Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear
Otitis Media with Effusion
Middle Ear Ventilation
Hearing Loss, Conductive
Acoustic Impedance Tests
Cerebrospinal Fluid Otorrhea
Cranial Fossa, Middle
Round Window, Ear
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Differentiation characteristics of cholesteatoma epithelium determined by expression of transglutaminase isoenzymes. (1/94)Transglutaminase (TGase) isoenzymes are involved in the process of the differentiation and cornification of keratinocytes in the epidermis. This study investigates the presence and localization of three TGase isoenzymes to elucidate the nature and differentiation status of the squamous epithelium in human aural cholesteatoma. Twenty cholesteatoma specimens were used. The presence and localization of three TGase isoenzymes were studied by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. mRNA expression of three TGase isoenzymes were detected in the tested cholesteatomas with variable levels. The immunohistochemical staining patterns of three TGase isoenzymes showed variations within specimens, relating to keratinizing activity. TGase K is the most abundant among three isoenzymes. Keratinizing epithelium of cholesteatoma have similar expression profiles of TGase isoenzymes with those of epidermis of the skin. Other areas, particularly those showing non-keratinizing epithelium, showed weak immunostaining of TGase E and C, suggesting its different maturation status from keratinizing epithelium. The results of this study indicate that epithelium of cholesteatoma undergoes same direction of maturation and differentiation characteristics as the epidermis of skin, evidenced by similar expressions of TGases both in mRNA level and immunohistochemistry. (+info)
Expression of matrix-degrading cysteine proteinase cathepsin K in cholesteatoma. (2/94)Cholesteatoma is a nonneoplastic lesion of the middle ear space or mastoid that is histologically characterized by a progressive bone erosion of the ossicles and surrounding bone. Several matrix-degrading enzymes have been implicated as mediators of this bone erosion. Because the novel cysteine proteinase cathepsin K has been shown to play a central role in bone resorption, we examined the expression of this enzyme in tissue specimens of cholesteatoma. Tissue specimens of 9 patients with cholesteatoma were obtained during middle-ear surgery. Expression of cathepsin K mRNA was determined by RT-PCR using specific primers. Immunohistochemical analysis of cathepsin K protein expression in tissue sections was performed by using the streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase technique. Expression of both cathepsin K mRNA and protein was detected in areas affected by cholesteatoma, whereas specimens of nonaffected ear cartilage and surrounding tissue were not positive. In addition, cathepsin K was detected in numerous multinucleated giant cells, particularly osteoclasts at the site of bone degradation. In contrast, keratinized squamous epithelium was negative for cathepsin K. These data demonstrate that the matrix-degrading cysteine proteinase cathepsin K may be involved in bone erosion in cholesteatoma. Strong expression of this collagenolytic enzyme in osteoclasts suggests that these cells are mainly involved in cathepsin K-mediated bone destruction. (+info)
Diffusion-weighted imaging for differentiating recurrent cholesteatoma from granulation tissue after mastoidectomy: case report. (3/94)Identification of recurrent cholesteatoma and differentiation from postoperative granulation tissue is important in a patient who has undergone mastoidectomy for cholesteatoma. We describe the diffusion-weighted imaging findings and apparent diffusion coefficient values in a case of recurrent cholesteatoma. This case suggests possible differentiation of cholesteatoma from granulation tissue on the basis of diffusion-weighted imaging findings. (+info)
Immunohistochemical investigations of cathepsin D activity in the structures of cholesteatoma. (4/94)BACKGROUND: Cathepsin D decomposes cytoplasmic proteins, cell organelles, collagen, elastase and proteoglycans. It takes part in angiogenesis and activates osteoclasts, and is thought to play a major role in the destruction of bone tissue by cholesteatoma. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the activity of cathepsin D in the structures of cholesteatoma. MATERIAL/METHODS: Cholesteatomas were collected from 16 patients operated on for chronic inflammation of the middle ear. Specimens were fixed in formalin at pH 7.2, after which parrafin slices were made. Cathepsin D was assayed with a Dako set. Keratin was measured by the Kreyberg method. Normal skin from behind the ear was taken from the patients during the same operation. The samples included a stratified, desquamative epithelium (matrix), a streak containing connective tissue (perimatrix), and a mass of keratin debris. RESULTS: Cathepsin D demonstrates high activity in perimatrix cells adjacent to bone tissue, while it occurs in trace amounts in the matrix. A highly positive reaction was observed within keratin, which was present in the superficial layer of the epithelium. Pseudocathepsin located in desquamative epithelial cells demonstrated a high positive reaction. There were trace amounts of cathepsin D within the dermis. In the control group (the skin samples), there were trace amounts of cathepsin D within the corneous layer of the epithelium. CONCLUSIONS: Cathepsin D places a major role in bone tissue destruction due to cholesteatoma. (+info)
Expression patterns of cytokeratins in cholesteatomas: evidence of increased migration and proliferation. (5/94)Aural cholesteatoma is characterized by invading squamous epithelia with altered growth properties. Cytokeratin (CK) expression is affected in epidermal proliferative diseases and represents the alterations of keratinocyte proliferation, differentiation, and migration. In the present study, the intensity of CK immuno-expression was determined, using densitometry at various sites in experimental cholesteatoma in order to characterize changes of keratinocytes. With cholesteatoma formation, CK4, a marker for non-keratinizing epithelia, increased in the suprabasal layers of the annular external auditory canal (EAC) and at the pars tensa indicating an altered differentiation and migration of keratinocytes. CK5/6, a marker of keratinizing squamous epithelium, increased only at the pars tensa of the tympanic membrane, indicating basal keratinocyte hyperplasia. CK1/10 increased in the suprabasal layer at the annular EAC, and at the peripheral pars tensa, indicating increased terminal differentiation of keratinocytes. CK13/16, markers of differentiation and hyperproliferation, increased in suprabasal layer of the EAC, and at the peripheral pars tensa. However, it decreased in the basal layer of the EAC, indicating hyperproliferation and migration of keratinocytes. The findings of this study support the basal cell hyperplasia hypotheses for the pathogenesis of aural cholesteatoma, with regard to hyperproliferation, migration, and an altered differentiation of keratinocytes. (+info)
