Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.Cholesterol, Dietary: Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.Cholesterol Esters: Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.Lipoproteins, HDL2: Low-density subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes between 8 to 13 nm.Cholesterol Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of cholesterol in the presence of molecular oxygen to 4-cholesten-3-one and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme is not specific for cholesterol, but will also oxidize other 3-hydroxysteroids. EC 1.1.3.6.Cholesterol 7-alpha-Hydroxylase: A membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 7-alpha-hydroxylation of CHOLESTEROL in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP7, converts cholesterol to 7-alpha-hydroxycholesterol which is the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS.Apolipoprotein A-I: The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.TriglyceridesCholesterol, VLDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). High circulating levels of VLDL cholesterol are found in HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE IIB. The cholesterol on the VLDL is eventually delivered by LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS to the tissues after the catabolism of VLDL to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LDL.Anticholesteremic Agents: Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC 2.3.1.26.ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1: A superfamily of large integral ATP-binding cassette membrane proteins whose expression pattern is consistent with a role in lipid (cholesterol) efflux. It is implicated in TANGIER DISEASE characterized by accumulation of cholesteryl ester in various tissues.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Apolipoproteins: Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.Phosphatidylcholine-Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC 2.3.1.43.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins: Proteins that bind to and transfer CHOLESTEROL ESTERS between LIPOPROTEINS such as LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Sitosterols: A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.beta-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Esterification: The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Hydroxycholesterols: Cholesterol which is substituted by a hydroxy group in any position.Scavenger Receptors, Class B: A family of scavenger receptors that are predominately localized to CAVEOLAE of the PLASMA MEMBRANE and bind HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Phytosterols: A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.Apolipoproteins B: Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Cyclodextrins: A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.Apolipoprotein A-II: The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.Apolipoproteins E: A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Receptors, LDL: Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.Lovastatin: A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.Cholestyramine Resin: A strongly basic anion exchange resin whose main constituent is polystyrene trimethylbenzylammonium Cl(-) anion.Desmosterol: An intermediate in the synthesis of cholesterol.Receptors, Lipoprotein: Cell surface proteins that bind lipoproteins with high affinity. Lipoprotein receptors in the liver and peripheral tissues mediate the regulation of plasma and cellular cholesterol metabolism and concentration. The receptors generally recognize the apolipoproteins of the lipoprotein complex, and binding is often a trigger for endocytosis.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Apolipoproteins A: Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.Mevalonic AcidHypolipidemic Agents: Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Filipin: A complex of polyene antibiotics obtained from Streptomyces filipinensis. Filipin III alters membrane function by interfering with membrane sterols, inhibits mitochondrial respiration, and is proposed as an antifungal agent. Filipins I, II, and IV are less important.Diet, Atherogenic: A diet that contributes to the development and acceleration of ATHEROGENESIS.Sterol Esterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Sphingomyelins: A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Membrane Microdomains: Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.High-Density Lipoproteins, Pre-beta: A highly dense subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes below 7 nm. They are also known as nascent HDL, composed of a few APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I molecules which are complexed with PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The lipid-poor pre-beta-HDL particles serve as progenitors of HDL3 and then HDL2 after absorption of free cholesterol from cell membranes, cholesterol esterification, and acquisition of apolipoproteins A-II, Cs, and E. Pre-beta-HDL initiate the reverse cholesterol transport process from cells to liver.Cholestanol: A cholesterol derivative found in human feces, gallstones, eggs, and other biological matter.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.AzetidinesCholelithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Orphan Nuclear Receptors: A broad category of receptor-like proteins that may play a role in transcriptional-regulation in the CELL NUCLEUS. Many of these proteins are similar in structure to known NUCLEAR RECEPTORS but appear to lack a functional ligand-binding domain, while in other cases the specific ligands have yet to be identified.Androstenes: Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.Lanosterol: A triterpene that derives from the chair-boat-chair-boat folding of 2,3-oxidosqualene. It is metabolized to CHOLESTEROL and CUCURBITACINS.Tangier Disease: An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS involved in cellular cholesterol removal (reverse-cholesterol transport). It is characterized by near absence of ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins) in blood. The massive tissue deposition of cholesterol esters results in HEPATOMEGALY; SPLENOMEGALY; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; large orange tonsils; and often sensory POLYNEUROPATHY. The disorder was first found among inhabitants of Tangier Island in the Chesapeake Bay, MD.Foam Cells: Lipid-laden macrophages originating from monocytes or from smooth muscle cells.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Simvastatin: A derivative of LOVASTATIN and potent competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It may also interfere with steroid hormone production. Due to the induction of hepatic LDL RECEPTORS, it increases breakdown of LDL CHOLESTEROL.Receptors, Scavenger: A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Dehydrocholesterols: Cholesterol derivatives having an additional double bond in any position. 24-Dehydrocholesterol is DESMOSTEROL. The other most prevalent dehydrocholesterol is the 7-isomer. This compound is a precursor of cholesterol and of vitamin D3.Embolism, Cholesterol: Blocking of a blood vessel by CHOLESTEROL-rich atheromatous deposits, generally occurring in the flow from a large artery to small arterial branches. It is also called arterial-arterial embolization or atheroembolism which may be spontaneous or iatrogenic. Patients with spontaneous atheroembolism often have painful, cyanotic digits of acute onset.Dyslipidemias: Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Niemann-Pick Diseases: A group of autosomal recessive disorders in which harmful quantities of lipids accumulate in the viscera and the central nervous system. They can be caused by deficiencies of enzyme activities (SPHINGOMYELIN PHOSPHODIESTERASE) or defects in intracellular transport, resulting in the accumulation of SPHINGOMYELINS and CHOLESTEROL. There are various subtypes based on their clinical and genetic differences.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II: A group of familial disorders characterized by elevated circulating cholesterol contained in either LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS alone or also in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (pre-beta lipoproteins).Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 2: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates GENES involved in CHOLESTEROL synthesis and uptake.Lecithin Acyltransferase Deficiency: An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that facilitates the esterification of lipoprotein cholesterol and subsequent removal from peripheral tissues to the liver. This defect results in low HDL-cholesterol level in blood and accumulation of free cholesterol in tissue leading to a triad of CORNEAL OPACITY, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), and PROTEINURIA.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase: An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.StigmasterolLipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Hypertriglyceridemia: A condition of elevated levels of TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.Pravastatin: An antilipemic fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Nocardia autotrophica. It acts as a competitive inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES).Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Heptanoic Acids: 7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Cholestanes: Derivatives of the saturated steroid cholestane with methyl groups at C-18 and C-19 and an iso-octyl side chain at C-17.SqualenePhospholipid Transfer Proteins: A ubiquitous family of proteins that transport PHOSPHOLIPIDS such as PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE between membranes. They play an important role in phospholipid metabolism during vesicular transport and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Gallbladder: A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.Hypolipoproteinemias: Conditions with abnormally low levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. This may involve any of the lipoprotein subclasses, including ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins); BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low-density lipoproteins); and PREBETA-LIPOPROTEINS (very-low-density lipoproteins).Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder of CHOLESTEROL metabolism. It is caused by a deficiency of 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, the enzyme that converts 7-dehydrocholesterol to cholesterol, leading to an abnormally low plasma cholesterol. This syndrome is characterized by multiple CONGENITAL ABNORMALITIES, growth deficiency, and INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY.Hyperlipoproteinemias: Conditions with abnormally elevated levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. They may be inherited, acquired, primary, or secondary. Hyperlipoproteinemias are classified according to the pattern of lipoproteins on electrophoresis or ultracentrifugation.Aryldialkylphosphatase: An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of an aryl-dialkyl phosphate to form dialkyl phosphate and an aryl alcohol. It can hydrolyze a broad spectrum of organophosphate substrates and a number of aromatic carboxylic acid esters. It may also mediate an enzymatic protection of LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS against oxidative modification and the consequent series of events leading to ATHEROMA formation. The enzyme was previously regarded to be identical with Arylesterase (EC 3.1.1.2).Ketocholesterols: Cholesterol substituted in any position by a keto moiety. The 7-keto isomer inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity and inhibits cholesterol uptake in the coronary arteries and aorta in vitro.TritiumFatty Acids, Monounsaturated: Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.Mice, Inbred C57BLOrganosilicon Compounds: Organic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Lipoproteins, HDL3: Intermediate-density subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes between 7 to 8 nm. As the larger lighter HDL2 lipoprotein, HDL3 lipoprotein is lipid-rich.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Chylomicrons: A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Xanthomatosis: A condition marked by the development of widespread xanthomas, yellow tumor-like structures filled with lipid deposits. Xanthomas can be found in a variety of tissues including the SKIN; TENDONS; joints of KNEES and ELBOWS. Xanthomatosis is associated with disturbance of LIPID METABOLISM and formation of FOAM CELLS.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Niacin: A water-soluble vitamin of the B complex occurring in various animal and plant tissues. It is required by the body for the formation of coenzymes NAD and NADP. It has PELLAGRA-curative, vasodilating, and antilipemic properties.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Mesocricetus: A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.Lipoprotein Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Probucol: A drug used to lower LDL and HDL cholesterol yet has little effect on serum-triglyceride or VLDL cholesterol. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p993).Lipoprotein(a): A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Biliary Tract: The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Fats, Unsaturated: Fats containing one or more double bonds, as from oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid.Eggs: Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Triparanol: Antilipemic agent with high ophthalmic toxicity. According to Merck Index, 11th ed, the compound was withdrawn from the market in 1962 because of its association with the formation of irreversible cataracts.Cholic Acid: A major primary bile acid produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption and cholesterol excretion.Lymph: The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.trans-1,4-Bis(2-chlorobenzaminomethyl)cyclohexane Dihydrochloride: An anticholesteremic agent that inhibits sterol biosynthesis in animals.Pyrroles: Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.Cholic Acids: The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.EstersOleic Acids: A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Cholestenones: CHOLESTENES with one or more double bonds and substituted by any number of keto groups.Pregnenolone: A 21-carbon steroid, derived from CHOLESTEROL and found in steroid hormone-producing tissues. Pregnenolone is the precursor to GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Caveolin 1: A tyrosine phosphoprotein that plays an essential role in CAVEOLAE formation. It binds CHOLESTEROL and is involved in LIPIDS transport, membrane traffic, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Diet, Fat-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Dietary Fats, Unsaturated: Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Oleic Acid: An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine: A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.Triolein: (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.Egg Yolk: Cytoplasm stored in an egg that contains nutritional reserves for the developing embryo. It is rich in polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Farnesyl-Diphosphate Farnesyltransferase: The first committed enzyme of the biosynthesis pathway that leads to the production of STEROLS. it catalyzes the synthesis of SQUALENE from farnesyl pyrophosphate via the intermediate PRESQUALENE PYROPHOSPHATE. This enzyme is also a critical branch point enzyme in the biosynthesis of ISOPRENOIDS that is thought to regulate the flux of isoprene intermediates through the sterol pathway.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Apolipoprotein C-III: A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and CHYLOMICRON REMNANTS. Apo C-III, synthesized in the liver, is an inhibitor of LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE. Apo C-III modulates the binding of chylomicron remnants and VLDL to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) thus decreases the uptake of triglyceride-rich particles by the liver cells and subsequent degradation. The normal Apo C-III is glycosylated. There are several polymorphic forms with varying amounts of SIALIC ACID (Apo C-III-0, Apo C-III-1, and Apo C-III-2).Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Gemfibrozil: A lipid-regulating agent that lowers elevated serum lipids primarily by decreasing serum triglycerides with a variable reduction in total cholesterol.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Niemann-Pick Disease, Type C: An autosomal recessive lipid storage disorder that is characterized by accumulation of CHOLESTEROL and SPHINGOMYELINS in cells of the VISCERA and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Type C (or C1) and type D are allelic disorders caused by mutation of gene (NPC1) encoding a protein that mediate intracellular cholesterol transport from lysosomes. Clinical signs include hepatosplenomegaly and chronic neurological symptoms. Type D is a variant in people with a Nova Scotia ancestry.Soybean Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from SOYBEANS.Taurocholic Acid: The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.Caveolins: The main structural proteins of CAVEOLAE. Several distinct genes for caveolins have been identified.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Cholestenes: Steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a branched 8-carbon chain at C-17. Members include compounds with any degree of unsaturation; however, CHOLESTADIENES is available for derivatives containing two double bonds.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Hydrocarbons, FluorinatedRegression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Diosgenin: A spirostan found in DIOSCOREA and other plants. The 25S isomer is called yamogenin. Solasodine is a natural derivative formed by replacing the spiro-ring with a nitrogen, which can rearrange to SOLANINE.Corn Oil: Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Margarine: A butterlike product made of refined vegetable oils, sometimes blended with animal fats, and emulsified usually with water or milk. It is used as a butter substitute. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Chenodeoxycholic Acid: A bile acid, usually conjugated with either glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption and is reabsorbed by the small intestine. It is used as cholagogue, a choleretic laxative, and to prevent or dissolve gallstones.

