other signs of metabolic syndrome include high blood pressure, decreased fasting serum HDL cholesterol, elevated fasting serum ... reduced HDL cholesterol; and a trend toward increased triglycerides, blood pressure, and glucose in the genetically susceptible ... or specific treatment for this lipid abnormality Reduced HDL cholesterol: < 40 mg/dL (1.03 mmol/L) in males, < 50 mg/dL (1.29 ...
... cholesterol)". GPnotebook. Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia; Cholesterol (HDL and LDL) - plasma or serum Last ... Retrieved on September 12, 2009 American Association for Clinical Chemistry; HDL Cholesterol GP Notebook > range (reference, ca ... Cholesterol? Last Update July 21, 2009. Retrieved on July 21, 2009 Derived from values in mg/dl to mmol/l, using molar mass of ... there is another cluster containing many metabolic substances like cholesterol and glucose at the limit with the blue part (g/L ...
Niacin, fibrates and CETP Inhibitors, while they may increase HDL cholesterol do not affect the risk of cardiovascular disease ... A 10 mmHg reduction in blood pressure reduces risk by about 20%. Decrease non-HDL cholesterol. Statin treatment reduces ... metabolism toward a more atherogenic form by decreasing the HDL cholesterol level while increasing LDL and total cholesterol ... One of them relates to serum cholesterol level. In most populations, the serum total cholesterol level increases as age ...
Some types of HDL are great at plucking cholesterol from LDL and artery walls while other types are indifferent to cholesterol ... cholesterol). According to Harvard Heart Letter: "HDL cholesterol is turning out to be a much more complex substance than we ... which normally transfers cholesterol from HDL cholesterol to very low density or low density lipoproteins (VLDL or LDL). ... HDL cholesterol is a family of different particles. Although they all contain lipids (fats), cholesterol, and proteins called ...
... and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, in mg/dL) along with body-mass index (BMI). The index can be estimated using ... "The Triglyceride-to-HDL Cholesterol Ratio". Diabetes Care. 34 (8): 1869-1874. doi:10.2337/dc10-2234. ISSN 0149-5992. PMC ... suggested that the TyG and TG/HDL-C indexes had superior performance in their population owing to ethnic-specific variations in ... Calculator to estimate METS-IR, the TyG index and TG/HDL-C ratio. ...
A. It increases HDL ("good") cholesterol. However, the increase of HDL cholesterol is dose and disease dependent. Some ... a small dose of alcohol is effective to increase HDL cholesterol level. B. It decreases LDL ("bad") cholesterol for both ... C. It improves cholesterol (both HDL and LDL) particle size II. Alcohol decreases thrombosis (blood clotting). A. It reduces ... in order to increase HDL cholesterol. For some diabetic patients and postmenopausal populations, ...
The drug was aimed at raising the blood levels of "good cholesterol" (cholesterol carried in HDL particles, aka HDL-C). ... hdl:2297/15762. PMID 12444911. S2CID 22400248. Simeon Bennett & Naomi Kresge. "Roche Drops After Halting Cholesterol Drug ... Plaque reduction is an anticipated observation following an increase in HDL.[citation needed] As of 2010[update] five phase II ... A 24-week clinical trial showed that dalcetrapib did increase HDL-C levels, supporting the agent's desired effect. Further, the ...
Drugs in this class substantially increase HDL ("good cholesterol"), lower LDL ("bad cholesterol"), and enhance reverse ... CETP inhibitors inhibit cholesterylester transfer protein (CETP), which normally transfers cholesterol from HDL cholesterol to ... "CETP inhibitors to increase HDL cholesterol levels". N. Engl. J. Med. 356 (13): 1364-6. doi:10.1056/NEJMe078029. PMID 17387130 ... Barkowski RS, Frishman WH (May 2018). "HDL metabolism and CETP inhibition". Cardiol Rev. 16 (3): 154-62. doi:10.1097/CRD. ...
The study showed the value of HDL cholesterol. Medical College of Georgia established the Curtis G. Hames Chair in Family ...
It reduces triglyceride levels and increases HDL cholesterol. It may have less marked adverse effects than niacin, although it ... which leads indirectly to a reduction in LDL and increase in HDL cholesterol. Acipimox is completely absorbed from the gut. It ... Consequently, VLDL cholesterol production in the liver is reduced, ...
Mani P, Rohatgi A (August 2015). "Niacin Therapy, HDL Cholesterol, and Cardiovascular Disease: Is the HDL Hypothesis Defunct ... and raise blood high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, often referred to as "good" cholesterol). There are two forms: ... "Merck begins overseas recall of HDL cholesterol drug". Reuters. 11 January 2013. Aguilar F, Charrondiere UR, Dusemund B, ... Niacin reduces synthesis of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), ...
... cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol did not change. Although there is only ... Using these and other soy foods to replace foods high in animal protein that contain saturated fat and cholesterol may confer ... Extension may result in diminished flavor, but fat and cholesterol are reduced. Vitamin and mineral fortification can be used ... A meta-analysis concluded soy protein is correlated with significant decreases in serum cholesterol, low density lipoprotein ( ...
hdl:1822/3943. PMID 16325258.. *^ a b c d Goodman AB (March 1994). "Retinoid dysregulation as a cause of schizophrenia". The ... Decreased HDL. *Increased blood cholesterol. *Increased blood glucose. *Haematuria. *Proteinuria. *Increased creatine ...
Decreased HDL. *Increased blood cholesterol. *Increased blood glucose. *Haematuria. *Proteinuria. *Increased creatine ...
... partly through increasing HDL cholesterol whilst reducing LDL cholesterol. In 1999, Malcolm Law and Nicholas Wald published a ... Second, Law and Wald presented a time-lag hypothesis: if there were a delay in serum cholesterol concentrations increasing and ... Consumption of animal fat and serum cholesterol concentrations increased only recently in France but did so decades ago in ... from CHD is more likely to be linked to past levels of serum cholesterol and fat consumption than to current serum cholesterol ...
"The role of HDL-cholesterol in preventing atherosclerotic disease". European Heart Journal Supplements. 7: F4-F8. doi:10.1093/ ... Other studies have associated hardiness with cholesterol and hormonal variations. Bartone and associates examined hardiness ... levels against a full lipid profile including high-density lipoprotein, usually considered a beneficial type of cholesterol. ...
However, a decrease in HDL cholesterol has been observed. At high doses (5 to 60 mg/day), for instance those used in the ... and does not affect cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase, 21-hydroxylase, or 11β- ...
HDL). All the lipoproteins carry cholesterol, but elevated levels of the lipoproteins other than HDL (termed non-HDL ... "Meta-regression analysis of the effects of dietary cholesterol intake on LDL and HDL cholesterol". The American Journal of ... Trans fats have been shown to reduce levels of HDL while increasing levels of LDL. LDL and total cholesterol also increases by ... dose-related relationship between cholesterol intake and LDL cholesterol. Cholesterol is measured in milligrams per deciliter ( ...
Statins should be considered to lower elevated non-HDL-Cholesterol. Additional measures are avoidance of agents known to ...
The first Framingham Risk Score included age, sex, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, blood pressure (and also whether the ... HDL cholesterol, mg/dL: 60 or higher: Minus 1 point. 50-59: 0 points. 40-49: 1 point. Under 40: 2 points. Systolic blood ... HDL cholesterol, mg/dL: 60 or higher: Minus 1 point. 50-59: 0 points. 40-49: 1 point. Under 40: 2 points. Systolic blood ... The National Cholesterol Education Program NCEP's ATP III guidelines also list diabetes as a CHD risk equivalent since it also ...
... "bad cholesterol") and triglyceride concentrations. However, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, "good cholesterol") did not increase ... as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, may reduce the risk of heart disease". For reference, 100 grams of firm ... PTI in 1998 filed a petition with the Food and Drug Administration for a health claim that soy protein may reduce cholesterol ... of a decade-long study of soy-protein benefits showed only a minimal decrease in cholesterol levels, but it compared favorably ...
... together these actions decrease serum VLDL levels and increase HDL-cholesterol; the mechanism behind HDL elevation is currently ... Chylomicrons are degraded, VLDLs are converted to LDLs, and LDLs are converted to HDL. This is accompanied by a slight increase ... HDL) levels GI distress Musculoskeletal pain Increased incidence of gallstone Hypokalemia (low blood potassium) Increased risk ...
... has no negative impact on serum lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides). No HDL decrease has been observed. In this ...
Hafiane A, Gasbarrino K, Daskalopoulou SS (2019). "The role of adiponectin in cholesterol efflux and HDL biogenesis and ... Oram JF, Vaughan AM (June 2000). "ABCA1-mediated transport of cellular cholesterol and phospholipids to HDL apolipoproteins". ... With cholesterol as its substrate, this protein functions as a cholesterol efflux pump in the cellular lipid removal pathway. ... ABCA1 mediates the efflux of cholesterol and phospholipids to lipid-poor apolipoproteins (apoA1 and apoE) (reverse cholesterol ...
Fibrates effectively lower serum triglycerides and raises serum HDL-cholesterol levels. Although clinical benefits of fibrate ...
"Multiple rare alleles contribute to low plasma levels of HDL cholesterol". Science. 305 (5685): 869-872. Bibcode:2004Sci...305 ...
... may also increase plasma triglycerides and decrease HDL-cholesterol levels.[citation needed] Nadolol is a mixture of ...
... can also cause changes in total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol. Uncommon side effects of desogestrel may include vaginal ...
hdl:10044/1/45416. PMID 28306389. S2CID 205101529. Ray KK, Wright RS, Kallend D, et al. (March 2020). "Two Phase 3 Trials of ... April 2017). "Inclisiran in Patients at High Cardiovascular Risk with Elevated LDL Cholesterol" (PDF). N. Engl. J. Med. 376 (15 ... "Inclisiran for Subjects With ACSVD or ACSVD-Risk Equivalents and Elevated Low-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (ORION-11)" at ... "Inclisiran for Participants With Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease and Elevated Low-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (ORION ...
... cholesterol's hydroxyl component interacts with water, categorizing cholesterol as amphipathic. HDL cholesterol provides ... The HDL capability of absorption of cholesterol and transport to the liver, aids in the removal of cholesterol in the body. On ... HDL increase serves as a treatment for atherosclerosis. The hydrolysis of HDL leads to the transportation of cholesterol to the ... When HDL are hydrolyzed, the turnover rate of HDL increases and cholesterol levels in plasma decrease. This hydrolysis allows ...
HDL), "the good cholesterol". Clinically, the choice of an agent depends on the patient's cholesterol profile, cardiovascular ... Lecithin has been shown to effectively decrease cholesterol concentration by 33%, lower LDL by 38% and increase HDL by 46%. [3] ... Fibrates typically lower triglycerides by 20% to 50%. Level of the good cholesterol HDL is also increased. Fibrates may ... Hypolipidemic agents, cholesterol-lowering drugs or antihyperlipidemic agents, are a diverse group of pharmaceuticals that are ...
hdl:10149/92337. PMID 18646120.. (Retracted) *^ Carter P, Gray LJ, Troughton J, Khunti K, Davies MJ (August 2010). "Fruit and ... high cholesterol, and microalbuminuria, improves a person's life expectancy.[25] Decreasing the systolic blood pressure to less ... hdl:1871/48558. PMID 22258959.. *^ Ganguly S, Tan HC, Lee PC, Tham KW (April 2015). "Metabolic bariatric surgery and type 2 ... hdl:10536/DRO/DU:30064294. PMID 19726018.. *^ Frachetti KJ, Goldfine AB (April 2009). "Bariatric surgery for diabetes ...
இந்த ஆய்வுகளானவை LDL (மோசமான கொழுப்பு) மற்றும் டிரைகிளிசரைடு ஆகியவற்றின் அளவுகளில் 22 சதவீதத்தைக் குறைக்கின்றன மற்றும் HDL ( ... avocado pulp reduces body weight and total hepatic fat but increases plasma cholesterol in male rats fed diets with cholesterol ...
hdl:10419/215175.. Cite journal requires ,journal=. (help). *^ Miller, Sarah; Altekruse, Sean; Johnson, Norman; Wherry, Laura R ... Women were 60% more likely to have mammograms, and recipients overall were 20% more likely to have their cholesterol checked; ...
2010). "No interaction between alcohol consumption and HDL-related genes on HDL cholesterol levels". Atherosclerosis. 211 (2): ... 2006). "Consistent effects of genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport on plasma lipid and apolipoprotein levels in ... high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglycerides in humans". Nat. Genet. 40 (2): 189-97. doi:10.1038/ng.75. PMC 2682493 . ... "Common SNPs in HMGCR in micronesians and whites associated with LDL-cholesterol levels affect alternative splicing of exon13" ...
HDL, an acronym for 'high density lipoprotein' is sometimes called 'good cholesterol' because people with high levels of HDL ... Types of cholesterol[change , change source]. Not all cholesterol is bad. There are different kinds of cholesterol in the blood ... However, statins are not as good at increasing the HDL (good) cholesterol. Low HDL is hard to treat with medicines, but goes up ... Cholesterol is usually in the walls of cells. It is only in animals. Plants do not synthesize cholesterol. So the cholesterol ...
α低脂蛋白血症/HDL(英语:Hypoalphalipoproteinemia). *卵磷脂膽固醇酰基轉移酶缺乏症(英语:Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency) ... 低脂饮食:主要是减少食物中脂肪的含量,但不减少摄入食物的总量。该方法是美国国家胆固醇教育计划(英语:National
"The effect of oat β-glucan on LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol and apoB for CVD risk reduction: A systematic review and ... hdl:2066/152392. ISSN 1533-4406. PMID 26444731.. *^ Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis; Alexander, Barbara D.; Kett, Daniel H.; Vazquez, ... and rye have been studied for their effects on cholesterol levels in people with normal cholesterol levels and in those with ... At dietary intake levels of at least 3 g per day, oat fiber β-glucan decreases blood levels of LDL cholesterol and so may ...
It contains no cholesterol and the energy content is about 17 Calories.[3] Egg white is an alkaline solution and contains ...,. Trans. of "Blanc d'oeuf," Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences ...
This measures total cholesterol, LDL (bad) cholesterol, HDL (good) cholesterol and triglycerides. It is recommended to have ... The basis of this is that Total cholesterol is defined as the sum of HDL, LDL, and VLDL. Ordinarily just the total, HDL, and ... In contrast, HDL particles (especially large HDL) have been identified as a mechanism by which cholesterol and inflammatory ... has total cholesterol of 200 mg/dL or more, if a man over age 45 or a woman over age 50, has HDL (good) cholesterol less than ...
"Lowering High TRIGLYCERIDES and Raising HDL Naturally - Full of Health Inc". Retrieved 2010-10-18.. ... such as cholesterol testing (lipid panel) or certain blood glucose measurements require fasting for several hours so that a ...
HDL), and normal level of triglycerides. Total cholesterol levels of 350-550 mg/dL are typical of heterozygous FH while total ... High cholesterol levels normally do not cause any symptoms. Yellow deposits of cholesterol-rich fat may be seen in various ... LDL cholesterol normally circulates in the body for 2.5 days, and subsequently the apolipoprotein B portion of LDL cholesterol ... their high cholesterol levels are less responsive to the kinds of cholesterol control methods which are usually more effective ...
... in triglyceride and HDL cholesterol values should be weighed against potential unfavorable changes in LDL and total cholesterol ... Food and Nutrition Board (2002/2005). Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol ... These diets are generally associated with higher intakes of total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol because the protein is ... though such diets can cause high LDL cholesterol levels, which carry a risk of atherosclerosis in the long term.[24] Potential ...
"Nuts and plasma lipids: an almond-based diet lowers LDL-C while preserving HDL-C". J Am Coll Nutr. 17 (3): 285-90. PMID ... "Almonds: Cholesterol lowering, heart-healthy snack" (પ્રેસ રિલીઝ). Porter Novelli. September 2002. ...
hdl:2328/35953. PMID 24855267.. *^ Baker, A. J.; Haddrath, O.; McPherson, J. D.; Cloutier, A. (2014). "Genomic Support for a ... Common ostrich meat tastes similar to lean beef and is low in fat and cholesterol, as well as high in calcium, protein and iron ...
hdl:11449/164454. PMID 29415116.. *^ a b Maria Jose Saez-Lara; Carolina Gomez-Llorente; Julio Plaza-Diaz; Angel Gil (2015). " ... Cholesterol[edit]. A 2002 meta-analysis that included five double-blind trials examining the short-term (2-8 weeks) effects of ... Agerholm-Larsen L, Bell ML, Grunwald GK, Astrup A (2002). "The effect of a probiotic milk product on plasma cholesterol: a meta ... in total cholesterol concentration, and a decrease of 7.7 mg/dl (0.2 mmol/l) (5% decrease) in serum LDL concentration.[89] ...
