Steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a branched 8-carbon chain at C-17. Members include compounds with any degree of unsaturation; however, CHOLESTADIENES is available for derivatives containing two double bonds.

Elimination of cholesterol as cholestenoic acid in human lung by sterol 27-hydroxylase: evidence that most of this steroid in the circulation is of pulmonary origin. (1/116)

Human alveolar macrophages have exceptionally high capacity to convert cholesterol into 27-hydroxycholesterol and cholestenoic acid by the sterol 27-hydroxylase mechanism. It is shown here that the human lung has a higher content of 27-hydroxycholesterol relative to cholesterol than any other organ. In order to evaluate the importance of the sterol 27-hydroxylase mechanism for cholesterol homeostasis in the lung, the production of cholestenoic acid by human lung was investigated. Removal of one lung reduced the level of cholestenoic acid in the circulation by 48 +/- 4% (P < 0.005). The levels of cholestenoic acid in the pulmonary artery and in the pulmonary vein showed significant differences (P < 0.002) with higher levels in the pulmonary vein (108 +/- 16 and 104 +/- 16 ng/mL, respectively). This corresponds to a net flux of cholestenoic acid from the lung of about 14 mg/day, which is more than 80% of the reported removal of this oxysterol and its metabolites from the circulation by the liver per day. Bypassing the lung for 60 min led to a reduction in circulating cholestenoic acid (30%) that fits with a pulmonary origin when taking into account the half-life of cholestenoic acid. The level of circulating cholestenoic acid was found to be less in patients with different lung diseases. It is evident that most of the cholestenoic acid in the circulation is of pulmonary origin. The present results suggest that the sterol 27-hydroxylase in the lung is responsible for at least half of the total flux of 27-oxygenated cholesterol metabolites to the liver and that this enzyme system may be of importance for cholesterol homeostasis in the lung.  (+info)

Meiosis-activating sterol-mediated resumption of meiosis in mouse oocytes in vitro is influenced by protein synthesis inhibition and cholera toxin. (2/116)

To explore the possible signaling pathways of meiosis-activating sterol (MAS)-induced oocyte maturation and to elucidate whether the MAS pathway involves transcription or translation, arrested immature mouse oocytes were cultured with either the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide or the heteronuclear RNA inhibitors alpha-amanitin or actinomycin D, respectively. Moreover, the possible involvement of a G protein-coupled receptor mechanism in MAS-mediated oocyte maturation was explored by influencing oocyte maturation with cholera toxin (CT). MAS-induced oocyte maturation was completely blocked by the addition of 50 microg/ml cycloheximide 4 h before the addition of MAS. Simultaneous addition of MAS and the protein synthesis inhibitor also significantly reduced the meiotic resumption compared to that in MAS-treated controls. In contrast, neither of the treatment regimens to inhibit transcription of DNA to RNA was observed to have any effect on the MAS-induced resumption of meiosis. CT was observed to inhibit MAS-induced, but not spontaneous, oocyte maturation in vitro, suggesting a putative involvement of G protein-coupled receptor mechanism in the MAS mode of action. In conclusion, protein synthesis was found to be an essential requirement for maintaining the oocytes' responsiveness to MAS-induced resumption of meiosis, in contrast to transcription.  (+info)

Effect of inhibition of sterol delta 14-reductase on accumulation of meiosis-activating sterol and meiotic resumption in cumulus-enclosed mouse oocytes in vitro. (3/116)