Serum triglyceride: a possible risk factor for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. (1/5144)

BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the relationship between ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and serum concentrations of lipids and apolipoproteins. METHODS: A cohort of 21 520 men, aged 35-64 years, was recruited from men attending the British United Provident Association (BUPA) clinic in London for a routine medical examination in 1975-1982. Smoking habits, weight, height and blood pressure were recorded at entry. Lipids and apolipoproteins were measured in stored serum samples from the 30 men who subsequently died of ruptured AAA and 150 matched controls. RESULTS: Triglyceride was strongly related to risk of ruptured AAA. In univariate analyses the risk in men on the 90th centile of the distribution relative to the risk in men on the 10th (RO10-90) was 12 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 3.8-37) for triglyceride, 5.5 (95% CI: 1.8-17) for apolipoprotein B (apoB) (the protein component of low density lipoprotein [LDL]), 0.15 (95% CI : 0.04-0.56) for apo A1 (the protein component of high density lipoprotein [HDL]), 3.7 (95% CI: 1.4-9.4) for body mass index and 3.0 (95% CI: 1.1-8.5) for systolic blood pressure. Lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) was not a significant risk factor (RO10-90 = 1.6, 95% CI: 0.6-3.0). In multivariate analysis triglyceride retained its strong association. CONCLUSION: Triglyceride appears to be a strong risk factor for ruptured AAA, although further studies are required to clarify this. If this and other associations are cause and effect, then changing the distribution of risk factors in the population (by many people stopping smoking and adopting a lower saturated fat diet and by lowering blood pressure) could achieve an important reduction in mortality from ruptured AAA.  (+info)

Association of the inflammatory state in active juvenile rheumatoid arthritis with hypo-high-density lipoproteinemia and reduced lipoprotein-associated platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase activity. (2/5144)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the quantitative and qualitative abnormalities of apolipoprotein B (Apo B)- and Apo A-I-containing lipoproteins and between lipoprotein-associated platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) activity in patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) as a function of the inflammatory state. METHODS: Twenty-six JRA patients and 22 age- and sex-matched control subjects with normal lipid levels participated in the study. Fourteen patients had active disease, and 12 had inactive disease. Plasma lipoproteins were fractionated by gradient ultracentrifugation into 9 subfractions, and their chemical composition and mass were determined. The PAF-AH activity associated with lipoprotein subfractions and the activity in plasma were also measured. RESULTS: Patients with active JRA had significantly lower plasma total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels as compared with controls, due to the decrease in the mass of both the HDL2 and HDL3 subfractions. Patients with active JRA also had higher plasma triglyceride levels, mainly due to the higher triglyceride content of the very low-density lipoprotein plus the intermediate-density lipoprotein subfraction. The plasma PAF-AH activity in patients with active JRA was lower than that in controls, mainly due to the decrease in PAF-AH activity associated with the intermediate and dense low-density lipoprotein subclasses. The lipid abnormalities and the reduction in plasma PAF-AH activity were significantly correlated with plasma C-reactive protein levels and were not observed in patients with inactive JRA. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to show that patients with active JRA exhibit low levels of HDL2 and HDL3 and are deficient in plasma PAF-AH activity. These alterations suggest that active JRA is associated with partial loss of the antiinflammatory activity of plasma Apo B- and Apo A-I-containing lipoproteins.  (+info)

Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies are associated with an atherogenic lipid profile. (3/5144)

OBJECTIVE: To determine, within a representative population group of men and women, whether alteration of the lipid profile might underlie the reported association between Chlamydia pneumoniae and ischaemic heart disease. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross sectional survey in an area with a high incidence of ischaemic heart disease. SUBJECTS: 400 randomly selected participants in the World Health Organisation MONICA project's third population survey in Northern Ireland. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Stored sera were examined by microimmunofluorescence for IgG antibodies to C pneumoniae at a dilution of 1 in 64. Mean total and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were compared between seropositive and seronegative individuals with adjustment for age, measures of socioeconomic status, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and the season during which blood had been taken. RESULTS: In seropositive men, adjusted mean serum total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were 0.5 mmol/l (9.2%) higher and 0.11 mmol/l (9.3%) lower, respectively, than in seronegative men. Differences in women did not achieve statistical significance, but both total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were higher (3.6% and 5.8%, respectively) in seropositive than in seronegative individuals. CONCLUSIONS: There is serological evidence that C pneumoniae infection is associated with an atherogenic lipid profile in men. Altered lipid levels may underlie the association between C pneumoniae and ischaemic heart disease.  (+info)

Effect of fasting on temporal variation in the nephrotoxicity of amphotericin B in rats. (4/5144)

Evidence for temporal variation in the nephrotoxicity of amphotericin B was recently reported in experimental animals. The role of food in these variations was determined by studying the effect of a short fasting period on the temporal variation in the renal toxicity of amphotericin B. Twenty-eight normally fed and 28 fasted female Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Food was available ad libitum to the fed rats, while the fasted animals were fasted 12 h before and 24 h after amphotericin B injection to minimize stress for the animals. Water was available ad libitum to both groups of rats, which were maintained on a 14-h light, 10-h dark regimen (light on at 0600 h). Renal toxicity was determined by comparing the levels of excretion of renal enzyme and the serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels at the time of the maximal (0700 h) or the minimal (1900 h) nephrotoxicity after the intraperitoneal administration of a single dose of dextrose (5%; control group) or amphotericin B (50 mg/kg of body weight; treated group) to the rats. The nephrotoxicities obtained after amphotericin B administration at both times of day were compared to the nephrotoxicities observed for time-matched controls. In fed animals, the 24-h urinary excretion of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase and beta-galactosidase was significantly higher when amphotericin B was injected at 0700 and 1900 h. The excretion of these two enzymes was reduced significantly (P < 0.05) in fasting rats, and this effect was larger at 0700 h (P < 0.05) than at 1900 h. The serum creatinine level was also significantly higher (P < 0.05) in fed animals treated at 0700 h than in fed animals treated at 1900 h. Fasting reduced significantly (P < 0.05) the increase in the serum creatinine level, and this effect was larger in the animals treated at 0700 h. Similar data were obtained for BUN levels. Amphotericin B accumulation was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the renal cortexes of fed rats than in those of fasted animals, but there was no difference according to the time of injection. These results demonstrated that fasting reduces the nephrotoxicity of amphotericin B and that food availability is of crucial importance in the temporal variation in the renal toxicity of amphotericin B in rats.  (+info)

The impact of an amino acid-based peritoneal dialysis fluid on plasma total homocysteine levels, lipid profile and body fat mass. (5/5144)

BACKGROUND: The caloric load from glucose-based peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluids contributes to hypertriglyceridaemia, adiposity and, as result of anorexia, protein malnutrition in PD patients. It has been suggested that replacement of a glucose-based by an amino acids-based PD fluid (AA-PDF) for one exchange per day might improve the nutritional status and lipid profile. Due to the uptake of methionine from the dialysate, however, exposure to AA-PDF might aggravate hyperhomocysteinaemia, a frequently occurring risk factor for atherosclerosis in uraemic patients. METHODS: We studied the impact of a once daily exchange with 1.1% AA-PDF instead of glucose-based PD fluid for 2 months on plasma methionine and total homocysteine (tHcy) levels, lipid profile, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and body fat mass of seven stable PD patients. Results are expressed as mean+/-SEM. RESULTS: Methionine levels did not increase significantly during therapy, but tHcy levels increased substantially from 60+/-12 to 84+/-19 micromol/l after 1 month (P=0.039), and to 85+/-22 micromol/l after 2 months of AA-PDF treatment. Serum triglyceride concentration decreased from 3.0+/-0.4 mmol/l at entry to 2.6+/-0.5 mmol/l (at 1 month, P=0.041 vs baseline). Serum BChE also decreased from 6.9+/-0.4 U/ml at entry to 6.3+/-0.4 U/ml after 2 months (P=0.014). Total cholesterol concentration and cholesterol fractions did not change. The reduced exposure to glucose-based PD fluid for 2 months resulted in a 0.5 kg reduction in fat mass which was due mainly to a reduction in fat mass of the trunk region (0.3 kg, P=0.031). CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that methionine-containing AA-PDF induces an increase in the plasma tHcy level. This might, potentially, offset the beneficial effects of an improved serum lipid profile and reduced fat mass on the risk of cardiovascular disease in PD patients. Lowering the methionine content of the fluid, therefore, may be required to overcome this adverse effect.  (+info)

Survey of total error of precipitation and homogeneous HDL-cholesterol methods and simultaneous evaluation of lyophilized saccharose-containing candidate reference materials for HDL-cholesterol. (6/5144)

BACKGROUND: Standardization of HDL-cholesterol is needed for risk assessment. We assessed for the first time the accuracy of HDL-cholesterol testing in The Netherlands and evaluated 11 candidate reference materials (CRMs). METHODS: The total error (TE) of HDL-cholesterol measurements was assessed in native human sera by 25 Dutch clinical chemistry laboratories. Concomitantly, the suitability of lyophilized, saccharose-containing CRMs (n = 11) for HDL-cholesterol was evaluated. RESULTS: In the precipitation method group, which included 25 laboratories and four methods, the mean (minimum-maximum) TE was 11.5% (2.7-25.2%), signifying that 18 of 25 laboratories satisfied the TE goal of +info)

Elevated hepatic lipase activity and low levels of high density lipoprotein in a normotriglyceridemic, nonobese Turkish population. (7/5144)

Low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and, in the United States, are often associated with hypertriglyceridemia and obesity. In Turkey, low HDL-C levels are highly prevalent, 53% of men and 26% of women having HDL-C levels <35 mg/dl, in the absence of hypertriglyceridemia and obesity. In this study to investigate the cause of low HDL-C levels in Turks, various factors affecting HDL metabolism were assessed in normotriglyceridemic Turkish men and women living in Istanbul and in non-Turkish men and women living in San Francisco. Turkish men and women had significantly lower HDL-C levels than the San Francisco men and women, as well as markedly lower apolipoprotein A-I levels (25 and 39 mg/dl lower, respectively). In both Turkish and non-Turkish subjects, the mean body mass index was <27 kg/m2, the mean triglyceride level was <120 mg/dl, and the mean total cholesterol was 170-180 mg/dl. The mean hepatic triglyceride lipase activity was 21% and 31% higher in Turkish men and women, respectively, than in non-Turkish men and women, and remained higher even after subjects with a body mass index >50th percentile for men and women in the United States were excluded from the analysis. As no dietary or behavioral factors have been identified in the Turkish population that account for increased hepatic triglyceride lipase activity, the elevation most likely has a genetic basis. high density lipoprotein in a normotriglyceridemic, nonobese Turkish population.  (+info)

Comparison of synthetic saponin cholesterol absorption inhibitors in rabbits: evidence for a non-stoichiometric, intestinal mechanism of action. (8/5144)

The hypocholesterolemic activities of pamaqueside and tiqueside, two structurally similar saponins, were evaluated in cholesterol-fed rabbits. The pharmacological profiles of the saponins were virtually identical: both dose-dependently decreased the intestinal absorption of labeled cholesterol 25-75%, increased fecal neutral sterol excretion up to 2.5-fold, and decreased hepatic cholesterol content 10-55%. High doses of pamaqueside (>5 mg/kg) or tiqueside (>125 mg/kg) completely prevented hypercholesterolemia. Decreases in plasma and hepatic cholesterol levels were strongly correlated with increased neutral sterol excretion. Ratios of neutral sterol excreted to pamaqueside administered were greater than 1:1 at all doses, in opposition to the formation of a stoichiometric complex previously suggested for tiqueside and other saponins. Ratios in tiqueside-treated rabbits were less than unity, a reflection of its lower potency. Pamaqueside-treated rabbits exhibited a more rapid decline in plasma cholesterol concentrations than control animals fed a cholesterol-free diet, indicating that the compound also inhibited the absorption of biliary cholesterol. Intravenous administration of pamaqueside had no effect on plasma cholesterol levels despite plasma levels twice those observed in rabbits given pamaqueside orally. These data indicate that pamaqueside and tiqueside induce hypocholesterolemia by blocking lumenal cholesterol absorption via a mechanism that apparently differs from the stoichiometric complexation of cholesterol hypothesized for other saponins.  (+info)