Protektívny HDL cholesterol by mal mať koncentráciu najmenej 1 mmol/l. Hladina celkového cholesterolu, ktorý je použitý ako ... HDL cholesterol muži: 1,0 - 2,1 mmol/l, ženy 1,2 - 2,7 mmol/l ... high density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C). Rizikové sú ďalej ... HDL-C - TAG/2,2) zo stanovených hodnôt celkového cholesterolu (total cholesterol, TC), triglyceridov (TG) a cholesterolu častíc ... Cholesterol sa v krvi vyskytuje viazaný v rôznych časticiach lipoproteínov a rizikovosť jeho zvýšených hladín v krvi vo veľkej ...
... especially in LDL cholesterol, acknowledged as bad and helps boost levels of HDL or good cholesterol.[13] Dancing in general ... Another gain of dancing is for those who have high cholesterol, plus drugs and adequate food, dancing can draw. As an aerobic ... exercise abridged levels of total blood cholesterol, ...
... normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations, and normal blood glucose concentrations.[115] A 2011 meta-analysis concluded that ... HDL cholesterol, malondialdehyde, and oxidized LDL when compared to low-polyphenol olive oils.[117] ... maintenance of normal blood HDL cholesterol concentrations (ID 1316, 1332) and maintenance of normal blood glucose ... and for the contribution to the maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol levels by replacing saturated fats in the diet with ...
HDL ("good") cholesterol is negatively correlated with incidence of heart attack.. Therefore, taking medication to raise HDL ... Instead, it may be that other underlying factors, like genes, diet and exercise, affect both HDL levels and the likelihood of ... "Cholesterol: The good, the bad, and the truth" [1] (retrieved 3 June 2011) ... having a heart attack; it is possible that medicines may affect the directly measurable factor, HDL levels, without affecting ...
hdl:2027/mdp.39015068299380. JSTOR 2469142.. *^ Chamovitz, Daniel (2012). What A Plant Knows. United States of America: ...
... cholesterol) or low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL, "good" cholesterol) cholesterol are all associated with increased ... indicators measuring cholesterol such as high total/HDL cholesterol ratio are more predictive than total serum cholesterol.[57] ... "Lower your cholesterol". National Health Service. Retrieved 2012-05-03.. *^ "Nutrition Facts at a Glance - Nutrients: Saturated ... "Cholesterol". Irish Heart Foundation. Retrieved 2011-02-28.. *^ U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health ...
Benefits of decreased body mass index as well as HDL cholesterol were more strongly observed in studies with only a slight ... Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein and Amino Acids, Institute of ... Therefore, one must consider digestibility and secondary nutrition profile such as calories, cholesterol, vitamins and ...
Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and ... "Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and ... Kabara, Jon J. (2008). Fats Are Good for You and Other Secrets - How Saturated Fat and Cholesterol Actually Benefit the Body. ...
Studies have shown that the CETP is linked to increased HDL levels. There is a very common pattern of two different cholesterol ... The mutations correlated with decreased CETP levels (-35%) and increased HDL cholesterol levels (+10% for D442G). The relative ... The cholesterol ester transfer protein(CETP) helps the transfer of cholesterol esters from lipoproteins to other lipoproteins ... It plays a fundamental role in the reverse transport of cholesterol to the liver, which is why a mutation in this can lead to ...
HRT also improves cholesterol levels. With menopause, HDL decreases, while LDL, triglycerides and lipoprotein a increase, ... HRT may promote reverse cholesterol transport through induction of cholesterol ABC transporters.[25] ... cholesterol-lowering agents and aspirin for cardiovascular disease, and vaginal estrogen for local symptoms. Observational ...
hdl:11858/00-001M-0000-0014-F436-1.. *^ a b Brown, Dwayne (October 30, 2012). "NASA Rover's First Soil Studies Help Fingerprint ... Crystal structures of proteins (which are irregular and hundreds of times larger than cholesterol) began to be solved in the ... X-ray crystallography of biological molecules took off with Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin, who solved the structures of cholesterol ...
HDL, good, bad, and triglycerides - Get the facts on cholesterol, blood testing, medications, and how to keep your cholesterol ... HDL Cholesterol: Good Cholesterol. Not all cholesterol is bad. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is considered "good ... High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ("good" cholesterol). *Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol ("bad" cholesterol) ... To calculate your cholesterol ratio, divide your total cholesterol number by your HDL cholesterol number. For example, if you ...
About Cholesterolplus icon *LDL and HDL Cholesterol: "Bad" and "Good" Cholesterol ... HDL (high-density lipoprotein), or "good" cholesterol, absorbs cholesterol and carries it back to the liver. The liver then ... A cholesterol test, or screening, tells your health care provider the levels of LDL and HDL cholesterol in your blood. This ... LDL and HDL Cholesterol: "Bad" and "Good" Cholesterol. ... High levels of HDL cholesterol can lower your risk for heart ...
... cholesterol, has been the primary approach to improving cholesterol levels. ... Thanks to powerful cholesterol-lowering statin drugs, driving down low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or bad ... Another key player is high-density lipoprotein (HDL), the "good" cholesterol. Higher levels of HDL are associated with lower ... cholesterol, has been the primary approach to improving cholesterol levels. But theres more to the story of cholesterol and ...
Treatments and Tools for HDL cholesterol LDL. Find HDL cholesterol LDL information, treatments for HDL cholesterol LDL and HDL ... MedHelps HDL cholesterol LDL Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, ... Posts on HDL cholesterol LDL. Blood test results: Is this a cholesterol problem - Cholesterol Community ... My LDL is 220 and my HDL is 99. Is my HDL to high? If so how do I lower the HDL. I am 56,... ...
HDL) is often referred to as the good cholesterol. HDL carries cholesterol from the arteries to the liver for use or removal ... It has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and may reduce heart disease.The article looks at the ideal levels of HDL ... in the body and how to raise HDL levels. ... Of HDL and LDL cholesterol, HDL packs some great benefits. This ... High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is often referred to as the "good" cholesterol.. Having high HDL levels helps carry cholesterol ...
Non-HDL cholesterol is simply defined as the difference between total and HDL cholesterol and, thus, represents cholesterol ... and the higher baseline LDL and non-HDL cholesterol levels in the LRC study. Even if non-HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol ... total cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol, using the formula of Friedewald (8). The calculated LDL cholesterol level has been ... 15) also report that the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol (TC/HDL) was a strong predictor of CHD, although the confidence ...
VLDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol levels, as well as raising HDL cholesterol levels. A greater effect ... TRIGLYCERIDES, HDL CHOLESTEROL, AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK. *DO WE NEED DRUGS TO REDUCE TG AND/OR INCREASE HDL CHOLESTEROL LEVELS? ... binding cholesterol from HDL, thus regenerating HDL particles able to take up cholesterol from peripheral tissues (46). ... after adjustment for LDL cholesterol or non-HDL cholesterol and other covariates (19). The combination of low LDL cholesterol ...
It is harder to raise HDL cholesterol levels than it is to lower LDL levels, but aerobic exercise and niacin can help, says Dr ... Your LDL cholesterol level should be below 70 mg/dL.. However, it is still important to keep your HDL cholesterol at an ... The problem is that raising HDL cholesterol is not as easy as lowering the LDL type. While there are no foods that affect HDL ... High-density (HDL) cholesterol is thought to help scour the arteries for these deposits and help remove them.. The main focus ...
All posts tagged with HDL cholesterol. * Researchers: Good cholesterol may help fight atherosclerosis. ... It turns out, getting too much HDL can be a bad thing, even if its called the "good cholesterol," according to a study ... Natural News) Did you know that not all forms of cholesterol are bad? High-density lipoprotein, or HDL, is commonly known as ... Very high levels of HDL (good cholesterol) can increase your risk of heart attack and death, concludes study. ...
HDL, or the good cholesterol can help reduce your risk of heart attack and stroke. LDL levels can be lowered with lifestyle ... lipoproteins that carry cholesterol in the blood) can increase your risk of heart attack and stroke. ... home/cholesterol health center/cholesterol a-z list/hdl vs ldl cholesterol differences center /hdl vs. ldl cholesterol ... There are two types of cholesterol; the "good" cholesterol or HDL, and the "bad" cholesterol or LDL. High cholesterol levels in ...
Increase HDL-cholesterol levels. Boost your arteries ability to clean themselves and have a healthier heart with this ... 6 Strategies to Boost Your HDL Cholesterol. Weve come up with these six strategies for making your HDL its level best ... A man with a low HDL-cholesterol level-40 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl) or lower-can have as much as a three times greater ... Turns out it wasnt the famed Mediterranean diet at work, but rather a variation of a protein in HDL cholesterol (the good kind ...
HDL) are reduced. The etiology of HDL deficiencies ranges from secondary causes, such as smoking, to specific gene... ... HDL), or hypoalphalipoproteinemia (HA), includes a variety of conditions, ranging from mild to severe, in which concentrations ... For men, a high-risk HDL cholesterol level is still less than 40 mg/dL, but for women, the high-risk HDL cholesterol level is ... encoded search term (Low HDL Cholesterol (Hypoalphalipoproteinemia)) and Low HDL Cholesterol (Hypoalphalipoproteinemia) What to ...
High levels of HDL are associated with a lower risk of heart disease because HDL prevents bad... ... A patients HDL level indicates the amount of good cholesterol in the bloodstream, explains Mayo Clinic. ... How do you raise your HDL cholesterol?. A: Mayo Clinic lists several ways people can raise their HDL cholesterol, such as ... What is the importance of knowing your HDL cholesterol ratio?. A: High levels of high-density lipoprotein, or HDL, cholesterol ...
High levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL), which is commonly referred to as good cholesterol, are beneficial and a sign ... In many cases, a high level of cholesterol is cause for alarm. However, that is not always so. ... HDL cholesterol binds with LDL (bad) cholesterol in the bloodstream. Next, it removes the LDL cholesterol by carrying it to the ... HDL comprises about 25 per cent to 30 per cent of total blood serum cholesterol. HDL percentages lower than this signify ...
Five Ways To Increase HDL. 26th February 2010. Interestingly the way we look at cholesterol has changed dramatically in recent ... Senior Citizens and High Cholesterol. 27th October 2009. High blood cholesterol level is linked to an elevated risk of heart ... What Is a Healthy Cholesterol Reading?. 09th April 2010. Determining what is a healthy cholesterol reading is vital in ... Learn What Those Total Cholesterol Numbers Are. 06th July 2009. Understanding the numbers involved with cholesterol level test ...
HDL-cholesterol esters are converted to HDL-cholesterol by PEG-cholesterol esterase. The HDL-cholesterol is acted upon by PEG- ... Direct HDL-Cholesterol (mg/dL). Variable Name: LBDHDD. SAS Label: Direct HDL-Cholesterol (mg/dL). English Text: Direct HDL- ... Direct HDL-Cholesterol (mmol/L). Variable Name: LBDHDDSI. SAS Label: Direct HDL-Cholesterol (mmol/L). English Text: Direct HDL- ... Cholesterol - HDL (HDL_H) Data File: HDL_H.xpt First Published: October 2015. Last Revised: March 2016. ...
HDL-cholesterol esters are converted to HDL-cholesterol by PEG-cholesterol esterase. The HDL-cholesterol is acted upon by PEG- ... In 2007-2008, a new laboratory performed the HDL cholesterol using a direct HDL cholesterol method similar to the direct HDL ... Direct HDL-Cholesterol (mg/dL). Variable Name: LBDHDD. SAS Label: Direct HDL-Cholesterol (mg/dL). English Text: Direct HDL- ... Direct HDL-Cholesterol (mmol/L). Variable Name: LBDHDDSI. SAS Label: Direct HDL-Cholesterol (mmol/L). English Text: Direct HDL- ...
HDL cholesterol, failed to prevent heart problems in a large study. ... HDL cholesterol, failed to prevent heart problems in a large study. ... The company said it will encourage doctors to consider alternative treatments to control their cholesterol, but advised ...
HDL cholesterol levels, in overseas markets where it is sold, after it failed to prevent heart problems in a large study and ... Merck & Co said it is recalling Tredaptive, its medicine to raise good HDL cholesterol levels, in overseas markets where it ... The company said it will encourage doctors to consider alternative treatments to control cholesterol, but advised patients not ...
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... der bindes til lipoproteinet HDL (high density lipoprotein) i blodet. HDL- kolesterol kan måles i en blodprøve ... HDL- kolesterol (HDL-cholesterol). Af Maria R. Adams, læge, MD, almen medicin og Anne Dorte Grøndal, sygeplejerske ... Hvad er HDL-kolesterol?. Kolesterol (cholesterol) er et fedtstof (lipid), der dannes i organismen men som også tilføres med ... HDL står for high density lipoprotein, og indeholder mere protein og mindre fedt end LDL (low density lipoprotein). HDL ...
Cite this: Non-HDL Cholesterol a CV-Risk Crystal Ball for Young Adults - Medscape - Jul 10, 2019. ... People with elevated non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels in young adulthood were apt to also show high ... The researchers modeled the life-course of non-HDL-C levels over about 30 years to gauge how reliably elevations in cholesterol ... and LDL cholesterol in most young adults with elevated non-HDL-C, translating into reduced CVD risk, Miller notes. ...
Its important to have healthy levels of both HDL and LDL cholesterol. High levels of HDL, or the good cholesterol, can help ... decrease LDL, the bad cholesterol, and decrease your risk of a heart attack. Read on to learn more. ... your doctor will probably talk to you about your cholesterol level. ... How can cholesterol be good?. *Some HDL cholesterol particles lower heart attack and stroke risk. Some HDL also acts as an ...
Though it has been very well established that HDL can lower amount of LDL floating in bloods however are there any scientific ... evidence that prove that HDL can also remove or dissolve plaque in arteries ? Reply To This Post Return to Posts Index ...
... cholesterol, reduces your risk of developing an aortic aneurysm, according to a new study. Here, 5 ways to boost your good ... Higher levels of HDL cholesterol, or the good ... "HDL is a type of cholesterol that actually cleans the blood ... 5 Ways to Boost Good Cholesterol. Higher levels of HDL, or "good" cholesterol, may help protect you from aneurysms ... Consider a cholesterol booster: If youre generally healthy but have a low HDL count and a family history of heart disease, you ...
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... cholesterol. It helps to remove bad cholesterol from your arteries, so a higher HDL level is better. ... HDL, or high-density lipoprotein, is the good ... What should my HDL level be?. With HDL cholesterol, higher ... HDL and LDL have different purposes:. *HDL stands for high-density lipoproteins. It is sometimes called the "good" cholesterol ... How do I know what my HDL level is?. A blood test can measure your cholesterol levels, including HDL. When and how often you ...
... both low and high HDL cholesterol levels were associated with higher risks of dying prematurely compared with intermediate ... In a large study of male veterans, both low and high HDL cholesterol levels were associated with higher risks of dying ... Intermediate HDL cholesterol levels may be best for longevity. American Society of Nephrology ... The beneficial properties of HDL cholesterol were attenuated, but remained significant, in the presence of kidney disease. ...
