Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Cholesterol, Dietary: Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Cholesterol Esters: Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.Cholesterol Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of cholesterol in the presence of molecular oxygen to 4-cholesten-3-one and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme is not specific for cholesterol, but will also oxidize other 3-hydroxysteroids. EC 1.1.3.6.Cholesterol 7-alpha-Hydroxylase: A membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 7-alpha-hydroxylation of CHOLESTEROL in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP7, converts cholesterol to 7-alpha-hydroxycholesterol which is the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS.Cholesterol, VLDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). High circulating levels of VLDL cholesterol are found in HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE IIB. The cholesterol on the VLDL is eventually delivered by LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS to the tissues after the catabolism of VLDL to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LDL.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.TriglyceridesHypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.Anticholesteremic Agents: Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC 2.3.1.26.Lipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.Apolipoprotein A-I: The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Sitosterols: A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.beta-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1: A superfamily of large integral ATP-binding cassette membrane proteins whose expression pattern is consistent with a role in lipid (cholesterol) efflux. It is implicated in TANGIER DISEASE characterized by accumulation of cholesteryl ester in various tissues.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Hydroxycholesterols: Cholesterol which is substituted by a hydroxy group in any position.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Phytosterols: A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.Cyclodextrins: A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.Esterification: The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.Phosphatidylcholine-Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC 2.3.1.43.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Apolipoproteins: Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Cholestyramine Resin: A strongly basic anion exchange resin whose main constituent is polystyrene trimethylbenzylammonium Cl(-) anion.Desmosterol: An intermediate in the synthesis of cholesterol.Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins: Proteins that bind to and transfer CHOLESTEROL ESTERS between LIPOPROTEINS such as LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Lovastatin: A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.Mevalonic AcidReceptors, LDL: Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.Filipin: A complex of polyene antibiotics obtained from Streptomyces filipinensis. Filipin III alters membrane function by interfering with membrane sterols, inhibits mitochondrial respiration, and is proposed as an antifungal agent. Filipins I, II, and IV are less important.Apolipoproteins B: Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Apolipoproteins E: A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Sterol Esterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.Cholestanol: A cholesterol derivative found in human feces, gallstones, eggs, and other biological matter.Membrane Microdomains: Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.Cholelithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).AzetidinesLanosterol: A triterpene that derives from the chair-boat-chair-boat folding of 2,3-oxidosqualene. It is metabolized to CHOLESTEROL and CUCURBITACINS.Androstenes: Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.Sphingomyelins: A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Diet, Atherogenic: A diet that contributes to the development and acceleration of ATHEROGENESIS.Orphan Nuclear Receptors: A broad category of receptor-like proteins that may play a role in transcriptional-regulation in the CELL NUCLEUS. Many of these proteins are similar in structure to known NUCLEAR RECEPTORS but appear to lack a functional ligand-binding domain, while in other cases the specific ligands have yet to be identified.Dehydrocholesterols: Cholesterol derivatives having an additional double bond in any position. 24-Dehydrocholesterol is DESMOSTEROL. The other most prevalent dehydrocholesterol is the 7-isomer. This compound is a precursor of cholesterol and of vitamin D3.Embolism, Cholesterol: Blocking of a blood vessel by CHOLESTEROL-rich atheromatous deposits, generally occurring in the flow from a large artery to small arterial branches. It is also called arterial-arterial embolization or atheroembolism which may be spontaneous or iatrogenic. Patients with spontaneous atheroembolism often have painful, cyanotic digits of acute onset.Hypolipidemic Agents: Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Scavenger Receptors, Class B: A family of scavenger receptors that are predominately localized to CAVEOLAE of the PLASMA MEMBRANE and bind HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Niemann-Pick Diseases: A group of autosomal recessive disorders in which harmful quantities of lipids accumulate in the viscera and the central nervous system. They can be caused by deficiencies of enzyme activities (SPHINGOMYELIN PHOSPHODIESTERASE) or defects in intracellular transport, resulting in the accumulation of SPHINGOMYELINS and CHOLESTEROL. There are various subtypes based on their clinical and genetic differences.Foam Cells: Lipid-laden macrophages originating from monocytes or from smooth muscle cells.Simvastatin: A derivative of LOVASTATIN and potent competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It may also interfere with steroid hormone production. Due to the induction of hepatic LDL RECEPTORS, it increases breakdown of LDL CHOLESTEROL.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase: An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 2: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates GENES involved in CHOLESTEROL synthesis and uptake.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Cholestanes: Derivatives of the saturated steroid cholestane with methyl groups at C-18 and C-19 and an iso-octyl side chain at C-17.StigmasterolSqualeneKinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Gallbladder: A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder of CHOLESTEROL metabolism. It is caused by a deficiency of 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, the enzyme that converts 7-dehydrocholesterol to cholesterol, leading to an abnormally low plasma cholesterol. This syndrome is characterized by multiple CONGENITAL ABNORMALITIES, growth deficiency, and INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Receptors, Lipoprotein: Cell surface proteins that bind lipoproteins with high affinity. Lipoprotein receptors in the liver and peripheral tissues mediate the regulation of plasma and cellular cholesterol metabolism and concentration. The receptors generally recognize the apolipoproteins of the lipoprotein complex, and binding is often a trigger for endocytosis.Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II: A group of familial disorders characterized by elevated circulating cholesterol contained in either LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS alone or also in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (pre-beta lipoproteins).Dyslipidemias: Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.Apolipoproteins A: Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Pravastatin: An antilipemic fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Nocardia autotrophica. It acts as a competitive inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Heptanoic Acids: 7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Lipoproteins, HDL3: Intermediate-density subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes between 7 to 8 nm. As the larger lighter HDL2 lipoprotein, HDL3 lipoprotein is lipid-rich.Ketocholesterols: Cholesterol substituted in any position by a keto moiety. The 7-keto isomer inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity and inhibits cholesterol uptake in the coronary arteries and aorta in vitro.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Tangier Disease: An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS involved in cellular cholesterol removal (reverse-cholesterol transport). It is characterized by near absence of ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins) in blood. The massive tissue deposition of cholesterol esters results in HEPATOMEGALY; SPLENOMEGALY; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; large orange tonsils; and often sensory POLYNEUROPATHY. The disorder was first found among inhabitants of Tangier Island in the Chesapeake Bay, MD.TritiumOrganosilicon Compounds: Organic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.Xanthomatosis: A condition marked by the development of widespread xanthomas, yellow tumor-like structures filled with lipid deposits. Xanthomas can be found in a variety of tissues including the SKIN; TENDONS; joints of KNEES and ELBOWS. Xanthomatosis is associated with disturbance of LIPID METABOLISM and formation of FOAM CELLS.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated: Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.Triparanol: Antilipemic agent with high ophthalmic toxicity. According to Merck Index, 11th ed, the compound was withdrawn from the market in 1962 because of its association with the formation of irreversible cataracts.Lecithin Acyltransferase Deficiency: An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that facilitates the esterification of lipoprotein cholesterol and subsequent removal from peripheral tissues to the liver. This defect results in low HDL-cholesterol level in blood and accumulation of free cholesterol in tissue leading to a triad of CORNEAL OPACITY, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), and PROTEINURIA.trans-1,4-Bis(2-chlorobenzaminomethyl)cyclohexane Dihydrochloride: An anticholesteremic agent that inhibits sterol biosynthesis in animals.Biliary Tract: The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Fats, Unsaturated: Fats containing one or more double bonds, as from oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Apolipoprotein A-II: The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.Cholic Acids: The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Receptors, Scavenger: A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.Cholic Acid: A major primary bile acid produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption and cholesterol excretion.Mice, Inbred C57BLMesocricetus: A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.Pregnenolone: A 21-carbon steroid, derived from CHOLESTEROL and found in steroid hormone-producing tissues. Pregnenolone is the precursor to GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Eggs: Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.Cholestenones: CHOLESTENES with one or more double bonds and substituted by any number of keto groups.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.EstersChylomicrons: A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Farnesyl-Diphosphate Farnesyltransferase: The first committed enzyme of the biosynthesis pathway that leads to the production of STEROLS. it catalyzes the synthesis of SQUALENE from farnesyl pyrophosphate via the intermediate PRESQUALENE PYROPHOSPHATE. This enzyme is also a critical branch point enzyme in the biosynthesis of ISOPRENOIDS that is thought to regulate the flux of isoprene intermediates through the sterol pathway.Oleic Acids: A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Hypertriglyceridemia: A condition of elevated levels of TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.Caveolin 1: A tyrosine phosphoprotein that plays an essential role in CAVEOLAE formation. It binds CHOLESTEROL and is involved in LIPIDS transport, membrane traffic, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Niemann-Pick Disease, Type C: An autosomal recessive lipid storage disorder that is characterized by accumulation of CHOLESTEROL and SPHINGOMYELINS in cells of the VISCERA and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Type C (or C1) and type D are allelic disorders caused by mutation of gene (NPC1) encoding a protein that mediate intracellular cholesterol transport from lysosomes. Clinical signs include hepatosplenomegaly and chronic neurological symptoms. Type D is a variant in people with a Nova Scotia ancestry.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Taurocholic Acid: The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.Pyrroles: Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Lymph: The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.Diosgenin: A spirostan found in DIOSCOREA and other plants. The 25S isomer is called yamogenin. Solasodine is a natural derivative formed by replacing the spiro-ring with a nitrogen, which can rearrange to SOLANINE.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Oleic Acid: An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Chenodeoxycholic Acid: A bile acid, usually conjugated with either glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption and is reabsorbed by the small intestine. It is used as cholagogue, a choleretic laxative, and to prevent or dissolve gallstones.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine: A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.Ergosterol: A steroid of interest both because its biosynthesis in FUNGI is a target of ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS, notably AZOLES, and because when it is present in SKIN of animals, ULTRAVIOLET RAYS break a bond to result in ERGOCALCIFEROL.Hyperlipoproteinemias: Conditions with abnormally elevated levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. They may be inherited, acquired, primary, or secondary. Hyperlipoproteinemias are classified according to the pattern of lipoproteins on electrophoresis or ultracentrifugation.Cholestenes: Steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a branched 8-carbon chain at C-17. Members include compounds with any degree of unsaturation; however, CHOLESTADIENES is available for derivatives containing two double bonds.Egg Yolk: Cytoplasm stored in an egg that contains nutritional reserves for the developing embryo. It is rich in polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Caveolins: The main structural proteins of CAVEOLAE. Several distinct genes for caveolins have been identified.1,2-Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine: Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.Probucol: A drug used to lower LDL and HDL cholesterol yet has little effect on serum-triglyceride or VLDL cholesterol. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p993).Lipoprotein(a): A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Soybean Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from SOYBEANS.Caveolae: Endocytic/exocytic CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURES rich in glycosphingolipids, cholesterol, and lipid-anchored membrane proteins that function in ENDOCYTOSIS (potocytosis), transcytosis, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Caveolae assume various shapes from open pits to closed vesicles. Caveolar coats are composed of CAVEOLINS.Corn Oil: Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.Triolein: (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.Dietary Fats, Unsaturated: Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.Hypolipoproteinemias: Conditions with abnormally low levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. This may involve any of the lipoprotein subclasses, including ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins); BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low-density lipoproteins); and PREBETA-LIPOPROTEINS (very-low-density lipoproteins).Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Proteins: Sterol regulatory element binding proteins are basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factors that bind the sterol regulatory element TCACNCCAC. They are synthesized as precursors that are threaded into the MEMBRANES of the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Hydrocarbons, FluorinatedColestipol: Highly crosslinked and insoluble basic anion exchange resin used as anticholesteremic. It may also may reduce triglyceride levels.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Diet, Fat-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Margarine: A butterlike product made of refined vegetable oils, sometimes blended with animal fats, and emulsified usually with water or milk. It is used as a butter substitute. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Phase Transition: A change of a substance from one form or state to another.Vegetable Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from vegetables or vegetable products used as food. The concept is distinguished from PLANT PROTEINS which refers to non-dietary proteins from plants.FluorobenzenesFasting: Abstaining from all food.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Butter: The fatty portion of milk, separated as a soft yellowish solid when milk or cream is churned. It is processed for cooking and table use. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA from acetyl-CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA. This is a key enzyme in steroid biosynthesis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.5.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.