Triglycerides (TG)/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio is a marker of small/dense low-density lipoprotein particles, which are closely associated with various metabolic and vascular diseases. However, the role of TG/HDL cholesterol ratio in cerebrovascular diseases has not been well studied. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between TG/HDL cholesterol ratio and the presence of silent brain infarct (SBI) in a neurologically healthy population. We retrospectively evaluated consecutive participants in health check-ups between January 2006 and December 2013. SBI was defined as an asymptomatic, well-defined lesion with a diameter of ≥3 mm on T1- or T2-weighted images. TG/HDL cholesterol ratio was calculated after dividing absolute TG levels by absolute HDL cholesterol levels. Of 3172 healthy participants, 263 (8.3%) had SBI lesions. In multivariate analysis, TG/HDL cholesterol ratio was independently associated with SBI (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]
Triglycerides (TG)/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio is a marker of small/dense low-density lipoprotein particles, which are closely associated with various metabolic and vascular diseases. However, the role of TG/HDL cholesterol ratio in cerebrovascular diseases has not been well studied. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between TG/HDL cholesterol ratio and the presence of silent brain infarct (SBI) in a neurologically healthy population. We retrospectively evaluated consecutive participants in health check-ups between January 2006 and December 2013. SBI was defined as an asymptomatic, well-defined lesion with a diameter of ≥3 mm on T1- or T2-weighted images. TG/HDL cholesterol ratio was calculated after dividing absolute TG levels by absolute HDL cholesterol levels. Of 3172 healthy participants, 263 (8.3%) had SBI lesions. In multivariate analysis, TG/HDL cholesterol ratio was independently associated with SBI (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effectiveness of low-dose crystalline nicotinic acid in men with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. AU - Martin-Jadraque, Raquel. AU - Tato, Federico. AU - Mostaza, Jose M.. AU - Vega, Gloria L. AU - Grundy, Scott M. PY - 1996/5/27. Y1 - 1996/5/27. N2 - Background: Hypoalphalipoproteinemia (low serum concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C]) is a common pattern of dyslipidemia associated with coronary heart disease. High doses of nicotinic acid effectively raise HDL-C levels in this condition, but they are commonly accompanied by side effects. The efficacy of low doses of nicotinic acid that may produce fewer side effects has not been adequately studied. Objective: To determine the effects of low-dose nicotinic acid on HDL-C levels in patients with hypoalphalipoproteinemia. Methods: Forty-four men with low HDL-C levels (, 1.03 mmol/L [,40 mg/dL]) entered the study. Twenty-four patients otherwise had normal lipid levels, and 20 were moderately ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - High density lipoprotein cholesterol levels are an independent predictor of the progression of chronic kidney disease. AU - Baragetti, A.. AU - Norata, G. D.. AU - Sarcina, C.. AU - Rastelli, F.. AU - Grigore, L.. AU - Garlaschelli, K.. AU - Uboldi, P.. AU - Baragetti, I.. AU - Pozzi, C.. AU - Catapano, A. L.. PY - 2013/9. Y1 - 2013/9. N2 - Objectives: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) often present with reduced plasma HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Whether this reduction in an epiphenomenon or is involved in disease progression is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between HDL-C levels/function and CKD progression in patients with different degrees of disease. Design: A total of 176 patients with CKD [glomerular filtration rate (GFR) 50.3 ± 29.1 mL min-1] were recruited and followed for up to 84 months. Lipid profile, metabolic status and kidney function were evaluated at predetermined times. Age-matched control subjects were selected from ...
METHODS AND RESULTS During a mean follow-up of 9 months (range, 7-11 months), 28 (41%) patients developed restenosis. A low high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level was independently and strongly related to both the risk of restenosis (p less than 0.001) and to the time of restenosis (p = 0.03). The mean HDL cholesterol level was 33 +/- 12 mg% in the restenosis group compared with 45 +/- 12 mg% in the nonrestenosis group (p less than 0.001). Restenosis developed in 22 of 34 (64%) patients with an HDL cholesterol less than or equal to 40 mg% compared with six of 34 (17%) patients with an HDL cholesterol greater than 40 mg% (p less than 0.002). The only other variable that was significantly related to restenosis was a low PAI-1 level (p = 0.04). ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The predictive role of serum triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio according to renal function in patients with acute myocardial infarction. AU - Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry Investigators. AU - Kim, Jin Sug. AU - Kim, Weon. AU - Woo, Jong Shin. AU - Lee, Tae Won. AU - Ihm, Chun Gyoo. AU - Kim, Yang Gyoon. AU - Moon, Joo Young. AU - Lee, Sang Ho. AU - Jeong, Myung Ho. AU - Jeong, Kyung Hwan. AU - Ahn, Young Keun. AU - Chae, Sung Chull. AU - Kim, Jong Hyun. AU - Hur, Seung Ho. AU - Kim, Young Jo. AU - Seong, In Whan. AU - Choi, Dong Hoon. AU - Chae, Jei Keon. AU - Hong, Taek Jong. AU - Rhew, Jae Young. AU - Kim, Doo Il. AU - Chae, In Ho. AU - Yoon, Jung Han. AU - Koo, Bon Kwon. AU - Kim, Byung Ok. AU - Lee, Myoung Yong. AU - Kim, Kee Sik. AU - Hwang, Jin Yong. AU - Cho, Myeong Chan. AU - Oh, Seok Kyu. AU - Lee, Nae Hee. AU - Jeong, Kyoung Tae. AU - Tahk, Seung Jea. AU - Bae, Jang Ho. AU - Rha, Seung Woon. AU - Park, Keum Soo. AU - Kim, Chong ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inverse Association of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Concentration with Muscle Mass in Children. AU - Duran, Ibrahim. AU - Martakis, Kyriakos. AU - Schafmeyer, Leonie. AU - Jackels, Miriam. AU - Rehberg, Mirko. AU - Schoenau, Eckhard. PY - 2019/9/17. Y1 - 2019/9/17. KW - children. KW - fat mass. KW - HDL cholesterol. KW - muscle mass. KW - reference centiles. KW - CARDIOVASCULAR RISK-FACTORS. KW - X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY. KW - FAT-FREE MASS. KW - BODY-COMPOSITION. KW - CENTILE CURVES. KW - SERUM-LIPIDS. KW - ADIPOSITY. KW - POPULATION. KW - OBESITY. KW - AGE. U2 - 10.1089/chi.2019.0122. DO - 10.1089/chi.2019.0122. M3 - Article. VL - 15. SP - 476. EP - 484. JO - Childhood obesity. JF - Childhood obesity. SN - 2153-2168. IS - 7. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - High-density lipoprotein cholesterol. T2 - a potential therapeutic target for prevention of coronary artery disease.. AU - Chernobelsky, Alexander. AU - Ashen, M. Dominique. AU - Blumenthal, Roger S.. AU - Coplan, Neil L.. PY - 2007/1/1. Y1 - 2007/1/1. N2 - High-density lipoprotein cholesterol has an important role in the pathophysiology of coronary artery disease. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol is becoming an increasingly important prognostic and therapeutic target. The purpose of this paper is to review the biochemical pathways involved in reverse cholesterol transport and to discuss potential, clinically based high-density lipoprotein therapies that may contribute to reduction in risk of atherosclerosis.. AB - High-density lipoprotein cholesterol has an important role in the pathophysiology of coronary artery disease. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol is becoming an increasingly important prognostic and therapeutic target. The purpose of this paper is to review the ...
Abstract BACKGROUND: Compared to whites, insulin-resistant African Americans have worse outcomes. Screening programs that could identify insulin resistance early enough for intervention to affect outcome often rely on triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Racial differences in TG and HDL-C may compromise the efficacy of these programs in African Americans. A recommendation currently exists to use the TG/HDL-C ratio ≥2.0 to predict insulin resistance in African Americans. The validity of this recommendation needs examination. Therefore, our aim was to determine the ability of TG/HDL-C ratio to predict insulin resistance in African Americans. METHODS: In 1,903 African Americans [895 men, 1,008 women, age 55 ± 12 years, mean ± standard deviation (SD), range 35-80 years, body mass index (BMI) 31.0 ± 6.4 kg/m(2), range 18.5-55 kg/m(2)] participating in the Jackson Heart Study, a population-based study of African Americans, Jackson, Mississippi tricounty region,
Fifty-five healthy, sedentary, nonsmoking, and nonobese 24- to 26-year-old men who had low plasma concentrations of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were selected for a study of the effect of short-term exercise on plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations. The participants were randomized into two groups. Of these, 28 were assigned to a 9-week program of submaximal aerobic exercise three times weekly, and 27 were assigned to a nonexercising control group. Changes in physical fitness were assessed by increments in estimated maximal oxygen consumption; this increased by 15% in the exercise group (p less than 0.001) but remained unchanged in the control group. During the study, body weights and skinfold thicknesses of both groups remained essentially unchanged after 9 weeks. There was no significant difference between the trial groups in total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, calculated low density lipoprotein cholesterol, or in the HDL2 and HDL3 subfractions. Triglyceride levels were ...
Introduction: Low level of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) has been identified as a residual risk of cardiovascular events after lowering low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) in patients with stable coronary artery disease. Further, high HDL-C level is proven to have a protective effect for cardiovascular events in primary prevention studies.. Hypothesis: We assessed the hypothesis that we evaluated whether the HDL-C level may have predictive and protective value in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) who had percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and statin treatment.. Methods: A total of 15,938 patients who had PCI and statin treatment were selected from the Korean Myocardial Infarction registry. According to the ATP III criteria, baseline HDL-C level was used to identify patients with low HDL-C (,40 mg/dL, Group A), normal HDL-C (≥40 to , 60 mg/dL, Group B), or high HDL-C (≥60 mg/dL, Group C). Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at one-year, the primary ...
HDL cholesterol LDL - MedHelps HDL cholesterol LDL Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for HDL cholesterol LDL. Find HDL cholesterol LDL information, treatments for HDL cholesterol LDL and HDL cholesterol LDL symptoms.
An increase in HDL-C level by 6% reduces the incidence of cardiovascular disease by 22-24%, which is similar to the effect of reduced LDL-C level decreasing cardiovascular disease by 28%.19,20) In addition, low HDL-C level has been blamed as the main cause of recent increasing prevalence dyslipidemia in Korea.21) Though pharmacological treatment options to increase HDL-C such as cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor and apo A1 mimetic peptide are under development, basic epidemiological evidences required to define HDL-C cut-off levels are still not sufficient in Korea. If the study subjects are categorized by the NCEP ATP III guideline, 43.8% of men and 23.6% of women belong to the low HDL-C group. When the ADA guideline is used, 43.8% of men and 62.6% of women have low HDL-C group; resulting in a markedly higher prevalence of low HDL-C level in women. Musha et al.5) from Japanproposes a higher cut-off value of HDL-C of 50 mg/dL so that the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in ...
Despite the long-held knowledge of an inverse relationship between plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels and rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in populations, the HDL hypothesis has recently been shaken to its foundations by a barrage of controversial data. For example, clinical trials of an agent (torcetrapib) that increases HDL cholesterol by inhibiting cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), an essential transferase that moves cholesterol from HDL to apolipoprotein B (apo B)-containing lipoproteins, have shown unexpected harm with increased cardiovascular events after ,1 year of treatment among subjects who were already taking protective doses of atorvastatin (1). In addition, coronary and carotid imaging studies with the same agent failed to show vascular improvements attributable to the drug or to the increase in HDL cholesterol (2,3). Moreover, genetic studies have challenged the role of HDL in atherogenesis by providing observations contrary to the dogma that HDL ...
Objective - It is stated that high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are low in Turkish people and that this may be related to genetic factors. Low HDL-C is a parameter of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). In this study, the relationship between low HDL-C levels and MetS has been investigated. ...
5.Once the mince is starting to look like it is nearly there, put the cooked squash into a separate pan and mash with the butter until you have a smooth paste. If the mix is very wet then place over a medium heat and steam some of the water off for a few minutes while stirring continuously to prevent the squash mash from burning ...
How Does Obesity Affect Cancer Cavity High Blood. Prozac And Teratogens Asthma International Rugby Olanzapine Fluoxetine Combination Depressive Disorder.Un taux élevé de cholestérol ne provoque généralement pas de symptômes, mais constitue un facteur de risque de maladie coronarienne.Path: Acute fibrinous organizing pneumonia (AFOP-pattern) (see also If).anti-cholesterol: escroqueries,. en raison des «effets similaires de la fluoxétine à. ou encore si vous vous sentez agité et même «high» quelques.. Rosiglitazone-fenofibrate interaction: severe paradoxical decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Deux antidépresseurs, la fluoxétine.Avec la fluoxétine (inhibiteur du CYP2D6), des doses uniques danti-acides (aluminium, magnésium). augmentation des taux de prolactine, de cholestérol,.. Depressive retardation and treatment with fluoxetine: assessment of the motor component. SABBE B.,. Lower serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ...
High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) (LabCorp). Get know how much does lab test cost. Direct access testing with or without insurance.