  • Cholesterol travels through the blood on proteins called "lipoproteins. (
  • The elevated coronary heart disease (CHD) risk affecting patients with type 2 diabetes may be attributed to a combined dyslipidemia characterized by elevated triglycerides, reduced HDL cholesterol, small dense LDL particles (independent of the LDL cholesterol level), elevated triglyceride-rich remnant lipoproteins (TGRLs), and/or elevated apolipoprotein B (apoB) levels ( 1 ). (
  • HDL (high-density lipoprotein, or "good" cholesterol) and LDL (low-density lipoprotein, or "bad" cholesterol) are two types of lipoproteins that carry cholesterol to and from the body's cells in the blood. (
  • There is a third type of cholesterol called VLDL (very-low-density lipoproteins), which is another type of "bad" cholesterol produced in the liver, and contains a high amount of triglycerides. (
  • Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), or hypoalphalipoproteinemia (HA), includes a variety of conditions, ranging from mild to severe, in which concentrations of alpha lipoproteins or high-density lipoprotein (HDL) are reduced. (
  • A low HDL cholesterol level is thought to accelerate the development of atherosclerosis because of impaired reverse cholesterol transport and possibly because of the absence of other protective effects of HDL, such as decreased oxidation of other lipoproteins. (
  • The major apolipoproteins of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) are alpha lipoproteins (ie, apolipoprotein A-I [apo A-I], apo A-II, apo A-IV), which are soluble and can move between different classes of lipoproteins. (
  • The beta lipoproteins are structural, are never complexed with HDL, and remain throughout the metabolism of the lipoproteins with which they are associated. (
  • Doctors are specifically concerned about high levels of low-density lipoproteins (LDL), or the "bad" cholesterol, because it increases your risk of heart attack. (
  • On the other hand, if you have higher levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) - the "good" cholesterol - it may provide some protection from heart disease . (
  • HDL and LDL are two types of lipoproteins.They are a combination of fat (lipid) and protein. (
  • HDL stands for high-density lipoproteins. (
  • Non-HDL-C is a calculation (total cholesterol minus HDL-C), ie, the sum of the VLDL-C, LDL-C, and IDL-C. While LDL-C has long been the primary focus of cholesterol reduction efforts, researchers have identified several other lipoproteins that also affect cardiovascular health. (
  • HDL is a class of heterogeneous lipoproteins containing approximately equal amounts of lipid and protein. (
  • 3,4 Lipid-free apo A-I or lipid-poor pre-β-HDL particles produced in the intestine or liver or shed during lipolysis of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRL) initiate efflux of phospholipids and cholesterol from cell membranes in a process facilitated by PLTP. (
  • Non-HDL cholesterol also includes other lipoproteins. (
  • A number of different types of lipoproteins exist, but they can be divided into high density lipoproteins (HDL) , and everything else (non-HDL). (
  • As well as LDL, non-HDL lipoproteins include very low density lipoptoein (VLDL) , intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL), lipoprotein remnants, and lipoprotein (a). (
  • Lipoproteins carry cholesterol around the blood. (
  • A recent American study recently showed that alcohol consumption can actually raise HDL levels as it increases the transport rate of apolipoproteins (the proteins that bind lipids to form lipoproteins). (
  • Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) are the so-called 'bad' kind of cholesterol, according to the American Heart Association (AHA). (
  • High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are the 'good' kind of cholesterol, per the AHA. (
  • Two types of lipoproteins carry cholesterol to and from cells. (
  • HDL (high-density-lipoprotein), LDL (low-density lipoprotein) and VLDL (very low-density lipoprotein) are lipoproteins that act as carrier proteins for cholesterol. (
  • Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) is considered bad cholesterol and may make arterial narrowing worse. (
  • Moreover, the cholesterol content in TG-rich lipoproteins has been shown to predict CAD risk better than LDL-C. In addition to reverse cholesterol transport, HDL has many other cardioprotective effects which include regulating immune function. (
  • Lifestyle recommendations including exercise and weight loss remain first line therapy in ameliorating insulin resistance and the adverse signaling processes from elevated levels of TG-rich lipoproteins and low HDL-C. (
  • Lipoproteins, made of fats and proteins, are the carriers of HDL and LDL in the blood. (
  • High density lipoproteins (HDL) are known to have a number of anti-atherogenic effects. (
  • Molecules called high density lipoproteins are important for the transport of cholesterol (collectively known as HDL-C) to the liver for breakdown and removal. (
  • While free fatty acids cross the placenta, lipoproteins do not, and transfer of cholesterol is extremely limited ( 6 ). (
  • An HDL cholesterol test will be done along with an overall lipid profile test where low density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglycerides are also measured. (
  • Lipoproteins allow lipids such as triglycerides and cholesterol to be transported into the blood stream and from there to tissue. (
  • HDL is known as 'good' cholesterol because a high level of HDL or high density lipoproteins helps to protect against heart attack. (
  • High-density lipoproteins (HDLs), also known as good cholesterol, act like waste removal carriers. (
  • Low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), also known as bad cholesterol, keep blood cholesterol circulating in your bloodstream, leaving plaque on artery walls along the way. (
  • ApoC-III, a proinflammatory protein, resides on the surface of some lipoproteins - both HDL and low-density lipoproteins, or LDL (bad) cholesterol. (
  • studies of genetic disorders that lower HDL cholesterol without increases in plasma triglycerides and remnant lipoproteins provide an ideal system in which to assess the consequences of isolated, lifelong low HDL cholesterol levels," the authors write. (
  • The principal finding of this study is that heterozygosity for loss-of-function mutations in ABCA1 associated with substantial, lifelong lowering of plasma levels of HDL cholesterol, but not with corresponding higher levels of plasma triglycerides or atherogenic [capable of producing a type of plaque in arteries] remnant lipoproteins, did not predict an increased risk of IHD," the authors write. (
  • Cholesterol is a fat-like substance made by your liver and also comes from foods you intake that is then packaged into particles called lipoproteins. (
  • This video discusses two types of lipoproteins that carry cholesterol-- low density lipid protein, or LDL cholesterol, also known as bad cholesterol, and high density lipoprotein, or HDL cholesterol, also known as good cholesterol. (
  • Whether it's made by your liver or brought in through your diet, cholesterol circulates through your blood bound to lipoproteins. (
  • High-density lipoproteins carry more cholesterol molecules than low-density lipoproteins. (
  • Too much cholesterol can build up in your arteries, causing atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries. (
  • Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, often referred to as "bad" cholesterol, is the type that tends to deposit on the walls of the arteries. (
  • High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is considered "good" cholesterol because it actually works to keep the LDL, or "bad" cholesterol from building up in your arteries. (
  • Having high HDL levels helps carry cholesterol from your arteries to your liver, where it can be used or excreted. (
  • Low-density (LDL) cholesterol leads to streaks of fatty deposits that narrow the heart's coronary arteries, and can lead to heart disease. (
  • High-density (HDL) cholesterol is thought to help scour the arteries for these deposits and help remove them. (
  • Increased numbers of LDL cholesterol indicate more risk for blocked arteries and health problems. (
  • High levels of HDL are associated with a lower risk of heart disease because HDL prevents bad cholesterol from clogging the arteries. (
  • HDL cholesterol helps rid the body of bad cholesterol and keeps it from collecting on the linings of your arteries. (
  • Cleveland Clinic researchers have discovered the process by which high-density lipoprotein (HDL) - the so-called 'good cholesterol' - becomes dysfunctional, loses its cardio-protective properties, and instead promotes inflammation and atherosclerosis, or the clogging and hardening of the arteries . (
  • It is sometimes called the "bad" cholesterol because a high LDL level leads to a buildup of cholesterol in your arteries. (
  • Cholesterol is essential to our cells, but chronic excess can lead to dangerous plaque formation in our arteries," said Thaxton. (
  • Too much cholesterol in the blood, particularly low-density lipoprotein or ''bad' cholesterol, contributes to plaque formation that clogs arteries, a risk factor for heart disease. (
  • It helps keep the LDL type in check by carrying the bad cholesterol away from the arteries and back to the liver, where it's passed from the body. (
  • He said that "research from UCLA established more than two decades ago that HDL cholesterol could -- in certain individuals (including those with very high levels of HDL) and in certain circumstances -- be dysfunctional and pro-inflammatory," and contribute to narrowing of the arteries. (
  • Low-density lipoprotein is unhealthy cholesterol that results in clogged arteries, while high-density lipoprotein is healthy cholesterol that pushes LDL ou. (
  • All non-HDL particles carry their cholesterol from the liver and deposit it in the walls of arteries, whereas cholesterol on HDL is carried in the opposite direction. (
  • The implication of this is that non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C) is "bad", as it causes "furring up of the arteries" (atherosclerosis), which can lead to cardiovascular disease such as heart attacks and strokes. (
  • Without sufficient HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol can build up on the walls of the arteries, causing them to thin and potentially causing blockages. (
  • The study involves CSL112, an infusible and natural human formulation of Apolipoprotein A-1 (ApoA-1), the key protein in HDL particles that transports cholesterol from arteries and other tissues into the liver for disposal. (
  • LDL cholesterol is considered the "bad" cholesterol, because it contributes to fatty buildups in arteries ( atherosclerosis ). (
  • Experts believe that HDL acts as a scavenger, carrying LDL (bad) cholesterol away from the arteries and back to the liver, where the LDL is broken down and passed from the body. (
  • Relation of serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels to the amount and extent of coronary arterial narrowing by atherosclerotic plaque in coronary heart disease: quantitative analysis of 2,037 five mm segments of 160 major epicardial coronary arteries in 40 necropsy patients. (
  • While high-density lipoprotein, or HDL, the so-called good cholesterol, is transferred to the liver for processing, low-density lipoprotein, or LDL, builds up in the arteries in the form of plaque. (
  • HDL promotes the removal of excess lipid material from the arteries. (
  • The reason that so many doctors care about it is because cholesterol is involved in plaques in arteries and the disease process that causes strokes and heart attacks. (
  • HDL works in a number of ways, but importantly it helps transport other cholesterol particles from tissues and blood back to the liver, including helping to remove "bad" or low-density liopoprotein (LDL) cholesterol from plaques in arteries. (
  • High concentrations of LDL cholesterol are associated with plaque formation in the arteries, and it is these plaques that can narrow arteries or rupture and cause heart attacks and strokes. (
  • Because these molecules transport cholesterol away from the arteries to the liver, HDL-C is commonly viewed as 'good' cholesterol and has been associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease. (
  • Yes, high LDL levels are bad news as a build up in LDL cholesterol can cause atherosclerosis (narrowing of the arteries) and other health complaints, but does a high level of HDL or good cholesterol always mean a healthy heart? (
  • Cholesterol plays an important role in the formation of some hormones, bile and Vitamin D. However, LDL cholesterol is atherogenic, which means that high LDL levels can cause plaques (or fatty deposits) to build up in your arteries, when the arteries narrow in this way it is difficult for the blood to get through to your organs. (
  • As HDL collects up LDL cholesterol, it stops it from building up in the arteries and causing potential problems. (
  • LDL cholesterol moves cholesterol into your arteries. (
  • HDL cholesterol moves cholesterol out of your arteries. (
  • I like to think of HDL as a vacuum cleaner, picking up cholesterol LDL leaves behind in your arteries. (
  • Unhealthy cholesterol levels (too much of the 'bad' fats in your blood) increase your risk of heart disease by clogging and damaging your arteries. (
  • Shad Thaxton, M.D., assistant professor of urology in Northwestern's Feinberg School of Medicine said: 'Cholesterol is essential to our cells, but chronic excess can lead to dangerous plaque formation in our arteries. (
  • The American Heart Association recommends that everyone restrict these foods, as they contain trans and saturated fats, the 'bad' kind that raises LDL cholesterol and leads to plaque buildup in the arteries. (
  • HDL, or high-density lipoprotein , is a protective form of cholesterol that carries bad cholesterol away from the arteries and into the liver where it can be broken down and eliminated from the body. (
  • HDL cholesterol is good because it carries extra cholesterol from the blood stream to the liver where it is broken down before it can form plaques in arteries. (
  • When a person has too much LDL cholesterol circulating in the blood, it can slowly build up within the walls of the arteries feeding the heart and brain. (
  • Medical experts think HDL tends to carry cholesterol away from the arteries and back to the liver, where it's passed from the body. (
  • In fact, there's good reason to question the reigning " lipid hypothesis ", which posits that dietary cholesterol clogs the arteries and leads to heart disease. (
  • LDL (bad) cholesterol builds up in the arteries not from how many omelets you eat, but in response to inflammation. (
  • For many years HDL cholesterol has been called 'good' because it carries plaque-forming particles from your arteries and bloodstream back to your liver where they can be removed from your body. (
  • It can clear plaque-forming particles from your arteries, and carry them to your liver, a thousand times faster than regular HDL does. (
  • Diabetics are at high risk for forming plaques that cause heart attacks because diabetes impairs the ability of (Nascent) HDL cholesterol to clear the bad LDL cholesterol from your arteries (Cardiovasc Diabetol, 2017 Oct 12;16(1):132). (
  • However, some people with very high blood HDL levels are at increased risk for heart attacks because their protective Nascent HDL is converted so fast to regular HDL that they lose the benefit of the Nascent HDL protecting them from forming plaques in their arteries. (
  • Current Cholesterol Guidelines LDL cholesterol is considered to be 'bad' because in its oxidized form, it carries certain particles into the inner linings of arteries to form plaques. (
  • In contrast to LDL-cholesterol that has a reputation for clogging arteries, experts believed HDL helped reverse the damage by removing fat deposits from the arterial wall and reducing the build-up of plaque that contributes to heart disease. (
  • LDL carries cholesterol throughout the body and delivers it to cells that need it, but it also has the tendency to build up in the inner walls of arteries and turn to plaque. (
  • In contrast, HDL, produced by the liver, sucks up cholesterol and plaque from the walls of arteries and transports it back to the liver where the liver can safely recycle it. (
  • Long thought to be protective, as the women progressed through menopause, those with higher levels of HDL-cholesterol actually had a greater accumulation of plaque within the walls of their arteries. (
  • HDL keeps arteries young. (
  • LDL leaves a lot of extra cholesterol lying around, where it can form hard stuff called "plaque" in arteries. (
  • Your body needs some cholesterol, but too much can build up on the walls of your arteries and can lead to heart disease and stroke. (
  • Medical experts believe that HDL or good cholesterol carries the bad cholesterol away from the arteries and back to the liver where it is processed and passed from the body. (
  • Natural News) According to a study, if you want to effectively lower your low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL or "bad" cholesterol) you must replace saturated fats with unsaturated fat. (
  • Other factors that increase LDL cholesterol include eating a diet rich in saturated fats and processed foods, being overweight, and getting limited physical activity. (
  • Most diets recommend limiting fat and cholesterol intake, specifically saturated fats and trans fatty acids, and increasing the intake of plant steroids and fiber. (
  • Dietary attempts to increase HDL include reducing saturated fats intake to less than 7% of total caloric need. (
  • You've probably heard that fried foods of all kinds, partially-hydrogenated oils, and saturated fats (especially from processed meats) are cholesterol bombs that are best avoided (and not just by those watching their cholesterol levels). (
  • These are saturated fats, cholesterol and obesity. (
  • Most of the cholesterol in our bloodstream (75%) is produced by the liver, and the remaining 25% comes from the foods we eat. (
  • HDL (high-density lipoprotein), or "good" cholesterol, absorbs cholesterol and carries it back to the liver. (
  • HDL removes LDL from artery walls and ferries it to the liver for processing or removal. (
  • The liver then packages these triglycerides as fats in your adipose tissue, and turns some of it into cholesterol. (
  • HDL plays a major role in reverse cholesterol transport, mobilizing cholesterol from the periphery to promote return to the liver. (
  • Next, it removes the LDL cholesterol by carrying it to the liver to be broken down and removed from the body. (
  • Apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) is the primary protein present in HDL, providing the structure of the molecule that allows it to transfer cholesterol out of the artery wall and deliver it to the liver, from which cholesterol is excreted. (
  • Smoking even in small amounts can actually suppress the HDL release from the liver," says Zaric. (
  • Your liver makes cholesterol, and it is also in some foods, such as meat and dairy products. (
  • It is sometimes called the "good" cholesterol because it carries cholesterol from other parts of your body back to your liver. (
  • Your liver then removes the cholesterol from your body. (
  • HDL transports cholesterol to the liver, which protects against atherosclerosis. (
  • HDL travels throughout the bloodstream, collecting cholesterol and carrying it back to the liver for breakdown and disposal. (
  • 1 This relationship is supported by the potential antiatherogenic properties of HDL, including its mediation of reverse cholesterol transport, in which cholesterol from peripheral tissues is returned to the liver for excretion in the bile. (
  • Reverse cholesterol transport describes the transfer of cholesterol from nonhepatic cells to the liver. (
  • HDL accounts for ~1/3 of all blood circulating cholesterol and serves as a protective mechanism from the development of heart disease by carrying away cholesterol from vessel walls and plaque to the liver for disposal. (
  • Once HDL has removed LDL cholesterol, it transports it to the liver where it is reprocessed. (
  • HDL moves through the bloodstream and picks up excess LDL particles before returning them to the liver for disposal. (
  • Less commonly, genetic causes can decrease the ability of the body to metabolize cholesterol or cause the liver to produce too much cholesterol. (
