Proteins that bind to and transfer CHOLESTEROL ESTERS between LIPOPROTEINS such as LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
A ubiquitous family of proteins that transport PHOSPHOLIPIDS such as PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE between membranes. They play an important role in phospholipid metabolism during vesicular transport and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.
An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC 2.3.1.43.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.
Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Conditions with abnormally elevated levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. They may be inherited, acquired, primary, or secondary. Hyperlipoproteinemias are classified according to the pattern of lipoproteins on electrophoresis or ultracentrifugation.
Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). High circulating levels of VLDL cholesterol are found in HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE IIB. The cholesterol on the VLDL is eventually delivered by LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS to the tissues after the catabolism of VLDL to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LDL.
A 6.6-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. Apo C-I displaces APO E from lipoproteins, modulate their binding to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL), and thereby decrease their clearance from plasma. Elevated Apo C-I levels are associated with HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.
A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC 2.3.1.26.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.
A highly dense subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes below 7 nm. They are also known as nascent HDL, composed of a few APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I molecules which are complexed with PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The lipid-poor pre-beta-HDL particles serve as progenitors of HDL3 and then HDL2 after absorption of free cholesterol from cell membranes, cholesterol esterification, and acquisition of apolipoproteins A-II, Cs, and E. Pre-beta-HDL initiate the reverse cholesterol transport process from cells to liver.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.
Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.
A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
Derivatives of oxazolidin-2-one. They represent an important class of synthetic antibiotic agents.
Intermediate-density subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes between 7 to 8 nm. As the larger lighter HDL2 lipoprotein, HDL3 lipoprotein is lipid-rich.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of cholesterol in the presence of molecular oxygen to 4-cholesten-3-one and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme is not specific for cholesterol, but will also oxidize other 3-hydroxysteroids. EC 1.1.3.6.
A condition of elevated levels of TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A group of apolipoproteins that can readily exchange among the various classes of lipoproteins (HDL; VLDL; CHYLOMICRONS). After lipolysis of TRIGLYCERIDES on VLDL and chylomicrons, Apo-C proteins are normally transferred to HDL. The subtypes can modulate remnant binding to receptors, LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, or LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE.
Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.
The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
Errors in the metabolism of LIPIDS resulting from inborn genetic MUTATIONS that are heritable.
Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.
7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
A family of scavenger receptors that are predominately localized to CAVEOLAE of the PLASMA MEMBRANE and bind HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A superfamily of large integral ATP-binding cassette membrane proteins whose expression pattern is consistent with a role in lipid (cholesterol) efflux. It is implicated in TANGIER DISEASE characterized by accumulation of cholesteryl ester in various tissues.
Relating to the size of solids.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.

Lipid transfer inhibitor protein defines the participation of lipoproteins in lipid transfer reactions: CETP has no preference for cholesteryl esters in HDL versus LDL. (1/740)

Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) catalyzes the net transfer of cholesteryl ester (CE) between lipoproteins in exchange for triglyceride (heteroexchange). It is generally held that CETP primarily associates with HDL and preferentially transfers lipids from this lipoprotein fraction. This is illustrated in normal plasma where HDL is the primary donor of the CE transferred to VLDL by CETP. However, in plasma deficient in lipid transfer inhibitor protein (LTIP) activity, HDL and LDL are equivalent donors of CE to VLDL (Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1997;17:1716-1724). Thus, we have hypothesized that the preferential transfer of CE from HDL in normal plasma is a consequence of LTIP activity and not caused by a preferential CETP-HDL interaction. We have tested this hypothesis in lipid mass transfer assays with partially purified CETP and LTIP, and isolated lipoproteins. With a physiological mixture of lipoproteins, the preference ratio (PR, ratio of CE mass transferred from a lipoprotein to VLDL versus its CE content) for HDL and LDL in the presence of CETP alone was approximately 1 (ie, no preference). Fourfold variations in the LDL/HDL ratio or in the levels of HDL in the assay did not result in significant preferential transfer from any lipoprotein. On addition of LTIP, the PR for HDL was increased up to 2-fold and that for LDL decreased in a concentration-dependent manner. Under all conditions where LDL and HDL levels were varied, LTIP consistently resulted in a PR >1 for CE transfer from HDL. Short-term experiments with radiolabeled lipoproteins and either partially purified or homogenous CETP confirmed these observations and further demonstrated that CETP has a strong predilection to mediate homoexchange (bidirectional transfer of the same lipid) rather than heteroexchange (CE for TG); LTIP had no effect on the selection of CE or TG by CETP or its mechanism of action. We conclude, in contrast to current opinion, that CETP has no preference for CE in HDL versus LDL, suggesting that the previously reported stable binding of CETP to HDL does not result in selective transfer from this lipoprotein. These data suggest that LTIP is responsible for the preferential transfer of CE from HDL that occurs in plasma. CETP and LTIP cooperatively determine the extent of CETP-mediated remodeling of individual lipoprotein fractions.  (+info)

Increased atherosclerosis in ApoE and LDL receptor gene knock-out mice as a result of human cholesteryl ester transfer protein transgene expression. (2/740)

The plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) plays a major role in the catabolism of HDL cholesteryl ester (CE). CETP transgenic mice have decreased HDL cholesterol levels and have been reported to have either increased or decreased early atherosclerotic lesions. To evaluate the impact of CETP expression on more advanced forms of atherosclerosis, we have cross-bred the human CETP transgene into the apoE knock-out (apoE0) background with and without concomitant expression of the human apo A-I transgene. In this model the CETP transgene is induced to produce plasma CETP levels 5 to 10 times normal human levels. CETP expression resulted in moderately reduced HDL cholesterol (34%) in apoE0 mice and markedly reduced HDL cholesterol (76%) in apoE0/apoA1 transgenic mice. After injection of radiolabeled HDL CE, the CETP transgene significantly delayed the clearance of CE radioactivity from plasma in apoE0 mice, but accelerated the clearance in apoE0/apoA1 transgenic mice. ApoE0/CETP mice displayed an increase in mean atherosclerotic lesion area on the chow diet (approximately 2-fold after 2 to 4 months, and 1.4- to 1.6-fold after 7 months) compared with apoE0 mice (P<0.02). At 7 months apoA1 transgene expression resulted in a 3-fold reduction in mean lesion area in apoE0 mice (P<0.001). In the apoE0/apoA1 background, CETP produced an insignificant 1.3- to 1.7-fold increase in lesion area. In further studies the CETP transgene was bred onto the LDL receptor knock-out background (LDLR0). After 3 months on the Western diet, the mean lesion area was increased 1.8-fold (P<0.01) in LDLR0/CETP mice, compared with LDLR0 mice. These studies indicate that CETP expression leads to a moderate increase in atherosclerosis in apoE0 and LDLR0 mice, and suggest a proatherogenic effect of CETP activity in metabolic settings in which clearance of remnants or LDL is severely impaired. However, apoA1 overexpression has more dramatic protective effects on atherosclerosis in apoE0 mice, which are not significantly reversed by concomitant expression of CETP.  (+info)

A cholesteryl ester transfer protein gene mutation and vascular disease in dialysis patients. (3/740)

Among patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis, a decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration is among the most common abnormalities of lipid metabolism and apparently is an independent risk factor for vascular disease. A common missense mutation of cholesteryl ester transfer protein gene, D442G (Asp 442 to Gly), increases HDL-C levels through the reduced activity of cholesteryl ester transfer from HDL to VLDL, but the mutation also may lead to reduced activity of reverse cholesterol transport. To investigate the effect of the D442G polymorphism on atherosclerotic complications in dialysis patients, the genotype and allele frequency of the polymorphism were determined in 414 unselected dialysis patients and 220 control subjects, and postprandial serum lipid levels were measured in the dialysis patients. A similar genotype distribution was found between hemodialysis patients and healthy control subjects, and in dialysis patients with and without vascular disease. Serum levels of total cholesterol and HDL-C did not differ between patients with and without the mutation and in patients with and without vascular disease. However, patients with sub-median HDL-C levels (<45 mg/dl) had an independent odds ratio of 1.8 for vascular disease (95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 3.2; P < 0.05). In this low-HDL-C subgroup, patients with the D442G mutation had a significantly higher prevalence of vascular disease than those with no mutation (54.5% versus 24.4%; P < 0.05), and an independent odds ratio of 4.9 (95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 22.65; P < 0.05). In conclusion, the D442G mutation is an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic complications in dialysis patients with HDL-C levels below 45 mg/dl.  (+info)

Structure-specific inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein by azaphilones. (4/740)

The effect of thirteen different fungal azaphilones, which have a common 6-iso-chromane-like ring, was tested on cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity in vitro. Chaetoviridin B showed the most potent inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of < 6.2 microM, followed by sclerotiorin with an IC50 value of 19.4 microM. Rotiorin, chaetoviridin A and rubrorotiorin had moderate inhibitory activity (IC50 ; 30 approximately 40 microM), but others showed very weak or no inhibitory activity. The relationship between the structures and their inhibitory activity indicated that the presence of an electrophilic ketone(s) and/or enone(s) at both C-6 and C-8 positions in the isochromane-like ring is essential for eliciting CETP inhibitory activity. The transfer activity of both CE and TG was inhibited by sclerotiorin to approximately the same extent (IC50: 14.4 and 10.3 microM, respectively). A model of the reaction suggested that sclerotiorin reacts with a primary amine of amino acids such as lysine in the protein to form a covalent bond.  (+info)

Estrogen-mediated increases in LDL cholesterol and foam cell-containing lesions in human ApoB100xCETP transgenic mice. (5/740)

The murine double transgenic mouse expressing both human apoB100 and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), has been used as a model to understand the effects mediated by various therapeutic modalities on serum lipoproteins and on atherosclerotic lesion progression. In the present study the effects of estrogen therapy on serum lipoproteins were investigated after mice were placed on an atherosclerotic diet. The daily oral administration of 20 or 100 microg/kg of 17 alpha-ethinyl estradiol resulted in a significant, dose-dependent increase in LDL cholesterol over a 20-week regimen. These differences were apparent by 6 weeks and further increases were observed through the 20-week period. Although CETP did result in a reduction in total HDL, estrogen did not have any impact on the amount of CETP activity associated with the HDL particles. The significant increase in LDL cholesterol was associated with increases in the amount of apoB100 and B48 and apoE-containing particles. Hepatic apoB message levels, however, were not different between the experimental groups. Although the extent of atherosclerotic lesions was modest, <0.5% of the aortic surface area in the vehicle group, the high-dose estrogen group, showed an increase in lesion area consistent with the elevation in LDL cholesterol. These lesions, primarily restricted to the aortic root and aortic semilunar valves, were more intensely stained with Oil Red O in the high-dose estrogen group when compared with the vehicle controls.  (+info)

Wiedendiol-A inhibits cholesteryl ester binding to its transfer protein. (6/740)

AIM: To study the wiedendiol-A (W-A) inhibition mechanism of plasma cholesteryl ester (CE) transfer protein (CETP) on the transfer of CE. METHODS: Using gel filtration method. RESULTS: W-A at 30 mumol.L-1 inhibited association of CE with CETP by 76% and CETP transfer activity by 81%. In addition, W-A enhanced binding of TP2, a monoclonal antibody with a CETP C-terminal epitope which is involved in CE binding, to CETP, suggesting a W-A-induced conformational change at the epitope for increased TP2 binding. When CETP activity was measured by varying high-density lipoproteins (HDL) concentration, the apparent Vmax of CE transfer was inhibited by 74% and 83% in the presence of W-A at 14 and 25 mumol.L-1, respectively, while the apparent K(m) of HDL for CETP did not change. CONCLUSION: W-A action is mediated through interaction between W-A and CETP, but not through those between W-A and lipoproteins.  (+info)

Remodeling of HDL by CETP in vivo and by CETP and hepatic lipase in vitro results in enhanced uptake of HDL CE by cells expressing scavenger receptor B-I. (7/740)

The transport of HDL cholesteryl esters (CE) from plasma to the liver involves a direct uptake pathway, mediated by hepatic scavenger receptor B-I (SR-BI), and an indirect pathway, involving the exchange of HDL CE for triglycerides (TG) of TG-rich lipoproteins by cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP). We carried out HDL CE turnover studies in mice expressing human CETP and/or human lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) transgenes on a background of human apoA-I expression. The fractional clearance of HDL CE by the liver was delayed by LCAT transgene, while the CETP transgene increased it. However, there was no incremental transfer of HDL CE radioactivity to the TG-rich lipoprotein fraction in mice expressing CETP, suggesting increased direct removal of HDL CE in the liver. To evaluate the possibility that this might be mediated by SR-BI, HDL isolated from plasma of the different groups of transgenic mice was incubated with SR-BI transfected or control CHO cells. HDL isolated from mice expressing CETP showed a 2- to 4-fold increase in SR-BI-mediated HDL CE uptake, compared to HDL from mice lacking CETP. The addition of pure CETP to HDL in cell culture did not lead to increased selective uptake of HDL CE by cells. However, when human HDL was enriched with TG by incubation with TG-rich lipoproteins in the presence of CETP, then treated with hepatic lipase, there was a significant enhancement of HDL CE uptake. Thus, the remodeling of human HDL by CETP, involving CE;-TG interchange, followed by the action of hepatic lipase (HL), leads to the enhanced uptake of HDL CE by cellular SR-BI. These observations suggest that in animals such as humans in which both the selective uptake and CETP pathways are active, the two pathways could operate in a synergistic fashion to enhance reverse cholesterol transport.  (+info)

Characterization of a cholesterol response element (CRE) in the promoter of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein gene: functional role of the transcription factors SREBP-1a, -2, and YY1. (8/740)

Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is expressed in human adipocytes, where it acts to promote selective uptake of HDL-CE (Benoist, F., M. McDonnell, P. Lau, R. Milne, and R. McPherson. 1997. J. Biol. Chem. 272: 23572;-23577). In contrast to other major sterol-responsive genes such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase CETP expression is up-regulated rather than down-regulated in response to cholesterol. To define elements involved in cholesterol-mediated up-regulation of CETP gene expression, deletion derivatives of the CETP promoter were cloned into a luciferase reporter construct and transfected into the human liposarcoma cell line SW872, cultured in the presence or absence of lipoproteins. A fragment associated with a positive cholesterol response was identified between nucleotides -361 and -138 (relative to the initiation site of transcription) of the promoter. This region contains a tandem repeat of a sequence known to mediate sterol dependent regulation of the hamster HMG-CoA reductase gene. We have putatively denoted this region, the cholesterol response element (CRE). Using gel mobility shift assays we demonstrate that both YY1 and SREBP-1 interact with the CRE of CETP. Furthermore, in transient co-transfection experiments, both YY1 and SREBP-1a were found to trans-activate, in a dose-dependent manner, the luciferase activity of constructs harboring the CRE. We also demonstrate that SREBP-2, is able to trans-activate a luciferase construct harboring the CRE although much less effectively as compared to SREBP-1. Finally, functional analysis of the CRE confirms its regulatory role in modulating CETP gene expression through its interaction with YY1 and SREBP-1a.  (+info)

