Cholesterol Esters: Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.EstersCholesterol, Dietary: Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Sterol Esterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC 2.3.1.26.Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins: Proteins that bind to and transfer CHOLESTEROL ESTERS between LIPOPROTEINS such as LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Cholesterol Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of cholesterol in the presence of molecular oxygen to 4-cholesten-3-one and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme is not specific for cholesterol, but will also oxidize other 3-hydroxysteroids. EC 1.1.3.6.TriglyceridesLipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Lipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the gene for acid lipase (STEROL ESTERASE). It is characterized by the accumulation of neutral lipids, particularly CHOLESTEROL ESTERS in leukocytes, fibroblasts, and hepatocytes.Esterification: The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Apolipoprotein A-I: The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.Cholesterol 7-alpha-Hydroxylase: A membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 7-alpha-hydroxylation of CHOLESTEROL in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP7, converts cholesterol to 7-alpha-hydroxycholesterol which is the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Cholesterol, VLDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). High circulating levels of VLDL cholesterol are found in HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE IIB. The cholesterol on the VLDL is eventually delivered by LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS to the tissues after the catabolism of VLDL to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LDL.Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.Phosphatidylcholine-Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC 2.3.1.43.Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Anticholesteremic Agents: Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.Organosilicon Compounds: Organic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.Foam Cells: Lipid-laden macrophages originating from monocytes or from smooth muscle cells.Apolipoproteins: Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Scavenger Receptors, Class B: A family of scavenger receptors that are predominately localized to CAVEOLAE of the PLASMA MEMBRANE and bind HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Hydroxycholesterols: Cholesterol which is substituted by a hydroxy group in any position.Oleic Acids: A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.Lovastatin: A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Receptors, Lipoprotein: Cell surface proteins that bind lipoproteins with high affinity. Lipoprotein receptors in the liver and peripheral tissues mediate the regulation of plasma and cellular cholesterol metabolism and concentration. The receptors generally recognize the apolipoproteins of the lipoprotein complex, and binding is often a trigger for endocytosis.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Oleic Acid: An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1: A superfamily of large integral ATP-binding cassette membrane proteins whose expression pattern is consistent with a role in lipid (cholesterol) efflux. It is implicated in TANGIER DISEASE characterized by accumulation of cholesteryl ester in various tissues.Apolipoproteins E: A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.Triolein: (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Receptors, Scavenger: A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.Apolipoproteins B: Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Diet, Atherogenic: A diet that contributes to the development and acceleration of ATHEROGENESIS.Receptors, LDL: Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Sitosterols: A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of oleoyl-CoA, A, and water from stearoyl-CoA, AH2, and oxygen where AH2 is an unspecified hydrogen donor.beta-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Chylomicrons: A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Apolipoprotein A-II: The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Apolipoproteins A: Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Sphingomyelins: A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Phytosterols: A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.Simvastatin: A derivative of LOVASTATIN and potent competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It may also interfere with steroid hormone production. Due to the induction of hepatic LDL RECEPTORS, it increases breakdown of LDL CHOLESTEROL.Hydroxysteroids: Steroids in which one or more hydroxy groups have been substituted for hydrogen atoms either within the ring skeleton or on any of the side chains.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Xanthomatosis: A condition marked by the development of widespread xanthomas, yellow tumor-like structures filled with lipid deposits. Xanthomas can be found in a variety of tissues including the SKIN; TENDONS; joints of KNEES and ELBOWS. Xanthomatosis is associated with disturbance of LIPID METABOLISM and formation of FOAM CELLS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cyclodextrins: A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Stearic Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)TritiumEsterasesDiet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated: Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.Linoleic Acids: Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.Ethinyl Estradiol: A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cholestyramine Resin: A strongly basic anion exchange resin whose main constituent is polystyrene trimethylbenzylammonium Cl(-) anion.Desmosterol: An intermediate in the synthesis of cholesterol.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Sodium Cholate: A trihydroxy bile salt that is used as a digestive aid in dietary supplements. It is used in culture media and in conjunction with PAPAIN and PANCREATIN.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Acetyl-CoA C-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of ACETYL COA. Some enzymes called thiolase or thiolase-I have referred to this activity or to the activity of ACETYL-COA C-ACYLTRANSFERASE.Mevalonic AcidRabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Filipin: A complex of polyene antibiotics obtained from Streptomyces filipinensis. Filipin III alters membrane function by interfering with membrane sterols, inhibits mitochondrial respiration, and is proposed as an antifungal agent. Filipins I, II, and IV are less important.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Palmitic Acids: A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.Mesocricetus: A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.Fish Oils: Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Glycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.Dietary Fats, Unsaturated: Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Membrane Microdomains: Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.Cholestanol: A cholesterol derivative found in human feces, gallstones, eggs, and other biological matter.Fatty Acids, Essential: Long chain organic acid molecules that must be obtained from the diet. Examples are LINOLEIC ACIDS and LINOLENIC ACIDS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cholelithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.AzetidinesRisk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Lanosterol: A triterpene that derives from the chair-boat-chair-boat folding of 2,3-oxidosqualene. It is metabolized to CHOLESTEROL and CUCURBITACINS.NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester: A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.Lipoprotein Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.Androstenes: Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Linseed Oil: The fixed oil obtained from the dried ripe seed of linseed, Linum usitatissimum (L. Linaceae). It is used as an emollient in liniments, pastes, and medicinal soaps, and in veterinary medicine as a laxative. It is also called flaxseed oil. (Dorland, 28th ed)Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Hypolipidemic Agents: Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Radioisotope Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Lipid Mobilization: LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.Dehydrocholesterols: Cholesterol derivatives having an additional double bond in any position. 24-Dehydrocholesterol is DESMOSTEROL. The other most prevalent dehydrocholesterol is the 7-isomer. This compound is a precursor of cholesterol and of vitamin D3.Orphan Nuclear Receptors: A broad category of receptor-like proteins that may play a role in transcriptional-regulation in the CELL NUCLEUS. Many of these proteins are similar in structure to known NUCLEAR RECEPTORS but appear to lack a functional ligand-binding domain, while in other cases the specific ligands have yet to be identified.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Embolism, Cholesterol: Blocking of a blood vessel by CHOLESTEROL-rich atheromatous deposits, generally occurring in the flow from a large artery to small arterial branches. It is also called arterial-arterial embolization or atheroembolism which may be spontaneous or iatrogenic. Patients with spontaneous atheroembolism often have painful, cyanotic digits of acute onset.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Mice, Inbred C57BLMicroscopy, Polarization: Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.Apolipoprotein B-100: A 513-kDa protein synthesized in the LIVER. It serves as the major structural protein of low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). It is the ligand for the LDL receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL) that promotes cellular binding and internalization of LDL particles.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Serine Proteases: Peptide hydrolases that contain at the active site a SERINE residue involved in catalysis.Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Niemann-Pick Diseases: A group of autosomal recessive disorders in which harmful quantities of lipids accumulate in the viscera and the central nervous system. They can be caused by deficiencies of enzyme activities (SPHINGOMYELIN PHOSPHODIESTERASE) or defects in intracellular transport, resulting in the accumulation of SPHINGOMYELINS and CHOLESTEROL. There are various subtypes based on their clinical and genetic differences.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Aminoglutethimide: An aromatase inhibitor that is used in the treatment of advanced BREAST CANCER.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase: An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Cholestanes: Derivatives of the saturated steroid cholestane with methyl groups at C-18 and C-19 and an iso-octyl side chain at C-17.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 2: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates GENES involved in CHOLESTEROL synthesis and uptake.Palmitic Acid: A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.SqualeneLipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Phosphatidylethanolamines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.StigmasterolMembrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Gallbladder: A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II: A group of familial disorders characterized by elevated circulating cholesterol contained in either LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS alone or also in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (pre-beta lipoproteins).Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Linoleic Acid: A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Dyslipidemias: Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder of CHOLESTEROL metabolism. It is caused by a deficiency of 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, the enzyme that converts 7-dehydrocholesterol to cholesterol, leading to an abnormally low plasma cholesterol. This syndrome is characterized by multiple CONGENITAL ABNORMALITIES, growth deficiency, and INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Calorimetry: The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pravastatin: An antilipemic fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Nocardia autotrophica. It acts as a competitive inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES).Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Ketocholesterols: Cholesterol substituted in any position by a keto moiety. The 7-keto isomer inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity and inhibits cholesterol uptake in the coronary arteries and aorta in vitro.Heptanoic Acids: 7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Lipoproteins, HDL3: Intermediate-density subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes between 7 to 8 nm. As the larger lighter HDL2 lipoprotein, HDL3 lipoprotein is lipid-rich.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Bucladesine: A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Tangier Disease: An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS involved in cellular cholesterol removal (reverse-cholesterol transport). It is characterized by near absence of ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins) in blood. The massive tissue deposition of cholesterol esters results in HEPATOMEGALY; SPLENOMEGALY; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; large orange tonsils; and often sensory POLYNEUROPATHY. The disorder was first found among inhabitants of Tangier Island in the Chesapeake Bay, MD.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.

Regulation of the activities of thrombin and plasmin by cholesterol sulfate as a physiological inhibitor in human plasma. (1/2062)

Thrombin and plasmin, both of which are serine proteases in the plasma of vertebrates, play essential roles in blood clotting and fibrinolysis, respectively, and regulation of their activities is important to suppress the excessive reactions within the vascular network and to prevent tissue injury. Along with the peptidic inhibitors belonging to the serpin family, we found that cholesterol sulfate (CS), which is present at the concentration of 2.0+/-1.2 nmol/ml in human plasma, was a potent inhibitor of both plasma thrombin and plasmin. Thrombin, as determined both using a chromogenic substrate and the natural substrate, fibrinogen, was inactivated upon reaction with CS in a dose-dependent manner, but not in the presence of the structurally related steroid sulfates, I3SO3-GalCer and II3NAalpha-LacCer, suggesting that both the sulfate group and the hydrophobic side chain of CS are necessary for the inhibitory activity of CS. Preincubation of thrombin with CS at 37 degrees C for 10 min was required to achieve maximum inhibition, and virtually complete inhibition was achieved at a molar ratio of CS to thrombin of 18:1. CS-treated thrombin had the same Km and a lower Vmax than the original enzyme, and a higher molecular weight. The molecular weight and activity of the original enzyme were not observed on the attempted separation of the CS-treated enzyme by gel permeation chromatography and native PAGE, indicating that the inactivation of thrombin by CS is irreversible. In contrast, CS was readily liberated from the enzyme by SDS-PAGE, suggesting that hydrophobic interactions are involved in the CS-mediated inactivation of thrombin. When acidic lipids were reacted with thrombin after dissolving them in DMSO, I3SO3-GalCer, steroid sulfates and II3NAalpha-LacCer, as well as CS, but not SDS and sodium taurocholate, exhibited inhibitory activity, probably due to micellar formation facilitating interaction between thrombin and negatively charged lipids. On the other hand, plasmin, as determined using a chromogenic substrate, was more susceptible to acidic lipids than thrombin. CS, I3SO3-GalCer and II3NAalpha-LacCer, all of which are present in serum, inhibited the activity of plasmin in aqueous media, as well as in DMSO-mediated lipid solutions. Thus, acidic lipids in plasma were demonstrated to possess regulatory activity as endogenous detergents toward both enzymes for blood clotting and fibrinolysis.  (+info)

Paradoxical effect on atherosclerosis of hormone-sensitive lipase overexpression in macrophages. (2/2062)

Foam cells formed from receptor-mediated uptake of lipoprotein cholesterol by macrophages in the arterial intima are critical in the initiation, progression, and stability of atherosclerotic lesions. Macrophages accumulate cholesterol when conditions favor esterification by acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) over cholesteryl-ester hydrolysis by a neutral cholesteryl-ester hydrolase, such as hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), and subsequent cholesterol efflux mediated by extracellular acceptors. We recently made stable transfectants of a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, that overexpressed a rat HSL cDNA and had a 5-fold higher rate of cholesteryl-ester hydrolysis than control cells. The current study examined the effect of macrophage-specific HSL overexpression on susceptibility to diet-induced atherosclerosis in mice. A transgenic line overexpressing the rat HSL cDNA regulated with a macrophage-specific scavenger receptor promoter-enhancer was established by breeding with C57BL/6J mice. Transgenic peritoneal macrophages exhibited macrophage-specific 7-fold overexpression of HSL cholesterol esterase activity. Total plasma cholesterol levels in transgenic mice fed a chow diet were modestly elevated 16% compared to control littermates. After 14 weeks on a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet, total cholesterol increased 3-fold, with no difference between transgenics and controls. However, HSL overexpression resulted in thicker aortic fatty lesions that were 2.5-times larger in transgenic mice. HSL expression in the aortic lesions was shown by immunocytochemistry. Atherosclerosis was more advanced in transgenic mice exhibiting raised lesions involving the aortic wall, along with lipid accumulation in coronary arteries occurring only in transgenics. Thus, increasing cholesteryl-ester hydrolysis, without concomitantly decreasing ACAT activity or increasing cholesterol efflux, is not sufficient to protect against atherosclerosis. hormone-sensitive lipase overexpression in macrophages.  (+info)

