Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Cholesterol, Dietary: Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Cholesterol Esters: Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.Cholesterol Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of cholesterol in the presence of molecular oxygen to 4-cholesten-3-one and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme is not specific for cholesterol, but will also oxidize other 3-hydroxysteroids. EC 1.1.3.6.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Cholesterol 7-alpha-Hydroxylase: A membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 7-alpha-hydroxylation of CHOLESTEROL in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP7, converts cholesterol to 7-alpha-hydroxycholesterol which is the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)TriglyceridesLipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Cholesterol, VLDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). High circulating levels of VLDL cholesterol are found in HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE IIB. The cholesterol on the VLDL is eventually delivered by LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS to the tissues after the catabolism of VLDL to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LDL.Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.Anticholesteremic Agents: Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Dietary Fats, Unsaturated: Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC 2.3.1.26.Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Lipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Apolipoprotein A-I: The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.beta-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Sitosterols: A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1: A superfamily of large integral ATP-binding cassette membrane proteins whose expression pattern is consistent with a role in lipid (cholesterol) efflux. It is implicated in TANGIER DISEASE characterized by accumulation of cholesteryl ester in various tissues.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hydroxycholesterols: Cholesterol which is substituted by a hydroxy group in any position.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Esterification: The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.Cyclodextrins: A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.Phytosterols: A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.Apolipoproteins: Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.Phosphatidylcholine-Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC 2.3.1.43.Cholestyramine Resin: A strongly basic anion exchange resin whose main constituent is polystyrene trimethylbenzylammonium Cl(-) anion.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Sodium, Dietary: Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.Desmosterol: An intermediate in the synthesis of cholesterol.Receptors, LDL: Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins: Proteins that bind to and transfer CHOLESTEROL ESTERS between LIPOPROTEINS such as LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Lovastatin: A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.Apolipoproteins B: Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Mevalonic AcidApolipoproteins E: A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Filipin: A complex of polyene antibiotics obtained from Streptomyces filipinensis. Filipin III alters membrane function by interfering with membrane sterols, inhibits mitochondrial respiration, and is proposed as an antifungal agent. Filipins I, II, and IV are less important.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Iron, Dietary: Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.Cholestanol: A cholesterol derivative found in human feces, gallstones, eggs, and other biological matter.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Sterol Esterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Cholelithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).Diet, Atherogenic: A diet that contributes to the development and acceleration of ATHEROGENESIS.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Membrane Microdomains: Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.AzetidinesPotassium, Dietary: Potassium or potassium compounds used in foods or as foods.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.Lanosterol: A triterpene that derives from the chair-boat-chair-boat folding of 2,3-oxidosqualene. It is metabolized to CHOLESTEROL and CUCURBITACINS.Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Sphingomyelins: A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Hypolipidemic Agents: Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Androstenes: Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.Fish Oils: Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.Orphan Nuclear Receptors: A broad category of receptor-like proteins that may play a role in transcriptional-regulation in the CELL NUCLEUS. Many of these proteins are similar in structure to known NUCLEAR RECEPTORS but appear to lack a functional ligand-binding domain, while in other cases the specific ligands have yet to be identified.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Dehydrocholesterols: Cholesterol derivatives having an additional double bond in any position. 24-Dehydrocholesterol is DESMOSTEROL. The other most prevalent dehydrocholesterol is the 7-isomer. This compound is a precursor of cholesterol and of vitamin D3.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Embolism, Cholesterol: Blocking of a blood vessel by CHOLESTEROL-rich atheromatous deposits, generally occurring in the flow from a large artery to small arterial branches. It is also called arterial-arterial embolization or atheroembolism which may be spontaneous or iatrogenic. Patients with spontaneous atheroembolism often have painful, cyanotic digits of acute onset.Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated: Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Scavenger Receptors, Class B: A family of scavenger receptors that are predominately localized to CAVEOLAE of the PLASMA MEMBRANE and bind HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Niemann-Pick Diseases: A group of autosomal recessive disorders in which harmful quantities of lipids accumulate in the viscera and the central nervous system. They can be caused by deficiencies of enzyme activities (SPHINGOMYELIN PHOSPHODIESTERASE) or defects in intracellular transport, resulting in the accumulation of SPHINGOMYELINS and CHOLESTEROL. There are various subtypes based on their clinical and genetic differences.Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.Foam Cells: Lipid-laden macrophages originating from monocytes or from smooth muscle cells.Simvastatin: A derivative of LOVASTATIN and potent competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It may also interfere with steroid hormone production. Due to the induction of hepatic LDL RECEPTORS, it increases breakdown of LDL CHOLESTEROL.Fats, Unsaturated: Fats containing one or more double bonds, as from oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Corn Oil: Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Recommended Dietary Allowances: The amounts of various substances in the diet recommended by governmental guidelines as needed to sustain healthy life.Soybean Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from SOYBEANS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.StigmasterolEggs: Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Fatty Acids, Omega-3: A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 2: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates GENES involved in CHOLESTEROL synthesis and uptake.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase: An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.Cholestanes: Derivatives of the saturated steroid cholestane with methyl groups at C-18 and C-19 and an iso-octyl side chain at C-17.Apolipoproteins A: Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.Gallbladder: A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.SqualeneDyslipidemias: Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder of CHOLESTEROL metabolism. It is caused by a deficiency of 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, the enzyme that converts 7-dehydrocholesterol to cholesterol, leading to an abnormally low plasma cholesterol. This syndrome is characterized by multiple CONGENITAL ABNORMALITIES, growth deficiency, and INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY.Receptors, Lipoprotein: Cell surface proteins that bind lipoproteins with high affinity. Lipoprotein receptors in the liver and peripheral tissues mediate the regulation of plasma and cellular cholesterol metabolism and concentration. The receptors generally recognize the apolipoproteins of the lipoprotein complex, and binding is often a trigger for endocytosis.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Vitamin E: A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Nutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Mice, Inbred C57BLMacrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II: A group of familial disorders characterized by elevated circulating cholesterol contained in either LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS alone or also in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (pre-beta lipoproteins).Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Vegetable Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from vegetables or vegetable products used as food. The concept is distinguished from PLANT PROTEINS which refers to non-dietary proteins from plants.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Pravastatin: An antilipemic fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Nocardia autotrophica. It acts as a competitive inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES).Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Heptanoic Acids: 7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Chylomicrons: A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Lipoproteins, HDL3: Intermediate-density subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes between 7 to 8 nm. As the larger lighter HDL2 lipoprotein, HDL3 lipoprotein is lipid-rich.Ketocholesterols: Cholesterol substituted in any position by a keto moiety. The 7-keto isomer inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity and inhibits cholesterol uptake in the coronary arteries and aorta in vitro.Caseins: A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.TritiumOleic Acid: An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Linoleic Acid: A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Oleic Acids: A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.Mesocricetus: A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.Butter: The fatty portion of milk, separated as a soft yellowish solid when milk or cream is churned. It is processed for cooking and table use. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Safflower Oil: An oily liquid extracted from the seeds of the safflower, Carthamus tinctorius. It is used as a dietary supplement in the management of HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA. It is used also in cooking, as a salad oil, and as a vehicle for medicines, paints, varnishes, etc. (Dorland, 28th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Xanthomatosis: A condition marked by the development of widespread xanthomas, yellow tumor-like structures filled with lipid deposits. Xanthomas can be found in a variety of tissues including the SKIN; TENDONS; joints of KNEES and ELBOWS. Xanthomatosis is associated with disturbance of LIPID METABOLISM and formation of FOAM CELLS.Oils: Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Tangier Disease: An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS involved in cellular cholesterol removal (reverse-cholesterol transport). It is characterized by near absence of ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins) in blood. The massive tissue deposition of cholesterol esters results in HEPATOMEGALY; SPLENOMEGALY; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; large orange tonsils; and often sensory POLYNEUROPATHY. The disorder was first found among inhabitants of Tangier Island in the Chesapeake Bay, MD.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Triparanol: Antilipemic agent with high ophthalmic toxicity. According to Merck Index, 11th ed, the compound was withdrawn from the market in 1962 because of its association with the formation of irreversible cataracts.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.Cholic Acids: The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Cholic Acid: A major primary bile acid produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption and cholesterol excretion.Organosilicon Compounds: Organic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Linoleic Acids: Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.

Dietary intake and practices in the Hong Kong Chinese population. (1/1882)

OBJECTIVES: To examine dietary intake and practices of the adult Hong Kong Chinese population to provide a basis for future public health recommendations with regard to prevention of certain chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and osteoporosis. PARTICIPANTS: Age and sex stratified random sample of the Hong Kong Chinese population aged 25 to 74 years (500 men, 510 women). METHOD: A food frequency method over a one week period was used for nutrient quantification, and a separate questionnaire was used for assessment of dietary habits. Information was obtained by interview. RESULTS: Men had higher intakes of energy and higher nutrient density of vitamin D, monounsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol, but lower nutrient density of protein, many vitamins, calcium, iron, copper, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. There was an age related decrease in energy intake and other nutrients except for vitamin C, sodium, potassium, and percentage of total calorie from carbohydrate, which all increased with age. Approximately 50% of the population had a cholesterol intake of < or = 300 mg; 60% had a fat intake < or = 30% of total energy; and 85% had a percentage of energy from saturated fats < or = 10%; criteria considered desirable for cardiovascular health. Seventy eight per cent of the population had sodium intake values in the range shown to be associated with the age related rise in blood pressure with age. Mean calcium intake was lower than the FAO/WHO recommendations. The awareness of the value of wholemeal bread and polyunsaturated fat spreads was lower in this population compared with that in Australia. There was a marked difference in types of cooking oil compared with Singaporeans, the latter using more coconut/palm/mixed vegetable oils. CONCLUSION: Although the current intake pattern for cardiovascular health for fat, saturated fatty acid, and cholesterol fall within the recommended range for over 50% of the population, follow up surveys to monitor the pattern would be needed. Decreasing salt consumption, increasing calcium intake, and increasing the awareness of the health value of fibre may all be beneficial in the context of chronic disease prevention.  (+info)

Comparative hypocholesterolemic effects of five animal oils in cholesterol-fed rats. (2/1882)

The hypocholesterolemic efficacy of various animal oils was compared in rats given a cholesterol-enriched diet. After acclimatization for one week, male F344 DuCrj rats (8 weeks of age) that had been fed with a conventional diet were assigned to diets containing 5% of oil from emu (Dromaius), Japanese Sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis, Heude), sardine, beef tallow, or lard with 0.5% cholesterol for 6 weeks. After this feeding period, the concentrations of serum total cholesterol and of very-low-density lipoprotein + intermediate-density lipoprotein + low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in the sardine oil group were significantly lower than those in the other groups. The serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration in the Japanese Sika deer oil group was significantly higher than that in the other groups. The atherosclerotic index and liver cholesterol concentration in the sardine oil and Japanese Sika deer oil groups were significantly lower than those in the other groups. The fecal cholesterol excretion by the Japanese Sika deer oil group was significantly higher than that of the other groups, except for the sardine oil group, and the fecal bile acid excretion by the sardine oil group was significantly higher than that of the other groups, except for the lard group. These results suggest that Japanese Sika deer oil reduced the atherosclerotic index and liver cholesterol concentration in the presence of excess cholesterol in the diet as well as sardine oil did by increasing the excretion of cholesterol from the intestines of rats.  (+info)

Comparison of synthetic saponin cholesterol absorption inhibitors in rabbits: evidence for a non-stoichiometric, intestinal mechanism of action. (3/1882)

The hypocholesterolemic activities of pamaqueside and tiqueside, two structurally similar saponins, were evaluated in cholesterol-fed rabbits. The pharmacological profiles of the saponins were virtually identical: both dose-dependently decreased the intestinal absorption of labeled cholesterol 25-75%, increased fecal neutral sterol excretion up to 2.5-fold, and decreased hepatic cholesterol content 10-55%. High doses of pamaqueside (>5 mg/kg) or tiqueside (>125 mg/kg) completely prevented hypercholesterolemia. Decreases in plasma and hepatic cholesterol levels were strongly correlated with increased neutral sterol excretion. Ratios of neutral sterol excreted to pamaqueside administered were greater than 1:1 at all doses, in opposition to the formation of a stoichiometric complex previously suggested for tiqueside and other saponins. Ratios in tiqueside-treated rabbits were less than unity, a reflection of its lower potency. Pamaqueside-treated rabbits exhibited a more rapid decline in plasma cholesterol concentrations than control animals fed a cholesterol-free diet, indicating that the compound also inhibited the absorption of biliary cholesterol. Intravenous administration of pamaqueside had no effect on plasma cholesterol levels despite plasma levels twice those observed in rabbits given pamaqueside orally. These data indicate that pamaqueside and tiqueside induce hypocholesterolemia by blocking lumenal cholesterol absorption via a mechanism that apparently differs from the stoichiometric complexation of cholesterol hypothesized for other saponins.  (+info)

Macroscopic distribution of coronary atherosclerotic lesions in cholesterol-fed rabbits. (4/1882)

In the present study we macroscopically examined a change in the distribution of coronary atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Rabbits were fed a cholesterol-enriched diet for 15 weeks, then replaced by a normal diet, and were sacrificed at 15, 24, 32 and 42 weeks after the start of the experiment. The coronary atherosclerosis in the cholesterol-fed rabbits was distributed more densely in the proximal portion than in the middle and distal portions, and the lesions were severe at 24 and 32 weeks after the start of the experiment. comparison of lesions in the three portions at these time points showed that the percentages of lesion areas in the proximal portion, the middle portion and the distal portion were approximately 51%, 21 to 25% and 0.2 to 3.7%, respectively. Macroscopic observation of the coronary atherosclerotic lesions showed that the lesions formed over the vessel lumen in the proximal portion within the range of approximately 5 mm from the orifice of the left coronary artery. In the middle portion, the lesions formed predominantly around the orifices of branches as small patchy lesions from 1 to 3 mm in diameter. These findings support previous histopathological reports that suggested that the incidence of stenosis in the proximal portion was high, and the incidence of lesion occurrence in the middle and the distal portions varied. The method, macroscopical investigation of the coronary artery, is useful for analyzing coronary atherosclerosis in the rabbit.  (+info)