Two sterols of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway induce resumption of meiosis in mouse oocytes in vitro. The sterols, termed meiosis-activating sterols (MAS), have been isolated from human follicular fluid (FF-MAS, 4,4-dimethyl-5 alpha-cholest-8,14,24-triene-3 beta-ol) and from bull testicular tissue (T-MAS, 4,4-dimethyl-5 alpha-cholest-8,24-diene-3 beta-ol). FF-MAS is the first intermediate in the cholesterol biosynthesis from lanosterol and is converted to T-MAS by sterol delta 14-reductase. An inhibitor of delta 7-reductase and delta 14 reductase, AY9944-A-7, causes cells with a constitutive cholesterol biosynthesis to accumulate FF-MAS and possibly other intermediates between lanosterol and cholesterol. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether AY9944-A-7 added to cultures of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) from mice resulted in accumulation of MAS and meiotic maturation. AY9944-A-7 stimulated dose dependently (5-25 mumol l-1) COC to resume meiosis when cultured for 22 h in alpha minimal essential medium (alpha-MEM) containing 4 mmol hypoxanthine l-1, a natural inhibitor of meiotic maturation. In contrast, naked oocytes were not induced to resume meiosis by AY9944-A-7. When cumulus cells were separated from their oocytes and co-cultured, AY9944-A-7 did not affect resumption of meiosis, indicating that intact oocyte-cumulus cell connections are important for AY9944-A-7 to exert its effect on meiosis. Cultures of COC with 10 mumol AY9944-A-7 l-1 in the presence of [3H]mevalonic acid, a natural precursor for steroid synthesis, resulted in accumulation of labelled FF-MAS, which had an 11-fold greater amount of radioactivity incorporated per COC compared with the control culture without AY9944-A-7. In contrast, incorporation of radioactivity into the cholesterol fraction was reduced 30-fold in extracts from the same oocytes. The present findings demonstrate for the first time that COC can synthesize cholesterol from mevalonate and accumulate FF-MAS in the presence of AY9944-A-7. Furthermore, AY9944-A-7 stimulated meiotic maturation dose dependently, indicating that FF-MAS, and possibly other sterol intermediates of the cholesterol synthesis pathway, play a central role in stimulating mouse oocytes to resume meiosis. The results also indicate that oocytes may not synthesize steroids from mevalonate.  (+info)

Lanosterol 14alpha-demethylase (CYP51), NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and squalene synthase in spermatogenesis: late spermatids of the rat express proteins needed to synthesize follicular fluid meiosis activating sterol. (4/116)

Lanosterol 14alpha-demethylase (CYP51) is a cytochrome P450 enzyme involved primarily in cholesterol biosynthesis. CYP51 in the presence of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase converts lanosterol to follicular fluid meiosis activating sterol (FF-MAS), an intermediate of cholesterol biosynthesis which accumulates in gonads and has an additional function as oocyte meiosis-activating substance. This work shows for the first time that cholesterogenic enzymes are highly expressed only in distinct stages of spermatogenesis. CYP51, NADPH-P450 reductase (the electron transferring enzyme needed for CYP51 activity) and squalene synthase (an enzyme preceding CYP51 in the pathway) proteins have been studied. CYP51 was detected in step 3-19 spermatids, with large amounts in the cytoplasm/residual bodies of step 19 spermatids, where P450 reductase was also observed. Squalene synthase was immunodetected in step 2-15 spermatids of the rat, indicating that squalene synthase and CYP51 proteins are not equally expressed in same stages of spermatogenesis. Discordant expression of cholesterogenic genes may be a more general mechanism leading to transient accumulation of pathway intermediates in spermatogenesis. This study provides the first evidence that step 19 spermatids and residual bodies of the rat testis have the capacity to produce MAS sterols in situ.  (+info)

Identification of ligands and coligands for the ecdysone-regulated gene switch. (5/116)

The ecdysone-inducible gene switch is a useful tool for modulating gene expression in mammalian cells and transgenic animals. We have identified inducers derived from plants as well as certain classes of insecticides that increase the versatility of this gene regulation system. Phytoecdysteroids share the favorable kinetics of steroids, but are inert in mammals. The gene regulation properties of one of these ecdysteroids have been examined in cell culture and in newly developed strains of ecdysone-system transgenic mice. Ponasterone A is a potent regulator of gene expression in cells and transgenic animals, enabling reporter genes to be turned on and off rapidly. A number of nonsteroidal insecticides have been identified that also activate the ecdysone system. Because the gene-controlling properties of the ecdysone switch are based on a heterodimer composed of a modified ecdysone receptor (VgEcR) and the retinoid X receptor (RXR), we have tested the effect of RXR ligands on the VgEcR/RXR complex. Used alone, RXR ligands display no activity on the ecdysone switch. However, when used in combination with a VgEcR ligand, RXR ligands dramatically enhance the absolute levels of induction. This property of the heterodimer has allowed the development of superinducer combinations that increase the dynamic range of the system.  (+info)

Meiosis-activating sterol and the maturation of isolated mouse oocytes. (6/116)

