Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Cholestasis, Intrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow due to injury to the HEPATOCYTES; BILE CANALICULI; or the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC).Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic: Passages external to the liver for the conveyance of bile. These include the COMMON BILE DUCT and the common hepatic duct (HEPATIC DUCT, COMMON).Cholestasis, Extrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow in the large BILE DUCTS by mechanical obstruction or stricture due to benign or malignant processes.Bile Ducts: The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.Biliary Atresia: Progressive destruction or the absence of all or part of the extrahepatic BILE DUCTS, resulting in the complete obstruction of BILE flow. Usually, biliary atresia is found in infants and accounts for one third of the neonatal cholestatic JAUNDICE.Cholagogues and Choleretics: Gastrointestinal agents that stimulate the flow of bile into the duodenum (cholagogues) or stimulate the production of bile by the liver (choleretic).Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Ursodeoxycholic Acid: An epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a mammalian bile acid found first in the bear and is apparently either a precursor or a product of chenodeoxycholate. Its administration changes the composition of bile and may dissolve gallstones. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic: Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.1-Naphthylisothiocyanate: A tool for the study of liver damage which causes bile stasis and hyperbilirubinemia acutely and bile duct hyperplasia and biliary cirrhosis chronically, with changes in hepatocyte function. It may cause skin and kidney damage.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Biliary Tract: The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Cholangiocarcinoma: A malignant tumor arising from the epithelium of the BILE DUCTS.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Jaundice, Neonatal: Yellow discoloration of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA in the NEWBORN. It is a sign of NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Most cases are transient self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) occurring in the first week of life, but some can be a sign of pathological disorders, particularly LIVER DISEASES.Jaundice, Obstructive: Jaundice, the condition with yellowish staining of the skin and mucous membranes, that is due to impaired BILE flow in the BILIARY TRACT, such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS, or EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS.Bile Canaliculi: Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.Hepatic Duct, Common: Predominantly extrahepatic bile duct which is formed by the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts, which are predominantly intrahepatic, and, in turn, joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct.Jaundice: A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Cholangitis: Inflammation of the biliary ductal system (BILE DUCTS); intrahepatic, extrahepatic, or both.Common Bile Duct: The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Pruritus: An intense itching sensation that produces the urge to rub or scratch the skin to obtain relief.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.P-Glycoproteins: A subfamily of transmembrane proteins from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that are closely related in sequence to P-GLYCOPROTEIN. When overexpressed, they function as ATP-dependent efflux pumps able to extrude lipophilic drugs, especially ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, from cells causing multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although P-Glycoproteins share functional similarities to MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS they are two distinct subclasses of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS, and have little sequence homology.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to obstruction of BILE flow (CHOLESTASIS) in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC; BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile secretion. Secondary biliary cirrhosis is produced by prolonged obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts from a variety of causes.Biliary Tract Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer in the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Hypertension, Portal: Abnormal increase of resistance to blood flow within the hepatic PORTAL SYSTEM, frequently seen in LIVER CIRRHOSIS and conditions with obstruction of the PORTAL VEIN.Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Taurochenodeoxycholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of chenodeoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as detergent to solubilize fats in the small intestine and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.Klatskin's Tumor: Adenocarcinoma of the common hepatic duct bifurcation. These tumors are generally small, sharply localized, and seldom metastasizing. G. Klatskin's original review of 13 cases was published in 1965. Once thought to be relatively uncommon, tumors of the bifurcation of the bile duct now appear to comprise more than one-half of all bile duct cancers. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1457)Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Cholangiography: An imaging test of the BILIARY TRACT in which a contrast dye (RADIOPAQUE MEDIA) is injected into the BILE DUCT and x-ray pictures are taken.Ethinyl Estradiol: A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Adenoma, Bile Duct: A benign tumor of the intrahepatic bile ducts.Portoenterostomy, Hepatic: Operation for biliary atresia by anastomosis of the bile ducts into the jejunum or duodenum.Lithocholic Acid: A bile acid formed from chenodeoxycholate by bacterial action, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as cholagogue and choleretic.Biliary Tract Diseases: Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde: Fiberoptic endoscopy designed for duodenal observation and cannulation of VATER'S AMPULLA, in order to visualize the pancreatic and biliary duct system by retrograde injection of contrast media. Endoscopic (Vater) papillotomy (SPHINCTEROTOMY, ENDOSCOPIC) may be performed during this procedure.Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cholic Acid: A major primary bile acid produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption and cholesterol excretion.Portography: Examination of the portal circulation by the use of X-ray films after injection of radiopaque material.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Alagille Syndrome: A multisystem disorder that is characterized by aplasia of intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC), and malformations in the cardiovascular system, the eyes, the vertebral column, and the facies. Major clinical features include JAUNDICE, and congenital heart disease with peripheral PULMONARY STENOSIS. Alagille syndrome may result from heterogeneous gene mutations, including mutations in JAG1 on CHROMOSOME 20 (Type 1) and NOTCH2 on CHROMOSOME 1 (Type 2).Hyperbilirubinemia: A condition characterized by an abnormal increase of BILIRUBIN in the blood, which may result in JAUNDICE. Bilirubin, a breakdown product of HEME, is normally excreted in the BILE or further catabolized before excretion in the urine.Coleus: A plant genus of the family Lamiaceae. The species of Coleus should be distinguished from PLECTRANTHUS BARBATUS - which is also known as Coleus forskohlii.Portal System: A system of vessels in which blood, after passing through one capillary bed, is conveyed through a second set of capillaries before it returns to the systemic circulation. It pertains especially to the hepatic portal system.Biliary Tract Surgical Procedures: Any surgical procedure performed on the biliary tract.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Gallbladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.Bile Duct Diseases: Diseases in any part of the ductal system of the BILIARY TRACT from the smallest BILE CANALICULI to the largest COMMON BILE DUCT.Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.Gallbladder: A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Imino AcidsCitrullinemia: A group of diseases related to a deficiency of the enzyme ARGININOSUCCINATE SYNTHASE which causes an elevation of serum levels of CITRULLINE. In neonates, clinical manifestations include lethargy, hypotonia, and SEIZURES. Milder forms also occur. Childhood and adult forms may present with recurrent episodes of intermittent weakness, lethargy, ATAXIA, behavioral changes, and DYSARTHRIA. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p49)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Gallstones: Solid crystalline precipitates in the BILIARY TRACT, usually formed in the GALLBLADDER, resulting in the condition of CHOLELITHIASIS. Gallstones, derived from the BILE, consist mainly of calcium, cholesterol, or bilirubin.Portasystemic Shunt, Surgical: Surgical venous shunt between the portal and systemic circulation to effect decompression of the portal circulation. It is performed primarily in the treatment of bleeding esophageal varices resulting from portal hypertension. Types of shunt include portacaval, splenorenal, mesocaval, splenocaval, left gastric-caval (coronary-caval), portarenal, umbilicorenal, and umbilicocaval.Cholecystectomy: Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Cholangitis, Sclerosing: Chronic inflammatory disease of the BILIARY TRACT. It is characterized by fibrosis and hardening of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary ductal systems leading to bile duct strictures, CHOLESTASIS, and eventual BILIARY CIRRHOSIS.Organic Anion Transporters: Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Taurocholic Acid: The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.Choledochal Cyst: A congenital anatomic malformation of a bile duct, including cystic dilatation of the extrahepatic bile duct or the large intrahepatic bile duct. Classification is based on the site and type of dilatation. Type I is most common.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Dependent: A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.Lipoprotein-X: An abnormal lipoprotein present in large amounts in patients with obstructive liver diseases such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS. LP-X derives from the reflux of BILE lipoproteins into the bloodstream. LP-X is a low-density lipoprotein rich in free CHOLESTEROL and PHOSPHOLIPIDS but poor in TRIGLYCERIDES; CHOLESTEROL ESTERS; and protein.Norethandrolone: A synthetic hormone with anabolic and androgenic properties and moderate progestational activity.Arthrogryposis: Persistent flexure or contracture of a joint.Dothiepin: A tricyclic antidepressant with some tranquilizing action.Parenteral Nutrition: The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).Liver Failure: Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)Common Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumor or cancer of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.Sulfobromophthalein: A phenolphthalein that is used as a diagnostic aid in hepatic function determination.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Cholic Acids: The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Taurolithocholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver from lithocholic acid conjugation with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It solubilizes fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is a cholagogue and choleretic.Glycochenodeoxycholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver from chenodeoxycholate and glycine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is a cholagogue and choleretic.Parenteral Nutrition, Total: The delivery of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient whose sole source of nutrients is via solutions administered intravenously, subcutaneously, or by some other non-alimentary route. The basic components of TPN solutions are protein hydrolysates or free amino acid mixtures, monosaccharides, and electrolytes. Components are selected for their ability to reverse catabolism, promote anabolism, and build structural proteins.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Cholelithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).Esophageal and Gastric Varices: Dilated blood vessels in the ESOPHAGUS or GASTRIC FUNDUS that shunt blood from the portal circulation (PORTAL SYSTEM) to the systemic venous circulation. Often they are observed in individuals with portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL).Pregnanetriol: A metabolite of 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE, normally produced in small quantities by the GONADS and the ADRENAL GLANDS, found in URINE. An elevated urinary pregnanetriol is associated with CONGENITAL ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA with a deficiency of STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Splenic Vein: Vein formed by the union (at the hilus of the spleen) of several small veins from the stomach, pancreas, spleen and mesentery.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Chenodeoxycholic Acid: A bile acid, usually conjugated with either glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption and is reabsorbed by the small intestine. It is used as cholagogue, a choleretic laxative, and to prevent or dissolve gallstones.Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance: Non-invasive diagnostic technique for visualizing the PANCREATIC DUCTS and BILE DUCTS without the use of injected CONTRAST MEDIA or x-ray. MRI scans provide excellent sensitivity for duct dilatation, biliary stricture, and intraductal abnormalities.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Epichlorohydrin: A chlorinated epoxy compound used as an industrial solvent. It is a strong skin irritant and carcinogen.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Glucuronosyltransferase: A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.Technetium Tc 99m Disofenin: A radiopharmaceutical used extensively in cholescintigraphy for the evaluation of hepatobiliary diseases. (From Int Jrnl Rad Appl Inst 1992;43(9):1061-4)Fat Emulsions, Intravenous: Emulsions of fats or lipids used primarily in parenteral feeding.Glycocholic Acid: The glycine conjugate of CHOLIC ACID. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed.Hepatomegaly: Enlargement of the liver.Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in cardiovascular and cerebral circulation.Mice, Inbred C57BLRNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Cryoglobulinemia: A condition characterized by the presence of abnormal quantities of CRYOGLOBULINS in the blood. Upon cold exposure, these abnormal proteins precipitate into the microvasculature leading to restricted blood flow in the exposed areas.Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins: A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Steroid 12-alpha-Hydroxylase: A liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 12-alpha-hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of sterols in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP8B1gene, converts 7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one to 7-alpha-12-alpha-dihydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and is required in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS from cholesterol.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Mesenteric Veins: Veins which return blood from the intestines; the inferior mesenteric vein empties into the splenic vein, the superior mesenteric vein joins the splenic vein to form the portal vein.Antipruritics: Agents, usually topical, that relieve itching (pruritus).Choledochostomy: Surgical formation of an opening (stoma) into the COMMON BILE DUCT for drainage or for direct communication with a site in the small intestine, primarily the DUODENUM or JEJUNUM.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Infant, Newborn, Diseases: Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.Chemoembolization, Therapeutic: Administration of antineoplastic agents together with an embolizing vehicle. This allows slow release of the agent as well as obstruction of the blood supply to the neoplasm.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Jejunostomy: Surgical formation of an opening through the ABDOMINAL WALL into the JEJUNUM, usually for enteral hyperalimentation.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.17-alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone: A 21-carbon steroid that is converted from PREGNENOLONE by STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE. It is an intermediate in the delta-5 pathway of biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Biliary Fistula: Abnormal passage in any organ of the biliary tract or between biliary organs and other organs.Cystadenoma: A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cefotiam: One of the CEPHALOSPORINS that has a broad spectrum of activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms.Drainage: The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Ethiodized Oil: Ethyl ester of iodinated fatty acid of poppyseed oil. It contains 37% organically bound iodine and has been used as a diagnostic aid (radiopaque medium) and as an antineoplastic agent when part of the iodine is 131-I. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