Age-related changes in blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in mice fed on a high-cholesterol diet. (5/1882)

To investigate the pathogenesis of hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis, we examined age-dependent changes in platelet activity, blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in susceptibility to a high cholesterol diet (HCD) feeding in male ICR mice. Pretreatment of platelet-rich-plasma from HCD feeding mice for 3 days with epinephrine (300 microM) resulted in a marked enhancement of adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP: 0.1 microM) or collagen (0.7 microgram/ml)-stimulated aggregation compared with the same in control mice. Yohimbine as alpha 2-adrenergic blocker antagonized these aggregations in a dose-dependent manner. A significant increase in plasma total cholesterol and VLDL (very low-density lipoprotein)-LDL (low-density lipoprotein)-cholesterol and the liver/body weight ratio was observed in mice fed on HCD for 3 months (3-month HCD mice). In the early phase of this experiment, a significant increase in fibrinogen was observed. In the middle phase, increases in the activity of antithrombin III (ATIII) and alpha 2-plasmin inhibitor (alpha 2-Pl) followed. Plasminogen content gradually decreased in both normal diet and HCD mice throughout the experiment. The activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) decreased in 3-month HCD mice. Morphological observation of the aortic arch from 3-month HCD mice revealed apparent atheromatous plaques not seen in control mice. These results suggest that 3-month HCD mice can be a convenient hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerotic model and the changes in platelet activity, coagulation and fibrinolysis in the early phase may be a cause of pathologic changes in this model.  (+info)

Development of atherosclerotic lesions in cholesterol-loaded rabbits. (6/1882)

To examine both of the target vessels and the optimal time of their endothelial denudation to study vascular restenosis after balloon injury in cholesterol-loaded rabbits, we made 36 atherosclerotic rabbits by feeding a hypercholesterol diet, and histologically examined the onset time and the development of atherosclerosis. Atheromatous changes were observed first after the 5th week in the thoracic aorta from the start of the diet, and then extended to the abdominal aorta, coronary artery with time. The atherosclerotic lesions in the thoracic aorta and the proximal portion of the coronary artery showed high-grade concentric intimal thickening with luminal stenosis. The abdominal aortic lesion mildly progressed. In the renal, carotid and femoral arteries, in contrast, slight atheroscleromatous changes developed during the diet period. These results suggest that the thoracic and abdominal aortas and the coronary artery would be suitable as target vessels to study vascular restenosis after balloon injury, and the endothelial denudation of these vessels should be performed between the 8th and 15th week in this diet protocol for an accurate analysis.  (+info)

Macronutrient intake and change in mammographic density at menopause: results from a randomized trial. (7/1882)

To examine the effects of dietary fat intake on breast cancer risk, we are conducting a randomized trial of dietary intervention in women with extensive areas of radiologically dense breast tissue on mammography, a risk factor for breast cancer. Early results show that after 2 years on a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet there is a significant reduction in area of density, particularly in women going through menopause. In women who went through menopause during the 2-year follow-up, the mean decreases in area of density and percentage of density in the intervention group were 11.0 cm2 and 11.0%, respectively, whereas the control group decreased 4.5 cm2 and 5.2%. The purpose of this analysis was to determine whether changes in intake of specific macronutrients could account for the observed reduction in breast density in these women. Differences between 2-year and baseline values of macronutrients (averaged over 3 nonconsecutive days of food intake) were calculated. We examined the effect of dietary variables, adjusted for changes in total calorie intake and weight and for family history of breast cancer, on changes in area of density and percentage of density using linear regression. Reduction in total or saturated fat intake or cholesterol intake was significantly associated with decreased dense area (p < or = .004). The most significant dietary variable associated with reduction in percentage of density was reduction in dietary cholesterol intake (P = 0.001), although reducing saturated fat intake was of borderline significance (P = 0.05). The effect of the membership in the intervention and control groups on change in area of density or percentage of density was reduced by models that included changes in intake of any fat, or cholesterol, or carbohydrates. The observation of an effect of diet at menopause on breast density, a marker of increased risk of breast cancer, may be an indication that exposures at this time have an enhanced effect on subsequent risk.  (+info)

Cholic acid aids absorption, biliary secretion, and phase transitions of cholesterol in murine cholelithogenesis. (8/1882)

Cholic acid is a critical component of the lithogenic diet in mice. To determine its pathogenetic roles, we fed chow or 1% cholesterol with or without 0.5% cholic acid to C57L/J male mice, which because of lith genes have 100% gallstone prevalence rates. After 1 yr on the diets, we measured bile flow, biliary lipid secretion rates, hepatic cholesterol and bile salt synthesis, and intestinal cholesterol absorption. After hepatic conjugation with taurine, cholate replaced most tauro-beta-muricholate in bile. Dietary cholic acid plus cholesterol increased bile flow and biliary lipid secretion rates and reduced cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase activity significantly mostly via deoxycholic acid, cholate's bacterial 7alpha-dehydroxylation product but did not downregulate cholesterol biosynthesis. Intestinal cholesterol absorption doubled, and biliary cholesterol crystallized as phase boundaries shifted. Feeding mice 1% cholesterol alone produced no lithogenic or homeostatic effects. We conclude that in mice cholic acid promotes biliary cholesterol hypersecretion and cholelithogenesis by enhancing intestinal absorption, hepatic bioavailability, and phase separation of cholesterol in bile.  (+info)

*Saturated fat and cardiovascular disease

Cholesterol and cardiovascular disease[edit]. The initial connection between arteriosclerosis and dietary cholesterol was made ... "Dietary fats, oils and cholesterol". Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada. Retrieved 25 July 2017.. ... evidence that dietary saturated fats increased serum total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol and increased risk of cardiovascular ... "Dietary fats, oils and cholesterol". Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada. Retrieved 24 July 2017.. ...

*Saturated fat

... other whole milk dairy products and fatty meats which also contain dietary cholesterol.[2] Certain vegetable products have high ... cholesterol) or low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL, "good" cholesterol) cholesterol are all associated with increased ... Dietary recommendations[edit]. Recommendations to reduce or limit dietary intake of saturated fats are made by the World Health ... indicators measuring cholesterol such as high total/HDL cholesterol ratio are more predictive than total serum cholesterol.[57] ...

*Tomatine

Dietary supplementation with ∼0.04% tomatidine for 10 weeks reduces plasma cholesterol and atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient ... The amount of plasma LDL cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein) decreases as the amount of dietary tomatine increases. The LD50 ... Cayen, M. N. (1971). "Effect of dietary tomatine on cholesterol metabolism in the rat". Journal of Lipid Research. 12 (4): 482- ... Cayen, M.N.; Effect of dietary tomatine on cholesterol metabolism in the rat; Journal of Lipid Research, Volume 12, 1971. ...

*Polysaccharide

"Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids ( ... "Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for carbohydrates and dietary fibre". EFSA Journal. 8 (3): 1462. March 25, 2010 ... Called dietary fiber, these carbohydrates enhance digestion among other benefits. The main action of dietary fiber is to change ... Eastwood M, Kritchevsky D (2005). "Dietary fiber: how did we get where we are?". Annu Rev Nutr. 25: 1-8. doi:10.1146/annurev. ...

*Uncle Sam Cereal

A 3/4 cup (55 grams) serving contains: 190 calories, 40 from fat; total fat 5 g; trans fat 0 g; cholesterol 0 mg; sodium 135 mg ... potassium 250 mg; total carbohydrates 38 g; dietary fiber 10 g; soluble fiber 2 g; insoluble fiber 8 g; sugars less than 1 g. ...

*Polyunsaturated fat

"Dietary Guidelines 2015-2020. Retrieved 20 February 2019.. *^ "Live Well, Eat well, Fat: the facts". NHS. Retrieved 20 February ... HEART UK - The Cholesterol Charity. Retrieved 20 February 2019.. *^ "Key Recommendations: Components of Healthy Eating Patterns ... "Dietary Guidelines for Indians - A Manual" (PDF). Indian Council of Medical Research, National Institute of Nutrition.. ... Willett WC (September 2007). "The role of dietary n-6 fatty acids in the prevention of cardiovascular disease". Journal of ...

*beta-Carotene

2005). "Class B scavenger receptor-mediated intestinal absorption of dietary β-carotene and cholesterol". Biochemistry. 44 (11 ... Dietary sources[edit]. Beta-carotene is found in many foods and is sold as a dietary supplement. β-Carotene contributes to the ... Institute of Medicine (US) Panel on Micronutrients (2001). Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, ... Plant carotenoids are the primary dietary source of provitamin A worldwide, with β-carotene as the best-known provitamin A ...

*20-Hydroxyecdysone

These tissues convert dietary cholesterol into the mature forms of the hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone.[1] For the most part these ... An ecdysteroid is a type of steroid hormones in insects that are derived from enzymatic modification of cholesterol by p450 ... which appear to include dietary phytoecdysteroids, gut flora, helminth infections, and other diseases).[5] ...

*Low-carbohydrate diet

Food and Nutrition Board (2002/2005). Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol ... eds.). Dietary intervention approaches to the treatment of obesity. Textbook of Obesity. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 295-309. ISBN ... "Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)" (PDF). National Academy of Medicine. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 October 2015. ... Allen FM, Fitz R, Stillman E (1919). Total dietary regulation in the treatment of diabetes. New York: The Rockefeller Institute ...

*Histidine

Institute of Medicine (2002). "Protein and Amino Acids". Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrates, Fiber, Fat, Fatty ... Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. pp. 589-768.. ... The Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) of the U.S. Institute of Medicine set Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for essential ...

*Branched-chain amino acid

Dietary BCAAs have been used in an attempt to treat some cases of hepatic encephalopathy.[7] They can have the effect of ... Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. pp. 589-768.. ... Institute of Medicine (2002). "Protein and Amino Acids". Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrates, Fiber, Fat, Fatty ... The Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) of the U.S. Institute of Medicine set Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for essential ...

*Sugar

Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids. Washington ... dietary fiber Total. sugars Free. fructose Free. glucose Sucrose Fructose/. (Fructose+Glucose). ratio Sucrose. as a % of. total ... Recommended dietary intake[edit]. The World Health Organization recommends that both adults and children reduce the intake of ... Joshi, S; Agte, V (1995). "Digestibility of dietary fiber components in vegetarian men". Plant Foods for Human Nutrition ( ...

*Phenylketonuria

"Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrates, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington ... Tentative evidence supports dietary supplementation with large neutral amino acids (LNAAs).[38] The LNAAs (e.g. leu, tyr, trp, ... People who follow the prescribed dietary treatment from birth may have no symptoms. Their PKU would be detectable only by a ... Regular blood tests are used to determine the effects of dietary Phe intake on blood Phe level. ...

*Gail Jarvik

Dietary cholesterol increases paraoxonase 1 enzyme activity. J Lipid Res. 2012 Aug 15. [Epub ahead of print] (PMID 22896672). ...

*Sucrose

Dietary reference intakes: guiding principles for nutrition labeling and fortification. National Academies Press. 2004. ISBN 0- ... cholesterol, protein, and amino acids (macronutrients). National Academies Press. p. 323. Archived from the original on 2015-07 ... UN dietary recommendation[edit]. In 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) published a new guideline on sugars intake for ... Wolever, Thomas M. S. (2006). The Glycaemic Index: A Physiological Classification of Dietary Carbohydrate. CABI. p. 64. ISBN ...

*Omega-3 fatty acid

Food and Nutrition Board (2005). Dietary Reference Intakes For Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, ... Dietary recommendations[edit]. In the United States, the Institute of Medicine publishes a system of Dietary Reference Intakes ... Dietary sources[edit]. Grams of omega−3 per 3oz (85g) serving[104][permanent dead link][105] Common name. grams omega−3 ... 3 fatty acids reduce blood triglyceride levels but do not significantly change the level of LDL cholesterol or HDL cholesterol ...

*Trans fat

Their 2002 Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids[ ... "Effect of dietary trans fatty acids on high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in healthy subjects". The ... "Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and ... "bad cholesterol"), lowering levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL, often termed "good cholesterol"), increasing triglycerides ...

*Trans fat

Their 2002 Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids[ ... 2003). "Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and ... Mensink, RPM; Katan, MB (1990). "Effect of dietary trans fatty acids on high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ... Hu, FB (1997). "Dietary fat intake and the risk of coronary heart disease in women". New England Journal of Medicine (PDF). , ...

*Fat

"Fats and Cholesterol", Harvard School of Public Health. Retrieved 02-11-16. Hayes, K.C. (May 2005). Dietary fat and blood ... Dietary consumption of fatty acids has effects on human health. Studies have found that replacing saturated fats with cis ... an important dietary requirement. They provide energy as noted above. Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat-soluble, meaning they can ... at risk of cardiovascular disease and to lower risk population groups should continue to include permanent reduction of dietary ...

*Lactobacillus bulgaricus GLB44

"CRN List of Dietary Ingredients "Grandfathered" under DSHEA" (PDF). Council for Responsible Nutrition (1998). National ... bulgaricus Isolates" performed at the University of Warsaw proved that L. bulgaricus has the ability to uptake cholesterol from ... FDA (2013). "Label Claims for Conventional Foods and Dietary Supplements". FDA website. Retrieved 31 May 2014. Ziarno, M. (2009 ... "In Vitro Cholesterol Uptake by Lactobacillus Delbrueckii Subsp. Bulgaricus Isolates" (PDF). Acta Sci. Pol., Technol. Aliment. ...

*포화 지방산 - 위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전

"Dietary lipids and blood cholesterol: quantitative meta-analysis of metabolic ward studies". 》BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.)》 314 ... 2006). "Low-fat dietary pattern and risk of cardiovascular disease: the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary ... "Cholesterol". Irish Heart Foundation. 2011년 2월 28일에 확인함.. *↑ U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health and ... "Dietary fat and heart disease study is seriously misleading". 》The Nutrition Source》 (영어). 2014년 3월 19일. 2018년 12월 10일에 확인함.. ...