EDITOR, - Jane Patmore and colleagues lesson of the week raises many issues on the diagnosis and current management of lipid disorders.1 Firstly, several consensus guidelines recommend that a lipid diagnosis should be established before drug treatment is started and that the lipid profile should include measurement of the high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration.2,3. Secondly, the case reported was complicated by many confounding factors known to influence total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, including the administration of β blockers, prednisolone, and high dose oral hormone replacement treatment and the coexistence of renal disease (the patient had received a transplant). These factors would confuse any diagnosis of a primary hyper-(alpha)-lipoproteinaemia. The authors measured the apolipoprotein A1 concentrations, but other apolipoproteins (apolipoprotein A2 (present in high density lipoprotein) and apolipoprotein (a)/ B(sub100)) are independent risk ...
Prevalence, Predictors, and Impact of Low High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol on in-Hospital Outcomes Among Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients in the Middle East
The novel findings of this study are as follows. First, a GGT1 variant, rs4820599, the G allele and a low HDL-C level were identified to be risk factors for a high baPWV in Japanese subjects with T2DM in the longitudinal analysis. Interestingly, a significant interactive effect of the GGT1 genotype and low HDL-C level on the risks of both a high baPWV and DR was found. Second, the HDL-C level at baseline was identified to be a significant predictor of a high baPWV only in G allele carriers according to the ROC analysis. This result in the T2DM patients was also noted in the general population. Third, the GGT1 genotype was not associated with the risk of DR, although it affected the principal factors involved in the risk of DR. Fourth, the associations between the levels of GGT and fasting plasma glucose, HDL-C and LDL-C and between dyslipidemia and a high baPWV were significant only in G allele carriers among the general subjects. In this study, the triglyceride levels were positively associated ...
Arti kata dari hdl cholesterol. Definisi dari hdl cholesterol. Pengertian dari hdl cholesterol: the cholesterol in high-density lipoproteins; the `good cholesterol; a high level in the blood is thought to lower the risk of coronary artery disease;
Obese Childhood Dyslipidemia Management Beyond Statins - MUFA, PUFA, and Sea-buckthorn Supplements. By Bogdana Virgolici, Laura Anca Popescu, Horia Virgolici, Daniela Elena Casariu, Olivia Timnea and Maria Mohora. The dyslipidemia pattern usually associated with childhood obesity consists of a combination of elevated triglyceridemia, decreased plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and LDL-c concentration at the upper limit of the normal range. This type of dyslipidemia is associated with dense and small LDL, which are proatherogenic. High circulating levels of oxidized LDL were described in extreme pediatric obesity, in children with high fructose intake and are associated with insulin resistance. The worst effect on blood lipids have trans and saturated fatty acids. But the amount of total energy intake plays more important role in lipid profiles. In childhood obesity it seems that insulin resistance precedes the development of the metabolic syndrome feature and insulin ...
Particularly noteworthy is that intake of fermented milk products such as yogurt and soured milk and cheese were associated with lower rates of fracture and mortality. Furthermore, we observed a positive association only between milk intake and markers of oxidative stress (urine 8-iso-PGF2α) and inflammation (serum interleukin 6). Previously, we found a negative relation between bone mineral density and 8-iso-PGF2α.42 63 Interleukin 6 seems to be causally related to cardiovascular disease64 and may influence bone loss and osteoporosis.65 Importantly, those who consume high amounts of non-fermented milk have a more non-favourable cardiovascular risk factor profile, with higher blood pressure, lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and higher insulin resistance.18 In contrast, intake of cheese and fermented milk products is related to higher high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, less insulin resistance, and a lower risk of myocardial infarction.18 22 23 24 In addition, a ...
PHILADELPHIA) - The discovery that high levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (the "good cholesterol") is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease has fostered intensive research to modify HDL levels for therapeutic gain. However, recent findings have called into question the notion that pharmacologic increases in HDL cholesterol levels are necessarily beneficial to patients. Now, a new study from researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine shows that a different metric, a measure of HDL function called cholesterol efflux capacity, is more closely associated with protection against heart disease than HDL cholesterol levels themselves. Findings from the study could lead to new therapeutic interventions in the fight against heart disease. The new research will be published in the January 13 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.. Atherosclerosis, a component of heart disease, occurs with a build-up along the artery wall of fatty materials ...
Regarding high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, the study found that women with HDL cholesterol levels below 1.29 mmol/L (50 mg/dL) had a 10% increased risk of breast cancer compared to women with HDL cholesterol levels above 1.29 mmol/L (50 mg/dL ...
Agents that increase HDL-C via reverse cholesterol transport could provide a new therapeutic option for the prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The investigators propose to investigate the effects of LY518674 on components that may likely affect atherogenesis in patients with the metabolic syndrome including HDL-C metabolism and reverse cholesterol transport pathways, the inflammatory response, and oxidative stress in human subjects.. As an agonist of the nuclear peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) alpha, LY518674 may affect the transcription of genes that encode various proteins involved in atherogenesis. This study will explore the consequences of altered transcription such as changes in messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein levels as well as protein activity. ...
Science Daily) The discovery that high levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (the "good cholesterol") is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease has fostered intensive research to modify HDL levels for therapeutic gain. However, recent findings have called into question the notion that pharmacologic increases in HDL cholesterol levels are necessarily beneficial to patients. Now, a new study from researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine shows that a different metric, a measure of HDL function called cholesterol efflux capacity, is more closely associated with protection against heart disease than HDL cholesterol levels themselves. ...
We report the case of a 55-year-old man who presented to the outpatient lipid clinic for his scheduled follow-up with severely low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of new onset. Diagnostic workup showed that he was infected by visceral leishmaniasis. He was treated with liposomal amphotericin B and serum lipid levels returned to usual values.
LOW HDL CHOLESTEROL FROM GENE VARIATION NOT ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED RISK OF ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE CHICAGO-Lower levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol due to a gene mutation is not
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Kenji Okumura, Hideto Tsukamoto, Hideyuki Tsuboi, Haruo Hirayama, Haruo Kamiya, Masato Watarai, Ryoji Ishiki, Toyoaki Murohara].
When we think of good cholesterol foods, we typically think of those that will not contribute to an increase in cholesterol levels but help to lower them.
Diabetic Dyslipidaemia is a condition where a person is diabetic and has elevated levels of the total cholesterol, the "bad" low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and the triglycerides and a decrease in the "good" high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration in the blood. Optimal LDL cholesterol levels for adults with diabetes are less than 100 mg/dL, optimal HDL cholesterol levels are equal to or greater than 40 mg/dL, and desirable triglycerides levels are less than 150 mg/dL.Over 80 per cent of all diabetic patients are estimated to be suffering from diabetic dyslipidaemia. There are more than 350 million diabetics globally - so the people suffering from diabetic dyslipidaemia could be around 300 million. ...
Unclog your arteries with these ideas on how to raise HDL cholesterol levels to combat cardiovascular diseases and reduce your risk of a stroke.
To examine the characteristic features of risk factors for macroangiopathy (MA) in nonobese Japanese NIDDM patients, 899 NIDDM patients with and without MA were registered from 40 facilities. Of these, 386 subjects were identified as having any form of MA (total MA); these included 211 with ischemie heart disease (IHD), 163 with cerebrovascular disease (CVD), and 77 with peripheral vascular disease (PVD). Univariate analyses revealed the following common risk factors for total MA, IHD, CVD, and PVD: age, hypertension, systolic blood pressure (sBP) or diastolic blood pressure (dBP), duration of diabetes, diabetic microangiopathy (retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy), low HDL cholesterol level, and higher LDL cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio. Additional significant risk factors for specific conditions were also identified, respectively, as male sex for total MA, IHD, and PVD, smoking for IHD and PVD, and high fasting plasma glucose level for total MA and CVD. With stepwise multivariate ...
The researchers concluded that certain genetic variants that raise blood HDL cholesterol do not seem to be related to the risk of heart attacks. They said that this data "challenges the concept" that raising HDL cholesterol levels will directly translate into reduced risk of a heart attack.. Previous research has tended to show that HDL cholesterol is "good" for you and higher levels reduce your risk coronary heart disease, while LDL cholesterol is "bad" for you and higher levels increase your risk of a heart attack. This complex research aimed to avoid the problem of the influence of other medical, biological or lifestyle influences by concentrating on genetics linked to HDL cholesterol and how closely they related to the risk of heart disease. If HDL cholesterol is directly related to CHD risk, then genes associated with high HDL levels should be directly associated with lower heart attack risk. Researchers carried out their study based on the theory that because our genetics are randomly ...
... - 1. Increases HDL cholesterol: Higher levels of HDL (high density lipoproteins) cholesterol, in other words, good cholesterol, prevent atherosclerosis (narrowing of the arteries), and thus protect you...
Healthy cholesterol levels are a combination of low overall numbers and the ratio of high-density lipoprotiens (HDL), or "good" cholesterol, to low-density lipoprotiens (LDL), or "bad" cholesterol. There are a number of ways to increase your levels of HDL cholesterol. Lifestyle Changes According to the Mayo Clinic, smoking both lowers HDL cholesterol levels and causes […]. ...
Investigation of variants identified in caucasian genome-wide association studies for plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides levels in Mexican dyslipidemic study samples. ...
The material in this website is provided for educational and informational purposes only and is not intended as medical advice. It should not be used to diagnose or treat any illness, metabolic disorder, disease or health problem. Always consult your physician or health care provider before beginning any nutrition or exercise program. Use of the programs, advice, and information contained in this website is at the sole choice and risk of the reader.. ...
BACKGROUND:. More than one-third of patients with coronary disease have low high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) levels (less than 35 mg/dl; United States 20th percentile) and normal low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) (less than 145; United States mean), a group for whom current treatment guidelines are not based on clinical trial data. Low HDLc levels are strong, independent predictors of cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular mortality risk, equally so for both men and women. This high coronary artery disease risk may be due to an imbalance between delivery of cholesterol into the arterial intima by LDL and its removal by HDL. Also, since HDL serve as antioxidants and cytoprotectants, an important HDL role may be to prevent LDL oxidation and thus limit macrophage-mediated intimal lipid accumulation or to prevent vascular cell toxicity. Recent epidemiologic, experimental, and clinical trial evidence suggests that a 15 mg/dl rise in HDL cholesterol would reduce coronary ...
Also known as: hdl-cholesterol, Hdl-cholesterol, HDl-cholesterol, HDLcholesterol, HDL_cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol., HDL-cholesterol, HDL-Cholesterol, HDL-CHOLESTEROL, HDL cholesterol, HDL cho-lesterol, HDL Cholesterol, H.D.L.-cholesterol ...
I love life and only makes sense for me to do what I can to keep my chances down of suffering and dying from cardiovascular disease and even cancer. There are certain things beyond ones control that will put you at a higher risk, so first be aware of where you are starting out. If you knew that your chances were few to none by following the 7 step guidelines from the American Heart Association, would you be prudent or risky with your health and life?. Before delving into what you can do, lets first evaluate the risk factors that you have no control over. Do you have family history of heart disease? You may be one whose genetic chemistry prevails you to have elevated cholesterol, low high density lipoprotein (HDL), elevated triglycerides,or elevated blood pressure which will not improve under the best of cardiovascular health behavior.. For this blog, lets start by looking at cholesterol and HDL. Your HDL, which is called the "good" cholesterol, removes the bad cholesterol (LDL) from the ...
