Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC 2.3.1.26.
Proteins that bind to and transfer CHOLESTEROL ESTERS between LIPOPROTEINS such as LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of cholesterol in the presence of molecular oxygen to 4-cholesten-3-one and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme is not specific for cholesterol, but will also oxidize other 3-hydroxysteroids. EC 1.1.3.6.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
An autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the gene for acid lipase (STEROL ESTERASE). It is characterized by the accumulation of neutral lipids, particularly CHOLESTEROL ESTERS in leukocytes, fibroblasts, and hepatocytes.
The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.
A membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 7-alpha-hydroxylation of CHOLESTEROL in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP7, converts cholesterol to 7-alpha-hydroxycholesterol which is the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). High circulating levels of VLDL cholesterol are found in HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE IIB. The cholesterol on the VLDL is eventually delivered by LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS to the tissues after the catabolism of VLDL to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LDL.
A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.
An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC 2.3.1.43.
Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)
Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.
Organic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.
Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.
Lipid-laden macrophages originating from monocytes or from smooth muscle cells.
Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
A family of scavenger receptors that are predominately localized to CAVEOLAE of the PLASMA MEMBRANE and bind HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
Cholesterol which is substituted by a hydroxy group in any position.
A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.
A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Cell surface proteins that bind lipoproteins with high affinity. Lipoprotein receptors in the liver and peripheral tissues mediate the regulation of plasma and cellular cholesterol metabolism and concentration. The receptors generally recognize the apolipoproteins of the lipoprotein complex, and binding is often a trigger for endocytosis.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A superfamily of large integral ATP-binding cassette membrane proteins whose expression pattern is consistent with a role in lipid (cholesterol) efflux. It is implicated in TANGIER DISEASE characterized by accumulation of cholesteryl ester in various tissues.
A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.
(Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.
Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
A diet that contributes to the development and acceleration of ATHEROGENESIS.
Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of oleoyl-CoA, A, and water from stearoyl-CoA, AH2, and oxygen where AH2 is an unspecified hydrogen donor.
Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.
A derivative of LOVASTATIN and potent competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It may also interfere with steroid hormone production. Due to the induction of hepatic LDL RECEPTORS, it increases breakdown of LDL CHOLESTEROL.
Steroids in which one or more hydroxy groups have been substituted for hydrogen atoms either within the ring skeleton or on any of the side chains.
The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.
Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
A condition marked by the development of widespread xanthomas, yellow tumor-like structures filled with lipid deposits. Xanthomas can be found in a variety of tissues including the SKIN; TENDONS; joints of KNEES and ELBOWS. Xanthomatosis is associated with disturbance of LIPID METABOLISM and formation of FOAM CELLS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.
Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.
A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A strongly basic anion exchange resin whose main constituent is polystyrene trimethylbenzylammonium Cl(-) anion.
An intermediate in the synthesis of cholesterol.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
A trihydroxy bile salt that is used as a digestive aid in dietary supplements. It is used in culture media and in conjunction with PAPAIN and PANCREATIN.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of ACETYL COA. Some enzymes called thiolase or thiolase-I have referred to this activity or to the activity of ACETYL-COA C-ACYLTRANSFERASE.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A complex of polyene antibiotics obtained from Streptomyces filipinensis. Filipin III alters membrane function by interfering with membrane sterols, inhibits mitochondrial respiration, and is proposed as an antifungal agent. Filipins I, II, and IV are less important.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.
A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.
Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.
Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.
A cholesterol derivative found in human feces, gallstones, eggs, and other biological matter.
Long chain organic acid molecules that must be obtained from the diet. Examples are LINOLEIC ACIDS and LINOLENIC ACIDS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A triterpene that derives from the chair-boat-chair-boat folding of 2,3-oxidosqualene. It is metabolized to CHOLESTEROL and CUCURBITACINS.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.
Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
The fixed oil obtained from the dried ripe seed of linseed, Linum usitatissimum (L. Linaceae). It is used as an emollient in liniments, pastes, and medicinal soaps, and in veterinary medicine as a laxative. It is also called flaxseed oil. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.
Cholesterol derivatives having an additional double bond in any position. 24-Dehydrocholesterol is DESMOSTEROL. The other most prevalent dehydrocholesterol is the 7-isomer. This compound is a precursor of cholesterol and of vitamin D3.
A broad category of receptor-like proteins that may play a role in transcriptional-regulation in the CELL NUCLEUS. Many of these proteins are similar in structure to known NUCLEAR RECEPTORS but appear to lack a functional ligand-binding domain, while in other cases the specific ligands have yet to be identified.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Blocking of a blood vessel by CHOLESTEROL-rich atheromatous deposits, generally occurring in the flow from a large artery to small arterial branches. It is also called arterial-arterial embolization or atheroembolism which may be spontaneous or iatrogenic. Patients with spontaneous atheroembolism often have painful, cyanotic digits of acute onset.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.
A 513-kDa protein synthesized in the LIVER. It serves as the major structural protein of low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). It is the ligand for the LDL receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL) that promotes cellular binding and internalization of LDL particles.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Peptide hydrolases that contain at the active site a SERINE residue involved in catalysis.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A group of autosomal recessive disorders in which harmful quantities of lipids accumulate in the viscera and the central nervous system. They can be caused by deficiencies of enzyme activities (SPHINGOMYELIN PHOSPHODIESTERASE) or defects in intracellular transport, resulting in the accumulation of SPHINGOMYELINS and CHOLESTEROL. There are various subtypes based on their clinical and genetic differences.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
An aromatase inhibitor that is used in the treatment of advanced BREAST CANCER.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
Relating to the size of solids.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Derivatives of the saturated steroid cholestane with methyl groups at C-18 and C-19 and an iso-octyl side chain at C-17.
A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates GENES involved in CHOLESTEROL synthesis and uptake.
A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.
A group of familial disorders characterized by elevated circulating cholesterol contained in either LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS alone or also in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (pre-beta lipoproteins).
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.
An autosomal recessive disorder of CHOLESTEROL metabolism. It is caused by a deficiency of 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, the enzyme that converts 7-dehydrocholesterol to cholesterol, leading to an abnormally low plasma cholesterol. This syndrome is characterized by multiple CONGENITAL ABNORMALITIES, growth deficiency, and INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An antilipemic fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Nocardia autotrophica. It acts as a competitive inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES).
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
Cholesterol substituted in any position by a keto moiety. The 7-keto isomer inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity and inhibits cholesterol uptake in the coronary arteries and aorta in vitro.
7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Intermediate-density subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes between 7 to 8 nm. As the larger lighter HDL2 lipoprotein, HDL3 lipoprotein is lipid-rich.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS involved in cellular cholesterol removal (reverse-cholesterol transport). It is characterized by near absence of ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins) in blood. The massive tissue deposition of cholesterol esters results in HEPATOMEGALY; SPLENOMEGALY; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; large orange tonsils; and often sensory POLYNEUROPATHY. The disorder was first found among inhabitants of Tangier Island in the Chesapeake Bay, MD.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.

Regulation of the activities of thrombin and plasmin by cholesterol sulfate as a physiological inhibitor in human plasma. (1/2062)

Thrombin and plasmin, both of which are serine proteases in the plasma of vertebrates, play essential roles in blood clotting and fibrinolysis, respectively, and regulation of their activities is important to suppress the excessive reactions within the vascular network and to prevent tissue injury. Along with the peptidic inhibitors belonging to the serpin family, we found that cholesterol sulfate (CS), which is present at the concentration of 2.0+/-1.2 nmol/ml in human plasma, was a potent inhibitor of both plasma thrombin and plasmin. Thrombin, as determined both using a chromogenic substrate and the natural substrate, fibrinogen, was inactivated upon reaction with CS in a dose-dependent manner, but not in the presence of the structurally related steroid sulfates, I3SO3-GalCer and II3NAalpha-LacCer, suggesting that both the sulfate group and the hydrophobic side chain of CS are necessary for the inhibitory activity of CS. Preincubation of thrombin with CS at 37 degrees C for 10 min was required to achieve maximum inhibition, and virtually complete inhibition was achieved at a molar ratio of CS to thrombin of 18:1. CS-treated thrombin had the same Km and a lower Vmax than the original enzyme, and a higher molecular weight. The molecular weight and activity of the original enzyme were not observed on the attempted separation of the CS-treated enzyme by gel permeation chromatography and native PAGE, indicating that the inactivation of thrombin by CS is irreversible. In contrast, CS was readily liberated from the enzyme by SDS-PAGE, suggesting that hydrophobic interactions are involved in the CS-mediated inactivation of thrombin. When acidic lipids were reacted with thrombin after dissolving them in DMSO, I3SO3-GalCer, steroid sulfates and II3NAalpha-LacCer, as well as CS, but not SDS and sodium taurocholate, exhibited inhibitory activity, probably due to micellar formation facilitating interaction between thrombin and negatively charged lipids. On the other hand, plasmin, as determined using a chromogenic substrate, was more susceptible to acidic lipids than thrombin. CS, I3SO3-GalCer and II3NAalpha-LacCer, all of which are present in serum, inhibited the activity of plasmin in aqueous media, as well as in DMSO-mediated lipid solutions. Thus, acidic lipids in plasma were demonstrated to possess regulatory activity as endogenous detergents toward both enzymes for blood clotting and fibrinolysis.  (+info)

Paradoxical effect on atherosclerosis of hormone-sensitive lipase overexpression in macrophages. (2/2062)

Foam cells formed from receptor-mediated uptake of lipoprotein cholesterol by macrophages in the arterial intima are critical in the initiation, progression, and stability of atherosclerotic lesions. Macrophages accumulate cholesterol when conditions favor esterification by acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) over cholesteryl-ester hydrolysis by a neutral cholesteryl-ester hydrolase, such as hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), and subsequent cholesterol efflux mediated by extracellular acceptors. We recently made stable transfectants of a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, that overexpressed a rat HSL cDNA and had a 5-fold higher rate of cholesteryl-ester hydrolysis than control cells. The current study examined the effect of macrophage-specific HSL overexpression on susceptibility to diet-induced atherosclerosis in mice. A transgenic line overexpressing the rat HSL cDNA regulated with a macrophage-specific scavenger receptor promoter-enhancer was established by breeding with C57BL/6J mice. Transgenic peritoneal macrophages exhibited macrophage-specific 7-fold overexpression of HSL cholesterol esterase activity. Total plasma cholesterol levels in transgenic mice fed a chow diet were modestly elevated 16% compared to control littermates. After 14 weeks on a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet, total cholesterol increased 3-fold, with no difference between transgenics and controls. However, HSL overexpression resulted in thicker aortic fatty lesions that were 2.5-times larger in transgenic mice. HSL expression in the aortic lesions was shown by immunocytochemistry. Atherosclerosis was more advanced in transgenic mice exhibiting raised lesions involving the aortic wall, along with lipid accumulation in coronary arteries occurring only in transgenics. Thus, increasing cholesteryl-ester hydrolysis, without concomitantly decreasing ACAT activity or increasing cholesterol efflux, is not sufficient to protect against atherosclerosis. hormone-sensitive lipase overexpression in macrophages.  (+info)

Cholesteryl ester hydrolysis in J774 macrophages occurs in the cytoplasm and lysosomes. (3/2062)

The relationship of cholesteryl ester hydrolysis to the physical state of the cholesteryl ester in J774 murine macrophages was explored in cells induced to store cholesteryl esters either in anisotropic (ordered) inclusions or isotropic (liquid) inclusions. In contrast to other cell systems, the rate of cholesteryl ester hydrolysis was faster in cells containing anisotropic inclusions than in cells containing isotropic inclusions. Two contributing factors were identified. Kinetic analyses of the rates of hydrolysis are consistent with a substrate competition by co-deposited triglyceride in cells with isotropic inclusions. In addition, hydrolysis of cholesteryl esters in cells with anisotropic droplets is mediated by both cytoplasmic and lysosomal lipolytic enzymes, as shown by using the lysosomotropic agent, chloroquine, and an inhibitor of neutral cholesteryl ester hydrolase, umbelliferyl diethylphosphate. In cells containing anisotropic inclusions, hydrolysis was partially inhibited by incubation in media containing either chloroquine or umbelliferyl diethylphosphate. Together, chloroquine and umbelliferyl diethylphosphate completely inhibited hydrolysis. However, when cells containing isotropic inclusions were incubated with umbelliferyl diethylphosphate, cholesteryl ester hydrolysis was completely inhibited, but chloroquine had no effect. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated a primarily lysosomal location for lipid droplets in cells with anisotropic droplets and both non-lysosomal and lysosomal populations of lipid droplets in cells with isotropic droplets. These results support the conclusion that there is a lysosomal component to the hydrolysis of stored cholesteryl esters in foam cells.  (+info)

Cerebral atherosclerosis in Japanese. Part 4: relationship between lipid content and macroscopic severity of atherosclerosis. (4/2062)

In order to evaluate chemically the macroscopic scoring methods for severity of arteriosclerosis in the cerebral arteries, concentrations of total lipids, esterified and free cholesterol and lipid phosphorus were compared to the macroscopic severity of lesions in the cerebral arteries obtained from 376 Japanese persons after unexpected death. An increase of cholesterol content was correlated significantly with an increase of Baker's score and/or Gore's atherosclerotic index. The correlation coefficient between Baker's score and total or esterified cholesterol was the highest among the tested correlations (r = 0.82, n = 376).  (+info)

Cerebral atherosclerosis in Japanese. Part 5: relationship between cholesterol deposition and glycosaminoglycans. (5/2062)

Concentrations of various lipids and glycosaminoglycans (GAG) in the intima of the grossly normal and atherosclerotic cerebral arteries were compared with those of the aorta and coronary arteries. The lowest percentage of esterified cholesterol (EC) in total cholesterol, and of chondroitin sulfate-4/6 (CS-4/6) in total glycosaminoglycans and the highest percentage of heparin sulfate (HS) in total GAG are the characteristic features of the normal intima of normal cerebral arteries when compared with those in the aorta and coronary artery. In the cerebral arterial intimas, but not in the aorta or coronary arteries, there was a significant positive correlation between contents of EC and percentage and total content of CS-4/6. Atherogenesis in cerebral arteries is discussed in comparison to that of the aorta and coronary vessels.  (+info)

Lipid transfer inhibitor protein defines the participation of lipoproteins in lipid transfer reactions: CETP has no preference for cholesteryl esters in HDL versus LDL. (6/2062)

Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) catalyzes the net transfer of cholesteryl ester (CE) between lipoproteins in exchange for triglyceride (heteroexchange). It is generally held that CETP primarily associates with HDL and preferentially transfers lipids from this lipoprotein fraction. This is illustrated in normal plasma where HDL is the primary donor of the CE transferred to VLDL by CETP. However, in plasma deficient in lipid transfer inhibitor protein (LTIP) activity, HDL and LDL are equivalent donors of CE to VLDL (Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1997;17:1716-1724). Thus, we have hypothesized that the preferential transfer of CE from HDL in normal plasma is a consequence of LTIP activity and not caused by a preferential CETP-HDL interaction. We have tested this hypothesis in lipid mass transfer assays with partially purified CETP and LTIP, and isolated lipoproteins. With a physiological mixture of lipoproteins, the preference ratio (PR, ratio of CE mass transferred from a lipoprotein to VLDL versus its CE content) for HDL and LDL in the presence of CETP alone was approximately 1 (ie, no preference). Fourfold variations in the LDL/HDL ratio or in the levels of HDL in the assay did not result in significant preferential transfer from any lipoprotein. On addition of LTIP, the PR for HDL was increased up to 2-fold and that for LDL decreased in a concentration-dependent manner. Under all conditions where LDL and HDL levels were varied, LTIP consistently resulted in a PR >1 for CE transfer from HDL. Short-term experiments with radiolabeled lipoproteins and either partially purified or homogenous CETP confirmed these observations and further demonstrated that CETP has a strong predilection to mediate homoexchange (bidirectional transfer of the same lipid) rather than heteroexchange (CE for TG); LTIP had no effect on the selection of CE or TG by CETP or its mechanism of action. We conclude, in contrast to current opinion, that CETP has no preference for CE in HDL versus LDL, suggesting that the previously reported stable binding of CETP to HDL does not result in selective transfer from this lipoprotein. These data suggest that LTIP is responsible for the preferential transfer of CE from HDL that occurs in plasma. CETP and LTIP cooperatively determine the extent of CETP-mediated remodeling of individual lipoprotein fractions.  (+info)