Cholesteryl ester hydrolysis in J774 macrophages occurs in the cytoplasm and lysosomes. (3/2062)

The relationship of cholesteryl ester hydrolysis to the physical state of the cholesteryl ester in J774 murine macrophages was explored in cells induced to store cholesteryl esters either in anisotropic (ordered) inclusions or isotropic (liquid) inclusions. In contrast to other cell systems, the rate of cholesteryl ester hydrolysis was faster in cells containing anisotropic inclusions than in cells containing isotropic inclusions. Two contributing factors were identified. Kinetic analyses of the rates of hydrolysis are consistent with a substrate competition by co-deposited triglyceride in cells with isotropic inclusions. In addition, hydrolysis of cholesteryl esters in cells with anisotropic droplets is mediated by both cytoplasmic and lysosomal lipolytic enzymes, as shown by using the lysosomotropic agent, chloroquine, and an inhibitor of neutral cholesteryl ester hydrolase, umbelliferyl diethylphosphate. In cells containing anisotropic inclusions, hydrolysis was partially inhibited by incubation in media containing either chloroquine or umbelliferyl diethylphosphate. Together, chloroquine and umbelliferyl diethylphosphate completely inhibited hydrolysis. However, when cells containing isotropic inclusions were incubated with umbelliferyl diethylphosphate, cholesteryl ester hydrolysis was completely inhibited, but chloroquine had no effect. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated a primarily lysosomal location for lipid droplets in cells with anisotropic droplets and both non-lysosomal and lysosomal populations of lipid droplets in cells with isotropic droplets. These results support the conclusion that there is a lysosomal component to the hydrolysis of stored cholesteryl esters in foam cells.  (+info)

Cerebral atherosclerosis in Japanese. Part 4: relationship between lipid content and macroscopic severity of atherosclerosis. (4/2062)

In order to evaluate chemically the macroscopic scoring methods for severity of arteriosclerosis in the cerebral arteries, concentrations of total lipids, esterified and free cholesterol and lipid phosphorus were compared to the macroscopic severity of lesions in the cerebral arteries obtained from 376 Japanese persons after unexpected death. An increase of cholesterol content was correlated significantly with an increase of Baker's score and/or Gore's atherosclerotic index. The correlation coefficient between Baker's score and total or esterified cholesterol was the highest among the tested correlations (r = 0.82, n = 376).  (+info)

Cerebral atherosclerosis in Japanese. Part 5: relationship between cholesterol deposition and glycosaminoglycans. (5/2062)

Concentrations of various lipids and glycosaminoglycans (GAG) in the intima of the grossly normal and atherosclerotic cerebral arteries were compared with those of the aorta and coronary arteries. The lowest percentage of esterified cholesterol (EC) in total cholesterol, and of chondroitin sulfate-4/6 (CS-4/6) in total glycosaminoglycans and the highest percentage of heparin sulfate (HS) in total GAG are the characteristic features of the normal intima of normal cerebral arteries when compared with those in the aorta and coronary artery. In the cerebral arterial intimas, but not in the aorta or coronary arteries, there was a significant positive correlation between contents of EC and percentage and total content of CS-4/6. Atherogenesis in cerebral arteries is discussed in comparison to that of the aorta and coronary vessels.  (+info)

Lipid transfer inhibitor protein defines the participation of lipoproteins in lipid transfer reactions: CETP has no preference for cholesteryl esters in HDL versus LDL. (6/2062)

Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) catalyzes the net transfer of cholesteryl ester (CE) between lipoproteins in exchange for triglyceride (heteroexchange). It is generally held that CETP primarily associates with HDL and preferentially transfers lipids from this lipoprotein fraction. This is illustrated in normal plasma where HDL is the primary donor of the CE transferred to VLDL by CETP. However, in plasma deficient in lipid transfer inhibitor protein (LTIP) activity, HDL and LDL are equivalent donors of CE to VLDL (Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1997;17:1716-1724). Thus, we have hypothesized that the preferential transfer of CE from HDL in normal plasma is a consequence of LTIP activity and not caused by a preferential CETP-HDL interaction. We have tested this hypothesis in lipid mass transfer assays with partially purified CETP and LTIP, and isolated lipoproteins. With a physiological mixture of lipoproteins, the preference ratio (PR, ratio of CE mass transferred from a lipoprotein to VLDL versus its CE content) for HDL and LDL in the presence of CETP alone was approximately 1 (ie, no preference). Fourfold variations in the LDL/HDL ratio or in the levels of HDL in the assay did not result in significant preferential transfer from any lipoprotein. On addition of LTIP, the PR for HDL was increased up to 2-fold and that for LDL decreased in a concentration-dependent manner. Under all conditions where LDL and HDL levels were varied, LTIP consistently resulted in a PR >1 for CE transfer from HDL. Short-term experiments with radiolabeled lipoproteins and either partially purified or homogenous CETP confirmed these observations and further demonstrated that CETP has a strong predilection to mediate homoexchange (bidirectional transfer of the same lipid) rather than heteroexchange (CE for TG); LTIP had no effect on the selection of CE or TG by CETP or its mechanism of action. We conclude, in contrast to current opinion, that CETP has no preference for CE in HDL versus LDL, suggesting that the previously reported stable binding of CETP to HDL does not result in selective transfer from this lipoprotein. These data suggest that LTIP is responsible for the preferential transfer of CE from HDL that occurs in plasma. CETP and LTIP cooperatively determine the extent of CETP-mediated remodeling of individual lipoprotein fractions.  (+info)

Role of cholesterol ester mass in regulation of secretion of ApoB100 lipoprotein particles by hamster hepatocytes and effects of statins on that relationship. (7/2062)

Our understanding of the factors that regulate the secretion of apoB100 lipoproteins remains incomplete with considerable debate as to the role, if any, for cholesterol ester in this process. This study examines this issue in primary cultures of hamster hepatocytes, a species in which both cholesterol and apoB100 metabolism are very similar to man. Addition of oleate to medium increased the mass of triglyceride and cholesterol ester within the hepatocyte and also increased the secretion of triglycerides, cholesterol ester, and apoB100 into the medium. Next, the responses of hamster hepatocytes to addition of either an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (lovastatin) or an acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor (58-035) to the medium, with or without added oleate, were determined. Effects of either agent were only evident in the oleate-supplemented medium in which cholesterol ester mass had been increased above basal. If oleate was not added to the medium, neither agent reduced apoB100 secretion; equally important, over the 24-hour incubation, neither agent, at the concentration used, produced any detectable change in intracellular cholesterol ester mass. However, in contrast to the estimates of mass, which were unchanged, under the same conditions radioisotopic estimates of cholesterol ester synthesis were markedly reduced. Any conclusion as to the relation of cholesterol ester mass to apoB100 secretion would therefore depend on which of the 2 methods was used. Overall, the data indicate a close correlation between the mass of cholesterol ester within the hepatocyte and apoB100 secretion from it and they go far to explain previous apparently contradictory data as to this relation. More importantly, though, taken with other available data, they indicate that the primary response of the liver to increased delivery of lipid is increased secretion rather than decreased uptake. These results point, therefore, to a hierarchy of hepatic responses to increased flux of fatty acids and increased synthesis of cholesterol that in turn suggests a more dynamic model of cholesterol homeostasis in the liver than has been appreciated in the past.  (+info)

Cholesteryl ester hydroperoxide lability is a key feature of the oxidative susceptibility of small, dense LDL. (8/2062)

Abundant evidence has been provided to substantiate the elevated cardiovascular risk associated with small, dense, low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles. The diminished resistance of dense LDL to oxidative stress in both normolipidemic and dyslipidemic subjects is established; nonetheless, the molecular basis of this phenomenon remains indeterminate. We have defined the primary molecular targets of lipid hydroperoxide formation in light, intermediate, and dense subclasses of LDL after copper-mediated oxidation and have compared the relative stabilities of the hydroperoxide derivatives of phospholipids and cholesteryl esters (CEs) as a function of the time course of oxidation. LDL subclasses (LDL1 through LDL5) were isolated from normolipidemic plasma by isopycnic density gradient ultracentrifugation, and their content of polyunsaturated molecular species of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and CE and of lipophilic antioxidants was quantified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The molar ratio of the particle content of polyunsaturated CE and PC species containing linoleate or arachidonate relative to alpha-tocopherol or beta-carotene did not differ significantly between LDL subspecies. Nonetheless, dense LDL contained significantly less polyunsaturated CE species (400 mol per particle) compared with LDL1 through LDL4 (range, approximately 680 to 490 mol per particle). Although the formation of PC-derived hydroperoxides did not vary significantly between LDL subspecies as a function of the time course of copper-mediated oxidation, the abundance of the C18:2 and C20:4 CE hydroperoxides was uniquely deficient in dense LDL (23 and 0.6 mol per particle, respectively, in LDL5; 47 to 58 and 1.9 to 2.3 mol per particle, respectively, in other LDL subclasses) at propagation half-time. When expressed as a lability ratio (mol hydroperoxides formed relative to each 100 mol of substrate consumed) at half-time, the oxidative lability of CE hydroperoxides in dense LDL was significantly elevated (lability ratio <25:100) relative to that in lighter, larger LDL particle subclasses (lability ratio >40:100) throughout the oxidative time course. We conclude that the elevated lability of CE hydroperoxides in dense LDL underlies the diminished oxidative resistance of these particles. Moreover, this phenomenon appears to result not only from the significantly elevated PC to free cholesterol ratio (1.54:1) in dense LDL particles (1.15:1 to 1.25:1 for other LDL subclasses) but also from their unique structural features, including a distinct apoB100 conformation, which may facilitate covalent bond formation between oxidized CE and apoB100.  (+info)