Effects of chronic nitric oxide activation or inhibition on early hepatic fibrosis in rats with bile duct ligation. (1/191)

Hepatic fibrosis or increased liver collagen contents drive functional abnormalities that, when extensive, may be life threatening. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of the chronic stimulation or inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis in rats with hepatic fibrosis induced by permanent common bile duct ligation (3 weeks) and the role of expression of the different nitric oxide synthase isoforms. Bile duct ligation led to an important accumulation of collagen in the hepatic parenchyma, as shown both histologically and by the hydroxyproline contents of livers. Bilirubin and serum enzyme activities (measured as markers of cholestasis) increased several-fold after bile duct ligation. The area of fibrotic tissue, liver hydroxyproline content and serum markers of cholestasis were clearly related in obstructed rats. The absence of modifications in haemodynamic parameters excludes circulatory changes from being responsible for the development of liver alterations. In animals treated with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) the area of fibrosis was similar to that of untreated animals, the signs of cholestasis and cellular injury being more evident. In rats treated with L-arginine the area of fibrosis was almost three times larger than that found in bile duct ligated rats and in L-NAME-treated bile duct ligated rats, although the observed biochemical changes were similar to those seen in rats treated with L-NAME. Our results with inducible nitric oxide synthase, obtained by Western blots and immunohistochemistry, indicate a greater expression of the inducible enzyme in bile duct ligated and L-arginine-treated animals and a lower expression in the L-NAME and control groups. Constitutive nitric oxide synthase expression, obtained by Western blots, was very similar in all groups, except for the L-arginine-treated rats in which it was lower. These results suggest that nitric oxide production may be a key factor in the development of fibrosis in bile duct ligated rats. They also support the hypothesis of a dual role for nitric oxide; one beneficial, mediated by its circulatory effects, and the second negative, through its local toxic effects.  (+info)