Role of cholesterol ester mass in regulation of secretion of ApoB100 lipoprotein particles by hamster hepatocytes and effects of statins on that relationship. (7/2062)

Our understanding of the factors that regulate the secretion of apoB100 lipoproteins remains incomplete with considerable debate as to the role, if any, for cholesterol ester in this process. This study examines this issue in primary cultures of hamster hepatocytes, a species in which both cholesterol and apoB100 metabolism are very similar to man. Addition of oleate to medium increased the mass of triglyceride and cholesterol ester within the hepatocyte and also increased the secretion of triglycerides, cholesterol ester, and apoB100 into the medium. Next, the responses of hamster hepatocytes to addition of either an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (lovastatin) or an acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor (58-035) to the medium, with or without added oleate, were determined. Effects of either agent were only evident in the oleate-supplemented medium in which cholesterol ester mass had been increased above basal. If oleate was not added to the medium, neither agent reduced apoB100 secretion; equally important, over the 24-hour incubation, neither agent, at the concentration used, produced any detectable change in intracellular cholesterol ester mass. However, in contrast to the estimates of mass, which were unchanged, under the same conditions radioisotopic estimates of cholesterol ester synthesis were markedly reduced. Any conclusion as to the relation of cholesterol ester mass to apoB100 secretion would therefore depend on which of the 2 methods was used. Overall, the data indicate a close correlation between the mass of cholesterol ester within the hepatocyte and apoB100 secretion from it and they go far to explain previous apparently contradictory data as to this relation. More importantly, though, taken with other available data, they indicate that the primary response of the liver to increased delivery of lipid is increased secretion rather than decreased uptake. These results point, therefore, to a hierarchy of hepatic responses to increased flux of fatty acids and increased synthesis of cholesterol that in turn suggests a more dynamic model of cholesterol homeostasis in the liver than has been appreciated in the past.  (+info)

Cholesteryl ester hydroperoxide lability is a key feature of the oxidative susceptibility of small, dense LDL. (8/2062)