The mechanism of the regulation of cholesterol ester transfer protein by dietary fats and cholesterol was investigated using human cholesterol ester transfer protein transgenic mice fed monounsaturated fatty acid and saturated fatty acid enriched diets with or without cholesterol. Cholesterol inhibited protein activity and hepatic mRNA abundance in the monounsaturated fatty acid diet. However, cholesterol enhanced protein activity but had no effect on hepatic mRNA abundance in the saturated fatty acid diet. The molecular mechanisms of dietary lipid mediated regulation of the promoter activity of this gene were investigated using chimeric gene constructs harbouring sequential deletions of the gene promoter in SW 872 cell culture. Oleic acid and stearic acid had opposite effects indicating that the type of dietary fat alters gene regulation. There was interaction between cholesterol and fatty acids to regulate cholesterol ester transfer protein.. ...
An absence of cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP, protein; CETP, gene) results in an increase of the apolipoprotein AI levels and a decrease in the low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. Thus, the CETP polymorphism is important in the assessment of risk of atherosclerosis. This study was conducted to elucidate the genotype distributions of the CETP polymorphism and association with plasma lipid levels in Koreans. The genotypes of the TaqI A and B polymorphic loci were associated with plasma triglyceride levels in the control and coronary artery disease (CAD) groups. There was linkage disequilibrium between TaqI A and B loci in the control group (χ2 = 5.58, p | 0.05). Association studies of the CETP polymorphism have been carried out mainly with Caucasian populations; however, the results have not been consistent among different populations. A possible explanation for this diversity among populations may be differences in genetic backgrounds, which may be more important than environmental factors.
BACKGROUND: Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) plays a main role in high-density lipoprotein metabolism. CETP gene possesses several single nucleotide polymorphisms which have been associated with plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations. The aim of this study was to determine the association of CETP -629C/A and I405V polymorphisms with coronary artery disease (CAD) in Iranian population. METHODS: The presence of two CETP gene polymorphisms -629C/A and I405V were studied in 187 unrelated CAD cases and 136 controls. All the samples were clinically examined and lipid profile was estimated. Genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism method. RESULTS: The frequency of -629C/A and I405V allelic variants were found to be 0.732 and 0.366 in cases and 0.658 and 0.348 in controls, respectively. The frequency of A allele of -629C/A polymorphism in cases was significantly higher than that of controls. HDL-C in AA ...
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is a major determinant of plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) in humans. The anti-atherogenic effect of lowering CETP levels is dependent not only on HDL-C levels but also on a metabolic background of increased low-density lipoprotein or very-low-density lipoprotein. Here we investigated the effects of JTT-705, a chemical inhibitor of CETP, on the development of atherosclerosis in Japanese white rabbits fed on a high cholesterol diet. After 4 weeks on a diet of 0.25% cholesterol-containing chow, 100mg/kg (low dose) or 300mg/kg (high dose) JTT-705 was given, and the animals were monitored at weeks 0, 4, 8 and 12. Aortic atherosclerotic lesions were determined at the end of this period. JTT-705 induced a significant increase in HDL-C in the high-dose group [from 21±3 to 50±7mg/dl (mean±S.E.M.); P,0.0001] compared with the control group (from 21±2 to 27±2mg/dl). The atheromatous area was 60±9% in the high-dose group and ...
The aim of this study was to compare patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) to healthy objects, in order to explore a possible association between CAD and the variants in the gene encoding cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP), apolipoprotein E (Apo E) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL). The relationship between CETP MspI, apo E and LPL PvuII gene polymorphisms and serum lipids were investigated in 173 patients with CAD and 111 healthy controls. The frequency of Apo ε4 (p , 0.05) and CETP M1 (p , 0.01) alleles were higher in the CAD group than in the control group. In the CAD group, those with the Msp M1 allele had higher levels of total cholesterol (TC) (p = 0026) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) than those with the Msp M2 allele. Subjects with an ε2 allele had the lowest levels of TC and LDL-C, while subjects with the ε4 allele had the highest. In the control group, CETP, the Msp M2 allele was associated with a higher level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ...
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) regulates high density lipoproteins (HDL)-cholesterol levels and interaction between glucose and HDL metabolism is cen...
SR-BI is the sole receptor responsible for the delivery of HDL-CE to the liver in mice.22 In humans, however, CETP facilitates an alternate route for the delivery of HDL-CE to the liver after transfer to VLDL and LDL and subsequent uptake by the LDL receptor or LDL receptor-related protein.23 In this study, we show that expression of CETP in SR-BIKO mice indeed increased the delivery of HDL-CEt to the liver, probably after transfer to VLDL and LDL and partially normalized HDL-C levels and HDL particle size. Strikingly, in spite of these plasma lipid changes, the enhanced susceptibility of these animals to diet-induced atherosclerosis was not influenced. In addition, other pathologies that are associated with SR-BI disruption, including female infertility, reticulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, and impaired platelet aggregation, were not normalized by CETP. These findings indicate that the pathophysiology of SR-BI deficiency is not a direct consequence of the accumulation of the abnormally large HDL ...
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is understood to play a regulatory role in HDL cholesterol (HDLC) metabolism. In this study, the effect of CETP genotypes on plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels in 348 Vietnamese girls (aged 7-9) with different nutritional conditions was analyzed. The two mutations, intron 14 G(+1)-to-A (I14A) and Asp 442 to Gly within exon 15 (D442G), and the TaqIB polymorphism in the CETP gene were identified by an Invader assay. The D442G mutation was present with a frequency of 0.034, while the I14A mutation was absent. HDLC levels were significantly higher in carriers of the D442G mutation than in noncarriers, regardless of the nutritional status. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels were not significantly lower in carriers of D442G mutation. The frequency of the TaqIB2 allele was 0.34, which was lower than that observed in other Asian populations. TaqIB2B2 carriers also had significantly higher HDLC levels, but this association was weaker than
The relations of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity to the distribution of low density lipoproteins (LDLs) and high density lipoproteins (HDLs) were investigated in fasting plasma samples from 27 normolipidemic subjects. LDL and HDL subfractions were separated by electrophoresis on 20-160 g/L and 40-300 g/L polyacrylamide gradient gels, respectively. Subjects were subdivided into two groups according to their LDL pattern. Monodisperse patterns were characterized by the presence of a single LDL band, whereas polydisperse patterns were characterized by the presence of several LDL bands of different sizes. To investigate the influence of lipid transfers on LDL patterns, total plasma was incubated at 37 degrees C in the absence of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity. The incubation induced a progressive transformation of polydisperse patterns into monodisperse patterns. Under the same conditions, initially monodisperse patterns remained unchanged. Measurements of the ...
High levels of plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) are inversely associated with the risk of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases; thus, pharmacological inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is considered to be a therapeutic method of raising HDL-C levels. However, many CETP inhibitors have failed to achieve a clinical benefit despite raising HDL-C. In the study, we generated transgenic (Tg) rabbits that overexpressed the human CETP gene to examine the influence of CETP on the development of atherosclerosis. Both Tg rabbits and their non-Tg littermates were fed a high cholesterol diet for 16 weeks. Plasma lipids and body weight were measured every 4 weeks. Gross lesion areas of the aortic atherosclerosis along with lesional cellular components were quantitatively analyzed. Overexpression of human CETP did not significantly alter the gross atherosclerotic lesion area, but the number of macrophages in lesions was significantly increased. Overexpression of
TY - JOUR. T1 - Relationship between cholesteryl ester transfer activity and high density lipoprotein composition in hyperlipidemic patients. AU - Sparks, D. L.. AU - Frohlich, J.. AU - Lacko, A. G.. AU - Pritchard, P. H.. PY - 1989/6. Y1 - 1989/6. N2 - Cholesteryl ester transfer from solid-phase bound HDL to endogenous plasma HDL or VLDL/LDL was determined in 50 patients with primary disorders of lipid metabolism and 27 normolipidemic subjects. Transfer to the plasma HDL pool was significantly reduced in familial hypercholesterolemia, familial combined hyperlipidemia, hypoalphalipoproteinemia and dysbetalipoproteinemia. Subfractionation of HDL revealed that the lipid transfer to HDL3 was significantly reduced in all patient groups while transfer to HDL2 was increased in those with dysbetalipoproteinemia and familial hypertriglyceridemia. Transfer to LDL and VLDL was increased only in patients with dysbetalipoproteinemia and hypoalphalipoproteinemia. Reduced transfer to HDL occurred in samples ...
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The notion that CETP may be a potential target for reducing CVD originated from reports of a Japanese population of apparently healthy individuals that lacked a functional copy of the CETP gene (34,35). Compared with unaffected individuals, those who were CETP-deficient and who had no measurable CETP activity in plasma exhibited substantial increases in HDL-C (209%) and large decreases in LDL-C (44%). In individuals with heterozygous deficiency who possessed half the normal CETP activity, changes in HDL-C and LDL-C were less dramatic (+25% and −5%, respectively).. While CETP gene mutations are common in Japanese populations (49) and have clearly helped to establish the link between reduced CETP function and elevated HDL-C levels, the effect of decreased CETP activity on the development of atherosclerosis is less clear. For example, in a study of 201 patients with markedly elevated HDL-C levels (≥100 mg/dl), a subgroup of 12 patients (6%) was identified with atherosclerotic CVD. Of these, 10 ...
Herein are described two antibodies that can inhibit CETP-lipoproteins interaction and CETP activity. Presently described are an antibody or fragment thereof capable of specifically binding to an epitope of the N-terminal or C-terminal domains of CETP and methods of using these antibodies for separation, identification, diagnosis and therapy.
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is a plasma glycoprotein that promotes reverse cholesterol transport via the exchange of cholesteryl ester (CE) and triglyceride (TG) among lipoproteins. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) promotes reverse cholesterol transport via exchange of cholesteryl ester and triglyceride among lipoproteins. CETP has a central role in lipoprotein metabolism.. CETP, a hydrophobic plasma glycoprotein, is a promising target for raising circulating HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations in humans. CETP is secreted primarily from the liver and plays a critical role in HDL metabolism by facilitating the exchange of cholesteryl esters (CE) from HDL for triglycerides (TG) in apoB-containing lipoproteins, such as LDL and VLDL.. CETP catalyses the exchange of cholesteryl ester and triglyceride between HDL and apoB containing lipoprotein particles. The role of CETP in modulating plasma HDL cholesterol levels in humans is well established and there have been significant ...
In order to investigate non-invasive biomarkers for angina pectoris (AP), we analyzed the lipid and protein composition in individual lipoproteins from females with angina pectoris (n=22) and age- and gender-matched controls (n=20). In the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) fraction, the triglycerides (TG) and protein content increased in the AP group compared to the control group. The AP group had lower total cholesterol (TC) and elevated TG in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction. In the AP group, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity was enhanced in HDL and LDL, while lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity in HDL3 was almost depleted. Antioxidant activity was significantly decreased in the HDL, fraction, with a decrease in the HDL2 particle size. In the HDL, fraction, paraoxonase and platelet activating factor-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) activity were much lower and the levels of CETP and apoC-III were elevated in the AP group. The LDL from the AP group was more ...
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The optimal approaches to management of patients treated with moderate statin doses on lipid parameters are unknown. The ACCENTUATE study aimed to compare the effects of adding the cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor (CETP) evacetrapib, ezetimibe or increasing statin dose in atorvastatin-treated high-vascular risk patients on lipid parameters. METHODS: 366 patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and/or diabetes were treated with atorvastatin 40 mg/day for 28 days prior to randomization to atorvastatin 40 mg plus evacetrapib 130 mg, atorvastatin 80 mg, atorvastatin 40 mg plus ezetimibe 10 mg or atorvastatin 40 mg plus placebo, daily for 90 days at 64 centers in the United States ...
In this paper, researchers investigated associations of genetic inhibition of CETP on detailed lipoproteins using variants associated with CETP (rs247617) and HMGCR (rs12916) expression in 62,400 Europeans and detailed lipoprotein profiling. Results found that CETP inhibition does not affect size-specific
Description: The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the acute-phase immunologic response to gram-negative bacterial infections. Gram-negative bacteria contain a glycolipid, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), on their outer cell wall. Together with bactericidal permeability-increasing protein (BPI), the encoded protein binds LPS and interacts with the CD14 receptor, probably playing a role in regulating LPS-dependent monocyte responses. Studies in mice suggest that the encoded protein is necessary for the rapid acute-phase response to LPS but not for the clearance of LPS from circulation. This protein is part of a family of structurally and functionally related proteins, including BPI, plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP). [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012 ...
In this study, we show that CETP inhibition with anacetrapib affects HDL function, the HDL proteome, and metabolic outcomes differently depending on whether the mice were fed an obesogenic diet versus a chow diet. Anacetrapib treatment of CETP mice increased HDL cholesterol in chow- and HFD-fed mice. Increases in HDL cholesterol did not necessarily improve HDL function in chow-fed mice, which fits a growing consensus that HDL functionality is more predictive than HDL cholesterol levels with regard to protection from CVD. Proteomics technology has provided insight into the connections between HDL protein composition and functionality. We show a marked dietary influence on the modification of the HDL proteome by CETP inhibition with anacetrapib, which contributes to the functionality of HDL. Furthermore, inhibition of CETP in HFD-fed mice increased NEFA in the circulation and the liver and modified control of regulatory steps of TG metabolism in the liver, which was associated with increases in ...
Torcetrapib (T), an experimental cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitor (CETPi) raised HDL-C and lowered LDL-C. The ILLUMINATE study was a randomized, double-blind trial in 15,067 patients testing the clinical benefit of T on a background of atorvastatin (A). The A dose (10 - 80 mg) was determined during the trial run-in to provide LDL-C control. The trial was terminated prematurely for imbalanced all-cause mortality (ACM) (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 1.58, p = 0.006) and major cardiovascular events (MCVE) (HR = 1.25, p = 0.001) in T. These findings and effects of T on BP, electrolytes and aldosterone have been previously reported. Post hoc analyses were performed to further understand the effects of T. Evidence for risk was limited to the T/A 10 mg vs A 10 mg subgroup comparison (n = 6,492) for both ACM (HR = 2.68, p , 0.0001) and MCVE (HR = 1.41, p = 0.002). Point estimates of risk for both endpoints lowered as the A dose increased; none of the 95% confidence intervals for the higher dose ...
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) transfers cholesteryl ester (CE) and triglyceride between HDL and apoB-containing lipoproteins. Anacetrapib (ANA), a reversible inhibitor of CETP, raises HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and lowers LDL cholesterol in dyslipidemic patients; however, the effects of ANA on cholesterol/lipoprotein metabolism in a dyslipidemic hamster model have not
Treatment with a new drug called torcetrapib increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL; good) cholesterol in individuals with low HDL levels, as well as decreasing the levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL; bad) cholesterol. Torcetrapib is a blocker of a cell chemical called cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP). Individuals who do not have CETP because of a genetic defect have significantly elevated HDL levels. This discovery led to the finding that CETP inhibition may be a novel way of raising HDL, the researchers explained in the New England Journal of Medicine, April 8, 2004. The investigators treated 19 participants who had low HDL levels with an inactive placebo for 4 weeks. After 4 weeks, the participants were given another 4 weeks of either torcetrapib alone or in combination with the statin atorvastatin. The results showed a 46% HDL increase in the once-daily torcetrapib-only group and a 61% rise in the once-daily torcetrapib/atorvastatin group. The third phase of the study ...
BACKGROUND Most patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are treated with statins, which reduce atherogenic triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. It is uncertain whether triglycerides predict risk after ACS on a background of statin treatment. OBJECTIVES This study examined the relationship of fasting triglyceride levels to outcomes after ACS in patients treated with statins. METHODS Long-term and short-term relationships of triglycerides to risk after ACS were examined in the dal-OUTCOMES trial and atorvastatin arm of the MIRACL (Myocardial Ischemia Reduction with Acute Cholesterol Lowering) trial, respectively. Analysis of dal-OUTCOMES included 15,817 patients (97% statin-treated) randomly assigned 4 to 12 weeks after ACS to treatment with dalcetrapib (a cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor) or placebo and followed for a median 31 months. Analysis of MIRACL included 1,501 patients treated with atorvastatin 80 mg daily beginning 1 to 4 days after ACS and followed for 16 weeks. Fasting ...
Background--Aldosterone may have adverse effects in the myocardium and vasculature. Treatment with an aldosterone antagonist reduces cardiovascular risk in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by heart failure (HF) and left ventricular systolic dysfunction. However, most patients with acute coronary syndrome do not have advanced HF. Among such patients, it is unknown whether aldosterone predicts cardiovascular risk. Methods and Results--To address this question, we examined data from the dal-OUTCOMES trial that compared the cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor dalcetrapib with placebo, beginning 4 to 12 weeks after an index acute coronary syndrome. Patients with New York Heart Association class II (with LVEF