*Κατάθλιψη - Βικιπαίδεια

Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and depression: when cholesterol does not satisfy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. ... Dzugan, S. A. Is low cholesterol dangerous? Life Extension. December 2004. *↑ Mercola, J. Low cholesterol causes aggressive ... Demonstration of an association among dietary cholesterol, central serotonergic activity, and social behavior in monkeys.». ... Effects of dietary selenium on mood in healthy men living in a metabolic research unit. Biol Psychiatry. 39(2):121-128, 1996. ...

*Seven Countries Study

... and in this same issue of Circulation Keys explained that dietary cholesterol is not a factor in humans). In 1956 Gofman wrote ... How scientific are US dietary guidelines? The scientific report guiding the US dietary guidelines: is it scientific?, British ... Ravnskov, Uffe (2000). The Cholesterol Myths: Exposing the Fallacy That Cholesterol and Saturated Fat Cause Heart Disease. ... published his book The Cholesterol Myths and went on to found The International Network of Cholesterol Skeptics. In an 2001 ...

*ABCG5

... of ABCG5 and ABCG8 promotes biliary cholesterol secretion and reduces fractional absorption of dietary cholesterol". The ... "Accumulation of dietary cholesterol in sitosterolemia caused by mutations in adjacent ABC transporters". Science. 290 (5497): ... "Mapping a gene involved in regulating dietary cholesterol absorption. The sitosterolemia locus is found at chromosome 2p21". ... important in the regulation of dietary cholesterol absorption". Nature Genetics. 27 (1): 79-83. doi:10.1038/83799. PMC 1350991 ...

*Guar gum

"Cholesterol-lowering effects of dietary fiber: a meta-analysis". ajcn.nutrition.org. Retrieved 4 August 2017. JC Brown & G ... Guar gum is also a good source of fiber with 80% soluble dietary fiber on a dry weight basis. Guar gum is analysed for Guar gum ... Some studies have found guar gum to improve dietary glucose tolerance. Research has revealed the water-soluble fiber in it may ... Guar gum, though, is also capable of reducing the absorbability of dietary minerals (other than calcium), when foods or ...