Abdominal obesity is a key contributor of metabolic disease. Recent trials suggest that dietary fat quality affects abdominal fat content, where palmitic acid and linoleic acid influence abdominal obesity differently, while effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are less studied. Also, fatty acid desaturation may be altered in abdominal obesity. We aimed to investigate cross-sectional associations of serum fatty acids and desaturases with abdominal obesity prevalence in a population-based cohort study. Serum cholesteryl ester fatty acids composition was measured by gas chromatography in 60-year old men (n = 1883) and women (n = 2015). Cross-sectional associations of fatty acids with abdominal obesity prevalence and anthropometric measures (e.g., sagittal abdominal diameter) were evaluated in multivariable-adjusted logistic and linear regression models, respectively. Similar models were employed to investigate relations between desaturase activities (estimated by fatty acid ratios) and ...
Current drugs shortage notification for Amphotericin B Cholesteryl Sulfate Complex Injection including reason for shortage, estimated resupply dates, and alternative drug therapy if available.
Calcium channel blockers (CCBs), which are used clinically for treatment of angina and hypertension, are known to inhibit calcium influx into arterial smooth muscle cells and thereby decrease smooth muscle cell contraction. In addition, they prevent cholesteryl ester (CE) accumulation, the hallmark of human atherosclerosis, in arteries of cholesterol-fed animals by cellular mechanisms that remain undefined. To assess whether CCBs enhance CE hydrolysis and reduce CE accumulation in human arterial cells, we measured activities of the CE metabolic cycle in aortic tissues that were stripped of endothelial cells and adventitia from 35 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. Patients who were treated with either nifedipine or diltiazem (n = 23) for several months demonstrated a threefold increase in arterial CE hydrolytic activities compared with untreated patients. This difference was independent of serum cholesterol levels, age, or treatment with other medications. No effects were ...
ConclusionThe plasma cholesteryl ester fraction after a diet high in dairy was characterized by higher 15:0 levels. Concentrations of 14:0 were only higher when comparing the FA profile after a diet high in dairy when compared to a diet high in meat.Clinical trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01314040....
TY - JOUR. T1 - Relationship between cholesteryl ester transfer activity and high density lipoprotein composition in hyperlipidemic patients. AU - Sparks, D. L.. AU - Frohlich, J.. AU - Lacko, A. G.. AU - Pritchard, P. H.. PY - 1989/6. Y1 - 1989/6. N2 - Cholesteryl ester transfer from solid-phase bound HDL to endogenous plasma HDL or VLDL/LDL was determined in 50 patients with primary disorders of lipid metabolism and 27 normolipidemic subjects. Transfer to the plasma HDL pool was significantly reduced in familial hypercholesterolemia, familial combined hyperlipidemia, hypoalphalipoproteinemia and dysbetalipoproteinemia. Subfractionation of HDL revealed that the lipid transfer to HDL3 was significantly reduced in all patient groups while transfer to HDL2 was increased in those with dysbetalipoproteinemia and familial hypertriglyceridemia. Transfer to LDL and VLDL was increased only in patients with dysbetalipoproteinemia and hypoalphalipoproteinemia. Reduced transfer to HDL occurred in samples ...
The relations of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity to the distribution of low density lipoproteins (LDLs) and high density lipoproteins (HDLs) were investigated in fasting plasma samples from 27 normolipidemic subjects. LDL and HDL subfractions were separated by electrophoresis on 20-160 g/L and 40-300 g/L polyacrylamide gradient gels, respectively. Subjects were subdivided into two groups according to their LDL pattern. Monodisperse patterns were characterized by the presence of a single LDL band, whereas polydisperse patterns were characterized by the presence of several LDL bands of different sizes. To investigate the influence of lipid transfers on LDL patterns, total plasma was incubated at 37 degrees C in the absence of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity. The incubation induced a progressive transformation of polydisperse patterns into monodisperse patterns. Under the same conditions, initially monodisperse patterns remained unchanged. Measurements of the ...
Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), the transfer of cholesterol from peripheral tissues, including the subendothelial space of the arterial wall, to the liver for disposal, is a current model of HDL atheroprotection. The final RCT step, selective hepatic HDL-cholesteryl ester (CE) uptake, is mediated by scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). The net receptor reaction of SR-BI vs. HDL is distinct from that of LDL vs. the LDL receptor. LDL holo particle uptake is succeeded by steps that breakdown apo B-100 and hydrolyze and recycle the CE. In contrast, HDL-CE uptake is selective, occurring without a concomitant net uptake of the major HDL protein, apo A-I and even though apo E and apo A-I bind equally well to SR-BI, apoA-I-containing particles mediate 2-fold more selective CE uptake. The reaction of HDL with SR-BI is similar to the activity of a streptococcal serum opacity factor (SOF) against HDL_both reactions selectively remove CE from HDL leaving remnants. In addition, SOF catalyzes the ...
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) regulates high density lipoproteins (HDL)-cholesterol levels and interaction between glucose and HDL metabolism is cen...
An absence of cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP, protein; CETP, gene) results in an increase of the apolipoprotein AI levels and a decrease in the low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. Thus, the CETP polymorphism is important in the assessment of risk of atherosclerosis. This study was conducted to elucidate the genotype distributions of the CETP polymorphism and association with plasma lipid levels in Koreans. The genotypes of the TaqI A and B polymorphic loci were associated with plasma triglyceride levels in the control and coronary artery disease (CAD) groups. There was linkage disequilibrium between TaqI A and B loci in the control group (χ2 = 5.58, p | 0.05). Association studies of the CETP polymorphism have been carried out mainly with Caucasian populations; however, the results have not been consistent among different populations. A possible explanation for this diversity among populations may be differences in genetic backgrounds, which may be more important than environmental factors.
We examined whether postprandial (PP) chylomicrons (CMs) can serve as vehicles for transporting cholesterol from endogenous cholesterol-rich lipoprotein (LDL+HDL) fractions and cell membranes to the liver via lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activities. During incubation of fresh fasting and PP plasma containing [(3)H]cholesteryl ester (CE)-labeled LDL+HDL, both CMs and VLDL served as acceptors of [(3)H]CE or cholesterol from LDL+HDL. The presence of CMs in PP plasma suppressed the ability of VLDL to accept [(3)H]CE from LDL+HDL. In reconstituted plasma containing an equivalent amount of triglycerides from isolated VLDL or CMs, a CM particle was about 40 times more potent than a VLDL particle in accepting [(3)H]CE or cholesterol from LDL+HDLs. When incubated with red blood cells (RBCs) as a source for cell membrane cholesterol, the cholesterol content of CMs, VLDL, LDL, and HDL in PP plasma increased by 485%, 74%, 13%, and 30%, ...
Because of the interest in the relationship between cholesteryl ester (CE) accumulation and atherosclerosis, we have attempted to select an easily grown tissue culture cell which accumulates CE when...
Abstract: : Purpose: To determine if EC in normal, aged BrM derives from directly infused plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) or from local cells with acyl co-A cholesterol acyl transferase (ACAT)-1 or -2. EC in LDL and EC in cells with ACAT is enriched in cholesteryl linoleate (Ch-18:2) and cholesteryl oleate (Ch-18:1), respectively. Methods: Ch-18:1 and Ch-18:2 were assayed by mass spectrometry in macular BrM, cornea, and sclera (10 donor eyes, greater than 60 yr), cholesterol-enriched human monocyte-macrophages, and LDL. Ch-16:0 (palmitate), Ch-18:0 (stearate), Ch-18:1, Ch-18:2, Ch-20:4 (arachidonate) and the corresponding free fatty acids (FFA) were assayed in macular BrM and RPE (n=6). Lipids were extracted with chloroform and methanol and separated by reversed phase HPLC using an isopropanol gradient in 10 mM ammonium acetate. Ion mass spectra (positive for ammonium ion adducts of cholesteryl esters and negative for FFA) were compared to standards. Protein extracts from human retinal ...
BioAssay record AID 224020 submitted by ChEMBL: Evaluated for the reduction of cholesterol ester level in thoracic aorta of NZW rabbits with 0.25% cholesterol in diet.
Acetylated low-density lipoprotein (acetyl-LDL), biologically labelled in the cholesterol moiety of cholesteryl oleate, was injected into control and oestrogen-treated rats. The serum clearance, the distribution among the various lipoproteins, the hepatic localization and the biliary secretion of the [3H]cholesterol moiety were determined at various times after injection. In order to monitor the intrahepatic metabolism of the cholesterol esters of acetyl-LDL in vivo, the liver was subdivided into parenchymal, endothelial and Kupffer cells by a low-temperature cell-isolation procedure. In both control and oestrogen-treated rats, acetyl-LDL is rapidly cleared from the circulation, mainly by the liver endothelial cells. Subsequently, the cholesterol esters are hydrolysed, and within 1 h after injection, about 60% of the cell- associated cholesterol is released. The [3H]cholesterol is mainly recovered in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) range of the serum of control rats, while low levels of ...
The notion that CETP may be a potential target for reducing CVD originated from reports of a Japanese population of apparently healthy individuals that lacked a functional copy of the CETP gene (34,35). Compared with unaffected individuals, those who were CETP-deficient and who had no measurable CETP activity in plasma exhibited substantial increases in HDL-C (209%) and large decreases in LDL-C (44%). In individuals with heterozygous deficiency who possessed half the normal CETP activity, changes in HDL-C and LDL-C were less dramatic (+25% and −5%, respectively).. While CETP gene mutations are common in Japanese populations (49) and have clearly helped to establish the link between reduced CETP function and elevated HDL-C levels, the effect of decreased CETP activity on the development of atherosclerosis is less clear. For example, in a study of 201 patients with markedly elevated HDL-C levels (≥100 mg/dl), a subgroup of 12 patients (6%) was identified with atherosclerotic CVD. Of these, 10 ...
Herein are described two antibodies that can inhibit CETP-lipoproteins interaction and CETP activity. Presently described are an antibody or fragment thereof capable of specifically binding to an epitope of the N-terminal or C-terminal domains of CETP and methods of using these antibodies for separation, identification, diagnosis and therapy.
The present study shows for the first time that image-guided 1H-MRS of carotid atherosclerotic plaques is feasible in vivo in humans. We successfully quantified the allylic methylene (2.0 ppm) to methylene (1.2 ppm) ratio, which reflects the ratio of the fatty acid composition of plaque cholesteryl ester to that of perivascular tissue triglyceride. Furthermore, the allylic methylene (2.0 ppm) to methylene (1.2 ppm) ratio was shown to have good reproducibility. 1H-MRS of plaques still has a limited spatial resolution and is technically challenging, illustrated by the fact only 49% of the obtained 1H-MRS spectra was of adequate quality for analysis. The present data imply that in vivo in humans, 1H-MRS of carotid artery plaques offers a promising and valuable tool that can specifically identify liquid cholesteryl ester through its specific proton resonances.. The type of lipids and their physical properties in atherosclerotic lesions have been well investigated over the past decades (1). ...
BioAssay record AID 691533 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of CETP in human plasma using [3H]cholesterol ester/HDL as substrate after 10 mins by scintillation counting.
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) mediates the transfer of neutral lipids, including cholesteryl esters (CEs) and triglycerides (TGs), between high-dens...
We identified an aberrant accumulation of cholesteryl ester in human pancreatic cancer specimens and cell lines," Li said. "Depletion of cholesterol esterification significantly reduced pancreatic tumor growth and metastasis in mice.". Findings show that drugs like avasimibe, previously developed for treatment of atherosclerosis, reduced the accumulation of cholesteryl ester. The disease usually kills within a few months of diagnosis. It is hoped the potential new treatment might extend life of pancreatic cancer patients for a year, Cheng said.. The accumulation of cholesteryl ester is controlled by an enzyme called ACAT-1, and findings correlated a higher expression of the enzyme with a poor survival rate for patients. The researchers analyzed tissue samples from pancreatic cancer patients and then tested the drug treatment in a type of laboratory mice referred to as an orthotopic mouse model, developed at the IU School of Medicine. Specimens of human pancreatic tissues were obtained from the ...
Inhibiting the enzyme that converts A into B results in less of B but more of A. This also applies to something called Cholesterol Ester Transport Protein (CETP) that transports esterified cholesterol (acid + alcohol = ester + water & cholesterol is technically an alcohol) from the tiny HDL discs to the much larger LDL & relatively huge VLDL particles. To see what HDL, LDL, VLDL & chylomicrons look like, see Large LDL and small HDL particles: The best combination ...
Complete information for NCEH1 gene (Protein Coding), Neutral Cholesterol Ester Hydrolase 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Arteries, Atheroma, Atherosclerosis, Cholesterol, Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein, Concentration, Coronary Arteries, Hdl Cholesterol, Humans, Inhibition, Ldl Cholesterol, Lipoprotein, Mortality, Plasma, Rabbits, Risk, Transfer, Treatment, Coronary Heart Disease, Disease
Objective: Recent data suggests that cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity may interact with acute stress conditions via inflammatory-oxidative response and thrombogenesis. We investigated this assumption in patients with ST-elevation my
Major depression was associated with: increased MUFA and C22:5omega3 proportions and increased C20:4omega6/C20:5omega3 and C22:5omega6/C22:6omega3 ratios; lower C22:4omega6, C20:5omega3 and C22:5omega3 fractions in phospholipids; lower C18:3omega3, C20:5omega3 and total (sigma)omega3 FAs, and higher C20:4omega6/C20:5omega3 and sigmaomega6/sigmaomega3 ratios in cholesteryl esters; lower serum concentrations of phospholipids and cholesteryl esters; and a decreased OPI ...
Ester definition, definition of the word ester, words that start with ester, words that can be found within ester and anagram of ester