Based on this trial, substantial increases in HDL levels with evacetrapib monotherapy were witnessed that seem greater than other standard therapies, (i.e. niacin, fibric acids).1 This is notable as mean baseline HDL levels of these patients were not low (55.1mg/dL). Patients with lower baseline HDL or higher baseline TG seemed to have greater changes with evacetrapib.2 The safety profile of evacetrapib was similar to placebo, though larger Phase III trials are warranted to better evaluate the adverse drug reaction profile, especially as the previous CETP inhibitor never made it to market due to serious adverse outcomes. It is also important to note that other CETP inhibitors are in development, so more information regarding this class of medications is expected. As the LDL reductions with evacetrapib monotherapy are modest compared to our current standards of therapy, it is likely that this medication could be utilized more as adjunctive therapy to achieve improvements in HDL levels once LDL ...
BACKGROUND: Patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease remain at high risk for cardiovascular events despite effective statin-based treatment of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. The inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) by anacetrapib reduces LDL cholesterol levels and increases high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. However, trials of other CETP inhibitors have shown neutral or adverse effects on cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 30,449 adults with atherosclerotic vascular disease who were receiving intensive atorvastatin therapy and who had a mean LDL cholesterol level of 61 mg per deciliter (1.58 mmol per liter), a mean non-HDL cholesterol level of 92 mg per deciliter (2.38 mmol per liter), and a mean HDL cholesterol level of 40 mg per deciliter (1.03 mmol per liter). The patients were assigned to receive either 100 mg of anacetrapib once daily (15,225 patients) or matching
BACKGROUND: Patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease remain at high risk for cardiovascular events despite effective statin-based treatment of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. The inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) by anacetrapib reduces LDL cholesterol levels and increases high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. However, trials of other CETP inhibitors have shown neutral or adverse effects on cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 30,449 adults with atherosclerotic vascular disease who were receiving intensive atorvastatin therapy and who had a mean LDL cholesterol level of 61 mg per deciliter (1.58 mmol per liter), a mean non-HDL cholesterol level of 92 mg per deciliter (2.38 mmol per liter), and a mean HDL cholesterol level of 40 mg per deciliter (1.03 mmol per liter). The patients were assigned to receive either 100 mg of anacetrapib once daily (15,225 patients) or matching
GlobalData has released its new PharmaPoint Drug Evaluation report, Anacetrapib (Acute Coronary Syndrome) - Forecast and Market Analysis to 2023. The current ACS market - primarily comprised of antithrombotics, antihypertensives, and statins - is flush with well-established standard-of-care therapies, many of which are generic. Therefore, the pipeline therapies that show the most promise exploit novel mechanisms of action and target orphan biochemical pathways. The ACS market will be driven by an aging population with a preponderance of lifestyle-based diseases, such as obesity, and the growing prevalence of metabolic disorders such as diabetes. The expansion of biologics into the ACS mainstream during the ten year forecast period is expected to significantly and fundamentally alter the ACS market, both medically and financially.. Prior to REVEAL, the DEFINE (Determining the Efficacy and Tolerability of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein [CETP] Inhibition with Anacetrapib) Phase III study ...
Complete information for CETP gene (Protein Coding), Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
The aim of this work was to evaluate reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) in hamster animal model expressing cholesterol ester transfer protein under a high-cholesterol diet (HF) supplemented with ezetimibe using primary labeled macrophages. We studied three groups of hamsters (n = 8/group) for 4 weeks: 1) chow diet group: Chow, 2) high-cholesterol diet group: HF, and 3) HF group supplemented with 0.01% of ezetimibe: HF + 0.01%Ezet. After intraperitoneal injection of 3H-cholesterol-labeled hamster primary macrophages, we measured the in vivo macrophage-to-feces RCT. HF group exhibited an increase of triglycerides (TGs), cholesterol, and glucose in plasma and higher TG and cholesterol content in liver (P , 0.01) compared with Chow group. Ezetimibe induced a significant decrease in plasma cholesterol with a lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very LDL cholesterol (P , 0.001) and in liver cholesterol (P , 0.001) and TG (P , 0.01) content compared with HF. In vivo RCT essay showed an increase of ...
Objective: Recent data suggests that cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity may interact with acute stress conditions via inflammatory-oxidative response and thrombogenesis. We investigated this assumption in patients with ST-elevation my
The field of lipid treatment for atheroprevention, and of HDL-raising in particular, was shaken by the unexpected finding of a net adverse clinical effect of torcetrapib, a Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor with HDL-raising effects far more dramatic than that of niacin or fenofibrate.. Trilipix (ABT 335, choline fenofibrate, or fenofibric acid) is approved by the FDA (12/2008) for treatment of dyslipidemia and may act as a new fibrate for treatment of dyslipidemia and atheroprevention. It is the first fibrate with sufficient evidence for safety in combination use with a statin to receive an FDA indication for that combination use. Thus, there is minimal safety risk to prospective research subjects, who in any case will have the very dyslipidemia for which this combination is approved and recommended. With the ongoing development of this agent through a time of great scientific controversy regarding torcetrapib and HDL, it is urgent to explore the HDL-related mechanisms by which ...
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein, CETP of 493 aas and 1 TMS. Involved in the transfer of neutral lipids, including cholesteryl esters and triglycerides, among lipoprotein particles. Allows the net movement of cholesteryl esters from high density lipoproteins/HDL to triglyceride-rich very low density lipoproteins/VLDL, and the equimolar transport of triglyceride from VLDL to HDL (Drayna et al. 1987; Morton and Izem 2014). Regulates reverse cholesterol transport, by which excess cholesterol is removed from peripheral tissues and returned to the liver for elimination (Qiu et al. 2007 ...
American scientists have found that a genetic variation could be associated with slower memory decline and a lower risk of Alzheimers disease and dementia. The preliminary findings shed light on processes in the brain that could contribute to memory loss and dementia. The work was published in the Journal of the American Medical Association last week.. The study involved 523 participants who took psychological and cognitive tests over four years. During the study 40 people developed dementia. The researchers found that a specific variant, or allele, of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene was associated with a lower risk of developing Alzheimers. People with the variant also declined more slowly in the cognitive tests than those without.. Dr Amy Sanders, who led the study at the Einstein College of Medicine, New York, said: We found that people with two copies of the longevity variant of CETP had slower memory decline and a lower risk for developing dementia and Alzheimers ...
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) mediates the transfer of neutral lipids, including cholesteryl esters (CEs) and triglycerides (TGs), between high-dens...
Gene target information for CETP - cholesteryl ester transfer protein (rabbit). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
This gene encodes a member of the apolipoprotein C1 family. This gene is expressed primarily in the liver, and it is activated when monocytes differentiate into macrophages. The encoded protein plays a central role in high density lipoprotein (HDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) metabolism. This protein has also been shown to inhibit cholesteryl ester transfer protein in plasma. A pseudogene of this gene is located 4 kb downstream in the same orientation, on the same chromosome. This gene is mapped to chromosome 19, where it resides within a apolipoprotein gene cluster. Alternative splicing and the use of alternative promoters results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2016 ...
High levels of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) have traditionally been linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease, prompting the search for effective and safe HDL-C raising pharmaceutical agents. Although drugs such as niacin and fibrates represent established therapeutic approaches, HDL-C response to such therapies is variable and heritable, suggesting a role for pharmacogenomic determinants. Multiple genetic polymorphisms, located primarily in genes encoding lipoproteins, cholesteryl ester transfer protein, transporters and CYP450 proteins have been shown to associate with HDL-C drug response in vitro and in epidemiologic studies. However, few of the pharmacogenomic findings have been independently validated, precluding the development of clinical tools that can be used to predict HDL-C response and leaving the goal of personalized medicine to future efforts. © 2013 Expert Reviews Ltd ...
Arteries, Atheroma, Atherosclerosis, Cholesterol, Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein, Concentration, Coronary Arteries, Hdl Cholesterol, Humans, Inhibition, Ldl Cholesterol, Lipoprotein, Mortality, Plasma, Rabbits, Risk, Transfer, Treatment, Coronary Heart Disease, Disease
Up to 30% of all hospital admissions and health-care costs may be attributable to alcohol abuse. Ethanol, its oxidative metabolites, acetaldehyde and ROS (reactive oxygen species), non-oxidative metabolites of alcohol [e.g. FAEEs (fatty acid ethyl esters)] and the ethanol-water competition mechanism are all involved in the deregulation of glycoconjugate (glycoprotein, glycolipid and proteoglycan) metabolic processes including biosynthesis, modification, transport, secretion, elimination and catabolism. An increasing number of new alcohol biomarkers that are the result of alcohol-induced glycoconjugate metabolic errors have appeared in the literature. Glycoconjugate-related alcohol markers are involved in, or are a product of, altered glycoconjugate metabolism, e.g. CDT (carbohydrate-deficient transferrin), SA (sialic acid), plasma SIJ (SA index of apolipoprotein J), CETP (cholesteryl ester transfer protein), β-HEX (β-hexosaminidase), dolichol, EtG (ethyl glucuronide) etc. Laboratory tests ...
Ive already written about how Eli Lillys inhibitor of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) did not work in the clinic. Now that the data from their failed trial have been published in the NEJM, though, its worth taking a look at a few graphs (first pointed out to me on Twitter by Sek Kathiresan. Shown are the
Association studies have been performed to examine relationships between gene polymorphisms and incidence or severity of sub-clinical and advanced atherosclerosis among individuals with and without insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes. Lipid metabolism genes already known to predispose to atherosclerosis, and glucose metabolism genes known to predispose to insulin resistance and diabetes, have provided the initial list of candidate genes. Increased prevalence and severity of cardiovascular diseases were seen among type 2 diabetic individuals with specific alleles of lipoprotein lipase,79 cholesteryl ester transfer protein,80-81 apoA-IV,82 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α,83 with protection seen for an allele of PPAR-γ2.84. Interestingly, few genes directly related to glucose metabolism have been connected to cardiovascular disease associated with diabetes. In one case, a common polymorphism controlling the basal and insulin stimulated expression of phosphoenolpyruvate ...
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a combination of metabolic disorders associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies in women reported associations between polymorphisms in ESR1, LPL and CETP genes and MetS. Our aim was to evaluate the association between variants in ESR1, LPL and CETP genes with MetS and its components. Four hundred and eighty women were analyzed, anthropometric features and biochemical profiles were evaluated, and genotyping was performed by real-time PCR. We found an association with elevated glucose levels (odds ratio (OR) = 2.9; p = 0.013) in carrying the AA genotype of rs1884051 in the ESR1 gene compared with the GG genotype, and the CC genotype of rs328 in the LPL gene was associated with MetS compared to the CG or GG genotype (OR = 2.8; p = 0.04). Moreover, the GA genotype of rs708272 in the CETP gene is associated with MetS compared to the GG or AA genotype (OR = 1.8; p = 0.006). In addition the ACTCCG haplotype in the ESR1 gene is associated with a
Despite the slightly higher CETP activity, the mass of cholesteryl esters actually transferred from HDL to other lipoproteins is lower in diabetic men than in nondiabetic men and is not altered by diabetes in women. Although CETP is an important catalyst in CET, CETP activity explains relatively little of the variation in CET (only about 4% in the regression analysis). Thus, CETP activity does not appear to be rate-limiting for CET. By comparison, variation in triglyceride levels explains ∼60% of the variation in CET. Not surprisingly, therefore, the fairly small increase in CETP activity (about a quarter of 1 SD) in diabetic versus nondiabetic men is overshadowed by their lower triglyceride levels. The CET results contrast with two smaller studies in which CET was increased in type 1 diabetic patients compared with control subjects (3,30). These authors suggested that sustained activation of the CET system, resulting from peripheral hyperinsulinemia, might be important in the increased ...
Looking for online definition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein in the Medical Dictionary? cholesteryl ester transfer protein explanation free. What is cholesteryl ester transfer protein? Meaning of cholesteryl ester transfer protein medical term. What does cholesteryl ester transfer protein mean?
Recent randomized controlled trials have challenged the concept that increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) risk reduction. The causal role of HDL-C in the development of atherosclerosis remains unclear. To increase precision and to minimize residual confounding, we exploited the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP)-TaqIB polymorphism as an instrument based on Mendelian randomization. The Mendelian randomization analysis was performed by two steps. First, we conducted a meta-analysis of 47 studies, including 23,928 cases and 27,068 controls, to quantify the relationship between the TaqIB polymorphism and the CAD risk. Next, the association between the TaqIB polymorphism and HDL-C was assessed among 5,929 Caucasians. We further employed Mendelian randomization to evaluate the causal effect of HDL-C on CAD based on the findings from the meta-analysis. The overall comparison of the B2 allele with the B1 allele yielded a
Sarich TC, Connelly MA, Schranz DB, Ghosh A, Manitpisitkul P, Leary ET, Rothenberg P, Demarest KT, Damiano BP: Phase 0 study of the inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity by JNJ-28545595 in plasma from normolipidemic and dyslipidemic humans. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2012 Aug;50(8):584-94. doi: 10.5414/CP201627. [PubMed:22578199 ...
LP, lipoprotein; LCAT, lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase; CETP, cholesterol ester transfer protein; ACAT, acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase; DGAT, acyl-CoA diacylglycerol acyltransferase; TG, triglyceride; Chol, cholesterol; LPL, lipoprotein lipase; LRP, LDL receptor-related protein; CM, chylomicron.. LCAT plays an important role in HDL-mediated cholesterol uptake from the extrahepatic tissues and, as such, serves as a main determinant of HDL maturation and plasma HDL cholesterol level. Thus LCAT deficiency can potentially account for diminished plasma HDL cholesterol and impaired HDL maturation in CRF. In fact, plasma LCAT activity is consistently diminished in patients with ESRD. This is accompanied by a significant elevation of plasma-free cholesterol and a marked reduction in plasma esterified cholesterol concentration, providing functional evidence for diminished LCAT-dependent cholesterol esterification.. CETP mediates transfer of cholesterol ester from HDL to IDL in exchange for ...
An increase in HDL-C level by 6% reduces the incidence of cardiovascular disease by 22-24%, which is similar to the effect of reduced LDL-C level decreasing cardiovascular disease by 28%.19,20) In addition, low HDL-C level has been blamed as the main cause of recent increasing prevalence dyslipidemia in Korea.21) Though pharmacological treatment options to increase HDL-C such as cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor and apo A1 mimetic peptide are under development, basic epidemiological evidences required to define HDL-C cut-off levels are still not sufficient in Korea. If the study subjects are categorized by the NCEP ATP III guideline, 43.8% of men and 23.6% of women belong to the low HDL-C group. When the ADA guideline is used, 43.8% of men and 62.6% of women have low HDL-C group; resulting in a markedly higher prevalence of low HDL-C level in women. Musha et al.5) from Japanproposes a higher cut-off value of HDL-C of 50 mg/dL so that the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in ...
Importance: Some cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels without reducing cardiovascular events, suggesting that the clinical benefit of lowering LDL-C may depend on how LDL-C is lowered. Objective: To estimate the association between changes in levels of LDL-C (and other lipoproteins) and the risk of cardiovascular events related to variants in the CETP gene, both alone and in combination with variants in the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) gene. Design, Setting, and Participants: Mendelian randomization analyses evaluating the association between CETP and HMGCR scores, changes in lipid and lipoprotein levels, and the risk of cardiovascular events involving 102 837 participants from 14 cohort or case-control studies conducted in North America or the United Kingdom between 1948 and 2012. The associations with cardiovascular events were externally validated in 189 539 participants from 48 studies conducted ...
The paper describing the Einstein study is published in the January 13 edition of the Journal of the American Medical Association. Most work on the genetics of Alzheimers disease has focused on factors that increase the danger, said Richard B. Lipton, M.D., the Lotti and Bernard Benson Faculty Scholar in Alzheimers Disease and professor and vice chair in the Saul R. Korey Department of Neurology at Einstein and senior author of the paper. As an example, he cites APOE ε4, a gene variant involved in cholesterol metabolism that is known to increase the risk of Alzheimers among those who carry it.. We reversed this approach, says Dr. Lipton, and instead focused on a genetic factor that protects against age-related illnesses, including both memory decline and Alzheimers disease.. In a 2003 study, Dr. Lipton and his colleagues identified the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene variant as a longevity gene in a population of Ashkenazi Jews. The favorable CETP gene variant ...