External auditory canal cholesteatoma: clinical and imaging spectrum. (6/94)BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cholesteatoma is an inflammatory lesion of the temporal bone that uncommonly involves the external auditory canal (EAC). In this large case series, we aimed to define its imaging features and to determine the characteristics most important to its clinical management. METHODS: Thirteen cases of EAC cholesteatoma (EACC) were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical data were reviewed for the history, presentation, and physical examination findings. High-resolution temporal bone CT scans were examined for a soft-tissue mass in the EAC, erosion of adjacent bone, and bone fragments in the mass. The middle ear cavity, mastoid, facial nerve canal, and tegmen tympani were evaluated for involvement. RESULTS: Patients presented with otorrhea, otalgia, or hearing loss. Eight cases were spontaneous, and five were postsurgical or post-traumatic. CT imaging in all 13 cases showed a soft-tissue mass with adjacent bone erosion. Intramural bone fragments were identified in seven cases. This mass most often arose inferiorly (n = 8) or posteriorly (n = 8), but it was circumferential in two cases. We noted middle ear extension (n = 5), mastoid involvement (n = 4), facial canal erosion (n = 2), and tegmen tympani dehiscence (n = 1). CONCLUSION: Temporal bone CT shows EACC as a soft-tissue mass within the EAC, with adjacent bone erosion. Bone fragments may be present within the mass. The cholesteatoma may extend into the mastoid or middle ear, or it may involve the facial nerve canal or tegmen tympani. Recognition of this entity and its possible extension is important because it may influence clinical management. (+info)
Differential diagnosis and treatment of hearing loss. (7/94)Hearing loss is a common problem that can occur at any age and makes verbal communication difficult. The ear is divided anatomically into three sections (external, middle, and inner), and pathology contributing to hearing loss may strike one or more sections. Hearing loss can be categorized as conductive, sensorineural, or both. Leading causes of conductive hearing loss include cerumen impaction, otitis media, and otosclerosis. Leading causes of sensorineural hearing loss include inherited disorders, noise exposure, and presbycusis. An understanding of the indications for medical management, surgical treatment, and amplification can help the family physician provide more effective care for these patients. (+info)
Closed tympanoplasty in middle ear cholesteatoma surgery. (8/94)OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of closed tympanoplasty surgery for middle ear cholesteatoma and to compare the postoperative results with the outcomes of canal-wall-down mastoidectomy. METHODS: Seventy patients with middle ear cholesteatoma were involved in the study. Pneumo-otoscopy, pure-tone audiometry, anamnestic and clinical data were evaluated before the surgery. Modified radical mastoidectomy was performed for 31 patients. Thirty-nine patients were treated with closed tympanoplasty surgery, including intact canal wall mastoidectomy, endaural atticotomy, lateral attic and aditus wall reconstruction and tympanoplasty. The follow-up examination was carried out 12 months after the surgery. The recurrence of cholesteatoma, otorrhea and hearing level were evaluated postoperatively. RESULTS: Otorrhea was estimated in 4 cases (10.3%) after closed tympanoplasty surgery and in 6 cases (19.4%) after modified radical mastoidectomy. Among the patients who were operated using closed tympanoplasty technique the middle ear cholesteatoma recurrence rate was 12.8% and among those, who underwent modified radical mastoidectomy recurrent disease occurred in 9.7% of the cases. The hearing improvement was found in 15 cases (38.46%) after closed tympanoplasty, while there was no hearing improvement after modified radical mastoidectomy. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that despite the fact, that cholesteatoma recurrence rate after closed tympanoplasty is relatively high, this surgical method permits to preserve adequate hearing level and releases from postoperative cavity care problems as compared with modified radical mastoidectomy. (+info)
The term "cholesteatoma" refers to a cyst-like accumulation of keratinizing squamous epithelium in the middle ear. This condition is usually caused by a retention cyst of skin cells that have been displaced into the middle ear from the eustachian tube or the external auditory canal. The accumulation of these skin cells can lead to a mass-like lesion that can obstruct the middle ear and cause a range of symptoms, including hearing loss, ear pain, and tinnitus (ringing in the ears).
Cholesteatoma is typically diagnosed through a combination of otoscopy (examination of the ear canal and eardrum with an otoscope), tuning fork testing, and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. Treatment for cholesteatoma usually involves surgical removal of the growth, as well as any associated inflammation or infection. In some cases, a tympanoplasty (a procedure to repair the eardrum) may also be necessary.
Prognosis for patients with cholesteatoma is generally good if the condition is diagnosed and treated early, but delays in diagnosis and treatment can lead to more severe complications, such as mastoiditis (inflammation of the mastoid bone) or meningitis (inflammation of the meninges). Therefore, it is important for patients with symptoms suggestive of cholesteatoma to seek medical attention as soon as possible.
The term "cholesteatoma" comes from the Greek words "chole," meaning bile, and "steatoma," meaning cyst. This refers to the greenish-yellow color of the fluid that accumulates in the cholesteatoma. Cholesteatoma can be treated with antibiotics, ear drops, and in some cases, surgery.
In summary, a cholesteatoma is a noncancerous cyst that forms in the middle ear behind the eardrum due to the accumulation of fluid and debris. It is a common condition that can cause hearing loss, dizziness and other symptoms. Treatment options include antibiotics, ear drops and surgery.