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The mechanism of the regulation of cholesterol ester transfer protein by dietary fats and cholesterol was investigated using human cholesterol ester transfer protein transgenic mice fed monounsaturated fatty acid and saturated fatty acid enriched diets with or without cholesterol. Cholesterol inhibited protein activity and hepatic mRNA abundance in the monounsaturated fatty acid diet. However, cholesterol enhanced protein activity but had no effect on hepatic mRNA abundance in the saturated fatty acid diet. The molecular mechanisms of dietary lipid mediated regulation of the promoter activity of this gene were investigated using chimeric gene constructs harbouring sequential deletions of the gene promoter in SW 872 cell culture. Oleic acid and stearic acid had opposite effects indicating that the type of dietary fat alters gene regulation. There was interaction between cholesterol and fatty acids to regulate cholesterol ester transfer protein.. ...
The aim of this study was to compare patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) to healthy objects, in order to explore a possible association between CAD and the variants in the gene encoding cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP), apolipoprotein E (Apo E) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL). The relationship between CETP MspI, apo E and LPL PvuII gene polymorphisms and serum lipids were investigated in 173 patients with CAD and 111 healthy controls. The frequency of Apo ε4 (p , 0.05) and CETP M1 (p , 0.01) alleles were higher in the CAD group than in the control group. In the CAD group, those with the Msp M1 allele had higher levels of total cholesterol (TC) (p = 0026) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) than those with the Msp M2 allele. Subjects with an ε2 allele had the lowest levels of TC and LDL-C, while subjects with the ε4 allele had the highest. In the control group, CETP, the Msp M2 allele was associated with a higher level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ...
Cholesteryl ester, a dietary lipid, is an ester of cholesterol. The ester bond is formed between the carboxylate group of a fatty acid and the hydroxyl group of cholesterol. Cholesteryl esters have a lower solubility in water due to their increased hydrophobicity. Esters are formed by replacing at least one -OH (hydroxyl) group with an -O-alkyl (alkoxy) group. They are hydrolyzed by pancreatic enzymes, cholesterol esterase, to produce cholesterol and free fatty acids. They are associated with atherosclerosis. Cholesterylester transfer protein Cholesteryl ester storage disease Acyl CoA Cholesteryl Acyl Transferase (ACAT) Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) Ferrier, Richard A. Harvey, Denise R. (2011). Lippincotts illustrated reviews, biochemistry (5th ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health. p. 175. ISBN 9781608314126. Cholesterol Esters at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH ...
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is a plasma glycoprotein that promotes reverse cholesterol transport via the exchange of cholesteryl ester (CE) and triglyceride (TG) among lipoproteins. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) promotes reverse cholesterol transport via exchange of cholesteryl ester and triglyceride among lipoproteins. CETP has a central role in lipoprotein metabolism.. CETP, a hydrophobic plasma glycoprotein, is a promising target for raising circulating HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations in humans. CETP is secreted primarily from the liver and plays a critical role in HDL metabolism by facilitating the exchange of cholesteryl esters (CE) from HDL for triglycerides (TG) in apoB-containing lipoproteins, such as LDL and VLDL.. CETP catalyses the exchange of cholesteryl ester and triglyceride between HDL and apoB containing lipoprotein particles. The role of CETP in modulating plasma HDL cholesterol levels in humans is well established and there have been significant ...
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is a major determinant of plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) in humans. The anti-atherogenic effect of lowering CETP levels is dependent not only on HDL-C levels but also on a metabolic background of increased low-density lipoprotein or very-low-density lipoprotein. Here we investigated the effects of JTT-705, a chemical inhibitor of CETP, on the development of atherosclerosis in Japanese white rabbits fed on a high cholesterol diet. After 4 weeks on a diet of 0.25% cholesterol-containing chow, 100mg/kg (low dose) or 300mg/kg (high dose) JTT-705 was given, and the animals were monitored at weeks 0, 4, 8 and 12. Aortic atherosclerotic lesions were determined at the end of this period. JTT-705 induced a significant increase in HDL-C in the high-dose group [from 21±3 to 50±7mg/dl (mean±S.E.M.); P,0.0001] compared with the control group (from 21±2 to 27±2mg/dl). The atheromatous area was 60±9% in the high-dose group and ...
The study described in this paper shows that 125I-labelled low-density lipoproteins (LDL) interact with high- and low-affinity binding sites on human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. The former site is the LDL receptor and the latter is the lipoprotein-binding site (LBS). The association of 125I-labelled LDL and [3H]cholesteryl ethers-LDL with HepG2 cells revealed a 4-fold selective uptake of cholesteryl esters (CE) in a 4 h incubation period, which correlated with the depletion of CE mass in LDL. This selective uptake was not observed when the cells were incubated in the presence of a 100-fold excess of high-density lipoprotein 3, conditions where only the LDL receptor is being monitored. Also, no reduction in uptake was observed in the presence of IgG-C7, an anti-(LDL receptor) monoclonal antibody. Both findings indicate that the selective uptake occurs through the LBS and that the LBS contributes more to the entry of CE from LDL into the cell than does the LDL receptor. The fates of CE entering the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of cholesterol metabolism in fetal rabbit aorta. T2 - Role of amniotic fluid factors. AU - Rymaszewski, Z.. AU - Yunker, R. L.. AU - Ashraf, Muhammad. AU - Park, M.. AU - Subbiah, M. T.R.. PY - 1988/1/1. Y1 - 1988/1/1. N2 - This study shows that amniotic fluid enhances cholesterol esterification in arterial wall, as measured by in vitro assay of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity and by incorporation of oleic acid to cholesteryl esters in cultured fetal aortas and smooth muscle cells. This property is mostly evident in the fraction of molecular weight ,100,000 and it is abolished by delipidation, indicating that stimulating factor is probably lipoprotein in nature. Despite an increased cholesterol esterification by the presence of amniotic fluid in medium of cultured fetal aortas, the content of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters was much lower. The cellular structures are better preserved in explants cultured with amniotic fluid than in control ...
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein, CETP of 493 aas and 1 TMS. Involved in the transfer of neutral lipids, including cholesteryl esters and triglycerides, among lipoprotein particles. Allows the net movement of cholesteryl esters from high density lipoproteins/HDL to triglyceride-rich very low density lipoproteins/VLDL, and the equimolar transport of triglyceride from VLDL to HDL (Drayna et al. 1987; Morton and Izem 2014). Regulates reverse cholesterol transport, by which excess cholesterol is removed from peripheral tissues and returned to the liver for elimination (Qiu et al. 2007 ...
HEGELE, R.A.. Al-Shali, K., J. Wang, F. Rosen, and R.A. Hegele. 2003. Ileal adenocarcinoma in a mild phenotype of abetalipoproteinemia. Clinical Genetics 63: 135-138.. Argmann, C.A., C.G. Sawyez, C.J. McNeil, R.A. Hegele, and M.W. Huff. 2003. Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma and Retinoid X Receptor Results in Net Depletion of Cellular Cholesteryl Esters in Macrophages Exposed to Oxidized Lipoproteins. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 23: 475-482.. Bhayana, S., V.M. Siu, G.I. Joubert, C.L. Clarson, H. Cao, and R.A. Hegele. 2002. Cardiomyopathy in congenital complete lipodystrophy. Clinical Genetics 61: 283-287.. Bjerregaard, P., E. Dewailly, T.K. Young, C. Blanchet, R.A. Hegele, S.E.O. Ebbesson, P.M. Risica, and G. Mulvad. 2003. Blood pressure among the Inuit (Eskimo) populations in the Arctic. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 31: 92-99.. Bjerregaard, P., T.K. Young, and R.A. Hegele. 2003. Low incidence of cardiovascular disease among the Inuit ...
Complete information for CETP gene (Protein Coding), Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Ive already written about how Eli Lillys inhibitor of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) did not work in the clinic. Now that the data from their failed trial have been published in the NEJM, though, its worth taking a look at a few graphs (first pointed out to me on Twitter by Sek Kathiresan. Shown are the
Despite the slightly higher CETP activity, the mass of cholesteryl esters actually transferred from HDL to other lipoproteins is lower in diabetic men than in nondiabetic men and is not altered by diabetes in women. Although CETP is an important catalyst in CET, CETP activity explains relatively little of the variation in CET (only about 4% in the regression analysis). Thus, CETP activity does not appear to be rate-limiting for CET. By comparison, variation in triglyceride levels explains ∼60% of the variation in CET. Not surprisingly, therefore, the fairly small increase in CETP activity (about a quarter of 1 SD) in diabetic versus nondiabetic men is overshadowed by their lower triglyceride levels. The CET results contrast with two smaller studies in which CET was increased in type 1 diabetic patients compared with control subjects (3,30). These authors suggested that sustained activation of the CET system, resulting from peripheral hyperinsulinemia, might be important in the increased ...
References for Abcams Recombinant Human LCAT protein (ab104359). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
The Montezuma County Public Health Department is offering free cholesterol screening for residents of Montezuma and Dolores Counties through their...
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As the water in the cells becomes structured by light, the negative pole will gravitate to the cell membranes hydrophilic side and serve as an energy generator.. Need more energy? Thats like asking if you could use more money to good effect. Since energy is everything, heres a way to boost your everything now that spring has sprung.. Catch some rays. A good time is around 10:00a or 4:00p for 5-10 minutes on a side (dont burn the buns!) Its free. Its easy. It boosts Vitamin D3 and cholesterol sulfate (a very, very good form of cholesterol!). Charge up your cellular batteries and dazzle people with you charismatic personality! Since energy is everything, "Energy is life!". ...
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Okolo dvaceti byla Ester Geislerov pova ov na za hereck talent, na l pnuto m la i na dr hu sp n modelky. M sto toho se pro mnoh p ekvapiv v jedenadvaceti stala maminkou dvoj at. P r let o n nebylo moc sly et. Te se vrac ve velk m stylu.
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产品名称:Acid-PEG8-NHS ester货号:BAPN-7品牌:BioconeCAS: 分子式: C24H41NO14分子量: 567.59纯度:95% 以上 包装规格:100 mg、500mg、1g、5g、10g等,其...
Cholesterol ester hydrolase (CEH) catalyses the rate limiting step in free cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells and intracellular CEH levels negatively correlate with lipid accumulation in foam cells and susceptibility to atherosclerosis. We have demonstrated that macrophage-specific transgenic expression of CEH enhances cholesterol efflux from foam cells and reduces lesions in athero-susceptible LDLR−/− mice. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that expression of CEH in blood-derived macrophages and the cholesterol efflux potential of serum from human subjects correlates with the disease status. Human subjects with (n=5, age 47-72 y) or without (n=7, age 50 -71 y) established CAD were enrolled. All subjects with established disease were on Statins and the serum lipid profiles (Total cholesterol, 198±16 vs 216±17; LDL-C, 109±13 vs 105±18; and HDL-C, 52±8 vs 63±10) were not significantly different between the two groups. Blood monocytes were isolated and cultured in ...
Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) catalyzes plasma cholesteryl ester formation and is defective in familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency (FLD), an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by low high-density lipoprotein, anemia, and renal disease. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which compound A [3-(5-(ethylthio)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-ylthio)pyrazine-2-carbonitrile], a small heterocyclic amine, activates LCAT. The effect of compound A on LCAT was tested in human plasma and with recombinant LCAT. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance were used to determine compound A adduct formation with LCAT. Molecular modeling was performed to gain insight into the effects of compound A on LCAT structure and activity. Compound A increased LCAT activity in a subset (three of nine) of LCAT mutations to levels comparable to FLD heterozygotes. The site-directed mutation LCAT-Cys31Gly prevented activation by compound A. Substitution of Cys31 with charged ...
In this paper, researchers investigated associations of genetic inhibition of CETP on detailed lipoproteins using variants associated with CETP (rs247617) and HMGCR (rs12916) expression in 62,400 Europeans and detailed lipoprotein profiling. Results found that CETP inhibition does not affect size-specific
Cholesterol is needed by every cell in the body because it is part of the makeup of the cell membrane. Cholesterol allows interactions between the various chemicals that interact with one another. Without cholesterol, your body cant make bile acid, leading to poor digestion. The sex hormones, estrogen and testosterone, are also made with the help of cholesterol. Even the production of vitamin D utilizes cholesterol for its creation. The brain cells need cholesterol as well. New research has suggested that cholesterol bonds with sulphur in the body to produce cholesterol sulfate. This thins the blood, and it may be that this allows the body to store electrons and lower blood pressure when walking barefoot. Because of this, cholesterol sulfate has been indicated as a possible treatment for reducing heart disease. ...
A third of people have genetic variations that cut their risk of heart disease, perhaps by increasing the level of good (HDL) cholesterol in their blood, say UK and Dutch scientists. A new study, published in the Journal of the American Heart Association, shows that individuals with particular versions of the CETP (Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein) gene have a five per cent lower risk of having a heart attack.. The researchers combined the results of almost 100 other studies, involving a total of 147,000 people. They looked at six different versions of the CETP gene, and found that the three most common were associated with both a 3-5 per cent rise in the levels of HDL cholesterol and a lower risk of heart disease. High levels of LDL (bad) cholesterol increase the risk of a heart attack or stroke, as it can build up in the arteries that feed the heart and brain, making them narrower. In contrast, higher levels of HDL cholesterol seem to protect against these conditions, possibly because it ...