*Levothyroxine

The bioavailability of the drug is decreased by dietary fiber.[20] Greater than 99% of circulating thyroid hormones are bound ... elevated cholesterol levels) but was withdrawn due to cardiac side effects. ... it is important to review their medications and possible dietary supplements as several medications can affect thyroid hormone ...
Low Cholesterol Diet and Nutrition for Heart Disease: diet tips to lower cholesterol naturally. Topics include low cholesterol diet solutions
Low Cholesterol Diet and Nutrition for Heart Disease: diet tips to lower cholesterol naturally. Topics include low cholesterol diet solutions
The idea that dietary cholesterol increases risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) by turning into blood cholesterol is compelling in much the same way that fish oil improves arthritis by lubricating our joints! Dietary cholesterol, chiefly in the form of eggs, has long been outlawed as a causative agent in CHD through its association with serum cholesterol. However, the scientific evidence to support a role for dietary cholesterol in CHD is relatively insubstantial in comparison with the incontrovertible link between its circulating blood relative in low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and CHD. Interpretation of the relationship between dietary cholesterol and CHD has been repeatedly confounded by an often inseparable relationship between dietary cholesterol and saturated fat. It has also been exaggerated by the feeding of unphysiologically high intakes of eggs. Nonetheless, numerous studies have shown that dietary cholesterol can increase serum LDL-cholesterol, but the size of this effect ...
To elucidate the link between the intake of animal fat and asthma, a murine model was developed to examine the effect of dietary cholesterol on pulmonary allergic inflammation. Male C57BL6 mice were fed either a control diet or a diet supplemented with 2% cholesterol. Following sensitization and inhalation exposure to ovalbumin, the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of mice in the cholesterol group contained higher numbers of eosinophils and elevated levels of IL-5, PGE2, and MCP-1. In addition, dietary cholesterol also resulted in elevated production of IL-4 and IFN-γ by lymphocytes isolated from the lungs. These inflammatory indicators were all significantly correlated with serum cholesterol levels. In contrast to the effect of dietary cholesterol, adding pravastatin to the drinking water significantly reduced eosinophil infiltration and the levels of IL-5, PGE2 and MCP-1 in lavage fluid. Although dietary cholesterol did not alter baseline IL-12 in the lungs, in mice challenged with ovalbumin the ...
The main objective of the present work was to characterize the response of human cholesterol synthesis that occurs within the normal range of cholesterol intake. Our results demonstrate modestly reduced cholesterogenesis with increasing dietary cholesterol levels as assessed by two techniques. Metabolic responses to increased dietary cholesterol potentially include reduced endogenous synthesis, decreased absorption, and increased biliary excretion of cholesterol.7 35 Feedback inhibition of cholesterol synthesis has been well described in animals,20 21 whereas the results of investigations in humans have been somewhat equivocal, with downregulation reported in some6 7 35 36 37 38 39 but not all22 23 24 40 41 42 studies. Nestel and Poyser7 fed 2 normolipidemic and 7 hyperlipidemic subjects diets with either 250 or 750 mg/d cholesterol for ,4 weeks. Cholesterol synthesis, as measured by sterol balance, was suppressed at the higher level of dietary cholesterol in 5 of 9 study participants, including ...
In rats fed on a diet containing 1% cholesterol for 24 h, the decrease in hepatic non-saponifiable lipid synthesis, cholesterogenesis and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase activity was accompanied by an increase in the proportion of newly synthesized polar sterols in vivo. In these animals there was also a strong inverse correlation between the proportion of polar sterols in the non-saponifiable lipid and hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity. A similar correlation was not observed in animals fed on a normal diet. Cholesterogenesis in the intestine was not as sensitive to inhibition by dietary cholesterol as was that in the liver, and there was no increase in the polar-sterol content of the newly synthesized non-saponifiable-lipid fraction. ...
Other researchers have since confirmed Ancel Keys square root relationship, adding that dietary cholesterol has greatest effects on serum cholesterol if it is added to a low cholesterol, or cholesterol-free diet. At moderate cholesterol intakes, serum cholesterol changed very little with added cholesterol. A 1997 meta-analysis compiled 9 predictive equations since 1990, calculating that for a 2500 kcal diet, a 1.37-2.68 mg/dl decrease in serum cholesterol could be expected for every 100 mg/day decrease in dietary cholesterol. The prediction based on their meta-analysis was a 2.2 mg/dl decrease in serum cholesterol for every 100 mg/day decrease in dietary cholesterol ...
In the current study, we generated Tg rabbits expressing human EL in the liver and characterized the effects of overexpression of EL on plasma lipoproteins and cholesterol diet-induced atherosclerosis. Consistent with the previous studies,7,15 hepatic expression of EL in Tg rabbits on a chow diet led to a remarkable reduction of plasma TC, phospholipids, HDL-C, and HDL-phospholipids, suggesting that EL indeed plays an important role in maintaining the HDL homeostasis. It should be noted that in Tg rabbits, ≈60% of the EL proteins were present in pre-heparin plasma associated with lipoproteins, with rest of them bound to the luminal surface of endothelial surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans because they are releasable to the circulation by heparin injection. The presence of free EL immunoreactive proteins in the circulation has also been reported in WHHL rabbits3 and humans,27 and measurement of the pre-heparin plasma EL activity showed that high EL activity is associated with high risk of ...
Cholesterol, as commonly measured, doesnt say a lot about your risk of heart disease (HD). People with high cholesterol, low cholesterol, and everything in between die of heart disease. The "high cholesterol leads to heart disease" model does not explain those observations. A recent refinement to the model involves LDL/HDL size. Large "light and fluffy" LDL/HDL seems to REDUCE risk of CHD. While small, dense LDL/HDL INCREASES risk of HD. So what affects LDL/HDL size? Saturated fat seems to lead to LDL/HDL of increased size. Carbs, on the other hand, seem to lead to LDL/HDL of reduced size. Unexpected. Read Taubes book for more. So find out the size of your LDL/HDL before worrying. And read Gary Taubes book Good Calories, Bad Calories. Taubes does a superb job at exposing how research does not support common beliefs about heart disease, diabetes, and obesity. Heres a collection of links related to the book and Taubes. ...
Issuu is a digital publishing platform that makes it simple to publish magazines, catalogs, newspapers, books, and more online. Easily share your publications and get them in front of Issuus millions of monthly readers. Title: What Are The Best Ingredients In High Cholesterol Diet Recipes.txt, Author: Carl Peterson, Name: What Are The Best Ingredients In High Cholesterol Diet Recipes.txt, Length: 2 pages, Page: 1, Published: 2012-05-31
High ldl cholesterol is a major problem as it may well enhance ones threat of heart disease, heart assault, and stroke. The apparent method to decrease
Support for those following The Specific Carbohydrate Diet from the book, BREAKING THE VICIOUS CYCLE by Elaine Gottschall, B.A., M.Sc. Intestinal health through diet. Recommended for Acid Reflux, IBS, Crohns, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, UC, Diverticulitis, Celiac Disease, Cystic Fibrosis, Chronic Diarrhea, Chronic Constipation, Autism & the many problems stemming from inbalances and malabsorption of nutrients in the intestinal tract.
Some myths busted. Dr Enimil said there were a number of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), such as smoking and sedentary lifestyles, as well as dietary factors such as saturated fat and trans-fatty acids.. However, the risk factors did not include dietary cholesterol intake, he said.. Dr Enimil, who is also a lecturer at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, pointed out that eggs contained more mono-unsaturated fat than saturated fat and that the consumption of eggs did not raise cholesterol levels in 70 per cent of the general population, including those with existing cardiovascular disease.. "Raises in cholesterol are usually high-density lipoproteins (HDL) or good cholesterol. The phospholipids in eggs appear to be protective as they reduce fat absorption, decrease fatty liver, increase good cholesterol levels, and reduce body inflammation," the lecturer noted.. He said the risk of cardiovascular disease was greater in people with diabetes ...
Cholesterol is explained, Good and Bad Cholesterol, Dietary Cholesterol, Saturated Fats, Trans Fatty Acids, Polyunsaturated, Monounsaturated, Hydrogenated Fats.
Dietary cholesterol has been demonised so much over the years, that we are now wary of our cholesterol levels rising and this damaging our arteries, or causing heart disease.
Hypercholesterolemia was induced in rabbits by feeding Purina Chow supplemented with cholesterol (5 g/kg body weight/day). The serum cholesterol levels of these rabbits increased progressively and after 3 to 5 months were 4 to 9-fold greater than those of the control animals. Decrease in total hemolytic complement was not apparent during the feeding regimen. Morphologic examination of aortae of these hypercholesterolemic rabbits showed typical atherosclerotic intimal plaques. Immunofluorescent microscopy with fluorescein (F)-labeled anti-rabbit C3 showed deposition of C3 in the intimal and inner medial layers as early as 3 months on high cholesterol diet. C3 deposits were also observed in the renal glomeruli and in the walls of coronary arteries. However, fluorescent studies failed to demonstrate the presence of IgG, IgM, and C4 at these sites. Tissues from control animals fed normal diets were negative for immunoglobulins, C3, and C4. These results suggest that the complement system may be ...
You can read them all in detail at the above link, but here are a few reproduced to get you started.. 1. In 1937, Columbia University biochemists David Rittenberg & Rudolph Schoenheimer demonstrated that dietary cholesterol had little or no influence on blood cholesterol. This scientific fact has never been refuted. Why, then, do the proposed 2010 Dietary Guidelines limit dietary cholesterol to less than 300 mg per day - or 200 mg if you are diabetic?. 2. Dietary cholesterol is poorly absorbed, 50 percent at best (Mary Enig, PhD; Michael I. Gurr, PhD, lipid biochemists). According to these lipid biochemists, the more cholesterol you eat, the less cholesterol you absorb. Since our bodies must synthesize between 1200 and 1800 mg of cholesterol daily, why is there any dietary limit?. 3. "Cholesterol in food has no affect on cholesterol in blood and weve known that all along." These are the words of Professor Ancel Keys, American Heart Association board member and father of the low fat diet, who, ...
Nutrition: U. may drop advice to limit dietary cholesterol by end of year. advisory panel reviewing national dietary guidelines (for Canada and the U.
This population-based study of women undergoing two successive mammography screenings does not support an association between statin use and change in breast density. However, it remains plausible that statin use alters breast density. Studies have found high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (19, 20), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (19), and dietary cholesterol intake (21) to be associated with breast density, independent of age and BMI.. It is possible that any change in breast density associated with statin use becomes masked when combined with characteristics of statin users, such as high BMI, old age, or concomitant use of hormone therapy. Age and breast density are highly correlated, with breast density decreasing as women age (22). Overweight women tend to have less dense breasts (23). In our study, current statin use at the time of screening and any statin use during the study period was associated with having less dense breasts compared with nonusers even after adjusting for age, ...
Starting a high cholesterol diet may seem incredibly easy. After all, it is just adding in a bowl of oatmeal and a handful of nuts a day, right? Wrong.
The natural variation among inbred strains of mice was used to elucidate the genetic factors underlying the responsiveness to high-fat and high-cholesterol diets. The nine strains examined are the progenitors of recombinant inbred strain sets: C57BL/6J, C57L/J, SWR/J, SJL/J, SM/J, A/J, AKR/J, C3H/HeJ, and DBA/2J. Plasma lipids, liver lipids, the prevalence of cholesterol gallstones, and the size of aortic fatty streak lesions were examined after 18 wk of consumption of the diet containing 15% fat and 1% cholesterol. The variation in aortic lesions found among inbred strains provided the basis for several additional studies that demonstrated the existence of eight genes affecting atherosclerosis. These genes, named Ath1 to Ath8, are briefly described. The genetic analysis of variation in gallstone formation demonstrated that more than one gene affects this phenotype.
I want Christina to see another doctor who will give her a wake up call, because quite frankly, l think she needs it. I could post medical paper after medical paper which will raise alarm bells about Christina s results, but it would take all day to do. I also wonder how the low HDL has affected Christina s fatty acid profile. It would be interesting to know her EPA/DHA scores also. Once again, much of the medical literature released to doctors and the public on lipids and cholesterol is highly flawed and does not tell the true story behind what is going on. The peer reviewed medical literature now clearly states on numerous occasions that the drug companies and food industry has suppressed info so only dubious literature supporting the low fat low cholesterol diet is in the public domain. There seems to have been lots of lobbying by low fat food industry and drug companies selling cholesterol/lipid lowering drugs as the dominant players pushing their dubious agendas. Itsalso no coincidence ...
A new study from the University of Eastern Finland shows that a relatively high intake of dietary cholesterol, or eating one egg every day, are not associated with an elevated risk of incident coronary heart disease. Furthermore, no association was found among those with the APOE4 phenotype, which affects cholesterol metabolism and is common among the Finnish population.. View original post here ...
Catalyzes the formation of fatty acid-cholesterol esters. Plays a role in lipoprotein assembly and dietary cholesterol absorption. ...
This article helps you plan a low-calorie, low-cholesterol party, starting with the appetizers. Here are four delicious low-cholesterol dip recipes.
Foods to avoid if a person is on a no cholesterol diet are animal products such as meat, dairy, poultry and some fish, according to WebMD. Therefore, a no cholesterol diet is basically a vegetarian...
Discover eating well - with healthy recipes, healthy eating, healthy cooking, healthy diet recipes, weight loss recipes and healthy menus from EatingWell Magazine.
Ces transformations résultent de lindustrialisation et de lutilisation de végétaux et danimaux non sauvages profondément transformés pour en faire des produits alimentaires. Un grand nombre de ces produits ne sont adaptés ni à notre physiologie ni à notre génomique et produisent des pathologies chroniques même sils permettent un apport calorique stable voire excessif pour les pays industrialisés et émergents. Toute la problématique est là. Analyser comment ces transformations bouleversent nos régulations cérébrales et générales et entraînent lobésité, le diabète, la majorité des cancers, lathérome et les démences chez certains dentre nous. ...
This website uses cookies to improve your experience. If you continue to use our site, or click OK, well assume that youre happy. OK ...
L-arginine is the substrate of nitric oxide production which is involved in the regulation of apoptosis and inflammatory processes. The effect of L-arginine after the formation of fatty streaks (FS) is not fully understood in the hypercholesterolemic model and therefore the main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of L-arginine after fatty streaks were developed in the rabbit aorta. Eighteen male rabbits were fed a 1% cholesterol diet for four weeks. One third of the animals were sacrificed randomly to verify fatty streak formation in the aorta (phase I). Then the high cholesterol diet was replaced with a normal diet, and the remaining animals (n=12) were divided into two groups (phase II); group 1 (n=6): normal diet and group 2 (n=6): normal diet plus L-arginine (3% in drinking water). The experiment was continued for a further four weeks. The serum levels of lipids and lipoproteins were increased significantly in phase I ( ...
7. New research shows that, contrary to previous belief, moderate consumption of eggs does not have a negative impact on cholesterol. In fact, recent studies have shown that regular consumption of two eggs per day does not affect a persons lipid profile and may, in fact, improve it. Research suggests that it is saturated fat that raises cholesterol rather than dietary cholesterol. ...
Cholesterol in food doesnt necessarily raise cholesterol levels in your blood. Translation: High-cholesterol foods like eggs can be healthy.
A 98-year-old researcher argues that contrary to decades of clinical assumptions and advice to patients, dietary cholesterol is good for your heart.
A new dietary guidelines report says Americans no longer have to limit their cholesterol intake. David Katz, MD, explains what the advice means for you.
The article explains how many eggs you can eat without harming yourself. It recommends that you limit your cholesterol intake to 300 or 200 milligrams daily.
Participants are admitted to the clinical research center for up to a week per visit. Additional visits at least yearly encouraged. During the week we measure such things as cholesterol absorption, sterol and bile acid synthesis, mevalonate and mevalonate shunt products, isoprenoids, fatty acids, leukotrienes, plasma cholesterol and other sterol levels. Also, the effects of altering dietary cholesterol on plasma 24-S OH-cholesterol, a measure of brain cholesterol turnover, will be evaluated. Studies of body composition/ metabolism/ growth, development, behavior, sleep, feeding, hearing and vision will be carried out to document the phenotype and determine if dietary intervention may be helpful.. The objective of the study is to characterize the metabolic and phenotypic consequences of MKD and study the effects of altering dietary cholesterol in MKD. We hypothesize that some of the phenotypic effects of MKD are due to altered cholesterol metabolism, but that the phenotype is predominantly due to ...