This definition is based on general medical knowledge and may not be applicable to all individuals or situations. If you suspect you have cholesteatoma or are experiencing symptoms, it is important to consult a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
1. Otitis media (middle ear infection): This is an infection of the middle ear that can cause ear pain, fever, and hearing loss.
2. Acoustic neuroma: This is a benign tumor that grows on the nerve that connects the inner ear to the brain. It can cause hearing loss, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), and balance problems.
3. Meniere's disease: This is a disorder of the inner ear that can cause vertigo (dizziness), tinnitus, hearing loss, and a feeling of fullness in the affected ear.
4. Presbycusis: This is age-related hearing loss that affects the inner ear and can cause difficulty hearing high-pitched sounds.
5. Ototoxicity: This refers to damage to the inner ear caused by certain medications or chemicals. It can cause hearing loss, tinnitus, and balance problems.
6. Meningitis: This is an infection of the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord. It can cause hearing loss, headache, and other symptoms.
7. Otosclerosis: This is a condition in which there is abnormal bone growth in the middle ear that can cause hearing loss.
8. Cholesteatoma: This is a condition in which there is a buildup of skin cells in the middle ear that can cause hearing loss, ear pain, and other symptoms.
9. Eustachian tube dysfunction: This is a condition in which the tubes that connect the middle ear to the back of the throat do not function properly, leading to hearing loss, ear pain, and other symptoms.
10. Mastoiditis: This is an infection of the mastoid bone behind the ear that can cause hearing loss, ear pain, and other symptoms.
* Earache (otalgia)
* Hearing loss or muffled hearing
* Discharge from the ear
* Redness and swelling around the ear drum
* Fussiness or irritability in infants
* Loss of appetite or difficulty eating
* Difficulty sleeping
Otitis media is caused by a virus or bacteria that enters the middle ear through the Eustachian tube, which connects the back of the throat to the middle ear. The infection can spread quickly and cause inflammation in the middle ear, leading to hearing loss and other symptoms.
There are several types of otitis media, including:
* Acute otitis media: This is a sudden and severe infection that can develop over a few days. It is usually caused by a bacterial infection and can be treated with antibiotics.
* Otitis media with effusion (OME): This is a condition where fluid accumulates in the middle ear without an infection present. It can cause hearing loss and other symptoms but does not respond to antibiotics.
* Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM): This is a long-term infection that can cause persistent discharge, hearing loss, and other symptoms. It may require ongoing treatment with antibiotics and other therapies.
Otitis media can be diagnosed through a physical examination of the ear and a review of the patient's medical history. A doctor may also use tests such as a tympanocentesis (insertion of a small tube into the ear to collect fluid) or an otoscopic exam to confirm the diagnosis.
Treatment for otitis media depends on the type and severity of the infection, but may include:
* Antibiotics: To treat bacterial infections
* Pain relief medication: To help manage ear pain and fever
* Eardrops: To help clear fluid from the middle ear and reduce discharge
* Tympanocentesis: To collect fluid from the middle ear for testing or to relieve pressure
* Ventilation tubes: Small tubes that are inserted into the ear drum to allow air to enter the middle ear and help drain fluid.
It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms of otitis media persist or worsen over time, as untreated infections can lead to complications such as mastoiditis (an infection of the bones behind the ear) or meningitis (an infection of the lining around the brain and spinal cord). With prompt and appropriate treatment, however, most cases of otitis media can be effectively managed and hearing loss can be prevented.
Ear Anatomy: The middle ear consists of three small bones called ossicles (the malleus, incus, and stapes) that transmit sound waves to the inner ear. The eardrum, a thin membrane, separates the outer ear canal from the middle ear. In OME, fluid accumulates in the middle ear, causing the eardrum to become congested and reducing its ability to vibrate properly.
Causes: There are several factors that can contribute to the development of OME, including:
1. Viral upper respiratory infections (such as the common cold)
3. Enlarged adenoids or tonsils
4. Cystic fibrosis
5. Sinus infections
6. Meniere's disease
7. Head injury
Symptoms: The symptoms of OME can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:
1. Hearing loss or muffled hearing
2. Discharge or fluid leaking from the ear
3. Pain or discomfort in the ear
4. Difficulty responding to sounds or understanding speech
7. Vertigo or dizziness
8. Loss of balance or coordination
Diagnosis: OME is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and ear examinations using an otoscope or tympanometry. A tympanogram may also be performed to measure the movement of the eardrum.
Treatment: The treatment of OME depends on the severity of the condition and may include:
1. Watchful waiting: In mild cases, OME may resolve on its own within a few weeks without any treatment.
2. Antibiotics: If there is a concurrent infection, antibiotics may be prescribed to treat the underlying infection.
3. Pain relief medication: Over-the-counter pain relief medication such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen may be recommended to relieve any discomfort or pain.
4. Eardrops: Eardrops containing antibiotics or steroids may be prescribed to treat the infection and reduce inflammation.
5. Tubes in the ear: In more severe cases, tubes may be placed in the ear drum to help drain fluid and relieve pressure.
6. Surgery: In rare cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the membrane or repair any damage to the middle ear bones.
Prognosis: The prognosis for OME is generally good, with most cases resolving within a few weeks without any long-term complications. However, in some cases, the condition can persist for longer periods of time and may lead to more serious complications such as hearing loss or mastoiditis.
Prevention: There is no specific way to prevent OME, but good ear hygiene and avoiding exposure to loud noises can help reduce the risk of developing the condition. Regular check-ups with an audiologist or otolaryngologist can also help identify any early signs of OME and prevent complications.
Conclusion: Otitis media with effusion (OME) is a common condition that affects children and adults, causing fluid buildup in the middle ear. While it is generally not a serious condition, it can cause discomfort and affect hearing. Treatment options range from watchful waiting to antibiotics and surgery, depending on the severity of the case. Good ear hygiene and regular check-ups with an audiologist or otolaryngologist can help prevent complications and ensure proper management of the condition.