Abundant evidence has been provided to substantiate the elevated cardiovascular risk associated with small, dense, low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles. The diminished resistance of dense LDL to oxidative stress in both normolipidemic and dyslipidemic subjects is established; nonetheless, the molecular basis of this phenomenon remains indeterminate. We have defined the primary molecular targets of lipid hydroperoxide formation in light, intermediate, and dense subclasses of LDL after copper-mediated oxidation and have compared the relative stabilities of the hydroperoxide derivatives of phospholipids and cholesteryl esters (CEs) as a function of the time course of oxidation. LDL subclasses (LDL1 through LDL5) were isolated from normolipidemic plasma by isopycnic density gradient ultracentrifugation, and their content of polyunsaturated molecular species of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and CE and of lipophilic antioxidants was quantified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The molar ratio of the particle content of polyunsaturated CE and PC species containing linoleate or arachidonate relative to alpha-tocopherol or beta-carotene did not differ significantly between LDL subspecies. Nonetheless, dense LDL contained significantly less polyunsaturated CE species (400 mol per particle) compared with LDL1 through LDL4 (range, approximately 680 to 490 mol per particle). Although the formation of PC-derived hydroperoxides did not vary significantly between LDL subspecies as a function of the time course of copper-mediated oxidation, the abundance of the C18:2 and C20:4 CE hydroperoxides was uniquely deficient in dense LDL (23 and 0.6 mol per particle, respectively, in LDL5; 47 to 58 and 1.9 to 2.3 mol per particle, respectively, in other LDL subclasses) at propagation half-time. When expressed as a lability ratio (mol hydroperoxides formed relative to each 100 mol of substrate consumed) at half-time, the oxidative lability of CE hydroperoxides in dense LDL was significantly elevated (lability ratio <25:100) relative to that in lighter, larger LDL particle subclasses (lability ratio >40:100) throughout the oxidative time course. We conclude that the elevated lability of CE hydroperoxides in dense LDL underlies the diminished oxidative resistance of these particles. Moreover, this phenomenon appears to result not only from the significantly elevated PC to free cholesterol ratio (1.54:1) in dense LDL particles (1.15:1 to 1.25:1 for other LDL subclasses) but also from their unique structural features, including a distinct apoB100 conformation, which may facilitate covalent bond formation between oxidized CE and apoB100.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Intratumor cholesteryl ester accumulation is associated with human breast cancer proliferation and aggressive potential: A molecular and clinicopathological study. AU - de Gonzalo-Calvo, David. AU - López-Vilaró, Laura. AU - Nasarre, Laura. AU - Perez-Olabarria, Maitane. AU - Vázquez, Tania. AU - Escuin, Daniel. AU - Badimon, Lina. AU - Barnadas, Agusti. AU - Lerma, Enrique. AU - Llorente-Cortés, Vicenta. PY - 2015/12/12. Y1 - 2015/12/12. N2 - © 2015 de Gonzalo-Calvo et al. Background: The metabolic effect of intratumor cholesteryl ester (CE) in breast cancer remains poorly understood. The objective was to analyze the relationship between intratumor CE content and clinicopathological variables in human breast carcinomas. Methods: We classified 30 breast carcinoma samples into three subgroups: 10 luminal-A tumors (ER+/PR+/Her2-), 10 Her-2 tumors (ER-/PR-/Her2+), and 10 triple negative (TN) tumors (ER-/PR-/Her2-). We analyzed intratumor neutral CE, free cholesterol (FC) and ...
Abdominal obesity is a key contributor of metabolic disease. Recent trials suggest that dietary fat quality affects abdominal fat content, where palmitic acid and linoleic acid influence abdominal obesity differently, while effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are less studied. Also, fatty acid desaturation may be altered in abdominal obesity. We aimed to investigate cross-sectional associations of serum fatty acids and desaturases with abdominal obesity prevalence in a population-based cohort study. Serum cholesteryl ester fatty acids composition was measured by gas chromatography in 60-year old men (n = 1883) and women (n = 2015). Cross-sectional associations of fatty acids with abdominal obesity prevalence and anthropometric measures (e.g., sagittal abdominal diameter) were evaluated in multivariable-adjusted logistic and linear regression models, respectively. Similar models were employed to investigate relations between desaturase activities (estimated by fatty acid ratios) and ...
Current drugs shortage notification for Amphotericin B Cholesteryl Sulfate Complex Injection including reason for shortage, estimated resupply dates, and alternative drug therapy if available.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cholesteryl ester-rich microemulsions. T2 - Stable protein-free analogs of low density lipoproteins. AU - Via, D. P.. AU - Craig, I. F.. AU - Jacobs, G. W.. AU - Van Winkle, W. B.. AU - Charlton, S. C.. AU - Gotto, Antonio. AU - Smith, L. C.. PY - 1982. Y1 - 1982. N2 - A method has been devised for the preparation of stable lipid microemulsions containing cholesterol, cholesteryl ester, phosphatidylcholine, and trioleoylglycerol in the relative molar ratios found in low density lipoproteins. Gel permeation chromatography showed these microemulsions to be essentially homogenous with respect to chemical composition. Omission of triolein or substitution of a diunsaturated phosphatidylcholine for either a disaturated or monosaturated-monounsaturated phosphatidylcholine destroyed the observed homogeneity of the microemulsions. The particle diameter of the negatively-stained microemulsion averaged 45 nm be electron microscopy. The relative elution volumes of the cholesteryl ester-rich ...
Calcium channel blockers (CCBs), which are used clinically for treatment of angina and hypertension, are known to inhibit calcium influx into arterial smooth muscle cells and thereby decrease smooth muscle cell contraction. In addition, they prevent cholesteryl ester (CE) accumulation, the hallmark of human atherosclerosis, in arteries of cholesterol-fed animals by cellular mechanisms that remain undefined. To assess whether CCBs enhance CE hydrolysis and reduce CE accumulation in human arterial cells, we measured activities of the CE metabolic cycle in aortic tissues that were stripped of endothelial cells and adventitia from 35 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. Patients who were treated with either nifedipine or diltiazem (n = 23) for several months demonstrated a threefold increase in arterial CE hydrolytic activities compared with untreated patients. This difference was independent of serum cholesterol levels, age, or treatment with other medications. No effects were ...
ConclusionThe plasma cholesteryl ester fraction after a diet high in dairy was characterized by higher 15:0 levels. Concentrations of 14:0 were only higher when comparing the FA profile after a diet high in dairy when compared to a diet high in meat.Clinical trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01314040....
TY - JOUR. T1 - Relationship between cholesteryl ester transfer activity and high density lipoprotein composition in hyperlipidemic patients. AU - Sparks, D. L.. AU - Frohlich, J.. AU - Lacko, A. G.. AU - Pritchard, P. H.. PY - 1989/6. Y1 - 1989/6. N2 - Cholesteryl ester transfer from solid-phase bound HDL to endogenous plasma HDL or VLDL/LDL was determined in 50 patients with primary disorders of lipid metabolism and 27 normolipidemic subjects. Transfer to the plasma HDL pool was significantly reduced in familial hypercholesterolemia, familial combined hyperlipidemia, hypoalphalipoproteinemia and dysbetalipoproteinemia. Subfractionation of HDL revealed that the lipid transfer to HDL3 was significantly reduced in all patient groups while transfer to HDL2 was increased in those with dysbetalipoproteinemia and familial hypertriglyceridemia. Transfer to LDL and VLDL was increased only in patients with dysbetalipoproteinemia and hypoalphalipoproteinemia. Reduced transfer to HDL occurred in samples ...
The relations of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity to the distribution of low density lipoproteins (LDLs) and high density lipoproteins (HDLs) were investigated in fasting plasma samples from 27 normolipidemic subjects. LDL and HDL subfractions were separated by electrophoresis on 20-160 g/L and 40-300 g/L polyacrylamide gradient gels, respectively. Subjects were subdivided into two groups according to their LDL pattern. Monodisperse patterns were characterized by the presence of a single LDL band, whereas polydisperse patterns were characterized by the presence of several LDL bands of different sizes. To investigate the influence of lipid transfers on LDL patterns, total plasma was incubated at 37 degrees C in the absence of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity. The incubation induced a progressive transformation of polydisperse patterns into monodisperse patterns. Under the same conditions, initially monodisperse patterns remained unchanged. Measurements of the ...
Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), the transfer of cholesterol from peripheral tissues, including the subendothelial space of the arterial wall, to the liver for disposal, is a current model of HDL atheroprotection. The final RCT step, selective hepatic HDL-cholesteryl ester (CE) uptake, is mediated by scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). The net receptor reaction of SR-BI vs. HDL is distinct from that of LDL vs. the LDL receptor. LDL holo particle uptake is succeeded by steps that breakdown apo B-100 and hydrolyze and recycle the CE. In contrast, HDL-CE uptake is selective, occurring without a concomitant net uptake of the major HDL protein, apo A-I and even though apo E and apo A-I bind equally well to SR-BI, apoA-I-containing particles mediate 2-fold more selective CE uptake. The reaction of HDL with SR-BI is similar to the activity of a streptococcal serum opacity factor (SOF) against HDL_both reactions selectively remove CE from HDL leaving remnants. In addition, SOF catalyzes the ...
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) regulates high density lipoproteins (HDL)-cholesterol levels and interaction between glucose and HDL metabolism is cen...
An absence of cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP, protein; CETP, gene) results in an increase of the apolipoprotein AI levels and a decrease in the low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. Thus, the CETP polymorphism is important in the assessment of risk of atherosclerosis. This study was conducted to elucidate the genotype distributions of the CETP polymorphism and association with plasma lipid levels in Koreans. The genotypes of the TaqI A and B polymorphic loci were associated with plasma triglyceride levels in the control and coronary artery disease (CAD) groups. There was linkage disequilibrium between TaqI A and B loci in the control group (χ2 = 5.58, p | 0.05). Association studies of the CETP polymorphism have been carried out mainly with Caucasian populations; however, the results have not been consistent among different populations. A possible explanation for this diversity among populations may be differences in genetic backgrounds, which may be more important than environmental factors.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cell density can affect cholesteryl ester accumulation in the human THP-1 macrophage. AU - Rodriguez, A.. AU - Kafonek, S. D.. AU - Georgopoulos, A.. AU - Bachorik, P. S.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Esterified cholesterol (EC) accumulation was induced in THP-1 macrophages after exposure to acetylated LDL (acLDL), and the extent of accumulation was dependent on cell density. EC mass was 5-fold greater in cells plated at 1.0 x 106 cells/35 mm dish compared to cells plated at density 4.0 x 106 cells/dish. In addition, [14C]oleate incorporation into EC also increased with decreasing cell number, with 4-fold greater incorporation (6 h: 177 ± 0.014 vs. 45 ± 0.001 pmol/mg cell protein, P , 0.001; 24 h: 515 ± 0.037 vs. 120 ± 0.012 pmol/mg, P , 0.001) in cells plated less densely compared to cells plated at a higher density. The rate of 125I-labeled acLDL degradation was about 2-fold greater in cells plated at the ...
We examined whether postprandial (PP) chylomicrons (CMs) can serve as vehicles for transporting cholesterol from endogenous cholesterol-rich lipoprotein (LDL+HDL) fractions and cell membranes to the liver via lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activities. During incubation of fresh fasting and PP plasma containing [(3)H]cholesteryl ester (CE)-labeled LDL+HDL, both CMs and VLDL served as acceptors of [(3)H]CE or cholesterol from LDL+HDL. The presence of CMs in PP plasma suppressed the ability of VLDL to accept [(3)H]CE from LDL+HDL. In reconstituted plasma containing an equivalent amount of triglycerides from isolated VLDL or CMs, a CM particle was about 40 times more potent than a VLDL particle in accepting [(3)H]CE or cholesterol from LDL+HDLs. When incubated with red blood cells (RBCs) as a source for cell membrane cholesterol, the cholesterol content of CMs, VLDL, LDL, and HDL in PP plasma increased by 485%, 74%, 13%, and 30%, ...
Isolation and Characterization of Two Distinct Mutations Affecting Cholesteryl Ester Synthesis in Mammalian Cells A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy In the subject of Biochemistry by Kenneth M. Cadigan Dartmouth College Hanover, New Hampshire June 1989 ...
Because of the interest in the relationship between cholesteryl ester (CE) accumulation and atherosclerosis, we have attempted to select an easily grown tissue culture cell which accumulates CE when...
Abstract: : Purpose: To determine if EC in normal, aged BrM derives from directly infused plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) or from local cells with acyl co-A cholesterol acyl transferase (ACAT)-1 or -2. EC in LDL and EC in cells with ACAT is enriched in cholesteryl linoleate (Ch-18:2) and cholesteryl oleate (Ch-18:1), respectively. Methods: Ch-18:1 and Ch-18:2 were assayed by mass spectrometry in macular BrM, cornea, and sclera (10 donor eyes, greater than 60 yr), cholesterol-enriched human monocyte-macrophages, and LDL. Ch-16:0 (palmitate), Ch-18:0 (stearate), Ch-18:1, Ch-18:2, Ch-20:4 (arachidonate) and the corresponding free fatty acids (FFA) were assayed in macular BrM and RPE (n=6). Lipids were extracted with chloroform and methanol and separated by reversed phase HPLC using an isopropanol gradient in 10 mM ammonium acetate. Ion mass spectra (positive for ammonium ion adducts of cholesteryl esters and negative for FFA) were compared to standards. Protein extracts from human retinal ...
BioAssay record AID 224020 submitted by ChEMBL: Evaluated for the reduction of cholesterol ester level in thoracic aorta of NZW rabbits with 0.25% cholesterol in diet.
Acetylated low-density lipoprotein (acetyl-LDL), biologically labelled in the cholesterol moiety of cholesteryl oleate, was injected into control and oestrogen-treated rats. The serum clearance, the distribution among the various lipoproteins, the hepatic localization and the biliary secretion of the [3H]cholesterol moiety were determined at various times after injection. In order to monitor the intrahepatic metabolism of the cholesterol esters of acetyl-LDL in vivo, the liver was subdivided into parenchymal, endothelial and Kupffer cells by a low-temperature cell-isolation procedure. In both control and oestrogen-treated rats, acetyl-LDL is rapidly cleared from the circulation, mainly by the liver endothelial cells. Subsequently, the cholesterol esters are hydrolysed, and within 1 h after injection, about 60% of the cell- associated cholesterol is released. The [3H]cholesterol is mainly recovered in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) range of the serum of control rats, while low levels of ...
The notion that CETP may be a potential target for reducing CVD originated from reports of a Japanese population of apparently healthy individuals that lacked a functional copy of the CETP gene (34,35). Compared with unaffected individuals, those who were CETP-deficient and who had no measurable CETP activity in plasma exhibited substantial increases in HDL-C (209%) and large decreases in LDL-C (44%). In individuals with heterozygous deficiency who possessed half the normal CETP activity, changes in HDL-C and LDL-C were less dramatic (+25% and −5%, respectively).. While CETP gene mutations are common in Japanese populations (49) and have clearly helped to establish the link between reduced CETP function and elevated HDL-C levels, the effect of decreased CETP activity on the development of atherosclerosis is less clear. For example, in a study of 201 patients with markedly elevated HDL-C levels (≥100 mg/dl), a subgroup of 12 patients (6%) was identified with atherosclerotic CVD. Of these, 10 ...
Herein are described two antibodies that can inhibit CETP-lipoproteins interaction and CETP activity. Presently described are an antibody or fragment thereof capable of specifically binding to an epitope of the N-terminal or C-terminal domains of CETP and methods of using these antibodies for separation, identification, diagnosis and therapy.
The present study shows for the first time that image-guided 1H-MRS of carotid atherosclerotic plaques is feasible in vivo in humans. We successfully quantified the allylic methylene (2.0 ppm) to methylene (1.2 ppm) ratio, which reflects the ratio of the fatty acid composition of plaque cholesteryl ester to that of perivascular tissue triglyceride. Furthermore, the allylic methylene (2.0 ppm) to methylene (1.2 ppm) ratio was shown to have good reproducibility. 1H-MRS of plaques still has a limited spatial resolution and is technically challenging, illustrated by the fact only 49% of the obtained 1H-MRS spectra was of adequate quality for analysis. The present data imply that in vivo in humans, 1H-MRS of carotid artery plaques offers a promising and valuable tool that can specifically identify liquid cholesteryl ester through its specific proton resonances.. The type of lipids and their physical properties in atherosclerotic lesions have been well investigated over the past decades (1). ...
BioAssay record AID 691533 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of CETP in human plasma using [3H]cholesterol ester/HDL as substrate after 10 mins by scintillation counting.
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) mediates the transfer of neutral lipids, including cholesteryl esters (CEs) and triglycerides (TGs), between high-dens...
We identified an aberrant accumulation of cholesteryl ester in human pancreatic cancer specimens and cell lines, Li said. Depletion of cholesterol esterification significantly reduced pancreatic tumor growth and metastasis in mice.. Findings show that drugs like avasimibe, previously developed for treatment of atherosclerosis, reduced the accumulation of cholesteryl ester. The disease usually kills within a few months of diagnosis. It is hoped the potential new treatment might extend life of pancreatic cancer patients for a year, Cheng said.. The accumulation of cholesteryl ester is controlled by an enzyme called ACAT-1, and findings correlated a higher expression of the enzyme with a poor survival rate for patients. The researchers analyzed tissue samples from pancreatic cancer patients and then tested the drug treatment in a type of laboratory mice referred to as an orthotopic mouse model, developed at the IU School of Medicine. Specimens of human pancreatic tissues were obtained from the ...
Inhibiting the enzyme that converts A into B results in less of B but more of A. This also applies to something called Cholesterol Ester Transport Protein (CETP) that transports esterified cholesterol (acid + alcohol = ester + water & cholesterol is technically an alcohol) from the tiny HDL discs to the much larger LDL & relatively huge VLDL particles. To see what HDL, LDL, VLDL & chylomicrons look like, see Large LDL and small HDL particles: The best combination ...
Complete information for NCEH1 gene (Protein Coding), Neutral Cholesterol Ester Hydrolase 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Arteries, Atheroma, Atherosclerosis, Cholesterol, Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein, Concentration, Coronary Arteries, Hdl Cholesterol, Humans, Inhibition, Ldl Cholesterol, Lipoprotein, Mortality, Plasma, Rabbits, Risk, Transfer, Treatment, Coronary Heart Disease, Disease
Objective: Recent data suggests that cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity may interact with acute stress conditions via inflammatory-oxidative response and thrombogenesis. We investigated this assumption in patients with ST-elevation my