Twenty-nine women aged 35 years old or more, using triphasic combined oral contraceptive (COC) were evaluated during six cycles for the following parameters: total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and its subfraction HDL2, triglycerides, apoproteins A and B, Castelli risk index I and II (cholesterol/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C) and apoprotein ratio (apoprotein B/apoprotein A). The same laboratory measurements were done in a control group of 49 non-COC-user women. The results showed that there were no differences on most of the studied parameters between user and nonuser women. There was a significant reduction of HDL-C and LHD2-C, although within the normal range. In addition, it was observed a significant increment of triglycerides and apoprotein B at 6 months of follow-up only in user group (p , 0.05), although within the normal range. It is concluded that the use of levonorgestrel triphasic COC appeared to have no additional ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Association of extremely high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with cardiovascular mortality in a pooled analysis of 9 cohort studies including 43,407 individuals. T2 - The EPOCH-JAPAN study. AU - Evidence for Cardiovascular Prevention from Observational Cohorts in Japan (EPOCH-JAPAN) Research Group. AU - Hirata, Aya. AU - Sugiyama, Daisuke. AU - Watanabe, Makoto. AU - Tamakoshi, Akiko. AU - Iso, Hiroyasu. AU - Kotani, Kazuhiko. AU - Kiyama, Masahiko. AU - Yamada, Michiko. AU - Ishikawa, Shizukiyo. AU - Murakami, Yoshitaka. AU - Miura, Katsuyuki. AU - Ueshima, Hirotsugu. AU - Okamura, Tomonori. AU - Ueshima, Hirotsugu. AU - Okamura, Tomonori. AU - Imai, Yutaka. AU - Ohkubo, Takayoshi. AU - Irie, Fujiko. AU - Iso, Hiroyasu. AU - Kitamura, Akihiko. AU - Ninomiya, Toshiharu. AU - Kiyohara, Yutaka. AU - Miura, Katsuyuki. AU - Murakami, Yoshitaka. AU - Nakagawa, Hideaki. AU - Nakayama, Takeo. AU - Okayama, Akira. AU - Sairenchi, Toshimi. AU - Saitoh, Shigeyuki. AU - ...
Because of the low rates of MMP-9 detection,16 we modeled this biomarker as a dichotomous variable (detectable versus undetectable) only. We natural-logarithmically transformed (to account for skewed distributions) TIMP-1 and PIIINP. We evaluated correlations between the latter 2 biomarkers by estimating age- and sex-adjusted Pearson correlation coefficients.. To examine the associations of biomarkers with the end points of interest, we estimated Cox proportional hazards regression models (after confirming the assumption of proportionality of hazards) and related MMP-9, log-TIMP-1, and log-PIIINP individually to all-cause mortality and incident CVD (separate models for each outcome) in age- and sex-adjusted models and in multivariable models. In addition, we adjusted for body mass index, systolic blood pressure, hypertension treatment, diabetes mellitus, the total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, current smoking, LVM, and LV sampling group. We also evaluated the relations ...
New genes predisposing to low HDL-cholesterol level were searched using genome-wide association analysis in Finnish individuals with extremely low or high HDL-cholesterol. Several new genes predisposing to low HDL-cholesterol were discovered, of which many were known to be associated with immune system and inflammatory reaction of the body, but their role in cholesterol metabolism has not previously been characterized. Some of the subjects appeared to be genetically more prone to inflammation than others, especially in the blood and adipose tissue. The more inflammation inducing genetic variants one had, the stronger was the inflammatory state of the body, especially in blood and adipose tissue, and the lower the HDL-cholesterol level. The inflammation may block the transport of cholesterol from vessel walls to circulation leading to lower HDL-cholesterol levels in the circulation ...
Linn, S., Fulwood, R., Rifkind, B., Carroll, M., Muesing, R., Williams, O.D., Johnson, C. High density lipoprotein cholesterol levels among US adults by selected demographic and socioeconomic variables. The Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1976-1980 ...
The purpose of this study was assessing the effects of using statins in the evolution of lipid profile and concentrations of ultrasensible C-reactive protein in patients at high coronary risk. Twenty-five patients at high-risk, belonging to the Interdisciplinar Center of Research, Education and Care Dyslipidemia of the University Hospital of the Federal University of Santa Catarina, were evaluated in a period of one year. Laboratory tests performed included lipid and ultrasensible C-reactive protein plasma concentrations. There was a statistically significant reduction in mean total cholesterol (P, 0.0001), triglycerides (P= 0.02) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (P, 0.0001), with the exception of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The use of monotherapy with statin showed statistically significant reduction in the concentrations of ultrasensible C-reactive protein (P= 0.007). The use of statins proved to be useful in reducing the lipid level and concentration of ...
Abstract We investigated the potential hepatoprotective effects of misoprostol (MP) on doxorubicin (DOX) induced liver injury in rats using histology and biochemistry. We used 21 male Sprague-Dawley rats divided randomly into three groups: group 1, control; group 2, DOX; group 3, DOX + MP. The control group was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 0.5 ml 0.9% w/v NaCl and given 1 ml 0.9% NaCl orally for 6 days. DOX was administered i.p. as a single dose of 20 mg/kg. MP, 0.2 mg/kg, was given orally for 6 days. Treatment with MP increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and decreased serum al ...
RESULTS: at 3 months, a 31.1% decrease in the mean LDL cholesterol level was observed with evacetrapib versus a 6.0% increase with placebo, and a 133.2% increase in the mean HDL cholesterol level was seen with evacetrapib versus a 1.6% increase with placebo. After 1363 of the planned 1670 primary end-point events had occurred, the data and safety monitoring board recommended that the trial be terminated early because of a lack of efficacy. After a median of 26 months of evacetrapib or placebo, a primary end-point event occurred in 12.9% of the patients in the evacetrapib group and in 12.8% of those in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 1.01; 95% confidence interval, 0.91 to 1.11; P=0.91 ...
Published studies investigating the role of APOE gene on lipid response (total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides) to statin treatment ...
A patients HDL level indicates the amount of good cholesterol in the bloodstream, explains Mayo Clinic. High levels of HDL are associated with a lower risk of heart disease because HDL prevents bad...
Your doctor tells you that your level of LDL-the "bad" type of cholesterol-is too high, and, in a double whammy, he says that your level of HDL-the "good" cholesterol-is too low. So, you wonder, is there anything you can do to decrease the bad while increasing the good? There are steps you can take to accomplish this. Its much easier to push LDL down than to push HDL up, but its well worth the effort to strive to do both. A November study published in the Postgraduate Medical Journal found that increasing HDL levels in patients who are also aggressively lowering their LDL levels can reduce cardiovascular risk. Depending on your cholesterol levels, successfully reaching your target levels will probably take a combination of medication and lifestyle and dietary changes. Among the changes youll have to make: Stop smoking, work out, lose weight, and eat well, the PMJ study suggests. 6. Lose weight . This can lower LDL, though levels will go back up unless you make lasting dietary changes, Eckel ...
New research from IAS 2017 shows that the risk of cognitive impairment is reduced by 11% with every 10 mg/dL increase in HDL cholesterol.
Raising HDL levels requires an active lifestyle that incorporates a substantial amount of physical activity with healthy diet choices, notes Mayo Clinic. Raising HDL levels to a healthy number can be...
Of course they are off-base a tad by not addressing LDL particles and putting so much into the impact on LDL being so important. On the other hand, the food-makers need to find a way to show that this is "healthy" so they can use it in food production. Without a solid fat, a lot of the products today would be a mess or an even worse freak of nature.. Getting back to the subject at hand though, the next slide goes into the awesomeness that is monounsaturated fats (oleic acid). It is stable (not very stable like saturated fats) has very limited function in foods as it is liquid at room temperature and says it has neutral to positive effect on health "↑ HDL cholesterol (good), ↓ LDL-cholesterol". Notice in this case how monounsaturated is specifically mentioned as raising "good" HDL though several SFAs raise HDL cholesterol even more.. The last slide I will cover more in depth is the Polyunsaturated Fat slide. Here is the fat they tout as the one that will save us all, yet its functions in food ...
Stavroulla Xenophontos, Marilena Hadjivassiliou, Alexandros Karagrigoriou, Nafsika Demetriou, George Miltiadous, Ioannis Marcou, Moses Elisaf, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Marios A Cariolou
Холестерин, не связанный с липопротеинами высокой плотности, и сердечно-сосудистые заболевания у пациентов с сахарным диабетом и дислипидемией
Atorvastatin is a statin, a type of drug that lowers cholesterol in the body by blocking an enzyme in the liver. Atorvastatin is used along with a low-fat diet to lower the LDL cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. The drug can raise HDL cholesterol as well. Atorvastatin lowers the risk for heart attack, stroke, certain types of heart surgery, and chest pain in patients who have heart disease or risk factors for heart disease such as age, smoking, high blood pressure, low HDL, or family history of early heart disease. So, keep marching in lock step to the demands of our leaders by arguing with each other. If you ever stop, youll begin to question what youre doing and […]. ...
Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with 4 weeks of the JAK1 selective inhibitor filgotinib had a preferential increase in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), investigators reported at the 2015 ACR/ARHP Annual Meeting.
RESULTS NIDDM subjects had larger IMT, higher levels of triglycerides, and lower concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol compared with control subjects. IMT was positively correlated to age and systolic blood pressure and inversely to HDL cholesterol in both groups. The prevalence of CA was 46% in NIDDM subjects and 18% in control subjects. In multiple regression analysis, IMT was the only variable significantly associated to CA.. ...
During a median follow up of 3.3 (range 0.1-9.5) years, a total of 465 first new events occurred. Compared with the lowest quintile, the upper quintile of HDL-c levels was associated with a lower risk for new events; Hazard Ratio 0.61 (95% CI 0.43-0.86) irrespective of the localisation of vascular disease and use of lipid-lowering medication. Higher HDL-c levels were associated with comparably lower risks for vascular events in patients with LDL-c levels above and below 2.5 mmol L(-1) (P-values for interaction , 0.05).Patients with various clinical manifestations of vascular diseases in the highest HDL-c quintile have a lower risk for vascular events compared with patients in the lowest HDL-c quintile. Further, the current results expand the evidence by showing that also in a cohort of patients with various localisations of clinical evident vascular disease, in which statins were widely used, higher HDL-c levels confer a lower risk for developing new vascular events, irrespective of the ...
Another name for High HDL is High Cholesterol. Physicians from the following specialties evaluate and treat high cholesterol: * Family Practice * Internal ...
RESULTS Patients who developed diabetes (n = 523) were older; had higher BMI, waist circumference, triglyceride concentrations, and blood pressure; and had lower HDL-cholesterol concentrations (P , 0.0001) than those who did not develop diabetes. Diabetes incidence was 2.6 per 100 patient-years, equal in both sexes, and significantly increased compared with the Swedish reference (O/E = 6.02; P , 0.0001) as well as with the four other populations (O/E = 2.11-5.22). O/E increased with BMI and decreased with duration of GHRT (P , 0.0001). There was no significant association with GH dose (P = 0.74) or IGF-I SDS (P = 0.47). In subjects not developing diabetes, plasma glucose concentrations increased from 84.4 ± 0.9 mg/dL to 89.5 ± 0.8 mg/dL (0.70 mg/dL/year) and HbA1c increased from 4.74 ± 0.04% to 5.09 ± 0.13% (0.036%/year) after 6 years of GHRT. ...
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Controversial. They raise HDL (the "good") cholesterol but its unclear that supplemental omega 3s are good for you. Fish is good for you and contains a lot of omega 3s, but also other things. Epidemiological studies show that cultures that consume a lot of fish (like the japanese) and little beef have a much lower incidence of heart attack. There is conflicting data that taking omega 3 supplements helps ...
This test measures the amount of a protein in your blood related to LDL and HDL cholesterol. It can help predict your risk for heart disease.
This test measures the amount of a protein in your blood related to LDL and HDL cholesterol. It can help predict your risk for heart disease.
This test measures the amount of a protein in your blood related to LDL and HDL cholesterol. It can help predict your risk for heart disease.
TY - JOUR. T1 - ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) R219K (G1051A, rs2230806) polymorphism and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in a large Japanese population. T2 - Cross-sectional data from the Daiko study. AU - Mokuno, Junichiro. AU - Hishida, Asahi. AU - Morita, Emi. AU - Sasakabe, Tae. AU - Hattori, Yuta. AU - Suma, Shino. AU - Okada, Rieko. AU - Kawai, Sayo. AU - Naito, Mariko. AU - Wakai, Kenji. PY - 2015/4/11. Y1 - 2015/4/11. N2 - Among polymorphisms in ATP-binding cassette transporter Al (ABCA1) gene, the available evidence demonstrates that the ABCA1 R219K polymorphism (G1051A, rs2230806) K allele is associated with a higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL- C) level and may play a protective role against coronary artery disease (CAD) risk in Asians and Caucasians. The findings from many underpowered studies from Asian countries (n=71-597), however, still remain inconsistent. The objective of this study was to overcome the limitations of previous ...
How is Non-High Density Lipoprotein abbreviated? NHDL stands for Non-High Density Lipoprotein. NHDL is defined as Non-High Density Lipoprotein rarely.
Case Report: Patient 1, a 42-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus, was referred for evaluation of a very low HDL cholesterol level (Table). He had been taking insulin; troglitazone, 400 mg/d; and metformin, 850 mg/d. Gemfibrozil was initially prescribed for hypertriglyceridemia, but fenofibrate, 201 mg, was then substituted. When the patient was first seen, his HDL cholesterol level was 0.39 mmol/L (15 mg/dL) and his apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) level, 0.29 g/L, was very low. Fenofibrate therapy was discontinued, and therapy with atorvastatin, 10 mg, was started. His HDL cholesterol level increased to 1.06 mmol/L (41 mg/dL). Currently, the patient is receiving simvastatin, 20 mg/d; gemfibrozil, 600 mg twice daily; fish oil, 1 g/d; pioglitazone, 45 mg/d; metformin, 500 mg three times per day; and ramipril, 10 mg/d. His apo A-I level has increased to 1.14 g/L, and his HDL cholesterol level is 1.19 mmol/L (46 mg/dL ...
Frost G, Leeds A, Dore C, Madeiros S, Braading S, Dornhorst A. Glycemic index as a predictor of serum HDL-cholesterol concentration . J Am Osteopath Assoc 1999;99(4):194. doi: 10.7556/jaoa.1999.99.4.194.. Download citation file:. ...