Symptoms of otitis media, suppurativa may include:
* Ear pain or discomfort
* Discharge of pus or fluid from the ear
* Redness and swelling of the eardrum
* Hearing loss or muffled hearing
* Vertigo or dizziness
Treatment of otitis media, suppurativa usually involves antibiotics to clear the infection, as well as pain management with over-the-counter medications such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen. In severe cases, surgical drainage of the middle ear may be necessary.
Prevention of otitis media, suppurativa includes practicing good hygiene, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and keeping the head and ears dry. Vaccination against certain types of bacteria that can cause this condition, such as Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), may also be recommended.
Some common types of ear neoplasms include:
1. Acoustic neuroma: This is a type of benign tumor that grows on the nerve that connects the inner ear to the brain. It is usually slow-growing and can cause symptoms such as hearing loss, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), and balance problems.
2. Osteosarcoma: This is a type of malignant bone cancer that can affect the middle ear. It is rare and typically affects children and young adults.
3. Cholesteatoma: This is a benign tumor that grows in the middle ear and can cause symptoms such as hearing loss, ear discharge, and facial weakness or paralysis.
4. Meningioma: This is a type of tumor that grows on the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord. It can affect the ear and cause symptoms such as hearing loss, tinnitus, and balance problems.
5. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CEP): This is a rare type of malignant tumor that develops in the salivary glands near the ear. It can cause symptoms such as facial weakness or paralysis, hearing loss, and difficulty swallowing.
Ear neoplasms can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including imaging studies (such as CT or MRI scans), biopsies, and auditory brainstem implantation. Treatment options for ear neoplasms depend on the type and location of the tumor, as well as the severity of the symptoms. Some common treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.
Symptoms of conductive hearing loss may include:
* Difficulty hearing soft sounds
* Muffled or distorted sound
* Ringing or other noises in the affected ear
* Difficulty understanding speech, especially in noisy environments
Causes of conductive hearing loss can include:
* Middle ear infections (otitis media)
* Eardrum perforation or tearing
* Tubal erosion or narrowing
* Ossicular anomalies or abnormalities
* Certain head or neck injuries
* Tumors or cysts in the middle ear
Diagnosis of conductive hearing loss typically involves a physical examination and a series of tests, including:
* Otoscopy (examination of the outer ear and eardrum)
* Tympanometry (measurement of the movement of the eardrum)
* Acoustic reflex threshold testing (assessment of the acoustic reflex, which is a normal response to loud sounds)
* Otoacoustic emissions testing (measurement of the sounds produced by the inner ear in response to sound waves)
Treatment for conductive hearing loss depends on the underlying cause and may include:
* Antibiotics for middle ear infections
* Tubes inserted into the eardrum to drain fluid and improve air flow
* Surgery to repair or replace damaged ossicles or other middle ear structures
* Hearing aids or cochlear implants to amplify sound waves and improve hearing.
Symptoms of mastoiditis may include:
* Ear pain
* Swelling and redness around the ear
* Discharge of pus from the ear
* Loss of hearing or impaired hearing
* Fatigue and general feeling of illness
If mastoiditis is not treated promptly, it can lead to serious complications such as meningitis, brain abscess, or bone deformity. Treatment typically involves antibiotics and surgical drainage of the infected mastoid bone. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor the patient's condition and provide appropriate care.
The diagnosis of mastoiditis is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as CT scans or MRI. Treatment should be initiated promptly without waiting for the results of cultures or other tests to confirm the diagnosis.
Prevention of mastoiditis includes prompt treatment of ear infections and proper management of skull fractures, as well as vaccination against Hib and pneumococcal diseases. Good hygiene practices, such as frequent hand-washing, can also help prevent the spread of bacteria that cause mastoiditis.
The prognosis for mastoiditis is generally good if treated promptly and effectively. However, if left untreated or if there are complications, the outcome can be more severe and even life-threatening.
Some common types of cochlear diseases include:
1. Cochlear implants: These are electronic devices that are surgically implanted in the inner ear to bypass damaged hair cells and directly stimulate the auditory nerve. Cochlear implants can help restore hearing in individuals with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss.
2. Meniere's disease: This is a disorder of the inner ear that can cause vertigo, tinnitus, hearing loss, and a feeling of fullness in the affected ear. The exact cause of Meniere's disease is not known, but it is thought to be related to an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the inner ear.
3. Ototoxicity: This refers to damage to the inner ear or auditory nerve caused by exposure to certain medications, chemicals, or other substances. Ototoxicity can result in hearing loss, tinnitus, and balance problems.
4. Presbycusis: This is age-related hearing loss that affects the inner ear and is a common condition in older adults. Presbycusis can cause gradual hearing loss over time and may be treated with hearing aids or other assistive devices.
5. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL): This is a sudden and severe loss of hearing that occurs within a few days or weeks and can be caused by a variety of factors, including viral infections, head trauma, and certain medications. SSHL is a medical emergency and requires prompt treatment to improve the chances of recovering some or all of the lost hearing.
Overall, cochlear diseases can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, affecting their ability to communicate and interact with others. Fortunately, many of these conditions can be treated with hearing aids, medications, or surgery, and there are also a variety of assistive devices and strategies that can help individuals manage their symptoms and improve their communication skills.
The term "otorrhea" specifically refers to the leakage of fluid from the inner ear into the middle ear, which can be caused by various conditions such as a tear in the eardrum, a perforated eardrum, or a hole in the bone around the inner ear. When CSF flows into the middle ear, it can cause a range of symptoms due to the pressure difference between the two compartments and the presence of CSF in the middle ear.