Comparative total mortality in 25 years in Italian and Greek middle aged rural men. (1/19464)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Mortality over 25 years has been low in the Italian and very low in the Greek cohorts of the Seven Countries Study; factors responsible for this particularity were studied in detail. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS: 1712 Italian and 1215 Greek men, aged 40-59 years, cohorts of the Seven Countries Study, representing over 95% of the populations in designated rural areas. DESIGN: Entry (1960-61) data included age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), smoking habits, total serum cholesterol, body mass index (BMI), arm circumference, vital capacity (VC), and forced expiratory volume in 3/4 seconds (FEV); the same data were obtained 10 years later. Multivariate Cox analysis was performed with all causes death in 25 years as end point. MAIN RESULTS: Italian men had higher entry levels of SBP, arm circumference, BMI, and VC; Greek men had higher cholesterol levels, smoking habits, and FEV. Mortality of Italian men was higher throughout; at 25 years cumulative mortality was 48.3% and 35.3% respectively. Coronary heart disease and stroke mortality increased fivefold in Italy and 10-fold in Greece between years 10 and 25. The only risk factor with a significantly higher contribution to mortality in Italian men was cholesterol. However, differences in entry SBP (higher in Italy) and FEV (higher in Greece) accounted for, according to the Lee method, 75% of the differential mortality between the two populations. At 10 years increases in SBP, cholesterol, BMI, and decreases in smoking habits, VC, FEV, and arm circumference had occurred (deltas). SBP increased more and FEV and VC decreased more in Italy than in Greece. Deltas, fed stepwise in the original model for the prediction of 10 to 25 years mortality, were significant for SBP, smoking, arm circumference, and VC in Greece, and for SBP and VC in Italy. CONCLUSION: Higher mortality in Italian men is related to stronger positive effects of entry SBP and weaker negative (protective) effects of FEV; in addition 10 year increases in SBP are higher and 10 year decreases in FEV are larger in Italy. Unaccounted factors, however, related to, for example, differences in the diet, may also have contributed to the differential mortality of these two Mediterranean populations.  (+info)

The amyloid precursor protein interacts with Go heterotrimeric protein within a cell compartment specialized in signal transduction. (2/19464)

The function of the beta-amyloid protein precursor (betaAPP), a transmembrane molecule involved in Alzheimer pathologies, is poorly understood. We recently reported the presence of a fraction of betaAPP in cholesterol and sphingoglycolipid-enriched microdomains (CSEM), a caveolae-like compartment specialized in signal transduction. To investigate whether betaAPP actually interferes with cell signaling, we reexamined the interaction between betaAPP and Go GTPase. In strong contrast with results obtained with reconstituted phospholipid vesicles (Okamoto et al., 1995), we find that incubating total neuronal membranes with 22C11, an antibody that recognizes an N-terminal betaAPP epitope, reduces high-affinity Go GTPase activity. This inhibition is specific of Galphao and is reproduced, in the absence of 22C11, by the addition of the betaAPP C-terminal domain but not by two distinct mutated betaAPP C-terminal domains that do not bind Galphao. This inhibition of Galphao GTPase activity by either 22C11 or wild-type betaAPP cytoplasmic domain suggests that intracellular interactions between betaAPP and Galphao could be regulated by extracellular signals. To verify whether this interaction is preserved in CSEM, we first used biochemical, immunocytochemical, and ultrastructural techniques to unambiguously confirm the colocalization of Galphao and betaAPP in CSEM. We show that inhibition of basal Galphao GTPase activity also occurs within CSEM and correlates with the coimmunoprecipitation of Galphao and betaAPP. The regulation of Galphao GTPase activity by betaAPP in a compartment specialized in signaling may have important consequences for our understanding of the physiopathological functions of betaAPP.  (+info)

Allyl-containing sulfides in garlic increase uncoupling protein content in brown adipose tissue, and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion in rats. (3/19464)

The effects of garlic supplementation on triglyceride metabolism were investigated by measurements of the degree of thermogenesis in interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT), and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion in rats fed two types of dietary fat. In Experiment 1, rats were given isoenergetic high-fat diets containing either shortening or lard with or without garlic powder supplementation (8 g/kg of diet). After 28 d feeding, body weight, plasma triglyceride levels and the weights of perirenal adipose tissue and epididymal fat pad were significantly lower in rats fed diets supplemented with garlic powder than in those fed diets without garlic powder. The content of mitochondrial protein and uncoupling protein (UCP) in IBAT, and urinary noradrenaline and adrenaline excretion were significantly greater in rats fed a lard diet with garlic powder than in those fed the same diet without garlic. Other than adrenaline secretion, differences due to garlic were significant in rats fed shortening, also. In Experiment 2, the effects of various allyl-containing sulfides present in garlic on noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion were evaluated. Administration of diallyldisulfide, diallyltrisulfide and alliin, organosulfur compounds present in garlic, significantly increased plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations, whereas the administration of disulfides without allyl residues, diallylmonosulfide and S-allyl-L-cysteine did not increase adrenaline secretion. These results suggest that in rats, allyl-containing sulfides in garlic enhance thermogenesis by increasing UCP content in IBAT, and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion.  (+info)

The food matrix of spinach is a limiting factor in determining the bioavailability of beta-carotene and to a lesser extent of lutein in humans. (4/19464)

Carotenoid bioavailability depends, amongst other factors, on the food matrix and on the type and extent of processing. To examine the effect of variously processed spinach products and of dietary fiber on serum carotenoid concentrations, subjects received, over a 3-wk period, a control diet (n = 10) or a control diet supplemented with carotenoids or one of four spinach products (n = 12 per group): whole leaf spinach with an almost intact food matrix, minced spinach with the matrix partially disrupted, enzymatically liquefied spinach in which the matrix was further disrupted and the liquefied spinach to which dietary fiber (10 g/kg wet weight) was added. Consumption of spinach significantly increased serum concentrations of all-trans-beta-carotene, cis-beta-carotene, (and consequently total beta-carotene), lutein, alpha-carotene and retinol and decreased the serum concentration of lycopene. Serum total beta-carotene responses (changes in serum concentrations from the start to the end of the intervention period) differed significantly between the whole leaf and liquefied spinach groups and between the minced and liquefied spinach groups. The lutein response did not differ among spinach groups. Addition of dietary fiber to the liquefied spinach had no effect on serum carotenoid responses. The relative bioavailability as compared to bioavailability of the carotenoid supplement for whole leaf, minced, liquefied and liquefied spinach plus added dietary fiber for beta-carotene was 5.1, 6.4, 9.5 and 9.3%, respectively, and for lutein 45, 52, 55 and 54%, respectively. We conclude that the bioavailability of lutein from spinach was higher than that of beta-carotene and that enzymatic disruption of the matrix (cell wall structure) enhanced the bioavailability of beta-carotene from whole leaf and minced spinach, but had no effect on lutein bioavailability.  (+info)

Improvement of factor VII clotting activity following long-term NCPAP treatment in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. (5/19464)

Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a very common disorder. Patients with OSAS are at an increased risk for cardiovascular events. It has also been reported that a 25% rise in factor VII clotting activity (FVIIc) is associated with a 55% increase in ischaemic heart disease death during the first 5 years. We examined the effects of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) treatment on FVIIc in patients with OSAS. FVIIc was investigated prospectively in 15 patients with OSAS before (mean +/- SEM apnoea and hypopnoea index (AHI) 61.5 +/- 4.2 and after (AHI 3.0 +/- 0.9) NCPAP treatment for immediate relief, at 1 month after treatment and at over 6 months. FVIIc levels gradually decreased after NCPAP treatment. After 6 months of NCPAP treatment, FVIIc levels had decreased significantly (before 141.1 +/- 11.7% vs. after 6 months 110.7 +/- 6.2%; p < 0.01). Six of the seven patients whose FVIIc levels were over 140% before the NCPAP treatment had FVIIc levels below 130% after 6 months or 1 year of NCPAP treatment. This decrease in FVIIc after long-term NCPAP treatment could improve mortality in OSAS patients. If patients, especially obese ones, present with high FVIIc of unknown origin, it would be prudent to check for OSAS.  (+info)

Gallstones: an intestinal disease? (6/19464)

Current evidence suggests that impaired intestinal motility may facilitate gallstone formation by influencing biliary deoxycholate levels or by modulating interdigestive gall bladder motility (fig 2), although a primary intestinal defect in gallstone pathogenesis has not yet been demonstrated. In the cold war period, most interesting events, from a political point of view, occurred at the border between capitalist and communist systems, near the iron curtain. Similarly, the gall bladder and biliary tract can be viewed as the border between liver and intestinal tract, where many interesting things occur with profound impact on both systems. Combined efforts by researchers in the field of hepatology and gastrointestinal motility should brake down the Berlin wall of ignorance of one of the most common diseases in the Western world.  (+info)

Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies are associated with an atherogenic lipid profile. (7/19464)

OBJECTIVE: To determine, within a representative population group of men and women, whether alteration of the lipid profile might underlie the reported association between Chlamydia pneumoniae and ischaemic heart disease. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross sectional survey in an area with a high incidence of ischaemic heart disease. SUBJECTS: 400 randomly selected participants in the World Health Organisation MONICA project's third population survey in Northern Ireland. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Stored sera were examined by microimmunofluorescence for IgG antibodies to C pneumoniae at a dilution of 1 in 64. Mean total and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were compared between seropositive and seronegative individuals with adjustment for age, measures of socioeconomic status, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and the season during which blood had been taken. RESULTS: In seropositive men, adjusted mean serum total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were 0.5 mmol/l (9.2%) higher and 0.11 mmol/l (9.3%) lower, respectively, than in seronegative men. Differences in women did not achieve statistical significance, but both total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were higher (3.6% and 5.8%, respectively) in seropositive than in seronegative individuals. CONCLUSIONS: There is serological evidence that C pneumoniae infection is associated with an atherogenic lipid profile in men. Altered lipid levels may underlie the association between C pneumoniae and ischaemic heart disease.  (+info)

Chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, or cytomegalovirus: population based study of coronary heart disease. (8/19464)

OBJECTIVE: To study possible associations between coronary heart disease and serological evidence of persistent infection with Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, or cytomegalovirus. DESIGN: Population based, case-control study, nested within a randomised trial. SETTING: Five general practices in Bedfordshire, UK. INDIVIDUALS: 288 patients with incident or prevalent coronary heart disease and 704 age and sex matched controls. RESULTS: High concentrations of serum IgG antibodies to H pylori were present in 54% of cases v 46% of controls, with corresponding results for C pneumoniae seropositivity (33% v 33%), and cytomegalovirus seropositivity (40% v 31%). After adjustments for age, sex, smoking, indicators of socioeconomic status, and standard risk factors, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for coronary heart disease of seropositivity to these agents were: 1.28 (0.93 to 1.75) for H pylori, 0.95 (0.66 to 1.36) for C pneumoniae, and 1.40 (0.96 to 2. 05) for cytomegalovirus. CONCLUSIONS: There is no good evidence of strong associations between coronary heart disease and serological markers of persistent infection with H pylori, C pneumoniae, or cytomegalovirus. To determine the existence of moderate associations between these agents and disease, however, larger scale studies will be needed that can keep residual confounders to a minimum.  (+info)