Cholesteryl pentanoate is an ester of cholesterol. Fatty acid esters of cholesterol constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol) and a lipid found in the cell membranes of all body tissues, and transported in the blood plasma of all animals. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima (the innermost layer of an artery, in direct contact with the flowing blood) is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a disease affecting arterial blood vessels. It is a chronic inflammatory response in the walls of arteries, in large part to the deposition of lipoproteins (plasma proteins that carry cholesterol and triglycerides). Cholesteryl esters, formed by the esterification of cholesterol with long-chain fatty acids, on one hand, are the means by which cholesterol is transported through the blood by lipoproteins, on the other, the way cholesterol itself can be accumulated in the cells. ...
An increase in HDL-C level by 6% reduces the incidence of cardiovascular disease by 22-24%, which is similar to the effect of reduced LDL-C level decreasing cardiovascular disease by 28%.19,20) In addition, low HDL-C level has been blamed as the main cause of recent increasing prevalence dyslipidemia in Korea.21) Though pharmacological treatment options to increase HDL-C such as cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor and apo A1 mimetic peptide are under development, basic epidemiological evidences required to define HDL-C cut-off levels are still not sufficient in Korea. If the study subjects are categorized by the NCEP ATP III guideline, 43.8% of men and 23.6% of women belong to the low HDL-C group. When the ADA guideline is used, 43.8% of men and 62.6% of women have low HDL-C group; resulting in a markedly higher prevalence of low HDL-C level in women. Musha et al.5) from Japanproposes a higher cut-off value of HDL-C of 50 mg/dL so that the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in ...
High levels of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) have traditionally been linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease, prompting the search for effective and safe HDL-C raising pharmaceutical agents. Although drugs such as niacin and fibrates represent established therapeutic approaches, HDL-C response to such therapies is variable and heritable, suggesting a role for pharmacogenomic determinants. Multiple genetic polymorphisms, located primarily in genes encoding lipoproteins, cholesteryl ester transfer protein, transporters and CYP450 proteins have been shown to associate with HDL-C drug response in vitro and in epidemiologic studies. However, few of the pharmacogenomic findings have been independently validated, precluding the development of clinical tools that can be used to predict HDL-C response and leaving the goal of personalized medicine to future efforts. © 2013 Expert Reviews Ltd ...
In this work, ZnFe2O4 spinels doped with different Ce contents were synthesized through a sol-gel method and their morphologies, structures, optical and electronic properties, adsorption capacity for CO2 and activities for CO2 photoreduction with H2O vapor were investigated. The results show that the presenc
Page contains details about cholesteryl cationic polycarbonate nanoparticles . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Austrian botanist Friedrich Reinitzer, in 1888, discovered that cholesteryl acetate was a flowing liquid exhibiting optical properties previously attributed only to crystals.
Austrian botanist Friedrich Reinitzer, in 1888, discovered that cholesteryl acetate was a flowing liquid exhibiting optical properties previously attributed only to crystals.
You should start by reading about hydrolysis and buffers (chemistry). Briefly, you have these equilibria:. \begin{align} \ce{M+ + OH- &,=, MOH}& &\text{(limiting cases: $\ce{M+}$ = $\ce{Na+}$ or $\ce{NH4+}$)} \\ \ce{H+ + A- &,=, HA}& &\text{(limiting cases: $\ce{A-}$ = $\ce{I-}$ or $\ce{CH3COO-}$)} \\ \ce{H+ + OH- &,=, H2O} & \end{align}. Here $[\ce{Y}]$ means concentration of $\ce{Y}$. Note that $\frac{[\ce{MOH}]}{[\ce{M+}][\ce{OH-}]} = K_\mathrm{b}$, $\frac{[\ce{HA}]}{[\ce{H+}][\ce{A-}]} = K_\mathrm{a}$ and $[\ce{H+}][\ce{OH-}] = 10^{-14}$.. Depending on the $K_\mathrm{a}$ and $K_\mathrm{b}$ you have several situations. Acids and bases are called strong if they favor dissociation on ions and weak if they favor association of ions.. If both your acid and base is strong, then they both dissociate and the released $\ce{H+}$ and $\ce{OH-}$ are recombining to form water. If acid is strong and a base is weak then acid dissociates fully and yield a lot of $\ce{H+}$, but base doesnt dissociate fully ...
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Syntetický olej pro všechny čtyřtaktní motocykly se společnou olejovou náplní pro motor, převodovku a spojku.. Olej Technosynthese® na bázi esterů snižuje opotřebení, zajišťuje vyšší ochranu převodovéhosoukolí a prodlužuje jeho životnost. Vyšší odolnost olejového filmu vysokým teplotám prodlužuje životnost...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Restoration of a regulatory response to low density lipoprotein in acid lipase deficient human fibroblasts. AU - Brown, M. S.. AU - Sobhani, M. K.. AU - Brunschede, G. Y.. AU - Goldstein, J. L.. PY - 1976. Y1 - 1976. N2 - Previous studies have shown that cultured fibroblasts derived from patients with genetic defects in lysosomal acid lipase (i.e. the Wolman Syndrome and Cholesteryl Ester Storage Disease) are defective in their ability to hydrolyze the cholesteryl esters contained in plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL). As a result, these mutant cells show a reduced responsiveness to the regulatory actions of LDL, as evidenced by a decreased LDL mediated suppression of the activity of 3 hydroxy 3 methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and by a decreased LDL mediated activation of cellular cholesteryl ester formation. In the current studies, the Wolman Syndrome and Cholesteryl Ester Storage Disease cells were grown in the same Petri dish with mutant fibroblasts derived from a ...
To determine the factors that influence the plasma LCAT reaction, plasma substrate activity was modified by the addition of purified LCAT, LTP, and native or synthetic lipid particles. The addition of purified LTP, even in the presence of excess LCAT, did not alter the initial rate of cholesterol esterification. In contrast, the supplementation of plasma with purified LCAT resulted in a linear increase of the initial rate of cholesterol esterification up to a concentration of LCAT 3 times that in plasma. This linear response to exogenous LCAT was further extended in plasma obtained during the absorptive state. Purified human plasma lipoproteins and egg phosphatidylcholine vesicles were equilibrated with labelled plasma before measurement of the enzyme activity. The addition of egg phosphatidylcholine vesicles gave the most pronounced effect in enhancing the initial rate of LCAT reaction in both the presence and absence of exogenous LCAT. The supplementation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) to d ...
What is cholesterol?. Cholesterol is a fatty substance that is found in the blood. Cholesterol is made naturally in the body, and is also introduced to the body through the foods you eat. Most people consider cholesterol to be a bad thing, but not all cholesterol is created equal. There is actually good and bad cholesterol. To have healthy cholesterol is to have enough or a higher amount of "good" cholesterol, and low "bad" cholesterol.. Good Cholesterol. HDL (high density lipids) is also known as "good" cholesterol. HDL cholesterol actually helps to clean blood vessels and transport "bad" cholesterol out of the body.. Foods that have good cholesterol include fish, avocado, oats, some nuts, and berries. These foods can help you raise your HDL cholesterol levels and lower the bad.. Bad Cholesterol. LDL, or "low density lipids" is bad cholesterol. This is the kind of cholesterol that creates plaque that can clog your blood vessels and create problems such as high blood pressure, stroke and heart ...
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Cholesterol and Coronary Heart Disease - Cholesterol is a type of fat (lipid) made by the body. About 80% of cholesterol is made by the body, the other 20% comes from the diet. Cholesterol is a building block for cell membranes. Cholesterol Test Kit - A delicate combination of steroid and alcohol, Cholesterol, also a combination of a lipid that is found in cell membranes of all of our body tissues. Cholesterol is also transported in the blood of all animals.. Develop High Cholesterol - The risk of heart disease is greatly increased if you have high cholesterol. This can include potentially fatal heart attacks. Lowering cholesterol is recommended to lead a more healthy life and maintain a healthy heart. Low Fat Cholesterol Recipes - Many low fat low colesterol recipes are usually bland and un-flavorful but you can find some unique and tasty treats on our website that are full of flavor. Good Cholesterol Level - While most people talk about "cholesterol levels" there is in fact more than one type ...
We have been told for years that cholesterol levels being too high are problematic, that it can contribute to heart disease and strokes. In fact, this is true for many people. However, what has gone unrecognized or ignored for many years is that too low cholesterol can be just as detrimental often leading to a myriad of mental health and disease conditions. There is a dynamic balance of all things in the body that must be achieved for optimal health to manifest, and cholesterol is a critically important component of that balance.. Sonic Cholesterol is an excellent choice for reviving low cholesterol levels:. Sonic Cholesterol is a pure and potent nutritional supplement designed specifically to support healthy cholesterol levels.. Sonic Cholesterol is the only cholesterol supplement on the market designed to help raise cholesterol to normal levels.. To learn more about the benefits of Sonic Cholesterol, the dangers of low cholesterol, and how to obtain your own supply of Sonic Cholesterol make ...
This study provides evidence that lipids are secreted to mucosal surfaces and contribute to the inherent antimicrobial activity of mucosal secretions. To examine the potential role of lipids in innate mucosal host defense, we used nasal mucosal secretions. Nasal mucosa is a primary microbial exposure site; nasal mucosa is not exposed to alimentary lipids, its secretions are easily accessible and its antibacterial activity has been previously established in respect to antimicrobial polypeptides (27).. We found all major lipid classes in nasal fluid collected from healthy adults and, to our knowledge, this study is the first quantification of lipids in human nasal fluid. Glycerophospholipids and cholesterol, as well as to a lesser extent triglycerides and free fatty acids, have already been described in bronchioalveolar and nasal lavages, whereby the lipids were mainly thought to originate from lung surfactant reaching the upper airways through mucociliary propulsion (35, 36, 37). However, the ...
An unhealthy diet can cause high cholesterol. Sometimes high cholesterol runs in families. A low-cholesterol diet can help improve cholesterol levels. If the low-cholesterol diet does not work to lower bad cholesterol and increase good cholesterol, medications may be necessary.. Cholesterol is made in the liver and other cells and found in certain foods, such as food from meat and dairy products like eggs.. Your body needs some cholesterol in order to function properly. Cell walls etc. need cholesterol in order to produce hormones such as vitamin D and the bile acids that help to digest fat. But your body needs only a limited amount of cholesterol to meet its needs. When too much is present, health problems such as heart disease may develop.. Cholesterol travels through the blood attached to a protein - this cholesterol-protein package is called a lipoprotein. Lipoproteins are classified as high density, low density, or very low density, depending on how much protein there is.. Since cholesterol ...
8. The mevalonate pathway. of LDL receptors, internalization of the receptor or changes in enzymes involved in synthesis, and cholesterol efflux via lipoproteins. Niemann-Pick Type C disease is characterized by substantial intracellular accumulation of unesterified cholesterol. Binding, internalization and lysosomal hydrolysis of LDL is normal. Cholesterol esterification, however, is not stimulated, and there is a lag in down regulation of the receptor and cellular cholesterol synthesis. A defect in intracellular transport of LDL derived cholesterol has been proposed [247]. O. Ratios above this have been related to a number of disease states as well as being found in human aging systems. The causes of such a change in relative amounts of cholesterol and PL may be due to alterations in cholesterol exchange with the environment, changes in the relative rates of turnover of cholesterol and lipids or changes in the activities of the proteins involved in the coordination of their metabolism. Cornell ...
All corticosteroid hormones share cholesterol as a common precursor. Therefore, the first step in steroidogenesis is cholesterol uptake or synthesis. Cells that produce steroid hormones can acquire cholesterol through two paths. The main source is through dietary cholesterol transported via the blood as cholesterol esters within low density lipoproteins (LDL). LDL enters the cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis. The other source of cholesterol is synthesis in the cells endoplasmic reticulum. Synthesis can compensate when LDL levels are abnormally low.[4] In the lysosome, cholesterol esters are converted to free cholesterol, which is then used for steroidogenesis or stored in the cell.[29]. The initial part of conversion of cholesterol into steroid hormones involves a number of enzymes of the cytochrome P450 family that are located in the inner membrane of mitochondria. Transport of cholesterol from the outer to the inner membrane is facilitated by steroidogenic acute regulatory protein ...
With all the news and warnings about the dangers of high cholesterol, many people view cholesterol as a “bad†substance that should be eliminated completely from our lives. In truth, cholesterol serves some important functions in the body. In order to understand how cholesterol affects the body, one must first understand what cholesterol is.. Cholesterol is a waxy substance that is attached to the fats in our bloodstream and is present in all of the cells of the body. Cholesterol comes from food that we eat, as well as being manufactured directly by the liver. Cholesterol is an important regulator in the bloodstream, as it helps to regulate the formation of many cells as well as hormones. However, to have too high or too low of a cholesterol count in the blood can be a very dangerous factor, often leading to a heart attack or a stroke. Although cholesterol is prevalent in the blood stream, it cannot dissipate in the blood. The cholesterol maneuvers throughout the body attached to ...