CSF otorrhea can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Trauma to the head or ear
2. Infections such as meningitis or inner ear infections
3. Tumors or cysts in the inner ear or brain
4. Agerelated wear and tear on the eardrum or other structures
5. Certain medical conditions such as osteoporosis or Eustachian tube dysfunction.
Diagnosis of CSF otorrhea typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and hearing tests. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the condition and may involve antibiotics, surgery to repair any tears or defects in the eardrum or other structures, or observation and monitoring.
In summary, CSF otorrhea is an abnormal flow of cerebrospinal fluid from the inner ear into the middle ear, which can cause a range of symptoms including hearing loss, tinnitus, balance difficulties, and facial weakness or paralysis. It can be caused by various factors and diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies, and hearing tests. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the condition.
There are several types of fistulas, including:
1. Anal fistula: a connection between the anus and the skin around it, usually caused by an abscess or infection.
2. Rectovaginal fistula: a connection between the rectum and the vagina, often seen in women who have had radiation therapy for cancer.
3. Vesicovaginal fistula: a connection between the bladder and the vagina, often caused by obstetric injuries or surgery.
4. Enterocutaneous fistula: a connection between the intestine and the skin, often seen in patients with inflammatory bowel disease or cancer.
5. Fistula-in-ano: a connection between the rectum and the skin around the anus, often caused by chronic constipation or previous surgery.
Symptoms of fistulas can include pain, bleeding, discharge, and difficulty controlling bowel movements. Treatment depends on the type and location of the fistula, but may include antibiotics, surgery, or other interventional procedures.
Examples of Skull Neoplasms include:
1. Meningioma: A benign tumor that arises from the meninges, the protective covering of the brain and spinal cord.
2. Acoustic neuroma: A benign tumor that grows on the nerve that connects the inner ear to the brain.
3. Pineal parenchymal tumors: Tumors that arise in the pineal gland, a small endocrine gland located in the brain.
4. Craniopharyngiomas: Benign tumors that arise near the pituitary gland, which regulates hormone production.
5. Medulloblastoma: A malignant tumor that arises in the cerebellum, a part of the brain that controls movement and coordination.
6. Germ cell tumors: Tumors that arise from immature cells that form in the embryo. These can be benign or malignant.
7. PNETs (primitive neuroectodermal tumors): Malignant tumors that arise from early forms of nerve cells.
8. Astrocytomas: Tumors that arise from the supportive tissue of the brain called astrocytes. These can be benign or malignant.
9. Oligodendrogliomas: Tumors that arise from the supportive tissue of the brain called oligodendrocytes. These can be benign or malignant.
10. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumors: Rare, malignant tumors that contain pigmented cells.
Endoscopic ear surgery
Columella (auditory system)
Middle ear implant
Facial nerve paralysis
High-resolution computed tomography
Causes of hearing loss
List of patient-reported quality of life surveys
List of MeSH codes (C17)
Tympanic membrane retraction
Conductive hearing loss
List of ICD-9 codes 320-389: diseases of the nervous system and sense organs
Glossary of communication disorders
Eustachian tube dysfunction
Facial nerve decompression
Ovid - Microsurgical Management of Middle Ear and Petrous Bone Cholesteatoma | Wolters Kluwer
Comparative analysis of the epithelium stroma interaction of acquired middle ear cholesteatoma in children and adults<...
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Epidemiologic Notes and Reports Rapidly Progressive Dementia in a Patient Who Received a Cadaveric Dura Mater Graft
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ICD-10 Code for Cholesteatoma of mastoid- H71.2- Codify by AAPC
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Baylor Scott & White Medical Center - Centennial
- Part II: temporal histopathologic changes in the tympanic membrane and middle ear. (nih.gov)
- There are macrophages and mononuclear cells in the lamina propria (arrow) with stromal fibrosis in the wall of the external ear canal and tympanic cavity. (nih.gov)
- It arises from the eardrum ( TYMPANIC MEMBRANE ) and grows into the MIDDLE EAR causing erosion of EAR OSSICLES and MASTOID that contains the INNER EAR . (nih.gov)
- Conclusion: We described immunohistochemical signs of retraction pocket pars tensa of tympanic membrane in children resulting in cholesteatoma. (osu.cz)
- Dr. Rivas's interests include endoscopic ear surgery, cochlear implantation, single-sided deafness, congenital malformations of the ear, ear canal atresia, bone conduction implantation, acoustic neuromas and other skull base surgeries. (uhhospitals.org)
- 7. Congenital cholesteatoma isolated to the mastoid presenting as stricture of the external auditory canal. (nih.gov)
- 8. The formation of sinus in congenital stenosis of external auditory canal with cholesteatoma. (nih.gov)
- 11. Surgical treatment of external auditory canal cholesteatoma in congenital malformation of the ear: A case series. (nih.gov)
- 13. Morphological Characteristics of Osseous External Auditory Canal and Its Relationship With External Auditory Canal Cholesteatoma in Patients With Congenital Aural Stenosis. (nih.gov)
- 17. Congenital cholesteatoma of external auditory canal. (nih.gov)
- Vertigo - If skin erodes into the balance canal of the inner ear. (entsurgicalillinois.com)
- Ear canal wall left intact, single surgery - The cholesteatoma is isolated, and the surgeon is confident it has completely been removed. (entsurgicalillinois.com)
- Ear canal wall left intact, second look surgery needed in 6-12 months - The cholesteatoma has been removed, but there is a good chance there are a skin cells left. (entsurgicalillinois.com)
- Ear canal wall removal - The back of the ear canal is in the way when removing cholesteatomas. (entsurgicalillinois.com)