  • High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is called the 'good' cholesterol because it absorbs LDL 'bad' cholesterol and carries it back to the liver, which helps remove it from your body. (
  • Family history and genetic predisposition to high cholesterol, aging (men older than 45 and women older than 55), and diseases that cause the liver to produce more cholesterol or prevent it from metabolizing cholesterol are risk factors for high cholesterol. (
  • In this work, we show that mice with liver-specific triple FoxO knockout (L-FoxO1,3,4), which are known to have reduced hepatic glucose production, also have increased HDL-C. This was associated with decreased expression of HDL-C clearance factors, scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) and hepatic lipase, and defective selective uptake of HDL-cholesteryl ester by the liver. (
  • These findings demonstrate that hepatic FoxOs are required for cholesterol homeostasis and HDL-mediated reverse cholesterol transport to the liver. (
  • One of these stems from their ability to remove excess cellular cholesterol for processing in the liver---a process called reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). (
  • It is HDL's job to remove the LDL cholesterol from the blood stream, by collecting it up and transporting it to the liver to be reprocessed. (
  • The mutation was preventing the HDL cholesterol from transporting the LDL cholesterol to the liver for reprocessing. (
  • HDL removes cholesterol from your bloodstream and carries it back to the liver. (
  • So that should mean that raising HDL, which shuttles cholesterol from artery walls back to the liver for excretion, should prevent cardiovascular problems as well. (
  • HDL picks up cholesterol from the blood and delivers it to cells that can use it or to the liver to be recycled or eliminated from the body. (
  • LDL is known as "bad" cholesterol because it transports cholesterol from the liver throughout the body, potentially allowing it to be deposited in artery walls. (
  • HDL cholesterol functions to collect the harmful, artery-clogging cholesterol to remove it to the liver for excretion from the body through bile. (
  • An exciting new study from Texas Medical Center shows that regular HDL cholesterol may not be very effective in doing this, but another form called Nascent HDL carries these protein-fats much more quickly to your liver to be removed from your circulation (Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, Nov 21, 2017). (
  • The Nascent HDL cholesterol goes directly to your liver and skips being converted to the mature form of HDL. (
  • They move the cholesterol from your blood and artery walls to your liver for removal from your body. (
  • Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) takes cholesterol from the liver to the rest of the body. (
  • It brings extra cholesterol from other parts of the body back to the liver. (
  • HDL is known as the "good" cholesterol because it helps remove cholesterol by carrying it back to the liver where it can be eliminated from the body. (
  • Your liver also makes high density protein, or HDL, also known as the good cholesterol. (
  • HDL returns the excess cholesterol to your liver, which removes it from your body. (
  • Cholesterol is a type of waxy fat created by your liver or introduced to your body through the foods you eat. (
  • HDL cholesterol, on the other hand, is considered 'good,' because it helps to clear fats from the bloodstream, returning these molecules to the liver, where they are removed as waste. (
  • Cholesterols are only found in animal products, or are produced by the liver. (
  • In a healthy individual, the liver will make all the cholesterol you need to maintain your body's normal function. (
  • We all know that elevated blood cholesterol levels are not good for your health, but the right levels of cholesterol actually play a vital role in maintaining cell membranes and synthesizing hormones. (
  • Another key player is high-density lipoprotein (HDL), the "good" cholesterol. (
  • The good news about this good cholesterol is that simple lifestyle changes can help boost HDL, reports the June 2008 issue of Harvard Women's Health Watch . (
  • Avoid trans fats, which increase bad cholesterol and decrease good cholesterol. (
  • High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is often referred to as the "good" cholesterol. (
  • Here are nine healthy ways to raise your "good" HDL cholesterol. (
  • High-density lipoprotein, or HDL, is commonly known as the "good" cholesterol. (
  • It turns out, getting too much HDL can be a bad thing, even if it's called the "good cholesterol," according to a study presented at the European Society of Cardiology Congress. (
  • Doctors consider HDL cholesterol the "good" cholesterol, and they interpret its levels in the opposite manner of LDL. (
  • Turns out it wasn't the famed Mediterranean diet at work, but rather a variation of a protein in HDL cholesterol (the good kind) called ApoA-1 Milano. (
  • A patient's HDL level indicates the amount of good cholesterol in the bloodstream, explains Mayo Clinic. (
  • High levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL), which is commonly referred to as "good cholesterol," are beneficial and a sign of good cardiovascular health. (
  • High HDL levels signify above all else, good overall cardiovascular health. (
  • Interestingly the way we look at cholesterol has changed dramatically in recent years due to new research suggesting that the key to healthy cholesterol is not as much about general cholesterol readings as it is about the ratio of good cholesterol (HDL) t. (
  • U.S. drugmaker Merck & Co said it is taking steps to suspend availability of its drug Tredaptive after the medicine, used to raise 'good' HDL cholesterol, failed to prevent heart problems in a large study. (
  • Merck & Co said it is recalling Tredaptive, its medicine to raise 'good' HDL cholesterol levels, in overseas markets where it is sold, after it failed to prevent heart problems in a large study and raised safety concerns. (
  • Quitting now can boost your good cholesterol, lower your LDL and triglycerides, as well as provide a host of other health-friendly benefits. (
  • How can cholesterol be good? (
  • That said, existing research shows boosting your HDL is good for heart health and may help prevent coronary disease, says Maja Zaric, MD, interventional cardiologist at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City and a Women's Health advisor. (
  • If your BMI is higher than 25, losing weight isn't just all-around good for you-it can also up your HDL levels. (
  • To raise your HDL level, you need to eat good fats instead of bad fats. (
  • Northwestern University scientists now offer a promising new weapon -- synthetic high-density lipoprotein (HDL), the "good" cholesterol -- that could help fight chronically high cholesterol levels and the deadly heart disease that often results. (
  • Drugs that lower the bad cholesterol, LDL, are available, and you can lower LDL through your diet, but it is difficult to raise the good cholesterol, HDL," said Mirkin. (
  • HDL-C: Is It Time to Stop Calling It the 'Good' Cholesterol? (
  • Nearly every consumer story on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) will include the phrase "good cholesterol. (
  • HDL can be a good, bad, or neutral particle," he said, explaining by phone that it is the surface proteins that confer the cardioprotective effects. (
  • he finds that they help patients realize that total cholesterol alone is not a good metric. (
  • For 95% of people, it [HDL-C] is good," he said. (
  • HDL got its good name primarily because of its role in reverse cholesterol transport as the body's Roomba®, vacuuming up cholesterol from macrophages. (
  • On the other hand, elevated levels of high-density lipoprotein or 'good' cholesterol is protective against heart disease. (
  • News : Could Too Much 'Good' HDL Cholesterol Be Bad for Your Heart? (
  • MONDAY, Aug. 27, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- When it comes to protecting one's heart, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol -- or HDL -- has long had a reputation of being the "good" cholesterol, compared to the "bad" cholesterol -- LDL (low-density lipoprotein). (
  • Historically, HDL cholesterol, or 'good' cholesterol, is thought to be protective at high levels for cardiovascular disease and death," said study lead author Dr. Marc Allard-Ratick, who's with Emory University School of Medicine in Atlanta. (
  • In others words, the so-called 'good' cholesterol in terms of cardiovascular risk could go 'bad' and be associated with excess risk," added Fonarow, who was not part of the team behind the new study. (
  • HDL stands for high density lipoprotein and is considered good cholesterol. (
  • Increasing levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL or 'good cholesterol') may reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke in patients with diabetes , a study has found. (
  • Raising their good cholesterol may be one more way for these patients to reduce their risk. (
  • Dr Dermot Neely, from the cholesterol charity Heart UK, said that the study confirmed the importance of considering HDL levels in people with diabetes, even if their LDL levels are good. (
  • On the other hand, HDL cholesterol is good, as it tends to reduce atherosclerosis. (
  • Put simply, triglycerides are fats in the blood, LDL cholesterol is linked to health issues and HDL is often classes as "good" cholesterol . (
  • HDL cholesterol is considered protective, which gives it the reputation of being a "good" cholesterol. (
  • Although better transportation of these proteins sounds like good news for our HDL count that does not mean that consuming alcohol is a healthy lifestyle choice. (
  • For a long time we have associated "good" cholesterol with a lower risk of heart disease , and there are plenty of studies to back up this idea. (
  • However, more recent research is now suggesting that perhaps "good" cholesterol is not quite as good as we have been lead to believe . (
  • Researchers at Cleveland Clinic reported today that administration of a new drug- evacetrapib - can dramatically increase HDL (good) cholesterol, while significantly lowering LDL (bad) cholesterol). (
  • An intravenous infusion of good cholesterol could reduce the risk of a subsequent heart attack, researchers reported at the American Heart Association's Scientific Sessions 2012. (
  • A just released study on the benefits of HDL (the "good") cholesterol-raising drugs has shown disappointing results. (
  • The fact that HDL ("good") cholesterol helps to "sweep up" LDL ("bad") cholesterol in the bloodstream remains unchanged, of course. (
  • Your cholesterol ratio, which compares your total cholesterol to your HDL, or 'good,' cholesterol, can help better assess your risk. (
  • In order to understand cholesterol ratios, it's good to know a bit more about the different types of cholesterol. (
  • But if a person has high HDL cholesterol (the good kind), it can cause elevated cholesterol overall. (
  • HDL cholesterol can be thought of as the "good" cholesterol. (
  • A high triglyceride level combined with high LDL (bad) cholesterol or low HDL (good) cholesterol is linked with fatty buildups within the artery walls, which increases the risk of heart attack and stroke. (
  • A completely biodegradable synthetic version of the so-called good cholesterol, the nanoparticles represent a potential new detection and therapy regimen for atherosclerosis. (
  • Is HDL the good cholesterol or the bad cholesterol? (
  • Zocdoc › Answers › Is HDL the good cholesterol or the bad cholesterol? (
  • Cholesterol is a confusing concept for many people and the goals for having good control continue to change. (
  • This is where good cholesterol and bad cholesterol come into play. (
  • First, let me say a little about the "good" form of cholesterol, known as high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. (
  • A new discovery, from researchers we fund, challenges existing theories of 'good' cholesterol and risk of heart disease. (
  • What is 'good' cholesterol? (
  • We found that people carrying a rare genetic mutation causing higher levels of the so-called 'good' HDL-cholesterol are, unexpectedly, at greater risk of heart disease. (
  • Although, there is some truth in this idea, it isn't as clear-cut as we all think and there is new evidence that shows that HDL cholesterol is not always good. (
  • Is high HDL cholesterol always good? (
  • Knowing that cholesterol problems can cause such a negative impact on your health is a good incentive to learn all about cholesterol. (
  • These lifestyle changes are all natural and healthy ways to raise your HDL level, however a sudden rise in cholesterol levels can be a sign of something that may not be as good for your health. (
  • High HDL levels did not help, which led to the question is high HDL cholesterol always good? (
  • The studies have established that elevated HDL cholesterol levels are not always good for you, but are they actually connected to heart problems? (
  • Total cholesterol is a measurement of both good and bad cholesterol. (
  • The good news is that many of the factors that affect cholesterol, such as your diet, are within your control. (
  • In this video, Robin Miller, MD, explains how omega-3 fats in salmon can boost your good, HDL cholesterol levels. (
  • It's good for your cholesterol and it may help prevent cancer. (
  • HDL is the good for your kind of cholesterol. (
  • The inflammation dampening that results from high HDL may also discourage the survival, growth, and spread of various tumor cells, having high HDL won't guarantee that you will never get cancer, and more research is needed confirm the link, but the latest research, it's just one more good reason in addition to the already known high health benefit to pull through your HDL levels. (
  • A new study finds that 'good' cholesterol is damaged by a sugar-derived substance, methylglyoxal (MG), was found to damage the 'good' cholesterol High Density Lipoprotein - HDL - which removes excess levels of bad cholesterol from the body. (
  • Recent research has given hope of effective cholesterol control with the new weapon - synthetic high-density lipoprotein (HDL), the 'good' cholesterol. (
  • Just as there are options that raise your bad cholesterol, there are heart-healthy superfoods that naturally raise HDL (the 'good' kind of cholesterol), and lower LDL, effectively protecting you from heart disease and stroke. (
  • The HDL Conundrum: What's Bad about Drugs for Good Cholesterol? (
  • The AIM-HIGH trial using Abbott's drug Niaspan in conjunction with a statin that lowers LDL cholesterol- LDL "bad," HDL "good," probably a macro in some health reporters' laptops-showed that the drug worked as billed. (
  • In the case of HDL, high levels in the blood are a good thing as they tend to lower cholesterol related health risks. (
  • Doctors used to think that taking in any type of carbohydrates would lower blood levels of the good HDL cholesterol. (
  • Then an article in Lancet (March 27, 1999) showed that foods that cause a rapid rise in blood sugar, such as bakery products, pastas, potatoes and sugary desserts, are the ones that lower blood levels of the good HDL cholesterol. (
  • You lower your blood levels of the good HDL cholesterol by eating bakery products, sugary foods, pastas, roots such a potatoes and refined carbohydrates such as corn flakes. (
  • You can raise blood levels of the good HDL by eating whole grains, beans, vegetables and fruits. (
  • Results reveal total cholesterol as well as levels of LDL and HDL (the "bad" and "good" subtypes). (
  • A large study of 25,000 adults has made interesting discoveries about HDL - or good - cholesterol. (
  • So be sure that along with lowering bad (LDL) cholesterol you boost good (HDL) cholesterol and control inflammation . (
  • 4. Raise your good cholesterol! (
  • We tend to focus on the negative, but it's equally important to raise your good cholesterol. (
  • Some of the Nascent HDL eventually forms HDL, so a test for regular HDL may sometimes predict the amount you have of this newly identified 'good' Nascent HDL. (
  • Today, if your bad LDL cholesterol is greater than 100, your doctor will prescribe lifestyle changes and probably drugs to help prevent a heart attack -- even if your 'good' HDL is high. (
  • People with high levels of the bad LDL cholesterol are at increased risk for suffering heart attacks, even if they have high levels of the good HDL cholesterol, and in some people, very high levels of HDL cholesterol are associated with increased risk for heart attacks. (
  • BUFFALO, N.Y. - Several studies in recent years have shown that high cholesterol is associated with an increased risk of lesions in the brains of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the impact of HDL cholesterol - high-density lipoprotein, commonly referred to as "good" cholesterol - on the disease has not been clear. (
  • New Zealand researchers say that calcium supplements can boost levels of HDL (good) cholesterol in postmenopausal women. (
  • Contrary to popular belief, HDL cholesterol isn't always good for your heart. (
  • A new study by Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) researchers has found that a subclass of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, the so-called good cholesterol, may not protect against coronary heart disease (CHD) and in fact may be harmful. (
  • The researchers, led by Sacks and Majken Jensen, research associate in the Department of Nutrition at HSPH, examined whether the existence or absence of apoC-III on HDL cholesterol affected the good cholesterol's heart-protective qualities, and whether its existence could differentiate HDL cholesterol into two subclasses - those which protect against the risk of future heart disease and those which do not. (
  • For years, physicians and even cardiologists have called HDL-cholesterol the "good" cholesterol. (
  • It's not clear why good cholesterol may turn bad. (
  • They call HDL "good cholesterol. (
  • Some studies have found that lower-extremity exercise such as bicycling and strength training is good for HDL. (
  • 9. Eat other good things for HDL. (
  • Numerous studies have indicated that a low plasma level of HDL cholesterol (the "good" cholesterol) is associated with an increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD), according to background information in the article. (
  • It's good to have a high HDL number. (
  • This is why HDL is called the good cholesterol. (
  • As a result, it is known as the 'good' cholesterol, in comparison to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) , which is known as the 'bad' kind. (
  • Why Is HDL Good? (
  • HDL cholesterol is good because it helps move extra cholesterol through your body, keeping it from building up on artery walls. (
  • The good news is that raising good cholesterol levels is one more way for these patients to reduce their inflated risk for heart disease. (
  • In any case, it is a good idea to attempt to raise HDL levels (see How to Boost Your Good Cholesterol Levels), because they are healthful for all of us. (
  • Raising 'good' cholesterol levels reduces heart attack and stroke risk in diabetes patients," Kaiser Permanente, Oct. 7, 2011. (
  • There is a strong and important relationship between the level of good cholesterol that people have in their blood and their risk of getting cancer. (
  • It's apoA1 that normally gives HDL its cardio-protective qualities, but Dr. Hazen and his colleagues have discovered that in the artery wall during atherosclerosis, a large proportion of apoA1 becomes oxidized and no longer contributes to cardiovascular health, but rather, contributes to the development of coronary artery disease. (
  • The research also points toward new therapeutic targets for pharmaceuticals, such as those designed to prevent the formation of dysfunctional HDL and the development or progression of atherosclerosis. (
  • LDL cholesterol is an unhealthy form of cholesterol that collects in the walls of blood vessels and causes blockages of atherosclerosis. (
  • This review article summarizes recent research into the mechanisms as to how elevated levels of triglyceride (TG) and low levels of high- density- lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) contribute to inflammation and atherosclerosis. (