Low cholesterol diet refinance - Dollar Stretcher Library Subject Index A to C. The Hypercet Cholesterol and Blood Pressure Formulas can help support and maintain normal body functions to help maintain optimum health.
Best Home Remedies For High Cholesterol, Home Remedies For High Cholesterol, home remedies, Remedies For High Cholesterol, high cholesterol foods, high cholesterol icd 10, high cholesterol symptoms, high cholesterol reasons, high cholesterol icd 9, high cholesterol symptoms in hindi, high cholesterol indian foods, high cholesterol causes, high cholesterol treatment in ayurveda, high cholesterol problems, high cholesterol, high cholesterol diet, high cholesterol level, high cholesterol ayurvedic treatment, high cholesterol and diabetes what to eat, high cholesterol and triglycerides, high cholesterol and chest pain, high cholesterol and uric acid, high cholesterol and dizziness, high cholesterol and diabetes, high cholesterol and eye problems, high cholesterol at 30, high cholesterol and fatigue, a high cholesterol diet, a high cholesterol diet plan, very high cholesterol, very high cholesterol symptoms, what a high cholesterol number, what
The Oxford English Dictionary defines the word myth as; a popular idea concerning natural or historical phenomena ... that has no foundation in fact. The popular idea in this context is that eating dietary cholesterol, typically from eggs, increases the risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD), because it increases blood cholesterol. This contentious idea prevails, despite a lack of scientific foundation to support its existence, and almost global re-vamping of dietary recommendations to lift restrictions on the intake of cholesterol-rich foods. In an attempt to dispel the mythical status of dietary cholesterol and CHD, the following chapter will examine the role of dietary cholesterol in relation to what has been well established in terms of the relationships between blood cholesterol, diet and CHD. © 2011 Woodhead Publishing Limited All rights reserved.. ...
Simmered eggplant and tomato:For preparing this low cholesterol recipe, first you have to heat the three table spoons of oil on large pan with medium high heat. Then add onion by cooking it gently and add garlic.. Now you have to add large piece of eggplant and stir it. After this mixture absorbed all the oil, add some more oil and stir it.. Next add salt, pepper and flakes. This mixture is covered with eggplant until it becomes transparent. Now you have to add two cans of tomatoes along with liquid.. Now this total mixture should be stirred well. Then you stir again by reducing to low heat from 10 to 15 minutes. Now the low cholesterol recipe is ready for you. So you can serve it with a main dish plain.. If you are already following some other low cholesterol diets, then before following the low cholesterol diet you have to avoid use of fatty foods such as butter, cheese and other processed foods which will add much cholesterol into your body. For achieving the best results of low cholesterol ...
In this article, you will learn how to keep the vitamin D in the body while still lowering cholesterol.. Eat Fiber. There are 2 types of fiber, soluble and insoluble. Soluble fiber is what lowers cholesterol. Insoluble just regulates bowel movements. You need the first type. This type is found in apples, broccoli, and beans. Many people say that whole grain is good for lowering cholesterol but it does not contain the correct type of fiber.. Sterols. Sterols are found in many plants. This is like cholesterol for plants. In your body, they take the place of cholesterol and cause your body to dispose of the real cholesterol. This is a natural process your body uses over time to keep your cholesterol levels balanced.. You will find Sterols in foods like corn, soy,and wheat.. Supplements. Fiber, plant sterols, and vitamin D are all found in cholesterol lowering supplements. These are like ordinary multivitamins except they are specially designed and proven to work for people with high cholesterol. ...
How Fast Do You Lose Weight On Nutrisystem Diet That Will Lower Cholesterol Weight Loss Clinics In Stillwater Ok.Long To Lose Weight On Nutrisystem Sources Of Hdl Cholesterol How Can I. less trouble on a low carb diet plan than.Low Cholesterol Diabetic Diet - Fastest Way To Lose 50 Pounds In 2 Months Low Cholesterol Diabetic Diet How Much Weight Do People Lose On Nutrisystem Who Is The ...
Ebook How To Lower Your Cholesterol With Diet :: Lower your cholesterol high cholesterol and lower, Low cholesterol diet plan, Pinterest the world s catalog of ideas, Top diet foods high cholesterol diet foods to avoid, Top 5 foods to lower cholesterol 2 can easily be, Natural tips to significantly lower your high cholesterol, Diet reducing, Pin by holly roth on health diabetes pinterest, 25 best ideas about lower cholesterol naturally on, 1000 images about lower your cholestrol on pinterest
For those who suffer from high cholesterol the best and first way to control and lower their cholesterol levels is through their diet. But many people are confused as to what constitutes a high cholesterol food they need to avoid and a low cholesterol food. This is because there is a difference between dietary cholesterol and blood cholesterol.. Generally most health guidelines recommend that dietary cholesterol not exceed 300 mg per day for most healthy people, but if one suffers from high LDL blood cholesterol levels then this intake should be not more than 200 mg per day.. Cholesterol, a waxy like substance, is only found in animal meat and tissues and its sources include red meat, eggs, fish, poultry, and dairy products. On the flip side any food derived from plant sources is cholesterol free, including high fat plants food sources such as avocados and peanut butter. This is where the confusion usually happens because eating large amounts of vegetable oil, which is virtually 100% food fat, ...
low cholesterol - MedHelps low cholesterol Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for low cholesterol. Find low cholesterol information, treatments for low cholesterol and low cholesterol symptoms.
An unhealthy diet can cause high cholesterol. Sometimes high cholesterol runs in families. A low-cholesterol diet can help improve cholesterol levels. If the low-cholesterol diet does not work to lower bad cholesterol and increase good cholesterol, medications may be necessary.. Cholesterol is made in the liver and other cells and found in certain foods, such as food from meat and dairy products like eggs.. Your body needs some cholesterol in order to function properly. Cell walls etc. need cholesterol in order to produce hormones such as vitamin D and the bile acids that help to digest fat. But your body needs only a limited amount of cholesterol to meet its needs. When too much is present, health problems such as heart disease may develop.. Cholesterol travels through the blood attached to a protein - this cholesterol-protein package is called a lipoprotein. Lipoproteins are classified as high density, low density, or very low density, depending on how much protein there is.. Since cholesterol ...
Low Cholesterol Diet Food List | low fat low cholesterol diet, Low Calorie Gluten Free Snacks For The Whole Family | best fruits for weight loss, BOSU Ball Exercises | fitness plans, Exploring Health Benefits Of Fasting Two Days A Week | healthy chicken recipes, how to lose weight really fast and keep it off, slow cooker recipes nz, How To Lose 10 Pounds In A Month Naturally | healthy meal plans, Exploring Health Benefits Of Fasting Two Days A Week | healthy chicken recipes, The Top 7 Fruits That Will Guarantee Weight Loss! | best fruits for weight loss, Weight Loss And Diet | fitness training programs
Saturated fat , generally refers to animal fat , mainly found on the skin of poultry , dairy products , red meat from cattle , sheep and pigs. Consumption should be limited, because it can stimulate the production of cholesterol and total cholesterol and raise bad cholesterol ( LDL). By choosing a low -cholesterol diet containing saturated , you actually take a wise step to improve your cholesterol . In the Mediterranean diet, the consumption of red meat is recommended once a month . It turns out that this scheme can reduce mortality from cardiovascular disease is important ...
Background Hypercholesterolemia-induced endothelial dysfunction (ED) is a major trigger for atherosclerosis. The c-Jun-N-terminal kinases (JNKs) belong to the mitogen-activated protein kinase family. Genetic deletion of JNK2 has been shown to decrease atheroma formation. The present study was designed to investigate whether hypercholesterolemic JNK2 knockout (JNK2−/−) mice are protected from oxidative stress-induced ED.. Methods and Results Male JNK2−/− and corresponding wild-type (WT) mice (8 weeks old) were fed either a high cholesterol diet (HCD, 1.25% total cholesterol) or normal chow (controls) for 14 weeks. WT mice fed a HCD showed a 2-fold increase in JNK phosphorylation as assessed by Western blotting (n=4 - 6, p,0.05 vs. controls). In parallel, endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine (Ach, 10−9-10−6 mol/L) were impaired in WT mice exposed to a HCD as compared to WT controls (n=4 - 6 in each groups, p,0.05). In contrast, JNK2−/− mice did not exhibit ...
... Aside from high cholesterol increasing the risk of heart disease, new research suggests that it may also be bad for the bones. The study included 1303 postmenopausal women with higher levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-the bad cholesterol-and showed that they were more likely to show signs of bone thinning, compared with women with normal cholesterol. Although the findings do not prove that high cholesterol is the reason for bone thinning, the results give a possible explanation for studies suggesting that statins protect bones, researchers reported in Obstetrics and Gynecology (November 2003). In the new study, women aged 45 to 65 who had gone through menopause had their bone density measured and cholesterol levels tested. The participants were separated into 3 groups based on LDL levels: normal (129 mg/dL), moderately high (130-150 mg/dL), and high (160 mg/dL and above). Women with high LDL levels were 74% more likely to have osteopenia, a ...
Cholesterol and Coronary Heart Disease - Cholesterol is a type of fat (lipid) made by the body. About 80% of cholesterol is made by the body, the other 20% comes from the diet. Cholesterol is a building block for cell membranes. Cholesterol Test Kit - A delicate combination of steroid and alcohol, Cholesterol, also a combination of a lipid that is found in cell membranes of all of our body tissues. Cholesterol is also transported in the blood of all animals.. Develop High Cholesterol - The risk of heart disease is greatly increased if you have high cholesterol. This can include potentially fatal heart attacks. Lowering cholesterol is recommended to lead a more healthy life and maintain a healthy heart. Low Fat Cholesterol Recipes - Many low fat low colesterol recipes are usually bland and un-flavorful but you can find some unique and tasty treats on our website that are full of flavor. Good Cholesterol Level - While most people talk about "cholesterol levels" there is in fact more than one type ...
For years, Ive been telling my patients that the medical establishments obsession with lowering cholesterol to prevent heart disease is causing more harm than good. If your doctor continues to get you worried about your high cholesterol levels, heres a bit of news for you... In fact, your high cholesterol may be protecting you from cancer.. Today, Ill explain the truth behind the myth of cholesterol, and show you how to achieve heart health naturally.. A new study published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology revealed that driving down cholesterol levels actually increases the risk of cancer.. Researchers at the Tufts University School of Medicine found that among people taking "statin" drugs - like Lipitor and Zocor - there was a higher rate of cancer. Although the link between the drugs and cancer wasnt clear, there was no doubt that drastically low cholesterol levels correlated to cancer risk.. The big drug makers continue to sell the notion that the best way to fight ...
Avoiding cholesterol in diet. This is probably and issue that many high cholesterol culprits are grappling with. You might be so much geared at reducing your LDL cholesterol in a fortnight. Be warned that doing this by eliminating cholesterol rich products can easily deprive your system of some very important nutrients. Make sure that whichever approach you adopt to take in it works well with your system. It is very advisable that incase of totally eliminating the high cholesterol food substances from your diet you can go for the option of taking foods that help lower the cholesterol levels.. Understand that your body produces between 1500 and 1800 mili grams of cholesterol each day. Majority of this is ideally manufactured by the liver and some smaller percentages within the small intestines and some selected body cells. An average American household diet is made up of upto 800 mg of cholesterol. Research has also shown that by eliminating the high cholesterol foods just forces the body to ...
Frequently Asked Question:. Why dont you include cholesterol counts with your recipes?. Simple: I dont want to perpetuate the fiction that cholesterol is something to be avoided. There simply is no good reason to believe that dietary cholesterol causes health problems, and there is at least some reason to consider it beneficial.. You need to understand the difference between dietary cholesterol and blood cholesterol. There has been, for the past few decades, a belief that high blood cholesterol is a cause of heart disease. That belief is questionable - most people who have heart attacks have never had high blood cholesterol. Renowned heart surgeon Dr. Michael DeBakey puts the number of coronary artery disease victims with high blood cholesterol at between 30 and 40%. He has been quoted as saying, "If you say cholesterol is the cause, how do you explain the other 60% to 70% with heart disease who dont have high cholesterol?" Indeed, its beginning to appear that inflammation is the root cause ...
We evaluated the propagation of myocardial injury in a model of coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion in control and hypercholesterolemic rabbits. This was done by examining the differences in the infarct size and in the extent of leukocyte accumulation resulting from coronary artery occlusion (30 min) followed by reperfusion (2 or 48 hr) in rabbits fed 1% cholesterol for 4 days vs. controls not fed cholesterol. There was no significant difference in the infarct size in the 2-hr (45.7 +/- 6.7%, n = 8) vs. 48-hr (48.8 +/- 5.8%, n = 9) models of reperfusion in control rabbits. However, infarct size in the cholesterol-fed rabbits at 2 hr (64.0 +/- 4.1%, n = 6) or 48 hr (72.3 +/- 3.0%, n = 8) of reperfusion significantly exceeded that in the corresponding controls (P , .05). The infarct in cholesterol-fed rabbits at 2 hr of reperfusion was smaller than that at 48 hr of reperfusion, but not significantly. Treatment with S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine, a nitric oxide donor, effectively reduced ...
With all the news and warnings about the dangers of high cholesterol, many people view cholesterol as a “bad†substance that should be eliminated completely from our lives. In truth, cholesterol serves some important functions in the body. In order to understand how cholesterol affects the body, one must first understand what cholesterol is.. Cholesterol is a waxy substance that is attached to the fats in our bloodstream and is present in all of the cells of the body. Cholesterol comes from food that we eat, as well as being manufactured directly by the liver. Cholesterol is an important regulator in the bloodstream, as it helps to regulate the formation of many cells as well as hormones. However, to have too high or too low of a cholesterol count in the blood can be a very dangerous factor, often leading to a heart attack or a stroke. Although cholesterol is prevalent in the blood stream, it cannot dissipate in the blood. The cholesterol maneuvers throughout the body attached to ...
This statement seems so incredible that it takes a long time to clear one´s brainwashed mind to fully understand its importance. Yet the fact that people with high cholesterol live the longest emerges clearly from many scientific papers.1 But let us take a look at heart mortality,the risk of dying from a heart attack if cholesterol is high.. Consider for instance the finding by Dr.Harlan Krumholz of the Department of Cardiovascular Medicine at Yale University, who reported that old people with low cholesterol died twice as often from a heart attack as did old people with high cholesterol.2 Supporters of the cholesterol campaign consistently ignore his observation, or consider it as a rare exception, the result of chance among a huge number of studies finding the opposite.. But it is not an exception; there are now a large number of findings that contradict the lipid hypothesis. To be more specific, almost all studies of old people have shown that high cholesterol is not a risk fact for coronary ...
When your cholesterol is too high, its usually due to lifestyle choices that need your attention: Diet, exercise, weight and the use of tobacco. And, while your gender, heredity and getting older can also affect cholesterol levels, you cant change those characteristics like you can your diet and exercise.. Your body produces all the cholesterol it needs to make hormones, vitamin D, bile acids and other substances it needs. Cholesterol is a waxy fat-like substance found in the walls of cells in all parts of the body. Cholesterol travels throughout your body in "packages" called lipoproteins. There are two kinds of lipoproteins:. -Low-density lipoprotein or LDL, is "bad" cholesterol because it increases your risk for heart disease by carrying cholesterol through your arteries. Ideally, your LDL should be below 100 mg/dL; 160 mg/dl is considered high.. -High-density lipoprotein or HDL, is "good" cholesterol because it carries cholesterol to your liver where it is removed from your body. A good ...
False-colour scanning electron micrograph of crystals of monohydrate cholesterol percipitated from alcohol & water (plate form). Cholesterol is a sterol, a fatlike material synthesised by all animal cells. It is a major constitutent of the cell membrane, a precursor to the formation of sex hormones & the source of bile salts. A third of body cholesterol is made in the liver. Its excretion, directly or as bile salts, is the sole responsiblitiy of the liver. Body cholesterol is added to by dietary cholesterol from meat & dairy products. High levels are associated with atheroma & coronary heart disease but the relationship is unclear. Magnification: x70 at 6x4.5cm size. - Stock Image A600/0684