This study was carried out to examine the effects of the meiosis-activating C(29) sterol, 4,4-dimethyl-5 alpha-cholesta-8,14, 24-trien-3 beta-ol (FF-MAS), on mouse oocyte maturation in vitro. Cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes (CEO) and denuded oocytes (DO) from hormonally primed, immature mice were cultured 17-18 h in minimum essential medium (MEM) containing 4 mM hypoxanthine plus increasing concentrations of FF-MAS. The sterol induced maturation in DO with an optimal concentration of 3 microg/ml but was without effect in CEO, even at concentrations as high as 10 microg/ml. Some stimulation of maturation in hypoxanthine-arrested CEO was observed when MEM was replaced by MEMalpha. Interestingly, the sterol suppressed the maturation of hypoxanthine-arrested CEO in MEM upon removal of glucose from the medium. FF-MAS also failed to induce maturation in DO when meiotic arrest was maintained with dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP). The rate of maturation in FF-MAS-stimulated, hypoxanthine-arrested DO was slow, as more than 6 h of culture elapsed before significant meiotic induction was observed, and this response required the continued presence of the sterol. Although the oocyte took up radiolabeled lanosterol, such accumulation was restricted by the presence of cumulus cells. In addition, lanosterol failed to augment FSH-induced maturation and was even inhibitory at a high concentration. Moreover, the downstream metabolite, cholesterol, augmented the inhibitory action of dbcAMP on maturation in both CEO and DO. Two inhibitors of 14 alpha-demethylase, ketoconazole, and 14 alpha-ethyl-5 alpha-cholest-7-ene-3 beta, 15 alpha-diol that can suppress FF-MAS production from lanosterol failed to block consistently FSH-induced maturation. These results confirm the stimulatory action of FF-MAS on hypoxanthine-arrested DO but do not support a universal meiosis-inducing function for this sterol.  (+info)

Activation of meiotic maturation in rat oocytes after treatment with follicular fluid meiosis-activating sterol in vitro and ex vivo. (7/116)

Meiosis-activating sterols (MAS) have been found to induce meiotic maturation in mouse oocytes in vitro. In the present study we have extended these observations by investigating the effects of follicular fluid MAS (FF-MAS) on rat oocyte maturation in vitro and ex vivo. Rat oocytes freed from their follicles were cultured with FF-MAS (0 microM, 1 microM, 3 microM, 10 microM, 30 microM) for 22 h in a medium containing the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX; 250 microM). A dose-dependent significant increase in germinal vesicle breakdown (GVB) was observed after adding FF-MAS to the culture medium in both cumulus-enclosed (CEO) and denuded (DO) oocytes. A time course study (0, 3, 8, 14, and 22 h) showed a significant increase in GVB after 14 h when DO and CEO were cultured in the presence of 10 microM FF-MAS + 250 microM IBMX. Furthermore immature rats were primed with eCG (20 IU) and 48 h later perfused ex vivo for 12 h in a recirculating system with either FF-MAS (0 microM, 10 microM, 30 microM, 60 microM), cholesterol (60 microM), or LH (0.2 microg/ml) in the presence of 200 microM IBMX, respectively. In addition, ovarian perfusion was carried out with FF-MAS (30 microM, 60 microM) or 0.2 microg/ml LH in the absence of IBMX. After 12 h, oocytes were freed from the ovaries and checked for GVB. By using the ex vivo perfused rat ovary, we found that FF-MAS, starting at 30 microM, was dose-dependently able to overcome IBMX-induced meiotic arrest leading to a comparable increase in GVB as was observed for LH. Furthermore, it was found that FF-MAS in the absence of IBMX was also able to induce meiotic maturation. Our data are consistent with the notion that the maturation-inducing effects of FF-MAS are mediated by different mechanisms compared to spontaneous maturation.  (+info)

Autoradiographic localization of specific binding of meiosis-activating sterol to cumulus-oocyte complexes from marmoset, cow, and mouse. (8/116)

The sterol, 4,4-dimethyl-5alpha-cholesta-8,14,24-trien-3beta-ol (FF-MAS), isolated from human follicular fluid, can induce resumption of meiosis in denuded and cumulus-enclosed mouse oocytes inhibited by hypoxanthine, IBMX, or dibutyric cyclic adenosine monophosphate. In this study the distribution of FF-MAS binding sites in denuded oocytes and in cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) was studied using light microscopic (LM) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) autoradiography in marmoset, cow, and mouse oocytes. Denuded (n = 39) and cumulus-enclosed (n = 28) marmoset, cow, and mouse oocytes were cultured in the presence of [3H]FF-MAS with and without excess of unlabeled FF-MAS, respectively. In denuded oocytes LM autoradiography demonstrated specific binding to the oolemma and zona pellucida and, to some extent, the cytoplasm. In the nucleus, no specific binding of [3H]FF-MAS was demonstrated. In some COCs the labeling was dispersed throughout the zona pellucida, the oolemma, and the cytoplasm as well as the cumulus cells; whereas in others, only the outer part of the cumulus cells were labeled. TEM autoradiograms of denuded cow oocytes (n = 6) demonstrated that specific [3H]FF-MAS binding was closely related to the oolemma and that a low level of [3H]FF-MAS binding to cumulus cell remnants was present. In conclusion, specific binding of FF-MAS is predominant at the oolemma of denuded oocytes, suggesting the existence of a plasma membrane-associated molecule with affinity for FF-MAS (i.e., a putative FF-MAS receptor).  (+info)