  • LDL is the "bad cholesterol" a high level of these in the blood stream is often thought to be the cause, in part, to several conditions such as heart disease and atherosclerosis. (
  • A cholesterol crystal is a solid, crystalline form of cholesterol found in gallstones and atherosclerosis. (
  • Cholesterol crystals are a hallmark of atherosclerosis, which is believed to be an early cause of atherosclerotic inflammation. (
  • The researchers found that participants' HDL levels increased significantly more after they consumed the olive oil with the highest polyphenol content ( 6 ). (
  • Thirty years ago, researchers discovered that, despite unhealthy cholesterol levels, 40 inhabitants of the village of Limone sul Garda were seemingly immune to heart disease. (
  • But when Ohio University researchers studied the impact of weight training on older men, they discovered a surprising side effect: The men who did lower-body work-squats, leg extensions, leg presses-twice a week for 16 weeks raised their HDL levels by 19 percent. (
  • However, when Canadian researchers recently compared a steady diet of the stuff with regular consumption of lean beef and chicken, they found that the fish-eating folks experienced a 26 percent increase in HDL2, a particularly protective form of HDL. (
  • Researchers are cautioned to interpret trends in HDL cholesterol for NHANES 1999-2008 in view of probable HDL cholesterol method effects. (
  • The researchers modeled the life-course of non-HDL-C levels over about 30 years to gauge how reliably elevations in cholesterol in early adulthood persist. (
  • Researchers discovered that they were unable to create new aneurysms in the mice that received the HDL injections, and these mice also showed a significant reduction in the size of their existing aneurysms. (
  • The researchers found that both low and high HDL-C levels were associated with higher risks of dying during follow-up compared with intermediate HDL-C levels, forming a U-shaped relationship between HDL-C and mortality risk. (
  • The researchers successfully designed synthetic HDL and show that their nanoparticle version is capable of irreversibly binding cholesterol. (
  • In creating synthetic HDL the researchers started with a gold nanoparticle as the core. (
  • [ 7 ] The researchers hypothesized that extremely high levels may reflect dysfunctional HDL-C. (
  • At the study's end, the researchers concluded that patients with HDL levels in the middle-range of the spectrum -- meaning between 41 to 60 mg/dL of blood -- fared the best, having the lowest risk for heart attack or death from heart disease. (
  • In contrast, those with HDL readings below 41 or above 60 faced a markedly increased risk for both health outcomes, demonstrating what the researchers called a "U-shaped" risk pattern. (
  • Researchers studied markers of cholesterol movement in response to a single infusion of CSL112 at doses ranging from 5 to 135 mg/kg in 57 healthy volunteers. (
  • Researchers have used reconstituted versions of HDL from blood, which will always have its drawbacks," Marrache said. (
  • The researchers used an FDA-approved biodegradable polymer as a matrix and mixed it with cholesterol ester, a component in natural HDL, to create the high-density lipoprotein core. (
  • Researchers may also now move away from potentially ineffective HDL-raising drugs to treat heart disease onto a more targeted approach. (
  • However, among women, high total cholesterol was more prevalent in non-Hispanic white adults (14.8%) than in Hispanic adults (9%), according to the researchers. (
  • Prevalence of low HDL was greater in Hispanic adults (24.7%) than in non-Hispanic black adults (12.2%), non-Hispanic white adults (17.6%) or non-Hispanic Asian adults (16.4%), with similar patterns seen in men and women, according to the researchers. (
  • There are currently no drugs that can reverse low levels of HDL, but the Warwick researchers argue that by discovering how MG damages HDL has provided new potential strategies for reducing MG levels. (
  • Researchers believe it could fight chronically high cholesterol levels and the deadly heart disease that often results due to higher cholestrol. (
  • The researchers reported that the diet improved HDL function by 6.4 percent among study participants of normal weight. (
  • Researchers have found that all HDL-cholesterol is not created equal. (
  • A new study published by Harvard researchers describes how some high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterols may contain a small protein, apolipoprotein C-III, which increases the risk of heart disease. (
  • The researchers compared plasma concentrations of total HDL, HDL that has apoC-III, and HDL without apoC-III as predictors of the risk of CHD. (
  • After adjusting for age, smoking status, and other dietary and lifestyle cardiovascular risk factors, the researchers found that two different subclasses of HDL have opposite associations with the risk of CHD in apparently healthy men and women. (
  • Certain data in all three studies were collected during the period of January 1976 through July 2007, with researchers analyzing data on HDL cholesterol levels and the association between IHD and HDL cholesterol and genotype. (
  • The researchers found that heterozygotes vs. noncarriers for 4 ABCA1 mutations (P1065S, G1216V, N1800H, R2144X) had HDL cholesterol levels of 41 mg/dL vs. 58 mg/dL, corresponding to a reduction in HDL cholesterol of 17 mg/dL. (
  • Although statins reduce the risk of major vascular events by about one-fifth per millimole per liter reduction in LDL cholesterol, with similar proportional reductions in major coronary events, stroke, and the need for coronary revascularization, the residual risk remains high. (
  • The question whether hypertriglyceridemia causes coronary artery disease (CAD) or is simply a marker for the accompanying lipoprotein abnormalities (especially low HDL cholesterol levels and small dense LDL particles) is still controversial. (
  • In a meta-analysis of 17 population-based prospective studies, increased plasma TG levels were associated with increased coronary disease risk in both men and women, after adjustment for HDL cholesterol and other risk factors ( 7 ). (
  • In a more recent meta-analysis, adjustment for established coronary risk factors, especially HDL cholesterol, substantially attenuated the magnitude of risk associated with high TG levels, leaving an odds ratio of about 1.7 in individuals with TG levels in the top third of the population, compared with those in the bottom third ( 8 ). (
  • The US National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) redefined the HDL cholesterol level that constitutes a formal coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factor. (
  • A prospective analysis by Mora et al investigated the link between cholesterol and cardiovascular events in women and found baseline HDL-C level was consistently and inversely associated with incident coronary and CVD events across a range of LDL-C values. (
  • The common, mild forms of HA have no characteristic physical findings, but patients may have premature coronary heart or peripheral vascular disease, as well as a family history of low HDL cholesterol levels and premature CHD. (
  • the risk of a coronary event is thought to increase 2% for every 1% decrease in HDL cholesterol. (
  • Determining what is a healthy cholesterol reading is vital in determining your overall coronary health. (
  • But having too much cholesterol in your blood raises your risk of coronary artery disease . (
  • With HDL cholesterol, higher numbers are better, because a high HDL level can lower your risk for coronary artery disease and stroke . (
  • The Veterans Affairs High-Density Lipoprotein Intervention Trial showed a reduction in coronary artery disease events when gemfibrozil was given to men with low baseline HDL-C levels. (
  • It has long been known that such conditions as acute coronary syndrome, [ 15 ] diabetes, or systemic inflammation can alter HDL from a cardioprotective particle to one that promotes inflammation and LDL oxidation. (
  • Prevention studies such as the Coronary Primary Prevention Trial and the Helsinki Heart Study have shown that lowering LDL and raising HDL cholesterol levels significantly decreases the risk for heart disease. (
  • Epidemiological and clinical studies provide evidence that HDL-C levels are linked to rates of coronary events. (
  • Coronary heart disease risks associated with high levels of HDL cholesterol. (
  • Total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol values are used for determining the risk factors for coronary heart disease. (
  • Studies have shown that non-HDL cholesterol is a better predictor of coronary heart disease than LDL cholesterol, especially in individuals with high triglyceride levels, or people with diabetes who have lower LDL cholesterol levels. (
  • A high HDL cholesterol number lowers your risk for coronary heart disease. (
  • If you have diabetes, family history of coronary disease or smoke, you may need treatment for high cholesterol, says Thomas Lambert, MD, a cardiologist at MountainView Hospital. (
  • Low HDL levels are thought to increase the risk of coronary heart disease in individuals who are otherwise thought to be healthy. (
  • But a high level of cholesterol in the blood - hypercholesterolemia - is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease, which causes heart attacks. (
  • Studies have suggested that each increase of four milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) of HDL in blood reduces the risk of adverse coronary events by 10 percent. (
  • As a general rule, higher levels of cholesterol mean higher risk of coronary heart disease. (
  • A high level of HDL cholesterol is strongly predictive of a low incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD). (
  • Frequency of Cholesterol Crystals in Culprit Coronary Artery Aspirate During Acute Myocardial Infarction and Their Relation to Inflammation and Myocardial Injury" (PDF). (
  • For the metabolic syndrome in which multiple mild abnormalities in lipids, waist size (abdominal circumference), blood pressure, and blood sugar increase the risk of CHD, the designated HDL cholesterol levels that contribute to the syndrome are sex-specific. (
  • The cluster of lipid abnormalities associated with type 2 diabetes is defined by a high concentration of TG and small dense LDL and a low concentration of HDL cholesterol. (
  • Therapy to raise the concentration of HDL cholesterol includes weight loss, smoking cessation, aerobic exercise, and pharmacologic management with niacin and fibrates. (
  • The patient also had a lipid panel drawn (presumably because it was a visit to his family physician who ordered this as a routine) and was found to have an undetectable concentration of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C).2 Other laboratory data are summarized in Table 1. (
  • The long-term daily consumption of 300 g yoghurt over a period of 21 weeks (control and synbiotic) increased the serum concentration of HDL cholesterol and lead to the desired improvement of the LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio. (
  • HDL cholesterol also may have a protective effect on the blood vessels, and a high level of HDL in your body may keep cardiovascular disease from developing. (
  • The beneficial and cardio-protective properties of HDL have been studied and reported extensively, yet all clinical trials of pharmaceuticals designed to raise HDL levels have so far failed to show that they significantly improve cardiovascular health. (
  • These data provide further evidence of a biochemical link between cardiovascular disease and cholesterol gallstones and suggest that moderate alcohol intake has some protective effect against both diseases. (
  • The minimum level of HDL thought to be heart protective is 35 to 40 mg/dL. (
  • Yes, the epidemiology shows that high HDL is protective. (
  • Genetic studies looking at whether HDL is protective remain unconvincing. (
  • HDL levels of 60 mg/dL or above are classified as high and have been considered protective against heart disease. (
  • In the long run, this may help reduce your risk for heart disease by increasing levels of the most protective type of HDL-cholesterol. (
  • This finding, if confirmed in ongoing studies, could lead to better evaluation of risk of heart disease in individuals and to more precise targeting of treatments to raise the protective HDL or lower the unfavorable HDL with apoC-III," said Frank Sacks, professor of cardiovascular disease prevention at Harvard School of Public Health and senior author of the study. (
  • This is the first study to show that a small protein, apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III), that sometimes resides on the surface of HDL cholesterol may increase the risk of heart disease and that HDL cholesterol without this protein may be especially heart protective. (
  • But trials of drugs that increase HDL cholesterol have not consistently shown decreases in CHD, leading to the hypothesis that HDL cholesterol may contain both protective and nonprotective components. (
  • The major HDL type, which lacks apoC-III, had the expected heart-protective association with CHD. (
  • The results suggest that measuring HDL apoC-III and HDL without apoC-III rather than the simpler measure of total HDL may be a better gauge of heart disease risk (or of HDL's protective capacity). (
  • Is Hdl-Cholesterol Really Protective Against Heart Disease? (
  • The mechanisms by which HDL-C is protective against cancer have yet to be teased out, according to Dr. Karas, noting the current study does not imply a causal relationship. (
  • LDL and HDL are the two main types of cholesterol (blood fats, or lipids) that make up your total cholesterol. (
  • The nonpolar lipids (ie, cholesterol ester, triglycerides [TGs]) reside in a core surrounded by more polar components (eg, free cholesterol, phospholipids, proteins). (
  • HDL perform macrophage RCT by binding to forming foam cells and removing excess lipids by efflux transporters. (
  • Cholesterol and triglycerides are fats (lipids). (
  • They carry triglycerides, cholesterol and other fats (known as lipids) that are present in the blood to the various parts of the body. (
  • Animal studies indicate the same, but other blood lipids were changing along with the increase in HDL, possibly muddying the picture. (
  • Cholesterol produced in you body is a soft, waxy substance found among the lipids (fats) in the bloodstream and in all your body's cells. (
  • A review of 15 studies shows that the risk for heart attacks does not vary directly with the concentration of HDL in your bloodstream (Lipids in Health and Disease, November 14, 2017). (
  • Cholesterols and triglycerides are the two main types of fats (lipids) in the body. (
  • A man with a low HDL-cholesterol level-40 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl) or lower-can have as much as a three times greater risk of death from heart disease. (
  • Patients should aim for an HDL level above 60 milligrams per deciliter. (
  • Most people should aim for HDL levels of 60 milligrams per decilitre of blood or higher. (
  • HDL numbers below 40 milligrams per decilitre indicate an increased risk of heart attack. (
  • While a healthy total cholesterol is less than 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), the ideal ratio of total cholesterol to HDL is a bit more complicated. (
  • Doctors often encourage people with heart disease or at risk for it to attain high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels above 40 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). (
  • The American Heart Association recom-mends that your average daily intake of dietary cholesterol should be less than 300 milligrams. (
  • If your LDL cholesterol is more than 160 milligrams per deciliter of blood (mg/dL), it's high risk if you have 2 or more risk factors or if you have heart disease. (
  • Such report shows person's cholesterol levels in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) of blood. (
  • In 22%, HDL levels increased by at least 6.5 mg/dl (milligrams per deciliter of blood). (
  • HDL cholesterol binds with LDL (bad) cholesterol in the bloodstream. (
  • Now that we know what this dysfunctional protein looks like, we are developing a clinical test to measure its levels in the bloodstream, which will be a valuable tool for both assessing cardiovascular disease risk in patients and for guiding development of HDL-targeted therapies to prevent disease. (
  • The interim analysis of the study shows that a high dose of niacin, a B vitamin credited with the ability to increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in the bloodstream, taken in combination with statins does little if anything more to prevent heart attacks and strokes. (
  • LDL travels through your bloodstream, delivering cholesterol to the cells that need it. (
  • High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol functions to help clear fats from your bloodstream. (
  • As triglycerides enter the body, cholesterol moves them through the bloodstream. (
  • Since each LDL particle contains a single apoB molecule, the apoB level reflects particle number, thus not only accounting for both remnant and LDL particles but also the density of particles when expressed in relation to particle cholesterol content. (
  • Because it circumvents the measurement of triglycerides, it avoids the potential limitation of triglycerides as a mere marker of CHD risk and instead directly reflects the cholesterol content of all particles that may be proatherogenic. (
  • Through the action of cholesterol ester transfer protein, TGs are transferred from VLDL to HDL, creating TG-rich HDL particles, which are hydrolyzed by hepatic lipase and rapidly cleared from plasma ( 5 ). (
  • A similar cholesterol ester protein-mediated transfer of TGs from VLDL to LDL contributes to the formation of small dense LDL particles ( 6 ). (
  • Some HDL cholesterol particles lower heart attack and stroke risk. (
  • Loading up HDL particles with cholesterol in a bid to lower cardiovascular risk was a mistaken therapeutic strategy, he added. (
  • [ 3 ] Back in 2006, a case-control substudy using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy revealed that the modest increase in HDL-C masked a higher increase in total HDL particles, particularly the small HDL particles that are relatively cholesterol-poor. (
  • [ 4 ] The authors speculated that "higher numbers of HDL particles might promote greater cholesterol efflux and protection of LDL [low-density lipoprotein] from oxidative changes. (
  • It is the number of HDL particles and not the cholesterol content that is important," he said. (
  • By phone, Matthew Budoff, MD, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, agreed that total HDL particles are a better measure of the antiatherogenic features. (
  • He doesn't believe that very high HDL-C levels are necessarily bad, using the analogy of a barrel that is filled with ping-pong balls or basketballs to represent volume of HDL-C. "Some people will have very high levels of HDL-C and a lot of particles, so they're protected, but others will have high HDL-C and very few particles. (
  • The advantage of non-HDL-C measurement is that it accounts for cholesterol in the other potentially atherogenic lipoprotein particles, which include VLDL-C, IDL-C, LDL-C, and lipoprotein(a). (
  • These lipid-poor particles are increased in extravascular compartments where reverse cholesterol transport takes place. (
  • 3 The origin of HDL particles with pre-β-electrophoretic mobility is not entirely clear. (
  • Cholesterol in these nascent discoidal HDL particles is then esterified by lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). (
  • Cholesteryl esters readily move to the core of HDL particles, producing a steady gradient of free cholesterol and enabling HDL to accept cholesterol from various donors. (
  • The concerted action of CETP-mediated cholesteryl ester transfer and HL-mediated hydrolysis of triglycerides and phospholipids helps to form the smaller HDL particles that are the preferred binding partners for scavenger receptor type B1 (SR-B1), the major HDL receptor on hepatocytes. (
  • A 2014 study published in the journal PLoS One found that a diet rich in foods including fish, especially fatty fish, increased the size of HDL particles, which may help improve cholesterol transport throughout the body. (
  • Niacin, available over the counter, is the most effective HDL-raising medication available. (