Choosing to eat a high bad cholesterol diet is one of the worst decisions you can make for your heart. Diets rich in LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein) cholesterol can lead to narrowed and clogged arteries, which lead to heart attack and stroke. HDL (High Density Lipoprotein) is considered good...
A new study has found people with a history of diabetes and high cholesterol may be at more of a risk of developing Alzheimers disease.
How to Compare Nutrisystem With Atkins. Atkins, like NutriSystem, focuses on many low-GI. which may be difficult if you are on a low-sodium diet.Our general interest e-newsletter keeps you up to date on a wide variety of health topics.Diet Menu Plan To Lower Cholesterol - Nutrisystem Weight Loss Programs Diet Menu Plan To Lower Cholesterol Low Sodium Low Fat Low Cholesterol Diet Most Effective ...
If your body has too much cholesterol, it isnt good for you. You have the power within you however to take control. Failing to take control only leads to problems. The problems will accumulate; wear you down until finally abnormal aging takes your life. You can gain control by exercising each day and eating the right foods. Visiting your doctor regularly is another way to work toward healthy aging. Your family doctor will give you medication to take to help lower your cholesterol. When you have high cholesterol, you have to eat right and exercise daily. To lower your cholesterol take action now. It will take some time to get your cholesterol at bay, but it will happen if you take action now. You also want to take time out for self, activities, socializing etc to keep your cholesterol at bay. When cholesterol is out of control, the cause comes to focus, which is arteriosclerosis. If you lower your cholesterol by taking action now you can avoid strokes, heart attacks, and even death. Learn more ...
There are really two types of cholesterol, which are not well known, for people who misinterpret something bad. HDL cholesterol is the name of good and evil is called LDL. The blood of too much LDL causes atherosclerosis in the arteries. At the time, blood has a difficult time traveling arteries, because it becomes a narrow opening, the amount of bad cholesterol in it. Dietary cholesterol is not offender as having high cholesterol in the blood. This is a fairly large amount of saturated fat Tran, who is to blame for the widening of the arteries. To keep the cholesterol down, eat lots of food unsaturated fat and fibrous, and exercise often ...
One of the most common forms of liver disease worldwide is steatohepatitis, which encompasses both alcoholic (ASH) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). While the pathogenesis of these diseases are obviously different, they exhibit indistinguisable histological features and commom underlying mechanisms of disease progression that begin with hepatic steatosis. Although fat infiltration in these diseases is heterogenous consisting primarily of triglyceride, free fatty acids and cholesterol, recent studies have pointed to an emerging role for cholesterol, particularly in mitochondria, in the progression from steatosis to steatohepatitis as it sensitizes hepatocytes to inflammatory cytokines (e.g. TNF/Fas ligand) [45]. Moreover, massive triglyceride accumulation in the liver of transgenic mice overexpressing DGAT2 did not impair insulin sensitivity, a hallmark feature of NASH [46]. In addition, unchanged hepatic free fatty acids levels were reported in patients with NASH compared to healthy ...
Cholesterol: The link between high cholesterol and heart disease. The higher your cholesterol, the higher your heart disease risk level. High cholesterol is one of the multiple risk factors for heart disease. By getting your cholesterol under control, you can help reduce your risk of dying from heart disease. Effective treatment saves lives! People at all risk levels should make lifestyle changes such as improved diet and increased exercise to help control their cholesterol.
MYTH: The cholesterol in eggs can plug your arteries.. TRUTH: Eggs are a near perfect food. They provide the highest quality dietary protein and every mineral and vitamin (except vitamin C). The cholesterol content of the egg yolk has little or nothing to do with the cholesterol circulating through your arteries, and even less to do with the plaque that can build up in those arteries.. Cholesterol is a vital bodily substance, so vital that the less cholesterol you eat, the more your body makes internally. About 75% of the cholesterol in the human body is made by the body itself; only 25% or so comes from the diet. If you are a total vegetarian (vegan), then 100% of the cholesterol in your body is made internally. [See also "Cholesterol", "Cholesterol, Elevated", and "Atherosclerosis".]. Many years ago, there was an experiment conducted in a U.S. prison. Volunteers were fed 18 eggs per day (6 with each of three meals). At the end of the experiment, the average blood cholesterol levels of the ...
I saw this headline not long ago and it made my jaw drop. Daily statin use to lower cholesterol may soon be a thing of the past. I thought maybe - finally -
Catalyzes the formation of fatty acid-cholesterol esters, which are less soluble in membranes than cholesterol. Plays a role in lipoprotein assembly and dietary cholesterol absorption. In addition to its acyltransferase activity, it may act as a ligase.
Cholesterol. It is a word we often hear today when talking about leading a healthy lifestyle. For many people, the word evokes concern as they recall the warnings from their physicians that they need to watch what they eat since their cholesterol levels are a bit elevated. At William Osler Health Centre the Medical Risk Management Clinic staff help people understand what cholesterol is and how they can control it to prevent diseases caused by elevated or high levels of cholesterol. Cholesterol is a waxy substance made naturally in the body. Cholesterol helps form or repair cell membranes, some hormones, and other tissues.. Too much cholesterol in your blood can cause hardening of the arteries and you run the risk of heart attacks or stroke. There are two different types of Cholesterol. The "bad" cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is essential for cell repair and growth. But too much LDL in the blood is associated with the development of atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) and ...
There are many steps that you can take to help lower your cholesterol levels. Prevention is the key to keeping high cholesterol levels at bay. However, if you already suffer from high cholesterol there are still many things you can do to lower it. Some measures may also help to raise good cholesterol, while lowering harmful cholesterol levels.Cholesterol-Lowering FoodsEating a well balanced diet is the most effective way to keep down cholesterol levels. Although there are several foods that are thought to ward off high cholesterol, the Mayo Clinic recommends adding three things to your diet: soluble fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acid and om...
The deleterious effects of high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels on atherosclerosis has been known for almost a century,1 yet plasma cholesterol continues to be a challenge for clinicians in the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease.2,3 Atherogenesis involves uptake of cholesterol in the vascular wall, followed by inflammatory activation and growth of vascular smooth muscle cells.4,5 Indeed, proinflammatory mediators such as interleukins and cytokines stimulate vascular cell growth and atherogenesis (reviewed in4), whereas inhibition of inflammatory pathways attenuates cell growth and atherosclerosis.6 Therefore, we now view atherosclerosis as a vascular inflammatory process7 as was already proposed by Virchow8 and later by Anitschkow who noticed an "infiltrative character" of atherosclerotic lesions of cholesterol-fed animals.9. Differentiation and growth of vascular smooth muscle cells, a prerequisite of atherosclerosis progression, depends on a fine-tuned balance ...
Plays a role in lipoprotein assembly and dietary cholesterol absorption. In addition to its acyltransferase activity, it may act as a ligase. May provide cholesteryl esters for lipoprotein secretion from hepatocytes and intestinal mucosa.
Background: Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized by three different isoforms of NO synthase (NOS), including neuronal (nNOS), inducible (iNOS), and endothelial NOSs (eNOS). We have recently succeeded in developing mice in which all three NOS genes are completely disrupted (triply n/i/eNOS−/− mice) (PNAS 2005). In this study, we examined the effects of a high-cholesterol diet on lipid metabolism and vascular lesion formation in those mice.. Methods: One-month-old male wild-type (WT) and triply n/i/eNOS−/− [KO] mice were maintained on either a regular diet (0.1% cholesterol) or a high cholesterol diet (1.3% cholesterol). Three months later, plasma lipid profile was evaluated by the colorimetric method. Vascular lesion formation was assessed by hematoxylineosin and oil-red staining.. Results: High-cholesterol feeding for 3 months did not significantly change plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride in either wild-type or triply-KO mice as compared with a regular ...
Written by Alex Crees A new study finds good cholesterol may not be as good for you as previously thought. Up until now, doctors have believed HDL cholesterol, long considered the healthy type
To start all…what does high-cholesterol even mean? Cholesterol can be a fat-like substance located in the blood stream that could clog the walls from the arterial bloodstream ships. The higher cholesterol within the blood stream stream, the more its for get to accumulate, hardening the arterial bloodstream ships. This makes it tougher for blood stream and so oxygen to offer the center. This produces an environment that puts people wealthy in cholesterol at risk of cardiac event and coronary disease. High blood stream cholesterol does not have apparent signs and signs and symptoms. Because of this it is really vital that you obtain your cholesterol examined regularly.. In the event you already may have high-cholesterol, doctors may have already suggested you medication that you are taking regularly to lessen high-cholesterol. You can still find some change in lifestyle you can try making to choose your prescription. If you are mindful of your high-cholesterol, but dont need medication yet, or ...
For years, weve been advised to avoid high-cholesterol foods for better heart health, but it might be time to flip the script on that advice.. A nutrition advisory committee says we no longer have to be concerned about eating foods that are high in cholesterol. The committees report, will help shape the next version of the U.S. Dietary Guidelines, scheduled for release later this year.. Too much "bad" cholesterol in the blood, which has been linked to heart disease, is still a concern. Whats different is that researchers and physicians now believe eating cholesterol-rich foods (think: eggs and butter) may not affect cholesterol in your bloodstream.. Sound confusing? We admit it is complicated. Cholesterol, a waxy substance that accumulates on the walls of your arteries, causes the plaques that lead to heart attacks and strokes. Current dietary guidelines say our daily cholesterol intake should be no more than 300 milligrams.. But researchers are just starting to understand the relationship ...
Cholesterol intake for low diet - Whole diet approach to lower cardiovascular risk has more evidence.... The Hypercet Cholesterol and Blood Pressure Formulas can help support and maintain normal body functions to help maintain optimum health.
Cholesterol is needed by every cell in the body because it is part of the makeup of the cell membrane. Cholesterol allows interactions between the various chemicals that interact with one another. Without cholesterol, your body cant make bile acid, leading to poor digestion. The sex hormones, estrogen and testosterone, are also made with the help of cholesterol. Even the production of vitamin D utilizes cholesterol for its creation. The brain cells need cholesterol as well. New research has suggested that cholesterol bonds with sulphur in the body to produce cholesterol sulfate. This thins the blood, and it may be that this allows the body to store electrons and lower blood pressure when walking barefoot. Because of this, cholesterol sulfate has been indicated as a possible treatment for reducing heart disease. ...
Cholesterol: Are you at risk of high cholesterol?. There are many things that increase your risk of having high cholesterol. But not all risk factors can be changed. Whats increasing your risk of high cholesterol?
Nearly 200 years before the dawn of the "New Age", Dr. Samuel Hahnemann, the founder of Homeopathy, emphasized that life-style modification is the first step in the treatment of any disease or disorder. His instructions were strict - no spices, salt, tea, coffee, or alcohol and he advocated pure food grown as close to nature as possible. He stressed on the importance of moderate exercise, but most of all it was the removal of stressful factors and getting adequate rest that was necessary.. It has taken two centuries for modern medicine acknowledge that more than medicine, "A reduced fat, low cholesterol diet that emphasizes fruits, vegetables and low fat dairy products, and maintains an adequate intake of potassium, magnesium and calcium, should be followed; salt intake should be restricted; and stress management should be considered as an intervention"(11) Touyz RM, Campbell N, Logan A, Gledhill N, Petrella R, Padwal R: The 2004 Canadian recommendations for the management of hypertension: Part ...
To the editor: In his article on vitamin B12 deficiency caused by a low cholesterol diet in a vegetarian (1), Murphy comments in his penultimate paragraph, "Had he (the patient) continued to eat a folate-rich vitamin B12-deficient diet, serious neurologic sequelae might have developed." In the 1960s, I spent a year in Calcutta and had occasion to speak with the hematologist at the Royal School of Tropical Medicine Hygiene, Dr. Chatterjee. At one point, the topic of neurologic deficiency in vitamin B12 deficiency in vegans came up, and he gave as his opinion that it was unlikely that neurologic deficiency ...
Take this medicine by mouth with a glass of water. Follow the directions on the prescription label. You can take this medicine with or without food. If it upsets your stomach, take it with food. You should be on a low fat and low cholesterol diet while you take this medicine. Do not cut, crush or chew this medicine. Take your medicine at regular intervals. Do not take it more often than directed. Do not stop taking except on your doctors advice ...
Take this medicine by mouth with a glass of water. Follow the directions on the prescription label. You can take this medicine with or without food. If it upsets your stomach, take it with food. You should be on a low fat and low cholesterol diet while you take this medicine. Take your medicine at regular intervals. Do not take it more often than directed. Do not stop taking except on your doctors advice ...
Cholesterol will affect not only adults; you can observe high cholesterol levels in kids also.. The kids with excess cholesterol will face much health problems when they get older.. The excess cholesterol present in kids will lead to the development of plaque on the walls of the arteries, which will help to supply blood to heart and other organs.. Plaque which is obtained in kids with excess cholesterol makes the arteries narrow and creates severe heart problems by blocking the flow of blood to the heart. There are several causes for obtaining high cholesterol in kids.. ...
Many people believe that eggs are evil simply because they contain cholesterol. However, and the fact is, consuming eggs is not as bad as you assume as long as you get them just on proportion. Moreover, eggs actually contain healthy protein, unsaturated fat and 200mg dietary cholesterol that all good for your overall health. Hence, eating one or two eggs every day is good and even advised by medical professional to help you get the appropriate amount of protein and cholesterol required by your body.. 2. Children Cant Have High Cholesterol. Is this right? Or just a myth? The truth is: the incident of atherosclerosis or the narrowing of the arteries which can result in heart attacks begins at 8 age! And what is the cause of atherosclerosis? High level of LDL cholesterol. Research studies has revealed that obese children can get high cholesterol, or at least they are more prone to have high cholesterol. To help treating high cholesterol in children, it is suggested that fiber-based diet regimen ...
Cholesterol is a steroid, which is a waxy organic compound, that is found in every cell of the body and in the plasma. The presence of cholesterol is essential to life. Endogenous (internal) synthesis by the liver and other organs produces between 60-80% of the bodys cholesterol. The remainder comes from exogenous (external) dietary sources. Total cholesterol involves all of the cholesterol found in the body such as LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. The level of cholesterol in the body is primarily affected by metabolic rate. Generally speaking, increased levels are associated with thyroid or adrenal hypofunction, and decreased levels are associated with endocrine hyperfunction. ...
... is a mostly insoluble waxy substance that is carried around the blood stream by lipo-proteins. These transport molecules can be classified as LDL and HDL. The low density lipo-proteins (LDL) carries the cholesterol around the blood to the cells that need it. However too much cholesterol in the diet or overproduction can cause cholesterol to be deposited in the blood vessels and arteries. This can be especially dangerous in the heart and brain. Thus LDL the cholesterol is known as the bad cholesterol. The other type of transporter the high density lipo-proteins (HDL) carries cholesterol away from the blood stream to the liver. So just having high cholesterol is not the complete picture but it is the proportion of HDL to LDL that is also important. Generally the safe level for cholesterol is around 5mmol/l, however half the population is above this level.. ...
The endothelial permeability of aorta (EPA) is influenced by atherosclerosis. Whether the physiological difference in EPA is a sex-dependent phenomenon remains to be determined. The objective of this study was to determine the EPA difference between male and female rabbits. An experimental model was designed to obtain 4 groups of animals. The ovariectomized rabbits were fed with normal (group I) and 1% cholesterol-rich diets (group III). The male rabbits also received normal (group II) and cholesterol-rich diets (group IV). After 5 wks, the EPA was measured by Evan Blue (EB) dye uptake method. The EB uptake was significantly (p|0.05) lower in females, regardless of the diet they used. In groups I to IV, the mean±SD EB uptake was 4.83±2.06, 15.15±2.91, 7.01±2.40, and 20.58±3.62 mg/g weight of aorta, respectively. The lower EPA in females may play a role in reducing the risk of development of atherosclerosis.
As with other lifestyle-related diseases, certain foods are good and bad for people with high cholesterol. Today, we bring you some foods that can actually lower down your cholesterol level. Mrs. Eileen Canday - Chief Dietician at Breach Candy Hospital, gives us a list of the 20 best foods to lower cholesterol. ...
By Deborah H. Land. a. Cholesterol Truths - Good and Bad There are actually two types of cholesterol, which is not a known fact for people who misconstrue it as something bad. HDL is the name of the good cholesterol, while the bad one is called LDL. A bloodstream with too much LDL will result in plaques in the arteries. Over time, blood will have a difficult time travelling your arteries because the opening becomes narrow thanks to the amount of bad cholesterol in it. Dietary cholesterol is not the culprit for your having high cholesterol in the blood. Rather, it is copious amounts of saturated fat along with Trans fat that is to blame for the tightening of the artery. To keep your cholesterol on the low level, you should eat plenty of unsaturated fats and fibrous foods, as well as exercise often.. b. Number Relevance in Cholesterol. Adults should see to it that they have their cholesterol checked every 5 years. Four results are given to you, which will show the levels for your LDL cholesterol, ...
LDL cholesterol is considered the "bad" form of the lipids that are found in our bloodstreams that the bodies use for everyday and vital processes like building cells and using energy. Its levels from person to person vary depending on many factors like age, activity level, genetics, risk factors and dietary intake. Since an increased level of LDL cholesterol in the blood is considered an important precursor to coronary illness later in life, controlling it is important in people who are able to use lifestyle changes to make an impact. One of the most common of these methods includes the incorporation of low cholesterol meals as a part of dietary changes.. ...
Looking Beyond Cholesterol in Heart Health By Jennifer Morganti, ND, Director of Education for NEEDS Typically a discussion about cholesterol is in the context of how to lower it, suggesting it is a dangerous force that must be eradicated. However, cholesterol also serves extremely important functions in the body. It is critical to cell production, (as cell membranes are comprised of lipids), it is the foundation of hormone production, and it is necessary for the production of vitamin D through sun exposure. Cholesterol also affects the production of serotonin; in fact, excessively low cholesterol is linked with major depression and suicidal tendencies. Furthermore, HDL, the good cholesterol works to shuttle cholesterol away from the arteries to prevent atherosclerosis, and in fact it is so necessary that studies have shown that HDL levels under 40 create a significantly increased risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD). Despite cholesterols importance, some doctors are driving their
2) recent studies have shown that eating up to one egg a day didnt raise cholesterol levels or increase the risk of heart disease in healthy people. If you already have elevated cholesterol levels, 3-4 eggs per week are generally allowed. Eggs may be high in dietary cholesterol, but they dont contain much saturated fat. That also true for cholesterol-laden shrimp and other shellfish, which typically are OK in moderation as long as theyre not soaked in butter or deep-fried. It looks like to me that nature has its way to package dietary cholesterol existing in eggs or shrimps, so it get digested easily by human without any harm ...
By Jasmin , source: Jan 2nd, 2014 After constant nagging from my mother, I reluctantly made a trip to the doctor over this holiday weekend. My frequent bruising and fatigue had her worried that I was suffering from something that a simple over the counter medication could not resolve. Thankfully, nothing was wrong, I just bruise easily. HOWEVER, I did find that out that I, a 22 year old vegetarian runner, have high cholesterol. Not kind of high, like really high, at least 45 points over the allotted maximum amount. While my current over-consumption of sinfully delicious foods over the Christmas holidays is probably the culprit for the spike in my cholesterol; its a scary to realize that high cholesterol is something I might end up struggling with, regardless of my healthy lifestyle. According to todays infographic, nearly 1 out of 6 adults has high cholesterol. That is a surprisingly large amount, and I bet many people dont even know it - I know I didnt. If possible, go for a check-up with ...
Cholesterol is a fat like substance called a sterol. It is hard and waxy and melts at 149ºC (300ºF). Our body manufactures approximately one gram of cholesterol per day; this is mainly in the liver, but also occurs in the intestines, adrenal glands, ovaries and testes. In fact every cell of our body has the capacity to manufacture cholesterol if needed. We also obtain cholesterol in our diet by eating animal foods such as eggs, meat and dairy products. However, 80% of the cholesterol in our body is manufactured in the liver. Our body makes cholesterol out of a molecule called acetyl Co A; this is derived from the breakdown of sugars, fats and protein. Basically any calories in excess of our bodys needs can be turned into cholesterol.. Cholesterol is not very soluble in water; therefore it must be carried around our bloodstream in various transport molecules. Certain proteins wrap around the cholesterol molecules to form what are called lipoproteins.. Two common forms of lipoproteins are Low ...
Have you been told or have you read that the more you lower your cholesterol the better off you are? You may also have heard that having high cholesterol is healthy. So what is correct?. More and more research documents that it may be dangerous to lower your cholesterol too much, but the reviewed research is shedding some light on this (Bae J M et al. 2012). Screenings from 12,740 adults between the ages of 40 and 69 years were included in the study, and they were followed from 1993 to 2008. The results were probably surprising to a lot of people. Cholesterol below 160 mg/dl as well as above 240 mg/dl was associated with higher cardiovascular disease mortality. As with many physiological functions the risk ratio has a U-formed curve.. Both too little and too much is not good, it needs to be between certain levels.. Cholesterol has often been presented as a bad thing we would be better off without. That could not be further from the truth. Cholesterol is necessary for many functions; the body ...
Natural Cholesterol Remedies are needed if you have high cholesterol, which can increase the risk of a heart attack and stroke. All you need to do is to make some simple dietary changes and include some vitamins such as Vitamins C and E. Some herbal supplements can also help as well to reduce the risk as well. Cholesterol is a fat like substance which can be found in the blood, it is not harmful as it is needed to maintain cell membranes and other functions as well. It only causes problems when there is too much of this substance in your blood which can make you unhealthy.. Usually your doctor will focus on bad cholesterol as their are two types, bad cholesterol also known as LDL and can cause blocked arteries which can lead to a heart attack, the good type is referred to as HDL which can help clear cholesterol before it starts to build up in your arteries. There are different causes to this condition, mainly genetic or diet related, if your diet is high in saturated fats. Obesity, smoking and ...
People are often told to reduce their cholesterol to improve their heart health, but new research suggests that low cholesterol may increase kidney cancer
We investigated the effect of increasing dietary cholesterol on bile acid pool sizes and the regulation of the two bile acid synthetic pathways (classic, via cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, and alternative, via sterol 27-hydroxylase) in New Zealand white rabbits fed 3 g cholesterol/per day for up to 15 days. Feeding cholesterol for one day increased hepatic cholesterol 75% and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase activity 1.6 times without significant change of bile acid pool size or sterol 27-hydroxylase activity. After three days of cholesterol feeding, the bile acid pool size increased 83% (P < 0.01), and further feeding produced 10%-20% increments, whereas cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase activity declined progressively to 60% below baseline. In contrast, sterol 27-hydroxylase activity rose 58% after three days of cholesterol feeding and remained elevated with continued intake. Bile drainage depleted the bile acid pool and stimulated downregulated cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase activity but did not affect ...
Cholesterol absorption plays a key role in cholesterol homeostasis and understanding the lumenal events that play key roles in absorption remain poorly understood. The aims of the present study are fourfold: 1) To determine whether previously observed effects on cholesterol absorption during bile acid feeding are related to changes in pool size and intestinal transit or meal stimulated gall bladder emptying or plasma cholecystokinin levels. 2) To determine the effect of dietary sphingomyelin on cholesterol absorption, micellar solubilization and synthesis in normal adults and to assess the effects of intralumenal cholesterol solubilization, absorption and synthesis in adults with heterozygous mdr 3 deficiency (a defect leading to low biliary phospholipid content). 3) To determine the mechanism of action of a non-ionic detergent, Pluronic F-68, by evaluating its effect on cholesterol solubilization and distribution between micelles and vesicles, on cholesterol absorption and synthesis. 4) To ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - NPC1L1 inhibitor ezetimibe is a reliable therapeutic agent for non-obese patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. AU - Enjoji, Munechika. AU - MacHida, Kazuyuki. AU - Kohjima, Motoyuki. AU - Kato, Masaki. AU - Kotoh, Kazuhiro. AU - Matsunaga, Kazuhisa. AU - Nakashima, Manabu. AU - Nakamuta, Makoto. PY - 2010/12/1. Y1 - 2010/12/1. N2 - Background: We recently examined the distribution of abdominal fat, dietary intake and biochemical data in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and found that non-obese NAFLD patients did not necessarily exhibit insulin resistance and/or dysregulated secretion of adipocytokines. However, dietary cholesterol intake was superabundant in non-obese patients compared with obese patients, although total energy and carbohydrate intake was not excessive. Therefore, excess cholesterol intake appears to be one of the main factors associated with NAFLD development and liver injury. Methods. We reviewed a year of follow-up data of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dietary D-allulose alters cholesterol metabolism in Golden Syrian hamsters partly by reducing serum PCSK9 levels. AU - Kanasaki, Akane. AU - Jiang, Zhe. AU - Mizokami, Takuya. AU - Shirouchi, Bungo. AU - Iida, Tetsuo. AU - Nagata, Yasuo. AU - Sato, Masao. PY - 2019/9/1. Y1 - 2019/9/1. N2 - D-Allulose, a C-3 epimer of D-fructose, is a rare sugar reported to be a non-caloric sweetener having several health beneficial effects including anti-hyperglycemia and anti-obesity. However, the impact of dietary D-allulose on cholesterol metabolism remains unclear. Therefore, we studied the effects of D-allulose on the cholesterol metabolism of Golden Syrian hamsters, an animal model with a lipid metabolism similar to that of humans. Hamsters received either normal diet (ND) or high-fat diet (HFD) with or without 3% D-allulose for 4 or 8 weeks. While there were no significant differences in total serum cholesterol levels between the groups, D-allulose significantly increased HDL-cholesterol ...
Dietary nutrients interact with gene networks to orchestrate adaptive responses during metabolic stress. Here, we identify Baf60a as a diet-sensitive subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes in the mouse liver that links the consumption of fat- and cholesterol-rich diet to elevated plasma cholesterol levels. Baf60a expression was elevated in the liver following feeding with a western diet. Hepatocyte-specific inactivation of Baf60a reduced bile acid production and cholesterol absorption, and attenuated diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in mice. Baf60a stimulates expression of genes involved in bile acid synthesis, modification, and transport through a CAR/Baf60a feedforward regulatory loop. Baf60a is required for the recruitment of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes to facilitate an activating epigenetic switch on target genes. These studies elucidate a regulatory pathway that mediates the hyperlipidemic and atherogenic effects of western diet ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Targeted disruption of the murine mucin gene 1 decreases susceptibility to cholesterol gallstone formation. AU - Wang, Helen H.. AU - Afdhal, Nezam H.. AU - Gendler, Sandra J. AU - Wang, David Q H. PY - 2004/3. Y1 - 2004/3. N2 - Gallbladder mucins play a critical role in the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstones because of their ability to bind biliary lipids and accelerate cholesterol crystallization. Mucin secretion and accumulation in the gallbladder is determined by multiple mucin genes. To study whether mucin gene 1 (Muc1) influences susceptibility to cholesterol cholelithiasis, we investigated male Muc1-deficient (Muc1-/-) and wild-type mice fed a lithogenic diet containing 1% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid for 56 days. Gene expression of the gallbladder Muc1 and Muc5ac was significantly reduced in Muc1-/- mice in response to the lithogenic diet. Muc3 and Muc4 levels were upregulated and were similar between Muc1-/- and wild-type mice. Little or no Muc2 and Muc5b mRNAs ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reduction in cholesterol absorption is enhanced by stearate-enriched plant sterol esters in hamsters. AU - Rasmussen, Heather E.. AU - Guderian, David M.. AU - Wray, Curtis A.. AU - Dussault, Patrick H.. AU - Schlegel, Vicki L.. AU - Carr, Timothy P.. PY - 2006/11/1. Y1 - 2006/11/1. N2 - Consumption of plant sterol esters reduces plasma LDL cholesterol concentration by inhibiting intestinal cholesterol absorption. Commercially available plant sterol esters are prepared by esterifying free sterols to fatty acids from edible plant oils such as canola, soybean, and sunflower. To determine the influence of the fatty acid moiety on cholesterol metabolism, plant sterol esters were made with fatty acids from soybean oil (SO), beef tallow (BT), or purified stearic acid (SA) and fed to male hamsters for 4 wk. A control group fed no plant sterol esters was also included. Hamsters fed BT and SA had significantly lower cholesterol absorption and decreased concentrations of plasma non-HDL ...
Low Fat, Low Cholesterol, Low Sugar, Low Calorie (diet): Find the most comprehensive real-world treatment information on Low Fat, Low Cholesterol, Low Sugar, Low Calorie (diet) at PatientsLikeMe. 11 patients with fibromyalgia, multiple sclerosis, major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, systemic lupus erythematosus, diabetes type 2, post-traumatic stress disorder, rheumatoid arthritis, bipolar disorder, Parkinsons disease, panic disorder, high blood pressure (hypertension), myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia), epilepsy, migraine, hypothyroidism, osteoarthritis, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, bipolar II disorder, traumatic brain injury, asthma, high cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia), social anxiety disorder, irritable bowel syndrome, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, bipolar I disorder or mild depression currently use Low Fat, Low Cholesterol, Low Sugar, Low