- If the cholesteatoma is extensive and the surgeon does not think it can be removed completely with the back of the ear canal intact, it is necessary to remove it with what is called a canal wall down mastoidectomy. (entsurgicalillinois.com)
- This leads to a larger hole for your ear canal, which may be visible to people looking at your ear after surgery. (entsurgicalillinois.com)
- Insert a probe with a soft flexible tip in the ear canal to obtain a seal. (medscape.com)
- the probes are calibrated differently because of the significant difference in ear canal volume. (medscape.com)
- The smaller ear canal results in a higher effective sound pressure level (SPL), thus a different probe is used to correct for the difference. (medscape.com)
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- 2. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders as first clinical manifestations in external auditory canal cholesteatoma. (nih.gov)
- 3. External auditory canal cholesteatoma: clinical and imaging spectrum. (nih.gov)
- 4. Spontaneous cholesteatoma of the external auditory canal: the utility of CT. (nih.gov)
- 5. Development of canal cholesteatoma in a patient with prenatal isotretinoin exposure. (nih.gov)
- 6. Therapeutic approaches to complicated cholesteatoma of the external auditory canal: a case of associated facial paresis. (nih.gov)
- 9. [Cholesteatoma by osteoma of the external auditory canal]. (nih.gov)
- 10. A case of osteoma with cholesteatoma in the external auditory canal. (nih.gov)
- 12. Management of the Temporal Bone Fibrous Dysplasia With External Auditory Canal Stenosis and Secondary Cholesteatoma in an Asian Population: A 11-Case Series. (nih.gov)
- 15. External ear canal cholesteatoma after ventilation tube insertion and mastoidectomy. (nih.gov)
- 16. Advancing Cholesteatoma Secondary to Acquired Atresia of the External Auditory Canal: Clinical Perspectives. (nih.gov)
- There is predominantly neutrophilic infiltrates in the epithelium and lamina propria and abundant neutrophils and proteinaceous fluid in the external ear canal (arrow). (nih.gov)
- The inflammatory cells and fibrosis in the wall of the external ear canal are shown in greater detail. (nih.gov)
- Chronic inflammation of the ear with accumulation of fluid, cerumen, and cellular debris in the ear canal can result in cystic dilation of the ear canal (see Ear canal - Dilation). (nih.gov)
- The fat is then tucked into the perforation, extending both into the canal and into the middle ear space. (medscape.com)
- In these cases, an incision may be made behind the ear or entirely through the ear canal, depending on the location and size of the TMP. (medscape.com)
- Conductive hearing loss happens because of a problem in the ear canal, eardrum, or the middle ear that prevents sound from carrying well to the inner ear. (webmd.com)
- Now with one exciting new trainer, students, residents, and practicing physicians can master the skills needed to examine the human ear using visual cues, correctly diagnose common diseases, clean the ear canal, remove a foreign body, and perform a myringotomy with ear tube insertion. (medstore.ie)
Eardrum and middle ear2
- Deafness - If skin erodes into the inner ear total deafness can occur. (entsurgicalillinois.com)
- A CT scan is usually ordered to determine whether the cholesteatoma has eroded any critical structures, such as the inner ear, facial nerve, brain cavity, and to help with surgical planning. (entsurgicalillinois.com)
- Sensorineural hearing loss happens most often from damage to the hair cells in the inner ear. (webmd.com)
- There may be a problem in the outer or middle ear and in the inner ear or auditory nerve. (webmd.com)
- The sound waves then travel through your inner ear, which is a shell-shaped, fluid-filled tube called the cochlea. (webmd.com)
- Ear endoscopes are often used to help remove cholesteatoma from hard to reach parts of the middle ear. (entsurgicalillinois.com)
- 14. [Surgical treatment of external auricular cholesteatoma involving tympanum and papilloma]. (nih.gov)
- GUERRA, C. Surgical management of middle ear cholesteatoma and reconstruction at the same time. (univalle.edu.co)
- People who come to Mayo Clinic with disorders of the ear are treated by a multidisciplinary team of experts whose medical and surgical practice is dedicated to managing hearing loss, infections of the ear, cholesteatoma, and tumors involving the ear and skull (otologists and neurotologists). (mayoclinic.org)
- The majority (72.4%) of cholesteatoma patients had suffered from otitis media episodes. (nih.gov)
- Rate of chronic otitis media operations and cholesteatoma surgeries in South Korea: a nationwide population-based study (2006-2018). (nih.gov)
- Suppurative chronic otitis" is a term used to describe an eardrum that keeps rupturing, draining, or swelling in the middle ear or mastoid area and does not go away. (medlineplus.gov)
- [ 1 ] Chronic otitis media with perforation may be associated with a chronic draining ear or cholesteatoma. (medscape.com)
- Long-standing (chronic) ear infections of the middle ear (otitis media) may occur as a result of a hole in the eardrum or an irregular growth of skin behind the eardrum (cholesteatoma). (mayoclinic.org)
- Cerebrospinal fluid leak - This can occur if the cholesteatoma erodes through the roof of your ear bone (temporal bone), which is also the floor of your cranium (where your brain sits). (entsurgicalillinois.com)
- Typically a cholesteatoma occur. (aapc.com)
- They may occur in one or both ears. (medlineplus.gov)
- [ 2 ] Traumatic perforations occur from blows to the ear, severe atmospheric overpressure, exposure to excessive water pressure (eg, in scuba divers), and improper attempts at wax removal or ear cleaning. (medscape.com)
- All the observed signs occur in the structure of matrix and perimatrix of cholesteatoma. (osu.cz)
Skin growth occurring in1
- A cholesteatoma is skin growth occurring in the middle ear or mastoid bone behind the eardrum. (entsurgicalillinois.com)
- There was no accumulation of cholesteatoma diseases in lower social groups. (nih.gov)