Significant increases in levels of cholesterol and cholesterol oxidation products are detected in the hippocampus undergoing degeneration after excitotoxicity induced by the potent glutamate analog, kainate (KA), but until now, it is unclear whether the cholesterol is in the free or esterified form. The present study was carried out to examine the expression of the enzyme involved in cholesteryl ester biosynthesis, acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) and cholesteryl esters after KA excitotoxicity. A 1000-fold greater basal mRNA level of ACAT1 than ACAT2 was detected in the normal brain. ACAT1 mRNA and protein were upregulated in the hippocampus at 1 and 2 weeks after KA injections, at a time of glial reaction. Immunohistochemistry showed ACAT1 labeling of oligodendrocytes in the white matter and axon terminals in hippocampal CA fields of normal rats, and loss of staining in neurons but increased immunoreactivity of oligodendrocytes, in areas affected by KA. Gas chromatography-mass
Background: The main goal of using statins is to reduce the level of plasma cholesterol, meanwhile they have a wide spectrum of actions. Objectives: To identify the effect of statins on fractional cholesterol esterification (FCE) as well as the complete profile of lipids and (apo)lipoproteins. Design and methods: In an age and sex matched case-control study, 400 subjects who were referred for coronary angiography were divided into two groups according using statins. Results: Total cholesterol was decreased significantly following treatment with statins (165.6 38.0 mg/dL vs. 205.3 48.4, p 0.001). About 90% of the reduction was occurred in nonHDL and 10% in HDL fraction. Reduction of nonHDL cholesterol (125.2 35.2 mg/dL vs. 162.8 45.2, p 0.001) occurred on both unesterified (52.4 21.5 mg/dL vs. 65.2 25.5, p 0.001) and esterified cholesterol (74.7 27.3 mg/dL vs. 96.6 34.1, p 0.001). But the decrease in HDL cholesterol (40.4 10.0 mg/dL vs. 42.3 9.9, p 0.079) happened exclusively in unesterified ...
Total Cholesterol. Total cholesterol is nothing more than the total amount of LDL-C (also know as simply LDL), HDL and VLDL. HDL is the healthy cholesterol and when it is high - which it should be - this will bring up the total cholesterol. When conventional doctors see total cholesterol over a mere 200 they jump on the statin bandwagon and frighten misinformed people with this totally fake number.. Recent research in the development of atherosclerosis and the role oxidation and inflammation play, has indicated that cholesterol in itself does not cause atherosclerosis. It is only when cholesterol bound to atherogenic lipoproteins becomes trapped within the arterial wall, that it becomes a part of the atherosclerotic process. It does this by causing an inflammatory response within the arterial wall and this damages the artery.. HDL. HDL cholesterol is thought to be the good cholesterol because it carries cholesterol particles away from heart, to the liver. In fact, it is merely recycling ...
Bringing down cholesterol is imperative for everybody, including more youthful, moderately aged, and more established grown-ups, and individuals with or without coronary illness and/or stroke. Bringing down cholesterol is amazingly imperative key to diminishing the danger of coronary illness. Elevated amounts of LDL are connected with an expanded danger of coronary illness. Lower levels of LDL cholesterol mean a lower danger of coronary illness. Most specialists propose cholesterol levels ought to stay under 200 mg/dl. Bringing cholesterol is prescribed down to lead a more sound life and fundamental. Bringing down cholesterol is only one approach to take care of your heart. Bringing down cholesterol is really very basic, and doesnt oblige surgery or medications with solid way of life, actually bringing down cholesterol is simple since it aides standardize your cholesterol, normally and securely. One of the most straightforward approaches to beginning bringing cholesterol is down to farthest ...
Cholesterol, the dreaded word for dieters and those with heart conditions. Were often told to stay away from foods high in cholesterol in order to lose weight and keep our bodies healthy. Well, saying all cholesterol is bad would be wrong. LDL or low density lipoprotein is the bad cholesterol which you should be avoiding while HDL or high density lipoprotein is believed to remove plaque in your arteries. So in short, aim for more HDL and keep LDL away from your diet.. Eggs vs Oatmeal. In deciding which breakfast food to wake up to, choose oatmeal over an omelette. Eggs can contain up to 200mg of cholesterol. This is bad considering the recommended daily dose of cholesterol should be 300mg/day. Oatmeal, on the other hand, is high in soluble fiber which lowers your LDL numbers by reducing the amount of cholesterol absorbed in your bloodstream.. Steak vs Fish. Eating just one 4-ounce portion of steak can take up to 22% of your daily cholesterol intake. Not to mention the large amounts of ...
Avoiding cholesterol in diet. This is probably and issue that many high cholesterol culprits are grappling with. You might be so much geared at reducing your LDL cholesterol in a fortnight. Be warned that doing this by eliminating cholesterol rich products can easily deprive your system of some very important nutrients. Make sure that whichever approach you adopt to take in it works well with your system. It is very advisable that incase of totally eliminating the high cholesterol food substances from your diet you can go for the option of taking foods that help lower the cholesterol levels.. Understand that your body produces between 1500 and 1800 mili grams of cholesterol each day. Majority of this is ideally manufactured by the liver and some smaller percentages within the small intestines and some selected body cells. An average American household diet is made up of upto 800 mg of cholesterol. Research has also shown that by eliminating the high cholesterol foods just forces the body to ...
... is a mostly insoluble waxy substance that is carried around the blood stream by lipo-proteins. These transport molecules can be classified as LDL and HDL. The low density lipo-proteins (LDL) carries the cholesterol around the blood to the cells that need it. However too much cholesterol in the diet or overproduction can cause cholesterol to be deposited in the blood vessels and arteries. This can be especially dangerous in the heart and brain. Thus LDL the cholesterol is known as the bad cholesterol. The other type of transporter the high density lipo-proteins (HDL) carries cholesterol away from the blood stream to the liver. So just having high cholesterol is not the complete picture but it is the proportion of HDL to LDL that is also important. Generally the safe level for cholesterol is around 5mmol/l, however half the population is above this level.. ...
Cholesterol is a fat like substance called a sterol. It is hard and waxy and melts at 149ºC (300ºF). Our body manufactures approximately one gram of cholesterol per day; this is mainly in the liver, but also occurs in the intestines, adrenal glands, ovaries and testes. In fact every cell of our body has the capacity to manufacture cholesterol if needed. We also obtain cholesterol in our diet by eating animal foods such as eggs, meat and dairy products. However, 80% of the cholesterol in our body is manufactured in the liver. Our body makes cholesterol out of a molecule called acetyl Co A; this is derived from the breakdown of sugars, fats and protein. Basically any calories in excess of our bodys needs can be turned into cholesterol.. Cholesterol is not very soluble in water; therefore it must be carried around our bloodstream in various transport molecules. Certain proteins wrap around the cholesterol molecules to form what are called lipoproteins.. Two common forms of lipoproteins are Low ...
Cholesterol. It is a word we often hear today when talking about leading a healthy lifestyle. For many people, the word evokes concern as they recall the warnings from their physicians that they need to watch what they eat since their cholesterol levels are a bit elevated. At William Osler Health Centre the Medical Risk Management Clinic staff help people understand what cholesterol is and how they can control it to prevent diseases caused by elevated or high levels of cholesterol. Cholesterol is a waxy substance made naturally in the body. Cholesterol helps form or repair cell membranes, some hormones, and other tissues.. Too much cholesterol in your blood can cause hardening of the arteries and you run the risk of heart attacks or stroke. There are two different types of Cholesterol. The "bad" cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is essential for cell repair and growth. But too much LDL in the blood is associated with the development of atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) and ...
The vast majority of comments I get on my blogs are about cholesterol and/or statins. I find myself saying the same things over and again, so this post is the one that Ill now refer queries to - it should answer most of the worries that people seem to have. My top tip is: dont have a cholesterol test and then youll have one fewer thing to worry about.. Worried about high cholesterol. Many of the comments start with people saying that they have high cholesterol. First of all - do you? Or are you part of the scam to make you think that your cholesterol is high because normal has been re-defined? This post may help.. If your cholesterol is anywhere on those normal charts (2-10 mmol/l = 77-387 mg/dl) - you may like to stop worrying.. You should also be aware that the blood cholesterol test doesnt actually measure LDL (the thing they call bad cholesterol - which is not even cholesterol - its a Low Density Lipoprotein) - they guess it. See point iv here. You should also be aware that even the ...
Cholesterol is formed from two different sources, as it is both created in the liver and derived from the different foods that we consume. There are also two different forms of cholesterol, LDL and HDL. LDL cholesterol is considered to be the bad form of cholesterol because it has a tendency to build up inside the walls of arteries, which can lead to inflammation and the formation of clots, and eventually even heart disease. HDL cholesterol, however, helps to transport LDL bad cholesterol out from the blood vessels, and back into your liver where it can be processed properly and then eliminated. Both LDL and HDL cholesterol come together to form what is your total cholesterol count, along with your triglycerides. Generally, you should be aiming for a high HDL, and a low LDL in order to make your heart the healthiest. ...
Cholesterol is a steroid, which is a waxy organic compound, that is found in every cell of the body and in the plasma. The presence of cholesterol is essential to life. Endogenous (internal) synthesis by the liver and other organs produces between 60-80% of the bodys cholesterol. The remainder comes from exogenous (external) dietary sources. Total cholesterol involves all of the cholesterol found in the body such as LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. The level of cholesterol in the body is primarily affected by metabolic rate. Generally speaking, increased levels are associated with thyroid or adrenal hypofunction, and decreased levels are associated with endocrine hyperfunction. ...
If your body has too much cholesterol, it isnt good for you. You have the power within you however to take control. Failing to take control only leads to problems. The problems will accumulate; wear you down until finally abnormal aging takes your life. You can gain control by exercising each day and eating the right foods. Visiting your doctor regularly is another way to work toward healthy aging. Your family doctor will give you medication to take to help lower your cholesterol. When you have high cholesterol, you have to eat right and exercise daily. To lower your cholesterol take action now. It will take some time to get your cholesterol at bay, but it will happen if you take action now. You also want to take time out for self, activities, socializing etc to keep your cholesterol at bay. When cholesterol is out of control, the cause comes to focus, which is arteriosclerosis. If you lower your cholesterol by taking action now you can avoid strokes, heart attacks, and even death. Learn more ...
Cholesterol: Good and bad cholesterol... what does it all mean?. There are several different types of cholesterol: LDL-C (low-density lipoprotein): LDL cholesterol is also known as the bad cholesterol. When there is too much LDL cholesterol in the blood, it builds up on the inside of the blood vessel walls, making it more difficult for blood to flow freely.
And yes, its even more complicated than this. Each of these categories is further broken down into subcategories which can also be measured in a blood test.. So "cholesterol" isnt simply cholesterol because it has very different effects on your body depending on which other molecules its bound to in your blood and what it is actually doing there.. Myth #2: Cholesterol is bad. Cholesterol is absolutely necessary for your body to produce critical things like vitamin D when your skin is exposed to the sun, your sex hormones (e.g. estrogen and testosterone), as well as bile to help you absorb dietary fats. Not to mention that its incorporated into the membranes of your cells.. Talk about an important molecule!. The overall amount of cholesterol in your blood (AKA "total cholesterol") isnt nearly as important as how much of each kind you have in your blood.. While way too much LDL cholesterol as compared with HDL (the LDL:HDL ratio) may be associated with an increased risk of heart disease it is ...
Consequently, multiple pharmaceutical agents have been studied with the goal of increasing HDL-C. Niacin, the most widely used medication to raise HDL-C, increases HDL-C by 25% or more and was shown in multiple surrogate endpoint studies to reduce CV risk. However, two large randomized controlled trials of niacin, AIM-HIGH and HPS2-THRIVE, have shown that despite its effects on HDL-C, niacin does not decrease the incidence of CV events and may have significant adverse effects. Studies of other classes of agents such as cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors have also shown that even dramatic increases in HDL-C do not necessarily translate to reduction in clinical events. One of the latest attempts was described by Barter and colleagues who reported the results of the CHI-SQUARE study (Can HDL Infusions Significantly Quicken Atherosclerosis Regression) study, which is the largest randomized clinical trial to date testing the efficacy of serial HDL infusions in patients with a recent ...
Need to lower cholesterol? First, you must understand what it is and why its high. Cholesterol is a waxy molecule produced in the liver. Its a building block used all over the body to make neurotransmitters in your brain, hormones like testosterone/estrogens/progesterone/vitamin D (hormones with a cholesterol base are called "steroid hormones"), and its a component of every cell membrane in your body.. Remember, you cant pee in just one end of the pool. When you take a drug to lower cholesterol, every system that depends on cholesterol is affected. The side effects of memory loss, muscle pain, liver damage, and type 2 diabetes reflect the fundamental importance of cholesterol as a building block all over the body.. Cholesterol is made in the liver. Sooooo, why is the heart doctor giving you a drug to treat your liver. The reason is that its not really heart disease that causes "heart attacks". These events, as well as most strokes, are caused by years of blood vessel inflammation. The final ...