Regulation of cholesterol ester transfer protein by dietary lipids  - Memorial University Research RepositoryRegulation of cholesterol ester transfer protein by dietary lipids - Memorial University Research Repository

Regulation of cholesterol ester transfer protein by dietary lipids. Regulation of cholesterol ester transfer protein by dietary ... The mechanism of the regulation of cholesterol ester transfer protein by dietary fats and cholesterol was investigated using ... Murray, Cathy Maureen (2003) Regulation of cholesterol ester transfer protein by dietary lipids. Masters thesis, Memorial ... Cholesterol inhibited protein activity and hepatic mRNA abundance in the monounsaturated fatty acid diet. However, cholesterol ...
more infohttp://research.library.mun.ca/7058/

Ezetimibe, a Potent Cholesterol Absorption Inhibitor, Normalizes Combined Dyslipidemia in Obese Hyperinsulinemic Hamsters |...Ezetimibe, a Potent Cholesterol Absorption Inhibitor, Normalizes Combined Dyslipidemia in Obese Hyperinsulinemic Hamsters |...

3A). Addition of a modest amount of dietary cholesterol (0.12% cholesterol) alone did not increase serum cholesterol. However, ... Total serum cholesterol (A), VLDL+IDL cholesterol (B), LDL cholesterol (C), and HDL cholesterol (D) in hamsters fed chow, chow ... In general, liver weights were higher under dietary conditions containing cholesterol or cholesterol plus dietary fat compared ... Inclusion of 0.12% cholesterol alone or cholesterol plus the dietary fats in the diet increased the accumulation of cholesteryl ...
more infohttp://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/50/6/1330

Plant Sterols the Better Cholesterol in Alzheimers Disease? A Mechanistical Study | Journal of NeurosciencePlant Sterols the Better Cholesterol in Alzheimer's Disease? A Mechanistical Study | Journal of Neuroscience

8E,F), indicating efficient dietary stigmasterol uptake. In brain samples, cholesterol level was also unchanged, the level of ... 2002) Cholesterol-dependent gamma-secretase activity in buoyant cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains. Neurobiol Dis 9:11-23, ... Effect of cholesterol on amyloidogenic β- and γ-secretase cleavage. A, Effect of cholesterol on β-secretase BACE1. Dark-gray ... 4A) as shown for cholesterol (cholesterol: 119.9% ± 1.4, p ≤ 0.001). Also in purified membranes of mouse brains, β-sitosterol ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/33/41/16072.full

Atheroemboli - renalAtheroemboli - renal

In AERD, cholesterol crystals from plaque break off and move to the kidneys and into the blood stream. Once in circulation, the ... If you have kidney failure, you may need to restrict protein, salt, and fluids, or make other dietary changes. ... It occurs when fat, cholesterol, and other substances build up in the walls of arteries and form hard substances called plaque. ... Renal disease - atheroembolic; Cholesterol embolization syndrome; Atheroemboli - renal; Atherosclerotic disease - renal Causes ...
more infohttp://diseasereference.net/info/atheroembolic-renal-disease/207075.html

Questionable effects of cholesterol lowering by dietary changes | The BMJQuestionable effects of cholesterol lowering by dietary changes | The BMJ

Questionable effects of cholesterol lowering by dietary changes. Benecol may possibly lower serum cholesterol, but a high ... Questionable effects of cholesterol lowering by dietary changes. News Cholesterol lowering margarine launched in United Kingdom ... That the serum cholesterol concentration was unchanged at follow-up in the. only successful dietary trial (2) is in accord with ... cholesterol lowering. Lack of dose-response is a strong argument against. causality indicating that a high serum cholesterol is ...
more infohttp://www.bmj.com/rapid-response/2011/10/27/questionable-effects-cholesterol-lowering-dietary-changes

Non-dietary factors explain the lower cholesterol concentration associated with frequent eating | The BMJNon-dietary factors explain the lower cholesterol concentration associated with frequent eating | The BMJ

Non-dietary factors explain the lower cholesterol concentration associated with frequent eating. ... Non-dietary factors explain the lower cholesterol concentration associated with frequent eating ... cholesterol may be right, but their data allow other explanations to their. findings (1). From table 2 it appears that intake ... total cholesterol (2), and that smoking is associated with a small, but. significant higher concentration of these lipids (3). ...
more infohttp://www.bmj.com/rapid-response/2011/10/28/non-dietary-factors-explain-lower-cholesterol-concentration-associated-fre

Rethinking dietary cholesterol.  - PubMed - NCBIRethinking dietary cholesterol. - PubMed - NCBI

Although numerous clinical studies have shown that dietary cholesterol challenges may increase plasma LDL cholesterol in ... who are more sensitive to dietary cholesterol (about one-quarter of the population), HDL cholesterol also rises resulting in ... Rethinking dietary cholesterol.. Fernandez ML1.. Author information. 1. Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of ... The perceived notion that dietary cholesterol is associated with increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) has led to ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22037012?dopt=AbstractPlus

Special dietary advice lowers cholesterol
            
            
                
                    - NHSUKSpecial dietary advice lowers cholesterol - NHSUK

Effect of a Dietary Portfolio of Cholesterol-Lowering Foods Given at 2 Levels of Intensity of Dietary Advice on Serum Lipids in ... involving dietary counselling that emphasised the consumption of known cholesterol-lowering foods; or a high-intensity dietary ... "cholesterol lowering potential of a dietary intervention that counsels participants to increase consumption of cholesterol- ... Also, the effectiveness of dietary change cannot be compared to that of cholesterol-lowering medications based on this ...
more infohttps://www.nhs.uk/news/food-and-diet/special-dietary-advice-lowers-cholesterol/

Mechanism of Resistance to Dietary CholesterolMechanism of Resistance to Dietary Cholesterol

... cholesterol. In contrast, mice, which are not resistant to dietary cholesterol, exhibited lower hepatic cholesterol 7α ... we examined the effect of dietary cholesterol on mouse liver cholesterol 7α hydroxylase protein. Cholesterol 7. hydroxylase ... "Dietary fats modulate the regulatory potential of dietary cholesterol on cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase gene expression," Journal ... to excess dietary cholesterol by markedly reducing hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis and enhancing elimination of cholesterol as ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jl/2011/101242/

New Dietary Guidelines Reverse Recommendations on CholesterolNew Dietary Guidelines Reverse Recommendations on Cholesterol