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is a plasma glycoprotein that promotes reverse cholesterol transport via the exchange of cholesteryl ester (CE) and triglyceride (TG) among lipoproteins. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) promotes reverse cholesterol transport via exchange of cholesteryl ester and triglyceride among lipoproteins. CETP has a central role in lipoprotein metabolism.. CETP, a hydrophobic plasma glycoprotein, is a promising target for raising circulating HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations in humans. CETP is secreted primarily from the liver and plays a critical role in HDL metabolism by facilitating the exchange of cholesteryl esters (CE) from HDL for triglycerides (TG) in apoB-containing lipoproteins, such as LDL and VLDL.. CETP catalyses the exchange of cholesteryl ester and triglyceride between HDL and apoB containing lipoprotein particles. The role of CETP in modulating plasma HDL cholesterol levels in humans is well established and there have been significant ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sex differences in high density lipoprotein cholesterol among low-level alcohol consumers. AU - Weidner, Gerdi. AU - Connor, Sonja L.. AU - Chesney, Margaret A.. AU - Burns, John W.. AU - Connor, William E.. AU - Matarazzo, Joseph. AU - Mendell, Nancy R.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - The purpose of this study was to examine high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in a sample of community-living women and men who consumed 1 drink of alcohol/day or less. Self-reports of alcohol consumption and clinical assessments of plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels were obtained twice, at 12 months apart. Among men, consumption of 1 drink/day or less was unrelated to levels in HDL-C. In contrast, among women alcohol consumption throughout this relatively low consumption range was positively associated with HDL-C levels. These findings indicate that the association of alcohol and higher levels of HDL-C may occur at lower intakes of alcohol in women than in men.. AB - The purpose of ...
The percentage of adults aged 20 and over with high total cholesterol has declined substantially since 1999-2000. For 2009-2010, the percentage of adults with high total cholesterol was 13.4%, thus meeting the Healthy People 2010 target of 17% or less [Objective (12-14)]. Substantial and steady decreases in the prevalence of high total cholesterol among men aged 40 and over and women aged 60 and over during the 1999-2010 period resulted in achievement of the Healthy People 2010 objective in all sex and racial-and-ethnic groups and in all sex and age groups except for women aged 40 and over. For 2009-2010, only 11.9% of women compared with 31.4% of men aged 20 and over had low HDL cholesterol. The percentage with low HDL cholesterol is consistently higher in men than in women within each race and ethnicity group. Because women typically have higher HDL cholesterol levels than men, the percentage with low HDL cholesterol is expected to be lower in women than in men. The percentage of adult men ...
Ivanhoe Newswire) -- It has been well-known that high levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, the "good" kind, are associated with a lower risk of heart disease. Recent studies have asked if pharmacologic increases in HDL cholesterol levels are beneficial to the patient. A new study shows that a different metric, a measure of HDL function called cholesterol efflux capacity, is more closely associated with protection against heart disease than HDL cholesterol levels themselves.. Atherosclerosis typically occurs with a build-up of cholesterol along the artery wall. Cholesterol efflux capacity, an integrated measure of HDL function, is a direct calculation of the efficiency by which a persons HDL removes cholesterol from cholesterol-loaded macrophages (a type of white blood cell) -- the sort that accumulate in arterial plaque.. "Recent scientific findings have directed increasing interest toward the concept that measures of the function of HDL, rather than simply its level in the ...
Prevalence of Low Levels of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) at Presentation in Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) and its Relation to In-Hospital Mortality: Results from the NCDR (R)
Treatment with a new drug called torcetrapib increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL; "good") cholesterol in individuals with low HDL levels, as well as decreasing the levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL; "bad") cholesterol. Torcetrapib is a blocker of a cell chemical called cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP). Individuals who do not have CETP because of a genetic defect have significantly elevated HDL levels. This discovery led to the finding that CETP inhibition may be a novel way of raising HDL, the researchers explained in the New England Journal of Medicine, April 8, 2004. The investigators treated 19 participants who had low HDL levels with an inactive placebo for 4 weeks. After 4 weeks, the participants were given another 4 weeks of either torcetrapib alone or in combination with the statin atorvastatin. The results showed a 46% HDL increase in the once-daily torcetrapib-only group and a 61% rise in the once-daily torcetrapib/atorvastatin group. The third phase of the study ...
Thesis, English, High density lipoprotein cholesterol as a predictor of clinical outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with normal initial low density lipoprotein cholesterol for Abdel mawgood Rany Elsayed
What is cholesterol?. Cholesterol is a fatty substance that is found in the blood. Cholesterol is made naturally in the body, and is also introduced to the body through the foods you eat. Most people consider cholesterol to be a bad thing, but not all cholesterol is created equal. There is actually good and bad cholesterol. To have healthy cholesterol is to have enough or a higher amount of "good" cholesterol, and low "bad" cholesterol.. Good Cholesterol. HDL (high density lipids) is also known as "good" cholesterol. HDL cholesterol actually helps to clean blood vessels and transport "bad" cholesterol out of the body.. Foods that have good cholesterol include fish, avocado, oats, some nuts, and berries. These foods can help you raise your HDL cholesterol levels and lower the bad.. Bad Cholesterol. LDL, or "low density lipids" is bad cholesterol. This is the kind of cholesterol that creates plaque that can clog your blood vessels and create problems such as high blood pressure, stroke and heart ...
Fifteen middle-aged, untrained (defined as no regular exercise) men (mean age 49.9 years, range 42-67) cycled on a cycle ergometer at 50 rpm for 30 min at an intensity producing 60% predicted maximum heart rate [(fc,max), where fc, max = 220 - age]. Total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (Tg) concentrations were measured from fasting fingertip capillary blood samples collected at rest, after 15 and 30 min of exercise, and at 15 min post-exercise. The mean HDL-C level increased significantly from the resting level of 0.85 mmol · l-1 to 0.97 mmol · 1-1 ( ...
ldl c normal range - 28 images - cholesterol cholesterol therapies and cholesterol guidelines ppt, ldl cholesterol cadi, lipids and lipoproteins basicmedical key, it s all relative genetic dyslipidaemia ppt, image gallery hdl cholesterol levels
When your doctor spouts off your cholesterol levels in terms of LDL and HDL, does your brain shut off? You know in the back of your mind that one is good and one is bad, but which is which? And why is one better that the other? In order to understand the difference between LDL and HDL cholesterol, you need a basic understanding of how cholesterol works with and affects your body chemistry.. First, cholesterol in itself - whether LDL or HDL cholesterol - is not a bad thing. Although cholesterol is most well known for the role it plays in contributing to heart disease, it is actually a substance needed by and naturally produced by the body. For instance, cholesterol is responsible for building cell membranes and for maintaining the fluidity of these membranes. Cholesterol also plays an important part in helping to metabolize fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamins A, D, E, and K. Scientists also say cholesterol helps in the production of bile, which, in turn, helps to digest fat. Although we hear so ...
BACKGROUND: Patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease remain at high risk for cardiovascular events despite effective statin-based treatment of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. The inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) by anacetrapib reduces LDL cholesterol levels and increases high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. However, trials of other CETP inhibitors have shown neutral or adverse effects on cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 30,449 adults with atherosclerotic vascular disease who were receiving intensive atorvastatin therapy and who had a mean LDL cholesterol level of 61 mg per deciliter (1.58 mmol per liter), a mean non-HDL cholesterol level of 92 mg per deciliter (2.38 mmol per liter), and a mean HDL cholesterol level of 40 mg per deciliter (1.03 mmol per liter). The patients were assigned to receive either 100 mg of anacetrapib once daily (15,225 patients) or matching
In this issue of the Journal, Qi et al. (1) describe a potentially important advance in cardiovascular biomarker testing related to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), the so called "good cholesterol." The story of how cholesterol is causally related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) started more than 100 years ago with the pioneering studies by N. Anitschkow, who first showed that feeding rabbits a high-cholesterol diet induced atherosclerosis (2). Later John Gofman, MD, PhD, in the 1950s, found by analytical ultracentrifugation that cholesterol on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was a positive risk factor for CVD, whereas cholesterol on HDL was inversely related to CVD risk (3). This began the modern era of lipoprotein research and was the genesis for measurement of the cholesterol content of HDL (HDL-C) as the main metric for HDL. Subsequently, diagnostic testing for HDL-C has become so ingrained in medical practice that it is often incorrectly viewed as being synonymous with ...
When you have a health checkup, cholesterol levels are definitely on the list to ensure that your lipid profile is at target levels. High triglyceride levels put you at risk for a number of serious health issues. The lipid profile measures the fat in your blood, and there are three types to check. The LDL or bad cholesterol, the HDL or good cholesterol and triglycerides.. Ideally, total cholesterol should be less than 200 mg/dL, HDL should be 60 mg/dL or more and triglycerides should be below 150 mg/dL. A deviation from these readings leads to the build up of unhealthy cholesterol levels resulting in blocked arteries, putting you at risk for a heart attack or stroke.. Triglycerides are a crucial source of energy in the body, but high triglyceride levels are risky for heart health. This leads to a condition called metabolic syndrome characterized by low HDL cholesterol, high blood pressure, belly fat and high blood sugar, increasing increases the risk for heart disease, stroke and ...
The joint consensus panel of the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) and the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) recently addressed present and future challenges in the laboratory diagnostics of atherogenic lipoproteins. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and calculated non-HDL cholesterol (=total - HDL cholesterol) constitute the primary lipid panel for estimating risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and can be measured in the nonfasting state. LDL cholesterol is the primary target of lipid-lowering therapies. For on-treatment follow-up, LDL cholesterol shall be measured or calculated by the same method to attenuate errors in treatment decisions due to marked between-method variations. Lipoprotein(a)-cholesterol is part of measured or calculated LDL cholesterol and should be estimated at least once in all patients at risk of ASCVD, especially in those whose LDL cholesterol decline poorly upon statin ...
Ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ (PPARβ/δ) increase skeletal muscle fatty acid catabolism, improve insulin sensitivity, increase serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elicit anti-inflammatory activity and induce terminal differentiation. Contradictory findings are also reported suggesting that PPARβ/δ ligands potentiate tumorigenesis by increasing cell proliferation, by inhibiting apoptosis through phosphorylation of Akt and by increasing cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. The contradictory findings could be due to differences in the model system (cancer cell line versus in vivo), differences in cell culture conditions (with and without serum) or differences in ligands. The present study examined the effect of two different PPARβ/δ ligands (GW0742 and GW501516) in human cancer cell lines (HT29, HCT116, LS-174T, HepG2 and HuH7) cultured in the presence or absence of serum and compared in vitro analysis with in ...
Title: Dyslipidemia as a Risk Factor for Ischemic Stroke. VOLUME: 9 ISSUE: 14. Author(s):Konstantinos Tziomalos, Vasilios G. Athyros, Asterios Karagiannis and Dimitri P. Mikhailidis. Affiliation:Head of Atherosclerosis and Metabolic Syndrome Units, Second Propedeutic Department of Internal Medicine, Aristotle University, Hippocration Hospital, Thessaloniki, 55 132, Greece.. Keywords:ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, statins, fibrates, nicotinic acid, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides. Abstract: Ischemic stroke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Whereas dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), its role in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke is less clear. Epidemiological studies have provided conflicting findings regarding the association of dyslipidemia with ischemic stroke. Overall, elevated LDL-C levels appear to increase the risk of ischemic stroke. Low HDL-C levels also appear to be associated ...
MEDICAL ANIMATION TRANSCRIPT: If you or someone you know has been diagnosed with high cholesterol, its important to understand what cholesterol is and why its important to keep it under control. Cholesterol is a fat-like substance made by your liver and also comes from foods you intake that is then packaged into particles called lipoproteins. Your body needs cholesterol to make hormones, vitamin D, and a substance that helps you digest food, called bile. This video discusses two types of lipoproteins that carry cholesterol-- low density lipid protein, or LDL cholesterol, also known as bad cholesterol, and high density lipoprotein, or HDL cholesterol, also known as good cholesterol. LDL travels through your bloodstream, delivering cholesterol to the cells that need it. If your body has too much LDL, it can build up in the walls of your arteries. LDL and other substances in your artery wall form a fatty deposit called plaque. Over time, plaque can narrow the artery and reduce blood flow. LDL ...