Major depression was associated with: increased MUFA and C22:5omega3 proportions and increased C20:4omega6/C20:5omega3 and C22:5omega6/C22:6omega3 ratios; lower C22:4omega6, C20:5omega3 and C22:5omega3 fractions in phospholipids; lower C18:3omega3, C20:5omega3 and total (sigma)omega3 FAs, and higher C20:4omega6/C20:5omega3 and sigmaomega6/sigmaomega3 ratios in cholesteryl esters; lower serum concentrations of phospholipids and cholesteryl esters; and a decreased OPI ...
Ester definition, definition of the word ester, words that start with ester, words that can be found within ester and anagram of ester
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Looking for online definition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein in the Medical Dictionary? cholesteryl ester transfer protein explanation free. What is cholesteryl ester transfer protein? Meaning of cholesteryl ester transfer protein medical term. What does cholesteryl ester transfer protein mean?
The mechanism of the regulation of cholesterol ester transfer protein by dietary fats and cholesterol was investigated using human cholesterol ester transfer protein transgenic mice fed monounsaturated fatty acid and saturated fatty acid enriched diets with or without cholesterol. Cholesterol inhibited protein activity and hepatic mRNA abundance in the monounsaturated fatty acid diet. However, cholesterol enhanced protein activity but had no effect on hepatic mRNA abundance in the saturated fatty acid diet. The molecular mechanisms of dietary lipid mediated regulation of the promoter activity of this gene were investigated using chimeric gene constructs harbouring sequential deletions of the gene promoter in SW 872 cell culture. Oleic acid and stearic acid had opposite effects indicating that the type of dietary fat alters gene regulation. There was interaction between cholesterol and fatty acids to regulate cholesterol ester transfer protein.. ...
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The aim of this study was to compare patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) to healthy objects, in order to explore a possible association between CAD and the variants in the gene encoding cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP), apolipoprotein E (Apo E) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL). The relationship between CETP MspI, apo E and LPL PvuII gene polymorphisms and serum lipids were investigated in 173 patients with CAD and 111 healthy controls. The frequency of Apo ε4 (p , 0.05) and CETP M1 (p , 0.01) alleles were higher in the CAD group than in the control group. In the CAD group, those with the Msp M1 allele had higher levels of total cholesterol (TC) (p = 0026) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) than those with the Msp M2 allele. Subjects with an ε2 allele had the lowest levels of TC and LDL-C, while subjects with the ε4 allele had the highest. In the control group, CETP, the Msp M2 allele was associated with a higher level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ...
High levels of plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) are inversely associated with the risk of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases; thus, pharmacological inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is considered to be a therapeutic method of raising HDL-C levels. However, many CETP inhibitors have failed to achieve a clinical benefit despite raising HDL-C. In the study, we generated transgenic (Tg) rabbits that overexpressed the human CETP gene to examine the influence of CETP on the development of atherosclerosis. Both Tg rabbits and their non-Tg littermates were fed a high cholesterol diet for 16 weeks. Plasma lipids and body weight were measured every 4 weeks. Gross lesion areas of the aortic atherosclerosis along with lesional cellular components were quantitatively analyzed. Overexpression of human CETP did not significantly alter the gross atherosclerotic lesion area, but the number of macrophages in lesions was significantly increased. Overexpression of
Cholesteryl ester, a dietary lipid, is an ester of cholesterol. The ester bond is formed between the carboxylate group of a fatty acid and the hydroxyl group of cholesterol. Cholesteryl esters have a lower solubility in water due to their increased hydrophobicity. Esters are formed by replacing at least one -OH (hydroxyl) group with an -O-alkyl (alkoxy) group. They are hydrolyzed by pancreatic enzymes, cholesterol esterase, to produce cholesterol and free fatty acids. They are associated with atherosclerosis. Cholesterylester transfer protein Cholesteryl ester storage disease Acyl CoA Cholesteryl Acyl Transferase (ACAT) Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) Ferrier, Richard A. Harvey, Denise R. (2011). Lippincotts illustrated reviews, biochemistry (5th ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health. p. 175. ISBN 9781608314126. Cholesterol Esters at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH ...
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is a plasma glycoprotein that promotes reverse cholesterol transport via the exchange of cholesteryl ester (CE) and triglyceride (TG) among lipoproteins. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) promotes reverse cholesterol transport via exchange of cholesteryl ester and triglyceride among lipoproteins. CETP has a central role in lipoprotein metabolism.. CETP, a hydrophobic plasma glycoprotein, is a promising target for raising circulating HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations in humans. CETP is secreted primarily from the liver and plays a critical role in HDL metabolism by facilitating the exchange of cholesteryl esters (CE) from HDL for triglycerides (TG) in apoB-containing lipoproteins, such as LDL and VLDL.. CETP catalyses the exchange of cholesteryl ester and triglyceride between HDL and apoB containing lipoprotein particles. The role of CETP in modulating plasma HDL cholesterol levels in humans is well established and there have been significant ...
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is understood to play a regulatory role in HDL cholesterol (HDLC) metabolism. In this study, the effect of CETP genotypes on plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels in 348 Vietnamese girls (aged 7-9) with different nutritional conditions was analyzed. The two mutations, intron 14 G(+1)-to-A (I14A) and Asp 442 to Gly within exon 15 (D442G), and the TaqIB polymorphism in the CETP gene were identified by an Invader assay. The D442G mutation was present with a frequency of 0.034, while the I14A mutation was absent. HDLC levels were significantly higher in carriers of the D442G mutation than in noncarriers, regardless of the nutritional status. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels were not significantly lower in carriers of D442G mutation. The frequency of the TaqIB2 allele was 0.34, which was lower than that observed in other Asian populations. TaqIB2B2 carriers also had significantly higher HDLC levels, but this association was weaker than
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is a major determinant of plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) in humans. The anti-atherogenic effect of lowering CETP levels is dependent not only on HDL-C levels but also on a metabolic background of increased low-density lipoprotein or very-low-density lipoprotein. Here we investigated the effects of JTT-705, a chemical inhibitor of CETP, on the development of atherosclerosis in Japanese white rabbits fed on a high cholesterol diet. After 4 weeks on a diet of 0.25% cholesterol-containing chow, 100mg/kg (low dose) or 300mg/kg (high dose) JTT-705 was given, and the animals were monitored at weeks 0, 4, 8 and 12. Aortic atherosclerotic lesions were determined at the end of this period. JTT-705 induced a significant increase in HDL-C in the high-dose group [from 21±3 to 50±7mg/dl (mean±S.E.M.); P,0.0001] compared with the control group (from 21±2 to 27±2mg/dl). The atheromatous area was 60±9% in the high-dose group and ...
The study described in this paper shows that 125I-labelled low-density lipoproteins (LDL) interact with high- and low-affinity binding sites on human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. The former site is the LDL receptor and the latter is the lipoprotein-binding site (LBS). The association of 125I-labelled LDL and [3H]cholesteryl ethers-LDL with HepG2 cells revealed a 4-fold selective uptake of cholesteryl esters (CE) in a 4 h incubation period, which correlated with the depletion of CE mass in LDL. This selective uptake was not observed when the cells were incubated in the presence of a 100-fold excess of high-density lipoprotein 3, conditions where only the LDL receptor is being monitored. Also, no reduction in uptake was observed in the presence of IgG-C7, an anti-(LDL receptor) monoclonal antibody. Both findings indicate that the selective uptake occurs through the LBS and that the LBS contributes more to the entry of CE from LDL into the cell than does the LDL receptor. The fates of CE entering the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of cholesterol metabolism in fetal rabbit aorta. T2 - Role of amniotic fluid factors. AU - Rymaszewski, Z.. AU - Yunker, R. L.. AU - Ashraf, Muhammad. AU - Park, M.. AU - Subbiah, M. T.R.. PY - 1988/1/1. Y1 - 1988/1/1. N2 - This study shows that amniotic fluid enhances cholesterol esterification in arterial wall, as measured by in vitro assay of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity and by incorporation of oleic acid to cholesteryl esters in cultured fetal aortas and smooth muscle cells. This property is mostly evident in the fraction of molecular weight ,100,000 and it is abolished by delipidation, indicating that stimulating factor is probably lipoprotein in nature. Despite an increased cholesterol esterification by the presence of amniotic fluid in medium of cultured fetal aortas, the content of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters was much lower. The cellular structures are better preserved in explants cultured with amniotic fluid than in control ...
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein, CETP of 493 aas and 1 TMS. Involved in the transfer of neutral lipids, including cholesteryl esters and triglycerides, among lipoprotein particles. Allows the net movement of cholesteryl esters from high density lipoproteins/HDL to triglyceride-rich very low density lipoproteins/VLDL, and the equimolar transport of triglyceride from VLDL to HDL (Drayna et al. 1987; Morton and Izem 2014). Regulates reverse cholesterol transport, by which excess cholesterol is removed from peripheral tissues and returned to the liver for elimination (Qiu et al. 2007 ...
Although described initially as an intracellular adipocyte-specific triacylglycerol lipase, it is now clear that HSL (hormone-sensitive lipase) is expressed in multiple tissues and plays a number of roles in lipid metabolism, including that of a neutral cholesteryl ester hydrolase. The major isoform is a single polypeptide with a moleclar mass of approx. 84 kDa and which comprises three major domains: a catalytic domain, a regulatory domain encoding several phosphorylation sites and an N-terminal domain involved in protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions. The activity of HSL is regulated acutely by several mechanisms, including reversible phosphorylation by a number of different protein kinases, translocation to different sites within the cell and interaction with a number of proteins, some of which may serve to direct the inhibitory products of HSL away from the protein. It is also apparent from work with HSL null mice that more than one enzyme species may be classified as a ...
HEGELE, R.A.. Al-Shali, K., J. Wang, F. Rosen, and R.A. Hegele. 2003. Ileal adenocarcinoma in a mild phenotype of abetalipoproteinemia. Clinical Genetics 63: 135-138.. Argmann, C.A., C.G. Sawyez, C.J. McNeil, R.A. Hegele, and M.W. Huff. 2003. Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma and Retinoid X Receptor Results in Net Depletion of Cellular Cholesteryl Esters in Macrophages Exposed to Oxidized Lipoproteins. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 23: 475-482.. Bhayana, S., V.M. Siu, G.I. Joubert, C.L. Clarson, H. Cao, and R.A. Hegele. 2002. Cardiomyopathy in congenital complete lipodystrophy. Clinical Genetics 61: 283-287.. Bjerregaard, P., E. Dewailly, T.K. Young, C. Blanchet, R.A. Hegele, S.E.O. Ebbesson, P.M. Risica, and G. Mulvad. 2003. Blood pressure among the Inuit (Eskimo) populations in the Arctic. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 31: 92-99.. Bjerregaard, P., T.K. Young, and R.A. Hegele. 2003. Low incidence of cardiovascular disease among the Inuit ...
Complete information for CETP gene (Protein Coding), Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Ive already written about how Eli Lillys inhibitor of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) did not work in the clinic. Now that the data from their failed trial have been published in the NEJM, though, its worth taking a look at a few graphs (first pointed out to me on Twitter by Sek Kathiresan. Shown are the
Despite the slightly higher CETP activity, the mass of cholesteryl esters actually transferred from HDL to other lipoproteins is lower in diabetic men than in nondiabetic men and is not altered by diabetes in women. Although CETP is an important catalyst in CET, CETP activity explains relatively little of the variation in CET (only about 4% in the regression analysis). Thus, CETP activity does not appear to be rate-limiting for CET. By comparison, variation in triglyceride levels explains ∼60% of the variation in CET. Not surprisingly, therefore, the fairly small increase in CETP activity (about a quarter of 1 SD) in diabetic versus nondiabetic men is overshadowed by their lower triglyceride levels. The CET results contrast with two smaller studies in which CET was increased in type 1 diabetic patients compared with control subjects (3,30). These authors suggested that sustained activation of the CET system, resulting from peripheral hyperinsulinemia, might be important in the increased ...
TY - CONF. T1 - 1,2- and 1,3-glycerol bor(on)ate ester formation in D2O. AU - ten Dam, J. AU - Hanefeld, U. AU - Kapteijn, F. AU - Djanashvili, K. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. KW - Geen BTA classificatie. M3 - Poster. Y2 - 3 March 2008 through 5 March 2008. ER - ...
References for Abcams Recombinant Human LCAT protein (ab104359). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
The Montezuma County Public Health Department is offering free cholesterol screening for residents of Montezuma and Dolores Counties through their...
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As the water in the cells becomes structured by light, the negative pole will gravitate to the cell membranes hydrophilic side and serve as an energy generator.. Need more energy? Thats like asking if you could use more money to good effect. Since energy is everything, heres a way to boost your everything now that spring has sprung.. Catch some rays. A good time is around 10:00a or 4:00p for 5-10 minutes on a side (dont burn the buns!) Its free. Its easy. It boosts Vitamin D3 and cholesterol sulfate (a very, very good form of cholesterol!). Charge up your cellular batteries and dazzle people with you charismatic personality! Since energy is everything, Energy is life!. ...
Lube esters are currently the preferred basestocks to fulfill the requirements for renewable content. Most esters are readily bio-degradable according OECD 301 tests. They are compatible with most other common base stocks and deliver...
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产品名称:Acid-PEG8-NHS ester货号:BAPN-7品牌:BioconeCAS: 分子式: C24H41NO14分子量: 567.59纯度:95% 以上 包装规格:100 mg、500mg、1g、5g、10g等,其...
Κατηγορία προϊόντων φαρμακείου: ΔΗΜΟΦΙΛΕΣΤΕΡΑ > ΒΙΤΑΜΙΝΕΣ > ΣΥΜΠΛΗΡΩΜΑΤΑ ΔΙΑΤΡΟΦΗΣ > ΒΙΤΑΜΙΝΗ C. SOLGAR: Solgar Ester C 500mg, 250caps. Διαθεσιμότητα: Άμεσα Διαθέσιμο ...
... crystalline cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, and phospholipids; cells such as monocyte derived macrophages, T-lymphocytes, and ...
... cholesteryl ester hydrolase, sterol ester hydrolase, cholesterol ester hydrolase, cholesterase, and acylcholesterol lipase. ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is steryl-ester acylhydrolase. Other names in common use include cholesterol esterase ... Vahouny GV, Treadwell CR (1968). "Enzymatic synthesis and hydrolysis of cholesterol esters". Methods. Biochem. Anal. Methods of ... In enzymology, a sterol esterase (EC 3.1.1.13) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction sterol ester + H2O ⇌ {\ ...
Vahouny GV, Treadwell CR (1968). "Enzymatic synthesis and hydrolysis of cholesterol esters". Methods. Biochem. Anal. 16: 219-72 ... cholesterol acyltransferase, LCAT (lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase), lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase, and ... Bartlett K, Keat MJ, Mercer EI (1974). "Biosynthesis of sterol esters in Phycomyces blakesleeanus". Phytochemistry. 13: 1107- ... Glomset JA (1968). "The plasma lecithins:cholesterol acyltransferase reaction". J. Lipid Res. 9 (2): 155-67. PMID 4868699. ...
"THE MOLECULAR MICRODISTILLATION OF CHOLESTEROL AND CHOLESTEROL ESTERS" (PDF). The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Retrieved ... The studies on diet and nutrition by Alfred Koehler, focused on the role fat and cholesterol play in degenerative diseases and ... were 20 years ahead of their time in showing a relationship between cholesterol and arteriosclerosis. Francis and Marianna ...
EFA deficiency causes extra deposition of cholesterol esters in the epidermis. Sinclair thought the tetraenoic arachidonic acid ... The cholesterol thus esterified with abnormal fatty acids is less easily eliminated and so leads to atheroma. Phospholipids ...
However the gastric lipase activity against phospholipids and cholesterol esters is poor. Gastric lipase is composed of 379 ... The enzyme hydrolyses esters at position sn-3, the acyl chain at the bottom, more rapidly than esters at sn-1 position, the ... Besides the role of the β-lactone ring in structure-activity relationship, the nature of the functional groups (e.g. ester or ... It contains N-formyl-L-leucine amino acid connected to the β-alkyl chain via ester-bond. The structure and more information ...
Very-low-density lipoproteins transport endogenous triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol, and cholesteryl esters. It ... cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, and triglycerides. As it circulates in blood, it picks up apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) and ... The other 50% of IDL lose apoE; when their cholesterol content becomes greater than the content of triglyceride, they become ... VLDL is assembled in the liver from triglycerides, cholesterol, and apolipoproteins. VLDL is converted in the bloodstream to ...
Cholesterol is released and stored within the cell as cholesterol ester. LDL is recycled for further cholesterol transport. ... Progesterone is synthesized from cholesterol by both the large and small luteal cells upon luteal maturation. Cholesterol-LDL ... PKA actively phosphorylates steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and translocator protein to transport cholesterol ... cholesterol side chain cleavage) system". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 305 (2): 489-98. doi:10.1006/abbi.1993.1452. PMID 8396893.. ...
The furan fatty acids thus absorbed are incorporated into phospholipids and cholesterol esters. Furan fatty acids are reactive ... 1993). "Inhibition of Bacterial Urease by Autoxidation of Furan C-18 Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Products". Journal of the American ... either in free form or in triglycerides or esterified to cholesterol. In fish, the concentration of furan fatty acids is ...
The cholesterol esters are then stored as cytoplasmic lipid droplets inside the cell. The enzyme is implicated in cholesterol ... The gene encodes a membrane-bound enzyme localized in the endoplasmic reticulum that produces intracellular cholesterol esters ... Katsuren K; Fukuyama S; Takata K; Ohta T (2003). "Effects of a new single-nucleotide polymorphism in the Acyl-CoA:cholesterol ... Lin S; Lu X; Chang CC; Chang TY (2004). "Human Acyl-Coenzyme A:Cholesterol Acyltransferase Expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary ...
The stratum corneum is primarily composed of lipophilic cholesterol, cholesterol esters and ceramides. Thus lipid-soluble ...
Also, stearic acid is less likely to be incorporated into cholesterol esters. In epidemiologic and clinical studies, stearic ... The salts and esters of stearic acid are called stearates. As its ester, stearic acid is one of the most common saturated fatty ... but indirectly by saponification of triglycerides consisting of stearic acid esters. Esters of stearic acid with ethylene ... acid was found to be associated with lowered LDL cholesterol in comparison with other saturated fatty acids.[14] ...