Cholestenes are a type of steroid that is characterized by having a double bond between the second and third carbon atoms in the steroid nucleus. They are precursors to cholesterol, which is an essential component of cell membranes and a precursor to various hormones and bile acids. Cholestenes can be found in some foods, but they are also synthesized in the body from other steroids.

Cholestenes are not typically referred to in medical terminology, as the term is more commonly used in biochemistry and organic chemistry. However, abnormal levels of cholestenes or related compounds may be detected in certain medical tests, such as those used to diagnose liver or gallbladder disorders.

Cholestenes are chiral molecules that are derivatives of cholestanes that have a double bond. If there are two double bonds, ... "Cholestenes". MeSH Browser. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 2022-10-06. "Cholestene". PubChem. U.S National ...
... cholestenes MeSH D04.808.247.222.159 - cholecalciferol MeSH D04.808.247.222.159.478 - hydroxycholecalciferols MeSH D04.808. ...
Cholestenes are chiral molecules that are derivatives of cholestanes that have a double bond. If there are two double bonds, ... "Cholestenes". MeSH Browser. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 2022-10-06. "Cholestene". PubChem. U.S National ...
Categories: Cholestenes Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 4 ...
20 Dang H-S, Davies A G. Ene reactions of allylically stannylated cholestenes: singlet oxygenation of 7α- ...
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Cholestenes [D04.210.500.247.222]. *Ergosterol [D04.210.500.247.222.537]. Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is related ...
Cholestenes D4.808.247.222 D4.210.500.247.222 Cholestenones D4.808.247.222.265 D4.210.500.247.222.265 Cholesterol D4.808. ...
Cholestenes D4.808.247.222 D4.210.500.247.222 Cholestenones D4.808.247.222.265 D4.210.500.247.222.265 Cholesterol D4.808. ...
Cholestenes / metabolism* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ...
Cholestenes,N0000007759, Chlorofluorocarbons, Methane,N0000007758, Immunoglobulin G,N0000007757, Ferricyanides,N0000007756, ...
Cholestenes D4.808.247.222 D4.210.500.247.222 Cholestenones D4.808.247.222.265 D4.210.500.247.222.265 Cholesterol D4.808. ...
Cholestenes Preferred Concept UI. M0004266. Registry Number. 0. Scope Note. Steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a ... Cholestenes Preferred Term Term UI T008076. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1973). ... Cholestenes. Tree Number(s). D04.210.500.247.222. Unique ID. D002782. RDF Unique Identifier. http://id.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/D002782 ...
Cholestenes Preferred Concept UI. M0004266. Registry Number. 0. Scope Note. Steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a ... Cholestenes Preferred Term Term UI T008076. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1973). ... Cholestenes. Tree Number(s). D04.210.500.247.222. Unique ID. D002782. RDF Unique Identifier. http://id.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/D002782 ...
All MeSH CategoriesChemicals and Drugs CategoryPolycyclic CompoundsFused-Ring CompoundsSteroidsCholestanesCholestenes ...
Cholestenes - Preferred Concept UI. M0004266. Scope note. Steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a branched 8-carbon ...
Cholestenes D4.808.247.222 D4.210.500.247.222 Cholestenones D4.808.247.222.265 D4.210.500.247.222.265 Cholesterol D4.808. ...
Cholestenes [D04.210.500.247.222] Cholestenes * Cholecalciferol [D04.210.500.247.222.159] Cholecalciferol * Cholestadienes [ ...
Cholestenes [D04.210.500.247.222] * Cholecalciferol [D04.210.500.247.222.159] * Cholestadienes [D04.210.500.247.222.222] ...
Cholestenes Cholestenone 5 alpha-Reductase Cholestenones Cholesterol Cholesterol 24-Hydroxylase Cholesterol 7-alpha-Hydroxylase ...
  • Cholestenes are chiral molecules that are derivatives of cholestanes that have a double bond. (wikipedia.org)