- Published in Coding Edge 8211 April 2007 By Deborah Grider CPC CPCH CPCI CPCP CEMC CPMA COBGC CPCD CCSP This months focus is understanding the ICD10CM Draft Guidelines for Diseases of the Ear and Mast. (aapc.com)
- study found hearing loss among 13.7% of Clusters started at the level of districts and schoolchildren in Ismailia governorate , went down to apartments/place of residence but they used only tympanometry to test for which were considered the end-sampling middle ear diseases. (who.int)
Abnormal skin growth3
- Cholesteatoma is an abnormal skin growth in the middle ear behind the eardrum. (aapc.com)
- This infection caused a cholesteatoma, or abnormal skin growth, to develop in the middle ear behind the ear drum. (watsi.org)
- A patient who needs a mastoidectomy will experience hearing loss, chronic ear infections, and possibly cholesteatoma-an abnormal skin growth in the middle ear. (watsi.org)
- On February 9th, he will undergo a mastoidectomy procedure in his left ear. (watsi.org)
- Simple (or closed) mastoidectomy: The operation is performed through the ear or through an incision behind the ear. (watsi.org)
- Radical mastoidectomy: This procedure removes the most bone and is usually performed for extensive spread of a cholesteatoma. (watsi.org)
- Modified radical mastoidectomy: In this procedure, some middle ear bones are left in place, and the eardrum is rebuilt by tympanoplasty. (watsi.org)
- CT scan of the middle ear showed bilateral cholesteatoma and mastoiditis. (cdc.gov)
- A cholesteatoma usually begins as a cyst that sheds layers of dead skin. (azhear.com)
- A cholesteatoma is treated with surgery since that is the only way to remove the cyst. (azhear.com)
- Prior to surgery, patients are given antibiotics and ear drops to treat the infected cyst and prepare it for removal. (azhear.com)
- Often a second surgery will also be scheduled to repair any damage that the cyst caused to the middle ear and to ensure that the cyst was fully removed. (azhear.com)
- Pediatric cholesteatomas demonstrated higher incidence of acute inflammation and more extensive disease relative to those from the adults. (elsevier.com)
- Impact of cleft palate type on the incidence of acquired cholesteatoma. (nih.gov)
- Cholesteatomas can also become chronically infected, leading to infections and foul-smelling drainage. (entsurgicalillinois.com)
- Meningitis/brain abscess - Your brain is adjacent to your ear and cholesteatoma can potentially lead to severe brain infections. (entsurgicalillinois.com)
- Priority 2) Dry ear - The next priority is to have an ear that does not frequently drain or have infections after surgery. (entsurgicalillinois.com)
- Ear infections are more common in children because their eustachian tubes are shorter, narrower, and more horizontal than in adults. (medlineplus.gov)
- Chronic ear infections are much less common than acute ear infections. (medlineplus.gov)
- Chronic ear infections often respond to treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
- Chronic ear infections are not life threatening. (medlineplus.gov)
- Souhaimy is a 20-year-old hardworking student from Cambodia who needs $926 to fund ear surgery to relieve him of pain and infections. (watsi.org)
- Patients live with hearing loss and chronic ear infections. (watsi.org)
- Chronic ear infections. (mayoclinic.org)
- The most common cause of a cholesteatoma is repeated middle ear infections. (azhear.com)
- Sinus infections, ear infections, allergies, and colds all may cause the eustachian tubes to not function properly. (azhear.com)
- Taking care of ear infections as soon as they happen is another preventative measure that can be taken. (azhear.com)
- Chronic ear infection is fluid, swelling, or an infection behind the eardrum that does not go away or keeps coming back. (medlineplus.gov)
- A chronic ear infection develops when fluid or an infection behind the eardrum does not go away. (medlineplus.gov)
- Symptoms of a chronic ear infection may be less severe than symptoms of an acute infection. (medlineplus.gov)
- A CT scan of the head or mastoids may show that the infection has spread beyond the middle ear. (medlineplus.gov)
- Getting prompt treatment for an acute ear infection may reduce the risk of developing a chronic ear infection. (medlineplus.gov)
- Have a follow-up exam with your provider after an ear infection has been treated to make sure that it is completely cured. (medlineplus.gov)
- An ear infection , trauma, a mass (cholesteatoma), fluid, or an object in the ear (such as wax buildup) can cause it. (webmd.com)
- Usually, the hearing loss from an ear infection is mild and goes away shortly. (webmd.com)
- An ear infection, loud sounds, trauma, or intense pressure in the ear from flying in an airplane or scuba diving can damage the eardrum, leaving a hole that may or may not heal. (webmd.com)
- When he was a child, Souhaimy had an ear infection. (watsi.org)
- The purpose of the present study was to investigate the cell to cell and epithelial-stroma interaction of acquired cholesteatoma in adults and children and search for differences on the cellular level, which might explain the different behavior of these lesions. (elsevier.com)
- Thus the observed clinical more aggressive behavior of pediatric cholesteatoma is likely due to other secondary factors such as more intense inflammation, disturbed middle ear ventilation or the diminished calcium salt content of pediatric bone. (elsevier.com)
- Figure 1 Ear - Inflammation, Acute in a male Fischer 344/N rat from a chronic study. (nih.gov)
- Figure 3 Ear - Inflammation, Suppurative in a male F344/N rat from a chronic study. (nih.gov)
- Figure 4 Ear - Inflammation, Chronic in a female Fischer/344N rat from a chronic study. (nih.gov)
- Inflammation of the ear should be diagnosed and graded. (nih.gov)
- Steroid control of acute middle ear inflammation in a mouse model. (nih.gov)
- Despite a putative positive correlation between the frequency of the 538G allele and the prevalence of cholesteatoma , minimal clinical information is currently available. (bvsalud.org)
- The provider may recommend using a mild acidic solution (such as vinegar and water) for a hard-to-treat infected ear that has a hole (perforation). (medlineplus.gov)