  • Talk to your doctor about the potential of supplementing your cholesterol therapy with niacin, fibrates, or omega-3 fatty acids. (
  • I've taken niacin to try and raise my HDL, but the side effects are bad so I stopped. (
  • Yet HDL-C-raising drugs, including niacin [ 1 ] and cholesterylester transfer protein inhibitors, [ 2 ] failed to show a benefit in cardiovascular disease outcomes and multiple population studies show a U-shaped curve indicating a higher risk for all-cause mortality in people with very high levels. (
  • Other HDL drugs, such as niacin and fibrates, which do attack the underlying cause, gradually raise HDL and may prevent heart attacks years after the start of therapy. (
  • Less known in the public arena is that niacin is not only present in HDL-raising drugs but also in many foods we all consume every day, including dairy products, lean meats, poultry, fish, nuts, eggs and enriched breads and cereals. (
  • Raising HDL with niacin takes a back seat to lowering LDL with statins. (
  • Niacin (vitamin B3) in certain doses (as a supplement), may raise HDL levels. (
  • For example, taking high doses of the B-vitamin niacin raises HDL-cholesterol, but in human studies, didn't reduce the risk of heart disease more than a statin medication alone. (
  • The cardioprotective effects of HDL-C have been attributed to its role in reverse cholesterol transport, its effects on endothelial cells, and its antioxidant activity. (
  • Overall, CSL112 behaved as well or better than we expected and all the changes are consistent with the desired elevation in reverse cholesterol transport activity,' Gille said. (
  • The blood test report for cholesterol screening typically shows LDL, HDL, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. (
  • Sometimes referred to as a cholesterol test or lipid panel, this simple test will provide information on your LDL, HDL and triglyceride levels. (
  • The main goal of a treatment program is to lower total cholesterol levels, LDL ('bad') cholesterol levels and triglyceride levels. (
  • Ruth Frikke-Schmidt, M.D., Ph.D., of the University of Copenhagen, Denmark, and colleagues examined whether mutations in the gene ABCA1, which genetically reduce HDL cholesterol levels but do not increase plasma triglyceride levels, are associated with an increased risk of IHD. (
  • A cholesterol test will measure the total cholesterol in your blood, and your total cholesterol levels are made up of a combination of your LDL, HDL, and VLDL (very low density lipoprotein, another "bad" cholesterol) levels. (
  • When your health-care professional orders your blood cholesterol levels to be checked, he or she will interpret and discuss the results such as your cholesterol ratio and total cholesterol numbers (HDL, LDL, and VLDL), and what they each mean. (
  • Criteria for the definition of familial HAs are (1) a low HDL cholesterol level in the presence of normal VLDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels, (2) an absence of diseases or factors to which HA may be secondary, and (3) the presence of a similar lipoprotein pattern in a first-degree relative. (
  • Abcam's Cholesterol Assay Kit (ab65390) provides a simple quantification method of HDL and LDL/VLDL after a convenient separation of HDL from LDL and VLDL (very low-density lipoprotein) in serum samples. (
  • Serum HDL (top) and LDL/VLDL cholesterol (bottom) from 5-7 mice/group was measured using ab65390 following protocol instructions. (
  • The calculated LDL cholesterol level has been shown to be significantly different than a direct LDL cholesterol measurement by ultracentrifugation in type 2 diabetic patients ( 9 ). (
  • Recent data from two population-based cohorts in Copenhagen of over 100,000 people showed that all-cause mortality rates increased significantly for men with HDL-C levels above 97 mg/dL and for women above 135 mg/dL. (
  • Exercise significantly improves cholesterol levels and is particularly beneficial for raising HDL cholesterol. (
  • Moderate physical activity (as little as 30 minutes, three days a week of aerobic activity) is enough to increase HDL levels significantly. (
  • As stated in the review, resveratrol foods are shown to significantly increase HDL levels. (
  • HDL cholesterol (mean +/- SEM) rose significantly from 1.07 +/- 0.05 to 1.25 +/- 0.08 mmol/l (41.4 +/- 1.9 to 48.3 +/- 3.1 mg/dl) when alcohol was being consumed and fell to 1.04 +/- 0.06 mmol/l (40.2 +/- 2.3 mg/dl) during abstention. (
  • High-walnut-enriched diets significantly decrease total and LDL cholesterol. (
  • In this study, evacetrapib was able to show striking increases in HDL while significantly lowering LDL," said Dr. Nicholls. (
  • What this means is that diet- and lifestyle changes can significantly help increase HDL levels "naturally. (
  • The 12.4% prevalence of high total cholesterol in 2015-2016 was significantly lower than the 18.3% observed in 1999-2000, but there was no significant change between 2013-2014 and 2015-2016, Carroll and colleagues wrote. (
  • Low HDL prevalence declined significantly from 22.2% in 2007-2008 to 18.4% 2015-2016, but did not change significantly between 2013-2014 and 2015-2016, they wrote. (
  • it can significantly lower HDL. (
  • In a model including changes in weight, fitness, triglycerides, and glucose control and that adjusted for demographics and medical history, adiponectin changes remained significantly associated with HDL-C change. (
  • The HDL concentration increased significantly by 0.3 mmol/l (P=0.002). (
  • for some high cholesterol diet can increase their LDL and total cholesterol level much more significantly compared to others. (
  • High levels of LDL cholesterol raise your risk for heart disease and stroke. (
  • If you have high LDL cholesterol levels, your health care team may recommend cholesterol-lowering medicine and lifestyle changes to lower your risk for heart disease and stroke. (
  • According to a recent review of research on HDL, there's some evidence that increasing HDL can reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke even without changes in LDL. (
  • The higher your HDL cholesterol numbers, the lower your risk is for heart disease , vascular disease, and stroke . (
  • According to the American Heart Association, higher levels of HDL cholesterol have been conclusively shown to lower the risk of cardiovascular events such as heart attack and stroke. (
  • By now most of us know that having too much cholesterol floating around in our body is a sure fire recipe for falling prey to a heart attack, stroke, o. (
  • Cholesterol buildup can lead to severe health events such as heart attack or stroke. (
  • Higher levels of HDL have been shown to reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke. (
  • Having high cholesterol can bring a whole host of health risks with it, including stroke, angina, heart disease and heart attacks. (
  • High cholesterol is one of the biggest risk factors for heart attack, stroke and cardiovascular disease, according to the Cleveland Clinic . (
  • A healthy HDL cholesterol level may protect against heart attack and stroke. (
  • High cholesterol levels in the blood can cause fatty deposits in blood vessels which cause narrowing and may lead to heart attack , stroke , or peripheral artery disease . (
  • Normal total cholesterol associated with a high LDL may still increase the risk of heart disease and stroke . (
  • Blood tests are used to measure cholesterol levels as part of routine screening for risk factors for heart disease and stroke. (
  • For some time, we were led to believe that LDL cholesterol was the really bad variety, causing heart attacks, angina, heart disease and stroke. (
  • High blood triglycerides generally mean lower HDL cholesterol, higher risk of heart attack & stroke. (
  • Your HDL level means a lot for your risk of stroke, heart disease, kidney disease, and other kinds of blood vessel damage. (
  • Checking your risk for heart disease and stroke is as simple as getting a lipid panel , which tests your blood cholesterol. (
  • High triglycerides, low HDL, and/or high LDL numbers can increase your risk for heart attack and stroke. (
  • Some doctors' health advice for all those with type 2 diabetes: protect yourself from heart attacks and stroke by increasing your levels of HDL cholesterol. (
  • To calculate your cholesterol ratio, divide your total cholesterol number by your HDL cholesterol number. (
  • While this ratio can be helpful in assessing risk for heart disease, your doctor will take into account your entire cholesterol profile and tell you what treatment is best for you. (
  • What is the importance of knowing your HDL cholesterol ratio? (
  • The ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol is equally important in determining risk for heart disease and should be less than 5. (
  • Those who participated in a formal exercise program for 45 minutes daily for 3 1/2 days a week had an improvement in all blood lipid levels, including an increase in HDL cholesterol levels and a lower ratio of total to HDL cholesterol. (
  • High polyphenol chocolate is effective in improving the atherosclerotic cholesterol profile in patients with diabetes by increasing HDL cholesterol and improving the cholesterol:HDL ratio. (
  • What's a Healthy Cholesterol Ratio? (
  • Your doctor can order blood tests that reveal your ratio of total cholesterol to HDL. (
  • Is My Cholesterol Ratio Healthy? (
  • A cholesterol ratio compares a person's HDL cholesterol to the total cholesterol in the body, according to the Mayo Clinic . (
  • For example, if a person has an overall cholesterol level of 225 mg/dL and an HDL of 80 mg/dL, his or her cholesterol ratio is 2.8-to-1, also written as 2.8:1 or simplified to cholesterol ratio 2.8. (
  • Essentially, if a person has both high HDL and LDL, the ratio between the two can still be normal, even if their LDL cholesterol is in an unhealthy range. (
  • By comparing your total cholesterol number with your HDL cholesterol number, your healthcare provider can get another number called your total-cholesterol-to-HDL ratio. (
  • Your total-cholesterol-to-HDL ratio can be figured out by dividing your total cholesterol number by your HDL cholesterol number. (
  • Incorporating healthy omega 3 fatty acids will also improve your total cholesterol to HDL ratio. (
  • As LDL is lowered, your total cholesterol-to-HDL ratio improves. (
  • The ratio of LDL/HDL cholesterol decreased from 3.24 to 2.48 (P=0.001). (
  • At the end of the trial, HDL cholesterol levels and HDL to LDL ratio had increased more among women taking calcium supplements than in women taking placebo. (
  • That being said, the suggested measures to help boost HDL cholesterol are all very healthy. (
  • White blood cells combine with the LDL cholesterol, forming artery-narrowing plaque, which restricts blood flow. (
  • Plaque is made up of cholesterol deposits. (
  • Standard heart attack medications, such as aspirin and anti-platelet drugs, prevent clotting but don't help eliminate the underlying cause - cholesterol that has built up in artery plaque. (
  • In this way, HDL helps prevent plaque buildup and heart disease. (
  • Less LDL-cholesterol means less fatty plaque build-up in artery walls, reducing cardiovascular disease risk. (
  • LDL is known as the "bad" cholesterol because having too much LDL may cause a buildup of plaque in your blood vessels. (
  • LDL carries cholesterol into the plaque. (
  • HDL helps remove excess cholesterol from your cells, tissues, and plaque in your blood vessels. (
  • In addition to being a source of inflammation, cholesterol crystals are believed to cause mechanical injury by tearing tissue, causing plaque rupture. (
  • The optimal level of LDL cholesterol for most people is 100 mg/dL or lower. (
  • If you're overweight or obese, you can boost your HDL level by about 1 mg/dL for every seven pounds lost, although any amount of weight loss will help. (
  • Is it possible that a person have high LDL and Low HDL despite of normal cholesterol level? (
  • My LDL level is 132 and cholesterol is 210 and HDL is 63. (
  • Much of its risk may be attributed to the associated low HDL cholesterol level, along with contributions from all of the other related variables. (
  • Because of its simple calculation, the non-HDL cholesterol level is easily available to the clinician with every lipid profile ordered, thus eliminating any additional costs. (
  • A routine calculated LDL cholesterol level cannot circumvent most of these limitations. (
  • Your LDL cholesterol level should be below 70 mg/dL. (
  • However, it is still important to keep your HDL cholesterol at an adequate level. (
  • Lifestyle and diet modifications are the main way to prevent high LDL cholesterol , and to keep a healthy level of HDL cholesterol . (
  • For men, a high-risk HDL cholesterol level is still less than 40 mg/dL, but for women, the high-risk HDL cholesterol level is less than 50 mg/dL. (
  • In many cases, a high level of cholesterol is cause for alarm. (
  • High blood cholesterol level is linked to an elevated risk of heart disease and having a heart attack. (
  • Understanding the numbers involved with cholesterol level test results can be confusing, to say the least. (
  • A lower HDL level is a sign that there is room for improvement when it comes to making heart-healthy choices. (
  • How do I know what my HDL level is? (
  • What should my HDL level be? (
  • How can I raise my HDL level? (
  • If your HDL level is too low, lifestyle changes may help. (
  • You can boost your HDL level by losing weight, especially if you have lots of fat around your waist. (
  • Getting regular exercise can raise your HDL level, as well as lower your LDL. (
  • Smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke can lower your HDL level. (
  • Moderate alcohol may lower your HDL level, although more studies are needed to confirm that. (
  • What we do know is that too much alcohol can make you gain weight, and that lowers your HDL level. (
  • Some cholesterol medicines , including certain statins , can raise your HDL level, in addition to lowering your LDL level. (
  • But if you have a low HDL and high LDL level, you might need medicine. (
  • What else can affect my HDL level? (
  • If you are taking one of these and you have a very low HDL level, ask your provider if you should continue to take them. (
  • Diabetes can also lower your HDL level, so that gives you another reason to manage your diabetes . (
  • Washington, DC (August 11, 2016) -- A new study indicates that maintaining an intermediate level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) may help people live longer. (
  • Dysfunction appears to be independent of the HDL-C level. (
  • This has led to calls to focus on measuring HDL function, not HDL-C. [ 13 ] Assays that measure HDL efflux capacity have been shown to better predict cardiovascular events than HDL-C level. (
  • The genetic control of HDL level is complex but exists. (
  • Is a Cholesterol Level of 240 High? (
  • A low level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. (
  • The duration and level of exercise also parallel improvement in all aspects of cholesterol profile. (
  • For this reason, a high level of HDL cholesterol is considered to be very healthy. (
  • How do I find out my HDL level? (
  • Ideally, your HDL level should be higher than 60 mg/dL which is classed as high. (
  • As a low level of HDL cholesterol is likely to mean that your LDL level is high, then it is worth keeping track of your HDL level. (
  • What Is a Dangerous Cholesterol Level? (
  • One test measures a person's total cholesterol level. (
  • A healthy cholesterol level is no more than 5:1, according to the University of Rochester Medical Center . (
  • The result is related to HDL, but a person's LDL level remains important,' Dr. Eckel says. (
  • A healthy, non-HDL cholesterol level is less than 130 mg/dL. (
  • Be sure to have your cholesterol level checked regularly, per your doctor's instructions. (
  • It is well known that low levels of HDL and high level of LDL are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. (
  • In conclusion, in a large population of patients with type 2 diabetes and after adjustment for a wide variety of confounders, low HDL-C level was shown to be an independent risk factor for the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy,' the authors write. (
  • The "functionality" of HDL appears more important than the level of HDL-C. Insulin resistance and central obesity underlie the pathophysiology of elevated TG and low HDL-C in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. (
  • There are a few steps that you can take to boost your HDL cholesterol level. (
  • Every individual who had this mutated gene also had a very high level of HDL cholesterol as well as an 80% increased risk for heart attack. (
  • This means that our previous belief that a high HDL level means a healthy heart, is not strictly true, especially when the HDL in question is not functioning properly. (
  • One-sixth of all Americans have a total cholesterol level above the recommended 240 mg/dL, which doubles their heart disease risk. (
  • A recent review of several studies revealed that the risk certain cancers, including lung, colon, prostate and breast, maybe affected by HDL level. (
  • A high cholesterol level is one of the major problems created by sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy eating habits. (
  • Normal results: The typical level for HDL for men is between 40-50 mg/dL and 50-59 mg/dL for women. (
  • Abnormal results: An HDL level of less than 40 mg/dl puts you are risk for heart disease and even a heart attack. (
  • For this reason it is very important that your body keeps a higher level of HDL cholesterol. (
  • A high level of LDL cholesterol reflects an increased risk of heart disease. (
  • Al-though it's not the same as a saturated fatty acid, dietary cholesterol can also raise your blood cholesterol level. (
  • Total blood cholesterol can indicate your level of risk. (
  • Well, when it comes to what you eat, three main factors raise your blood cholesterol level. (
  • A desirable level of HDL is 60 mg/dL or higher. (
  • Although it makes sense from a biological standpoint that having a higher HDL-cholesterol level would lower your risk for heart disease, based on how it works, artificially raising HDL doesn't seem to reduce the risk of heart disease. (
  • But how do you get your HDL level up? (
  • Since diabetes complications result from blood vessel damage, you really want your HDL level up. (
  • They also boost HDL level. (
  • A 17 mg/dL lower HDL cholesterol level in the CCHS was associated with a 70 percent higher risk for IHD. (
  • The average total cholesterol level for adults over age 20 in the United States is 191 mg/dL. (
  • The study-the first comprehensive analysis of the relationship between HDL-C and cancer risk among statin trials-reveals a 36 percent lower rate of cancer for every 10 mg/dl higher level of HDL-C, which is independent of other potential risk factors including baseline LDL (bad) cholesterol, age, body mass index, diabetes, sex and smoking status. (
  • Other signs of metabolic syndrome include high blood pressure, decreased fasting serum HDL cholesterol, elevated fasting serum triglyceride level, impaired fasting glucose, insulin resistance, or prediabetes. (
  • Thus, in many cases of fasting hypertriglyceridemia common in diabetes, the clinician has no reliable estimate of LDL cholesterol, and therefore no objective index of lipid-associated CHD risk, unless ultracentrifugation is performed. (
  • In the Women's Health Study ( 9 ), adjustment for levels of total and HDL cholesterol, and measures of insulin resistance (diabetes, BMI, and C-reactive protein), weakened the association between TG levels and the risk of cardiovascular events, leaving little independent relationship with cardiovascular events. (
  • The Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel's revised guidelines 1 for the treatment of cholesterol in adults called for increased attention to the metabolic syndrome and diabetes. (
  • US scientists analysed data on 30,067 people with diabetes, all of whom had at least two HDL cholesterol tests between six and 24 months apart. (
  • However, Robert Eckel, MD , professor of medicine, emeritus, at the University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus, former president of the American Heart Association and president of the American Diabetes Association, doesn't think cholesterol ratios are the most accurate way to determine a person's risk for cardiovascular disease. (