Addresses how cholesterol is measured, what is known about the accuracy of cholesterol measurement techniques, what factors influence cholesterol levels, & what is the potential effect of uncertain measurement. 45 charts & tables.Cholesterol Measurement : Test Accuracy and Factors That Influence Cholesterol Levels, was published 1995 under ISBN 9780788118227 and ISBN 0788118226. [read more] ...
To our knowledge, there have been no previous studies on determining whether the baseline levels of remnant cholesterol qualified for a useful predictor independent of traditional prognostic variables for adverse outcomes. The main findings of the present study were summarized as follows. Firstly, according to Speamans correlation, remnant cholesterol was positively associated with major inflammatory biomarkers such as high sensitivity C-reactive protein, neutrophil count and fibrinogen (R 2 = 0.20, 0.12 and 0.14; P = 0.000, 0.036 and 0.010, respectively). Secondly, although remnant cholesterol was significantly correlated to serum triglyceride (R 2 = 0.832, P = 0.000), they did not show approximate relation to the Gensini scores (R 2 = 0075 vs. 0.115, P = 0.178 and 0.038 respectively). Thirdly, the ROC curve indicated a matchable discriminatory power of remnant cholesterol, HbA1C and Gensini scores for the cardiovascular outcomes in the study population (AUC for remnant cholesterol, HbA1C and ...
BioAssay record AID 170311 submitted by ChEMBL: Effect on serum cholesterol level as tissue specific estrogen agonist assay in ovariectomized rat model: significant decrease at <10 mg/kg dose.
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Diabetics often have elevated levels of serum lipids and cholesterol and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes was used to determine whether elevated serum cholesterol levels in diabetics are due to loss of control of hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, which catalyzes the committed step in cholesterol synthesis. Strain A/ST female mice were fed 10% corn oil diets, half with 2% cholesterol. Experimental groups were injected with 9.0 mg streptozotocin / 100g body weight. Diabetes was confirmed by weight loss, elevated blood sugars, and enlarged spleens. Reductase activity was assayed spectrophotometrically. Serum cholesterol levels were determined by gas liquid chromatography. Both diabetic and control mice fed cholesterol had elevated serum cholesterol levels and decreased reductase activities. These observations suggest that HMG CoA reductase is not the primary control point in the control of serum cholesterol levels in diabetic mice. The ...
High blood cholesterol is a leading risk factor in the development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD) (1,2). The risks associated with high blood cholesterol can be reduced by screening and early intervention (3). Current clinical practice guidelines provide evidenced-based standards for detection, treatment, and control of high blood cholesterol (4). Healthy People 2020 monitors national progress related to screening and controlling high blood cholesterol through the National Health Interview Survey and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). State-level estimates of self-reported cholesterol screening and high blood cholesterol prevalence are available using Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data. To assess recent trends in the percentage of adults aged ≥18 years who had been screened for high blood cholesterol during the preceding 5 years, and the percentage among those who had been screened within the previous 5 years and who were ...
We have been told for years that cholesterol levels being too high are problematic, that it can contribute to heart disease and strokes. In fact, this is true for many people. However, what has gone unrecognized or ignored for many years is that too low cholesterol can be just as detrimental often leading to a myriad of mental health and disease conditions. There is a dynamic balance of all things in the body that must be achieved for optimal health to manifest, and cholesterol is a critically important component of that balance.. Sonic Cholesterol is an excellent choice for reviving low cholesterol levels:. Sonic Cholesterol is a pure and potent nutritional supplement designed specifically to support healthy cholesterol levels.. Sonic Cholesterol is the only cholesterol supplement on the market designed to help raise cholesterol to normal levels.. To learn more about the benefits of Sonic Cholesterol, the dangers of low cholesterol, and how to obtain your own supply of Sonic Cholesterol make ...
What is cholesterol?. Cholesterol is a fatty substance that is found in the blood. Cholesterol is made naturally in the body, and is also introduced to the body through the foods you eat. Most people consider cholesterol to be a bad thing, but not all cholesterol is created equal. There is actually good and bad cholesterol. To have healthy cholesterol is to have enough or a higher amount of "good" cholesterol, and low "bad" cholesterol.. Good Cholesterol. HDL (high density lipids) is also known as "good" cholesterol. HDL cholesterol actually helps to clean blood vessels and transport "bad" cholesterol out of the body.. Foods that have good cholesterol include fish, avocado, oats, some nuts, and berries. These foods can help you raise your HDL cholesterol levels and lower the bad.. Bad Cholesterol. LDL, or "low density lipids" is bad cholesterol. This is the kind of cholesterol that creates plaque that can clog your blood vessels and create problems such as high blood pressure, stroke and heart ...
Pictured Recipe: Avocado Pesto. A. It depends. Most people absorb about half the cholesterol they consume through foods, but absorption rates vary (from 20 to 60 percent) from person to person. This variation may help explain why dietary cholesterol seems to increase levels of "unhealthy" LDL blood cholesterol in some people more than others, says EatingWell advisor Alice Lichtenstein.. In any case, saturated and trans fats have a bigger detrimental effect on blood cholesterol levels, and heart health in general, than dietary cholesterol does. "Trans and saturated fats not only affect how much plaque is deposited in blood vessels, but also may damage the tissue of blood vessels," says Susan Moores, M.S., R.D., a spokesperson for the American Dietetic Association. With a few exceptions-notably eggs and shellfish-foods high in cholesterol, such as fatty meats and whole-milk dairy, also tend to be high in saturated fat. Cutting back on sources of saturated fat automatically limits intake of dietary ...
Table I shows, firstly, the mean total cholesterol concentration of each fifth of the distribution based on the original measurements in the cohort of 21 515 men (the group of 5696 men had the same original values); secondly, the mean total cholesterol concentration; thirdly, the mean low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration of each fifth based on the repeat measurements in the group of 5696 men; and fourthly, the age adjusted death rates for ischaemic heart disease for the five groups. The threefold difference in mortality from ischaemic heart disease across the groups (1.11 to 3.11 deaths per 1000 man years) corresponded to a difference in original total cholesterol concentration of 3.1 (from 4.8 to 7.9) mmol/l but a smaller difference in repeat total cholesterol concentration of 2.2 (5.0 to 7.2) mmol/l; this is the regression dilution bias. The threefold difference in mortality from ischaemic heart disease corresponded to an even smaller difference in low density lipoprotein ...
In the past 20 years, serum cholesterol levels have decreased markedly in eastern Finland. Our results demonstrate that the entire cholesterol distribution shifted substantially toward lower values. The population-based strategy applied was also effective in markedly reducing the proportion of high-risk individuals with high cholesterol levels. It is obvious that the high-risk approach alone would not have been appropriate in eastern Finland in the 1970s. Depending on the chosen cutoff point for cholesterol alone, half or more of the middle-aged population should have been considered as high-risk individuals in the early 1970s. Applying individual intervention, including pharmacological therapy, would have been difficult to implement, if not impossible, and intolerably expensive. Also, the cholesterol-lowering drugs available at that time were not optimal,16 and even today, we have only limited information on their long-term efficacy and safety in the prevention of CHD in healthy ...
An isolated peptide comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 2, or a variant, derivative and/or fragment thereof having the function of HMGCoA reductase inhibitor, phosphomevalonate inhibitor, reducing the accumulation of cholesterol in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway and/or reducing the level of serum cholesterol. Also disclosed is a pharmaceutical composition comprising the peptide having sequence SEQ ID NO:2 or a variant, derivative and/or fragment thereof. Also disclosed is a method for treatment or prophylaxis of disorders characterised by the accumulation of cholesterol, its by-products and/or related lipid derived products, comprising administering to a subject in need at least one peptide comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 2, or a variant, derivative and/or fragment thereof ...
A study published in the American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B (Neuropsychiatric Genetics) has found that a small subgroup of children with ASD have abnormally low cholesterol levels (hypocholesterolemia), leading researchers to believe cholesterol may play a role in the cause of some cases of the disorder. The childrens low cholesterol levels were apparently due to a limited ability to make cholesterol. Nineteen of the 100 children who participated in the study were found to have total cholesterol levels below 100 mg/dL, which is lower than that found in 99 percent of children. The average cholesterol level for children between 4 and 19 years of age is 165 mg/dl. The study authors found evidence that the low cholesterol levels were caused by a reduced ability of the body to naturally produce cholesterol, and not by inadequate amounts of cholesterol in the diet or gastrointestinal problems that interfere with cholesterol absorption, two of the more common causes of low blood cholesterol ...
Simmered eggplant and tomato:For preparing this low cholesterol recipe, first you have to heat the three table spoons of oil on large pan with medium high heat. Then add onion by cooking it gently and add garlic.. Now you have to add large piece of eggplant and stir it. After this mixture absorbed all the oil, add some more oil and stir it.. Next add salt, pepper and flakes. This mixture is covered with eggplant until it becomes transparent. Now you have to add two cans of tomatoes along with liquid.. Now this total mixture should be stirred well. Then you stir again by reducing to low heat from 10 to 15 minutes. Now the low cholesterol recipe is ready for you. So you can serve it with a main dish plain.. If you are already following some other low cholesterol diets, then before following the low cholesterol diet you have to avoid use of fatty foods such as butter, cheese and other processed foods which will add much cholesterol into your body. For achieving the best results of low cholesterol ...
With all the news and warnings about the dangers of high cholesterol, many people view cholesterol as a “bad†substance that should be eliminated completely from our lives. In truth, cholesterol serves some important functions in the body. In order to understand how cholesterol affects the body, one must first understand what cholesterol is.. Cholesterol is a waxy substance that is attached to the fats in our bloodstream and is present in all of the cells of the body. Cholesterol comes from food that we eat, as well as being manufactured directly by the liver. Cholesterol is an important regulator in the bloodstream, as it helps to regulate the formation of many cells as well as hormones. However, to have too high or too low of a cholesterol count in the blood can be a very dangerous factor, often leading to a heart attack or a stroke. Although cholesterol is prevalent in the blood stream, it cannot dissipate in the blood. The cholesterol maneuvers throughout the body attached to ...
The main new results of the present study were that: (I) BPS and CS subgroups had enhanced cholesterol synthesis, (II) in the BPS group, solely serum squalene of the surrogate markers of cholesterol synthesis was logically (inversely) related to those of cholesterol absorption, (III) the children with CS had low absorption of cholesterol, (IV) their homeostatic regulation of cholesterol metabolism was intact and (V), in the CS group, serum non-cholesterol sterols reflected their own proportions in the stone content.. Hepatic hypersecretion of biliary cholesterol with formation of cholesterol crystals from cholesterol supersaturated bile is considered to be the crucial phenomenon in the pathogenesis of the CS [6]. In general, adult gallstone patients (predominantly with CS) have high synthesis of cholesterol parallel to increased biliary output of cholesterol, but relatively low intestinal cholesterol absorption, indicating enhanced whole-body sterol clearance [25]. Opposite to the clinical ...
Ivanhoe Newswire) -- It has been well-known that high levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, the "good" kind, are associated with a lower risk of heart disease. Recent studies have asked if pharmacologic increases in HDL cholesterol levels are beneficial to the patient. A new study shows that a different metric, a measure of HDL function called cholesterol efflux capacity, is more closely associated with protection against heart disease than HDL cholesterol levels themselves.. Atherosclerosis typically occurs with a build-up of cholesterol along the artery wall. Cholesterol efflux capacity, an integrated measure of HDL function, is a direct calculation of the efficiency by which a persons HDL removes cholesterol from cholesterol-loaded macrophages (a type of white blood cell) -- the sort that accumulate in arterial plaque.. "Recent scientific findings have directed increasing interest toward the concept that measures of the function of HDL, rather than simply its level in the ...
... Aside from high cholesterol increasing the risk of heart disease, new research suggests that it may also be bad for the bones. The study included 1303 postmenopausal women with higher levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-the bad cholesterol-and showed that they were more likely to show signs of bone thinning, compared with women with normal cholesterol. Although the findings do not prove that high cholesterol is the reason for bone thinning, the results give a possible explanation for studies suggesting that statins protect bones, researchers reported in Obstetrics and Gynecology (November 2003). In the new study, women aged 45 to 65 who had gone through menopause had their bone density measured and cholesterol levels tested. The participants were separated into 3 groups based on LDL levels: normal (129 mg/dL), moderately high (130-150 mg/dL), and high (160 mg/dL and above). Women with high LDL levels were 74% more likely to have osteopenia, a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cholesterol Metabolism: A Review of How Ageing Disrupts the Biological Mechanisms Responsible for its Regulation. AU - Morgan, AE. AU - Mooney, KM. AU - Wilkinson, SJ. AU - Pickles, NA. AU - Mc Auley, MT. PY - 2016/4/1. Y1 - 2016/4/1. N2 - Cholesterol plays a vital role in the human body as a precursor of steroid hormones and bile acids, in addition to providing structure to cell membranes. Whole body cholesterol metabolism is maintained by a highly coordinated balancing act between cholesterol ingestion, synthesis, absorption, and excretion. The aim of this review is to discuss how ageing interacts with these processes. Firstly, we will present an overview of cholesterol metabolism. Following this, we discuss how the biological mechanisms which underpin cholesterol metabolism are effected by ageing. Included in this discussion are lipoprotein dynamics, cholesterol absorption/synthesis and the enterohepatic circulation/synthesis of bile acids. Moreover, we discuss the role of ...
HMG CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are commonly used to treat high cholesterol (HC) in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Several studies have shown benefits of statin among patients of type 2 DM, however, no such data is available for patients with type 1 DM.. It is known from studies on cholesterol metabolism using surrogate markers that patients with type 1 DM have higher cholesterol absorption compared to normals and those with type 2 DM have higher cholesterol synthesis. Since statins inhibit synthesis, patients with type 1 DM may not have a good response and may respond better to cholesterol absorption inhibitors. The purpose of this study is to determine the cholesterol lowering effects of cholesterol absorption inhibitors and cholesterol synthesis inhibitors in subjects with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. ...