Carcinoids of the common bile duct: a case report and literature review. (2/191)

Carcinoids of the extrahepatic bile ducts and particularly the common bile duct are extremely rare. A 65-year-old woman presented with obstructive jaundice. Laboratory and imaging studies gave results that were consistent with an obstructing lesion in the common bile duct. In this case, a stent was inserted initially to decompress the bile ducts. Subsequently a laparotomy and pancreaticoduodenectomy were performed and a tissue diagnosis of carcinoid of the common bile duct was made. The patient was well with no evidence of recurrence 17 months postoperatively. The authors believe this is the 19th reported case of an extrahepatic bile duct carcinoid.  (+info)

Biliary obstruction in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients: an uncommon diagnosis with specific causes. (3/191)

Jaundice is a common problem in marrow transplant recipients. The incidence of bile duct obstruction in this setting is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of biliary obstruction, the causes, and outcomes following marrow transplant. Consecutive cases were reviewed at two major transplant centers in the United States from 1969 to 1996 at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and 1989 to 1996 at the City of Hope National Medical Center. Nine cases of biliary obstruction were identified as a cause of jaundice in 7412 marrow transplant recipients, an incidence of 0.12%. The presentation was bimodal, with seven cases occurring prior to day 100 and two occurring 2 to 4 years after transplantation. The age distribution was 15 to 50 years and all patients had received allogeneic transplants. The causes of obstruction included gallbladder sludge (n=1), a duodenal hematoma (n=1), choledocholithiasis with biliary pancreatitis (n=1), bile duct infection (n=2), recurrent malignancy (n=1), choledocholithiasis associated with a benign stricture (n=1), Epstein-Barr virus-related lymphoproliferative disorder (n=1), and a benign stricture of unknown etiology (n=1). Biliary obstruction is a rare cause of jaundice in the post-transplant period. The presentation was similar to that of other post-transplant hepatobiliary problems, but with disparate causes.  (+info)

Biliary stenting versus bypass surgery for the palliation of malignant distal bile duct obstruction: a meta-analysis. (4/191)