A third of people have genetic variations that cut their risk of heart disease, perhaps by increasing the level of good (HDL) cholesterol in their blood, say UK and Dutch scientists. A new study, published in the Journal of the American Heart Association, shows that individuals with particular versions of the CETP (Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein) gene have a five per cent lower risk of having a heart attack.. The researchers combined the results of almost 100 other studies, involving a total of 147,000 people. They looked at six different versions of the CETP gene, and found that the three most common were associated with both a 3-5 per cent rise in the levels of HDL cholesterol and a lower risk of heart disease. High levels of LDL (bad) cholesterol increase the risk of a heart attack or stroke, as it can build up in the arteries that feed the heart and brain, making them narrower. In contrast, higher levels of HDL cholesterol seem to protect against these conditions, possibly because it ...
Consequently, multiple pharmaceutical agents have been studied with the goal of increasing HDL-C. Niacin, the most widely used medication to raise HDL-C, increases HDL-C by 25% or more and was shown in multiple surrogate endpoint studies to reduce CV risk. However, two large randomized controlled trials of niacin, AIM-HIGH and HPS2-THRIVE, have shown that despite its effects on HDL-C, niacin does not decrease the incidence of CV events and may have significant adverse effects. Studies of other classes of agents such as cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors have also shown that even dramatic increases in HDL-C do not necessarily translate to reduction in clinical events. One of the latest attempts was described by Barter and colleagues who reported the results of the CHI-SQUARE study (Can HDL Infusions Significantly Quicken Atherosclerosis Regression) study, which is the largest randomized clinical trial to date testing the efficacy of serial HDL infusions in patients with a recent ...
Human phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) mediates the transfer of lipids among atheroprotective high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and atherogenic low-density lipoproteins (LDL) by an unknown mechanism. Delineating this mechanism would be an important step toward the understanding and regulation of PLTP for treating cardiovascular diseases, hypoalphalipoproteinemia and hyperalphalipoproteinemia. Using electron microscopy, negative-staining, and single-particle image processing, we discovered that PLTP penetrates each class of HDL, LDL and liposome independently, and also bridges a ternary complex with one of its distal end-domains penetrating into HDL and another distal domain interacting with LDL. These new insights into PLTP interaction with lipoproteins and liposomes provide a molecular basis for analyzing PLTP-dependent lipid transfer between lipoprotein particles. ...
Hollenbach, B., Schreiber, L., Hartung, W., & Dietz, K. - J. (1997). Cadmium leads to stimulated expression of the lipid transfer protein genes in barley: Implications for the involvement of lipid transfer proteins in wax assembly. Planta, 203(1), 9-19. doi:10.1007/ ...
In patients with HoFH, lomitapide led to a significant reduction of LDL-c levels and to achievement of EAS targets in many patients, while CV event rates correlated with LDL-c levels.
Developing new pharmacotherapies for cardiovascular disease is of paramount importance but a time-consuming, costly endeavor. Agents that increase high-density lipoprotein levels appeared initially attractive, but recent experience with the cholesterylesterase transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor torcetrapib was associated with increased mortality attributed to off-target effects. Dalcetrapib, a new CETP inhibitor, was tested in the phase 2b, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dal-PLAQUE (A Study of the Effect of Dalcetrapib on Atherosclerotic Plaque in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease) trial that included atheroma characterization endpoints by serial carotid MRI and FDG PET imaging (12). At 6 months, dalcetrapib increased high-density lipoprotein levels by 34%. PET imaging demonstrated a modest nonsignificant trend towards decreased carotid FDG activity compared with controls (−7.3% TBR reduction, 90% confidence interval: −13.5 to −0.8). Serial MRI, however, showed a relative ...
In this paper, researchers used random segregation of genetic variants in CETP and HMGCR genes (Mendelian Randomization) to study their causal effects of on metabolic markers apolipoprotein B (apoB) and LDL-C.
1259393-05-9 - SNDKWXRGPMCSQJ-AWQMOBFQSA-N - Evacetrapib monohydrate - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
... a novel cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor, in individuals with below-average high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ... by inhibiting cholesterylester transfer protein (CETP), which normally transfers cholesterol from HDL cholesterol to very low ... a novel cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor, in individuals with below-average high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ... "Effects of an inhibitor of cholesteryl ester transfer protein on HDL cholesterol". New England Journal of Medicine. 350 (15): ...
The cholesterol ester transfer protein(CETP) helps the transfer of cholesterol esters from lipoproteins to other lipoproteins ... There is a very common pattern of two different cholesterol ester transfer protein gene mutations (D442G, 5.1%; intron 14G:A, ... there is increased coronary heart disease in Japanese-American men with a mutation in the cholesterol ester transfer protein ... It plays a fundamental role in the reverse transport of cholesterol to the liver, which is why a mutation in this can lead to ...
The cholesterol ester transfer protein(CETP) helps the transfer of cholesterol esters from lipoproteins to other lipoproteins ... There is a very common pattern of two different cholesterol ester transfer protein gene mutations (D442G, 5.1%; intron 14G:A, ... there is increased coronary heart disease in Japanese-American men with a mutation in the cholesterol ester transfer protein ... "Increased coronary heart disease in Japanese-American men with mutation in the cholesteryl ester transfer protein gene despite ...
"Cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibition by TA-8995 in patients with mild dyslipidaemia (TULIP): A randomised, double- ... CETP inhibitors inhibit cholesterylester transfer protein (CETP), which normally transfers cholesterol from HDL cholesterol to ... A CETP inhibitor is a member of a class of drugs that inhibit cholesterylester transfer protein (CETP). They are intended to ... Drugs in this class substantially increase HDL ("good cholesterol"), lower LDL ("bad cholesterol"), and enhance reverse ...
... of high density lipoprotein subfractions in lipid transfer reactions mediated by cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP)". J ... This protein forms complexes with lipoproteins and may be involved in transport and/or esterification of cholesterol. GRCh38: ... 2008). "Lipid transfer inhibitor protein (apolipoprotein F) concentration in normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic subjects". J. ... Wang X, Driscoll DM, Morton RE (1999). "Molecular cloning and expression of lipid transfer inhibitor protein reveals its ...
... which is mediated by cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP). This protein exchanges triglycerides of VLDL against ... "National Reference System for Cholesterol - Cholesterol Reference Method Laboratory Network - HDL Cholesterol Certification ... converts the free cholesterol into cholesteryl ester (a more hydrophobic form of cholesterol), which is then sequestered into ... Cholesterol: The name cholesterol originates from the Greek chole (bile) and stereos (solid), and the chemical suffix -ol for ...
... and selective inhibitor of cholesteryl ester transfer protein that elevates HDL cholesterol without inducing aldosterone or ... "Assessment of Clinical Effects of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Inhibition With Evacetrapib in Patients at a High Risk for ... that inhibits cholesterylester transfer protein (CETP inhibitor). CETP collects triglycerides from very low-density ... "Study of Evacetrapib (LY2484595) in Participants With High Cholesterol (ACCENTUATE)". Kolata, Gina (3 April 2016). "Dashing ...
Anacetrapib is a cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor that raises high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and ... "Efficacy and safety of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor anacetrapib as monotherapy and coadministered with ... One reason for this is that elastin, the principal load-bearing protein present in the wall of the aorta, is reduced in the ... In short, raising HDL cholesterol is beneficial because it induces programmed cell death. The walls of a failing aorta are ...
Ezetimibe is a selective inhibitor of dietary cholesterol absorption. Lomitapide is a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein ... Investigational classes of hypolipidemic agents: CETP inhibitors (cholesteryl ester transfer protein), 1 candidate is in trials ... "the good cholesterol". Clinically, the choice of an agent depends on the patient's cholesterol profile, cardiovascular risk, ... Hypolipidemic agents, cholesterol-lowering drugs or antihyperlipidemic agents, are a diverse group of pharmaceuticals that are ...
StAR-related lipid transfer protein 4 (STARD4) is a soluble protein involved in cholesterol transport. It can transfer up to 7 ... "Intracellular cholesterol transporter StarD4 binds free cholesterol and increases cholesteryl ester formation". Journal of ... "The cholesterol-regulated StarD4 gene encodes a StAR-related lipid transfer protein with two closely related homologues, StarD5 ... "Differential gene regulation of StarD4 and StarD5 cholesterol transfer proteins. Activation of StarD4 by sterol regulatory ...
Its main function is inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), probably by altering the electric charge of HDL ... cholesterol with an important role in the exchange of esterified cholesterol between lipoproteins and in removal of cholesterol ... When proteins rich in triglycerides like chylomicrons and VLDL are broken down, this apoprotein is transferred again to HDL. It ... C-I accounts for the ability of plasma high density lipoproteins to inhibit the cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity". ...
HPS3/TIMI 55 REVEAL assessed the effect of cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibition with anacetrapib 100 mg versus ... PROMPT-TIMI 35 evaluated novel protein markers of ischemia using proteomic testing in a prospective cohort of patients with ... VESALIUS-CV will assess the effect of lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) with evolocumab on major ... FOURIER (TIMI 59)/EBBINGHAUS - FOURIER assessed the Impact of additional LDL-cholesterol reduction on major cardiovascular ...
Other medications that are in various stages of development include thyromimetics, cholesterol-ester-transfer protein (CETP ... This size variation at the gene level is expressed on the protein level as well, resulting in apo(a) proteins with 10 to more ... Apo(a) proteins vary in size due to a size polymorphism [KIV-2 VNTR], which is caused by a variable number of kringle IV ... Lp(a) is not fully synthesised until the precursor protein is released from the cell, so the slower rate of production for the ...
It also inhibits HDL-C hepatic uptake by suppressing production of the cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) gene. It ... Niacin reduces synthesis of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), ... participating in many hydrogen transfer processes. NAD is important in catabolism of fat, carbohydrate, protein, and alcohol, ... and raise blood high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, often referred to as "good" cholesterol). There are two forms: ...
... cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase ... monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), TLR4/MD-2, etc. Indole chalcones may bind and inhibit the KasA protein of ... Preliminary docking studies indicate that chalcones may inhibit SARS-CoV-2 proteins specifically the main protease (Mpro), RNA ... protein tyrosine phosphatase A/B (Ptp-A/B), filamentous temperature-sensitive mutant Z (FtsZ), fatty acid syntheses (FAS-II), ...
"Cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor (JTT-705) and the development of atherosclerosis in rabbits with severe ... The drug was aimed at raising the blood levels of "good cholesterol" (cholesterol carried in HDL particles, aka HDL-C). ... Changes in inflammation and cholesterol efflux capacity may in part explain the benefits associated with the protective ... "Roche Drops After Halting Cholesterol Drug Development". Bloomberg. Michelle Fay Cortez (November 5, 2012), "Roche's Good ...
Cholesterylester transfer protein Cholesteryl ester storage disease Acyl CoA cholesteryl acyltransferase (ACAT) Lecithin- ... Cholesteryl ester, a dietary lipid, is an ester of cholesterol. The ester bond is formed between the carboxylate group of a ... Cholesteryl ester is found in human brains as lipid droplets which stores and transports cholesterol. Increased levels of ... Cholesterol+Esters at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Phillips, Gabrielle R.; Hancock, ...
The cholesteryl esters can be transferred, with the help of CETP (cholesterylester transfer protein) in exchange for ... The cholesterol is converted to cholesteryl esters by the enzyme LCAT (lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase). ... Cholesterol from non-hepatic peripheral tissues is transferred to HDL by the ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter). ... Reverse cholesterol transport is a multi-step process resulting in the net movement of cholesterol from peripheral tissues back ...
Abbey M, Nestel PJ (1994). "Plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity is increased when trans-elaidic acid is ... Elaidic acid increases plasma cholesterylester transfer protein (CETP) activity which lowers HDL cholesterol. Oleic acid Tardy ... Its salts and esters are called elaidates. Elaidic acid is an unsaturated trans fatty acid, with code C18:1 trans-9. This ...
Cholesterol+ester+transfer+proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), also called plasma lipid transfer protein, is a plasma protein that facilitates the ... "Concerted actions of cholesteryl ester transfer protein and phospholipid transfer protein in type 2 diabetes: effects of ... "Effects of an inhibitor of cholesteryl ester transfer protein on HDL cholesterol". The New England Journal of Medicine. 350 (15 ...
... is an intracellular protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum that forms cholesteryl esters from cholesterol. Sterol O- ... The role of this enzyme is to transfer fatty acyl groups from one molecule to another. ACAT is an important enzyme in bile acid ... cholesterol acyltransferase. It gives the cholesterol ester cholesterol oleate. from Sigrid Hahn; Hans-Ulrich Klör (2001). ... cholesterol ester Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are acyl-CoA and cholesterol, whereas its two products are CoA and ...
... cholesterol acyltransferase and cholesteryl ester transfer protein in abnormal high density lipoprotein metabolism in insulin ... that converts free cholesterol into cholesteryl ester (a more hydrophobic form of cholesterol), which is then sequestered into ... Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (Thr123----Ile) and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (Thr347----Met)". J. Clin. Invest ... 1992). "Interaction of rat lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase with rat apolipoprotein A-I and with lecithin-cholesterol ...
... transfers cholesteryl esters to the VLDL in exchange for phospholipids and triglycerides via cholesterylester transfer protein ... Very-low-density lipoproteins transport endogenous triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol, and cholesteryl esters. It ... cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, and triglycerides. As it circulates in blood, it picks up apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) and ... VLDL now meets back up with HDL where apoC-II is transferred back to HDL (but keeps apoE). HDL also ...
Fielding PE, Fielding CJ (June 1980). "A cholesteryl ester transfer complex in human plasma". Proceedings of the National ... "Site-specific detection and structural characterization of the glycosylation of human plasma proteins lecithin:cholesterol ... It has a high degree of homology to plasma retinol-binding protein and other members of the alpha 2 microglobulin protein ... Protein Engineering. 10 (6): 621-5. doi:10.1093/protein/10.6.621. PMID 9278274. Zeng C, Spielman AI, Vowels BR, Leyden JJ, ...
... which catalyzes fatty acid transfer between phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol. Pancreatic lipase, also known as pancreatic ... Protein Pept. Sci. 1 (1): 91-103. doi:10.2174/1389203003381487. PMID 12369922. Ranaldi S, Belle V, Woudstra M, Rodriguez J, ... Triglyceride lipases (EC 3.1.1.3) are a family of lipolytic enzymes that hydrolyse ester linkages of triglycerides. Lipases are ... Such a region is also present in lipases of prokaryotic origin and in lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.43) (LCAT ...
Proteins are made from amino acids that have been activated by attachment to a transfer RNA molecule through an ester bond. ... M. tuberculosis can also grow on the lipid cholesterol as a sole source of carbon, and genes involved in the cholesterol use ... Proteins are made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain joined together by peptide bonds. Many proteins are enzymes that ... The polysaccharides produced can have structural or metabolic functions themselves, or be transferred to lipids and proteins by ...
... s containing a sulfuric ester (sulfate) group, known as sulfatides, also occur in the myelin sheath of nerves. These ... The biosynthesis of monoglycosylceramides requires a direct transfer of the carbohydrate moiety from a sugar-nucleotide, such ... Monoglycosylceramides in conjunction with cholesterol are prevalent in the lipid-raft micro domain, which are important sites ... in the binding of proteins, and enzyme-receptor interactions. Degradation of glycosphingolipids occurs in the lysosome, which ...
... complexes for signal transduction or signaling Managing protein and lipid interactions Functioning as a substrate Transferring ... of cholesterol. At approximately 8 mol% of cholesterol the start of the liquid-disordered phase begins. This same relationship ... Phospholipids consist of two non-polar hydrocarbon chains with ester or ether bonds to the phosphate group which is also linked ... Initially all the model membranes were organized in a liquid order phase but as the addition of cholesterol increase a liquid- ...
Cholesterol biosynthesis has been exhaustively studied in animals. All steps occur in the cytosol. The starting material is ... JH esterase cleaves the methyl ester giving JH acid. JH acid is attached by JH epoxide hydrolase, which converts the epoxide ... JH has also been shown to be transferred from the male to the female Heliothis virescens during copulation. Methyl farnesoate ... the stimulation of the corpora allata by allatotropins short peptides which bind to G-protein coupled receptors, which signal ...
His group identified Tangier disease (HDL deficiency) and cholesteryl ester storage disease, two inborn errors of cholesterol ... He played a prime role in the identification of several apolipoproteins (proteins that characterise the nature of a blood lipid ... but completed his studies at the University of Michigan after being transferred there by the army. During a cycling trip in the ... Subsequently he spent a year in the laboratory of Ivan Frantz, a cholesterol biochemist, at Massachusetts General Hospital. In ...
CETP inhibitors (cholesteryl ester transfer protein), 1 candidate is in trials. It is expected that these drugs will mainly ... Ezetimibe is a selective inhibitor of dietary cholesterol absorption.. *Lomitapide is a microsomal triglyceride transfer ... "the good cholesterol". Clinically, the choice of an agent depends on the patient's cholesterol profile, cardiovascular risk, ... Hypolipidemic agents, cholesterol-lowering drugs or antihyperlipidemic agents, are a diverse group of pharmaceuticals that are ...