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Cholesterol is a fat-like substance in the blood. The bodys cells need cholesterol, but too much of it creates problems. Approximately two thirds of the bodys cholesterol is made and stored in the liver; the remaining cholesterol comes from diet, especially from meat, chicken, fish, and dairy products. A simple blood test measures cholesterol, and laboratory tests report 3 values: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, called LDL; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, called HDL; and total cholesterol, which is the sum of LDL and HDL.. LDL and HDL have very different functions, and problems occur when patients have either too much LDL or too little HDL. Think of LDL as the carriers taking cholesterol from the liver to cells. Once the cells have what they need, they refuse delivery. The carriers do not know what to do with the extra cholesterol, so they dump it in the bloodstream and return to the liver for another batch.. Now think of HDL as the clean-up crew; they travel the bloodstream hauling ...
Background: The main goal of using statins is to reduce the level of plasma cholesterol, meanwhile they have a wide spectrum of actions. Objectives: To identify the effect of statins on fractional cholesterol esterification (FCE) as well as the complete profile of lipids and (apo)lipoproteins. Design and methods: In an age and sex matched case-control study, 400 subjects who were referred for coronary angiography were divided into two groups according using statins. Results: Total cholesterol was decreased significantly following treatment with statins (165.6 38.0 mg/dL vs. 205.3 48.4, p 0.001). About 90% of the reduction was occurred in nonHDL and 10% in HDL fraction. Reduction of nonHDL cholesterol (125.2 35.2 mg/dL vs. 162.8 45.2, p 0.001) occurred on both unesterified (52.4 21.5 mg/dL vs. 65.2 25.5, p 0.001) and esterified cholesterol (74.7 27.3 mg/dL vs. 96.6 34.1, p 0.001). But the decrease in HDL cholesterol (40.4 10.0 mg/dL vs. 42.3 9.9, p 0.079) happened exclusively in unesterified ...
Principle #6: Policies at eliminating artificial trans fats in the diet - The authors expect to "further reduce the level of trans fats that increase LDL cholesterol levels, lower HDL cholesterol levels that increases the risk of heart attacks." This principle requires the authors to accept the cholesterol theory of reducing heart attacks, but recent studies are debunking that theory. Take the recent high-profile NIH-sponsored AIM-HIGH trial comparing statin to statin plus niacin therapy in patients with cardiovascular disease and low HDL levels. (This study was designed to show that increasing HDL levels with niacin would improve heart attack and stroke outcomes.) This study was stopped 18 months ahead of schedule not only because it was determined to be extremely unlikely that the increase in HDL produced by niacin would improve outcomes, but also because of an unexpected increase in strokes among the patients receiving niacin, a drug known to increase HDL. Support for the results of this ...
Principle #6: Policies at eliminating artificial trans fats in the diet - The authors expect to "further reduce the level of trans fats that increase LDL cholesterol levels, lower HDL cholesterol levels that increases the risk of heart attacks." This principle requires the authors to accept the cholesterol theory of reducing heart attacks, but recent studies are debunking that theory. Take the recent high-profile NIH-sponsored AIM-HIGH trial comparing statin to statin plus niacin therapy in patients with cardiovascular disease and low HDL levels. (This study was designed to show that increasing HDL levels with niacin would improve heart attack and stroke outcomes.) This study was stopped 18 months ahead of schedule not only because it was determined to be extremely unlikely that the increase in HDL produced by niacin would improve outcomes, but also because of an unexpected increase in strokes among the patients receiving niacin, a drug known to increase HDL. Support for the results of this ...
Objective-This study aimed to determine whether the plasma levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) or tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) were altered in patients with a history of symptomatic in-stent restenosis (ISR). Methods and Results-A group of 158 patients with a history of ISR were compared with 128 symptom-free patients. Plasma samples and a detailed risk factor history were collected. Plasma samples were analyzed for pro-MMP-9 and latent MMP-9 and active MMP-9, latent MMP-3, and TIMP-1. Several variables were associated with ISR, including index coronary disease extent and severity (number of diseased vessels and American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association lesion classification), number, diameter, and total length of stent(s) inserted, and plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma active MMP-9 (odds ratio, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.43 to 2.69) showed independent risk association with ISR. Patients with multiple sites of ISR had significantly higher levels of
Total Cholesterol. Total cholesterol is nothing more than the total amount of LDL-C (also know as simply LDL), HDL and VLDL. HDL is the healthy cholesterol and when it is high - which it should be - this will bring up the total cholesterol. When conventional doctors see total cholesterol over a mere 200 they jump on the statin bandwagon and frighten misinformed people with this totally fake number.. Recent research in the development of atherosclerosis and the role oxidation and inflammation play, has indicated that cholesterol in itself does not cause atherosclerosis. It is only when cholesterol bound to atherogenic lipoproteins becomes trapped within the arterial wall, that it becomes a part of the atherosclerotic process. It does this by causing an inflammatory response within the arterial wall and this damages the artery.. HDL. HDL cholesterol is thought to be the good cholesterol because it carries cholesterol particles away from heart, to the liver. In fact, it is merely recycling ...
hdl:1822/3943. PMID 16325258.. *^ a b c d Goodman AB (March 1994). "Retinoid dysregulation as a cause of schizophrenia". The ... Decreased HDL. *Increased blood cholesterol. *Increased blood glucose. *Haematuria. *Proteinuria. *Increased creatine ...
Decreased HDL. *Increased blood cholesterol. *Increased blood glucose. *Haematuria. *Proteinuria. *Increased creatine ...
... dyslipidemia with high triglycerides and/or low HDL cholesterol, and hypertension."[2] It is thus a metabolic diathesis or ...
... a decrease in HDL cholesterol has been observed.[23]:253 At high dosages (5 to 60 mg/day), for instance those used in the ... and does not affect cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase, 21-hydroxylase, or 11β- ...
High levels of HDL cholesterol reduce risk of heart disease. No empirical evidence found to confirm the rumor that filtered ... Increased cholesterol and elevated blood pressure increase risk of heart disease. Exercise decreases risk of heart disease, and ... Lloyd-Jones DM, O'Donnell CJ, D'Agostino RB, Massaro J, Silbershatz H, Wilson PW (Apr 2001). "Applicability of cholesterol- ... High blood pressure (hypertension) and elevated serum cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia) were also seen as normal consequences ...
"Multiple rare alleles contribute to low plasma levels of HDL cholesterol". Science. 305: 869-872. doi:10.1126/science.1099870. ...
Cholesterol drugs may be used to lower LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels, if they are elevated, and to raise HDL levels ... Other signs of metabolic syndrome include high blood pressure, decreased fasting serum HDL cholesterol, elevated fasting serum ... Reduced HDL ("good") cholesterol: Men - Less than 40 mg/dL (1.03 mmol/L) Women - Less than 50 mg/dL (1.29 mmol/L) Elevated ... reduced HDL cholesterol; and a trend toward increased triglycerides, blood pressure, and glucose in the genetically susceptible ...
... increases HDL-cholesterol; the mechanism behind HDL elevation is currently unknown. Reduce triglyceride levels Reduce very low ... HDL) levels GI distress Musculoskeletal pain Increased incidence of gallstone Hypokalemia (low blood potassium) Increased risk ...
Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL-cholesterol were reduced, while HDL-cholesterol increased.[30] ... A study of 80 subjects with moderate hypercholesterolemia (high cholesterol) found that a daily dose of a Bergamot extract ... such as triglycerides and cholesterol) in the blood. In a group of 107 patients with confirmed non-alcoholic fatty liver ...
... cholesterol)". GPnotebook. Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia; Cholesterol (HDL and LDL) - plasma or serum Last ... Retrieved on September 12, 2009 American Association for Clinical Chemistry; HDL Cholesterol GP Notebook > range (reference, ca ... Cholesterol? Last Update July 21, 2009. Retrieved on July 21, 2009 Derived from values in mg/dl to mmol/l, using molar mass of ... there is another cluster containing many metabolic substances like cholesterol and glucose at the limit with the blue part (g/L ...
Niacin, fibrates and CETP Inhibitors, while they may increase HDL cholesterol do not affect the risk of cardiovascular disease ... A 10 mmHg reduction in blood pressure reduces risk by about 20%. Decrease non-HDL cholesterol. Statin treament reduces ... One of them is related to serum cholesterol level. In most populations, the serum total cholesterol level increases as age ... metabolism toward a more atherogenic form by decreasing the HDL cholesterol level while increasing LDL and total cholesterol ...
... which normally transfers cholesterol from HDL cholesterol to very low density or low density lipoproteins (VLDL or LDL). ... "Effects of an inhibitor of cholesteryl ester transfer protein on HDL cholesterol" (abstract). New England Journal of Medicine. ... cholesterol-containing particle) and reduces LDL levels (the "bad" cholesterol).[vague][citation needed] ... clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00139061 Phase III Assess HDL-C Increase And Non-HDL Lowering Effect Of Torcetrapib/Atorvastatin ...
2010). "No interaction between alcohol consumption and HDL-related genes on HDL cholesterol levels". Atherosclerosis. 211 (2): ... 2006). "Consistent effects of genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport on plasma lipid and apolipoprotein levels in ... high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglycerides in humans". Nat. Genet. 40 (2): 189-97. doi:10.1038/ng.75. PMC 2682493 . ... "Common SNPs in HMGCR in micronesians and whites associated with LDL-cholesterol levels affect alternative splicing of exon13" ...
Studies have shown that the CETP is linked to increased HDL levels. There is a very common pattern of two different cholesterol ... The mutations correlated with decreased CETP levels (-35%) and increased HDL cholesterol levels (+10% for D442G). The relative ... The cholesterol ester transfer protein(CETP) helps the transfer of cholesterol esters from lipoproteins to other lipoproteins ... It plays a fundamental role in the reverse transport of cholesterol to the liver, which is why a mutation in this can lead to ...
Low level of high-density lipoprotein (also known as HDL cholesterol or "good cholesterol")[13] ... Metabolic syndrome (hyperlipidemia + HDL cholesterol level , 0.90 mmol/L or triglyceride level , 2.82 mmol/L), hypertension (, ... and decreased HDL cholesterol levels. With respect to visceral adiposity, a great deal of evidence suggests two strong links ...
A. It increases HDL ("good") cholesterol. B. It decreases LDL ("bad") cholesterol. C. It improves cholesterol (both HDL and LDL ...
Obesity is associated with increased LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol) and lowered HDL cholesterol (good cholesterol). Obesity ... According to NIH, obesity causes the amount of cholesterol in bile to rise, in turn the formation of stone can occur Due to its ...
Tests focusing on cholesterol levels can determine LDL and HDL cholesterol levels, as well as triglyceride levels.[5] ... HDL. High Density Lipoprotein. Level of "good cholesterol" in the blood (ratio of HDL:LDL is usually more significant than ... Level of "bad cholesterol" in the blood (ratio of HDL:LDL is usually more significant than actual values). ... Multiple tests for specific blood components, such as a glucose test or a cholesterol test, are often grouped together into one ...
Drugs in this class substantially increase HDL ("good cholesterol"), lower LDL ("bad cholesterol"), and reverse the transport ... CETP inhibitors inhibit cholesterylester transfer protein (CETP), which normally transfers cholesterol from HDL cholesterol to ... "CETP inhibitors to increase HDL cholesterol levels". N. Engl. J. Med. 356 (13): 1364-6. doi:10.1056/NEJMe078029. PMID 17387130 ... Keene D, Price C, Shun-Shin MJ, Francis DP (2014). "Effect on CV risk of HDL targeted drug treatments niacin, fibrates and CETP ...
The study showed the value of HDL cholesterol. Medical College of Georgia established the Curtis G. Hames Chair in Family ...
It reduces triglyceride levels and increases HDL cholesterol. It may have less marked adverse effects than niacin, although it ... which leads indirectly to a reduction in LDL and increase in HDL cholesterol. Acipimox is completely absorbed from the gut. It ... Consequently, VLDL cholesterol production in the liver is reduced, ...
... cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol did not change. Although there is only ... Using these and other soy foods to replace foods high in animal protein that contain saturated fat and cholesterol may confer ... Extension may result in diminished flavor, but fat and cholesterol are reduced. Vitamin and mineral fortification can be used ... A meta-analysis concluded soy protein is correlated with significant decreases in serum cholesterol, low density lipoprotein ( ...
Protektívny HDL cholesterol by mal mať koncentráciu najmenej 1 mmol/l. Hladina celkového cholesterolu, ktorý je použitý ako ... HDL cholesterol muži: 1,0 - 2,1 mmol/l, ženy 1,2 - 2,7 mmol/l ... high density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C). Rizikové sú ďalej ... HDL-C - TAG/2,2) zo stanovených hodnôt celkového cholesterolu (total cholesterol, TC), triglyceridov (TG) a cholesterolu častíc ... Cholesterol sa v krvi vyskytuje viazaný v rôznych časticiach lipoproteínov a rizikovosť jeho zvýšených hladín v krvi vo veľkej ...
HDL), "the good cholesterol". Clinically, the choice of an agent depends on the patient's cholesterol profile, cardiovascular ... Lecithin has been shown to effectively decrease cholesterol concentration by 33%, lower LDL by 38% and increase HDL by 46%. [3] ... Fibrates typically lower triglycerides by 20% to 50%. Level of the good cholesterol HDL is also increased. Fibrates may ... Hypolipidemic agents, cholesterol-lowering drugs or antihyperlipidemic agents, are a diverse group of pharmaceuticals that are ...