The objective of this analysis is to compare endoscopic stenting with surgical bypass in patients with unresectable, malignant, distal common bile duct obstruction using the technique of meta-analysis. The inclusion criteria for the studies were randomized patient assignment, publication in the English language, 20 or more patients per group, all patients followed up until death, and follow-up and complications reported in an equivalent way for both treatment arms. Data extraction was performed independently by 2 of the authors. The number of treatment failures, serious complications, requirement for additional treatment sessions, and 30-day mortality were extracted. Three existing trials met the inclusion criteria, all of which compared surgery with the use of plastic stents. There were no studies identified that used metallic expandable stents. For the rate of treatment failure and serious complications, the odds ratios (ORs) of the 3 trials were heterogeneous, and no summary ORs were calculated. More treatment sessions were required after stent placement than after surgery, and a common OR was estimated to be 7.23 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.73 to 13.98). Thirty-day mortality was not significantly different (OR = 0.522; 95% CI, 0.263 to 1.036). Although surgical bypass required fewer additional treatment sessions, existing data do not allow a definitive conclusion on which treatment is preferable. A larger randomized controlled trial using newer metallic stents and proper quality-of-life instruments is required.  (+info)

Manometric changes during retrograde biliary infusion in mice. (5/191)

The manometric, ultrastructural, radiographic, and physiological consequences of retrograde biliary infusion were determined in normostatic and cholestatic mice. Intraluminal biliary pressure changed as a function of infusion volume, rate, and viscosity. Higher rates of constant infusion resulted in higher peak intraluminal biliary pressures. The pattern of pressure changes observed was consistent with biliary ductular and/or canalicular filling followed by leakage at a threshold pressure. Retrograde infusion with significant elevations in pressure led to paracellular leakage of lanthanum chloride, radiopaque dye, and [(14)C]sucrose with rapid systemic redistribution via sinusoidal and subsequent hepatic venous drainage. Chronic extrahepatic bile duct obstruction resulted in significantly smaller peak intrabiliary pressures and lower levels of paracellular leakage. These findings indicate that under both normostatic and cholestatic conditions elevated intrabiliary volumes/pressures result in an acute pressure-dependent physical opening of tight junctions, permitting the movement of infusate from the intrabiliary space into the subepithelial tissue compartment. Control of intraluminal pressure may potentially permit the selective delivery of macromolecules >18-20 A in diameter to specific histological compartments.  (+info)

Extrahepatic biliary obstruction due to post-laparoscopic cholecystectomy biloma. (6/191)

BACKGROUND: Jaundice presenting after cholecystectomy may be the initial manifestation of a serious surgical misadventure and requires rigorous diagnostic pursuit and therapeutic intervention. Biloma is a well recognized postcholecystectomy complication that often accompanies biliary ductal injury. CASE REPORT: A 23-year-old female underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstones and three weeks postoperatively developed painless jaundice. Radiographic and endoscopic studies revealed a subhepatic biloma causing extrinsic compression and obstruction of the common hepatic duct. RESULTS: Percutaneous catheter drainage of the biloma combined with endoscopic sphincterotomy successfully relieved the extrahepatic biliary obstruction and resolved the intrahepatic ductal leak responsible for the biloma. CONCLUSION: Although heretofore undescribed, postcholecystectomy jaundice due to extrahepatic bile duct obstruction caused by biloma may occur and can be successfully treated by means of standard radiologic and endoscopic interventions.  (+info)

Detection of Ki-ras gene point mutations in bile specimens for the differential diagnosis of malignant and benign biliary strictures. (7/191)

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The present study was undertaken to determine if detection of Ki-ras gene point mutations in bile specimens could differentiate between benign and malignant biliary strictures. PATIENTS: Bile specimens were obtained from 117 patients exhibiting a stricture of the main bile duct, the nature of which was assessed by cholangiography, histology, and follow up. METHODS: DNA from frozen bile specimens was extracted, amplified, and tested for codon 12 point mutations of Ki-ras gene using sequence specific oligonucleotide hybridisation and mutant allele specific amplification. RESULTS: DNA amplification was successful in 110/117 bile specimens (94%). Detection of Ki-ras gene mutations in bile specimens was positive in 24.4% (22/90) of patients with malignant strictures, in 31.4% (22/70) when only primary malignant tumours were considered, and in 4% (1/25) of patients with benign strictures. Of the 49 patients with histological specimens obtained before surgery, the sensitivity of histology, Ki-ras mutation analysis, and combined methods was 59.2%, 28.6%, and 73.5% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that Ki-ras mutations may be detected in about one third of bile specimens from patients with primary tumours invading the main bile duct. Detection of such mutations appears to be specific and may help to differentiate between benign and malignant biliary strictures.  (+info)