  • High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is an independent risk factor for the development of diabetic nephropathy, but not retinopathy, in patients with type 2 diabetes, according to new research. (
  • Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are associated with low levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). The insulin-repressible FoxO transcription factors are potential mediators of insulin's effect on HDL-C. FoxOs mediate a substantial portion of insulin-regulated transcription, and poor FoxO repression is thought to contribute to the excessive glucose production in diabetes. (
  • Increased physical activity and elimination of medications known to lower HDL are beneficial, as is diabetes control. (
  • Low levels of HDL have been linked to heart disease, with increased levels of MG being common in the elderly and those with diabetes or kidney problems. (
  • The paper in Nutrition and Diabetes says that MG destabilizes HDL and causes it to lose the properties which protect against heart disease. (
  • It will help you to lose weight, lower cholesterol or high blood pressure, control diabetes, or just eat more healthfully. (
  • Healthy snacks and meals can help you stay trim and control diabetes, improving your HDL-cholesterol levels and protection from heart disease. (
  • People with a leaner weight, as well as those who did not have diabetes, seemed to have better HDL-cholesterol efflux capacity. (
  • She's been working in the field of nutrition and disease prevention for more than 35 years and currently works at Martha Jefferson Hospital in Charlottesville, Va. Each week, Rita provides nutrition counseling to clients who have a variety of disorders or diseases including high cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes, celiac disease, irritable bowel syndrome, gastroparesis and weight management. (
  • HDL is especially important when you have diabetes. (
  • this "beta" lipoprotein cholesterol fraction has been associated with increased CHD mortality in population-based studies that began in the 1950s ( 6 ). (
  • The levels of nonfasting TG were highly correlated with those of remnant lipoprotein cholesterol ( 10 ). (
  • People with elevated non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels in young adulthood were apt to also show high non-HDL-C throughout their lives, suggests an analysis published July 1 in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology . (
  • The association between low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and an increased risk for cardiovascular disease has been well established through epidemiological and clinical studies. (
  • HDL‐C, high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol. (
  • Elevated levels of LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol can be unhealthy. (
  • Regulation of HDL (high-density-lipoprotein)-cholesterol and LDL (low-density-lipoprotein)-cholesterol plays a central role in various disease developments. (
  • However, even when LDL (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) has been properly reduced, heart attacks still occur. (
  • HDL (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), when elevated, is associated with a lower incidence of heart attacks, strokes and death. (
  • An HDL cholesterol test or a high density lipoprotein cholesterol test may be recommended to determine your risk of developing heart disease. (
  • Zo is het ook met High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol) en het risico op cardiovasculaire morbiditeit en mortaliteit. (
  • Association between change in high density lipoprotein cholesterol and cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality: systematic review and meta-regression analysis. (
  • On the surface, the basic conjecture, the idea that raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) can help prevent cardiovascular disease, is well-grounded in science. (
  • Conversely, HDL levels of 40 mg/dL and lower are considered a high risk factor for developing heart disease. (
  • A total cholesterol score of 200 mg/dL or lower is considered optimal. (
  • Higher levels of HDL are associated with lower cardiovascular risk. (
  • If so how do I lower the HDL. (
  • They have also been shown to increase HDL cholesterol in people who tend to have lower levels. (
  • Therapeutic lifestyle changes to lower LDL cholesterol can help lower and maintain levels naturally. (
  • What can lower LDL cholesterol levels? (
  • HDL percentages lower than this signify potentially bad cardiovascular health, and higher percentages offer increased protection from the negative effects of bad cholesterol (LDL). (
  • Merck in December said Tredaptive did no better in the study at preventing heart attacks, deaths or strokes than traditional statin drugs that lower 'bad' LDL cholesterol. (
  • Having lower HDL cholesterol does not appear to cause problems directly. (
  • Getting 30 minutes of physical activity - the kind that raises your heart rate - five times a week can improve your HDL cholesterol and lower your LDL and triglycerides. (
  • Lower HDL in smokers leaves the blood vessels more open to damage. (
  • Healthy cholesterol levels are associated with a lower risk of heart disease. (
  • Taking certain medicines can lower HDL levels in some people. (
  • Also, intermediate HDL-C levels were associated with a lower risk of death across all levels of kidney function. (
  • 1. How can I lower my cholesterol? (
  • Diet alone may be able to lower total cholesterol and LDL (bad) cholesterol from 7-30% depending on how restrictive the dietary plan. (
  • Dark chocolate is known to lower blood pressure and cholesterol and is therefore considered healthy when eaten in moderation. (
  • to monitor treatments which lower cholesterol . (
  • Aged 40 as part of a routine cardiovascular health check, or if you are already thought to be at risk of cardiovascular disease for another reason, or if you are taking (or are about to start) treatments which lower cholesterol. (
  • What Are the Medication Guidelines to Lower Cholesterol? (
  • In nondiabetic pregnancies, lower birth weight ( 1 , 2 ) (and smaller fetal abdominal circumference [ 3 ]) is associated with higher cord triglycerides and less consistently with lower HDL cholesterol ( 1 , 4 ) in addition to the well-described associations with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adult life ( 5 ). (
  • You can learn more about the top 5 omega 3 sources and how much you need to lower cholesterol here at Health Central. (
  • However, a high-fiber diet does lower LDL cholesterol. (
  • When your HDL is high (60 mg/dl or higher is considered desirable for both men and women), your risk of heart attack or heart disease is lower. (
  • Avocados are an excellent source of monounsaturated fatty acids, which boost HDL and lower LDL. (
  • Countless research studies have shown that regular consumption of oats aids in reducing total cholesterol and LDL ('bad' cholesterol), but does not lower your HDL cholesterol. (
  • Now we know that carbohydrates in foods such as whole grains and beans that cause a low rise in blood sugar do not lower blood levels of HDL and may even raise them, helping to prevent heart attacks. (
  • We've long believed that the higher your HDL, the lower your risk of heart disease . (
  • If you want to lower your cholesterol, what you're really talking about is improving your health and reducing your risk of heart disease, right? (
  • If you've been living on a diet of starchy carbohydrates, this switch will help lower your cholesterol. (
  • But to really lower your cholesterol - and reduce inflammation, which is just as significant to heart health and more significant for overall health - eliminate grains entirely. (
  • Obviously, lower LDL cholesterol levels are desirable. (
  • But the small fraction (13 percent) of HDL cholesterol that has apoC-III present on its surface was paradoxically associated with a higher, not lower, risk of future CHD. (
  • A large study in The Journal of the American Medical Association found that the more added sugar people ate, the lower their HDL levels tended to be. (
  • Most vegetable oils tend to raise HDL, while saturated (meat) fats and artificial ( trans ) fats tend to lower it. (
  • CHICAGO-Lower levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol due to a gene mutation is not associated with an increased risk of ischemic heart disease, according to a study in the June 4 issue of JAMA. (
  • Ideally, you will have a balance, with lower levels of LDL cholesterol and higher levels of HDL cholesterol. (
  • Research has shown that one of olive oil's heart-healthy effects is an increase in HDL cholesterol. (
  • Extra virgin olive oil with a high polyphenol content has been shown to increase HDL levels in healthy people, the elderly and individuals with high cholesterol. (
  • In another study, obese people who followed a low-carb diet experienced an increase in HDL cholesterol of 5 mg/dl overall. (
  • If you add weight training to your exercise routine, you are going to increase your HDL," says Robert Staron, Ph.D., one of the study authors. (
  • Fish protein may increase insulin sensitivity, which in turn can elevate HDL2 cholesterol," says Helene Jacques, Ph.D., one of the study authors. (
  • At doses of 10 to 20 mg a day, it can increase HDL by up to 15 percent, which is incredible," says David Maron, M.D., a cardiologist at Vanderbilt University medical center. (
  • Smokers who quit may increase their HDL levels by up to 10 percent. (
  • That said, people who are at a normal body weight shouldn't try to drop pounds just to increase HDL production. (
  • Our hope is that, with further development, our synthetic form of HDL could be used to increase HDL levels and promote better health. (
  • Consume plants that will increase HDL cholesterol. (
  • Certain fruits may increase HDL cholesterol. (
  • What are some foods to increase HDL? (
  • Alcohol consumption has also been shown to increase LDL cholesterol levels as well as being linked to numerous other health problems, it is far from the healthiest or most effective way to manage your cholesterol. (
  • Evacetrapib (500 mg) produced an HDL increase that ranged from 53.6 percent to 128.8 percent, while decreasing LDL by 13.6 percent to 35.9 percent. (
  • While lowering LDL (bad) cholesterol levels plays an important role in the treatment of heart disease, doctors have long believed that taking active measures to increase HDL levels as well would yield additional benefits. (
  • For instance, drinking three cups of orange juice a day can increase HDL by over 20 percent, according to one British study. (
  • Studies show that low levels of HDL cholesterol increase the risk of heart disease. (
  • As cholesterol occurs naturally in some foods, you can use your dietary choices to increase HDL levels too. (
  • One of the best ways to increase your HDL is through physical activity, specifically aerobic activity (jogging, swimming, biking, etc. (
  • Scientists have found that by just adding one egg to your daily diet you can greatly increase your HDL levels. (
  • Berries are a delicious way to increase your HDL levels and with so many to choose from it's unlikely that you will get burnt out on the flavor anytime soon. (
  • Drinking a glass of orange juice every day can increase your HDL intake by about 7%, not to mention all of the other great benefits of OJ. (
  • Daily aerobic exercise can help increase HDL. (
  • Regular almond consumption seems to increase HDL according to a study from Penn State. (
  • We investigated whether the changes in adiponectin with an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for weight loss could potentially mediate the increase in low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) with ILI. (
  • There are activities and plans that you can incorporate into your life so that you increase the number of HDL that you have aiding your body in digestion. (
  • Many studies show HDL goes up in people who stop smoking, even though their weight tends to increase. (
  • Just as high LDL cholesterol levels can increase your risk of cardiovascular disease, so can low HDL levels. (
  • For individuals who are considered at high risk for heart disease, there are medications available to help increase levels of HDL-C. (
  • You'll probably be able to ask your doctor for a few shots of ETC-216, a synthetic form of HDL modeled after the Italian wonder protein. (
  • HDL står for high density lipoprotein, og indeholder mere protein og mindre fedt end LDL (low density lipoprotein). (
  • They then layered on a lipid that attaches to the gold surface, then another lipid and last a protein, called APOA1, the main protein component of naturally occurring HDL. (
  • Most of apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), the predominant HDL protein, migrates in agarose gels with α-electrophoretic mobility and is designated α-LpA-I. This fraction accounts for almost all of the cholesterol quantified in the clinical laboratory as HDL-C. α-HDL can be further fractionated by density into HDL 2 and HDL 3 , by size, or by apolipoprotein composition. (
  • With new evidence showing that HDL cholesterol is not the miracle protein that we once believed, it is sensible to not focus on building your levels of HDL exclusively. (
  • HDL is a small structure part protein and part lipid. (
  • What did Americans do before the advent of plant oils, margarine, cholesterol-free soy protein, fat-free dairy, and statins? (
  • Diets rich in fat and cholesterol found to weaken cardiovascular function by turning the artery-protecting immune cells into promoters of inflammation. (
  • Over the course of more than five years, Dr. Hazen and his colleagues developed a method for identifying dysfunctional apoA1/HDL and discovered the process by which it is oxidized and turned dysfunctional in the artery wall. (
  • The buildup of cholesterol on artery walls narrows the vessels, slowing or blocking the flow of blood. (
  • LDL cholesterol is seen as the 'bad' version of this substance, because it carries cholesterol into artery walls, depositing cholesterol where it doesn't belong. (
  • HDL can even help clear some of the cholesterol deposits left behind in artery walls. (
  • Higher levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is beneficial to the body's blood stream, while too much low-density lipoprotein (LDL) choleste. (
  • But there's more to the story of cholesterol and cardiovascular risk than LDL alone. (
  • Ghall WA, Rodondi N. HDL cholesterol and cardiovascular risk. (
  • It raised HDL, but it didn't prevent cardiovascular risk any better (actually it may have registered a slightly worse result) than a statin alone. (
  • Limiting unhealthy fats will also impact HDL, so look at your saturated fat and trans fat intake and see where you can make cuts. (
  • If you have unhealthy cholesterol levels (or want to prevent them), one of the first things you should examine is your diet and the combination of foods you eat. (
  • Are you eating foods that help reduce cholesterol and avoiding the ones that cause unhealthy cholesterol levels to creep higher? (
  • Cholesterol, and saturated fat, are not necessarily unhealthy. (
  • Lifestyle habits like eating unhealthy, excessive drinking, smoking, and inactivity can raise cholesterol levels. (
  • While there are no foods that affect HDL cholesterol, exercise, particularly aerobic exercise, can help to raise it. (
  • Since regular exercise helps boost HDL production, Zaric recommends logging at least 30 minutes of any aerobic exercise three to four times a week. (
  • Aerobic exercise for 120-180 minutes a week raises HDL. (
  • Thus, lifestyle modification is more important for those predisposed to low HDL cholesterol levels. (
  • The higher the HDL, the better. (
  • HDL levels of 60 mg/dL and higher can help reduce your risk for heart disease. (
  • Some reports suggest that the combined dyslipidemia may confer a higher magnitude of risk than elevated LDL cholesterol alone ( 2 ). (
  • While the body produces a certain amount of HDL naturally, persons who have higher levels of HDL cholesterol typical eat a healthy diet that contains healthy unsaturated fats such as olive oil and omega-3, along with plentiful servings of fruits and vegetables. (
  • They then tested the blood of 627 Cleveland Clinic cardiology patients for the dysfunctional HDL and found that higher levels raised the patient's risk for cardiovascular disease. (
  • Consumption of monounsaturated fats has been linked to higher HDL levels. (
  • In a large study of male veterans, both low and high HDL cholesterol levels were associated with higher risks of dying prematurely compared with intermediate levels, forming a U-shaped curve. (
  • The study, which appears in an upcoming issue of the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (CJASN), found that both low and high HDL-C levels were linked with a higher risk of premature death. (
  • The finding that high HDL-C was also associated with higher risk of death was not expected and has not been reported previously in large epidemiologic studies such as the Framingham Heart Study and others," said Dr. Al-Aly. (
  • However, Rosenson sees HDL-C as little more than a marker of lifestyle: Levels tend to be higher in people who exercise more, weigh less, and don't smoke. (
  • Other institutions recommend higher HDL levels for cardiovascular benefits. (
  • As to what might constitute a dangerous HDL threshold, Allard-Ratick said that the risk association "likely occurs at (HDL) levels exceeding 80 mg/dL, and perhaps even higher in women. (
  • We did not observe further reductions in CHD risk with HDL-C values higher than 90 mg/dL in men and 75 mg/dL in women. (
  • So, in the case of HDL cholesterol, higher levels are actually better. (
  • HDL cholesterol: Is higher really better? (
  • Compared with those in the highest third, patients in the lowest third of HDL-C levels had a 19 percent higher risk of renal events (17 percent higher risk of combined renal and retinal microvascular events). (
  • Low levels of HDL are associated with higher risk of heart disease and mortality. (
  • For HDL the goal is more straight forward 45mg/dL and the higher the better. (
  • Hispanic men (13.1%) had a higher prevalence of elevated total cholesterol than Hispanic women (9%), they wrote. (
  • The higher the HDL-cholesterol efflux capacity, the better the heart disease protection. (
  • For this reason, obviously, higher HDL cholesterol levels are desirable. (
  • It is measured as the HDL-cholesterol efflux capacity. (
  • There are several risk factors for high cholesterol. (
  • Having high levels of HDL also has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, and is linked to a reduced risk of heart disease ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • Existing guidelines, however, do take advantage of non-HDL cholesterol as an index of risk associated with this combined dyslipidemia. (
  • Thus, for diabetic patients with the combined dyslipidemia, calculated LDL cholesterol fails to be an adequate index of overall lipid-associated risk. (
  • More importantly, the amounts of each type of cholesterol are a better predictor of risk for disease than the total amount. (
  • Some risk factors for high LDL cholesterol are genetic and may require medical treatment to keep cholesterol levels in a healthy range. (
  • Patients who have low HDL levels can make a number of lifestyle changes to raise their HDL and reduce their risk of heart disease, according to Mayo Clinic. (
  • Doctors take into account other risk factors such as family history, high blood pressure and age to determine how a patient's cholesterol levels are likely to affect the risk of heart disease. (
  • For example, the authors state, people with high non-HDL-C at baseline had a 22.6% risk of CVD over the next 25 years, compared with a 6.4% risk in their peers with low levels. (
  • Intensive lifestyle changes can appreciably reduce triglycerides (TG) and LDL cholesterol in most young adults with elevated non-HDL-C, translating into reduced CVD risk, Miller notes. (
  • Lowering the risk of heart disease is now the main focus for cholesterol treatment rather than achieving a particular number. (
  • He noted that a Big Data approach allows a more nuanced examination of the relationship between HDL-C and risk of death across the full spectrum of HDL-C levels. (
  • Too much cholesterol in the blood raises the risk for heart disease. (