High blood cholesterol increases your risk of cardiovascular complications such as a heart attack or stroke. Your doctor may periodically evaluate your risk for these complications by using a calculator such as the Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Estimator. This calculator estimates your risk of having a heart attack or stroke in the next 10 years. It considers your total and good high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, age, and systolic blood pressure. It also factors in whether you have diabetes, smoke, or use medicines to control high blood pressure. Your doctor will consider how unhealthy your blood cholesterol levels are and your 10-year risk calculation when deciding how best to treat your high blood cholesterol and to manage your risk of cardiovascular complications. Your doctor may recommend aspirin to prevent a first heart attack or stroke.. Keep in mind that this 10-year cardiovascular risk calculator may not accurately estimate risk in certain situations, such as ...
How is Non-High Density Lipoprotein abbreviated? NHDL stands for Non-High Density Lipoprotein. NHDL is defined as Non-High Density Lipoprotein rarely.
Cholesterol is a vital component of the human body. It stabilizes cell membranes and is the precursor of bile acids, vitamin D and steroid hormones. However, cholesterol accumulation in the bloodstream (hypercholesterolemia) can cause atherosclerotic plaques within artery walls, leading to heart attacks and strokes. The efficiency of cholesterol absorption in the small intestine is of great interest because human and animal studies have linked cholesterol absorption with plasma concentration of total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Cholesterol absorption is highly regulated and influenced by particular compounds in the food supply. Therefore, it is desirable to learn more about natural food components that inhibit cholesterol absorption so that food ingredients and dietary supplements can be developed for consumers who wish to manage their plasma cholesterol levels by non-pharmacological means. Food components thus far identified as inhibitors of cholesterol absorption include phytosterols,
Technically, there is no pure cholesterol in your bloodstream. Cholesterol is transported by lipoproteins. LDL (reduced-density lipoproteins) and HDL (high-density lipoprotiens) are the lipoprotiens utilised to transport cholesterol.. Tests can be run that really test for the cholesterol, which offers you the total cholesterol number (direct measurement). Or you can run a test for the HDL and LDL cholesterol complexes. You add these values to get a computed total cholesterol. If you run a total cholesterol AND calculate it from summing the HDL and LDL cholesterols they need to be close, but will not concur exactly. Tests have a margin of error. This is why they will not match exactly.. Though triglyerides are typically transported by lipoproteins, I do not know why they would use it to calculate total cholesterol.. We employed to run total cholesterol then and HDL, computing the LDL as a distinction among the total and HDL.. A correction to the answer above this - folic acid is not a fatty ...
Wouldnt it be great to find a natural, food-based way to end your high cholesterol woes?. Lets be clear: High cholesterol is generally a problem related to lifestyle and dietary choices.. Thats the best place to start making changes.. However, the following herbs and supplements are helpful because they may help keep your cholesterol levels manageable. Most herbs for high cholesterol are indirectly beneficial, helping to promote better blood circulation, which improves the bodys ability to remove cholesterol.. Consider the following options:. Garlic. A proven cholesterol emulsifier, garlic helps loosen cholesterol from artery walls. Garlic, in general, is highly beneficial, providing antibiotic, antiinflammatory, and anticancer benefits.. Green Tea. Research shows that green tea may increase high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (good cholesterol), and lower triglyceride and lower density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (bad cholesterol). It has also been well documented that green ...
A cross-sectional study of a random sample of 976 coloureds (mixed race) of the Cape Peninsula, ages 15 to 64 years old, revealed a population with unexpectedly high levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. The mean level for men was 55.4 +/- 16.1 mg/dl (SD) and for women, 60.8 +/- 16.0 mg/dl. The ratio of HDL cholesterol to total cholesterol expressed as a percentage was 26.3% +/- 9.5% for men and 28.1% +/- 9.3% for women. The HDL cholesterol levels were apparently lower than those of black and Negro populations, yet higher than those of Caucasian populations. Men with levels of HDL cholesterol above the median reported a personal history and a family history of coronary heart disease less frequently than did men with lower levels, while women with high levels of HDL cholesterol were less likely to have a history of hypertension or diabetes. Stepwise multiple regression analysis of variables significantly associated with HDL cholesterol levels showed that they explained 29.7% and ...
Low saturated fat diets have been recommended as a means of reducing blood cholesterol levels for decades. However, for many years it has also been recognized that reducing the saturated fat content of the diet alone isnt sufficient to markedly lower blood cholesterol levels. To this point, since 2002, Dr. David Jenkins of the University of Toronto and his colleagues have published a series of studies showing that the combination of cholesterol-lowering foods called the portfolio diet lowers cholesterol to a much greater extent than any single food. Not surprisingly, soyfoods have been an integral part of this combination since they are low in saturated fat and soy protein itself lowers blood cholesterol levels. Subjects following the test diet are instructed to consume 22 grams of soy protein from soymilk, tofu and soy meat analogues per 1000 calories or about 35 grams per participant. Other components of the portfolio diet included nuts, soluble fiber and phytosterols.. In the latest study ...
For those who suffer from high cholesterol the best and first way to control and lower their cholesterol levels is through their diet. But many people are confused as to what constitutes a high cholesterol food they need to avoid and a low cholesterol food. This is because there is a difference between dietary cholesterol and blood cholesterol.. Generally most health guidelines recommend that dietary cholesterol not exceed 300 mg per day for most healthy people, but if one suffers from high LDL blood cholesterol levels then this intake should be not more than 200 mg per day.. Cholesterol, a waxy like substance, is only found in animal meat and tissues and its sources include red meat, eggs, fish, poultry, and dairy products. On the flip side any food derived from plant sources is cholesterol free, including high fat plants food sources such as avocados and peanut butter. This is where the confusion usually happens because eating large amounts of vegetable oil, which is virtually 100% food fat, ...
Cholesterol is a fatty substance produced by your liver. Its also found in foods high in saturated fat, such as meat, eggs, some shellfish, and whole-milk dairy products.. Your cells need some cholesterol to functional normally. But too much cholesterol in your blood can be harmful. High blood cholesterol levels can cause fatty deposits to build up on the walls of your arteries. This condition is known as atherosclerosis (sometimes called hardening of the arteries). Over time, the fatty deposits can decrease the amount of blood flowing in the arteries and eventually block blood flow entirely. This narrowing of the arteries can lead to heart disease, heart attack, and stroke. People who are overweight, eat a lot of foods high in saturated fat, or who have a family history of high cholesterol have an increased risk of high cholesterol levels. There are few symptoms of high cholesterol levels and a blood test is almost always needed to confirm it.. There are two kinds of cholesterol:. ...
Ideal Cholesterol levels are extremely beneficial for maintaining a disease free body. In order to prevent heart diseases and diabetes, we should keep the percentage of LDL lower than HDL. LDL or bad cholesterol can cause damage to your body while HDL or good cholesterol promotes good health.. How To Maintain A Healthy Cholesterol Level And Lower The LDL?. . There are various ways to maintain cholesterol level and lower LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein). Cardio workouts, balanced diet, Yoga and meditation can be the best ways to lead a healthy life.. . Exercising regularly encourages metabolism in our body. It not only helps your body to lose weight but also reduces LDL. By performing cardio workouts such as running, swimming, brisk walking or aerobics, our body can reach ideal cholesterol levels. Drinking sufficient water is the main requisite during the entire process. You should drink at least 10-12 glasses of water daily.. . There are foods, which can easily lower the LDL. You should consume ...
Cholesterol and Coronary Heart Disease - Cholesterol is a type of fat (lipid) made by the body. About 80% of cholesterol is made by the body, the other 20% comes from the diet. Cholesterol is a building block for cell membranes. Cholesterol Test Kit - A delicate combination of steroid and alcohol, Cholesterol, also a combination of a lipid that is found in cell membranes of all of our body tissues. Cholesterol is also transported in the blood of all animals.. Develop High Cholesterol - The risk of heart disease is greatly increased if you have high cholesterol. This can include potentially fatal heart attacks. Lowering cholesterol is recommended to lead a more healthy life and maintain a healthy heart. Low Fat Cholesterol Recipes - Many low fat low colesterol recipes are usually bland and un-flavorful but you can find some unique and tasty treats on our website that are full of flavor. Good Cholesterol Level - While most people talk about "cholesterol levels" there is in fact more than one type ...
In this article, you will learn how to keep the vitamin D in the body while still lowering cholesterol.. Eat Fiber. There are 2 types of fiber, soluble and insoluble. Soluble fiber is what lowers cholesterol. Insoluble just regulates bowel movements. You need the first type. This type is found in apples, broccoli, and beans. Many people say that whole grain is good for lowering cholesterol but it does not contain the correct type of fiber.. Sterols. Sterols are found in many plants. This is like cholesterol for plants. In your body, they take the place of cholesterol and cause your body to dispose of the real cholesterol. This is a natural process your body uses over time to keep your cholesterol levels balanced.. You will find Sterols in foods like corn, soy,and wheat.. Supplements. Fiber, plant sterols, and vitamin D are all found in cholesterol lowering supplements. These are like ordinary multivitamins except they are specially designed and proven to work for people with high cholesterol. ...
Pgp (P-glycoprotein, MDR1, ABCB1) is an energy-dependent drug efflux pump that is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of proteins. Preliminary studies have reported that nonspecific inhibitors of Pgp affect synthesis and esterification of cholesterol, putatively by blocking trafficking of cholesterol from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum, and that relative increases in Pgp within a given cell type are associated with increased accumulation of cholesterol. Several key efflux proteins involved in the cholesterol metabolic pathway are transcriptionally regulated by the nuclear hormone liver X receptor (LXR). Therefore, to examine the interplay between P-glycoprotein and the cholesterol metabolic pathway, we utilized a high fat, normal cholesterol diet to upregulate LXRα without affecting dietary cholesterol. Our research has demonstrated that mice lacking in P-glycoprotein do not exhibit alterations in hepatic total cholesterol storage, circulating plasma total cholesterol
BEST supplements for cholesterol: Having high cholesterol can increase your risk of serious and even life-threatening health problems. But it can be prevented by eating a healthy, balanced diet. An essential fatty acid in particular has proven effective at lowering high cholesterol levels.
What is High Blood Cholesterol?. As the name suggests, High Blood Cholesterol refers to a condition characterized by a high level of cholesterol in the bloodstream. Cholesterol is a fatty substance found in the walls or membranes of cells. It is carried in the blood in small packages known as lipoproteins. These lipoproteins are of two types, namely Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and High Density Lipoprotein (HDL). The risk of developing heart problems increases with an increase in the level of LDL.. On the other hand, High Density Lipoprotein is considered good as it helps in carrying the cholesterol to the liver from where it can be easily removed. Hence, an increase in the level of HDL is favorable as it decreases the risk of potential heart problems and diseases.. When cholesterol builds up along the walls of arteries, it increases the probability of developing heart diseases. In case the accumulated cholesterol or plaque bursts, it releases the cholesterol and fat content in the blood. As ...
An unhealthy diet can cause high cholesterol. Sometimes high cholesterol runs in families. A low-cholesterol diet can help improve cholesterol levels. If the low-cholesterol diet does not work to lower bad cholesterol and increase good cholesterol, medications may be necessary.. Cholesterol is made in the liver and other cells and found in certain foods, such as food from meat and dairy products like eggs.. Your body needs some cholesterol in order to function properly. Cell walls etc. need cholesterol in order to produce hormones such as vitamin D and the bile acids that help to digest fat. But your body needs only a limited amount of cholesterol to meet its needs. When too much is present, health problems such as heart disease may develop.. Cholesterol travels through the blood attached to a protein - this cholesterol-protein package is called a lipoprotein. Lipoproteins are classified as high density, low density, or very low density, depending on how much protein there is.. Since cholesterol ...
50 APPENDIX A CHOLESTEROL HANDOUT High Blood Cholesterol What you need to know US Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health (June, 2005) Why Is Cholesterol Important? Your blood cholesterol level has a lot to do with your chances of getting heart disease. High blood cholesterol is one of the major risk factors for heart disease. A risk factor is a condition that increases your chance of getting a disease. In fact, the higher your blood cholesterol level, the greater your risk for developing heart disease or having a h eart attack. Heart disease is the number one killer of women and men in the United States. Each year, more than a million Americans have heart attacks, and about a half million people die from heart disease. How Does Cholesterol Cause Heart Disease? When there is too much cholesterol (a fat like substance) in your blood, it builds up in the walls of narrowed and blood flow to the heart is slowed down or b locked. The blood carries oxygen to the heart, ...
Hypercholesterolemia is a well-established risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) and for CAD mortality (1). Elevated serum cholesterol levels were also a risk factor for the development of heart failure (HF) in the Framingham study (2). Reduction in serum total cholesterol levels with 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) in patients with CAD has resulted in a reduction in new-onset HF (3). Because CAD is a dominant etiology of HF, it would be reasonable to expect that high cholesterol would also be a risk factor and have deleterious effects for mortality in patients with established HF.. We first reported in 1998 that lower total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglycerides were predictors of higher mortality in 222 patients with advanced HF (p , 0.001) (4). Lower total cholesterol was the single best predictor of mortality among 16 variables. These results were surprising, ...
In human physiology, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a fraction of total serum cholesterol concerned with the retrieval and transport of lipid to the liver and other needy tissues. Since the conventional route of cholesterol distribution is from the liver to tissues, this process is often referred to as reverse cholesterol transport. HDL has gained a positive reputation and is referred to as "good cholesterol" since its presence is associated with a reduction in cardiovascular disease and mortality.. HDL particles are usually created by the liver and are small collections of several proteins, enzymes, and some phospholipid. Since cholesterol does not readily mix with the watery environment of blood, these components interact to create an efficient transport medium that will not stick to the sides of vessels. The majority of HDL particles are released into the blood as discs with minimal lipid content. As they fill up with excess cholesterol from cells like macrophages, they transform into ...
For years, Ive been telling my patients that the medical establishments obsession with lowering cholesterol to prevent heart disease is causing more harm than good. If your doctor continues to get you worried about your high cholesterol levels, heres a bit of news for you... In fact, your high cholesterol may be protecting you from cancer.. Today, Ill explain the truth behind the myth of cholesterol, and show you how to achieve heart health naturally.. A new study published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology revealed that driving down cholesterol levels actually increases the risk of cancer.. Researchers at the Tufts University School of Medicine found that among people taking "statin" drugs - like Lipitor and Zocor - there was a higher rate of cancer. Although the link between the drugs and cancer wasnt clear, there was no doubt that drastically low cholesterol levels correlated to cancer risk.. The big drug makers continue to sell the notion that the best way to fight ...