Postoperative bile duct strictures: management and outcome in the 1990s. (8/191)

OBJECTIVE: To describe the management and outcome after surgical reconstruction of 156 patients with postoperative bile duct strictures managed in the 1990s. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The management of postoperative bile duct strictures and major bile duct injuries remains a challenge for even the most skilled biliary tract surgeon. The 1990s saw a dramatic increase in the incidence of bile duct strictures and injuries from the introduction and widespread use of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Although the management of these injuries and short-term outcome have been reported, long-term follow-up is limited. METHODS: Data were collected prospectively on 156 patients treated at the Johns Hopkins Hospital with major bile duct injuries or postoperative bile duct strictures between January 1990 and December 1999. With the exception of bile duct injuries discovered and repaired during surgery, all patients underwent preoperative percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and placement of transhepatic biliary catheters before surgical repair. Follow-up was conducted by medical record review or telephone interview during January 2000. RESULTS: Of the 156 patients undergoing surgical reconstruction, 142 had completed treatment with a mean follow-up of 57.5 months. Two patients died of reasons unrelated to biliary tract disease before the completion of treatment. Twelve patients (7.9%) had not completed treatment and still had biliary stents in place at the time of this report. Of patients who had completed treatment, 90. 8% were considered to have a successful outcome without the need for follow-up invasive, diagnos tic, or therapeutic interventional procedures. Patients with reconstruction after injury or stricture after laparoscopic cholecystectomy had a better overall outcome than patients whose postoperative stricture developed after other types of surgery. Presenting symptoms, number of stents, interval to referral, prior repair, and length of postoperative stenting were not significant predictors of outcome. Overall, a successful outcome, without the need for biliary stents, was obtained in 98% of patients, including those requiring a secondary procedure for recurrent stricture. CONCLUSIONS: Major bile duct injuries and postoperative bile duct strictures remain a considerable surgical challenge. Management with preoperative cholangiography to delineate the anatomy and placement of percutaneous biliary catheters, followed by surgical reconstruction with a Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy, is associated with a successful outcome in up to 98% of patients.  (+info)

*FGF19

... of the bile salt-homeostatic hormone fibroblast growth factor 19 in the liver of patients with extrahepatic cholestasis". ... FGF19 is also found in the liver of patients with cholestasis. It can be synthesised in the gall-bladder and secreted into bile ...

*Cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase

... of the bile salt-homeostatic hormone fibroblast growth factor 19 in the liver of patients with extrahepatic cholestasis". ...

*Cholestasis

These areas are known as bile lakes, and are typically seen only with extra-hepatic obstruction. Extrahepatic cholestasis can ... In a later stage of cholestasis AST, ALT and bilirubin may be elevated due to liver damage as a secondary effect of cholestasis ... Jaundice is an uncommon occurrence in intrahepatic (metabolic) cholestasis, but is common in obstructive cholestasis. Pale ... Jaundice Liver function tests Lipoprotein-X - an abnormal low density lipoprotein found in cholestasis Intrahepatic cholestasis ...

*Albert Gombault

... which is a late-stage complication of extra-hepatic cholestasis. (Eponym known from historical literature). Gombault-Philippe ...

*FibroTest

... drug-induced hepatitis Extrahepatic cholestasis, e.g., pancreatic cancer, gallstones Severe hemolysis, e.g., some cardiac ...

*List of MeSH codes (C06)

... cholestasis MeSH C06.130.120.135.150 --- cholestasis, extrahepatic MeSH C06.130.120.135.250 --- cholestasis, intrahepatic MeSH ...