SCD-1 knockout mice did not increase de novo lipogenesis but created an abundance of cholesterol esters. SCD1 function has also ... Oleate and palmitoleate are major components of membrane phospholipids, cholesterol esters and alkyl-diacylglycerol. In humans ...
"Effects of an inhibitor of cholesteryl ester transfer protein on HDL cholesterol" (abstract). New England Journal of Medicine. ... cholesterol-containing particle) and reduces LDL levels (the "bad" cholesterol).[vague][citation needed] ... which normally transfers cholesterol from HDL cholesterol to very low density or low density lipoproteins (VLDL or LDL). ... Dietary cholesterol needs be esterified in order to be absorbed from the gut. The enzyme, cholesterylester transfer protein ( ...
Nascent chylomicrons are composed primarily of triglycerides (85%) and contain some cholesterol and cholesteryl esters. The ... ULDLs are one of the five major groups of lipoproteins (sorted by density) that enable fats and cholesterol to move within the ... The triglycerides are then combined with phospholipids, cholesteryl esters, and apolipoprotein B-48 to form a nascent ... cholesterol (1-3%), and proteins (1-2%). They transport dietary lipids from the intestines to other locations in the body. ...
"Enzymatic hydrolysis of structurally diverse phthalic acid esters by porcine and bovine pancreatic cholesterol esterases". ... Diethyl phthalate (DEP) is a phthalate ester, appears as a clear colorless liquid without significant odor. More dense than ... Some bacteria with these abilities have specific enzymes involved in the degradation of phthalic acid esters such as phthalate ... 2008). "A Mixture of Five Phthalate Esters Inhibits Fetal Testicular Testosterone Production in the Sprague-Dawley Rat in a ...
"Intracellular cholesterol transporter StarD4 binds free cholesterol and increases cholesteryl ester formation". Journal of ... High levels of STARD4 increases the synthesis of bile acids and cholesterol esters in liver hepatocytes. Reductions in ... STARD4 may regulate cholesterol levels in many cells, including in the liver. STARD4 has specifically been linked to the ... The most dramatic change observed to date is a reduction in NPC-1, a protein involved in bringing cholesterol into cells. The ...
The cholesterol esters may also be found in lymph nodes, bone marrow, the liver and spleen. Due to the cholesterol ester ... Individuals that are homozygotes for Tangier's disease develop various cholesterol ester depositions. These are especially ... cholesterol ester-laden macrophages) in not only the tonsils, but also in a wide-range of tissues, including the bone marrow ... The cholesterol and phospholipids used to form HDL originate from inside cells but are transported out of the cell into the ...
Similar to sterol esters and stanol esters, stigmastanol inhibits the absorption of cholesterol from the diet. Animal studies ... Batta, Ashok K.; Xu, Guorong; Honda, Akira; Miyazaki, Teruo; Salen, Gerald (2006). "Stigmasterol reduces plasma cholesterol ... "Mechanisms of action of plant sterols on inhibition of cholesterol absorption. Comparison of sitosterol and sitostanol". ... "Comparison of sitosterol and sitostanol on inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption". Agents and Actions. Supplements. ...
It is found in fats (triglycerides), the phospholipids that make membranes, cholesterol esters, and wax esters. Triglycerides ... "You Can Control Your Cholesterol: A Guide to Low-Cholesterol Living". Merck & Co. Inc. Archived from the original on 2009-03-03 ... The salts and esters of oleic acid are called oleates. Fatty acids (or their salts) often do not occur as such in biological ... In ethenolysis, methyl oleate, the methyl ester of the acid, converts to 1-decene and methyl 9-decenoate: CH 3(CH 2) 7CH=CH(CH ...
... and cholesterol esters. 4) Members of the CYP4F family, i.e. CYP4F2 and CYP4F3B, ω-hydroxylate very long chain fatty acids, i.e ... and cholesterol esters. 5) CYP4F22 ω-hydroxylates extremely long very long chain fatty acids, i.e. fatty acids that are 28 or ... cholesterol) substrates, most of which are not fatty acids. The CYP450 omega hydroxylases are accordingly better viewed as a ...
Alox15 can metabolize polyunsaturated fatty acids that are esterified to phospholipids and cholesterol (i.e. cholesterol esters ... ALox12e prefers methyl esters over non-esterfied polyunsaturated fatty acid substrates, metabolizing linoleic acid ester to its ... cholesterol esters, or complex lipids of the skin. Most lipoxygenases catalyze the formation of initially formed hydroperoxy ... cholesterol esters, in lipoproteins. This property along with its dual specificity in metabolizing arachidonic acid to 12-HpETE ...
This enzyme is known to hydrolyze aromatic and aliphatic esters and can manage cellular cholesterol esterification levels. It ... The protein is also historically known as serine esterase 1 (SES1), monocyte esterase and cholesterol ester hydrolase (CEH). ... These enzymes are responsible for the hydrolysis of ester- and amide-bond-containing xenobiotics and drugs such as cocaine and ... They also hydrolyze long-chain fatty acid esters and thioesters. As part of phase II metabolism, the resulting carboxylates are ...
Vernix of term infants has more squalene and a higher wax ester to sterol ester ratio than preterm infants. Vernix is composed ... Chemically, it is water (80%), lipids (10%) and proteins (10%). The lipids include ceramides, cholesterol, fatty acids, ... triglycerides, waxes and sterol esters, squalene, and phospholipids; multiple detailed analyses of the polar components have ...
Cholesteryl esters are broken down into its cholesterol and fatty acid components, this delivers cholesterol to the cell. These ... Cholesteryl ester storage disease is generally found among the German community and couples of German descent. It is estimated ... In Cholesteryl ester storage there are alterations in the blood lipoprotein amounts which lead to symptoms such as; ... of human fibroblasts to hydrolyzes the cholesteryl esters of exogenous LDL and thus provides the cell with free cholesterol. ...
It is thought excess cholesterol esters are incorporated into the hair follicle, leading to the improved coat appearance. The ...
If cholesterol or cholesterol esters are present, they are associated with the "Maltese cross" sign under polarized light. They ...
This gene encodes lipase A, the lysosomal acid lipase (also known as cholesterol ester hydrolase). This enzyme functions in the ... Zhao B, Fisher BJ, St Clair RW, Rudel LL, Ghosh S (October 2005). "Redistribution of macrophage cholesteryl ester hydrolase ... Mutations in this gene can result in Wolman disease and cholesteryl ester storage disease. Alternatively spliced transcript ... Zhao B, Natarajan R, Ghosh S (November 2005). "Human liver cholesteryl ester hydrolase: cloning, molecular characterization, ...
Anabolic steroids (e.g., testosterone and esters, methyltestosterone, metandienone (methandrostenolone), nandrolone and esters ... Cholesterol. *Pregnanes: 3α-Dihydroprogesterone. *3β-Dihydroprogesterone. *5α-Dihydrocorticosterone. *5α-Dihydroprogesterone ...
... "the good cholesterol". Clinically, the choice of an agent depends on the patient's cholesterol profile, cardiovascular risk, ... CETP inhibitors (cholesteryl ester transfer protein), 1 candidate is in trials. It is expected that these drugs will mainly ... Hypolipidemic agents, cholesterol-lowering drugs or antihyperlipidemic agents, are a diverse group of pharmaceuticals that are ... Lecithin has been shown to effectively decrease cholesterol concentration by 33%, lower LDL by 38% and increase HDL by 46%. [3] ...
... s are synthesized from cholesterol and are produced primarily in the gonads (testicles and ovaries) and also in the ... Testosterone esters (e.g., testosterone cypionate, testosterone enanthate, testosterone propionate, testosterone undecanoate, ... Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a steroid hormone produced in the adrenal cortex from cholesterol.[4] It is the primary ... Estrogens (e.g., bifluranol, diethylstilbestrol, estradiol, estradiol esters, ethinylestradiol, ethinylestradiol sulfonate, ...
... estradiol esters, ethinylestradiol, conjugated estrogens, diethylstilbestrol, and bifluranol.[2][66] ... Aminoglutethimide inhibits cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, also known as P450scc or CYP11A1, which is responsible for ... estradiol esters like estradiol valerate, estradiol undecylate, and polyestradiol phosphate, conjugated equine estrogens, ... the conversion of cholesterol into pregnenolone and by extension the production of all steroid hormones, including the ...
Neurosteroids are synthesized in the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) from cholesterol and ... as using the ester avoids the need to deal with the acidity of the carboxylic acid and its unreactive carboxylate (see figure 6 ...
Retinol esters have been used as markersEdit. Retinyl esters can be distinguished from retinol in serum and other tissues and ... cholesterol test. *liver function test. *blood test for vitamin A. Relevance of blood testsEdit. Retinol concentrations are ... This increased retinyl ester may be due to decreased hepatic uptake of vitamin A and the leaking of esters into the bloodstream ... Elevated amounts of retinyl ester (i.e., , 10% of total circulating vitamin A) in the fasting state have been used as markers ...
... that are water-dispersible and carry cholesterol and triglycerides as well as phospholipids and cholesterol esters. ... This measures total cholesterol, LDL (bad) cholesterol, HDL (good) cholesterol and triglycerides. It is recommended to have ... alcohol and some is carried as fatty acyl esters referred to as cholesterol esters. ... Uffe Ravnskov (2000). The Cholesterol Myths : Exposing the Fallacy that Saturated Fat and Cholesterol Cause Heart Disease. New ...
Retinyl ester hydrolysis requires the presence of bile salts that serve to solubilize the retinyl esters in mixed micelles and ... Cholesterol esterase is secreted into the intestinal lumen from the pancreas and has been shown, in vitro, to display retinyl ... Retinyl esters are hydrolyzed in the intestinal lumen to yield free retinol and the corresponding fatty acid (i.e. palmitate or ... The major source of retinoids from the diet are plant pigments such as carotenes and retinyl esters derived from animal sources ...
... contains phenolics, such as esters of tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleocanthal and oleuropein,[68][103] give extra virgin ... and for the contribution to the maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol levels by replacing saturated fats in the diet with ... Olive oil is composed mainly of the mixed triglyceride esters of oleic acid and palmitic acid and of other fatty acids, along ... HDL cholesterol, malondialdehyde, and oxidized LDL when compared to low-polyphenol olive oils.[117] ...
The four most abundant ones are the tartaric acid esters trans-caftaric, cis- and trans-coutaric, and trans-fertaric acids. In ... Antioxidant Activities and Inhibition of Oxidation of Human Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and DNA Strand Breakage". ...
Thirty years later Michel Eugène Chevreul deduced that these fats were esters of fatty acids and glycerol. ... which are similar to vegetable oils but with four fatty acid chains compared to the normal three found in a natural ester, are ...
A large portion of the soil has been affected by over salinity and it has been known to limit the growth of many plants. Globally, the total area of saline soil was 397,000,000 ha and in continents like Africa, it makes up 2 percent of the soil.[34] The amount of soil salinization has reached 19.5% of the irrigated land and 2.1% of the dry-land agriculture around the world.[35] Soil salinization affects the plants using osmotic potential by net solute accumulation. The osmotic pressure in the plant is what maintains water uptake and cell turgor to help with stomatal function and other cellular mechanisms.[35] Over generations, many plant genes have adapted, allowing plants' phenotypes to change and built different mechanisms to counter salinity effects. The plant hormone ethylene is a combatant for salinity in most plants. Ethylene is known for regulating plant growth and development and adapted to stress conditions. Central membrane proteins in plants, such as ETO2, ERS1 and EIN2, are used for ...
... , also known as validolum, is the menthyl ester of isovaleric acid. It is a transparent oily, colorless ...
Sonntag, Norman O. V. (1982). "Glycerolysis of fats and methyl esters - Status, review and critique". Journal of the American ... are a class of glycerides which are composed of a molecule of glycerol linked to a fatty acid via an ester bond.[1] As glycerol ...
Non-esters In plants: ornithine or arginine → putrescine → homospermidine → retronecine [7] Retronecine, heliotridine, ... Cholesterol, arginine[115] Solasodine, solanidine, veralkamine, batrachotoxin[116] सन्दर्भ[संपादित करें]. *↑ Andreas Luch (2009 ... Complex esters of monocarboxylic acids Indicine, lindelophin, sarracine [12] Macrocyclic diesters Platyphylline, trichodesmine[ ...
The cholesterol ester transfer protein(CETP) helps the transfer of cholesterol esters from lipoproteins to other lipoproteins ... There is a very common pattern of two different cholesterol ester transfer protein gene mutations (D442G, 5.1%; intron 14G:A, ... Also, there is increased coronary heart disease in Japanese-American men with a mutation in the cholesterol ester transfer ... It plays a fundamental role in the reverse transport of cholesterol to the liver, which is why a mutation in this can lead to ...
Sonntag, Norman O. V. (1982). "Glycerolysis of fats and methyl esters - Status, review and critique". Journal of the American ... Diacylglycerol can be mimicked by the tumor-promoting compounds phorbol esters.[6] ... is a glyceride consisting of two fatty acid chains covalently bonded to a glycerol molecule through ester linkages.[1] Two ... "Protein Kinase C as the Receptor for the Phorbol Ester Tumor Promoters: Sixth Rhoads Memorial Award Lecture". Cancer Research ...
Alcohols, for example, all have the subunit C-O-H. All alcohols tend to be somewhat hydrophilic, usually form esters, and ... For example, cholesterol-related compounds have opened ways to synthesize complex human hormones and their modified derivatives ... Isoprenes in animals form the important steroid structural (cholesterol) and steroid hormone compounds; and in plants form ...
Another important role is the release of cholesterol from cholesteryl esters for use in the production of steroids[12] and ... The long form is expressed in steroidogenic tissues such as testis, where it converts cholesteryl esters to free cholesterol ... Hormone-sensitive lipase (EC 3.1.1.79, HSL), also previously known as cholesteryl ester hydrolase (CEH),[5] sometimes referred ... cholesterol metabolic process. • lipid catabolic process. • protein phosphorylation. • long-chain fatty acid catabolic process ...
Others: Anabolic-androgenic steroids (e.g., nandrolone and esters, trenbolone and esters, ethylestrenol, norethandrolone, ... HRT may promote reverse cholesterol transport through induction of cholesterol ABC transporters.[25] ... Androgens/anabolic steroids (e.g., testosterone, testosterone esters, nandrolone esters, oxandrolone, fluoxymesterone) ... Estradiol esters (e.g., estradiol acetate, estradiol benzoate, estradiol cypionate, estradiol enanthate, estradiol undecylate, ...
"The rabbit 15-lipoxygenase preferentially oxygenates LDL cholesterol esters, and this reaction does not require vitamin E". The ... Indeed, Statins, which are known to suppress cholesterol synthesis by inhibiting an enzyme in the cholesterol synthesis pathway ... or cholesterol[7] to form 13(S)-HpODE-bound phospholipids and cholesterol that are rapidly converted to their corresponding 13( ... In an animal model and in humans 13-HODE (primarily esterified to cholesterol, phospholipids, and possibly other lipids) is a ...
Anabolic steroids (e.g., testosterone and esters, methyltestosterone, metandienone (methandrostenolone), nandrolone and esters ... See also: List of androgens/anabolic steroids and List of androgen esters ... Cholesterol. *Pregnanes: 3α-Dihydroprogesterone. *3β-Dihydroprogesterone. *5α-Dihydrocorticosterone. *5α-Dihydroprogesterone ...
Choline and choline esters in human and rat milk in infant formulas. Am J Clin Nutr 1996; 64:572-6. ... "Liver-specific beta-catenin knockout mice exhibit defective bile acid and cholesterol homeostasis and increased susceptibility ...
"Vitamin D is Synthesized From Cholesterol and Found in Cholesterol-Rich Foods". Cholesterol and Health.. ... retinyl esters, tocopherols and selected carotenoids in twelve captive wild felid species at four zoos". The Journal of ... cholesterol and animal protein, and higher levels of carbohydrates, fibre, magnesium, potassium, folate, and antioxidants such ...
Cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase. *Methane monooxygenase. *3A4. *Lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase. *24-hydroxycholesterol 7α- ...
See also: Progestogen ester and List of progestogen esters. Norethisterone (NET) is the parent compound of a large group of ... and does not affect cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase, 21-hydroxylase, or 11β- ... Others: Anabolic-androgenic steroids (e.g., nandrolone and esters, trenbolone and esters, ethylestrenol, norethandrolone, ... Anabolic steroids (e.g., testosterone and esters, methyltestosterone, metandienone (methandrostenolone), nandrolone and esters ...
Non-esters In plants: ornithine or arginine → putrescine → homospermidine → retronecine [54] Retronecine, heliotridine, ... Cholesterol, arginine[157] Solasodine, solanidine, veralkamine, batrachotoxin[158] Properties[edit]. Head of a calf born to a ... Complex esters of monocarboxylic acids Indicine, lindelophin, sarracine [59] Macrocyclic diesters Platyphylline, trichodesmine[ ...
Usually, a "phenyl group" is synonymous to C6H5- and is represented by the symbol Ph or, archaically, Φ. Benzene is sometimes denoted as PhH. Phenyl groups are generally attached to other atoms or groups. For example, triphenylmethane (Ph3CH) has three phenyl groups attached to the same carbon center. Many or even most phenyl compounds are not described with the term "phenyl". For example, the chloro derivative C6H5Cl is normally called chlorobenzene, although it could be called phenyl chloride. In special (and rare) cases, isolated phenyl groups are detected: the phenyl anion (C6H5−), the phenyl cation (C6H5+), and the phenyl radical (C6H5·). Although Ph and phenyl uniquely denote C6H5, substituted derivatives also are described using the phenyl terminology. For example, O2NC6H4 is nitrophenyl and F5C6 is pentafluorophenyl. Monosubstituted phenyl groups (that is, disubstituted benzenes) are associated with electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions and the products follow the arene ...
Other types of ester are prepared in a similar manner - for example, tosyl (tosylate) esters are made by reaction of the ... The suffix -ol in non-IUPAC names (such as paracetamol or cholesterol) also typically indicates that the substance is an ... Noyori asymmetric hydrogenation is the asymmetric reduction of β-keto-esters. Hydrolysis. Alkenes engage in an acid catalysed ... In the indirect method, the alkene is converted to the sulfate ester, which is subsequently hydrolyzed. The direct hydration ...
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Cholesterol and cholesterol esters are more similar than they are different; however, when considering their similarities ... cholesterol not bound to esters; however, when cholesterol released from cells, it is mostly in the form of cholesterol esters ... Cholesterol esters are derived from cholesterol itself. Though both are considered sterols -- a subclass of fat -- cholesterol ... While both cholesterol and cholesterol esters make up over half of an LDL particles mass, their ratios vary in degree. HDL, on ...
Enzyme-catalyzed transfer from lecithin on cholesterol to form cholesterol ester and lysolecithin (LCAT+) 1/ in the arterial ... Cholesterol Ester Aortic Wall Cholesterol Acyltransferase Ester Hydrolase Acyl Transfer These keywords were added by machine ... Enzyme-catalyzed transfer from lecithin on cholesterol to form cholesterol ester and lysolecithin (LCAT+) 1/ in the arterial ... cholesterol acyltransferase and cholesterol ester hydrolase activities. In vitro effect of substrates with fatty acid of ...