Non-esters In plants: ornithine or arginine → putrescine → homospermidine → retronecine [54] Retronecine, heliotridine, ... proteins, nucleotides, nucleic acid, amines, and antibiotics are usually not called alkaloids.[2] Natural compounds containing ... "Reductive C-C bond formation after epoxide opening via electron transfer". In Krische, Michael J. (ed.). Metal Catalyzed ... Cholesterol, arginine[157] Solasodine, solanidine, veralkamine, batrachotoxin[158] Properties[edit]. Head of a calf born to a ...
A methyl ALA ester (Metvix) is now available for basal cell carcinoma and other skin lesions. Benzyl (Benvix) and hexyl ester ( ... Type-I processes can be divided into Type I(i) and Type I(ii). Type I (i) involves the transfer of an electron (oxidation) from ... ROS initiate reactions with many biomolecules, including amino acid residues in proteins, such as tryptophan; unsaturated ... lipids like cholesterol and nucleic acid bases, particularly guanosine and guanine derivatives, with the latter base more ...
The triglycerides are coated with cholesterol and protein (protein coat) into a compound called a chylomicron. ... Esters of fatty acids with simpler alcohols (such as methyl-, ethyl-, n-propyl-, isopropyl- and butyl esters) are used as ... "Small molecular drug transfer across the blood-brain barrier via carrier-mediated transport systems". NeuroRx. 2 (1): 54-62. ... but instead exist as three main classes of esters: triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesteryl esters. In any of these forms ...
Fatty esters include important biochemical intermediates such as wax esters, fatty acid thioester coenzyme A derivatives, fatty ... Bach D, Wachtel E (March 2003). "Phospholipid/cholesterol model membranes: formation of cholesterol crystallites". Biochimica ... nuclear located protein kinase C and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase". Frontiers in Bioscience. 13 (13): 1206-26. doi: ... by ester linkages and to one "head" group by a phosphate ester linkage.[citation needed] While glycerophospholipids are the ...
While SR-B1 normally mediates the transfer of cholesterol between high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and healthy cells, it also ... particles and the selective uptake of HDL-associated cholesterol esters independent of its enzymic activity". The Biochemical ... Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SRB1) also known as SR-BI is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SCARB1 gene.[5] SR- ... positive regulation of cholesterol storage. • phospholipid transport. • cholesterol transport. • wound healing. • cholesterol ...
Liver pyruvate kinase is indirectly regulated by epinephrine and glucagon, through protein kinase A. This protein kinase ... which is the rate limiting step controlling the synthesis of cholesterol.[36] Cholesterol can be used as is, as a structural ... Pyruvate kinase catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to ADP, yielding one molecule of ... Harden and Young deduced that this process produced organic phosphate esters, and further experiments allowed them to extract ...
proteins. Contents. FunctionEdit. ALT catalyzes the transfer of an amino group from L-alanine to α-ketoglutarate, the products ... Many drugs may elevate ALT levels, including Zileuton, omega-3-acid ethyl esters (Lovaza),[6] anti-inflammatory drugs, ... antibiotics, cholesterol medications, some antipsychotics such as risperidone, and anticonvulsants.[citation needed] ... "Omega-3-acid Ethyl Esters (Lovaza) For Severe Hypertriglyceridemia". Pharmacy and Therapeutics. 33 (5): 271-303. PMC 2683599 ...
The repressor protein MetJ, in cooperation with the corepressor protein S-adenosyl-methionine, mediates the repression of ... Homoserine undergoes O-phosphorylation; this phosphate ester undergoes hydrolysis concomitant with relocation of the OH group.[ ... trpG encodes the second subunit, which facilitates the transfer of the amino group from glutamine. Anthranilate synthase is ... Manchester KL (1964). "Sites of Hormonal Regulation of Protein Metabolism". In Munro HN, Allison JB (eds.). Mammalian protein ...
Category:EC 1.7.7 (with an iron-sulfur protein as acceptor). *Category:EC 1.7.99 (with other acceptors) *Nitrite reductase EC ... Category:EC 2.1 (transfer one-carbon groups, Methylase)Edit. *Category:EC 2.1.1 *Catechol-O-methyl transferase EC 2.1.1.6 ... Category:EC 6.5 (form phosphoric ester bonds)Edit. DNA ligase (EC 6.5.1.1) ... Cholesterol-5,6-oxide hydrolase. *Hepoxilin-epoxide hydrolase. *Isochorismatase. *Leukotriene-A4 hydrolase ...
Their 2002 Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids[ ... and cholesteryl ester transfer". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 77 (5): 1119-24. doi:10.1093/ajcn/77.5.1119. PMID ... Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (Macronutrients). National Academies Press. p. 447.. [permanent dead link] ... cholesterol, protein, and amino acids (macronutrients). National Academies Press. p. 504.. [permanent dead link] ...
acyl-carrier-protein S-acetyltransferase activity]. • hydrolase activity, acting on ester bonds. • [acyl-carrier-protein S- ... regulation of cholesterol biosynthetic process. • fatty-acyl-CoA biosynthetic process. Sources:Amigo / QuickGO. ... 2.3.3: converted into alkyl on transfer. *Citrate synthase. *ATP citrate lyase ... enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein reductase (NADPH, B-specific) activity]. • protein binding. • 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein ...
Their 2002 Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids[ ... and cholesteryl ester transfer" (PDF). Am J Clin Nutr. 77 (5): 1119-1124. doi:10.1093/ajcn/77.5.1119. PMID 12716661.. ... protein, and amino acids (macronutrients). National Academies Press. p. 423.. *^ "Trans fat: Avoid this cholesterol double ... Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (Macronutrients). National Academies Press. p. 447.. [permanent dead link] ...
These fatty acids are bound in ester linkage to the SN2 position of membrane phospholipids; PLA2s act as esterases to release ... The enzymes that are biosynthetic for eicosanoids (e.g., glutathione-S-transferases, epoxide hydrolases, and carrier proteins) ... When this occurs with enzymes located in different cell types and involves the transfer of one enzyme's product to a cell which ... COX, the lipoxygenases, and the phospholipases are tightly controlled-there are at least eight proteins activated to coordinate ...
... where it is bound to an α-globulin carrier protein named the vitamin D-binding protein.[172] ... university-industry technology transfer before and after the Bayh-Dole Act in the United States. Stanford, Calif: Stanford ... retinyl esters, tocopherols and selected carotenoids in twelve captive wild felid species at four zoos". The Journal of ... The major natural source of the vitamin is synthesis of cholecalciferol in the skin from cholesterol through a chemical ...
2007). "Regulation of secretory transport by protein kinase D-mediated phosphorylation of the ceramide transfer protein". J. ... Palmitic acid esters of hydroxy-stearic acids (PAHSAs) are among the most bioactive members able to activate G-protein coupled ... receptors This large and diverse class of steroids are biosynthesized from isoprenoids and structurally resemble cholesterol. ... Sph is also known to interact with protein targets such as the protein kinase H homologue (PKH) and the yeast protein kinase ( ...
... and zinc transporter protein, with an IC50 of 66.3 nM (relative to Kd = 17.9 nM for testosterone). This protein appears to be ... CYP27A1 converts cholesterol into 27-hydroxycholesterol, an oxysterol that has multiple biological functions including direct, ... Antigonadotropic agents like high-dose CPA, high-dose androgens (e.g., testosterone esters), and GnRH antagonists (though ... due to transfer through the hepatic portal system prior to reaching circulation). In men receiving 150 mg/day bicalutamide, ...
Liver pyruvate kinase is indirectly regulated by epinephrine and glucagon, through protein kinase A. This protein kinase ... which is the rate limiting step controlling the synthesis of cholesterol. Cholesterol can be used as is, as a structural ... The oxaloacetate is returned to mitochondrion as malate (and then back into oxaloacetate to transfer more acetyl-CoA out of the ... Harden and Young deduced that this process produced organic phosphate esters, and further experiments allowed them to extract ...
New research has found that protein CoAlation plays an important role in regulation of the oxidative stress response. Protein ... Acetyl-CoA fatty acyl-CoA (activated form of all fatty acids; only the CoA esters are substrates for important reactions such ... Lipmann initially intended to study acetyl transfer in animals, and from these experiments he noticed a unique factor that was ... as mono-, di-, and triacylglycerol synthesis, carnitine palmitoyl transferase, and cholesterol esterification) Propionyl-CoA ...
... fewer fat molecules with same protein transport shell), containing a higher proportion of cholesterol esters.[citation needed] ... Lipoproteins transfer lipids (fats) around the body in the extracellular fluid, making fats available to body cells for ... where H is HDL cholesterol, L is LDL cholesterol, C is total cholesterol, T are triglycerides, and k is 0.20 if the quantities ... LDL is then shipped to the lysosome, where cholesterol esters in the LDL are hydrolysed. LDL receptors are typically returned ...
Cholesterol ester transfer protein, apolipoprotein E and lipoprotein lipase genotypes in patients with coronary artery disease ... Hulya Yilmaz, Turgay ?sbir, Bedia Agachan, Zeynep Ermis Karaali, Effects of cholesterol ester transfer protein Taq1B gene ... in order to explore a possible association between CAD and the variants in the gene encoding cholesterol ester transfer protein ... Association Between Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein TaqIB Variants and Risk of Coronary Artery Disease and Diabetes Mellitus ...
... a Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) Inhibitor, in Patients With Abnormal Cholesterol Levels. The safety and scientific ... Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors are being explored for their ability to elevate HDL-C. A small molecule ... and reducing low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in people with abnormal cholesterol levels that may put them at risk ... is safe and effective in elevating high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ...
Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Expressed in Lecithin. Cholesterol Acyltransferase--Deficient Mice. Cheng-ai Wu, Maki ... Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Expressed in Lecithin. Cholesterol Acyltransferase--Deficient Mice. Cheng-ai Wu, Maki ... Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Expressed in Lecithin. Cholesterol Acyltransferase--Deficient Mice. Cheng-ai Wu, Maki ... Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Expressed in Lecithin. Cholesterol Acyltransferase--Deficient Mice. Message Subject (Your ...
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is a key protein involved in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway. The ... Lack of stimulation of cholesteryl ester transfer protein by cholesterol in the presence of a high-fat diet.. [Sukhinder Kaur ... Addition of cholesterol to the low-fat MUFA diet increased CETP activity and mRNA expression, whereas addition of cholesterol ... However, addition of fatty acids along with cholesterol interfered with the stimulatory effect of cholesterol on CETP gene ...
Regulation of cholesterol ester transfer protein by dietary lipids. Cover. Save page Remove page Previous. 1 of 127. Next ... Regulation of cholesterol ester transfer protein by dietary lipids Author Murray, Cathy Maureen, 1978- ...
Inhibition of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein by Torcetrapib Modestly Increases Macrophage Cholesterol Efflux to HDL. ... Inhibition of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein by Torcetrapib Modestly Increases Macrophage Cholesterol Efflux to HDL ... Inhibition of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein by Torcetrapib Modestly Increases Macrophage Cholesterol Efflux to HDL ... Inhibition of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein by Torcetrapib Modestly Increases Macrophage Cholesterol Efflux to HDL ...
Association between Taq IB cholesterol ester transfer protein polymorphism and low HDL cholesterol concentration in Saudis. ... A B polymorphism at the CETP (cholesteryl ester protein transfer) locus that is detectable with the restriction enzyme Taq I is ... HDL cholesterol levels in B2B2 homozygotes were significantly higher than in B1B1 homozygotes [1.01 (0.3) compared with 0.92 ( ... The allele frequency of the Taq I B CETP polymorphism and its relatively modest impact on HDL cholesterol concentrations argue ...
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is a 74-kDa glycoprotein that facilitates the transfer of cholesteryl esters from ... Cholesteryl ester transfer protein TaqI B2B2 genotype is associated with higher HDL cholesterol levels and lower risk of ... Important Role for Bone Marrow-Derived Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein in Lipoprotein Cholesterol Redistribution and ... Important Role for Bone Marrow-Derived Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein in Lipoprotein Cholesterol Redistribution and ...
Cholesterol Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) Inhibitor Polypeptide Antibodies for Prophylactic and Therapeutic Anti- ... Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory - Visit the Technology Transfer and Intellectual Property Management Department Website ...
Inhibitors of cholesterol ester transfer protein - Google Patents. Inhibitors of cholesterol ester transfer protein Download ... 108010064733 Angiotensins Proteins 0 description 6 * RDOXTESZEPMUJZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N Anisole Chemical compound data:image/svg+xml; ...
... protein; CETP, gene) results in an increase of the apolipoprotein AI levels and a decrease in the low density lipoprotein (LDL ... An absence of cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP, ... An absence of cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP, protein ... Hong, Seung Ho; Kim, Young-Ree; Song, Junghan; and Kim, Jin Q. (2001) "Genetic Variations of Cholesterol Ester Transfer Protein ...
... such as lipid transfer, cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) concentration ... Lipid transfer from a donor artificial nanoparticle to HDL was measured by in vitro assay. Total cholesterol (p = 0.049), LDL-C ... and in vitro transfers of cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids to HDL, important steps in HDL metabolism, were equal. ... Triglycerides, HDL-C, apo A-I, apo B, oxLDL, LCAT, enzyme that catalyzes serum cholesterol esterification, PON-1 activity, ...
Cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibition with torcetrapib slightly increases PCSK9 levels and decreases Lp(a) levels. ... a cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitor, or to atorvastatin + placebo.ResultsAt baseline, both plasma PCSK9 and Lp(a) ... Patients received atorvastatin, which was titrated (10, 20, 40, or 80 mg/d) to achieve low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ... Cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibition with torcetrapib slightly increases PCSK9 levels and decreases Lp(a) levels. ...
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels were not significantly lower in carriers of D442G mutation. ... is understood to play a regulatory role in HDL cholesterol (HDLC) metabolism. In this study, the effect of CETP genotypes on ... Hong SH, Kim YR, Song J, Kim JQ 2001 Genetic variations of cholesterol ester transfer protein gene in Koreans. Hum Biol 73: 815 ... Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is understood to play a regulatory role in HDL cholesterol (HDLC) metabolism. In this ...
Epistatic effect of cholesteryl ester transfer protein and hepatic lipase on serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels ... Epistatic effect of cholesteryl ester transfer protein and hepatic lipase on serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels ... and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP I405V) genes affect high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) levels, but their ... Association of cholesteryl ester transfer protein genotypes with CETP mass and activity, lipid levels, and coronary risk. ...
Carrier Proteins / blood* * Centrifugation, Density Gradient * Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins * Cholesterol, HDL / blood ... roles of hepatic lipase and cholesteryl ester transfer protein J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 Aug;83(8):2921-4. doi: 10.1210/ ... and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP)] in 18 hyperthyroid and 17 hypothyroid patients before and after treatment. HDL ... Changes in HDL2-cholesterol were reversed after treatment in both hyper- and hypothyroid patients, and LpA-I also decreased in ...
Effects of an inhibitor of cholesteryl ester transfer protein on HDL cholesterol. Margaret E Brousseau, Ernst J Schaefer, Megan ... A relative new strategy for raising HDL cholesterol, inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), is markedly ... Raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with inhibitors of cholesteryl ester transfer protein - a new approach to coronary ... Increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein, and heart disease risk ...
... are two HDL modifying proteins that have both pro- and anti-atherogenic properties. We hypothesized that CETP and HL ... synergistically affect HDL cholesterol and atherosclerotic risk. To test our hypothesis, we analysed the genotype fre … ... Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and hepatic lipase (HL) ... Association of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene polymorphism, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and risk of ...
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein TaqIB variant, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, cardiovascular risk, and ... Cholesteryl ester transfer protein TaqIB variant, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, cardiovascular risk, and ... Cholesteryl ester transfer protein TaqIB variant, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, cardiovascular risk, and ... Background - Several studies have reported that the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) TaqIB gene polymorphism is ...
CETP inhibition, cholesterol ester transfer protein, HDL, indoline, tetrahydroquinoxaline, merck, discovery. c21ccccc1N(C[[email protected]@]2 ... Tags: CETP inhibition, cholesterol ester transfer protein, discovery, HDL, indoline, MERCK, preclinical, tetrahydroquinoxaline ... Discovery of Novel Indoline Cholesterol Ester Transfer Protein Inhibitors (CETP) through a Structure-Guided Approach. Jonathan ... chemical compounds that inhibit cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) and are expected to have utility in raising HDL-C, ...
Regulation of cholesterol ester transfer protein by dietary lipids. Regulation of cholesterol ester transfer protein by dietary ... of cholesterol ester transfer protein by dietary fats and cholesterol was investigated using human cholesterol ester transfer ... There was interaction between cholesterol and fatty acids to regulate cholesterol ester transfer protein. ... Murray, Cathy Maureen (2003) Regulation of cholesterol ester transfer protein by dietary lipids. Masters thesis, Memorial ...
... which are highly effective inhibitors of cholesterol ester transfer proteins (CTEP) and stimulate reverse cholesterol transfer ... which are highly effective inhibitors of cholesterol ester transfer proteins (CTEP) and stimulate reverse cholesterol transfer ... The inventive substances lower the LDL cholesterol level in the blood while at the same time increasing the HDL cholesterol ... The inventive substances lower the LDL cholesterol level in the blood while at the same time increasing the HDL cholesterol ...
CETP (Cholesterol Ester Transfer Protein). DGKL 2 (RfB) 12 ECAT7 (in collaboration with DGKL). ... Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein 2 (NOD2 R702W, G908R, L1007fins C). DGKL 2 ...