Cholesterol is abundant in the plasma membranes of animal cells and is known to regulate a variety of membrane properties. Despite decades of research, the transmembrane distribution of cholesterol is still a matter of debate. Here we consider this outstanding issue through atomistic simulations of asymmetric lipid membranes, whose composition is largely consistent with eukaryotic plasma membranes. We show that the membrane dipole potential changes in a cholesterol-dependent manner. Remarkably, moving cholesterol from the extracellular to the cytosolic leaflet increases the dipole potential on the cytosolic side, and vice versa. Biologically this implies that by altering the dipole potential, cholesterol can provide a driving force for cholesterol molecules to favor the cytosolic leaflet, in order to compensate for the intramembrane field that arises from the resting potential ...
low cholesterol - MedHelps low cholesterol Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for low cholesterol. Find low cholesterol information, treatments for low cholesterol and low cholesterol symptoms.
Background. The major rate-limiting enzyme for de novo cholesterol synthesis is 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR). HMGCR is sterically inhibited by statins, the most commonly prescribed drugs for the prevention of cardiovascular events. Alternative splicing of HMGCR has been implicated in the control of cholesterol homeostasis. The aim of this study was to identify novel alternatively spliced variants of HMGCR with potential physiological importance.. Results. Bioinformatic analyses predicted three novel HMGCR transcripts containing an alternative exon 1 (HMGCR-1b, -1c, -1d) compared with the canonical transcript (HMGCR-1a). The open reading frame of the HMGCR-1b transcript potentially encodes 20 additional amino acids at the N-terminus, compared with HMGCR-1a. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to examine the mRNA levels of HMGCR in different tissues; HMGCR-1a was the most highly expressed variant in most tissues, with the ...
MYTH: The cholesterol in eggs can plug your arteries.. TRUTH: Eggs are a near perfect food. They provide the highest quality dietary protein and every mineral and vitamin (except vitamin C). The cholesterol content of the egg yolk has little or nothing to do with the cholesterol circulating through your arteries, and even less to do with the plaque that can build up in those arteries.. Cholesterol is a vital bodily substance, so vital that the less cholesterol you eat, the more your body makes internally. About 75% of the cholesterol in the human body is made by the body itself; only 25% or so comes from the diet. If you are a total vegetarian (vegan), then 100% of the cholesterol in your body is made internally. [See also "Cholesterol", "Cholesterol, Elevated", and "Atherosclerosis".]. Many years ago, there was an experiment conducted in a U.S. prison. Volunteers were fed 18 eggs per day (6 with each of three meals). At the end of the experiment, the average blood cholesterol levels of the ...
The LXRs (liver X receptors) (LXRα and LXRβ) are nuclear hormone receptors that are activated by oxysterols, endogenous oxidative metabolites of cholesterol. These receptors regulate an integrated network of genes that control whole body cholesterol and lipid homoeostasis. A brief overview of the mechanism of this regulation by LXRs in the liver, macrophage and intestine will be outlined, followed by data from our recent work demonstrating that LXRα is crucial in maintaining adrenal cholesterol homoeostasis. In the adrenal gland, oxysterols are formed as intermediates in the conversion of cholesterol into steroid hormones and can act as endogenous activators of LXR. We have found using both gain- and loss-of-function models that LXR acts to maintain free cholesterol below toxic levels in the adrenal gland, through the co-ordinated regulation of genes involved in cholesterol efflux [ABCA1 (ATP-binding-cassette transporter A1)], storage (sterol-regulatory-element-binding protein-1c and ...
For some people, being able to tell when they have high cholesterol is somewhat of an easy task since they tend to get chest pain quite often. The few that get chest pain, right away know its one of the most common high cholesterol symptoms, and at some point decide to pay their doctor a visit. For other people its hard knowing when they have high cholesterol since none of the symptoms are present. For the group that doesnt get any high cholesterol symptoms, its always a good idea to keep a healthy diet in order to stay on top of cholesterol control. In addition, another good way to stay on top of cholesterol control is to take multivitamins and be physically active. High cholesterol is responsible for causing a persons arteries to fill up with fat deposits, which in turn cause blood flow to diminish. Considering this, being physically active becomes a very good way to stay on top of cholesterol control. The best way for staying physically active is to always run whenever time is available, ...
Total Cholesterol. Total cholesterol is nothing more than the total amount of LDL-C (also know as simply LDL), HDL and VLDL. HDL is the healthy cholesterol and when it is high - which it should be - this will bring up the total cholesterol. When conventional doctors see total cholesterol over a mere 200 they jump on the statin bandwagon and frighten misinformed people with this totally fake number.. Recent research in the development of atherosclerosis and the role oxidation and inflammation play, has indicated that cholesterol in itself does not cause atherosclerosis. It is only when cholesterol bound to atherogenic lipoproteins becomes trapped within the arterial wall, that it becomes a part of the atherosclerotic process. It does this by causing an inflammatory response within the arterial wall and this damages the artery.. HDL. HDL cholesterol is thought to be the good cholesterol because it carries cholesterol particles away from heart, to the liver. In fact, it is merely recycling ...
You need to lower cholesterol levels as too much of it in the wrong places can trigger life-threatening problems. While cholesterol is important for performing several functions, elevated levels of cholesterol can cause serious problems. Your liver is responsible for making cholesterol. It aids in several important functions like aid in making several hormones in… Read More ...
Cholesterol is a fat-like substance in the blood. The bodys cells need cholesterol, but too much of it creates problems. Approximately two thirds of the bodys cholesterol is made and stored in the liver; the remaining cholesterol comes from diet, especially from meat, chicken, fish, and dairy products. A simple blood test measures cholesterol, and laboratory tests report 3 values: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, called LDL; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, called HDL; and total cholesterol, which is the sum of LDL and HDL.. LDL and HDL have very different functions, and problems occur when patients have either too much LDL or too little HDL. Think of LDL as the carriers taking cholesterol from the liver to cells. Once the cells have what they need, they refuse delivery. The carriers do not know what to do with the extra cholesterol, so they dump it in the bloodstream and return to the liver for another batch.. Now think of HDL as the clean-up crew; they travel the bloodstream hauling ...
When your cholesterol is too high, its usually due to lifestyle choices that need your attention: Diet, exercise, weight and the use of tobacco. And, while your gender, heredity and getting older can also affect cholesterol levels, you cant change those characteristics like you can your diet and exercise.. Your body produces all the cholesterol it needs to make hormones, vitamin D, bile acids and other substances it needs. Cholesterol is a waxy fat-like substance found in the walls of cells in all parts of the body. Cholesterol travels throughout your body in "packages" called lipoproteins. There are two kinds of lipoproteins:. -Low-density lipoprotein or LDL, is "bad" cholesterol because it increases your risk for heart disease by carrying cholesterol through your arteries. Ideally, your LDL should be below 100 mg/dL; 160 mg/dl is considered high.. -High-density lipoprotein or HDL, is "good" cholesterol because it carries cholesterol to your liver where it is removed from your body. A good ...
Of this "made" or "synthesized" cholesterol, our liver synthesizes about 20% of it and the remaining 80% is synthesized by other cells in our bodies. The synthesis of cholesterol is a complex four-step process (with 37 individual steps) that I will not cover here (though I will revisit), but I want to point out how tightly regulated this process is, with multiple feedback loops. In other words, the body works very hard (and very "smart") to ensure cellular cholesterol levels are within a pretty narrow band (the overall process is called cholesterol homeostasis). Excess cellular cholesterol will crystalize and cause cellular apoptosis (programmed cell death). Plasma cholesterol levels (which is what clinicians measure with standard cholesterol tests) often have little to do with cellular cholesterol, especially artery cholesterol, which is what we really care about. For example, when cholesterol intake is decreased, the body will synthesize more cholesterol and/or absorb (i.e., recycle) more ...
Zhang, J, Tu, K, Xu, Y, Pan, L, Wu, C, Chen, X, Wu, M, Cheng, Z and Chen, B (2013) Sphingomyelin in erythrocyte membranes increases the total cholesterol content of erythrocyte membranes in patients with acute coronary syndrome. ...
Function of cholesterol. Cholesterol is carried around the body by the blood flowing through your veins. If you eat too many high-fat foods LDL cholesterol builds up inside your veins where it sticks to the walls and prevents sufficient blood getting to your heart. The heart needs a strong blood flow to bring it the oxygen it needs to work properly.. HDL cholesterol is good because it carries bad cholesterol away from the body to be broken down in the liver or passed out as waste matter.. Risks linked to high cholesterol. High levels of bad LDL cholesterol block arteries and starve the heart, brain and body of oxygen. If left untreated this leads to hardening of the arteries making them brittle and prone to tears. A ruptured artery causes internal bleeding. If a piece of hard cholesterol breaks off from the artery wall it can cause a blood clot that completely blocks off the blood flow, causing sudden heart attack or stroke.. Roughly 50% of adult Australians have a blood cholesterol level above ...
Colorectal cancers (CRC) express high level of 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Reductase (HMGCR) protein suggesting an increased requirement for endogenous cholesterol biosynthetic pathway by growing cancer cells. Intake of statins, pharmacological inhibitors of HMGCR has been reported to exert varying responses in reducing the risk of CRC in humans, suggesting the existence of tumours with statin-sensitive and statin-resistant phenotypes. Normally intracellular cholesterol homeostasis involves several proteins including HMGCR and the membrane bound low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) which allows uptake of plasma cholesterol and increase intracellular cholesterol level. Therefore, HMGCR activity within a cell is highly dependent on the level of LDLR. Whether LDLR is playing a role in CRC growth and cholesterol homeostasis remains poorly understood. In the first study, it was observed that experimentally induced colonic tumours, express lower LDLR and higher HMGCR, SREBP2 (Sterol Regulatory Element
Lipid rafts are densely packed, floating asemblages of cholesterol, sphingolipid and mostly receptor proteins that are present within cell membranes and that function in membrane trafficking and signaling [30]. Among other things, lipid rafts play critical roles in viral entry, replication, assembly and budding, as well as in protein transport [31]. Cholesterol is a key component of lipid rafts that compartmentalize cellular processes. Further, changes in cellular cholesterol levels have been linked to alterations in the infection process of numerous viruses where the cholesterol dissipative agent, MβCD, has been used to evaluate cholesterol-enriched lipid rafts in virus infection. MβCD is a strictly surface-acting agent that rapidly removes cholesterol from the plasma membrane. Some non-enveloped viruses, such as members of Picornaviridae and Reoviridae, are assembled in the cytoplasm and released by cell lysis. However, evidence has been advanced showing that exit from infected cells can ...
High blood cholesterol levels (hypercholesterolemia) usually have little or nothing to do with the amount of cholesterol eaten. Cholesterol is a vital bodily substance. It is a constituent of bile; it helps to convert sunlight into vitamin D; it is used to produce sex hormones; and it is needed by every cell in the body to keep membranes waterproof and to assist in the transmission of nerve impulses. The brain requires large amounts of cholesterol. Cholesterol is so important that the less of it we eat, the more of it our bodies produce. On an omnivorous diet, from 70 to 80 per cent of the cholesterol in the body is endogenous (made within the body) and does not come from diet. Since cholesterol is found only in foods of animal origin, on a vegan (total vegetarian) diet, 100 per cent of the cholesterol in the body is endogenous.. Cholesterol also serves as an antioxidant of last resort - when the body lacks sufficient dietary antioxidants (e.g., vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium) to counter the ...
This post is dedicated to Mat Cooke who asked a great question!. Cholesterol targets for USA, Australia and UK. The world is obsessed with cholesterol levels. The UK and Australia work in mmol/l and the USA works in mg/dl. Americans are told to have a total cholesterol level below 200 mg/dl and LDL below 100 mg/dl. These guidelines, issued by the National Cholesterol Education Programme, actually call LDL cholesterol, which is ignorant as we will see shortly. Appendix 1 has the drug industry conflicts of interest of the committee members setting these USA targets, just in case you thought that they had been set independently, with your health interests at heart, rather than in conflict, with drug industry profits in mind.. Australians are told total blood cholesterol levels above 5.5 mmol/l "are an indication of a greatly increased risk of developing coronary heart disease".. Did you know that the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) has not issued cholesterol targets for the UK? ...
This post is dedicated to Mat Cooke who asked a great question!. Cholesterol targets for USA, Australia and UK. The world is obsessed with cholesterol levels. The UK and Australia work in mmol/l and the USA works in mg/dl. Americans are told to have a total cholesterol level below 200 mg/dl and LDL below 100 mg/dl. These guidelines, issued by the National Cholesterol Education Programme, actually call LDL cholesterol, which is ignorant as we will see shortly. Appendix 1 has the drug industry conflicts of interest of the committee members setting these USA targets, just in case you thought that they had been set independently, with your health interests at heart, rather than in conflict, with drug industry profits in mind.. Australians are told total blood cholesterol levels above 5.5 mmol/l "are an indication of a greatly increased risk of developing coronary heart disease".. Did you know that the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) has not issued cholesterol targets for the UK? ...
Cholesterol homeostasis plays an important role in the developing brain. Impaired cholesterol homeostasis has a deleterious effect on fetus. It is now recognized that the symptoms of several diseases due to disrupted cholesterol homeostasis are similar to those caused by ethanol, suggesting that ethanol may alter cholesterol homeostasis and therefore cause harmful effects. This study investigated if ethanol exerts its neurotoxicity through alteration in cholesterol homeostasis. The effect of ethanol on cholesterol synthesis in astrocytes was studied through thin layer chromatography analysis. The level of ABCA1 transported to the membrane was investigated and mRNA levels of ABCA1 and ApoE in astrocytes treated with ethanol were quantified. No effect on cholesterol synthesis was observed at all conditions examined in this study while both ABCA1 translocated to the plasma membrane and ABCA1 mRNA level were up-regulated by ethanol treatment. ApoE mRNA level was not affected significantly by ...
To start all…what does high-cholesterol even mean? Cholesterol can be a fat-like substance located in the blood stream that could clog the walls from the arterial bloodstream ships. The higher cholesterol within the blood stream stream, the more its for get to accumulate, hardening the arterial bloodstream ships. This makes it tougher for blood stream and so oxygen to offer the center. This produces an environment that puts people wealthy in cholesterol at risk of cardiac event and coronary disease. High blood stream cholesterol does not have apparent signs and signs and symptoms. Because of this it is really vital that you obtain your cholesterol examined regularly.. In the event you already may have high-cholesterol, doctors may have already suggested you medication that you are taking regularly to lessen high-cholesterol. You can still find some change in lifestyle you can try making to choose your prescription. If you are mindful of your high-cholesterol, but dont need medication yet, or ...