Atherosclerotic Plaque Cholesterol Ester Cholesterol Diet Serum Lipid Level Bovine Albumin These keywords were added by machine ... of cholesterol-fed rabbits was much more closely linked to increases in tissue cholesterol esters than to free cholesterol ... Thus, after 12-14 weeks on cholesterol diets, when the plaques covered from 50100% of the surface of the aorta, the ester ... Bailey J.M., Butler J. (1967) Synthetic Cholesterol-Ester Antigens in Experimental Atherosclerosis. In: Luzio N.R.D., Paoletti ...
"Identification of neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase, a key enzyme removing cholesterol from macrophages". The Journal of ... "Identification of neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase, a key enzyme removing cholesterol from macrophages". The Journal of ... "The critical role of neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase 1 in cholesterol removal from human macrophages". Circulation Research ... "The critical role of neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase 1 in cholesterol removal from human macrophages". Circulation Research ...
Blend of cholesterol and fatty acid ester from lanolin. Functions as a skin-soothing agent. ...
Selecting of format.. Clicking one of the Downlod boxes will download a file in the corresponding format with the selected data columns for the genes shown in the search result.. The copy boxes will give you a link to the file if you want to share it or save for later as a reference. ...
The Interrelationships of Serum Cholesterol, Cholesterol Esters and Phospholipids in Health and in Coronary Artery Disease. ... The Interrelationships of Serum Cholesterol, Cholesterol Esters and Phospholipids in Health and in Coronary Artery Disease ... The Interrelationships of Serum Cholesterol, Cholesterol Esters and Phospholipids in Health and in Coronary Artery Disease ... The Interrelationships of Serum Cholesterol, Cholesterol Esters and Phospholipids in Health and in Coronary Artery Disease ...
They reduce cholesterol absorption so that less cholesterol is transported to the liver, and the expression of LDL receptors is ... Plant stanol esters as part of a heart-healthy diet plausibly offer a means to reduce the risk of ASCVD events at a population ... Plant stanols, as fatty-acid esters, were developed as a dietary adjunct to reduce LDL-C levels as part of a heart-healthy diet ... We also present new estimates on the effect of plant stanol ester consumption on LDL-C levels and the risk of ASCVD events. ...
Profile of Free Fatty Acids and Fractions of Phospholipids, Cholesterol Esters and Triglycerides in Serum of Obese Youth with ... "Profile of Free Fatty Acids and Fractions of Phospholipids, Cholesterol Esters and Triglycerides in Serum of Obese Youth with ... Bermúdez-Cardona J, Velásquez-Rodríguez C. Profile of Free Fatty Acids and Fractions of Phospholipids, Cholesterol Esters and ... Bermúdez-Cardona, J.; Velásquez-Rodríguez, C. Profile of Free Fatty Acids and Fractions of Phospholipids, Cholesterol Esters ...
Quantitative analysis of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in human atherosclerotic plaques using near-infrared Raman ... In this paper, we describe a quantitative analytical method for cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in human atherosclerotic ... The standard error of prediction was 16.1, 13.6, 1.9, 3.3 and 3.4 mg/g for total cholesterol, free cholesterol, palmitate ... is a promising technique to obtain a consistent and non-destructive quantitative analysis of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters ...
Full-fat sitostanol ester-containing margarine reduces serum total and LDL cholesterol, but the effect of plant stanol ester- ... We investigated the cholesterol-lowering effects of 2 novel, low-fat stanol ester-containing margarines as part of a low-fat ... Effects of 2 low-fat stanol ester-containing margarines on serum cholesterol concentrations as part of a low-fat diet in ... We conclude that the low-fat, plant stanol ester-containing margarines are effective cholesterol-lowering products in ...
Cholesterol ester transfer protein, apolipoprotein E and lipoprotein lipase genotypes in patients with coronary artery disease ... Hulya Yilmaz, Turgay ?sbir, Bedia Agachan, Zeynep Ermis Karaali, Effects of cholesterol ester transfer protein Taq1B gene ... in order to explore a possible association between CAD and the variants in the gene encoding cholesterol ester transfer protein ... In the CAD group, those with the Msp M1 allele had higher levels of total cholesterol (TC) (p = 0026) and low-density ...
What is cholesterol ester hydrolase? Meaning of cholesterol ester hydrolase as a finance term. What does cholesterol ester ... Definition of cholesterol ester hydrolase in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Cholesterol esters are hydrolyzed to free cholesterol by cholesterol ester hydrolase (EC 3.. Citation classics in lipid ... Related to cholesterol ester hydrolase: cholesterol esterase, cholesteryl ester hydrolase. Lipa. A subdivision of the Croatian ...
... and reducing low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in people with abnormal cholesterol levels that may put them at risk ... Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors are being explored for their ability to elevate HDL-C. A small molecule ... A Safety and Efficacy Study of DRL-17822, a Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) Inhibitor, in Patients With Abnormal ... Cholesterol Levels. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and ...
... and clinical studies on all aspects of plasma lipoprotein cholesterol in relation to human health and disease. The journal will ... Cholesterol is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, ... Low-Fat Nondairy Minidrink Containing Plant Stanol Ester Effectively Reduces LDL Cholesterol in Subjects with Mild to Moderate ... "Low-Fat Nondairy Minidrink Containing Plant Stanol Ester Effectively Reduces LDL Cholesterol in Subjects with Mild to Moderate ...
Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease. Digestive System Diseases. Genetic Diseases, Inborn. Lysosomal Storage Diseases. Infant, ... Novel Association of Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease Due to Lysosomal Acid Lipase Deficiency and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver ... Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease (CESD) is an autosomal recessive chronic disease of variable phenotype, caused by a ... MedlinePlus related topics: Cholesterol Cholesterol Levels: What You Need to Know Fatty Liver Disease Liver Diseases ...
... and clinical studies on all aspects of plasma lipoprotein cholesterol in relation to human health and disease. The journal will ... Cholesterol is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, ... The concentrations of serum cholesterol precursors and especially their ratios to cholesterol reflect whole-body cholesterol ... "Effects of plant stanol esters on serum cholesterol concentrations, relative markers of cholesterol metabolism and endothelial ...
Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Expressed in Lecithin. Cholesterol Acyltransferase--Deficient Mice. Cheng-ai Wu, Maki ... Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Expressed in Lecithin. Cholesterol Acyltransferase--Deficient Mice. Cheng-ai Wu, Maki ... Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Expressed in Lecithin. Cholesterol Acyltransferase--Deficient Mice. Cheng-ai Wu, Maki ...
... cholesterol oleate, which served as a marker for preexisting cholesterol esters in HDL.. ... The newly formed ($\sp3$H) cholesterol esters by the LCAT reaction was observed to be transferred into the lower density ... Factors Influencing the Formation and Distribution of Cholesterol Esters in Human Plasma. Welcome to the IDEALS Repository. ... These two plasma proteins play important roles in determining the formation and distribution of cholesterol esters in plasma. ...
Selective removal of cholesterol ester in atherosclerotic plaque using nanosecond pulsed laser at 5.75 µm Author(s): K. Ishii; ... At atherosclerotic lesions, cholesterol accumulates on the tunica intima by establishing an ester bond with fatty acids such as ... and thus cholesterol ester is the main component of atherosclerotic plaques. Mid-infrared pulsed laser at 5.75 μm is ... purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of nanosecond pulsed laser at 5.75 μm irradiation of cholesterol ester ...
Incomplete Hydrolysis of Cholesteryl Esters during the Enzymatic Cholesterol Determination as Evidenced by Aqueous Cholesteryl ... Ester Solutions: Comparison of Six Enzymatic Procedures with the Liebermann-Burchard Method ...
... supplemented foods are recommended to help in lowering serum LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C). Few studies have examined the efficacy of ... Basal and post-treatment changes in markers of cholesterol metabolism indicating low cholesterol synthesis and high cholesterol ... Effects of plant sterol esters in skimmed milk and vegetable-fat-enriched milk on serum lipids and non-cholesterol sterols in ... 4 g PS esters (2 g free PS). Serum concentrations of lipids and non-cholesterol sterols were measured. Compared to control, LDL ...
Lack of stimulation of cholesteryl ester transfer protein by cholesterol in the presence of a high-fat diet.. [Sukhinder Kaur ... Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is a key protein involved in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway. The ... Addition of cholesterol to the low-fat MUFA diet increased CETP activity and mRNA expression, whereas addition of cholesterol ... However, addition of fatty acids along with cholesterol interfered with the stimulatory effect of cholesterol on CETP gene ...
Cholesterol ester hydrolase (CEH) catalyses the rate limiting step in free cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells and ... Abstract 679: Variations in the Expression of Cholesterol Ester Hydrolase in Macrophages from Human Subjects and its ... Abstract 679: Variations in the Expression of Cholesterol Ester Hydrolase in Macrophages from Human Subjects and its ... Abstract 679: Variations in the Expression of Cholesterol Ester Hydrolase in Macrophages from Human Subjects and its ...
Our findings suggest that fat quality as reflected in the serum cholesterol ester fraction in childhood is independently ... Childhood serum cholesterol ester fatty acids are associated with blood pressure 27 y later in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young ... Objective: The purpose of the study was to investigate links between childhood serum cholesterol ester fatty acid (CEFA) ... Conclusion: Our findings suggest that fat quality as reflected in the serum cholesterol ester fraction in childhood is ...
i ) Cholesterol ester+Cholesteryl esterase cholesterol+fatty acid. *Principle:- ( ii ) Cholesterol+O2+H2O cholesterol oxidase ... A)Determination of serum cholesterol: ( i) Cholesterol ester+Cholesteryl esterase cholesterol+fatty acid. Original Title: ... C)Calculation of LDL-cholesterol concentration. *LDL-cholesterol=Total cholesterol-HDL-colesterol-0.46X. triglycerides (all ... from cholesterol esters to soaps. Subsequent acidification. freed the fatty acids so that total fatty acids could be. titrated ...
The author retains copyright ownership and moral rights in this thesis. Neither the thesis nor substantial extracts from it may be printed or otherwise reproduced without the authors permission ...
Compound was evaluated for the reduction of liver cholesterol ester levels in the cholesterol-fed Hamster model at 50 mpk. ...
Inhibition of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein by Torcetrapib Modestly Increases Macrophage Cholesterol Efflux to HDL. ... Inhibition of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein by Torcetrapib Modestly Increases Macrophage Cholesterol Efflux to HDL ... Inhibition of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein by Torcetrapib Modestly Increases Macrophage Cholesterol Efflux to HDL ... Inhibition of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein by Torcetrapib Modestly Increases Macrophage Cholesterol Efflux to HDL ...
  • The aim of this study was to compare patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) to healthy objects, in order to explore a possible association between CAD and the variants in the gene encoding cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP), apolipoprotein E (Apo E) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL). (wiley.com)
  • In the control group, CETP, the Msp M2 allele was associated with a higher level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (p = 0.012) than the Msp M1 allele. (wiley.com)
  • Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is a key protein involved in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Transgenic mice expressing human CETP under the control of its natural flanking region were fed low- or high-fat diets enriched in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or saturated fatty acids in the presence or absence of cholesterol. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Addition of cholesterol to the low-fat MUFA diet increased CETP activity and mRNA expression, whereas addition of cholesterol to the high-fat MUFA diet led to a decrease in CETP activity and mRNA expression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In SW 872 cells, oleic acid and cholesterol stimulated CETP gene expression when given alone. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • However, addition of fatty acids along with cholesterol interfered with the stimulatory effect of cholesterol on CETP gene regulation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cholesterol-mediated stimulation of CETP involves the transcription factor liver X receptor alpha (LXRalpha). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Therefore, we present evidence for the first time that inhibition of LXRalpha expression by a high-fat MUFA diet leads to inhibition of CETP stimulation by cholesterol. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A B polymorphism at the CETP (cholesteryl ester protein transfer) locus that is detectable with the restriction enzyme Taq I is a genetic determinant of the plasma HDL cholesterol concentration. (edu.sa)
  • The allele frequency of the Taq I B CETP polymorphism and its relatively modest impact on HDL cholesterol concentrations argue against an important role for this allele, or for strongly linked loci, in determining the low levels of HDL cholesterol seen in the Saudi population. (edu.sa)
  • Abundant amounts of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) are found in macrophage-derived foam cells in the arterial wall, but its function in atherogenesis is unknown. (ahajournals.org)
  • The cholesterol redistribution in serum was a direct effect of the substantial serum CETP activity and mass (38±3 nmol/mL/h and 4.8±0.5 μg/mL, respectively) induced by CETP production by bone marrow-derived cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is a 74-kDa glycoprotein that facilitates the transfer of cholesteryl esters from antiatherogenic HDL to proatherogenic apoB-containing lipoproteins and a concomitant equimolar transfer of triglycerides to HDL. (ahajournals.org)
  • Introduction of the simian or the human CETP gene in mice naturally lacking CETP, results in a dose-dependent reduction of HDL cholesterol and an increased susceptibility to atherosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • 4-6 Furthermore, humans possessing a genetic deficiency for CETP have higher HDL cholesterol levels and a reduced prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD). (ahajournals.org)
  • By promoting the transfer of cholesteryl esters from HDL to apoB-containing lipoproteins CETP remodels the HDL particle, which is accompanied by a reduction in size and by the dissociation of preβ-migrating, lipid poor apoAI, 16,17 which is an important acceptor of ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophages. (ahajournals.org)
  • 18,19 Locally, in the arterial wall the action of CETP might thus be implicated in the conversion of large cholesteryl ester enriched HDL into lipid-poor preβ-HDL and thus may also have an antiatherogenic function. (ahajournals.org)
  • Interestingly, macrophage cholesterol loading results in a dose-dependent increase in macrophage secretion of CETP activity. (ahajournals.org)
  • 20 Furthermore, in vitro studies indicated a direct role for CETP in cholesterol efflux from COS cells 14 and J774 macrophages. (ahajournals.org)
  • The aim was to test whether the severity of HF, using brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) as a marker, is associated with alterations in functional aspects of HDL, such as lipid transfer, cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) concentration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Total cholesterol ( p = 0.049), LDL-C ( p = 0.023), non-HDL-C ( p = 0.029) and CETP, that promotes lipid transfer among lipoproteins ( p = 0.013), were lower in III/IV than in I/II group. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) facilitate lipid transfers among lipoprotein classes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To investigate the effect of thyroid dysfunction on high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism, we measured HDL subfractions, apolipoprotein A-I containing particles (LpA-I and LpA-I:A-II), and the activities of enzymes involved in the remodeling and metabolism of HDL [namely hepatic lipase (HL), lipoprotein lipase, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP)] in 18 hyperthyroid and 17 hypothyroid patients before and after treatment. (nih.gov)
  • T) and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP I405V) genes affect high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) levels, but their relationship with cardiovascular disease and their combined effect is unclear. (cdc.gov)
  • The objectives of the current study were to characterize the effect of the hepatic lipase variant, and its interaction with the CETP variant, in terms of cholesterol levels, atherosclerosis, and risk of myocardial infarction (MI). (cdc.gov)
  • A relative new strategy for raising HDL cholesterol, inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), is markedly effective. (qxmd.com)
  • CETP inhibitors prevent the transfer of cholesteryl ester from HDL to triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in exchange for triglyceride. (qxmd.com)
  • One inhibitor, torcetrapib, binds to CETP on HDL, markedly increases HDL cholesteryl ester, has no effect on fecal cholesterol excretion, but can raise blood pressure. (qxmd.com)
  • Cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor torcetrapib and off-target toxicity: a pooled analysis of the rating atherosclerotic disease change by imaging with a new CETP inhibitor (RADIANCE) trials. (qxmd.com)
  • Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and hepatic lipase (HL) are two HDL modifying proteins that have both pro- and anti-atherogenic properties. (cdc.gov)
  • We hypothesized that CETP and HL synergistically affect HDL cholesterol and atherosclerotic risk. (cdc.gov)
  • The presence of the CETP lowering B2 allele and the HL lowering LIPC-T allele synergistically increased HDL cholesterol from 0.87+/-0.19 mmol/L in the B1B1/CC (n=183) to 1.21+/-0.25 mmol/L in the B2B2/TT carriers (n=10). (cdc.gov)
  • We conclude that a high HDL cholesterol does not protect against coronary artery disease when associated with combined CETP- and HL-lowering gene variants. (cdc.gov)
  • Background - Several studies have reported that the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) TaqIB gene polymorphism is associated with HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and the risk of coronary artery disease ( CAD), but the results are inconsistent. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • chemical compounds that inhibit cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) and are expected to have utility in raising HDL-C, lowering LDL-C, and in the treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis. (newdrugapprovals.org)
  • For many years, studies on cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors(CETP) have not been interrupted, intending to achieve further cardiovascular protection through increasing the level of HDL-C on the basis of statin-lowering LDL-C. However, the failure of large clinical studies of CETP inhibitors represented by torcetrapib has caused continuous controversy in this area of research . (bvsalud.org)
  • Plasma lecithin:cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) are important determinants of HDL remodelling. (qxmd.com)
  • The possible influence of conventional glucocorticoid replacement on plasma lipids, plasma LCAT, CETP and PLTP activity levels, as well as on plasma cholesterol esterification (EST) and cholesteryl ester transfer (CET) was evaluated in 24 consecutive hypopituitary patients (12 men and 12 women) with untreated growth hormone deficiency of whom 17 had adrenal insufficiency and were treated with cortisone acetate, 25 to 37.5 mg daily. (qxmd.com)
  • Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is understood to play a regulatory role in HDL cholesterol (HDLC) metabolism. (nature.com)
  • Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is the enzyme that facilitates the transfer of cholesteryl ester from high density lipoprotein (HDL) to apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins. (elsevier.com)
  • In the present study, we examined the effect of the suppression of increased plasma CETP by intravenous injection with antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) against CETP targeted to the liver on the development of atherosclerosis in rabbits fed a cholesterol diet. (elsevier.com)
  • The total cholesterol concentrations and the CETP mass in the animals injected with antisense ODNs were all significantly decreased in 12 and 16 weeks compared with those injected with sense ODNs and the control animals. (elsevier.com)
  • These findings showed for the first time that suspension of increased plasma CETP by the injection with antisense ODNs against CETP coupled to ASOR carrier molecules targeted to the liver thus inhibit the ahterosclerosis possibly by decreasing the plasma LDL + very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol- fed rabbits. (elsevier.com)
  • Genetic variation in the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) locus is associated with altered HDL-C. We aimed to assess AD risk by genetically predicted HDL-C. (uniba.it)
  • While the exact role of cholesterol esters is unclear, they appear to play an import 'packaging' role in the passing off cholesterol between high-density and low-density lipoproteins, or HDL and LDL respectively. (livestrong.com)
  • After equilibration, the relative distribution of the ($\sp3$H) cholesterol among plasma lipoproteins was found to reflect that of unlabelled free cholesterol. (illinois.edu)
  • Human platelets have cholesteryl ester hydrolytic activity toward plasma high density lipoproteins. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These lipoproteins act as carriers for cholesterol. (differencebetween.com)
  • Apolipoprotein B containing lipoproteins are removed by precipitation with heparin sulfate and MnCl 2 and cholesterol is measured in the HDL-containing supernatant. (cdc.gov)
  • The apolipoprotein B containing lipoproteins in the specimen are reacted with a blocking reagent that renders them non-reactive with the enzymatic cholesterol reagent under conditions of the assay. (cdc.gov)
  • The method uses sulfated alpha-cyclodextrin in the presence of Mg +2 , which forms complexes with apoB containing lipoproteins, and polyethylene glycol-coupled cholesteryl esterase and cholesterol oxidase for the HDL-cholesterol measurement. (cdc.gov)
  • Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters in lipoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The LCAT glycoprotein produces lysophosphatidylcholine and cholesterol ester and binds to lipoproteins after being secreted by the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there is only a partial deficiency because the enzyme remains active on the cholesterol particles in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and low density lipoproteins (LDL). (wikipedia.org)
  • Neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase 1 (NCEH) also known as arylacetamide deacetylase-like 1 (AADACL1) or KIAA1363 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NCEH1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Purification and properties of extracellular cholesterol ester hydrolase of Pseudomonas fluorescens. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cholesterol esters are hydrolyzed to free cholesterol by cholesterol ester hydrolase (EC 3. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cholesterol ester hydrolase (CEH) catalyses the rate limiting step in free cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells and intracellular CEH levels negatively correlate with lipid accumulation in foam cells and susceptibility to atherosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cholesterol ester hydrolase in human red blood cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 1. Cholesterol ester hydrolytic activity (sterol-ester hydrolase EC 3.1.1.13) was detected in human red blood cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • NCEH1 (Neutral Cholesterol Ester Hydrolase 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Patelski, J., Participation of phospholipids in arterial metabolism of cholesterol esters, in this book. (springer.com)
  • Serum cholesterol (free, esters and total) and serum phospholipids were determined in 97 men who had experienced coronary heart disease prior to the age of 40, 146 healthy nonhospitalized men of comparable age and a group of 97 men who were "matched" to the coronary disease group. (ahajournals.org)
  • The theoretic implications of the total cholesterol: phospholipids ratio are considered. (ahajournals.org)
  • Sponification liberated glycerol from triglycerides and phospholipids and converted the fatty acid from them and from cholesterol esters to soaps. (scribd.com)
  • In each case phospholipids and cholesterol esters had to be determined and the fatty acids present in them calculated and subtracted using factors derived from the average mol.wt. (scribd.com)
  • Lipoprotein classes continuously exchange their constituent lipids, such as cholesterol in both unesterified and esterified forms, phospholipids and triglycerides. (biomedcentral.com)
  • HDL, on the other hand, varies less in proportion due to a protein on its surface that facilitates a conversion to cholesterol esters which contributes to in majority of the HDL particle mass. (livestrong.com)
  • Controversial studies by one group also implicate the protein in the hydrolysis of cholesterol esters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Expressed in Lecithin. (ahajournals.org)
  • Experiments were conducted to determine the relative importance of factors influencing the lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and lipid transfer protein (LTP) reactions in plasma. (illinois.edu)
  • Lack of stimulation of cholesteryl ester transfer protein by cholesterol in the presence of a high-fat diet. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The protein-free filtrate containing cholesterol is treated with concentrated sulphuric acid. (scribd.com)
  • Association between Taq IB cholesterol ester transfer protein polymorphism and low HDL cholesterol concentration in Saudis. (edu.sa)
  • While this reaction was first studied in vitro using purified proteins in solution, it occurs in vivo on the surfaces of HDL particles where transiently-bound LCAT is activated by HDL-associated apoA-I protein and consumes HDL-associated cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine. (reactome.org)
  • Genetic Variations of Cholesterol Ester Transfer Protein Gene in Koreans " by Seung Ho Hong, Young-Ree Kim et al. (wayne.edu)
  • Refocusing on use of cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors. (qxmd.com)
  • Effects of an inhibitor of cholesteryl ester transfer protein on HDL cholesterol. (qxmd.com)
  • Raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with inhibitors of cholesteryl ester transfer protein - a new approach to coronary artery disease. (qxmd.com)
  • Raising high-density lipoprotein in humans through inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein: an initial multidose study of torcetrapib. (qxmd.com)
  • Cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors as high-density lipoprotein raising agents. (qxmd.com)
  • Efficacy and safety of torcetrapib, a novel cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor, in individuals with below-average high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. (qxmd.com)
  • The mechanism of the regulation of cholesterol ester transfer protein by dietary fats and cholesterol was investigated using human cholesterol ester transfer protein transgenic mice fed monounsaturated fatty acid and saturated fatty acid enriched diets with or without cholesterol. (mun.ca)
  • Cholesterol inhibited protein activity and hepatic mRNA abundance in the monounsaturated fatty acid diet. (mun.ca)
  • However, cholesterol enhanced protein activity but had no effect on hepatic mRNA abundance in the saturated fatty acid diet. (mun.ca)
  • There was interaction between cholesterol and fatty acids to regulate cholesterol ester transfer protein. (mun.ca)
  • However, the role of the protein kinase C (PKC) pathway in mediating cholesterol mobilization is unknown. (elsevier.com)
  • PCSK9 inhibitors bind to and inactivate a protein in liver in order to lower LDL (bad) cholesterol. (heart.org)
  • Expression of cholesteryl ester transfer protein in mice promotes macrophage reverse cholesterol transport. (upenn.edu)
  • However, it is possible to prevent the progression of ASCVDs by reducing circulating concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Recent large meta-analyses demonstrated that by reducing the dietary intake of saturated fat and cholesterol, it is possible to reduce the risk of ASCVD events. (mdpi.com)
  • Serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is the major causal factor underlying ASCVD, and although statins and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors enable effective control of LDL-C in hypercholesterolaemic patients with ASCVD, dietary and other lifestyle measures will remain the backbone of LDL-C control at the population level [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • In the CAD group, those with the Msp M1 allele had higher levels of total cholesterol (TC) (p = 0026) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) than those with the Msp M2 allele. (wiley.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine if a new drug, DRL-17822, is safe and effective in elevating high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and reducing low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in people with abnormal cholesterol levels that may put them at risk for heart disease. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • lasma concentrations of HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol are low in the Saudi Arabian population. (edu.sa)
  • High density lipoprotein cholesterol or HDL Cholesterol and Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol or LDL Cholesterol. (differencebetween.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: Autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia is a rare inherited disorder, characterized by extremely high total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, that has been previously linked to mutations in LDLRAP1. (ox.ac.uk)
  • There is conflicting evidence whether high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia. (uniba.it)
  • LDL-cholesterol=Total cholesterol-HDL-colesterol-0.46X triglycerides (all values are in m mol/l). (scribd.com)
  • The main inclusion criteria were as follows: serum total cholesterol 5.0-8.5 mmol/l and total triglycerides below 2.5 mmol/l at screening. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lysosomal acid lipase breaks down fats (lipids) such as triglycerides and cholesteryl esters. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Reduction or absence of lysosomal acid lipase activity results in the accumulation of triglycerides, cholesteryl esters, and other lipids within lysosomes, causing fat buildup in multiple tissues. (medlineplus.gov)
  • They also help lower triglycerides (blood fats) and raise HDL (good) cholesterol. (heart.org)
  • They may also have modest effects on lowering triglycerides (blood fats) and raising HDL cholesterol. (heart.org)
  • 0.01) were lower in patients receiving glucocorticoids, whereas HDL cholesterol and plasma triglycerides were not different between patients treated and not treated with glucocorticoids. (qxmd.com)
  • The levels of triglycerides can also be high and the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (the 'good' cholesterol) are typically low. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Eleven mildly to moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects consumed stanol ester margarine (2.0 g/day of stanols) as a part of their habitual diet for 14 days and the changes in serum lipid values were measured three times at 4, 8 and 15 days after the initiation of test margarine consumption (0 day). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The first step in steroidogenesis is cholesterol mobilization from cytosolic lipid droplets to the initiating rate-limiting enzyme complex located on the inner mitochondrial membrane. (elsevier.com)
  • Cholesterol is a type of fat (lipid) in your blood. (rexhealth.com)
  • A cholesterol test, also called a lipid panel, measures all of the fats in your blood, including total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol. (rexhealth.com)
  • The first medication of this class, ezetimibe (Zetia®), was approved in 2002 for treating high cholesterol and certain inherited lipid abnormalities. (heart.org)
  • Cholesterol in the CNS has also an important role in promoting phase separation within neuron membranes leading to laterally organized regions called lipid rafts ( Brown and London, 1998 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • These two plasma proteins play important roles in determining the formation and distribution of cholesterol esters in plasma. (illinois.edu)
  • DE19709125A1 ] The invention relates to substituted chinolines of general formula (I) which are highly effective inhibitors of cholesterol ester transfer proteins (CTEP) and stimulate reverse cholesterol transfer. (epo.org)
  • And these plaques are made up of complex mixtures of proteins, lipids, and cholesterol, and surely by now you all know that cholesterol was this evil molecule, and it will indeed be the villain of today's story. (mit.edu)
  • It seemed to be of interest, therefore, to investigate the cholesterol ester: lysolecithin acy1 transfer activity (LCAT-) of the aortic wall, as compared with LCAT+ and cholesterol esterase activities. (springer.com)
  • reverse reaction of cholesterol esterase Registry number: EC 3.1.1. (lexic.us)
  • At atherosclerotic lesions, cholesterol accumulates on the tunica intima by establishing an ester bond with fatty acids such as oleic acid, and thus cholesterol ester is the main component of atherosclerotic plaques. (spie.org)
  • Fatty acids and cholesterol were removed by a dilute acid / organic solvent partition procedure in which the contaminants passed into the organic phase leaving glycerol in the aqueous phase. (scribd.com)
  • Cholesteryl Ester is the inactive form in which cholesterol is esterified with fatty acids in order to be transported to target organs. (differencebetween.com)
  • Cholesteryl Esters are formed when cholesterol is esterified with fatty acids. (differencebetween.com)
  • Fatty acids, lanolin, esters with. (europa.eu)
  • Commercially available plant sterol esters are prepared by esterifying free sterols to fatty acids from edible plant oils such as canola, soybean, and sunflower. (elsevier.com)
  • To determine the influence of the fatty acid moiety on cholesterol metabolism, plant sterol esters were made with fatty acids from soybean oil (SO), beef tallow (BT), or purified stearic acid (SA) and fed to male hamsters for 4 wk. (elsevier.com)
  • 7 . The personal care composition of claim 4 wherein said film forming materials are selected from the group consisting of dialkylquates, ester oils, silicone oils, silicone waxes, liquid fatty alcohols and fatty acids, and microfine particles. (google.es)
  • The addition of purified LTP, even in the presence of excess LCAT, did not alter the initial rate of cholesterol esterification. (illinois.edu)
  • In contrast, the supplementation of plasma with purified LCAT resulted in a linear increase of the initial rate of cholesterol esterification up to a concentration of LCAT 3 times that in plasma. (illinois.edu)
  • 1.063 g/ml fraction substantially increased the initial rate of cholesterol esterification, as compared to very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), which had no appreciable effect. (illinois.edu)
  • In the peripheral tissue, the esterification process is carried out by lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). (differencebetween.com)
  • In conclusion, this preliminary study suggests that conventional glucocorticoid replacement in hypopituitary patients is associated with a decrease in plasma cholesterol esterification and cholesteryl ester transfer, indicating that these steps in HDL metabolism are impaired. (qxmd.com)
  • In a similar study we found that the progression of atherosclerotic lesions in the thoracic aorta of cholesterol-fed rabbits was much more closely linked to increases in tissue cholesterol esters than to free cholesterol itself. (springer.com)
  • To measure this, a rapid and simple method for radioactively labelling free cholesterol in plasma using ($\sp3$H) cholesterol-lysophosphatidylcholine micelles was developed. (illinois.edu)
  • Conclusions: The observed correlation between HDL-C and CEH mRNA levels suggests that lower CEH levels, that would limit free cholesterol efflux from foam cells, may represent another risk factor for CAD. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cholesterol effluxes from cells as free cholesterol and is transported in HDL as esterified cholesterol. (wikipedia.org)
  • LCAT is the enzyme that esterifies the free cholesterol on HDL to cholesterol ester and allows the maturation of HDL. (wikipedia.org)
  • This class of drugs, also known as HMG CoA reductase inhibitors, works in the liver to prevent cholesterol from forming. (heart.org)
  • Selective cholesterol absorption inhibitors are most effective at lowering LDL cholesterol. (heart.org)
  • The newly formed ($\sp3$H) cholesterol esters by the LCAT reaction was observed to be transferred into the lower density lipoprotein fractions at a slower rate than ($\sp3$H) cholesterol oleate, which served as a marker for preexisting cholesterol esters in HDL. (illinois.edu)
  • LCAT activated by apoA-I catalyzes the reaction of cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine to yield cholesterol esterified with a long-chain fatty acid and 2-lysophosphatidylcholine. (reactome.org)
  • Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency (LCAT deficiency) is a disorder of lipoprotein metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • A deficiency of LCAT causes accumulation of unesterified cholesterol in certain body tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • These two lipoprotein particles are responsible for shuttling cholesterol between cells and the liver, and have long been the focus of atherosclerosis research. (livestrong.com)
  • Bailey J.M., Butler J. (1967) Synthetic Cholesterol-Ester Antigens in Experimental Atherosclerosis. (springer.com)
  • Because α-tocopherol (α-TOH) mediates the peroxidation of cholesterol-esterified lipids in human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in vitro and has displayed disappointing results against the onset and development of atherosclerosis, it may not be appropriate for use as a therapeutic in the prevention and/or treatment of the disease. (figshare.com)
  • In addition, they prevent cholesteryl ester (CE) accumulation, the hallmark of human atherosclerosis, in arteries of cholesterol-fed animals by cellular mechanisms that remain undefined. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1 High HDL levels protect against the development of atherosclerosis by virtue of its essential role in the removal of excess cholesterol from peripheral cells and its antioxidative, antiinflammatory, and antithrombotic properties. (ahajournals.org)
  • Atherosclerosis was induced with a high cholesterol diet fed 2 weeks prior to and 6 weeks after balloon injury of the aorta, followed by 4 weeks of normal diet. (nih.gov)
  • May be responsible for cholesterol ester hydrolysis in macrophages, thereby contributing to the development of atherosclerosis. (genecards.org)
  • People with cholesteryl ester storage disease may also build up fatty deposits on the artery walls ( atherosclerosis ). (nih.gov)