GlobalData has released its new PharmaPoint Drug Evaluation report, "Anacetrapib (Acute Coronary Syndrome) - Forecast and Market Analysis to 2023". The current ACS market - primarily comprised of antithrombotics, antihypertensives, and statins - is flush with well-established standard-of-care therapies, many of which are generic. Therefore, the pipeline therapies that show the most promise exploit novel mechanisms of action and target orphan biochemical pathways. The ACS market will be driven by an aging population with a preponderance of lifestyle-based diseases, such as obesity, and the growing prevalence of metabolic disorders such as diabetes. The expansion of biologics into the ACS mainstream during the ten year forecast period is expected to significantly and fundamentally alter the ACS market, both medically and financially.. Prior to REVEAL, the DEFINE (Determining the Efficacy and Tolerability of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein [CETP] Inhibition with Anacetrapib) Phase III study ...
Through our study of cholesterol it is clear that the main focus should be on the bad cholesterol (LDL). We gain the most benefit by learning how to reduce bad cholesterol as a high level of LDL is linked to an increased risk of coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis. However, there is some indication that raising the amount of good cholesterol (HDL) in your blood may help reduce your risk of heart disease. It is thought that HDL helps to clean out cholesterol from your arteries, thus decreasing the amount of plaque that builds up. It is because of this that many people are interested in foods that raise HDL cholesterol levels.. Read More ...
Patton, J G.; Alley, M C.; and Mao, S J., "Evaluation of monoclonal antibodies to human plasma low density lipoproteins. A requirement for lipids to maintain antigenic structure." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 75 ...
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Before you can understand diabetic hyperlipidemia (high cholesterol when you have diabetes), you need to understand cholesterol basics. Whats good cholesterol? Whats bad cholesterol? How often should you be tested? Whats a lipid profile. Find answers in this article.
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In contrast, chylomicron cholesterol ester formation showed marked specificity for oleic acid, relative to the other three ... Relatively more (54%) of the cholesterol ester fatty acids was of endogenous origin. About 100,000 metric tonnes of the natural ... The chyle or chylomicron lipid so obtained was chromatographed on silicic acid columns to separate cholesterol esters and ... Triglycerides and cholesterol esters". The Journal of Lipid Research. 4: 312-321. PMID 14168169. Retrieved 24 August 2013. ...
... crystalline cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, and phospholipids; cells such as monocyte derived macrophages, T-lymphocytes, and ...
... cholesteryl ester hydrolase, sterol ester hydrolase, cholesterol ester hydrolase, cholesterase, and acylcholesterol lipase. ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is steryl-ester acylhydrolase. Other names in common use include cholesterol esterase ... Vahouny GV, Treadwell CR (1968). "Enzymatic synthesis and hydrolysis of cholesterol esters". Methods. Biochem. Anal. Methods of ... In enzymology, a sterol esterase (EC 3.1.1.13) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction sterol ester + H2O ⇌ {\ ...
Vahouny GV, Treadwell CR (1968). "Enzymatic synthesis and hydrolysis of cholesterol esters". Methods. Biochem. Anal. 16: 219-72 ... cholesterol acyltransferase, LCAT (lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase), lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase, and ... Bartlett K, Keat MJ, Mercer EI (1974). "Biosynthesis of sterol esters in Phycomyces blakesleeanus". Phytochemistry. 13: 1107- ... Glomset JA (1968). "The plasma lecithins:cholesterol acyltransferase reaction". J. Lipid Res. 9 (2): 155-67. PMID 4868699. ...
"Plant stanol esters have been shown to lower/reduce blood cholesterol. Blood cholesterol lowering may reduce the risk of ... Two reviews confirm that plant stanol and sterol esters lower cholesterol levels. Benecol foods have been found as a way to ... European Food Safety Authority (2008). "Plant Stanol Esters and Blood Cholesterol" (PDF). p. 2-2. Archived from the original ( ... reduction of serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with the addition of plant stanol ester-containing ...
Cholesterol is released and stored within the cell as cholesterol ester. LDL is recycled for further cholesterol transport. ... Progesterone is synthesized from cholesterol by both the large and small luteal cells upon luteal maturation. Cholesterol-LDL ... PKA actively phosphorylates steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and translocator protein to transport cholesterol ... cholesterol side chain cleavage) system". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 305 (2): 489-98. doi:10.1006/abbi.1993.1452. PMID 8396893.. ...
"THE MOLECULAR MICRODISTILLATION OF CHOLESTEROL AND CHOLESTEROL ESTERS" (PDF). The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Retrieved ... Alfred Koehler, focused on the role fat and cholesterol play in degenerative diseases and were 20 years ahead of their time in ... showing a relationship between cholesterol and arteriosclerosis. The internationally acclaimed husband-wife team of cytologists ...
Also, stearic acid is less likely to be incorporated into cholesterol esters. In epidemiologic and clinical studies, stearic ... The salts and esters of stearic acid are called stearates. As its ester, stearic acid is one of the most common saturated fatty ... but indirectly by saponification of triglycerides consisting of stearic acid esters. Esters of stearic acid with ethylene ... acid was found to be associated with lowered LDL cholesterol in comparison with other saturated fatty acids.[14] ...
"Identification of neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase, a key enzyme removing cholesterol from macrophages". The Journal of ... "Identification of neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase, a key enzyme removing cholesterol from macrophages". The Journal of ... "The critical role of neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase 1 in cholesterol removal from human macrophages". Circulation Research ... "The critical role of neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase 1 in cholesterol removal from human macrophages". Circulation Research ...
"Effects of an inhibitor of cholesteryl ester transfer protein on HDL cholesterol" (abstract). New England Journal of Medicine. ... cholesterol-containing particle) and reduces LDL levels (the "bad" cholesterol).[vague][citation needed] ... which normally transfers cholesterol from HDL cholesterol to very low density or low density lipoproteins (VLDL or LDL). ... Dietary cholesterol needs be esterified in order to be absorbed from the gut. The enzyme, cholesterylester transfer protein ( ...
EFA deficiency causes extra deposition of cholesterol esters in the epidermis. Hugh thought the tetraenoic arachidonic acid to ... The cholesterol thus esterified with abnormal fatty acids is less easily eliminated and so leads to atheroma. Phospholipids ...
However the gastric lipase activity against phospholipids and cholesterol esters is poor. Gastric lipase is composed of 379 ... The enzyme hydrolyses esters at position sn-3, the acyl chain at the bottom, more rapidly than esters at sn-1 position, the ... Besides the role of the β-lactone ring in structure-activity relationship, the nature of the functional groups (e.g. ester or ... It contains N-formyl-L-leucine amino acid connected to the β-alkyl chain via ester-bond. The structure and more information ...
... s transport endogenous triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol, and cholesteryl esters. It ... cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, and triglycerides. As it circulates in blood, it picks up apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) and ... The other 50% of IDL lose apoE; when their cholesterol content becomes greater than the content of triglyceride, they become ... VLDL is assembled in the liver from triglycerides, cholesterol, and apolipoproteins. VLDL is converted in the bloodstream to ...
"Enzymatic hydrolysis of structurally diverse phthalic acid esters by porcine and bovine pancreatic cholesterol esterases". ... Diethyl phthalate (DEP) is a phthalate ester, namely the diethyl ester of phthalic acid. It is a clear substance that is liquid ... Diethyl phthalate, or o-Benzenedicarboxylic acid diethyl ester consists of a benzene ring with two carboxylic acid ethyl esters ... Peakall D.B. (1975). Phthalate esters: Occurrence and biological effects. Residue Rev. 54. pp. 1-41. doi:10.1007/978-1-4612- ...
The furan fatty acids thus absorbed are incorporated into phospholipids and cholesterol esters. Furan fatty acids are reactive ... either in free form or in triglycerides or esterified to cholesterol. In fish, the concentration of furan fatty acids is ... "Inhibition of Bacterial Urease by Autoxidation of Furan C-18 Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Products". In: Journal of the American Oil ...
The cholesterol esters are then stored as cytoplasmic lipid droplets inside the cell. The enzyme is implicated in cholesterol ... The gene encodes a membrane-bound enzyme localized in the endoplasmic reticulum that produces intracellular cholesterol esters ... Katsuren K; Fukuyama S; Takata K; Ohta T (2003). "Effects of a new single-nucleotide polymorphism in the Acyl-CoA:cholesterol ... Lin S; Lu X; Chang CC; Chang TY (2004). "Human Acyl-Coenzyme A:Cholesterol Acyltransferase Expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary ...
The stratum corneum is primarily composed of lipophilic cholesterol, cholesterol esters and ceramides. Thus lipid-soluble ...
SCD-1 knockout mice did not increase de novo lipogenesis but created an abundance of cholesterol esters. SCD1 function has also ... Oleate and palmitoleate are major components of membrane phospholipids, cholesterol esters and alkyl-diacylglycerol. In humans ...
The triacylglycerol is then combined with phospholipids, cholesterol ester, and apolipoprotein B-48 to form a nascent ... Nascent chylomicrons are composed primarily of triglycerides (85%) and contain some cholesterol and cholesteryl esters. The ... cholesterol (1-3%), and proteins (1-2%). They transport dietary lipids from the intestines to other locations in the body. ... that enable fats and cholesterol to move within the water-based solution of the bloodstream. Chylomicrons transport lipids ...
The triglyceride is then combined with phospholipids, cholesterol ester, and apolipoprotein B48 to form chylomicrons. These ...
"Intracellular cholesterol transporter StarD4 binds free cholesterol and increases cholesteryl ester formation". Journal of ... High levels of STARD4 increases the synthesis of bile acids and cholesterol esters in liver hepatocytes. Reductions in ... STARD4 may regulate cholesterol levels in many cells, including in the liver. STARD4 has specifically been linked to the ... The most dramatic change observed to date is a reduction in NPC-1, a protein involved in bringing cholesterol into cells. The ...
Cholesterol ester transfer proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... Most of the time, however, CETP does a heteroexchange, trading a triglyceride for a cholesteryl ester or a cholesteryl ester ... "Effects of an inhibitor of cholesteryl ester transfer protein on HDL cholesterol". N Engl J Med. 350 (15): 1505-15. doi:10.1056 ... Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), also called plasma lipid transfer protein, is a plasma protein that facilitates the ...
The cholesterol esters may also be found in lymph nodes, bone marrow, the liver and spleen. Due to the cholesterol ester ... "good cholesterol", in the bloodstream. Individuals that are homozygotes for Tangier's disease develop various cholesterol ester ... The cholesterol and phospholipids used to form HDL originate from inside cells but are transported out of the cell into the ... This inability to transport cholesterol out of cells leads to a deficiency of high-density lipoproteins in the circulation, ...
Similar to sterol esters and stanol esters, stigmastanol inhibits the absorption of cholesterol from the diet. Animal studies ... Batta, Ashok K.; Xu, Guorong; Honda, Akira; Miyazaki, Teruo; Salen, Gerald (2006). "Stigmasterol reduces plasma cholesterol ... "Mechanisms of action of plant sterols on inhibition of cholesterol absorption. Comparison of sitosterol and sitostanol". ... "Comparison of sitosterol and sitostanol on inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption". Agents and actions. Supplements. ...
... and cholesterol esters. 4) Members of the CYP4F family, i.e. CYP4F2 and CYP4F3B, ω-hydroxylate very long chain fatty acids, i.e ... and cholesterol esters. 5) CYP4F22 ω-hydroxylates extremely long very long chain fatty acids, i.e. fatty acids that are 28 or ... cholesterol) substrates, most of which are not fatty acids. The CYP450 omega hydroxylases are accordingly better viewed as a ...
Anabolic steroids (e.g., testosterone and esters, methyltestosterone, metandienone (methandrostenolone), nandrolone and esters ... Cholesterol. *Pregnanes: 3α-Dihydroprogesterone. *3β-Dihydroprogesterone. *5α-Dihydrocorticosterone. *5α-Dihydroprogesterone ...
Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease. Digestive System Diseases. Genetic Diseases, Inborn. Lysosomal Storage Diseases. Infant, ... Novel Association of Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease Due to Lysosomal Acid Lipase Deficiency and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver ... Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease (CESD) is an autosomal recessive chronic disease of variable phenotype, caused by a ... MedlinePlus related topics: Cholesterol Cholesterol Levels: What You Need to Know Fatty Liver Disease Liver Diseases ...
Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) activity was low due to which cholesterol ester storage disease was diagnosed. At age of 3 year ... P230 Liver cirrhosis as outcome of cholesterol esters storage due to lysosomal acid lipase deficiency ... P230 Liver cirrhosis as outcome of cholesterol esters storage due to lysosomal acid lipase deficiency ... where LAL activity in leucocytes was estimated and confirmed cholesterol ester storage disease. No special treatment was ...
N2 - Consumption of plant sterol esters reduces plasma LDL cholesterol concentration by inhibiting intestinal cholesterol ... AB - Consumption of plant sterol esters reduces plasma LDL cholesterol concentration by inhibiting intestinal cholesterol ... Consumption of plant sterol esters reduces plasma LDL cholesterol concentration by inhibiting intestinal cholesterol absorption ... "Consumption of plant sterol esters reduces plasma LDL cholesterol concentration by inhibiting intestinal cholesterol absorption ...
Regulation of cholesterol ester transfer protein by dietary lipids. Regulation of cholesterol ester transfer protein by dietary ... regulation of cholesterol ester transfer protein by dietary fats and cholesterol was investigated using human cholesterol ester ... There was interaction between cholesterol and fatty acids to regulate cholesterol ester transfer protein. ... Murray, Cathy Maureen (2003) Regulation of cholesterol ester transfer protein by dietary lipids. Masters thesis, Memorial ...