*Liver function tests

ALP levels in plasma rise with large bile duct obstruction, intrahepatic cholestasis, or infiltrative diseases of the liver. ... or extrahepatic biliary system, and in some laboratories, is used as a substitute for GGT for ascertaining whether an elevated ... Other tests commonly requested alongside LFTs include 5' Nucleotidase (5'NTD) is another test specific for cholestasis or ... AST/ALT elevations instead of ALP elevations favor liver cell necrosis as a mechanism over cholestasis. When AST and ALT are ...

*Ursodeoxycholic acid

It is also used to relieve itching in pregnancy for some women who suffer obstetric cholestasis. While some bile acids are ... Kotb MA (July 2008). "Review of historical cohort: ursodeoxycholic acid in extrahepatic biliary atresia". Journal of Pediatric ... Ursodiol may be used for biliary stasis, [also known as intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, to relieve the symptoms of ... Also used to relieve itching in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (naltrexone may also be used). Ursodeoxycholic acid has ...

*Biliary atresia

... progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis), Caroli disease, choledochal cyst, cholestasis, congenital cytomegalovirus ... There are three main types of extra-hepatic biliary atresia: Type I: Atresia is restricted to the common bile duct. Type II: ... Infants and children with biliary atresia develop progressive cholestasis, a condition in which bile is unable to leave the ... Unlike other forms of jaundice, however, biliary-atresia-related cholestasis mostly does not result in kernicterus, a form of ...

*Primary biliary cholangitis

Complications of PBC can be related to chronic cholestasis or cirrhosis of the liver. Chronic cholestasis leads to osteopenic ... People with PBC may also sometimes have the findings of an associated extrahepatic autoimmune disorder such as rheumatoid ... It helps reduce the cholestasis and improves liver function tests. It has a minimal effect on symptoms and whether it improves ... This progresses to the development of fibrosis, cholestasis and, in some people, cirrhosis. Most people with PBC (>90%) have ...

*Common bile duct

A diameter of more than 8 mm is regarded as abnormal dilatation, and is a sign of cholestasis. If clogged by a gallstone, a ... "The gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts." Anatomy image:8336 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center Anatomy image:7957 at the ... "Etiological Causes of Intrahepatic and Extrahepatic Bile Duct Dilatation" (PDF). International Journal of New Technology and ...

*List of hepato-biliary diseases

... including cholestasis necrosis acute hepatitis and chronic hepatitis of different forms, cirrhosis Effects of Acetaminophen ( ... degeneration of liver malignant neoplasm of the gallbladder malignant neoplasm of other parts of biliary tract extrahepatic ...

*Subash Gupta

Prasad, AS; Gupta, S; Kohli, V; Pande, GK; Sahni, P; Nundy, S (Feb 1994). "Proximal splenorenal shunts for extrahepatic portal ... "Therapeutic interventions in progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis: experience from a tertiary care centre in north ...

*Index of oncology articles

... extrahepatic - extrapleural pneumonectomy false-negative test result - false-positive test result - familial adenomatous ... cholestasis - chondrocyte - chondroitin sulfate - chondrosarcoma - chordoma - chorioallantoic membrane - choriocarcinoma - ...

*Liver support systems

Progressive intrahepatic cholestasis Treatment Schedule: 3 to 5 eight-hour treatment sessions in consecutives days Continuous ... Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) represents one of the more serious extrahepatic complications associated with liver dysfunction. ... Progressive intrahepatic cholestasis Treatment Schedule: 3 to 5 eight-hour treatment sessions in consecutives days Continuous ... Bergasa, NV; Thomas, DA; Vergalla, J; Turner, ML; Jones, EA (1993). "Plasma from patients with the pruritus of cholestasis ...

*Liver

When these ducts are damaged, bile and other toxins build up in the liver (cholestasis) and over time damages the liver tissue ... and once they exit the liver they are considered extrahepatic. The intrahepatic ducts eventually drain into the right and left ... progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis and hepatic hemangioma a benign tumour the most ... but become columnar and mucus secreting in larger bile ducts approaching the porta hepatis and the extrahepatic ducts. Research ...