  • These patients have low HDL cholesterol but surprisingly premature atherosclerosis is not seen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other complications include premature atherosclerosis (hardening of arteries) associated with high levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, often called the 'bad' cholesterol. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Basal and post-treatment changes in markers of cholesterol metabolism indicating low cholesterol synthesis and high cholesterol absorption predicted improved LDL-C responses to PS. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Effect of verapamil and nifedipine on cholesteryl ester metabolism and low-density lipoprotein oxidation in macrophages. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Usually the enzyme produced is responsible for cholesterol ester formation and high density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism, but in fish-eye disease the enzyme cannot esterify, or make the acid into an alkyl, cholesterol in HDL particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phytosterols have attracted considerable interest as cholesterol-lowering agents since the 1950s [ 2 ] due to their ability to reduce the serum LDL cholesterol level by interfering with cholesterol absorption. (hindawi.com)
  • Plant sterol (PS)-supplemented foods are recommended to help in lowering serum LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C). Few studies have examined the efficacy of PS-enriched skimmed milk (SM) or semi-SM enriched with vegetable fat (PS-VFM). (biomedsearch.com)
  • After ending the stanol ester use serum cholesterol concentrations began to return rapidly and after 7 days serum LDL cholesterol was 5.3% less than the initial value (P = ns). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The specific effect of plant stanol esters on serum LDL cholesterol can fully be obtained within 1-2 weeks of the use of plant stanol ester-enriched margarine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ultimately, LDL-C concentrations are reduced on average by 9-12% by consuming 2-3 g of plant stanol esters per day. (mdpi.com)
  • Effects of 2 low-fat stanol ester-containing margarines on serum cholesterol concentrations as part of a low-fat diet in hypercholesterolemic subje. (nih.gov)
  • Serum HDL cholesterol, sitostanol, campestanol, beta-carotene, and fat-soluble vitamin concentrations did not change significantly from baseline. (nih.gov)
  • They offer an additional, clinically significant reduction in serum cholesterol concentrations to that obtained with a low-fat diet alone. (nih.gov)
  • In conclusion, STAEST-containing soymilk-based low-fat minidrink consumed once a day with a meal lowered LDL and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations without evoking any side effects in subjects consuming normal Western diet. (hindawi.com)
  • Serum concentrations of lipids and non-cholesterol sterols were measured. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This ultimately leads to lower blood total and LDL cholesterol concentrations. (benecol.com.hk)
  • Hamsters fed BT and SA had significantly lower cholesterol absorption and decreased concentrations of plasma non-HDL cholesterol and liver esterified cholesterol, and significantly greater fecal sterol excretion than SO and control hamsters. (elsevier.com)
  • Impact of atorvastatin and omega-3 ethyl esters 90 on plasma plant sterol concentrations and cholesterol synthesis in type 2 diabetes: a randomised placebo controlled factorial trial. (nihr.ac.uk)
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of statin treatment and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on plasma plant sterol concentrations and cholesterol synthesis in patients with type 2 diabetes. (nihr.ac.uk)
  • METHODS: Plant sterol concentrations and lanosterol (a marker of cholesterol synthesis) were measured using a high sensitivity assay to assess the effect of double-blind daily treatment for 4 months with atorvastatin 20mg or placebo and, in a 2 × 2 factorial design, omega-3 ethyl esters 90 2g or placebo. (nihr.ac.uk)
  • CONCLUSION: Treatment with atorvastatin in type 2 diabetes did not change median total plasma plant sterol concentrations, but LDL cholesterol was reduced most efficaciously in high cholesterol synthesisers with low intestinal cholesterol absorption. (nihr.ac.uk)
  • At 8 weeks, they were divided into three groups (six animals in each group), among which the plasma total and HDL cholesterol concentrations did not significantly change. (elsevier.com)
  • The HDL cholesterol concentrations measured by the precipitation assay did not significantly change among the groups fed a cholesterol diet, and triglyceride concentrations did not significantly change in the four groups. (elsevier.com)
  • However, at the end of the study, when the HDL cholesterol concentrations were measured after the isolation by ultracentrifugation and a column chromotography, they were significantly higher in the animals injected with antisense ODNs than in the animals injected with sense ODNs and in the control animals. (elsevier.com)
  • Regardless of dietary intake, approximately 90 percent of cholesterol is synthesized by the liver. (livestrong.com)
  • They reduce cholesterol absorption so that less cholesterol is transported to the liver, and the expression of LDL receptors is upregulated. (mdpi.com)
  • LDLs carry cholesterol out of the liver and deposit in the periphery. (differencebetween.com)
  • HDL carries cholesterol into the liver. (differencebetween.com)
  • Plant stanols have a structure very similar to that of cholesterol which means they can inhibit the absorption of both dietary cholesterol and the cholesterol incorporated into bile salts by the liver. (benecol.com.hk)
  • Rats maintained on a diet containing 30-energy % as KE with a concomitant reduction in carbohydrate had lower plasma cholesterol and mevalonate (-40 and -27 %, respectively) and in the liver had lower levels of the mevalonate precursors acetoacetyl-CoA and HMG-CoA (-33 and -54 %) compared to controls. (ox.ac.uk)
  • When formulated into a beverage for human consumption subjects consuming a KE drink (30-energy %) had elevated plasma βHB which correlated with decreased mevalonate, a liver cholesterol synthesis biomarker. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Therefore, our results demonstrate that BT and SA are more effective than SO in reducing cholesterol absorption, liver cholesterol, and plasma non-HDL cholesterol concentration, suggesting that cardioprotective benefits can be achieved by consuming stearate-enriched plant sterol esters. (elsevier.com)
  • Some people with cholesteryl ester storage disease may develop liver cirrhosis that progresses to liver failure. (nih.gov)
  • The mean values for serum cholesterol (total) were 286 mg. per 100 cc., 224 mg. per 100 cc., and 247 mg. per 100 cc. for the coronary disease group, control group and matched control group, respectively. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cholesteryl ester storage disease is caused by mutations in the LIPA gene . (nih.gov)
  • Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease (CESD) is an autosomal recessive chronic disease of variable phenotype, caused by a deficiency in lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) and characterized by accumulation of fat in tissues and organs. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) activity was low due to which cholesterol ester storage disease was diagnosed. (bmj.com)
  • Cholesteryl ester storage disease is is a type of lysosomal acid lipase deficiency . (nih.gov)
  • [2] Enzyme replacement therapy is available for the treatment of lysosomal acid lipase deficiencies, including cholesteryl ester storage disease, in the United States, the European Union, and Japan. (nih.gov)
  • Lysosomal acid lipase separates the cholesterol from the fatty acid. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In the present study we tested the hypothesis that expression of CEH in blood-derived macrophages and the cholesterol efflux potential of serum from human subjects correlates with the disease status. (ahajournals.org)
  • Verapamil and nifedipine (10-100 microM) were shown to decrease in a dose-dependent manner the incorporation of [14C]oleate into ChE and to increase the concentration of FCh but had no appreciable effect on the concentration of total cholesterol in macrophages cultured in the presence of acetylated LDL. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Plant stanol esters as part of a heart-healthy diet plausibly offer a means to reduce the risk of ASCVD events at a population level. (mdpi.com)
  • In a parallel, double-blind study, 55 hypercholesterolemic subjects were randomly assigned after a 4-wk high-fat diet (baseline) to 3 low-fat margarine groups: wood stanol ester-containing margarine (WSEM), vegetable oil stanol ester-containing margarine (VOSEM), and control margarine (no stanol esters). (nih.gov)
  • In this study, patients were placed on plant sterol esters or plant stanol esters both for 10 weeks in a double-blinded, randomized cross-over fashion. (invitehealth.com)
  • It was found that the plant stanol esters reduced LDL-cholesterol by 9% and the plant sterol esters decreased LDL-cholesterol by 12% compared to placebo. (invitehealth.com)
  • This means that we can mention reduction of a risk factor in the development of disease for those using our products that include Plant Stanol Esters. (benecol.com.hk)
  • Each bottle of Benecol yogurt drink contains 2g of plant stanol esters. (benecol.com.hk)
  • The short-term cholesterol-lowering efficacy of plant stanol esters has been open to debate, and the data from different clinical studies with hypercholesterolemic subjects are variable, partly due to lack of systematic studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, we investigated the time in days needed to obtain the full cholesterol-lowering effect of stanol esters in hypercholesterolemic subjects. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The cholesterol-lowering effect of dietary plant stanol ester has been shown to be sustained for periods up to 12 months [ 1 ], but how soon full cholesterol-lowering effect of plant stanol esters can be obtained, is still unclear. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In most previous studies [ 3 - 5 ] the vast proportion of reduction in serum cholesterol has been reported to occur within 2-3 weeks, but the effects of plant stanol esters probably appear sooner than that. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, as far as we know, short-term cholesterol-lowering effects of plant stanol esters have not been studied at several repeated time points within short period of time in a real target group for use of stanol ester-enriched products, i.e. hypercholesterolemic subjects. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, in the present study our aim was to find out the time needed to obtain the full cholesterol-lowering effect of plant stanol esters with a daily dose of 2.0 g stanols in healthy, hypercholesterolemic subjects. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cholesterol esters serve to aid in the absorption of cholesterol so it is properly delivered to the cells. (livestrong.com)
  • Prior to being absorbed, cholesterol is first incorporated into a mixed micelle (the transportation vehicle for cholesterol absorption) in the upper part of the small intestine. (benecol.com.hk)
  • Serum campesterol/total cholesterol ratio, an indirect marker of intestinal cholesterol absorption, was significantly reduced on day 4 already. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Consumption of plant sterol esters reduces plasma LDL cholesterol concentration by inhibiting intestinal cholesterol absorption. (elsevier.com)
  • Cholesterol absorption was lowest in hamsters fed SA (7.5%), whereas it was 72.9% in control hamsters. (elsevier.com)
  • Effects of plant sterol esters in skimmed milk and vegetable-fat-enriched milk on serum lipids and non-cholesterol sterols in hypercholesterolaemic subjects: a randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover study. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We examined the effects of PS-SM (0·1 % dairy fat) and PS-VFM (0·1 % dairy fat plus 1·5 % vegetable fat) on serum lipids and non-cholesterol sterols in hypercholesterolaemic individuals. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cholesteryl esters are made up of two lipids that are attached to each other, cholesterol and a fatty acid. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The body's inability to produce cholesterol from the breakdown of these lipids leads to an increase in alternative methods of cholesterol production and higher-than-normal levels of cholesterol in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Where are we with high-density lipoprotein raising and inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer for heart disease risk reduction? (qxmd.com)
  • The color intensity is proportional to cholesterol concentration. (cdc.gov)
  • Cholesterol is a type of sterol which can be synthesized in the animal hepatic cells with the assistance of the key regulatory enzyme HMG CoA reductase or 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase. (differencebetween.com)
  • Because homozygosity for mutations in LIPA is known to cause cholesterol ester storage disease, we performed directed follow-up phenotyping by noninvasively measuring hepatic cholesterol content. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We observed abnormal hepatic accumulation of cholesterol in the homozygote individuals, supporting the diagnosis of cholesterol ester storage disease. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Of the cholesterol taken in from dietary sources, however, it first arrives in the form of cholesterol esters. (livestrong.com)
  • According to the 'Harvard Family Health Guide,' the average individual achieves a 4 to 13 percent reduction in cholesterol levels through dietary modifications alone. (livestrong.com)
  • Plant stanols, as fatty-acid esters, were developed as a dietary adjunct to reduce LDL-C levels as part of a heart-healthy diet. (mdpi.com)
  • Serum cholesterol ester SFA and PUFA associations were supported by dietary intake data. (nih.gov)
  • To study the effects of ketones on cholesterol homeostasis a novel βHB ester (KE) ((R)-3-hydroxybutyl (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate) was synthesized and given orally to rats and humans as a partial dietary carbohydrate replacement. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Partial replacement of dietary carbohydrate with KE induced ketosis and altered cholesterol homeostasis in rats. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Full-fat sitostanol ester-containing margarine reduces serum total and LDL cholesterol, but the effect of plant stanol ester-containing margarine as part of a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet has not been studied. (nih.gov)
  • It has been estimated that each 1% reduction in LDL cholesterol achieves a 1% reduction in the risk of CAD [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Many national health organisations now recommend that consumers include 2 g of plant stanols per day in their diets for cholesterol reduction. (benecol.com.hk)
  • Our purpose is to review recent research in the area of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol raising and coronary artery disease (CAD) risk reduction. (qxmd.com)
  • It is known that a decreased HDL cholesterol level is an important CAD risk factor and that raising HDL cholesterol has been associated with CAD risk reduction. (qxmd.com)
  • On the other hand, in a specific patient group, in colectomized patients [ 8 ], significant reduction in serum cholesterol was found already after one day of stanol ester use as measured by gas liquid chromatograph (GLC), but a steady state was reached just within one week. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The results obtained suggest that verapamil and nifedipine exert their macrophage-mediated antiatherosclerotic effect via reduction of LDL oxidative modification, reduction of intracellular ChE synthesis, stimulation of ChE hydrolysis and cholesterol excretion from the cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Statins are the only cholesterol-lowering drug class that has been directly associated with a reduction in the risk of heart attack or stroke. (heart.org)
  • Enzyme-catalyzed transfer from lecithin on cholesterol to form cholesterol ester and lysolecithin (LCAT+) 1/ in the arterial wall has been found (1) but not much is known about the reaction in reverse direction. (springer.com)
  • Quantitative analysis of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in human atherosclerotic plaques using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In this paper, we describe a quantitative analytical method for cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in human atherosclerotic plaques, combined with Raman spectroscopic results, using partial least-squares (PLS) regression, a statistical multivariate method based on factorial analysis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of nanosecond pulsed laser at 5.75 μm irradiation of cholesterol ester in atherosclerotic plaques. (spie.org)
  • Furthermore, adding Plant Stanol Ester into your diet can help lower total and LDL cholesterol without affecting HDL, and therefore has the benefit of lowering cholesterol. (benecol.com.hk)
  • In 2004 (6 y.o.) patient was consulted in Germany (Freiburg) where LAL activity in leucocytes was estimated and confirmed cholesterol ester storage disease. (bmj.com)
  • cholesterol ester storage disease' can also refer to. (oup.com)
  • Saito S, Ohno K, Suzuki T, Sakuraba H. Structural bases of Wolman disease and cholesteryl ester storage disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Exome sequencing and directed clinical phenotyping diagnose cholesterol ester storage disease presenting as autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CONCLUSIONS: By integrating observations from Mendelian and population genetics along with directed clinical phenotyping, we diagnosed clinically unapparent cholesterol ester storage disease in the affected individuals from this kindred and addressed an outstanding question about risk of cardiovascular disease in LIPA E8SJM heterozygous carriers. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We also present new estimates on the effect of plant stanol ester consumption on LDL-C levels and the risk of ASCVD events. (mdpi.com)
  • The key difference between cholesterol and cholesteryl esters is the active and the inactive forms. (differencebetween.com)
  • The cholesterol-lowering efficacy of plant stanol ester (STAEST) added to fat- or milk-based products is well documented. (hindawi.com)
  • Therefore, we have investigated the cholesterol-lowering efficacy of STAEST added to a soymilk-based minidrink in the hypercholesterolemic subjects. (hindawi.com)
  • To this end, the aim of this investigation was to evaluate the efficacy of plant stanols (2.7 g/d) consumed once a day as a low-fat STAEST soymilk-based minidrink to lower LDL cholesterol level as well as its safety in a placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel study in individuals with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. (hindawi.com)
  • Plant stanol ester has gone through extensive testing to prove its efficacy and safety. (benecol.com.hk)
  • The conversion of cholesterol to cholesteryl esters is an enzyme-mediated process. (differencebetween.com)
  • In the intestinal lumen, the enzyme acyl-coenzyme A (CoA): cholesterol acyltransferases (ACATs) is used. (differencebetween.com)
  • If family members have or had high cholesterol, you may also have it. (rexhealth.com)
  • High cholesterol levels don't make you feel sick. (rexhealth.com)
  • Eating too much saturated fat and trans fat can cause high cholesterol. (rexhealth.com)
  • For others with high cholesterol, medication may also be needed. (heart.org)
  • So, if we're going to try to understand how we're going to prevent these plaques, and I've told you already, and you know from the media that these plaques have lots of cholesterol in them, and that you all know that high cholesterol is bad, how do we know that high cholesterol is bad? (mit.edu)
  • Maarit Hallikainen, Johan Olsson, and Helena Gylling, "Low-Fat Nondairy Minidrink Containing Plant Stanol Ester Effectively Reduces LDL Cholesterol in Subjects with Mild to Moderate Hypercholesterolemia as Part of a Western Diet," Cholesterol , vol. 2013, Article ID 192325, 8 pages, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • We have demonstrated that macrophage-specific transgenic expression of CEH enhances cholesterol efflux from foam cells and reduces lesions in athero-susceptible LDLR−/− mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • In contrast, HDL Cholesterol is termed as the good cholesterol as it reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases. (differencebetween.com)
  • This reduces the amount of cholesterol circulating in the blood. (heart.org)
  • An autosomal recessive disease, sometimes not detected until adulthood, in which there is widespread deposition of cholesterol esters and triacylglycerols in tissues. (oup.com)
  • This genetic variation was independent of metabolic risk factors known to influence HDL cholesterol levels. (edu.sa)