"The role of HDL-cholesterol in preventing atherosclerotic disease". European Heart Journal Supplements. 7: F4-F8. doi:10.1093/ ... Other studies have associated hardiness with cholesterol and hormonal variations. Bartone and associates examined hardiness ... levels against a full lipid profile including high-density lipoprotein, usually considered a beneficial type of cholesterol. ...
hdl:10149/92337. PMID 18646120.. (Retracted) *^ Carter P, Gray LJ, Troughton J, Khunti K, Davies MJ (August 2010). "Fruit and ... high cholesterol, and microalbuminuria, improves a person's life expectancy.[25] Decreasing the systolic blood pressure to less ... hdl:1871/48558. PMID 22258959.. *^ Ganguly S, Tan HC, Lee PC, Tham KW (April 2015). "Metabolic bariatric surgery and type 2 ... hdl:10536/DRO/DU:30064294. PMID 19726018.. *^ Frachetti KJ, Goldfine AB (April 2009). "Bariatric surgery for diabetes ...
HDL, good, bad, and triglycerides - Get the facts on cholesterol, blood testing, medications, and how to keep your cholesterol ... HDL Cholesterol: Good Cholesterol. Not all cholesterol is bad. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is considered "good ... High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ("good" cholesterol). *Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol ("bad" cholesterol) ... To calculate your cholesterol ratio, divide your total cholesterol number by your HDL cholesterol number. For example, if you ...
... cholesterol. It helps to remove bad cholesterol from your arteries, so a higher HDL level is better. ... HDL, or high-density lipoprotein, is the good ... What should my HDL level be?. With HDL cholesterol, higher ... HDL and LDL have different purposes:. *HDL stands for high-density lipoproteins. It is sometimes called the "good" cholesterol ... How do I know what my HDL level is?. A blood test can measure your cholesterol levels, including HDL. When and how often you ...
HDL (high-density lipoprotein), or "good" cholesterol, absorbs cholesterol and carries it back to the liver. The liver then ... A cholesterol test, or screening, tells your health care provider the levels of LDL and HDL cholesterol in your blood. This ... LDL and HDL Cholesterol: "Bad" and "Good" Cholesterol. ... LDL and HDL Cholesterol: "Bad" and "Good" Cholesterol. *Getting ... If you have low HDL cholesterol levels, talk to your doctor about lifestyle changes that may help raise your levels. ...
... cholesterol, has been the primary approach to improving cholesterol levels. ... Thanks to powerful cholesterol-lowering statin drugs, driving down low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or bad ... Another key player is high-density lipoprotein (HDL), the "good" cholesterol. Higher levels of HDL are associated with lower ... cholesterol, has been the primary approach to improving cholesterol levels. But theres more to the story of cholesterol and ...
Treatments and Tools for HDL cholesterol LDL. Find HDL cholesterol LDL information, treatments for HDL cholesterol LDL and HDL ... MedHelps HDL cholesterol LDL Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, ... Posts on HDL cholesterol LDL. Blood test results: Is this a cholesterol problem - Cholesterol Community ... My LDL is 220 and my HDL is 99. Is my HDL to high? If so how do I lower the HDL. I am 56,... ...
HDL) is often referred to as the good cholesterol. HDL carries cholesterol from the arteries to the liver for use or removal ... It has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and may reduce heart disease.The article looks at the ideal levels of HDL ... in the body and how to raise HDL levels. ... Of HDL and LDL cholesterol, HDL packs some great benefits. This ... High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is often referred to as the "good" cholesterol.. Having high HDL levels helps carry cholesterol ...
This comprehensive review discusses the history and rationale behind the utility of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol as ... The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and the Development of its Guidelines The idea that cholesterol was a cause ... Non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Guidelines for Cholesterol Lowering in Recent History ... Non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Guidelines for Cholesterol Lowering in Recent History. ...
In this article, learn about the difference between HDL and LDL - ... but too much bad cholesterol can be harmful and is a major risk factor for heart disease and stroke. ... LDL cholesterol. HDL cholesterol can move LDL cholesterol from the blood.. LDL cholesterol is often called bad cholesterol. If ... Can my HDL be too high? It is well known that not all cholesterol is bad for you. Of HDL and LDL cholesterol, HDL packs some ...
HDL CHOLESTEROL 67 REFERNCE RANGE 40 MG/DL CHOLESTEROL/HDL RATIO 2.6 REFERENCE RANGE 5.0 LDL CHOLESTEROL 84 REFERENCE RAN... ... MY TOTAL CHOLESTEROL WAS 171 REFERENCE RANGE 125 -200MG/DL ... HDL CHOLESTEROL 67 REFERNCE RANGE 40 MG/DL CHOLESTEROL/HDL ... MY TOTAL CHOLESTEROL WAS 171 REFERENCE RANGE 125 -200MG/DL HDL CHOLESTEROL 67 REFERNCE RANGE 40 MG/DL CHOLESTEROL/HDL RATIO 2.6 ... Also, your HDL is great as well. You can increase it with Omega 3 fatty acids like fish oil. Also, staying natural with fruits ...
VLDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol levels, as well as raising HDL cholesterol levels. A greater effect ... TRIGLYCERIDES, HDL CHOLESTEROL, AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK. *DO WE NEED DRUGS TO REDUCE TG AND/OR INCREASE HDL CHOLESTEROL LEVELS? ... binding cholesterol from HDL, thus regenerating HDL particles able to take up cholesterol from peripheral tissues (46). ... after adjustment for LDL cholesterol or non-HDL cholesterol and other covariates (19). The combination of low LDL cholesterol ...
It is harder to raise HDL cholesterol levels than it is to lower LDL levels, but aerobic exercise and niacin can help, says Dr ... Your LDL cholesterol level should be below 70 mg/dL.. However, it is still important to keep your HDL cholesterol at an ... The problem is that raising HDL cholesterol is not as easy as lowering the LDL type. While there are no foods that affect HDL ... High-density (HDL) cholesterol is thought to help scour the arteries for these deposits and help remove them.. The main focus ...
A fall in HDL cholesterol from 0.8 to 0.2 mmol/l was described in a 64-year-old patient 3 weeks after starting rosiglitazone. ... These series of cases include only one case of HDL cholesterol lowering in a patient taking rosiglitazone without a fibrate (1 ... Of note is that this patient had experienced a similar reaction to bezafibrate previously with the HDL cholesterol falling from ... Although small changes in HDL cholesterol measurements must be interpreted with caution, the New Zealand case report and others ...
HDL) are reduced. The etiology of HDL deficiencies ranges from secondary causes, such as smoking, to specific gene... ... HDL), or hypoalphalipoproteinemia (HA), includes a variety of conditions, ranging from mild to severe, in which concentrations ... For men, a high-risk HDL cholesterol level is still less than 40 mg/dL, but for women, the high-risk HDL cholesterol level is ... encoded search term (Low HDL Cholesterol (Hypoalphalipoproteinemia)) and Low HDL Cholesterol (Hypoalphalipoproteinemia) What to ...
High levels of HDL are associated with a lower risk of heart disease because HDL prevents bad... ... A patients HDL level indicates the amount of good cholesterol in the bloodstream, explains Mayo Clinic. ... How do you raise your HDL cholesterol?. A: Mayo Clinic lists several ways people can raise their HDL cholesterol, such as ... What is the importance of knowing your HDL cholesterol ratio?. A: High levels of high-density lipoprotein, or HDL, cholesterol ...
High levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL), which is commonly referred to as good cholesterol, are beneficial and a sign ... In many cases, a high level of cholesterol is cause for alarm. However, that is not always so. ... HDL cholesterol binds with LDL (bad) cholesterol in the bloodstream. Next, it removes the LDL cholesterol by carrying it to the ... HDL comprises about 25 per cent to 30 per cent of total blood serum cholesterol. HDL percentages lower than this signify ...
Five Ways To Increase HDL. 26th February 2010. Interestingly the way we look at cholesterol has changed dramatically in recent ... Senior Citizens and High Cholesterol. 27th October 2009. High blood cholesterol level is linked to an elevated risk of heart ... What Is a Healthy Cholesterol Reading?. 09th April 2010. Determining what is a healthy cholesterol reading is vital in ... Learn What Those Total Cholesterol Numbers Are. 06th July 2009. Understanding the numbers involved with cholesterol level test ...
HDL-cholesterol esters are converted to HDL-cholesterol by PEG-cholesterol esterase. The HDL-cholesterol is acted upon by PEG- ... Direct HDL-Cholesterol (mg/dL). Variable Name: LBDHDD. SAS Label: Direct HDL-Cholesterol (mg/dL). English Text: Direct HDL- ... Direct HDL-Cholesterol (mmol/L). Variable Name: LBDHDDSI. SAS Label: Direct HDL-Cholesterol (mmol/L). English Text: Direct HDL- ... Cholesterol - HDL (HDL_H) Data File: HDL_H.xpt First Published: October 2015. Last Revised: March 2016. ...
HDL-cholesterol esters are converted to HDL-cholesterol by PEG-cholesterol esterase. The HDL-cholesterol is acted upon by PEG- ... In 2007-2008, a new laboratory performed the HDL cholesterol using a direct HDL cholesterol method similar to the direct HDL ... Direct HDL-Cholesterol (mg/dL). Variable Name: LBDHDD. SAS Label: Direct HDL-Cholesterol (mg/dL). English Text: Direct HDL- ... Direct HDL-Cholesterol (mmol/L). Variable Name: LBDHDDSI. SAS Label: Direct HDL-Cholesterol (mmol/L). English Text: Direct HDL- ...
HDL-cholesterol esters are converted to HDL-cholesterol by PEG-cholesterol esterase. The HDL-cholesterol is acted upon by PEG- ... Direct HDL-Cholesterol (mg/dL). Variable Name: LBDHDD. SAS Label: Direct HDL-Cholesterol (mg/dL). English Text: Direct HDL- ... Direct HDL-Cholesterol (mmol/L). Variable Name: LBDHDDSI. SAS Label: Direct HDL-Cholesterol (mmol/L). English Text: Direct HDL- ... Cholesterol - HDL (HDL_F) Data File: HDL_F.xpt First Published: September 2011. Last Revised: NA ...
In 2007-2008, a new laboratory performed the HDL cholesterol using a direct HDL cholesterol method similar to the direct HDL ... Direct HDL-Cholesterol (mg/dL). Variable Name: LBDHDD. SAS Label: Direct HDL-Cholesterol (mg/dL). English Text: Direct HDL- ... Direct HDL-Cholesterol (mmol/L). Variable Name: LBDHDDSI. SAS Label: Direct HDL-Cholesterol (mmol/L). English Text: Direct HDL- ... Cholesterol - HDL (HDL_D) Data File: HDL_D.xpt First Published: December 2007. Last Revised: April 2010. Note: See analytical ...
HDL cholesterol levels, in overseas markets where it is sold, after it failed to prevent heart problems in a large study and ... Merck & Co said it is recalling Tredaptive, its medicine to raise good HDL cholesterol levels, in overseas markets where it ... Merck begins overseas recall of HDL cholesterol drug. Published January 11, 2013. Reuters ... The company said it will encourage doctors to consider alternative treatments to control cholesterol, but advised patients not ...
LBDHDL - HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL). Variable Name: LBDHDL. SAS Label: HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL). English Text: HDL-cholesterol (mg/ ... HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L). Variable Name: LBDHDLSI. SAS Label: HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L). English Text: HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) ... In 2007-2008, a new laboratory performed the HDL cholesterol using a direct HDL cholesterol method similar to the direct HDL ... The HDL cholesterol for 1999-2000, 2001-2002 and 2005-2006 were adjusted using: Corrected HDL = (Solomon Park assigned HDL ...
... high-density lipoprotein cholesterol -- or HDL -- has long had a reputation of being the good cholesterol, compared to the bad ... home/cholesterol center/cholesterol a-z list/could too much good hdl cholesterol be bad? article ... Cholesterol Levels: What the Numbers Mean. What do cholesterol numbers mean? LDL, HDL, good, bad, and triglycerides - Get the ... "Historically, HDL cholesterol, or good cholesterol, is thought to be protective at high levels for cardiovascular disease and ...
Cite this: Non-HDL Cholesterol a CV-Risk Crystal Ball for Young Adults - Medscape - Jul 10, 2019. ... People with elevated non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels in young adulthood were apt to also show high ... The researchers modeled the life-course of non-HDL-C levels over about 30 years to gauge how reliably elevations in cholesterol ... and LDL cholesterol in most young adults with elevated non-HDL-C, translating into reduced CVD risk, Miller notes. ...
Foods high in cholesterol include fatty meats, milk products, egg yolks, snacks, crackers, muffins, and fast foods. LDL (bad) ... cholesterol can be lowered with diet, medications, exercise, weight loss, and quitting smoking. ... Foods in the diet that lower cholesterol are foods high in fiber, low in saturated fats, olive oil, soy, and nuts. ... What is HDL cholesterol or the good cholesterol?. *HDL cholesterol (high-density lipoprotein) is called the good cholesterol ...
  • Week after week for 2 years, Endo and his associates assayed more than 6000 substances to finally find a substance called compactin that inhibited cholesterol synthesis at the HMG-CoA reductase step-this was the first statin. (medscape.com)
  • Merck in December said Tredaptive did no better in the study at preventing heart attacks, deaths or strokes than traditional statin drugs that lower 'bad' LDL cholesterol. (foxbusiness.com)
  • When combined with statin therapy, evacetrapib (100mg) increased HDL by 79.9 percent to 94 percent and further decreased LDL. (redorbit.com)
  • Statin drugs cannot compensate for the risk resulting from low HDL. (rainbow.coop)
  • LDL, or "bad" cholesterol, has "long been the focus of treatment" with statin drugs. (californiahealthline.org)
  • After one year, HDL cholesterol rose to an average of 47 for participants in the statin-Niaspan group. (californiahealthline.org)
  • To be specific, in a 2004 study, the small molecular agent torcetrapib was shown to increase HDL levels, alone and with a statin, and lower LDL when co-administered with a statin. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2004 trial (19 subjects, non-randomised) showed that torcetrapib could increase HDL and lower LDL with and without an added statin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research has shown that lowering LDL cholesterol reduces the risk of heart attacks , strokes , and peripheral artery disease. (medicinenet.com)
  • Standard heart attack medications, such as aspirin and anti-platelet drugs, prevent clotting but don't help eliminate the underlying cause - cholesterol that has built up in artery plaque. (news-medical.net)