... beyond the use of statins that lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The inverse relationship of high-density ... lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) with cardiovascular disease suggests HDL-C raising therapy as a novel t … ... Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors* * Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins / genetics * Cholesterol ... The promise of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibition in the treatment of cardiovascular disease Curr Pharm Des. ...
Research progress on cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitors Research progress on cholesterol ester transfer protein ... For many years, studies on cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors(CETP) have not been interrupted, intending to achieve ...
Expression of cholesteryl ester transfer protein in mice promotes macrophage reverse cholesterol transport. is an eagle-i ... Expression of cholesteryl ester transfer protein in mice promotes macrophage reverse cholesterol transport.. eagle-i ID. http ...
Dietary cholesterol increases transcription of the human cholesteryl ester transfer protein gene in transgenic mice. Dependence ... Dietary cholesterol increases transcription of the human cholesteryl ester transfer protein gene in transgenic mice. Dependence ... To investigate the regulation of expression of the human cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene, transgenic mice were ... The relative quantity of the 66-kD protein correlated with body mass index at r = 0.72. bFGF-related proteins probably function ...
Overexpression of human CETP did not change the plasma levels of total cholesterol or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol but ... pharmacological inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is considered to be a therapeutic method of raising HDL ... Both Tg rabbits and their non-Tg littermates were fed a high cholesterol diet for 16 weeks. Plasma lipids and body weight were ... High levels of plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) are inversely associated with the risk of atherosclerosis ...
... cholesterol levels and interaction between glucose and HDL metabolism is cen... ... Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) regulates high density lipoproteins (HDL)- ... Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) regulates high density lipoproteins (HDL)-cholesterol levels and interaction between ... Association of Serum Cholesterol Ester Transfer Protein Levels with Taq IB Polymorphism in Acute Coronary Syndrome. ...
Elevated HDL Cholesterol - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the Merck Manuals - Medical Consumer ... Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) deficiency Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) deficiency is a rare autosomal ... Because CETP helps in the transfer of cholesterol from HDL to other lipoproteins, CETP deficiency affects low-density ... A high level of HDL cholesterol (the good cholesterol) may decrease the risk of heart attacks and strokes. However, HDL ...
  • The aim of this study was to compare patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) to healthy objects, in order to explore a possible association between CAD and the variants in the gene encoding cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP), apolipoprotein E (Apo E) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL). (wiley.com)
  • In the control group, CETP, the Msp M2 allele was associated with a higher level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (p = 0.012) than the Msp M1 allele. (wiley.com)
  • Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is a key protein involved in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Transgenic mice expressing human CETP under the control of its natural flanking region were fed low- or high-fat diets enriched in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or saturated fatty acids in the presence or absence of cholesterol. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Addition of cholesterol to the low-fat MUFA diet increased CETP activity and mRNA expression, whereas addition of cholesterol to the high-fat MUFA diet led to a decrease in CETP activity and mRNA expression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In SW 872 cells, oleic acid and cholesterol stimulated CETP gene expression when given alone. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • However, addition of fatty acids along with cholesterol interfered with the stimulatory effect of cholesterol on CETP gene regulation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cholesterol-mediated stimulation of CETP involves the transcription factor liver X receptor alpha (LXRalpha). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Therefore, we present evidence for the first time that inhibition of LXRalpha expression by a high-fat MUFA diet leads to inhibition of CETP stimulation by cholesterol. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A B polymorphism at the CETP (cholesteryl ester protein transfer) locus that is detectable with the restriction enzyme Taq I is a genetic determinant of the plasma HDL cholesterol concentration. (edu.sa)
  • The allele frequency of the Taq I B CETP polymorphism and its relatively modest impact on HDL cholesterol concentrations argue against an important role for this allele, or for strongly linked loci, in determining the low levels of HDL cholesterol seen in the Saudi population. (edu.sa)
  • Abundant amounts of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) are found in macrophage-derived foam cells in the arterial wall, but its function in atherogenesis is unknown. (ahajournals.org)
  • The cholesterol redistribution in serum was a direct effect of the substantial serum CETP activity and mass (38±3 nmol/mL/h and 4.8±0.5 μg/mL, respectively) induced by CETP production by bone marrow-derived cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is a 74-kDa glycoprotein that facilitates the transfer of cholesteryl esters from antiatherogenic HDL to proatherogenic apoB-containing lipoproteins and a concomitant equimolar transfer of triglycerides to HDL. (ahajournals.org)
  • Introduction of the simian or the human CETP gene in mice naturally lacking CETP, results in a dose-dependent reduction of HDL cholesterol and an increased susceptibility to atherosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • 4-6 Furthermore, humans possessing a genetic deficiency for CETP have higher HDL cholesterol levels and a reduced prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD). (ahajournals.org)
  • By promoting the transfer of cholesteryl esters from HDL to apoB-containing lipoproteins CETP remodels the HDL particle, which is accompanied by a reduction in size and by the dissociation of preβ-migrating, lipid poor apoAI, 16,17 which is an important acceptor of ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophages. (ahajournals.org)
  • 18,19 Locally, in the arterial wall the action of CETP might thus be implicated in the conversion of large cholesteryl ester enriched HDL into lipid-poor preβ-HDL and thus may also have an antiatherogenic function. (ahajournals.org)
  • Interestingly, macrophage cholesterol loading results in a dose-dependent increase in macrophage secretion of CETP activity. (ahajournals.org)
  • 20 Furthermore, in vitro studies indicated a direct role for CETP in cholesterol efflux from COS cells 14 and J774 macrophages. (ahajournals.org)
  • The aim was to test whether the severity of HF, using brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) as a marker, is associated with alterations in functional aspects of HDL, such as lipid transfer, cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) concentration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Total cholesterol ( p = 0.049), LDL-C ( p = 0.023), non-HDL-C ( p = 0.029) and CETP, that promotes lipid transfer among lipoproteins ( p = 0.013), were lower in III/IV than in I/II group. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) facilitate lipid transfers among lipoprotein classes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • T) and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP I405V) genes affect high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) levels, but their relationship with cardiovascular disease and their combined effect is unclear. (cdc.gov)
  • The objectives of the current study were to characterize the effect of the hepatic lipase variant, and its interaction with the CETP variant, in terms of cholesterol levels, atherosclerosis, and risk of myocardial infarction (MI). (cdc.gov)
  • Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is understood to play a regulatory role in HDL cholesterol (HDLC) metabolism. (nature.com)
  • A relative new strategy for raising HDL cholesterol, inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), is markedly effective. (qxmd.com)
  • CETP inhibitors prevent the transfer of cholesteryl ester from HDL to triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in exchange for triglyceride. (qxmd.com)
  • One inhibitor, torcetrapib, binds to CETP on HDL, markedly increases HDL cholesteryl ester, has no effect on fecal cholesterol excretion, but can raise blood pressure. (qxmd.com)
  • Cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor torcetrapib and off-target toxicity: a pooled analysis of the rating atherosclerotic disease change by imaging with a new CETP inhibitor (RADIANCE) trials. (qxmd.com)
  • Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and hepatic lipase (HL) are two HDL modifying proteins that have both pro- and anti-atherogenic properties. (cdc.gov)
  • We hypothesized that CETP and HL synergistically affect HDL cholesterol and atherosclerotic risk. (cdc.gov)
  • The presence of the CETP lowering B2 allele and the HL lowering LIPC-T allele synergistically increased HDL cholesterol from 0.87+/-0.19 mmol/L in the B1B1/CC (n=183) to 1.21+/-0.25 mmol/L in the B2B2/TT carriers (n=10). (cdc.gov)
  • We conclude that a high HDL cholesterol does not protect against coronary artery disease when associated with combined CETP- and HL-lowering gene variants. (cdc.gov)
  • Background - Several studies have reported that the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) TaqIB gene polymorphism is associated with HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and the risk of coronary artery disease ( CAD), but the results are inconsistent. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • To investigate the effect of thyroid dysfunction on high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism, we measured HDL subfractions, apolipoprotein A-I containing particles (LpA-I and LpA-I:A-II), and the activities of enzymes involved in the remodeling and metabolism of HDL [namely hepatic lipase (HL), lipoprotein lipase, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP)] in 18 hyperthyroid and 17 hypothyroid patients before and after treatment. (nih.gov)
  • chemical compounds that inhibit cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) and are expected to have utility in raising HDL-C, lowering LDL-C, and in the treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis. (newdrugapprovals.org)
  • For many years, studies on cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors(CETP) have not been interrupted, intending to achieve further cardiovascular protection through increasing the level of HDL-C on the basis of statin-lowering LDL-C. However, the failure of large clinical studies of CETP inhibitors represented by torcetrapib has caused continuous controversy in this area of research . (bvsalud.org)
  • This review discusses the role of HDL-C in atherogenesis as well as the promise of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibition in CVD prevention. (nih.gov)
  • Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by a mutation of the CETP gene. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Because CETP helps in the transfer of cholesterol from HDL to other lipoproteins, CETP deficiency affects low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and slows removal of HDL cholesterol from the blood. (merckmanuals.com)
  • To increase precision and to minimize residual confounding, we exploited the cholesteryl ester transfer protein ( CETP ) - TaqIB polymorphism as an instrument based on Mendelian randomization. (beds.ac.uk)
  • CETP plays a key role in determining the circulating HDL levels and transfers cholesteryl esters from HDL-C to LDL-C, as well as very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), in exchange for triglyceride rich lipoproteins [ 10 ]. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is the enzyme that facilitates the transfer of cholesteryl ester from high density lipoprotein (HDL) to apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins. (elsevier.com)
  • In the present study, we examined the effect of the suppression of increased plasma CETP by intravenous injection with antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) against CETP targeted to the liver on the development of atherosclerosis in rabbits fed a cholesterol diet. (elsevier.com)
  • The total cholesterol concentrations and the CETP mass in the animals injected with antisense ODNs were all significantly decreased in 12 and 16 weeks compared with those injected with sense ODNs and the control animals. (elsevier.com)
  • These findings showed for the first time that suspension of increased plasma CETP by the injection with antisense ODNs against CETP coupled to ASOR carrier molecules targeted to the liver thus inhibit the ahterosclerosis possibly by decreasing the plasma LDL + very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol- fed rabbits. (elsevier.com)
  • Cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) promotes the transfer of cholesterol esters among different lipoprotein classes-high-density lipoproteins (HDL), very-low-density lipoproteins, intermediate-density lipoproteins, and low-density lipoproteins (LDL). (elsevier.com)
  • The current study was carried out to determine whether CETP activities are correlated with lipoprotein cholesterol levels in a large number of patients having elevated LDL cholesterol and normal triglycerides (hypercholesterolemia) and elevated LDL cholesterol and high triglycerides (combined hyperlipidemia). (elsevier.com)
  • Furthermore, in those with combined hyperlipidemia, CETP activities were highly correlated with LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, and non-HDL/HDL ratios. (elsevier.com)
  • Since patients with elevated LDL cholesterol had a significantly lower mean level of HDL cholesterol, a high CETP activity also was related to a reduced HDL cholesterol level. (elsevier.com)
  • Our results are consistent with this concept, although they do not constitute final proof that high CETP activities contribute to elevated cholesterol concentrations and reduced HDL cholesterol levels in patients with hypercholesterolemia and in those with combined hyperlipidemia. (elsevier.com)
  • Genetic variation in the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) locus is associated with altered HDL-C. We aimed to assess AD risk by genetically predicted HDL-C. (uniba.it)
  • The enzyme lecithin-cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT) esterifies free cholesterol on high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) transfers cholesteryl esters to very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL). (elsevier.com)
  • Increased plasma activities of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) theoretically could lower HDL cholesterol levels due to enhanced transfer of cholesteryl esters from HDL to apo B-containing lipoproteins. (elsevier.com)
  • CETP activities were assayed in vitro and expressed as the percent of [ 3 H]cholesteryl ester transferred from HDL 3 to LDL during a 16-hour incubation. (elsevier.com)
  • 01). These findings suggest that elevated CETP activity may be a significant factor in causing low HDL cholesterol levels in a distinct subgroup of normolipidemic patients with low HDL cholesterol levels. (elsevier.com)
  • Genetic variation in the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) locus is associated with altered HDL-C. We aimed to assess AD risk by genetically predicted HDL-C. Methods: Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms within the CETP locus predicting HDL-C were applied to the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP) exome chip stage 1 results in up 16,097 late onset AD cases and 18,077 cognitively normal elderly controls. (uthscsa.edu)
  • protein (CETP) regulates high density lipoproteins (HDL)-cholesterol levels and interaction between glucose and HDL metabolism is central in the development of diabetes. (bioportfolio.com)
  • One of these factors is cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) promoting the redistribution of cholesteryl esters, triglycerides, and phospholipids between plasma proteins. (deepdyve.com)
  • The aim of this study was to detect differences in the hepatic expression of genes involved in low-grade inflammation and of obesity- and cholesterol-related microRNAs in two mixed breed populations of pigs (Yorkshire-Göttingen minipig, YM and Duroc-Göttingen minipig, DM) including males and females, with extreme phenotypes for CETP activity levels (designated as CETP-high and CETP-low, respectively). (deepdyve.com)
  • Hyperaldosteronism and hypertension were unexpected side effects observed in trials of torcetrapib, a cholesteryl ester-transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor that increases high-density lipoprotein. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Given that CETP inhibitors are lipid soluble, accumulate in adipose tissue, and have binding sites for proteins involved in adipogenesis, and that adipocytes are a source of aldosterone, we questioned whether CETP inhibitors (torcetrapib, dalcetrapib, and anacetrapib) influence aldosterone production by adipocytes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) facilitates exchange of triglycerides and cholesteryl ester between high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and apolipoprotein B100-containing lipoproteins. (nih.gov)
  • Evidence from genetic studies that variants in the CETP gene were associated with higher blood HDL cholesterol, lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and lower risk of coronary heart disease suggested that pharmacological inhibition of CETP may be beneficial. (nih.gov)
  • CETP cholesterol ester transfer protein, LCAT lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase, RVE resistive vibration exercise. (nature.com)
  • Torcetrapib acts (as a CETP inhibitor ) by inhibiting cholesterylester transfer protein (CETP), which normally transfers cholesterol from HDL cholesterol to very low density or low density lipoproteins (VLDL or LDL). (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme, cholesterylester transfer protein (CETP), then completes the absorption of cholesterol . (wikipedia.org)
  • CETP (Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • We hypothesized that plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) mass, phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) activity and cholesteryl ester transfer (CET, a measure of CETP action) are determined by adipokine levels. (eur.nl)
  • Ethanol inhibits a certain enzyme called cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP). (healthcentral.com)
  • CETP = cholesterol ester transfer protein: what does it do? (brainscape.com)
  • CETP normally transfers cholesterol from HDL cholesterol to very low density or low density lipoproteins (VLDL or LDL). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), also called plasma lipid transfer protein, is a plasma protein that facilitates the transport of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides between the lipoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the time, however, CETP does a heteroexchange, trading a triglyceride for a cholesteryl ester or a cholesteryl ester for a triglyceride. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cholesteryl ester transfer protein, CETP of 493 aas and 1 TMS. (tcdb.org)
  • Unexpectedly, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) was not required to determine the human-like cholesterol lipoprotein profile. (nih.gov)
  • The reciprocal exchange of cholesteryl ester for triglycerides mediated by CETP moves the bulk of the cholesteryl esters to lipoprotein remnant particles, which are subsequently cleared by the liver. (ahajournals.org)