There are many steps that you can take to help lower your cholesterol levels. Prevention is the key to keeping high cholesterol levels at bay. However, if you already suffer from high cholesterol there are still many things you can do to lower it. Some measures may also help to raise good cholesterol, while lowering harmful cholesterol levels.Cholesterol-Lowering FoodsEating a well balanced diet is the most effective way to keep down cholesterol levels. Although there are several foods that are thought to ward off high cholesterol, the Mayo Clinic recommends adding three things to your diet: soluble fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acid and om...
Cholesterol is an essential component of both the peripheral and central nervous systems of mammals. Over the last decade, evidence has accumulated that disturbances in cholesterol metabolism are associated with the development of various neurological conditions. In addition to genetically defined defects in cholesterol synthesis, which will be covered in another review in this Thematic Series, defects in cholesterol metabolism (cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis) and intracellular transport (Niemann Pick Syndrome) lead to neurological disease. A subform of hereditary spastic paresis (type SPG5) and Huntingtons disease are neurological diseases with mutations in genes that are of importance for cholesterol metabolism. Neurodegeneration is generally associated with disturbances in cholesterol metabolism, and presence of the E4 isoform of the cholesterol transporter apolipoprotein E as well as hypercholesterolemia are important risk factors for development of Alzheimers disease. In the present review, we
Blood lipid levels may exhibit mild seasonal variation with a drop in the summer and total cholesterol level peaking in the winter. The variation can be up to 5 mg/dL Serum total and HDL-cholesterol can be measured in fasting or non-fasting individuals. There are only small clinically insignificant differences in these values when measured in the fasting or non-fasting state.. The total cholesterol can vary by 4 to 11 percent within an individual due to multiple factors including stress, minor illness and posture. Values may also vary between different laboratories, with data suggesting that a single measurement of serum cholesterol can vary as much as 14 percent. Therefore in an individual with "true" serum cholesterol concentration of 200 mg/dL the range of expected values is 172 to 228 mg/dL.. More than one measurement of total cholesterol should therefore be obtained when treatment considerations demand a precise determination. Measurement of serum HDL-C and triglycerides may demonstrate ...
When your doctor spouts off your cholesterol levels in terms of LDL and HDL, does your brain shut off? You know in the back of your mind that one is good and one is bad, but which is which? And why is one better that the other? In order to understand the difference between LDL and HDL cholesterol, you need a basic understanding of how cholesterol works with and affects your body chemistry.. First, cholesterol in itself - whether LDL or HDL cholesterol - is not a bad thing. Although cholesterol is most well known for the role it plays in contributing to heart disease, it is actually a substance needed by and naturally produced by the body. For instance, cholesterol is responsible for building cell membranes and for maintaining the fluidity of these membranes. Cholesterol also plays an important part in helping to metabolize fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamins A, D, E, and K. Scientists also say cholesterol helps in the production of bile, which, in turn, helps to digest fat. Although we hear so ...
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Cholesterol traditionally is bad for human health. This is because it contains low-density lipoprotein which is not good for our health and high-density lipoprotein which is good for our health. To retain good health, we should manage the optimum level of cholesterol. Most people are unaware of consuming foods containing a high level of bad cholesterol.. By changing your eating habits, you can effectively reduce your cholesterol level. You can choose to either avoid foods that increase your level of cholesterol or take foods which lower cholesterol level. Some foods produce polyunsaturated fats which lower LDL directly by blocking your body from absorbing them. Some foods, on the other hand, contain stanols and sterols which block cholesterol absorption by the body.. ...
Cholesterol will affect not only adults; you can observe high cholesterol levels in kids also.. The kids with excess cholesterol will face much health problems when they get older.. The excess cholesterol present in kids will lead to the development of plaque on the walls of the arteries, which will help to supply blood to heart and other organs.. Plaque which is obtained in kids with excess cholesterol makes the arteries narrow and creates severe heart problems by blocking the flow of blood to the heart. There are several causes for obtaining high cholesterol in kids.. ...
The incorporation and metabolism of both vesicle- and LDL (low-density lipoprotein)- derived [3H]cholesterol by LDL-receptor-negative fibroblasts were studied. Independent of the cholesterol source, free [3H]cholesterol was readily incorporated into the cells and was available for esterification. 7-Oxocholesterol stimulated both [3H]cholesterol incorporation, by increasing the exchange rate, and the subsequent esterification of it irrespective of the source of exogenous [3H]cholesterol. The 7-oxocholesterol-stimulated esterification of exogenously derived LDL free [3H]cholesterol was progesterone-sensitive and energy-requiring. ...
The percentage of adults aged 20 and over with high total cholesterol has declined substantially since 1999-2000. For 2009-2010, the percentage of adults with high total cholesterol was 13.4%, thus meeting the Healthy People 2010 target of 17% or less [Objective (12-14)]. Substantial and steady decreases in the prevalence of high total cholesterol among men aged 40 and over and women aged 60 and over during the 1999-2010 period resulted in achievement of the Healthy People 2010 objective in all sex and racial-and-ethnic groups and in all sex and age groups except for women aged 40 and over. For 2009-2010, only 11.9% of women compared with 31.4% of men aged 20 and over had low HDL cholesterol. The percentage with low HDL cholesterol is consistently higher in men than in women within each race and ethnicity group. Because women typically have higher HDL cholesterol levels than men, the percentage with low HDL cholesterol is expected to be lower in women than in men. The percentage of adult men ...
Acetylated low-density lipoprotein (acetyl-LDL), biologically labelled in the cholesterol moiety of cholesteryl oleate, was injected into control and oestrogen-treated rats. The serum clearance, the distribution among the various lipoproteins, the hepatic localization and the biliary secretion of the [3H]cholesterol moiety were determined at various times after injection. In order to monitor the intrahepatic metabolism of the cholesterol esters of acetyl-LDL in vivo, the liver was subdivided into parenchymal, endothelial and Kupffer cells by a low-temperature cell-isolation procedure. In both control and oestrogen-treated rats, acetyl-LDL is rapidly cleared from the circulation, mainly by the liver endothelial cells. Subsequently, the cholesterol esters are hydrolysed, and within 1 h after injection, about 60% of the cell- associated cholesterol is released. The [3H]cholesterol is mainly recovered in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) range of the serum of control rats, while low levels of ...
Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance, which is found in all the cells of our body. The body produces its own cholesterol, though we may believe, thanks to advertising, that it is only acquired through external foods. However, cholesterol is also found in some of the foods that we consume.. The body produces enough cholesterol needed to make hormones, vitamin D and compounds that help in digestion. The additional cholesterol that we ingest into our body through oily or fatty foods can be harmful.. So what is good and bad cholesterol?. Cholesterol travels through the body inside packages known as "lipoproteins". These contain lipids (fats) on the inside and proteins on the outside, hence the name lipoprotein.. Two kinds of lipoproteins are present in our body. These are LDL or Low Density Lipoprotein and HDL or High-Density Lipoprotein. We require healthy levels of both LDL and HDL for our bodies to function optimally.. LDL cholesterol is called the "bad" cholesterol, not because it is ...
However, a high level of cholesterol, also called hypercholesterolemia, is unhealthy and can lead to serious and even fatal health problems. Cholesterol tends to accumulate along artery walls and increases your risk of developing heart disease.. Usually, blood cholesterol levels should remain below 200 mg/dL (milligrams per deciliter of blood). It is considered borderline high when it is between 200 and 239 mg/dL, and when it increases to 240 or higher mg/dL it is regarded as high cholesterol.. Mostly, a test called lipoprotein profile is used to test the cholesterol levels in terms of total cholesterol (the sum of HDL, LDL and VLDL), HDL, LDL and triglycerides.. Of these, HDL, or high density lipoprotein, is considered good because it carries cholesterol to the liver where it can be broken down and reprocessed.. Although it is good for that reason, your body needs a certain amount of HDL to perform its function fully. Those with low levels of HDL are considered at higher risk of developing ...
In todays ever health-conscious environment, cholesterol is seen as a key element when taking an overview of an individuals health. A survey conducted by occupational health specialists Abermed at this years Offshore Europe Exhibition has shown regular levels of cholesterol in the oil and gas workforce. The survey, of over 350 attendees, revealed that workers associated with the offshore sector have, on average, a cholesterol level of 5.4. High cholesterol is mainly caused by high levels of lipids in the blood (a condition referred to as hyperlipidemia), and is known to increase considerably the chances of having a stroke or heart attack as arteries narrow. Although high cholesterol can be natural, a poor diet, high blood pressure and a low level of physical exercise are known to elevate this health hazard considerably.. Medical Director, Dr Alison Carroll, sees the results as being somewhat encouraging "These results are generally extremely heartening, especially considering that they were ...
As endothelial cells form the barrier between blood flow and surrounding tissue, many of their functions depend on mechanical integrity, in particular that of the plasma membrane. As component and organizer of the plasma membrane, cholesterol is a regulator of cellular mechanical properties. Disruption of cholesterol balance leads to impairment of endothelial functions and eventually to disease. The mechanical properties of the membrane are strongly affected by the cytoskeleton. As Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is a key mediator between the membrane and cytoskeleton, it also affects cellular biomechanical properties. Typically, PIP2 is concentrated in cholesterol-rich microdomains, such as caveolae and lipid rafts, which are particularly abundant in the endothelial plasma membrane. We investigated the connection between cholesterol and PIP2 by extracting membrane tethers from bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) at different cholesterol levels and PIP2 conditions. We provide strong
Garber AM, Garber AM, Garber AM, Garber AM. Low plasma cholesterol level increased the risk for death in men. ACP J Club. 1992;116:92. doi: 10.7326/ACPJC-1992-116-3-092. Download citation file:. ...
Background-National and international guidelines recommend fasting lipid panel measurement for risk stratification of patients for prevention of cardiovascular (CV) events. Yet, the prognostic value of fasting vs. non-fasting low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is uncertain. Methods and Results-Patients enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Survey III (NHANES-III), a nationally representative cross-sectional survey performed between 1988 to 1994, were stratified based on fasting status (≥8 hours or ,8 hours) and followed for a mean of 14.0 (±0.22) years. Propensity score matching was used to assemble fasting and non-fasting cohorts with similar baseline characteristics. The risk of outcomes as a function of LDL-C and fasting status was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and bootstrapping methods. The interaction between fasting status and LDL-C was assessed using Cox proportional hazards modeling. Primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Secondary ...
Bringing down cholesterol is imperative for everybody, including more youthful, moderately aged, and more established grown-ups, and individuals with or without coronary illness and/or stroke. Bringing down cholesterol is amazingly imperative key to diminishing the danger of coronary illness. Elevated amounts of LDL are connected with an expanded danger of coronary illness. Lower levels of LDL cholesterol mean a lower danger of coronary illness. Most specialists propose cholesterol levels ought to stay under 200 mg/dl. Bringing cholesterol is prescribed down to lead a more sound life and fundamental. Bringing down cholesterol is only one approach to take care of your heart. Bringing down cholesterol is really very basic, and doesnt oblige surgery or medications with solid way of life, actually bringing down cholesterol is simple since it aides standardize your cholesterol, normally and securely. One of the most straightforward approaches to beginning bringing cholesterol is down to farthest ...
In this issue of the Journal, Qi et al. (1) describe a potentially important advance in cardiovascular biomarker testing related to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), the so called "good cholesterol." The story of how cholesterol is causally related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) started more than 100 years ago with the pioneering studies by N. Anitschkow, who first showed that feeding rabbits a high-cholesterol diet induced atherosclerosis (2). Later John Gofman, MD, PhD, in the 1950s, found by analytical ultracentrifugation that cholesterol on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was a positive risk factor for CVD, whereas cholesterol on HDL was inversely related to CVD risk (3). This began the modern era of lipoprotein research and was the genesis for measurement of the cholesterol content of HDL (HDL-C) as the main metric for HDL. Subsequently, diagnostic testing for HDL-C has become so ingrained in medical practice that it is often incorrectly viewed as being synonymous with ...
MEDICAL ANIMATION TRANSCRIPT: If you or someone you know has been diagnosed with high cholesterol, its important to understand what cholesterol is and why its important to keep it under control. Cholesterol is a fat-like substance made by your liver and also comes from foods you intake that is then packaged into particles called lipoproteins. Your body needs cholesterol to make hormones, vitamin D, and a substance that helps you digest food, called bile. This video discusses two types of lipoproteins that carry cholesterol-- low density lipid protein, or LDL cholesterol, also known as bad cholesterol, and high density lipoprotein, or HDL cholesterol, also known as good cholesterol. LDL travels through your bloodstream, delivering cholesterol to the cells that need it. If your body has too much LDL, it can build up in the walls of your arteries. LDL and other substances in your artery wall form a fatty deposit called plaque. Over time, plaque can narrow the artery and reduce blood flow. LDL ...
The use of lipid lowering agents for people at risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality has already been proved.1 However, these agents are costly and there has been much discussion about the effectiveness of dietary modification to reduce cholesterol concentrations. A previous review showed that dietary changes reduced cholesterol concentrations by 10-15%, but these studies took place in controlled situations where dietary compliance could be almost guaranteed.2 These results cannot be translated to real life situations where compliance is an issue. The study by Tang et al is a well conducted review. They included only trials of people who lived in the community, and the results can therefore be translated into practice. The authors were not able to find any unpublished studies. Of note is the substantial degree of heterogeneity among the effects produced in different studies, which may be caused by differences in the intensity and type of intervention, characteristics of the study ...
Almond is packed with monounsaturated fats, polyunsaturated fats, and fibers, all of which can reduce the bad LDL cholesterol and increase the good one.. This is especially beneficial for your heart health. Almonds can be used with yogurt, cereals, or for topping salads. It is recommended to eat a handful of almonds on a daily basis.. Other nuts and seeds like flaxseeds and walnuts can also effectively reduce your blood cholesterol levels.. High cholesterol can affect all people, regardless of their age. There are some factors that can increase your risk of high cholesterol.. The most common ones include excessive smoking, obesity, poor diet, large waist circumference, lack of exercise, diabetes, and hypothyroidism.. ...