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Cholesterol and cholesterol esters are more similar than they are different; however, when considering their similarities ... cholesterol not bound to esters; however, when cholesterol released from cells, it is mostly in the form of cholesterol esters ... Cholesterol esters are derived from cholesterol itself. Though both are considered sterols -- a subclass of fat -- cholesterol ... While both cholesterol and cholesterol esters make up over half of an LDL particles mass, their ratios vary in degree. HDL, on ...
Enzyme-catalyzed transfer from lecithin on cholesterol to form cholesterol ester and lysolecithin (LCAT+) 1/ in the arterial ... Cholesterol Ester Aortic Wall Cholesterol Acyltransferase Ester Hydrolase Acyl Transfer These keywords were added by machine ... Enzyme-catalyzed transfer from lecithin on cholesterol to form cholesterol ester and lysolecithin (LCAT+) 1/ in the arterial ... cholesterol acyltransferase and cholesterol ester hydrolase activities. In vitro effect of substrates with fatty acid of ...
Atherosclerotic Plaque Cholesterol Ester Cholesterol Diet Serum Lipid Level Bovine Albumin These keywords were added by machine ... of cholesterol-fed rabbits was much more closely linked to increases in tissue cholesterol esters than to free cholesterol ... Thus, after 12-14 weeks on cholesterol diets, when the plaques covered from 50100% of the surface of the aorta, the ester ... Bailey J.M., Butler J. (1967) Synthetic Cholesterol-Ester Antigens in Experimental Atherosclerosis. In: Luzio N.R.D., Paoletti ...
Blend of cholesterol and fatty acid ester from lanolin. Functions as a skin-soothing agent. ...
The Interrelationships of Serum Cholesterol, Cholesterol Esters and Phospholipids in Health and in Coronary Artery Disease. ... The Interrelationships of Serum Cholesterol, Cholesterol Esters and Phospholipids in Health and in Coronary Artery Disease ... The Interrelationships of Serum Cholesterol, Cholesterol Esters and Phospholipids in Health and in Coronary Artery Disease ... The Interrelationships of Serum Cholesterol, Cholesterol Esters and Phospholipids in Health and in Coronary Artery Disease ...
Profile of Free Fatty Acids and Fractions of Phospholipids, Cholesterol Esters and Triglycerides in Serum of Obese Youth with ... "Profile of Free Fatty Acids and Fractions of Phospholipids, Cholesterol Esters and Triglycerides in Serum of Obese Youth with ... Bermúdez-Cardona J, Velásquez-Rodríguez C. Profile of Free Fatty Acids and Fractions of Phospholipids, Cholesterol Esters and ... Bermúdez-Cardona, J.; Velásquez-Rodríguez, C. Profile of Free Fatty Acids and Fractions of Phospholipids, Cholesterol Esters ...
Quantitative analysis of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in human atherosclerotic plaques using near-infrared Raman ... In this paper, we describe a quantitative analytical method for cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in human atherosclerotic ... The standard error of prediction was 16.1, 13.6, 1.9, 3.3 and 3.4 mg/g for total cholesterol, free cholesterol, palmitate ... is a promising technique to obtain a consistent and non-destructive quantitative analysis of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters ...
Full-fat sitostanol ester-containing margarine reduces serum total and LDL cholesterol, but the effect of plant stanol ester- ... We investigated the cholesterol-lowering effects of 2 novel, low-fat stanol ester-containing margarines as part of a low-fat ... Effects of 2 low-fat stanol ester-containing margarines on serum cholesterol concentrations as part of a low-fat diet in ... We conclude that the low-fat, plant stanol ester-containing margarines are effective cholesterol-lowering products in ...
Cholesterol ester transfer protein, apolipoprotein E and lipoprotein lipase genotypes in patients with coronary artery disease ... Hulya Yilmaz, Turgay ?sbir, Bedia Agachan, Zeynep Ermis Karaali, Effects of cholesterol ester transfer protein Taq1B gene ... in order to explore a possible association between CAD and the variants in the gene encoding cholesterol ester transfer protein ... In the CAD group, those with the Msp M1 allele had higher levels of total cholesterol (TC) (p = 0026) and low-density ...
What is cholesterol ester hydrolase? Meaning of cholesterol ester hydrolase as a finance term. What does cholesterol ester ... Definition of cholesterol ester hydrolase in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Cholesterol esters are hydrolyzed to free cholesterol by cholesterol ester hydrolase (EC 3.. Citation classics in lipid ... Related to cholesterol ester hydrolase: cholesterol esterase, cholesteryl ester hydrolase. Lipa. A subdivision of the Croatian ...
... and reducing low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in people with abnormal cholesterol levels that may put them at risk ... Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors are being explored for their ability to elevate HDL-C. A small molecule ... A Safety and Efficacy Study of DRL-17822, a Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) Inhibitor, in Patients With Abnormal ... Cholesterol Levels. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and ...
... and clinical studies on all aspects of plasma lipoprotein cholesterol in relation to human health and disease. The journal will ... Cholesterol is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, ... Low-Fat Nondairy Minidrink Containing Plant Stanol Ester Effectively Reduces LDL Cholesterol in Subjects with Mild to Moderate ... "Low-Fat Nondairy Minidrink Containing Plant Stanol Ester Effectively Reduces LDL Cholesterol in Subjects with Mild to Moderate ...
... and clinical studies on all aspects of plasma lipoprotein cholesterol in relation to human health and disease. The journal will ... Cholesterol is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, ... The concentrations of serum cholesterol precursors and especially their ratios to cholesterol reflect whole-body cholesterol ... "Effects of plant stanol esters on serum cholesterol concentrations, relative markers of cholesterol metabolism and endothelial ...
Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Expressed in Lecithin. Cholesterol Acyltransferase--Deficient Mice. Cheng-ai Wu, Maki ... Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Expressed in Lecithin. Cholesterol Acyltransferase--Deficient Mice. Cheng-ai Wu, Maki ... Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Expressed in Lecithin. Cholesterol Acyltransferase--Deficient Mice. Cheng-ai Wu, Maki ...
... cholesterol oleate, which served as a marker for preexisting cholesterol esters in HDL.. ... The newly formed ($\sp3$H) cholesterol esters by the LCAT reaction was observed to be transferred into the lower density ... Factors Influencing the Formation and Distribution of Cholesterol Esters in Human Plasma. Welcome to the IDEALS Repository. ... These two plasma proteins play important roles in determining the formation and distribution of cholesterol esters in plasma. ...
Incomplete Hydrolysis of Cholesteryl Esters during the Enzymatic Cholesterol Determination as Evidenced by Aqueous Cholesteryl ... Ester Solutions: Comparison of Six Enzymatic Procedures with the Liebermann-Burchard Method ...
... supplemented foods are recommended to help in lowering serum LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C). Few studies have examined the efficacy of ... Basal and post-treatment changes in markers of cholesterol metabolism indicating low cholesterol synthesis and high cholesterol ... Effects of plant sterol esters in skimmed milk and vegetable-fat-enriched milk on serum lipids and non-cholesterol sterols in ... 4 g PS esters (2 g free PS). Serum concentrations of lipids and non-cholesterol sterols were measured. Compared to control, LDL ...
Lack of stimulation of cholesteryl ester transfer protein by cholesterol in the presence of a high-fat diet.. [Sukhinder Kaur ... Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is a key protein involved in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway. The ... Addition of cholesterol to the low-fat MUFA diet increased CETP activity and mRNA expression, whereas addition of cholesterol ... However, addition of fatty acids along with cholesterol interfered with the stimulatory effect of cholesterol on CETP gene ...
Cholesterol ester hydrolase (CEH) catalyses the rate limiting step in free cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells and ... Abstract 679: Variations in the Expression of Cholesterol Ester Hydrolase in Macrophages from Human Subjects and its ... Abstract 679: Variations in the Expression of Cholesterol Ester Hydrolase in Macrophages from Human Subjects and its ... Abstract 679: Variations in the Expression of Cholesterol Ester Hydrolase in Macrophages from Human Subjects and its ...
i ) Cholesterol ester+Cholesteryl esterase cholesterol+fatty acid. *Principle:- ( ii ) Cholesterol+O2+H2O cholesterol oxidase ... A)Determination of serum cholesterol: ( i) Cholesterol ester+Cholesteryl esterase cholesterol+fatty acid. Original Title: ... C)Calculation of LDL-cholesterol concentration. *LDL-cholesterol=Total cholesterol-HDL-colesterol-0.46X. triglycerides (all ... from cholesterol esters to soaps. Subsequent acidification. freed the fatty acids so that total fatty acids could be. titrated ...
  • Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease (CESD) is an autosomal recessive chronic disease of variable phenotype, caused by a deficiency in lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) and characterized by accumulation of fat in tissues and organs. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • These inhibitors bind covalently as an ester to the serine hydroxyl group at the active site on pancreatic- and gastric lipases and form a stable complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium dichromate oxidation gave carboxylic acid 25, Diazomethane treatment gave methyl ester 26 and sodium borohydride the allyl alcohol 27. (wikipedia.org)
  • Roxibolone (INN) (developmental code name BR-906), also known as 11β,17β-dihydroxy-17α-methyl-3-oxoandrosta-1,4-diene-2-carboxylic acid, is a steroidal antiglucocorticoid described as an anticholesterolemic (cholesterol-lowering) and anabolic drug which was never marketed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phytosterols, which encompass plant sterols and stanols, are phytosteroids, similar to cholesterol, which occur in plants and vary only in carbon side chains and/or presence or absence of a double bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • The FDA has approved the following claim for phytosterols: For plant sterol esters: (i) Foods containing at least 0.65 g per serving of plant sterol esters, eaten twice a day with meals for a daily total intake of at least 1.3 g, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, may reduce the risk of heart disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reviewing clinical trials involving phytosterol supplementation, the FDA concluded that when consumed in the range of 1 to 3 grams in enriched foods, phytosterols resulted in statistically significant (5-15%) reductions in blood LDL cholesterol levels relative to placebo. (wikipedia.org)
  • They offer an additional, clinically significant reduction in serum cholesterol concentrations to that obtained with a low-fat diet alone. (nih.gov)
  • It has been estimated that each 1% reduction in LDL cholesterol achieves a 1% reduction in the risk of CAD [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • On the other hand, in a specific patient group, in colectomized patients [ 8 ], significant reduction in serum cholesterol was found already after one day of stanol ester use as measured by gas liquid chromatograph (GLC), but a steady state was reached just within one week. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Dose-dependent decreases of bile acid mass production and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase and sterol 27-hydroxylase activity were found, showing a maximal reduction of −91%, −79%, and −49% respectively, at a concentration of 20 μg/mL cafestol. (ahajournals.org)
  • Statins are the only cholesterol-lowering drug class that has been directly associated with a reduction in the risk of heart attack or stroke. (heart.org)
  • His group also conducted the first trials of pharmacological cholesterol reduction in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conversion of cholestenone into cholesterol by the method of Dauben and Eastham (1950) consisted of reduction of the enol acetate (lithium aluminum hydride) and fractionation with digitonin for the isolation of the correct isomer. (wikipedia.org)
  • They were originally obtained by reduction of wax esters with sodium by the Bouveault-Blanc reduction process. (wikipedia.org)
  • While this may be a beneficial outcome with respect to cholesterol reduction activity, for those wishing to maximize the EGCG content of green tea infusions, it is still appropriate to use high temperatures, as long as it is taking into account that extreme conditions will lead to small reductions in total EGCG, for example a 12.4% reduction in total EGCG when heated for 30 minutes straight at 100 degrees Celsius. (wikipedia.org)
  • Full-fat sitostanol ester-containing margarine reduces serum total and LDL cholesterol, but the effect of plant stanol ester-containing margarine as part of a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet has not been studied. (nih.gov)
  • We conclude that the low-fat, plant stanol ester-containing margarines are effective cholesterol-lowering products in hypercholesterolemic subjects when used as part of a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet. (nih.gov)
  • Maarit Hallikainen, Johan Olsson, and Helena Gylling, "Low-Fat Nondairy Minidrink Containing Plant Stanol Ester Effectively Reduces LDL Cholesterol in Subjects with Mild to Moderate Hypercholesterolemia as Part of a Western Diet," Cholesterol , vol. 2013, Article ID 192325, 8 pages, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • The cholesterol-lowering efficacy of plant stanol ester (STAEST) added to fat- or milk-based products is well documented. (hindawi.com)
  • Most of the studies included in the plant stanol ester (STAEST) meta-analysis have been performed with solid food format, and only in four studies out of 61 has the plant stanol been in liquid dairy and one in a nondairy form [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In different technological applications of Benecol products, the fatty acid part is selected so that the melting properties, texture and other characteristics of the plant stanol ester closely resemble the properties of the fat it replaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main products of the Brands division include breakfast, snack and baking products, cholesterol-lowering functional foods, the ingredient of plant stanol ester in Benecol products as well as activities related to the international commercialisation of the Benemilk innovation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nutrition Plant stanol ester Fatty acid Mayo Clinic Cholesterol: Top 5 foods to lower your numbers High cholesterol Important Basics Food Charts Archived 2011-07-01 at the Wayback Machine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies in which the authors used bacterial endotoxin in humans and mice have directly demonstrated changes in HDL composition, loss of HDL's cholesterol acceptor activity, and decreased hepatic processing and secretion of cholesterol. (nih.gov)
  • Their main action is to lower LDL cholesterol via an upregulation of hepatic LDL receptors. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cholesterol from non-hepatic peripheral tissues is transferred to HDL by the ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter). (wikipedia.org)