  • A genetic disposition toward low HDL cholesterol is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease that can't be controlled. (
  • Non-HDL cholesterol, apolipoproteins A-1 and B100, standard lipid measures, lipid ratios, and CRP as risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women. (
  • Although some clinical trials suggest a benefit of raising HDL-C to reduce risk, further studies are needed, and HDL-C is still not considered a primary target of therapy in the National Cholesterol Education Program guidelines. (
  • However, HDL-C should be considered as part of the patient's overall profile of established risk factors in determining treatment strategies. (
  • Specifically, patients with HDL levels exceeding 60 were found to have a 50 percent greater risk of heart disease death or heart attack, compared with those in the middle-range, the investigators reported. (
  • Allard-Ratick acknowledged that other studies have revealed a similar HDL problem among people who do not otherwise face a high risk for heart disease. (
  • And, he said, one "surprising aspect of the study was that this association between high levels of HDL and increased risk of death or cardiovascular disease was seen more commonly in women compared to men. (
  • Fonarow said a number of prior studies have found that when compared to those with more moderately high HDL levels, people with "very high" HDL levels -- meaning a threshold of 90 mg/dL or more -- appear to face a greater risk for heart disease. (
  • Patients with very high HDL cholesterol should continue to address other modifiable risk factors -- such as high blood pressure, smoking and obesity -- to reduce cardiovascular disease. (
  • In unadjusted models there were increased total mortality risks in men with very high HDL-C, however mortality risks observed in participants with very high HDL-C were attenuated after adjustment for traditional risk factors. (
  • Drug therapy is generally started after therapeutic lifestyle changes have failed to meet target cholesterol reduction or concomitantly when it is anticipated that therapeutic lifestyle changes will not solely be sufficient to minimize heart disease risk. (
  • HDL cholesterol removes the harmful bad cholesterol, reducing the risk of heart disease. (
  • In 2006, another pharmaceutical company, Pfizer , reportedly halted the development of its own HDL-raising drug "after studies showed that the medicine increased the risk of death. (
  • Per the Mayo Clinic, many doctors now use non-HDL tests to assess a person's risk. (
  • Which Risk Factors for High Cholesterol Are Controllable and Uncontrollable? (
  • Statin drugs cannot compensate for the risk resulting from low HDL. (
  • CONCLUSION: Normalizing HDL levels is not sufficient to eliminate the risk of cardiovascular disease. (
  • This is an important study that sheds light on one of the major puzzles relating to cholesterol and heart disease, which is that despite strong evidence showing HDL-C reduces heart disease risk, clinical trials on the effects of HDL-C-raising drugs have been disappointing. (
  • These new findings suggest that the way in which HDL-C is handled by the body is more important in determining risk of a heart attack than the levels of HDL-C in the blood. (
  • Doctors used to associate HDL levels with a reduced risk of heart attack, leading to the conclusion that high HDL levels could protect against heart attacks and various cardiovascular conditions. (
  • Scientists developed this notion further and came up drugs that could synthetically raise HDL levels in the hope of reducing the risk of heart attacks in patients. (
  • This new research indicates that raising HDL levels is not enough, as well as showing us that if someone's HDL count is high it does not necessarily mean that their risk of heart attack is low. (
  • If your total cholesterol is high, you have twice the risk for heart disease as a person with normal total cholesterol. (
  • If you have any risk factors, talk to your doctor about getting your cholesterol tested, and understand the results . (
  • Are You at Risk for High Cholesterol? (
  • In this video, he describes other high cholesterol risk factors. (
  • In these studies, the the risk of these cancers took a nose dive in people with a bountiful levels of HDL cholesterol. (
  • Lead researcher Dr. Naila Rabbani, of the Warwick Medical School, says that, "MG damage to HDL is a new and likely important cause of low and dysfunctional HDL, and could count for up to a 10% risk of heart disease. (
  • A HDL cholesterol test may be used with other cholesterol levels tests to monitor treatment for high cholesterol levels or if earlier test results have shown that you are at risk for heart disease. (
  • Your doctor can judge your risk of heart attack more accurately by determining the amount of cholesterol carried by your LDL's. (
  • The only caveat to this comes from Danish research published in 2017 linking very high HDL with increased risk of death from all causes, not just cardiovascular disease. (
  • The investigators reported that men with extremely high HDL levels - ranging from 97 to 115 - had a 36 percent increased risk of death. (
  • That risk doubled among those whose HDL exceeded 116. (
  • Women with HDL levels above 135 had a 68 percent increased risk. (
  • None of the current drugs that can raise HDL have been shown to reduce risk for heart attacks. (
  • Drop of cholesterol by 1 point achieves approximately 2% risk drop of heart disease. (
  • Those men and women who had HDL apoC-III in the highest 20 percent of the population had a 60 percent increased risk of CHD. (
  • Experts are somewhat divided on whether they think artificially raising your HDL through lifestyle or medications has a positive impact on heart disease risk, and more research is needed to say that having a high HDL increases the risk for heart disease after menopause. (
  • Low HDL levels were more dangerous than high levels of triglycerides, which were thought to be a greater risk. (
  • High cholesterol is a primary risk factor in cardiovascular disease. (
  • After age 40, your doctor may want to monitor your cholesterol more closely based on your individual risk. (
  • We know quite well that lowering LDL cholesterol levels (the bad kind) can reduce risk of heart disease. (
  • A 2009 study found that for every five mg/dl improvement in HDL cholesterol, patients saw a 21% decrease in heart attack risk. (
  • But then another review that year found that increasing HDL cholesterol did not reduce the risk of heart disease or death. (
  • Dr. Karas says patients should talk with their doctor about personal risk factors for both heart disease and cancer, adding that this study reinforces the importance of getting a full cholesterol screening panel that includes total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C and triglycerides. (
  • Patients need to be informed and understand what each cholesterol number means for their overall health and risk of disease," he said. (
  • Whether HDL-C itself or its association with other health-promoting behaviors is driving the potential role it has in reducing one's risk of cancer is challenging, as discussed in the accompanying JACC editorial. (
  • This study suggests that HDL might be an important marker for all lifestyle risk factors we know contribute to both heart disease and cancers-smoking, obesity and inflammation, for example," said Jennifer Robinson, M.D., MPH, professor of Epidemiology and Medicine at the University of Iowa College of Public Health, and author of the editorial. (
  • Since low HDL appears to be a marker for chronic disease risk, this is just another reason why we need to emphasize improved lifestyle among these patients. (
  • Smoking and high cholesterol are two modifiable risk factors that can affect the risk of developing age-related macular degeneration (AMD). (
  • There exists the ability to diminish the risk factors by eliminating smoking and lowering HDL cholesterol levels. (
  • Natural News) For a long time, people have been told that foods rich in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) are healthy. (
  • Like cholesterol, you need some triglycerides to keep the body healthy, but increased levels can cause health problems. (
  • Eating a heart healthy diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, for example, the Mediterranean Diet. (
  • To keep HDL levels high, eat a healthy diet and refrain from HDL-lowering activities such as smoking and excessive consumption of alcohol. (
  • What Is a Healthy Cholesterol Reading? (
  • How Much Cholesterol Should I Be Having Each Day to Be Healthy? (
  • If you're generally healthy but have a low HDL count and a family history of heart disease, you might want to ask your doctor about OTC cholesterol-boosting medications, says Zaric. (
  • The effect of alcohol on plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and on bile cholesterol saturation was measured in 12 healthy volunteers with a very low initial alcohol intake who drank 39 g alcohol daily for six weeks, and then abstained from alcohol for 6 weeks. (
  • Exercise, abstaining from smoking and maintaining a healthy weight are all lifestyle choices that will provide numerous of health benefits, regardless of HDL cholesterol. (
  • A healthy total cholesterol is less than 200 mg/dL, according to the U.S. National Library of Medicine . (
  • A person can control lifestyle options to maximize their potential to control high cholesterol levels with a healthy diet, exercise , weight control, and avoiding or quitting smoking . (
  • Brunner D, Altman S, Loebl K, Schwartz S, Levin S. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides in patients suffering from ischemic heart disease and in healthy subjects. (
  • Selecting healthy fats, such as omega 3's, will raise HDL while lowering LDL. (
  • As part of its objectives to improve the health of the U.S. population, Healthy People 2020 has included the goal of reducing the proportion of adults with high total blood cholesterol to less than 13.5%," Margaret D. Carroll, MSPH, from the National Center for Health Statistics' division of health and nutrition examination surveys, and colleagues wrote. (
  • Learn more about HDL and LDL cholesterol , triglycerides and key factors that can keep your cholesterol levels healthy. (
  • Healthy cholesterol Salmon. (
  • The best way to boost HDL levels is by adopting a healthy lifestyle-exercising regularly, eating a healthy diet, consuming alcohol only in moderation and not smoking cigarettes. (
  • The American Heart Association recommends all adults over age 20 should have their cholesterol levels checked every four to six years. (
  • There are two types of cholesterol that play a role in heart disease. (
  • A recent study published by the Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport investigated the effects of regular exercise on cholesterol levels (contributing to heart disease) of 20 sedentary men over 20 consecutive years. (
  • The findings are based on a roughly four-year tracking of cholesterol levels and heart disease among nearly 6,000 men and women. (
  • Learn more about cholesterol from the American Heart Association . (
  • He wrote for HealthCentral as a health professional for Heart Disease, High Blood Pressure, and High Cholesterol. (
  • Patients whose HDL levels fell had 11 per cent more heart attacks and strokes than those whose HDL levels remained the same, while those whose HDL levels increased had eight per cent fewer such events. (
  • However, heart attacks can occur in people who do not have high LDL cholesterol. (
  • Sponsorship for the study, called AIM-HIGH trial, was shared by the U.S. government and Abbot Laboratories , a pharmaceutical company that makes Niaspan , a drug widely prescribed to heart disease patients as an HDL booster. (
  • Although the drug raised HDL levels as expected, the effects did not translate into measurable improvements of heart problems. (
  • The American Heart Association recommends that blood cholesterol levels should be checked every 5 years after the age of 20. (
  • HDL protects the heart. (
  • This discovery could lead to new drugs that improve the processing of HDL-C to prevent devastating heart attacks. (
  • When your HDL is low (for women less than 50 mg/dl, for men less than 40 mg/dl), your chances of having a heart attack or heart disease are increased. (
  • In a 2015 study published in the Journal of the American Heart Association, eating one avocado a day while following a moderate-fat diet was associated with a 13.5 mg/dL drop in bad cholesterol , or LDL, levels. (
  • Studies have shown that people with high levels of HDL experience less heart disease. (
  • Keeping HDL levels high are thought to be just as important as keeping your LDL levels low for the prevention of heart disease and other cholesterol related health risks. (
  • These heart-damaging fats reduce HDL and raise LDL. (
  • For a long time, doctors have questioned the value of using HDL levels to predict heart attacks. (
  • Further evidence for the lack of effect of HDL itself from preventing heart attacks comes from studies on diabetics. (
  • To improve the health of your heart and your overall cardiovascular system it's important to take action immediately if you have been diagnosed with a high amount of LDL and low HDL. (
  • One theory as to why heart disease occurs has to do with the interplay between the two forms of "cholesterol," which are actually different types of lipoprotein carrier molecules that transport cholesterol around the body. (
  • One theory is HDL-cholesterol may somehow be altered in women after menopause to the point that it functions in a completely different manner, one that actually promotes the development of heart disease rather than prevents it. (
  • Is it time to rethink the role HDL plays in heart disease prevention, especially in women after menopause? (
  • That's why this recent study showing a link between HDL and heart disease after menopause is so intriguing. (
  • It found that patients whose HDL levels decreased had more heart attacks and strokes. (
  • Those whose HDL levels increased had eight percent fewer heart attacks and strokes than patients whose HDL levels remained the same. (
  • Those whose HDL levels dropped were 11% more likely to suffer heart attacks and strokes. (
  • For most people, the cholesterol in foods you eat has a minimal effect on your blood cholesterol levels. (
  • Eating foods high in cholesterol and saturated fat is not the only cause for high cholesterol levels in some people. (
  • Calcium is probably best ingested as a supplement, at least until there's more research on the HDL-increasing effects of calcium-rich foods," says Dr. Reid. (
  • Losing excess weight by increasing physical activity and choosing healthier foods also helps boost HDL. (
  • Replacing foods that are high in saturated fat with oils that contain monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats also helps boost HDL. (
  • Not consuming enough omega-3 fatty acid-rich foods is a contributing factor in low HDL cholesterol levels. (
  • A variety of specific foods such as walnuts and soy proteins and dietary supplements such green tea and cholesterol lowering margarines have been shown to have a modest effect in reducing cholesterol. (
  • Cholesterol is formed in our livers and also occurs naturally in a number of foods. (
  • High HDL cholesterol foods include nuts, fish and olive oil. (
  • The trick is to find the foods that will maintain proper LDL and HDL levels, while still appealing to your taste buds. (
  • You need cholesterol for your body to function normally, but your body makes enough so that you don't need to get more from the foods you eat. (
  • People who eliminate trans fat and carbohydrates from grains (soda, pasta, bread, desserts) see major drops in bad cholesterol and triglycerides despite continuing to eat cholesterol-rich foods like red meat, eggs, cream, and butter. (
  • Prevalence of high total cholesterol declined from 1999 to 2016, whereas prevalence of low HDL declined from 2007 to 2016, according to a data brief released by the CDC's National Center for Health Statistics. (
  • In 2015-2016, 12.4% of U.S. adults had high total cholesterol , defined as at least 240 mg/dL. (
  • A 2016 study published in the journal Nutrients showed that an antioxidant-rich diet raised HDL levels in relation to triglycerides. (
  • How do you raise your HDL cholesterol? (
  • However, moderate alcohol intake - one drink or fewer per day for women and two drinks or fewer a day for men - may raise HDL cholesterol to a small degree. (
  • Health care providers don't usually prescribe medicines only to raise HDL. (
  • Now we know that it is necessary to raise low HDL levels also. (
  • I'm not a big advocate of using alcohol to raise HDL, but if you already consume alcohol, one to two drinks per day can raise levels. (
  • Along with lowering LDL levels, soy is also known to raise HDL cholesterol. (
  • In the future, scientists may develop drugs and lifestyle changes to raise blood levels of Nascent HDL. (
  • There are different types of cholesterol. (
  • There are several types of cholesterol tests, sometimes called a lipid panel. (
  • This is why measuring different types of cholesterol is so important. (
  • Cholesterol screening is part of a blood test called a lipoprotein analysis that measures not only total cholesterol in the body but also different types of cholesterol and triglycerides (another type of fat in the body). (
  • Then I'll talk a little about the different types of cholesterol and finally explain what the numbers ought to be. (
  • If you've ever had your cholesterol tested or read up on the fat-like waxy substance, then you'll know that there are different types of cholesterol. (
  • Our bodies have two main types of cholesterol carriers. (
  • Find out what these two types of cholesterol do for you, what your test results mean, and what you can do to improve your cholesterol levels. (
  • Usually, high cholesterol does not produce any symptoms and you may not know your blood cholesterol is too high. (
  • However, about 30% of people are "responders," whose blood cholesterol levels can spike following a meal high in cholesterol. (
  • A genetic condition called familial hypercholesterolemia can cause high blood cholesterol levels. (
  • Happy holiday food unfortunately can send blood cholesterol levels sky high. (
  • 1. Executive Summary of The Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). (
  • Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. (
  • Only one-third to one-fourth of blood cholesterol is carried by HDL. (
  • What Raises Your Blood Cholesterol? (
  • Of these three, saturated fatty acids are the main culprit in raising blood cholesterol. (
  • About 1/3 to 1/4 of blood cholesterol is carried by HDL. (
  • The body needs some cholesterol to function, but when levels get too high, fatty deposits can accumulate in blood vessels, which causes them to narrow. (
  • This leads to high cholesterol levels in the blood for a few days to weeks after eating a fatty meal. (
  • Not consuming enough omega-3 fatty acids is a contributing factor in low HDL cholesterol levels. (
  • And if you love avocado, the fatty, creamy fruit that makes a perfect salad or sandwich topping, you'll be happy to hear that it's a potent HDL-boosting fat. (
  • Fish contains omega-3 fatty acids which have an extreme effect in lowering both cholesterol and triglycerides. (
  • In addition to raising HDL levels, olive oil has been found to boost HDL's anti-inflammatory and antioxidant function in studies of older people and individuals with high cholesterol levels ( 7 , 8 , 9 ). (
  • The problem is that raising HDL cholesterol is not as easy as lowering the LDL type. (
  • The key to raising HDL levels with lifestyle changes is to do more than one thing," says Daniel J. Rader, M.D., director of the preventive cardiology and lipid clinic at the University of Pennsylvania school of medicine. (
  • But the importance of raising HDL may be declining, especially for people with rock-bottom levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. (
  • Raising HDL levels should be a goal in the management of arteriosclerosis and a number of pharmaceutical agents are being developed for the condition. (
  • Alcohol plays a role in raising HDL levels also. (
  • When carrying out a cholesterol check (otherwise known as lipid panel or lipid profile) your doctor will always check for HDL levels too. (