It is important to know your levels of cholesterol because there are no outward symptoms to alert you of your condition. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL), also known as the "bad" cholesterol, contributes to hypercholesterolemia and can lead to narrowing of the arteries especially with the presence of inflammation. High-density lipoprotein (HDL), or "good" cholesterol, helps rid the body of bad cholesterol by cleaning up the excess LDL and sending it to the liver, where it is broken down. Your total cholesterol levels should be less than 200 mg/dl, with your LDL cholesterol levels ideally below 100mg/dl and HDL cholesterol levels above 60 mg/dl to give you protection from heart disease.. Beginning with an initial consultation, one of our Tao of Wellness doctors will evaluate both your current cholesterol levels and the physical and lifestyle factors that may have led your body to its current state of imbalance. Chinese medicine is a holistic practice that considers all aspects of your history in ...
Many studies have demonstrated that progression of atherosclerosis can be suppressed by reduction of serum cholesterol levels. In these studies, however, histopathological changes of the atherosclerotic lesions have not been sufficiently examined. Results of our study show that a reduction of serum cholesterol levels due to pravastatin treatment altered the lesional composition of atherosclerotic plaques in WHHL rabbits.. In the present study we showed that a long-term reduction of serum cholesterol levels led to the following histopathological changes in the atherosclerotic plaques: (1) a decrease in the area of macrophages plus extracellular lipid deposits, (2) an increase in collagen area, (3) a suppression of the decrease in smooth muscle cell area with lesion progress, and (4) an increase in the ratio of collagen area to the area of extracellular lipid deposits (Tables 3⇑ and 5⇑).. In recent human studies, several groups reported on acute clinical coronary events. Becker and coworkers ...
One of the most important things to understand before beginning a medication regimen is whether or not medications, like statins, are entirely necessary. Natural treatments often get unfair criticism from the medical community and finding accurate information about treatment alternatives can be a daunting task. There are a lot of sources out there that are not credible and many more that are designed to create fear on the part of the patient. Statins are not the only solution to elevated cholesterol. Cholesterol can often be brought into a healthy range without medications. It is also true that people who are at a real risk for heart attack or stroke can benefit from drug therapy.. With all of the discussion about cholesterol medications and different drug efficacy trials in the news, some people might be wondering how to avoid taking some of these medications. It is absolutely crucial to start with accurate information and cholesterol tests can often be misleading. Rather than having a total ...
The Liver produces about most of the daily cholesterol needed but not all. The rest comes from diet. Even though your body makes ¾ of its own cholesterol, it needs the ingredients to do it, right? Vegetables (as well as fruits, nuts and whole grains) do not contain cholesterol. For a food item to have dietary cholesterol, it would need to come from an animal or contain a product from an animal. Only the cell membranes of animal tissue contain cholesterol. Cell membranes of plants are composed of fiber, not cholesterol. When you see "no cholesterol" on a package of fruit, vegetables, grains, or even vegetable oil, dont believe that the manufacturer has done you a favor by removing the cholesterol. There was no cholesterol in these foods to begin with. Cholesterol is produced in the liver by combining fats, proteins and carbohydrates in a 25-step process. ...
Cholesterol. It is a word we often hear today when talking about leading a healthy lifestyle. For many people, the word evokes concern as they recall the warnings from their physicians that they need to watch what they eat since their cholesterol levels are a bit elevated. At William Osler Health Centre the Medical Risk Management Clinic staff help people understand what cholesterol is and how they can control it to prevent diseases caused by elevated or high levels of cholesterol. Cholesterol is a waxy substance made naturally in the body. Cholesterol helps form or repair cell membranes, some hormones, and other tissues.. Too much cholesterol in your blood can cause hardening of the arteries and you run the risk of heart attacks or stroke. There are two different types of Cholesterol. The "bad" cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is essential for cell repair and growth. But too much LDL in the blood is associated with the development of atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) and ...
Avoiding cholesterol in diet. This is probably and issue that many high cholesterol culprits are grappling with. You might be so much geared at reducing your LDL cholesterol in a fortnight. Be warned that doing this by eliminating cholesterol rich products can easily deprive your system of some very important nutrients. Make sure that whichever approach you adopt to take in it works well with your system. It is very advisable that incase of totally eliminating the high cholesterol food substances from your diet you can go for the option of taking foods that help lower the cholesterol levels.. Understand that your body produces between 1500 and 1800 mili grams of cholesterol each day. Majority of this is ideally manufactured by the liver and some smaller percentages within the small intestines and some selected body cells. An average American household diet is made up of upto 800 mg of cholesterol. Research has also shown that by eliminating the high cholesterol foods just forces the body to ...
Symptoms of hypocholesterolemia - Is LDL 43 considered hypocholesterolemia? No. If this is your "native" LDL (your LDL without taking any treatment) this is considered lucky.
The type of surgery the patients received is now only available to a few patients at high risk for heart attack and who cannot tolerate cholesterol lowering medications. The study commenced in 1975. Follow up 25 years later showed that lowering cholesterol added one more year of life for the study participants.. Anti-cholesterol medications called statins are given to lower bad LDL cholesterol levels and are the treatment of choice for preventing heart disease, peripheral vascular disease and for preventing heart attack. Henry Buchwald, M.D., Ph.D., bariatric surgeon at the University of Minnesota Medical School, and lead investigator says the study..."contributes to a long path of findings from the POSCH trial, that is, high levels of LDL cholesterol are detrimental to your health." The scientists say the study finding is the only trial that looked at the life-extending benefits of lowering cholesterol over a twenty-five year span. They also say it is the only randomized controlled trial that ...
People get cholesterol in two ways according to the American Heart Association. The body - mainly the liver - produces varying amounts, usually about 1,000 milligrams a day. Foods also can contain cholesterol. Foods from animals (especially egg yolks, meat, poultry, shellfish and whole- and reduced-fat milk and dairy products) contain it. Foods from plants (fruits, vegetables, grains, nuts and seeds) dont contain cholesterol. Typically the body makes all the cholesterol it needs, so people dont need to consume it. Saturated fatty acids are the main culprit in raising blood cholesterol, which increases your risk of heart disease. Trans fats also raise blood cholesterol. But dietary cholesterol also plays a part. The average American man consumes about 337 milligrams of cholesterol a day; the average woman, 217 milligrams. Some of the excess dietary cholesterol is removed from the body through the liver. Still, the American Heart Association recommends that you limit your average daily ...
The number one killer in America is heart disease. And, two huge health risks that can lead to serious heart conditions are high blood pressure and high cholesterol. But, these can be prevented. Lets start with high cholesterol. The American Heart Association says that one in five Americans have too high a cholesterol level. But first, just what is cholesterol? Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance called a lipid that is found inside cells and blood. It is produced naturally in the liver, but some of the bad cholesterol comes from the food we eat, mainly in animal fats. While too much cholesterol can be harmful, a certain amount is necessary for bodily functions, such as making cell walls and acting as a building block to produce various hormones, bile acids, and Vitamin D. Having too much cholesterol can block blood flow, resulting in a thickening and hardening of artery walls, a disorder called arteriosclerosis. Since this also narrows the arteries, blood flow can be slowed down, or ...
We investigated the degree of genetic association between insulin resistance (IR) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and abnormalities in lipid metabolism in 42 patients. IR was assessed by fasting insulin test (FI), McAuley (McA), HOMA and QUICKI methods. IR was detected in 34 (81%) patients by FI, McA and in 39 (93%) patients by HOMA and QUICKI. 26 (62%) patients had family history of DM and 23 (89%) of them displayed IR by FI & McA. 24 of them (92%) displayed IR by HOMA and QUICKI. Our results suggest that association between the family history of DM and IR were statistically significant by chi-square test (P,0.05). Further, 29 (69%) patients had elevated total cholesterol levels. Association between elevated total cholesterol and IR as assessed by FI test was also statistically significant (x2=4.6; p,0.05). Results of our study indicate the statistically significant genetic association of IR with abnormal cholesterol metabolism and family history of DM ...
Low cholesterol levels in midlife appear to translate into lower mortality well into old age, according to a study from the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.
Non-HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol are the not the same. Non-HDL cholesterol is tested by subtracting HDL cholesterol from total cholesterol, but it is not equal to LDL cholesterol. Non-HDL...
What Is a Normal Cholesterol Count?. Your body produces all the cholesterol it needs. However, you get cholesterol from some of the foods in your diet as well. A cholesterol screening measures the amount of cholesterol and other lipids in your blood. Two primary types of cholesterol circulate in your blood; one is ...
Cholesterol is a fat like substance called a sterol. It is hard and waxy and melts at 149ºC (300ºF). Our body manufactures approximately one gram of cholesterol per day; this is mainly in the liver, but also occurs in the intestines, adrenal glands, ovaries and testes. In fact every cell of our body has the capacity to manufacture cholesterol if needed. We also obtain cholesterol in our diet by eating animal foods such as eggs, meat and dairy products. However, 80% of the cholesterol in our body is manufactured in the liver. Our body makes cholesterol out of a molecule called acetyl Co A; this is derived from the breakdown of sugars, fats and protein. Basically any calories in excess of our bodys needs can be turned into cholesterol.. Cholesterol is not very soluble in water; therefore it must be carried around our bloodstream in various transport molecules. Certain proteins wrap around the cholesterol molecules to form what are called lipoproteins.. Two common forms of lipoproteins are Low ...
We examined whether postprandial (PP) chylomicrons (CMs) can serve as vehicles for transporting cholesterol from endogenous cholesterol-rich lipoprotein (LDL+HDL) fractions and cell membranes to the liver via lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activities. During incubation of fresh fasting and PP plasma containing [(3)H]cholesteryl ester (CE)-labeled LDL+HDL, both CMs and VLDL served as acceptors of [(3)H]CE or cholesterol from LDL+HDL. The presence of CMs in PP plasma suppressed the ability of VLDL to accept [(3)H]CE from LDL+HDL. In reconstituted plasma containing an equivalent amount of triglycerides from isolated VLDL or CMs, a CM particle was about 40 times more potent than a VLDL particle in accepting [(3)H]CE or cholesterol from LDL+HDLs. When incubated with red blood cells (RBCs) as a source for cell membrane cholesterol, the cholesterol content of CMs, VLDL, LDL, and HDL in PP plasma increased by 485%, 74%, 13%, and 30%, ...
A soft, waxy substance that is present in all parts of the body including the nervous system, skin, muscle, liver, intestines, and heart. It is made by the body and obtained from animal products in the diet. Cholesterol is found in eggs, dairy products, meat, poultry, fish, and shellfish. Foods of plant origin (vegetables, fruits, grains, cereals, nuts, and seeds) contain no cholesterol. Fat content is not a good measurement of cholesterol content. For example, liver and other organ meats are low in fat but very high in cholesterol. Excessive cholesterol contributes to atherosclerosis and subsequent heart disease. The risk of developing heart disease or atherosclerosis increases as the level of blood cholesterol increases.
An elevated cholesterol level (greater than 240 mg per dL) is an established risk factor for coronary artery disease; however, 60 percent of all deaths from coronary heart disease occur among persons with lower cholesterol levels. Since 1991, the National Cholesterol Education Panel (NCEP) has encouraged physicians to screen patients for hyperlipidemia and provide dietary counseling in order to reduce the risk for heart disease. The NCEP recommends that physicians inform patients of their cholesterol test results in a clear, understandable manner and encourage all patients, regardless of concurrent risk factors, to reduce their fat intake. Previous studies have shown that patients who were screened for high blood cholesterol and were informed of their cholesterol status were more motivated to modify other cardiac risk factors and to reduce their serum cholesterol levels. Murdoch and Wilt surveyed patients within a year of their cholesterol measurement to assess compliance with the NCEP ...
Limited research has been available to support a link between elevated cholesterol concentrations and risk of ischaemic stroke. The study by Collins et al provides nurses with definitive evidence that supports the use of statins to reduce stroke in high risk populations. Reduced risk of stroke was reported within just 2 years of simvastatin use. The resultant reduction in low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations of 1.0 mmol/l was associated with a 21% risk reduction in stroke. These reductions were reported in patients with and without elevated LDL cholesterol concentrations at baseline and with overall medication adherence rates of 85%.. High risk patients are often confused when they are prescribed statins by consultants if their cholesterol concentrations are known to be within normal range and if they have remained untreated by family physicians. When patients are not confident about the need for a prescribed medication or are concerned about side effects, there is a risk of ...
Cholesterol[edit]. A 2002 meta-analysis that included five double-blind trials examining the short-term (2-8 weeks) effects of ... Agerholm-Larsen L, Bell ML, Grunwald GK, Astrup A (2002). "The effect of a probiotic milk product on plasma cholesterol: a meta ... in total cholesterol concentration, and a decrease of 7.7 mg/dl (0.2 mmol/l) (5% decrease) in serum LDL concentration.[89] ... a yogurt with probiotic strains on serum cholesterol levels found little effect of 8.5 mg/dl (0.22 mmol/l) (4% decrease) ...
Cholesterol biodegradation[edit]. Many synthetic steroidic compounds like some sexual hormones frequently appear in municipal ... Very recently, the catabolism of cholesterol has acquired a high relevance because it is involved in the infectivity of the ... and it has been demonstrated that novel enzyme architectures have evolved to bind and modify steroid compounds like cholesterol ... "Pathogen roid rage: Cholesterol utilization by Mycobacterium tuberculosis". Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 49 (4): 269-93. doi ...
Triglyceride and cholesterol[edit]. Chylothorax (fluid from lymph vessels leaking into the pleural cavity) may be identified by ... determining triglyceride and cholesterol levels, which are relatively high in lymph. A triglyceride level over 110 mg/dl and ...
"Psyllium-enriched cereals lower blood total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, but not HDL cholesterol, in hypercholesterolemic ... Use of psyllium in the diet for three weeks or longer lowers blood cholesterol levels in people with elevated cholesterol,[2][3 ... fiber on LDL cholesterol and alternative lipid targets, non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B: a systematic review and meta- ... High blood cholesterol[edit]. In 1998, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved a health claim on food labels for dietary ...
When the liver can no longer produce cholesterol, levels of cholesterol in the blood will fall. Cholesterol synthesis appears ... National Cholesterol Education Program (2001). Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel ... Inhibiting cholesterol synthesis[edit]. By inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase, statins block the pathway for synthesizing cholesterol ... They have less effect than the fibrates or niacin in reducing triglycerides and raising HDL-cholesterol ("good cholesterol").[ ...