... cholesterol will no longer be considered a nutrient of concern for overconsumption. ... cholesterol will no longer be considered a nutrient of concern for overconsumption. ... According to a drafted 2015 edition of Dietary Guidelines for Americans, ... According to a drafted 2015 edition of Dietary Guidelines for Americans, ...
more infohttps://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2015/02/25/new-dietary-guidelines-fat-cholesterol.aspx

New Dietary Guidelines Reverse Recommendations on CholesterolNew Dietary Guidelines Reverse Recommendations on Cholesterol

... cholesterol will no longer be considered a nutrient of concern for overconsumption. ... cholesterol will no longer be considered a nutrient of concern for overconsumption. ... According to a drafted 2015 edition of Dietary Guidelines for Americans, ... According to a drafted 2015 edition of Dietary Guidelines for Americans, ...
more infohttps://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2015/02/25/new-dietary-guidelines-fat-cholesterol.aspx?e_cid=20150225Z1_DNL_NB_art_1&utm_source=dnl&utm_medium=email&utm_content=art1&utm_campaign=20150225Z1_DNL_NB&et_cid=DM68311&et_rid=854554392

Government may reverse longtime dietary guidelines on cholesterol - CBS NewsGovernment may reverse longtime dietary guidelines on cholesterol - CBS News

... as a federal panel is ready to reverse decades of advice on avoiding cholesterol in diets. Cardiologist Dr. Tara Narula joins ...
more infohttps://www.cbsnews.com/video/government-may-reverse-longtime-dietary-guidelines-on-cholesterol/

Dietary Fiber: 4 Tips to Lower Cholesterol | HealthCentralDietary Fiber: 4 Tips to Lower Cholesterol | HealthCentral

Use these tips to help you learn about dietary fiber and how it can be beneficial to your heart health by lowering bad ... High Cholesterol. Dietary Fiber: 4 Tips to Lower Cholesterol with Fiber. Lisa Nelson, RD, LNHealth Professional. Feb 21, 2018. ... Well, as far as blood pressure and cholesterol go, dietary fiber binds to cholesterol in circulation and helps remove it from ... The average US dietary fiber intake is 12-18 grams/day.. If your current diet is very low in dietary fiber, dont increase to ...
more infohttps://www.healthcentral.com/article/dietary-fiber-4-tips-to-lower-cholesterol-with-fiber

Nutrients | Free Full-Text | Dietary Phospholipids and Intestinal Cholesterol AbsorptionNutrients | Free Full-Text | Dietary Phospholipids and Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption

... can inhibit intestinal cholesterol absorption. Limited evidence from clinical studies suggests that dietary PL supplementation ... A number of biological mechanisms have been proposed in order to explain how PL in the gut lumen is able to affect cholesterol ... Further research is however required to establish whether the ability of PLs to inhibit cholesterol absorption is of ... Dietary Phospholipids and Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption by Jeffrey S. Cohn *, Alvin Kamili , Elaine Wat , Rosanna W. S. ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/2/2/116

Natural Healthcare Clinic Sees High Cholesterol Levels Safely Lowered with Natural Dietary Supplement LipidShield™Natural Healthcare Clinic Sees High Cholesterol Levels Safely Lowered with Natural Dietary Supplement LipidShield™

Cholesterol is a waxy substance manufactured in the liver and also obtained from dietary sources, primarily meat and dairy ... Natural Healthcare Clinic Sees High Cholesterol Levels Safely Lowered with Natural Dietary Supplement LipidShield™. ... "The statin drugs lower cholesterol levels by inhibiting cholesterol production in the body, but the statins also can produce ... a plant-based dietary supplement which acts to bind and eliminate excess cholesterol in the human body. The supplement, ...
more infohttp://www.prweb.com/releases/2006/01/prweb327467.htm

How Dietary Fiber Lowers Cholesterol | HowStuffWorksHow Dietary Fiber Lowers Cholesterol | HowStuffWorks

Increasing dietary fiber is a great way to lower cholesterol. Learn the types and sources of dietary fiber, and common foods ... The body uses cholesterol to make bile salts. So in order to obtain the cholesterol necessary to make more bile salts, the ... which has been shown to lower total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol.. Evidence suggests that more than 11 g of beta-glucan from ... Dietary fiber is found exclusively in plant foods. It serves as the structural framework in plants and is one of the most ...
more infohttps://health.howstuffworks.com/diseases-conditions/cardiovascular/cholesterol/foods-that-lower-cholesterol2.htm

New nutrition guidelines drop warnings of dietary cholesterol | The GazetteNew nutrition guidelines drop warnings of dietary cholesterol | The Gazette

New nutrition guidelines drop warnings of dietary cholesterol. Eggs and coffee are fine, government says. ... with the decision to drop the dietary cholesterol warning as a prime example. ... Cholesterol: No limit anymore, but dont have too much.. • Salt: Less than 2,300 milligrams a day for everyone. Thats a ... The Dietary Guidelines for Americans, which are updated every five years, shape school lunches for millions and serve as the ...
more infohttp://www.thegazette.com/subject/life/health/eggs-and-coffee-are-fine-government-says-20160107

Are Cholesterol Lowering Dietary Changes for Me? | HowStuffWorksAre Cholesterol Lowering Dietary Changes for Me? | HowStuffWorks

Learn more about cholesterol lowering diet changes at Discovery Health. ... Cholesterol lowering diet changes can improve your health. ... Dietary changes are a key to improving cholesterol levels. In ... How Dietary Changes Can Help Everyone benefits from making healthy choices in what they eat. When you have high cholesterol, ... By improving your diet, you are taking some control over your cholesterol so that it doesnt control your health, now or down ...
more infohttps://health.howstuffworks.com/diseases-conditions/cardiovascular/cholesterol/cholesterol-lowering-dietary-changes.htm

Cholesterol lowering effect of dietary weight loss and orlistat treatment--efficacy and limitations.  - PubMed - NCBICholesterol lowering effect of dietary weight loss and orlistat treatment--efficacy and limitations. - PubMed - NCBI

Cholesterol lowering effect of dietary weight loss and orlistat treatment--efficacy and limitations.. Erdmann J1, Lippl F, ... Total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased by 25-30 mg/dL vs. 10-15 mg/dL with placebo. Reduction of cholesterol ... On the contrary, reduction of cholesterol concentrations never exceeded 20%.. CONCLUSION: Orlistat has a cholesterol lowering ... A total of 448 patients with elevated cholesterol according to cardiovascular risk factors entered a 2 week single-blind run-in ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15153170

JCI -
Effects of lovastatin and dietary cholesterol on sterol homeostasis in healthy human subjects.JCI - Effects of lovastatin and dietary cholesterol on sterol homeostasis in healthy human subjects.

... and systemic cholesterol input (the sum of cholesterol synthesis and absorbed dietary cholesterol). The high cholesterol diet ... Conversely, increased dietary cholesterol appears to increase systemic cholesterol input, the major compensatory response being ... low cholesterol diet (mean 246 mg/d), (b) lovastatin + high cholesterol diet (mean 1,071 mg/d), (c) low cholesterol diet alone ... There was no significant interaction between lovastatin and dietary cholesterol for any parameter measured. Judging from these ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/116666/pdf

The Effect of Dietary Sitosterol on Blood Sugar and Cholesterol - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.govThe Effect of Dietary Sitosterol on Blood Sugar and Cholesterol - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov

The Effect of Dietary Sitosterol on Blood Sugar and Cholesterol. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... The Effect of Dietary Sitosterol on Blood Sugar and Cholesterol. Official Title ICMJE A Nutrigenomics Intervention for the ... This study will determine if dietary supplements of sitosterol (a plant cholesterol commonly found in vegetables) can modify ... Use of medications/dietary supplements/alternative therapies known or thought to alter lipid or carbohydrate metabolism (e.g. ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT00531128?show_rss=Y&sel_rss=mod14

JCI -
Increasing dietary cholesterol induces different regulation of classic and alternative bile acid synthesisJCI - Increasing dietary cholesterol induces different regulation of classic and alternative bile acid synthesis

Feeding cholesterol for one day increased hepatic cholesterol 75% and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase activity 1.6 times without ... We investigated the effect of increasing dietary cholesterol on bile acid pool sizes and the regulation of the two bile acid ... Increasing dietary cholesterol induces different regulation of classic and alternative bile acid synthesis. ... Increasing dietary cholesterol induces different regulation of classic and alternative bile acid synthesis. ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/4414/figure/1

Committee Drops Cholesterol From Dietary Guidelines (VIDEO)Committee Drops Cholesterol From Dietary Guidelines (VIDEO)

Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee says cholesterol is no longer a nutrient of concern and has dropped its recommended ... We got the dietary guidelines wrong. Theyve been wrong for decades.. The panels new stance on cholesterol is dramatically ... The U.S. Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee says cholesterol is no longer a nutrient of concern and has dropped its ... Bring on the omelettes! The U.S. Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee has changed its stance on high cholesterol food. ...
more infohttps://www.newsy.com/videos/committee-drops-cholesterol-from-dietary-guidelines/

Dietary Cholesterol in the News: An All-Creatures.org Vegan Health ArticleDietary Cholesterol in the News: An All-Creatures.org Vegan Health Article

Dietary Cholesterol in the News - This archives is presented to assist our visitors in taking a pro-active part in their own ... cholesterol. Apparently, there is controversial evidence on whether dietary cholesterol directly impacts blood cholesterol ... Dietary Guidelines, Cholesterol, Something Old & Something New *7 Reasons the USDA Should Go Meatless With Their New Dietary ... As of now, the 2010 Dietary Guidelines recommend no more than 300 milligrams of dietary cholesterol per day, which is just ...
more infohttps://www.all-creatures.org/health/dietary-cholesterol.html

Does dietary fat cause cholesterol absorption? | Carnegie Institution for ScienceDoes dietary fat cause cholesterol absorption? | Carnegie Institution for Science

Among their findings, they confirmed that a fatty acid called oleic acid can greatly increase the uptake of dietary cholesterol ... In contrast, cholesterol was stored in special structures, called endosomes, which are distinct from lipid droplets in ... In mammals, most lipids, such as fatty acids and cholesterol, are absorbed into the body via the small intestine. The ... The researchers also found that in the presence of an abundance of dietary triacyglycerides, absorbed fatty acids were rapidly ...
more infohttps://carnegiescience.edu/stories/does-dietary-fat-cause-cholesterol-absorption
  • Dr. Titan and her co-workers' suggestion that frequent eating lowers cholesterol may be right, but their data allow other explanations to their findings (1). (bmj.com)
  • The recommendations are part of a new "Dietary Guidelines for Americans," the influential nutrition advice book that, updated every five years, expresses official thinking about what constitutes a nutritious meal. (thegazette.com)
  • The Dietary Guidelines for Americans, which are updated every five years, shape school lunches for millions and serve as the basis of public health campaigns aimed at reducing heart disease, diabetes and cancer. (thegazette.com)
  • Cholesterol, saturated fats and sodium were all demonized by doctors in the 1980s and 1990s, but a modernized version of the government's Dietary Guidelines for Americans is taking another look. (organicauthority.com)
  • This study will determine if dietary supplements of sitosterol (a plant cholesterol commonly found in vegetables) can modify blood sugar and cholesterol levels and reduce the stiffness of the blood vessels in people with an abnormal copy of a gene that causes sitosterolemia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The routine dietary portfolio training was given through two clinic visits of 40-60 minutes each. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Routine dietary portfolio involved 2 clinic visits over 6 months and intensive dietary portfolio involved 7 clinic visits over 6 months. (nih.gov)
  • The intensive dietary portfolio was given through seven clinic visits of the same length. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Physicians' Natural Solutions, an alternative healthcare clinic in Clearwater, Florida, has reported success in the treatment of elevated cholesterol levels with LipidShield™, a plant-based dietary supplement which acts to bind and eliminate excess cholesterol in the human body. (prweb.com)
  • For the past half century, cholesterol has been touted as a grave health hazard, and dietary fat and cholesterol have been portrayed as being among the "deadliest" foods you could possibly eat. (mercola.com)
  • WASHINGTON - The federal government Thursday told Americans not to worry so much about cholesterol in their diets, that lots of coffee is fine and that skipping breakfast is no longer considered a health hazard. (thegazette.com)
  • And, according to a recent report in the Washington Post , 3 an insider claims the new stance on cholesterol will remain in the final report. (mercola.com)
  • Used in the production of hormones, elevated levels of cholesterol in the body (over 200 milligrams per deciliter) can lead to restricted blood flow, clogged arteries, and trigger sudden heart attacks and strokes. (prweb.com)
  • The lines of evidence coming from current epidemiological studies and from clinical interventions utilizing different types of cholesterol challenges support the notion that the recommendations limiting dietary cholesterol should be reconsidered. (nih.gov)
  • The government has warned against consuming too much cholesterol since the '60s, but many cardiologists now say most of those recommendations were based off of weak research. (newsy.com)
  • Western blotting was employed to measure changes in hepatic cholesterol 7 α hydroxylase protein. (hindawi.com)
  • Although numerous clinical studies have shown that dietary cholesterol challenges may increase plasma LDL cholesterol in certain individuals, who are more sensitive to dietary cholesterol (about one-quarter of the population), HDL cholesterol also rises resulting in the maintenance of the LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio, a key marker of CHD risk. (nih.gov)
  • Limited evidence from clinical studies suggests that dietary PL supplementation has a similar effect in man. (mdpi.com)
  • What's worse, the processed food industry replaced fat with large amounts of sugar, While Dr. Harcombe shies away from making any recommendation about how much dietary fat might be ideal, she suggests that the take-home message here is to simply "eat real food. (mercola.com)
  • Critically, the expression of cholesterol 7 α hydroxylase, which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in bile acid synthesis, was increased over 4-fold in livers of rats fed diets containing 1% cholesterol. (hindawi.com)
  • These mice become hypercholesterolemic and develop fatty lesions in their ascending aortas when given diets supplemented with cholesterol [ 11 , 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The 2 dietary portfolio interventions did not differ significantly (P = .66). (nih.gov)