  • The concerted action of CETP-mediated cholesteryl ester transfer and HL-mediated hydrolysis of triglycerides and phospholipids helps to form the smaller HDL particles that are the preferred binding partners for scavenger receptor type B1 (SR-B1), the major HDL receptor on hepatocytes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Evacetrapib belongs to a new class of drugs under development known as cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors. (redorbit.com)
  • Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) transfers cholesteryl esters between lipoproteins. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Additionally we are shipping CETP Antibodies (120) and CETP Proteins (14) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Carriers of protein-truncating variants of CETP displayed higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lower risk for coronary heart disease. (antibodies-online.com)
  • One such therapeutic strategy has been to block the activity of a protein called cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP). (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The CETP protein is tasked with transferring HDL cholesterol to certain lipoproteins in exchange for triglycerides , which are a type of fat found in the blood. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • As Dr. Millwood and her colleagues explain, certain genetic variants can have the same effect on the CETP protein as a drug would. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Dr. Millwood and colleagues found that a higher number of CETP genetic variants did increase levels of HDL cholesterol, but it did not lower the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Our research has helped clarify the role of different types of cholesterol, and suggests that raising levels of HDL [cholesterol] by blocking CETP activity, without also lowering LDL [cholesterol], does not confer any major benefits for cardiovascular disease. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Intermediate-density lipoproteins IDLs are inter- Cholesterol Ester transfer protein CETP mediates mediate particles formed from the conversion of the exchange of cholesteryl ester from HDL with VLDL to LDL. (yudu.com)
  • VLDL in exchange for triacylglycerol, facilitated by and is involved in catabolism of chylomicrons and cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP), or HDL VLDL. (yudu.com)
  • Torcetrapib is a blocker of a cell chemical called cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP). (pharmacytimes.com)
  • Increased cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity is a major determinant of low HDL-cholesterol. (bjcardio.co.uk)
  • Potentially important differences are emerging in the mechanisms by which CETP inhibitors operate, which may lead to variation in their anti-atherogenicity unrelated to the changes in HDL-cholesterol they induce. (bjcardio.co.uk)
  • 9 Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibition, however, offers the prospect of doubling HDL-C levels. (bjcardio.co.uk)
  • A solid amorphous dispersion comprises a cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor, an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor), and a concentration enhancing polymer. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • It is known that combination therapy of a cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor and inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) may be used to treat elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Lipoprotein classes continuously exchange their constituent lipids, such as cholesterol in both unesterified and esterified forms, phospholipids and triglycerides. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Type 2 diabetes is associated with a cluster of interrelated plasma lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities, including reduced HDL cholesterol, a predominance of small dense LDL particles, and elevated triglycerides ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In fact, pre-diabetic individuals often exhibit an atherogenic pattern of risk factors that includes higher levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides and lower levels of HDL cholesterol than individuals who do not develop diabetes ( 2 , 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Lipoproteins consist of lipids and proteins (known as apolipoproteins [apo]), with the main function of transporting water-insoluble lipids such as cholesterol or triglycerides in plasma from the sites of absorption (gut) and/or synthesis (liver) to the sites of utilization (peripheral tissues) or processing. (asnjournals.org)
  • During this conversion, the particles become depleted of triglycerides but retain considerable amounts of cholesterol ( 13 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • People with high LDL levels, high total cholesterol (TC), or high triglycerides - a type of fat circulating in the bloodstream - tend to have low HDL levels. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The nonpolar lipids (ie, cholesterol ester, triglycerides [TGs]) reside in a core surrounded by more polar components (eg, free cholesterol, phospholipids, proteins). (medscape.com)
  • Addition of ethanol to the cell medium led to modest increases in de novo synthesis of total cholesterol, cholesteryl esters and triglycerides, and as expected these increases were blocked when the lipid synthesis inhibitors were added. (springer.com)
  • It collects triglycerides from very-low-density (VLDL) or Chylomicrons and exchanges them for cholesteryl esters from high-density lipoproteins (HDL), and vice versa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, LHM treated with GW3965 mimicked the negative lipid outcomes of the first human trial of liver X receptor (LXR) stimulation, i.e. a dramatic increase of cholesterol and triglycerides in circulation. (nih.gov)
  • Conclusions: We found no significant difference in HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides, total cholesterol, or HS-CRP levels with use of vinegar but a trend down of Hgb-A1cin this group of non-diabetic participants. (scirp.org)
  • Our purpose is to review recent research in the area of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol raising and coronary artery disease (CAD) risk reduction. (qxmd.com)
  • Raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with inhibitors of cholesteryl ester transfer protein - a new approach to coronary artery disease. (qxmd.com)
  • Recent randomized controlled trials have challenged the concept that increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) risk reduction. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Refocusing on use of cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors. (qxmd.com)
  • Cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors as high-density lipoprotein raising agents. (qxmd.com)
  • DE19709125A1 ] The invention relates to substituted chinolines of general formula (I) which are highly effective inhibitors of cholesterol ester transfer proteins (CTEP) and stimulate reverse cholesterol transfer. (epo.org)
  • Although de novo lipid synthesis inhibitors are highly effective in lowering total and LDL-cholesterol they have only modest effects on raising HDL-C. A better understanding of the mechanism of ethanol-mediated HDL-C regulation could suggest new therapeutic approaches for CVD. (springer.com)
  • She also researches the regulation of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism by hormone factors, the molecular basis of diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis, and the mechanisms of lipid abnormalities caused by protease inhibitors. (google.com)
  • For example, WO02/13797 A2 relates to pharmaceutical combinations of cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors and atorvastatin. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • HDL functionality is regulated by various proteins and lipids making up HDL particles. (bireme.br)
  • Involved in the transfer of neutral lipids, including cholesteryl ester and triglyceride, among lipoprotein particles. (genecards.org)
  • For the metabolic syndrome in which multiple mild abnormalities in lipids, waist size (abdominal circumference), blood pressure, and blood sugar increase the risk of CHD, the designated HDL cholesterol levels that contribute to the syndrome are sex-specific. (medscape.com)
  • Plasma lipoproteins are macromolecular complexes of lipids and proteins that are classified by density and electrophoretic mobility. (medscape.com)
  • Oxysterols are bioactive lipids that control cellular cholesterol synthesis, uptake, and exportation besides mediating inflammation and cytotoxicity that modulate the development of atherosclerosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Oxysterols are a broad group of bioactive lipids derived from enzymatic and non-enzymatic oxidation of the cholesterol molecule that takes place both intra and extracellularly ( Brown and Jessup, 2009 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Effect of atorvastatin, cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibition, and diabetes mellitus on circulating proprotein subtilisin kexin type 9 and lipoprotein(a) levels in patients at high cardiovascular risk. (escholarship.org)
  • Cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibition with torcetrapib slightly increases PCSK9 levels and decreases Lp(a) levels. (escholarship.org)
  • Where are we with high-density lipoprotein raising and inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer for heart disease risk reduction? (qxmd.com)
  • Raising high-density lipoprotein in humans through inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein: an initial multidose study of torcetrapib. (qxmd.com)
  • Inhibition of cholesteryl ester synthesis by polyacetylenes from Atractylodes rhizome. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Inhibition for Preventing Cardiovascular Events: JACC Review Topic of the Week. (nih.gov)
  • Inhibition of this process results in higher HDL levels (the "good" cholesterol-containing particle) and reduces LDL levels (the "bad" cholesterol). (wikipedia.org)
  • In recent studies, PCSK9 inhibition by means of monoclonal antibodies achieved LDL cholesterol reductions of 50% to 70% across various patient populations and background lipid-lowering therapies, while maintaining a favourable safety profile. (smw.ch)
  • PCSK9 inhibition in LDL cholesterol reduction: genetics and therapeutic implications of very low plasma lipoprotein levels. (springer.com)
  • Plasma LCAT activity was determined using excess exogenous substrate, containing [ 3 H]cholesterol. (elsevier.com)
  • The exchange of cholesteryl esters between [ 14 C]cholesteryl ester-labeled LDL and unlabeled HDL was measured during a 16-h incubation, while LCAT was inhibited. (elsevier.com)
  • There are three main processes involving the efflux of free cholesterol from peripheral cells, LCAT action in intravascular pool where cholesterol esterification rate is under the control of HDL, LDL and VLDL subpopulations, and finally the destination of newly produced cholesteryl esters either to the catabolism in liver or to a futile cycle with apoB lipoproteins. (bireme.br)
  • They both reflect the rate of cholesterol esterification by LCAT and the composition of lipoprotein subpopulations that controls this rate. (bireme.br)
  • However, extreme HDL deficiencies caused by rare autosomal recessive disorders, including familial hypoalphalipoproteinemia (HA), familial lecithin-cholesterol acetyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency, and Tangier disease, do not always correlate with more frequent CHD. (medscape.com)
  • LCAT = lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase: what does it do? (brainscape.com)
  • Cholesterol in these nascent discoidal HDL particles is then esterified by lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). (ahajournals.org)
  • Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.43) ing in monocyte recruitment and the proliferation of LCAT mediates the esterification of cholesterol by smooth muscle cells. (yudu.com)
  • It acquires unesterified choles- lipase and hepatic lipase are endothelial-bound terol in the circulation, catalysed by LCAT to cho- enzymes that remove triacylglycerol from lipopro- lesteryl ester. (yudu.com)
  • In addition, the significant changes in glycerophospholipid metabolism proteins also indicated that glycerophospholipid metabolism might be involved in the therapeutic effect of TE on NAFLD. (hindawi.com)
  • Previous studies have shown that oxysterol binding protein like 2 (OSBPL2) knockdown is closely related to cholesterol metabolism. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a protease implicated in LDL receptor degradation and plays a central role in cholesterol metabolism. (smw.ch)
  • Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a secreted protein that enhances degradation of the LDL receptor and thereby plays a central role in LDL-C metabolism [6]. (smw.ch)
  • In particular, ethanol is known to improve cholesterol levels by increasing good HDL and other proteins that are beneficial to cholesterol metabolism. (healthcentral.com)
  • Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein in plasma and cellular lipid metabolism. (medscape.com)
  • The proteins, termed apolipoproteins, play an important role in lipoprotein metabolism. (medscape.com)
  • Effect of verapamil and nifedipine on cholesteryl ester metabolism and low-density lipoprotein oxidation in macrophages. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Role of plasma lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase in the metabolism of high density lipoproteins. (springer.com)
  • New insights from liver-humanized mice on cholesterol lipoprotein metabolism and LXR-agonist pharmacodynamics in humans. (nih.gov)
  • Aerobic exercise training (AET) prevents and regresses atherosclerosis by the improvement of lipid metabolism, reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) and antioxidant defenses in the arterial wall. (frontiersin.org)
  • The essential role of ABCA1 in HDL metabolism was first identified when genetic mutations of ABCA1 were found to underlie Tangier disease, 7 which is characterized by markedly reduced plasma levels of HDL-C and its major protein apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) because of profound hypercatabolism. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1 High HDL levels protect against the development of atherosclerosis by virtue of its essential role in the removal of excess cholesterol from peripheral cells and its antioxidative, antiinflammatory, and antithrombotic properties. (ahajournals.org)
  • Hypercholesterolemia is one of the well-understood risk factors of atherosclerosis, and cholesterol-lowering therapy is widely used in clinical practice for treatment of CVD [1, 2]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • When these macrophages become overloaded with cholesteryl esters, they transform into foam cells, which is a major step in the development of atherosclerosis ( 14 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) play a causal role in the development of atherosclerosis, and reduction of LDL cholesterol with a statin is a cornerstone in prevention of cardiovascular disease. (springer.com)
  • A low HDL cholesterol level is thought to accelerate the development of atherosclerosis because of impaired reverse cholesterol transport and possibly because of the absence of other protective effects of HDL, such as decreased oxidation of other lipoproteins. (medscape.com)
  • Patient's diets are based on the Japan Atherosclerosis Society Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Diseases, consisting of 25 kcal/kg of ideal body weight per day (60% of total energy as carbohydrates, 15-20% as protein, and 20-25% as fat with the ratio of polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and saturated fatty acids being 3:4:3). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 3,4 Lipid-free apo A-I or lipid-poor pre-β-HDL particles produced in the intestine or liver or shed during lipolysis of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRL) initiate efflux of phospholipids and cholesterol from cell membranes in a process facilitated by PLTP. (ahajournals.org)
  • Association between Taq IB cholesterol ester transfer protein polymorphism and low HDL cholesterol concentration in Saudis. (edu.sa)
  • Association of Serum Cholesterol Ester Transfer Protein Levels with Taq IB Polymorphism in Acute Coronary Syndrome. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Expression of cholesteryl ester transfer protein in mice promotes macrophage reverse cholesterol transport. (upenn.edu)
  • Regulates the reverse cholesterol transport, by which excess cholesterol is removed from peripheral tissues and returned to the liver for elimination (PubMed:17237796). (genecards.org)
  • High-density lipoprotein (HDL) plays an important role in reverse cholesterol transport, which shuttles cholesterol from peripheral cells to the liver ( 16 ), an important step that relieves the peripheral cells from cholesterol burden ( Figure 1 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • HDL plays a major role in reverse cholesterol transport, mobilizing cholesterol from the periphery to promote return to the liver. (medscape.com)
  • The major mechanism proposed for the protective effect of HDL is reverse cholesterol transport, a process in which excess cholesterol from peripheral cells is transported back to the liver for removal from the body [10]. (springer.com)
  • The cardioprotective effects of HDL-C have been attributed to its role in reverse cholesterol transport, its effects on endothelial cells, and its antioxidant activity. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1 This relationship is supported by the potential antiatherogenic properties of HDL, including its mediation of reverse cholesterol transport, in which cholesterol from peripheral tissues is returned to the liver for excretion in the bile. (ahajournals.org)
  • These lipid-poor particles are increased in extravascular compartments where reverse cholesterol transport takes place. (ahajournals.org)
  • Reverse cholesterol transport describes the transfer of cholesterol from nonhepatic cells to the liver. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1 HDL plays a key role in reverse cholesterol transport by promoting cholesterol efflux from peripheral cells, including cholesterol-laden macrophages, and delivering acquired cholesterol to liver for excretion, a process that is believed to be atheroprotective. (ahajournals.org)
  • 2 , contributing to the process of HDL cific receptor for oxidized LDL) and results in the regeneration in the reverse cholesterol transfer formation of cholesterol-laden foam cells. (yudu.com)
  • RESULTS: The in vivo results suggest that XH601 significantly decreased the adipose weight and levels of serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), apolipoprotein B (Apo-B), apolipoprotein E (Apo-E), while increased serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C). The in vitro results implied that XH601 up-regulated the mRNA and protein expression of both PPARα and PPAR /δ in a dose-dependent manner. (bireme.br)
  • Most of apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), the predominant HDL protein, migrates in agarose gels with α-electrophoretic mobility and is designated α-LpA-I. This fraction accounts for almost all of the cholesterol quantified in the clinical laboratory as HDL-C. α-HDL can be further fractionated by density into HDL 2 and HDL 3 , by size, or by apolipoprotein composition. (ahajournals.org)
  • FABPs serve as cholesterol ester and has one apolipoprotein, apoB- intracellular receptors of LCFAs and are involved in 100, per LDL particle. (yudu.com)
  • 100 mg/dL (baseline) and were subsequently randomized either to atorvastatin + torcetrapib, a cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitor, or to atorvastatin + placebo. (escholarship.org)
  • Effects of an inhibitor of cholesteryl ester transfer protein on HDL cholesterol. (qxmd.com)
  • Efficacy and safety of torcetrapib, a novel cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor, in individuals with below-average high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. (qxmd.com)