Cholesterol and cardiovascular disease[edit]. The initial connection between arteriosclerosis and dietary cholesterol was made ... "Cholesterol". Irish Heart Foundation. Retrieved 24 July 2017.. *^ U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health ... "Dietary fats, oils and cholesterol". Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada. Retrieved 25 July 2017.. ... evidence that dietary saturated fats increased serum total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol and increased risk of cardiovascular ...
Cholesterol[edit]. Preliminary human and animal studies have demonstrated the efficacy of some strains of lactic acid bacteria ... Agerholm-Larsen L, Bell ML, Grunwald GK, Astrup A (2002). "The effect of a probiotic milk product on plasma cholesterol: a meta ... in total cholesterol concentration, and a decrease of 7.7 mg/dL (0.2 mmol/L) (5% decrease) in serum LDL concentration.[90] ... effects of a yogurt with probiotic strains on serum cholesterol levels found a minor change of 8.5 mg/dL (0.22 mmol/L) (4% ...
Cholesterol. *Pregnanes: 3α-Dihydroprogesterone. *3β-Dihydroprogesterone. *5α-Dihydrocorticosterone. *5α-Dihydroprogesterone ...
Cholesterol. 210 mg. Energy from sandwich. 570 kcal (2,400 kJ). This information is effective as of March 2013. ...
... cholesterol) or low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL, "good" cholesterol) cholesterol are all associated with increased ... indicators measuring cholesterol such as high total/HDL cholesterol ratio are more predictive than total serum cholesterol.[57] ... "Lower your cholesterol". National Health Service. Retrieved 2012-05-03.. *^ "Nutrition Facts at a Glance - Nutrients: Saturated ... "Cholesterol". Irish Heart Foundation. Retrieved 2011-02-28.. *^ U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health ...
The TenderCrisp sandwich was first advertised using the Subservient Chicken character in a commercial called The Subservient Chicken Vest. The commercial was the first in a series of ads for the sandwich utilizing a line of viral marketing promotions by Crispin Porter + Bogusky for Burger King. In the ad, a man is sitting in his living room directs a person in a chicken suit to behave in any way he wants. The tag line was "Chicken the way you like it." After the success of the Subservient Chicken, Burger King used the character in several subsequent advertising campaigns. In 2004, Burger King introduced the TenderCrisp Bacon Cheddar Ranch. The sandwich was promoted by a nationwide advertising campaign called Fantasy Ranch. The spot featured recording artist Darius Rucker (of Hootie and the Blowfish) singing a jingle to a tune reminiscent of "Big Rock Candy Mountain." The Chicken can be seen cavorting with some of the female dancers, including Vida Guerra, Brooke Burke and the Dallas Cowboys ...
Cholesterol. *Pregnanes: 3α-Dihydroprogesterone. *3β-Dihydroprogesterone. *5α-Dihydrocorticosterone. *5α-Dihydroprogesterone ...
Cholesterol None Cardiovascular Disease Macrominerals Calcium Osteoporosis, tetany, carpopedal spasm, laryngospasm, cardiac ...
To assay conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone, radiolabeled cholesterol has been used.[16] Pregnenolone product can be ... Pregnenolone is synthesized from cholesterol.[14] This conversion involves hydroxylation of the side chain at the C20 and C22 ... Hanukoglu I, Jefcoate CR (1980). "Pregnenolone separation from cholesterol using Sephadex LH-20 mini-columns". Journal of ... There are two intermediates in the transformation of cholesterol into pregnenolone, 22R-hydroxycholesterol and 20α,22R- ...
The placenta produces pregnenolone and progesterone from circulating cholesterol.[4] Pregnenolone is taken up by the fetal ...
... is produced in the body from cholesterol through a series of reactions and intermediates.[10] The major pathway ... Estradiol, like other steroid hormones, is derived from cholesterol. After side chain cleavage and using the Δ5 or the Δ4- ... a partial synthesis of estradiol from cholesterol was developed by Inhoffen and Hohlweg in 1940, and a total synthesis was ...
Neuroactive steroids (e.g., allopregnanolone, cholesterol). *Niacin. *Nicotinamide (niacinamide). *Nonbenzodiazepines (e.g., β- ...
... is synthesized from cholesterol. Synthesis takes place in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex. (The name ... It also stimulates the main rate-limiting step in cortisol synthesis, in which cholesterol is converted to pregnenolone and ... ACTH increases the concentration of cholesterol in the inner mitochondrial membrane, via regulation of the steroidogenic acute ...
Cholesterol amounts ranged from 252 to 284 mg/100 grams.[18] ...
The following table gives the fatty acid, vitamin E and cholesterol composition of some common dietary fats.[22][23] ... The triglycerides are coated with cholesterol and protein (protein coat) into a compound called a chylomicron. ... and cholesterol esters. In any of these forms, fatty acids are both important dietary sources of fuel for animals and they are ...
An egg white omelette is a variation which omits the yolks to remove fat and cholesterol, which reside exclusively in the yolk ...
Cholesterol. 0 mg. Link to Full Nutrient Report of USDA Database entry ...
... by the synthesis of androstenedione from cholesterol. Androstenedione is a substance of weak androgenic activity which serves ...
Neuroactive steroids (e.g., allopregnanolone, cholesterol). *Niacin. *Nicotinamide (niacinamide). *Nonbenzodiazepines (e.g., β- ...
"Cholesterol. 2013: 1-10. doi:10.1155/2013/792090. PMC 3814057. PMID 24222847.. ...
Cholesterol effluxes from cells as free cholesterol and is transported in HDL as esterified cholesterol. LCAT is the enzyme ... Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters in lipoproteins. Symptoms of the familial ... cholesterol in HDL particles. However, there is only a partial deficiency because the enzyme remains active on the cholesterol ... high plasma unesterified cholesterol in HDL particles, and low cholesterol ester in HDL particles but normal levels in low- ...
2002) Cholesterol-dependent gamma-secretase activity in buoyant cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains. Neurobiol Dis 9:11-23, ... Effect of cholesterol on amyloidogenic β- and γ-secretase cleavage. A, Effect of cholesterol on β-secretase BACE1. Dark-gray ... 4A) as shown for cholesterol (cholesterol: 119.9% ± 1.4, p ≤ 0.001). Also in purified membranes of mouse brains, β-sitosterol ... Beside the direct effect of cholesterol on β-secretase activity, RT-PCR analysis of SH-SY5Y wt cells incubated with cholesterol ...
Histological diagnosis of cholesterol crystal emboli was based on gastric biopsy in nine patients, duodenal biopsy in four, ... OBJECTIVES: Cholesterol crystal embolism is a severe complication of atherosclerosis responsible for nonspecific cutaneous, ... CONCLUSIONS: This cohort suggests that upper GI endoscopy may be helpful in demonstrating the presence of cholesterol crystal ... Outcome after the diagnosis of cholesterol crystal embolism was poor, with all patients requiring permanent hemodlalysis. Death ...
Total serum cholesterol (A), VLDL+IDL cholesterol (B), LDL cholesterol (C), and HDL cholesterol (D) in hamsters fed chow, chow ... Ratio of HDL to LDL cholesterol (HDL:LDL) in hamsters fed chow, chow + 0.12% (wt:wt) cholesterol, or the same cholesterol- ... 3A). Addition of a modest amount of dietary cholesterol (0.12% cholesterol) alone did not increase serum cholesterol. However, ... Ezetimibe is a potent cholesterol absorption inhibitor that lowers LDL cholesterol and raises HDL cholesterol in ...
Find up-to-date facts about high cholesterol in the United States. ... High Cholesterol in the United States. *In 2015-2016, more than 12% of adults age 20 and older had total cholesterol higher ... High cholesterol has no symptoms, so many people dont know that their cholesterol is too high. A simple blood test can check ... High Total Cholesterol Levels Vary by Race, Ethnicity, and Sex. The chart below shows the prevalence of high total cholesterol ...
Questionable effects of cholesterol lowering by dietary changes. Benecol may possibly lower serum cholesterol, but a high ... Questionable effects of cholesterol lowering by dietary changes. News Cholesterol lowering margarine launched in United Kingdom ... cholesterol lowering. Lack of dose-response is a strong argument against. causality indicating that a high serum cholesterol is ... That the serum cholesterol concentration was unchanged at follow-up in the. only successful dietary trial (2) is in accord with ...
cholesterol may be right, but their data allow other explanations to their. findings (1). From table 2 it appears that intake ... total cholesterol (2), and that smoking is associated with a small, but. significant higher concentration of these lipids (3). ... lower the cholesterol concentration, there is no evidence either that this. effect may influence the risk of cardiovascular ... The higher cholesterol. concentration of the physically inactive, smoking and stressed individual. may just be an innocent ...
... and 63 million more have borderline high cholesterol. Here youll find in-depth cholesterol information including cholesterol- ... Could Too Much Good HDL Cholesterol Be Bad for You? Very high blood levels of the "good" HDL cholesterol may actually be bad ... Cholesterol Health Check. High cholesterol, also known as hypercholesterolemia, is a major risk factor for heart disease and ... Abnormal levels of LDL cholesterol or HDL cholesterol are treated with a low-fat diet, exercise, and medications such as ...
... how high cholesterol increases this risk, and how to lower your cholesterol. ... Is High Cholesterol Putting Your Health at Risk?. Get Started Answer a few questions, and youll get:. *Information about how ... NIH: "Your Guide to Lowering Your Cholesterol with TLC.". Siri-Tarino, PW. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, March 2010. ...
The EGML group had lower total cholesterol after 10 weeks compared to the placebo group (p < 0.05). EGML and GCE had no effect ... Ten weeks of EGML or GCE supplementation did not promote weight-loss or lower total cholesterol in overweight individuals ... At baseline and after 10 weeks, body composition, plasma cholesterol and diet were assessed. Blood analysis was also conducted ... to promote weight-loss and lower plasma cholesterol. Secondly to examine whether these supplements have any beneficial effect ...
... condition in which affected members of a family have high levels of LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol) in their blood. ... Cholesterol: what is your target?. Your cholesterol target levels can differ from other peoples cholesterol goals, because ... Cholesterol: treatments for high cholesterol. If you have high cholesterol, your doctor may prescribe lipid-lowering medicines ... Cholesterol tests. Abnormally high cholesterol levels may not give you any symptoms, so a blood test is the best way to check ...
Serum total cholesterol. *Percent of adults aged 20 and over with high serum total cholesterol (greater than or equal to 240 mg ... Trends in Apolipoprotein B, Non-high-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, and Low-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol for Adults Aged ... Mean serum total cholesterol level for adults aged 20 and over: 191 mg/dL (2013-2016) ... Abnormal Cholesterol in Children and Adolescents in the United States: 2011-2014 ...
But high cholesterol is a risk factor for heart disease, which has its roots in childhood. ... Most parents probably dont think about what cholesterol means for their kids. ... What Is Cholesterol?. Cholesterol is a waxy substance made by the liver. Its one of the lipids, or fats, the body makes and is ... What Causes High Cholesterol?. Three major things contribute to high cholesterol levels:. *diet: a diet high in fats, ...
Know the types (HDL and LDL), and how to lower high cholesterol. ... Your body needs some cholesterol, but too much can raise your ... Dietary Fat and Cholesterol (Childrens Hospital Boston) Also in Spanish * What Is Cholesterol? (Nemours Foundation) Also in ... Cholesterol and lifestyle (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Cholesterol testing and results (Medical Encyclopedia) Also ... Blood Cholesterol (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute) Also in Spanish * Control Your Cholesterol: Protect Yourself from ...
... keep our cholesterol intake down, and try to work out. It shouldnt really come as a surprise then that I, since I am a public ...
Too much cholesterol puts you at risk for heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death. ... High cholesterol has no signs or symptoms, so the only way to know if you have it is to get your cholesterol checked. Talk to ... Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has high cholesterol.1 Too much cholesterol puts you at risk for heart disease and stroke, two ... CDC Report on Cholesterol Management. A 2015 CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) studied the number of Americans ...
Understanding what cholesterol is and how to manage it is important for the heart. Raise awareness with these messages and ... Cholesterol Monster. The "cholesterol monster" illustrations below are intended to highlight the nature of high cholesterol in ... Cholesterol: Fact or Fiction?external icon. Share this quiz to test your audiences cholesterol smarts and encourage them to ... Cholesterol: What is it, and why is it important? Learn why managing cholesterol is important for the #heart and #brain. http ...
In your recent article on cholesterol (17 July, p 5), William Neal of West Virginia University is reported as suggesting that ... In your recent article on cholesterol (17 July, p 5), William Neal of West Virginia University is reported as suggesting that ... Am I right to be confused? As a 78-year-old with a blood cholesterol level that was … ... Deutsch refers to studies that show older people with high blood cholesterol live longer than those with low blood cholesterol. ...
Cholesterol Communications Kit: Health professionals can share these social media messages, graphics, and resources to educate ... Patient Education Handouts: These fact sheets and handouts can help patients understand how high cholesterol affects their ... These materials can help health professionals develop and support programs for preventing and managing high cholesterol. ... their audiences about cholesterol and cardiovascular disease prevention.. * ...
Wrong cholesterol. 11 August 1990 A SIMPLE cholesterol test may not be able to predict the risk of heart. disease as accurately ... the levels of the so-called good fraction of blood cholesterol, high-density. lipoprotein, in the blood are more important ... Until now, researchers believed that the level of total cholesterol. was what mattered, and that HDL levels were only ...
Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your browser. For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov ...
Cholesterol - Questions to Ask Your Doctor- (PDF) Many people have questions for their doctors about tests, drug treatments, ...
What Is Cholesterol? Lowering your cholesterol may slow, reduce, or even stop the buildup of plaque in your arteries. It also ... Get Your Cholesterol Checked High cholesterol can cause heart disease or a heart attack. Talk to your doctor about how often ... High Blood Cholesterol--What You Need to Know- (PDF) Find out what your cholesterol numbers mean and what treatment your doctor ... Cholesterol IQ Quiz Take this short quiz to learn how diet, physical activity, smoking and other factors impact the bodys ...
If diet and exercise dont reduce your cholesterol levels enough, you may need to take medicine. Learn about the different ... What is cholesterol?. Your body needs some cholesterol to work properly. But if you have too much in your blood, it can stick ... Your LDL (bad) cholesterol level is 190 mg/dL or higher. *You are 40-75 years old, you have diabetes, and your LDL cholesterol ... Cholesterol Medications (American Heart Association) * Cholesterol Medications: Consider the Options (Mayo Foundation for ...
... is a 3β-sterol (CHEBI:35348) cholesterol (CHEBI:16113) is a C27-steroid (CHEBI:131619) cholesterol ( ... cholesterol (CHEBI:16113) has role mouse metabolite (CHEBI:75771) cholesterol (CHEBI:16113) is a 3β-hydroxy-Δ5-steroid (CHEBI: ... cholesterol (CHEBI:16113) has role Daphnia galeata metabolite (CHEBI:83038) cholesterol (CHEBI:16113) has role algal metabolite ... cholesterol sulfate (CHEBI:41321) has functional parent cholesterol (CHEBI:16113). cholesteryl β-D-glucoside (CHEBI:17495) has ...
  • Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome (SLOS) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a metabolic error in the final step of cholesterol biosynthesis, leading to cholesterol deficiency and accumulation of the cholesterol precursor, 7-dehydrocholesterol.Patients with SLOS display complex medical problems including growth failure, intellectual disability, behavioral disorders, progressive retinal dystrophy, hearing loss and photosensitivity. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • They are carefully monitored with visits to clinic, laboratory testing including cholesterol and 7-dehydrocholesterol levels, vitamin levels, blood counts and liver and kidney function. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • LCAT is the enzyme that esterifies the free cholesterol on HDL to cholesterol ester and allows the maturation of HDL. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cholesterol effluxes from cells as free cholesterol and is transported in HDL as esterified cholesterol. (wikipedia.org)
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