- It is important to retract the fat slightly to prevent the edges of the perforation from growing inward to the middle ear and to avoid the formation of a cholesteatoma. (medscape.com)
- Treated incorrectly or left untreated, an infected mastoid bone can cause hearing loss, persistent ear discharge, meningitis, temporary dizziness, and temporary loss of taste. (watsi.org)
- Pure-tone (PT) audiometry measures throughout the outer ear, middle ear, cochlea, cranial nerve (CN) VIII, and central auditory system. (medscape.com)
- Dr. Rivas's research endeavors on endoscopic ear surgery and hearing loss target the use of the least invasive and less morbid management options to improve auditory outcomes of hearing-impaired patients. (uhhospitals.org)
- What are the normal symptoms from a cholesteatoma? (entsurgicalillinois.com)
- The most common symptoms are ear drainage, hearing loss, and ear fullness. (entsurgicalillinois.com)
- This can alleviate the initial symptoms, yet surgery is still recommended to avoid damage to critical structures in and around the ear. (entsurgicalillinois.com)
- The symptoms of a cholesteatoma are mild at first but worsen as the intermittent discharge builds up in the ear. (azhear.com)
- In this situation, parents should keep a close watch on their children to be on the lookout for the symptoms of a cholesteatoma. (azhear.com)
- Additional symptoms of Bell's palsy may include mild pain in or behind the ear, oropharyngeal or facial numbness, impaired tolerance to ordinary levels of noise, and disturbed taste on the anterior part of the tongue. (illnesshacker.com)
- The proportion of participants with ABCC11 538GG or GA was significantly higher in the cholesteatoma group than in the control group or general Japanese population (P (bvsalud.org)
- The ABCC11 538G allele frequency was also significantly higher in the cholesteatoma group than in the control group or general Japanese population (P (bvsalud.org)
- Tympanostomy was carried out in 10.2% and adenoidectomy or adenotonsillectomy in 15.9% of all cholesteatoma ears prior to cholesteatoma surgery. (nih.gov)
- In order to remove a cholesteatoma, surgery is necessary. (entsurgicalillinois.com)
- Priority 3) Hearing ear - The last, but still important, priority is to have an ear that hears well following surgery. (entsurgicalillinois.com)
- Operative specimens of 54 patients [40 adults (average age of 39.7 years), 14 children (average age of 8.3 years)] who underwent primary surgery for an acquired cholesteatoma of the middle ear were examined by histopathology and DNA-image cytometry (DNA-ICM). (elsevier.com)
- He is considered one of the pioneers of endoscopic ear surgery in the United States and the world. (uhhospitals.org)
- In addition, he serves as a reviewer for a number of academic journals, is the secretary of the Iberoamerican Cochlear Implant Group (GICCA) and is a board member of the International Working Group on Endoscopic Ear Surgery (IWGEES). (uhhospitals.org)
- He said, "I hope my ear is better after surgery. (watsi.org)
- Damage to the facial nerve during ear surgery. (illnesshacker.com)
- Priority 1) Safe ear - The highest priority is that the cholesteatoma does not reach your brain, damage your facial nerve, or cause total deafness in that ear. (entsurgicalillinois.com)
- It causes long-term or permanent damage to the ear. (medlineplus.gov)
- Hearing loss from damage to the middle ear may slow language and speech development. (medlineplus.gov)
- Cholesteatomas grow slowly, but if left unchecked can have severe consequences. (entsurgicalillinois.com)
- A small incision is usually made behind the ear, but that can sometimes be avoided if the cholesteatoma is caught early enough. (entsurgicalillinois.com)
- All three goals are always sought, however depending on the severity of the cholesteatoma, they cannot always be achieved. (entsurgicalillinois.com)
- In June 2006, a 27-year-old immunocompetent man was hospitalized in Campinas (São Paulo, Brazil) for fever, cough with purulent bloody sputum, and discharge from and pain in both ears. (cdc.gov)
- Ear discharge culture grew Proteus mirabilis, sensitive to β-lactams, cephalosporins, and aminoglycosides. (cdc.gov)
- The causative agent may have been undetectable in ear discharge if it was overshadowed by a strain of P. mirabilis, a fastidious organism that also colonizes or co-infects this site. (cdc.gov)
- I am embarrassed about the discharge and I can't remember my ear ever feeling normal. (watsi.org)
- Cholesteatomas cause hearing loss and ear discharge. (watsi.org)
- When there is more discharge, it will begin to put pressure inside the ear which can be uncomfortable and even cause a hearing loss. (azhear.com)
- Similarly, the location of the lesion within the ear should be indicated with an appropriate site modifier (external ear or middle ear). (nih.gov)
- Some topical eardrops carry the risk of ototoxicity when exposed to the middle ear. (medscape.com)
- Skull fractures involving the temporal bone - the bone that contains the middle ear. (illnesshacker.com)
- Images of the 30 patients (60 temporal bones including 30 with and 30 without cholesteatoma) were reviewed by two independent neuroradiologists. (qxmd.com)
- In this study, 13.2% of patients had ear trauma or ear operation in anamnes. (nih.gov)
- Your eustachian tube is supposed to equalize pressure between your middle ear and the outside world. (entsurgicalillinois.com)
- Your health care provider will look in the ears using an otoscope. (medlineplus.gov)
- The response only emanates from the cochlea, but the outer and middle ear must be able to transmit the emitted sound back to the recording microphone. (medscape.com)
- A surgeon may need to clean out (debride) tissue that has gathered inside the ear. (medlineplus.gov)
- Welkoborsky, HJ, Jacob, RS & Hinni, ML 2007, ' Comparative analysis of the epithelium stroma interaction of acquired middle ear cholesteatoma in children and adults ', European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology , vol. 264, no. 8, pp. 841-848. (elsevier.com)
- A mass of KERATIN-producing squamous EPITHELIUM that resembles an inverted (suck-in) bag of skin in the MIDDLE EAR . (nih.gov)