  • 3 Genetic factors that influence HDL-C levels are not consistently associated with altered CVD risk, and failure of the cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitor torcetrapib and, more recently, niacin to reduce cardiovascular events, despite their HDL-raising effects, has raised doubts about the therapeutic potential of raising HDL. (ahajournals.org)
  • The increase in lesion size coincided with an increase in VLDL/LDL cholesterol and a decrease in HDL cholesterol. (ahajournals.org)
  • Allows the net movement of cholesteryl ester from high density lipoproteins/HDL to triglyceride-rich very low density lipoproteins/VLDL, and the equimolar transport of triglyceride from VLDL to HDL (PubMed:3600759, PubMed:24293641). (genecards.org)
  • Criteria for the definition of familial HAs are (1) a low HDL cholesterol level in the presence of normal VLDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels, (2) an absence of diseases or factors to which HA may be secondary, and (3) the presence of a similar lipoprotein pattern in a first-degree relative. (medscape.com)
  • In the CAD group, those with the Msp M1 allele had higher levels of total cholesterol (TC) (p = 0026) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) than those with the Msp M2 allele. (wiley.com)
  • hyperresponders: increase in total cholesterol of ≥0.06 mmol/L for each additional 100 mg of dietary cholesterol consumed. (hindawi.com)
  • Verapamil and nifedipine (10-100 microM) were shown to decrease in a dose-dependent manner the incorporation of [14C]oleate into ChE and to increase the concentration of FCh but had no appreciable effect on the concentration of total cholesterol in macrophages cultured in the presence of acetylated LDL. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Diagnostic Test: Blood sampling for total cholesterol and homocysteine and cognitive assessment by psychometric tests. (tripdatabase.com)
  • The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during development of the embryo and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life. (bioportfolio.com)
  • These results are important for understanding the mechanism by which moderate alcohol consumption leads to upregulation of serum HDL-cholesterol in humans, and suggests new approaches to targeting HDL as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. (springer.com)
  • Quantitative effects of dietary fat on serum cholesterol in in serum HDL cholesterol levels in the general popu- man. (yudu.com)
  • by many factors, e.g., serum TAG concentrations, Keys A, Anderson JT, and Grande F (1965) Serum cholesterol activity of HTGL, production rates of apo A-I, and response to changes in the diet. (yudu.com)
  • Torcetrapib (CP-529,414, Pfizer ) was a drug being developed to treat hypercholesterolemia (elevated cholesterol levels) and prevent cardiovascular disease . (wikipedia.org)
  • The same fold is shared by Bacterial Permeability Inducing proteins (examples: BPIFP1 BPIFP2 BPIFA3 and BPIFB4), phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), and long-Palate Lung, and Nasal Epithelium protein (L-PLUNC). (wikipedia.org)
  • This genetic variation was independent of metabolic risk factors known to influence HDL cholesterol levels. (edu.sa)
  • Genetic Variations of Cholesterol Ester Transfer Protein Gene in Koreans " by Seung Ho Hong, Young-Ree Kim et al. (wayne.edu)
  • However, HDL cholesterol levels may be increased in some genetic disorders. (merckmanuals.com)
  • A number of genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors have been shown to contribute to the lowering of HDL-cholesterol. (deepdyve.com)
  • Systematically evaluating the association of low frequency and rare variants can provide new insights regarding the genetic architecture of protein biomarkers. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • CHOLESTEROL/Factors Determining Blood Levels 391 accumulation occurs on a genetic basis, the disorder Meat, Poultry and Meat Products. (yudu.com)
  • Genetic regulation of HDL cholesterol Family and 1172. (yudu.com)
  • Upregulation of ApoA1 gene expression in hepatoma cells in culture, upon exposure to moderate ethanol concentrations in the medium, occurs at the level of RNA and is not dependent on new cholesterol or fatty acid synthesis. (springer.com)
  • The results obtained suggest that verapamil and nifedipine exert their macrophage-mediated antiatherosclerotic effect via reduction of LDL oxidative modification, reduction of intracellular ChE synthesis, stimulation of ChE hydrolysis and cholesterol excretion from the cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Pomerantz KB, Fleisher LN, Tall AR, Cannon P: Enrichment of endothelial cell arachidonate by lipid transfer from high density lipoproteins: relationship to prostaglandin 12 synthesis. (springer.com)
  • Adenosine-binding cassette transporter In periph- a protein that binds with part of the LDL receptor eral tissues, adenosine-binding cassette transporter promoter to increase cholesterol synthesis. (yudu.com)
  • The disorder is usually diagnosed when elevated HDL cholesterol levels are found during a routine blood test. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Enhanced cholesteryl ester transfer protein activites and abnormalities of high density lipoproteins in familial hypercholesterolemia. (nii.ac.jp)
  • A superfamily of large integral ATP-binding cassette membrane proteins whose expression pattern is consistent with a role in lipid (cholesterol) efflux. (bioportfolio.com)
  • These and previously published data indicate that HIV infection and HIV medications influence CVD risk by impairing cholesterol removal (efflux) via ABCA1 from macrophages. (omicsonline.org)
  • Decreasing CVD risk in HIV patients, with impaired cholesterol efflux from macrophages, may require a lower LDL-C goal than recommended for HIV-negative patients and also a better control of TG level. (omicsonline.org)
  • ABCA1 promotes cellular cholesterol efflux to lipid-free apoA-I, generating nascent HDL particles. (ahajournals.org)
  • but not ABCG1), 14 providing a gateway for cholesterol to efflux onto HDL. (ahajournals.org)
  • ABCG1 −/− adipocytes exhibited normal efflux to both HDL and apo-A1, and protein levels were negligible in wild-type adipocytes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Atherogenic impact of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase and its relation to cholesterol esterification rate in HDL (FER(HDL)) and AIP [log(TG/HDL-C)] biomarkers: the butterfly effect? (bireme.br)
  • Moreover, this phenotype was associated with the elevated plasma triglyceride (TG) level, reduced HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), and high-hepatic lipase activity [20]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In addition, postheparin plasma activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) were determined in 71 patients with a low HDL cholesterol level. (elsevier.com)
  • Lipoprotein lipase This enzyme is required for National Cholesterol Education Program: Second Report lipolysis of TAG in TAG-rich lipoproteins. (yudu.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine if a new drug, DRL-17822, is safe and effective in elevating high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and reducing low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in people with abnormal cholesterol levels that may put them at risk for heart disease. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • lasma concentrations of HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol are low in the Saudi Arabian population. (edu.sa)
  • There is a strong need to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) beyond the use of statins that lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The inverse relationship of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) with cardiovascular disease suggests HDL-C raising therapy as a novel target. (nih.gov)
  • Elevated high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level is abnormally high levels of HDL cholesterol in the blood. (merckmanuals.com)
  • There is conflicting evidence whether high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia. (uniba.it)
  • International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP), ARUK Consortium & GERAD/PERADES, CHARGE, ADGC, EADI 2018, ' Genetically elevated high-density lipoprotein cholesterol through the cholesteryl ester transfer protein gene does not associate with risk of Alzheimer's disease ', Alzheimer's and Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment and Disease Monitoring , vol. 10, pp. 595-598. (uthscsa.edu)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is found in plasma, where it is involved in the transfer of cholesteryl ester from high density lipoprotein (HDL) to other lipoproteins. (genecards.org)
  • Objective To investigate the association between treatment induced change in high density lipoprotein cholesterol and total death, coronary heart disease death, and coronary heart disease events (coronary heart disease death and non-fatal myocardial infarction) adjusted for changes in low density lipoprotein cholesterol and drug class in randomised trials of lipid modifying interventions. (bmj.com)
  • Study selection In teams of two, reviewers independently determined eligibility of randomised trials that tested lipid modifying interventions to reduce cardiovascular risk, reported high density lipoprotein cholesterol and mortality or myocardial infarctions separately for treatment groups, and treated and followed participants for at least six months. (bmj.com)
  • All analyses that adjusted for changes in low density lipoprotein cholesterol showed no association between treatment induced change in high density lipoprotein cholesterol and risk ratios for coronary heart disease deaths, coronary heart disease events, or total deaths. (bmj.com)
  • The change in the quotient of low density lipoprotein cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol did not explain more of the variability in any of the outcomes than did the change in low density lipoprotein cholesterol alone. (bmj.com)
  • There are two types of cholesterol: high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or "good" cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or "bad" cholesterol. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • At the opposite end, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol seems to not be causally associated with cardiovascular risk, and thus far, trials designed to reduce cardiovascular risk by mainly raising HDL cholesterol levels have been disappointing. (springer.com)
  • Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), or hypoalphalipoproteinemia (HA), includes a variety of conditions, ranging from mild to severe, in which concentrations of alpha lipoproteins or high-density lipoprotein (HDL) are reduced. (medscape.com)
  • High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations are inversely associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) in humans [1,2]. (springer.com)
  • High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and cardiovascular disease: four prospective American studies. (springer.com)
  • Keys A: High density lipoprotein cholesterol and longevity. (springer.com)
  • Cholesterol lipoprotein profiles of LHM showed a human-like pattern, characterized by high ratio of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and dependency on the human donor. (nih.gov)
  • 1989) High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and cardiovascular disease: Four prospective American studies. (scirp.org)
  • A low level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • The association between low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and an increased risk for cardiovascular disease has been well established through epidemiological and clinical studies. (ahajournals.org)
  • High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol "is 'good' cholesterol," write the American Heart Association (AHA). (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels inversely correlate with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). (ahajournals.org)
  • Despite statin use to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, a residual cardiovascular risk remains in dyslipidaemic patients, particularly when high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels are low. (bjcardio.co.uk)
  • Attention is, therefore, drawn to the prevalence of low plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in CVD. (bjcardio.co.uk)
  • Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are associated with a clustering of interrelated plasma lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities, which include reduced HDL cholesterol, a predominance of small dense LDL particles, and elevated triglyceride levels. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cholesteryl esters readily move to the core of HDL particles, producing a steady gradient of free cholesterol and enabling HDL to accept cholesterol from various donors. (ahajournals.org)
  • Therefore, we used purified EPA ethyl ester and examined effects of EPA on atherogenic sdLDL particles and remnant lipoprotein particles in the metabolic syndrome, a precursor of CVD. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The capacity of HDLs to maintain cellular cholesterol homeostasis and to transport cholesterol from peripheral cells to the liver for elimination is one of their principal anti-atherogenic activities. (bireme.br)
  • LDL transports cholesterol primarily to hepatocytes but also to peripheral tissues. (asnjournals.org)
  • The common, mild forms of HA have no characteristic physical findings, but patients may have premature coronary heart or peripheral vascular disease, as well as a family history of low HDL cholesterol levels and premature CHD. (medscape.com)
  • The higher the plasma levels of HDL, the more efficient is the transport to the liver of excess cholesterol from peripheral cells. (springer.com)
  • When it is deficient or inactive, A large number of lipoprotein receptors have been cholesterol accumulates in peripheral tissues as in identified. (yudu.com)
  • Cholesterol and oxysterols in aortic arch and macrophages were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. (frontiersin.org)
  • 8 The accumulation of cholesterol in macrophages and cells of the reticuloendothelial system in Tangier disease is due to the lack of ABCA1 in the macrophage. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Expressed in Lecithin. (ahajournals.org)
  • This mechanism underlies one transferring a fatty acid from lecithin to cholesterol model of atherogenesis. (yudu.com)
  • It reminds the butterfly effect when only a moderate change in the process of transformation free cholesterol to cholesteryl esters may cause a crucial turn in the intended target. (bireme.br)
  • At 8 weeks, they were divided into three groups (six animals in each group), among which the plasma total and HDL cholesterol concentrations did not significantly change. (elsevier.com)
  • The HDL cholesterol concentrations measured by the precipitation assay did not significantly change among the groups fed a cholesterol diet, and triglyceride concentrations did not significantly change in the four groups. (elsevier.com)
  • However, at the end of the study, when the HDL cholesterol concentrations were measured after the isolation by ultracentrifugation and a column chromotography, they were significantly higher in the animals injected with antisense ODNs than in the animals injected with sense ODNs and in the control animals. (elsevier.com)
  • Dietschy JM, Turley SD, and Spady DK (1993) Role of liver in cholesterol concentrations are moderately reduced the maintenance of cholesterol and low density lipoprotein homeostasis in different animal species, including humans. (yudu.com)
  • There was interaction between cholesterol and fatty acids to regulate cholesterol ester transfer protein. (mun.ca)
  • It is shown for the first time that the effect is dependent on RNA polymerase II-mediated transcription, but not on de novo biosynthesis of cholesterol or fatty acids, and therefore is not a generalized metabolic response to ethanol exposure. (springer.com)
  • Fatty acid binding protein Fatty acid binding pro- teins (FABPs) play a role in the solubilization of Low-density lipoproteins LDL is the major choles- long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and their CoA-esters terol-carrying particle in the plasma. (yudu.com)
  • Adipose tissue contributes to plasma levels of lipid transfer proteins and is also the major source of plasma adipokines. (eur.nl)
  • ApoA1 protein was measured by Western blot, and RNA of lipid pathway genes APOA1 , APOC3 , APOA4 , APOB100 , HMGCR , LDLR , and SREBF2 by quantitative RT-PCR. (springer.com)
  • Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. (wikipedia.org)
  • We investigated in dyslipidemic mice the role of a 6-week AET program in the content of plasma and aortic arch cholesterol and oxysterols, the expression of genes related to cholesterol flux and the effect of the exercise-mimetic AICAR, an AMPK activator, in macrophage oxysterols concentration. (frontiersin.org)
  • The mechanism of the regulation of cholesterol ester transfer protein by dietary fats and cholesterol was investigated using human cholesterol ester transfer protein transgenic mice fed monounsaturated fatty acid and saturated fatty acid enriched diets with or without cholesterol. (mun.ca)
  • Dietary cholesterol needs be esterified in order to be absorbed from the gut. (wikipedia.org)
  • She is currently researching the molecular mechanisms of cholesterol ester transfer protein regulation by dietary fats and hormones. (google.com)
  • when it is genetically absent, Bonanome A and Grundy SM (1988) Effect of dietary stearic acid on plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein levels. (yudu.com)
  • LDL- cholesterol Lowering Effect of a New Dietary Supplement LDL- cholesterol Lowering Effect of a New Dietary Supplement - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. (tripdatabase.com)
  • HDL is "good," because it carries about one-fourth to one-third of circulating cholesterol to the liver for excretion. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein Microsomal increase in plasma HDL cholesterol decreases CHD triglyceride transfer protein is present in enterocytes risk by 2% in men and 3% in women. (yudu.com)
  • Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels were not significantly lower in carriers of D442G mutation. (nature.com)
  • These remnants, which include cholesterol-enriched intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDLs), are particularly atherogenic in humans and in a number of animal models ( 17 , 18 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Nonetheless, a high proportion of statin-intolerant patients are unable to achieve recommended low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol goals, thereby resulting in substantial residual cardiovascular risk. (smw.ch)
  • The efficacy of statins for reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and prevention of cardiovascular events is well established [1, 2]. (smw.ch)
  • During this catabolic process, chylomicrons diminish in size and become chylomicron remnants, which are taken up by the liver via the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and the LDL receptor-related protein (LRP). (asnjournals.org)
  • Statins have proved beyond doubt the relevance of reducing low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in atherogenic cardiovascular disease (CVD), with the risk of a new CVD event reducing by one-fifth for each 1 mmol/L decrease in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) achieved. (bjcardio.co.uk)
  • The relationship between low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and highdensity lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in the general population. (bjcardio.co.uk)
  • Analysis of two metabolic trait-associated coding polymorphisms in the human TM6SF2 gene (rs58542926 and rs187429064) revealed that both variants impact TM6SF2 expression by affecting the rate of protein turnover. (bireme.br)
  • These data demonstrate that rs58542926 (E167K) and rs187429064 (L156P) are functional variants and suggest that they influence metabolic traits through altered TM6SF2 protein stability. (bireme.br)
  • 2013 ACC/AHA guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in adults. (springer.com)
  • OSBPL2 deficiency upregulate SQLE expression increasing intracellular cholesterol and cholesteryl ester by AMPK/SP1 and SREBF2 signalling pathway. (bioportfolio.com)