*Hepatocellular carcinoma

With this in mind, liver transplant "can be a curative approach for patients with advanced HCC without extrahepatic metastasis ... Specifically, children with biliary atresia, infantile cholestasis, glycogen-storage diseases, and other cirrhotic diseases of ... "Extrahepatic Metastases of Hepatocellular Carcinoma". Radiology. 216 (3): 698-703. doi:10.1148/radiology.216.3.r00se24698. " ... presence of vascular invasion and extrahepatic spread, liver function (levels of serum bilirubin and albumin, presence of ...

*CYP3A4

This change in consequence contributes to an increased human defense against cholestasis. Fetuses do not really express CYP3A4 ... by CYP1A2 and the extrahepatic isoform CYP1A1 "Cyclobenzaprine". DrugBank. Moody DE, Fang WB, Lin SN, Weyant DM, Strom SC, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Extrahepatic bile duct obstruction and erosive disruption by cavitating porta hepatis nodal metastasis, treated by uncovered Wallstent. AU - Trambert, Jonathan J.. AU - Frost, Andrei. AU - Malasky, Charlotte. PY - 2004/7. Y1 - 2004/7. N2 - A 45-year-old woman with advanced gastric carcinoma presented with obstructive jaundice. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) revealed erosive disruption of the extrahepatic bile ducts by a cavitating metastasis in the porta hepatis, as well as a biliary-duodenal fistula. External-internal biliary drainage via the fistula was plagued by recurrent drain occlusion by necrotic debris. This was ultimately alleviated by successful catheterization of the distal common bile duct (CBD) through the cavity, and linking the common hepatic duct (CHD) and CBD with a Wallstent, across the cavity. This succeeded in improving internal biliary drainage and isolating the exfoliating debris of the cavity from the bile ducts.. AB - A 45-year-old woman ...
Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a bile acid-activated transcription factor that is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. Fxr-null mice exhibit a phenotype similar to Byler disease, an inherited cholestatic liver disorder. In the liver, activation of FXR induces transcription of transporter genes involved in promoting bile acid clearance and represses genes involved in bile acid biosynthesis. We investigated whether the synthetic FXR agonist GW4064 could protect against cholestatic liver damage in rat models of extrahepatic and intrahepatic cholestasis. In the bile duct-ligation and alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate models of cholestasis, GW4064 treatment resulted in significant reductions in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase, as well as other markers of liver damage. Rats that received GW4064 treatment also had decreased incidence and extent of necrosis, decreased inflammatory cell infiltration, and decreased bile duct proliferation. Analysis
We developed murine models for EFA deficiency (EFAD) with and without extrahepatic cholestasis and compared the efficacy of oral supplementation of EFA as PL or as TG. EFAD was induced in mice by feeding a high-fat EFAD diet. After 3 wk on this diet, bile duct ligation was performed in a subgroup of mice to establish extrahepatic cholestasis. Cholestatic and noncholestatic EFAD mice continued on the EFAD diet (controls) or were supplemented for 3 wk with EFA-rich TG or EFA-rich PL. Fatty acid composition was determined in plasma, erythrocytes, liver, and brain. After 4 wk of EFAD diet, induction of EFAD was confirmed by a sixfold increased triene-to-tetraene ratio (T/T ratio) in erythrocytes of noncholestatic and cholestatic mice (P < 0.001). EFA-rich TG and EFA-rich PL were equally effective in preventing further increase of the erythrocyte T/T ratio, which was observed in cholestatic and noncholestatic nonsupplemented mice (12- and 16-fold the initial value, respectively ...
Foucher J, Castera L, Bernard PH, Adhoute X, Laharie D, Bertet J, et al. Prevalence and factors associated with failure of liver stiffness measurement using FibroScan in a prospective study of 2114 examinations. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006; 18: 411-412 ...
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Extrahepatic biliary obstruction (EHBO) was confirmed at surgery or necropsy in 22 cats. Biliary or pancreatic adenocarcinoma was diagnosed by histopathology in six cats and one cat had an undiagnosed mass in the common bile duct. The remaining 15 cats had at least one of a complex of inflammatory diseases including pancreatitis, cholangiohepatitis, cholelithiasis and cholecystitis. The most common clinical signs were jaundice, anorexia, lethargy, weight loss and vomiting. Hyperbilirubinaemia was present in all cases. Distension of the common bile duct and gall bladder was the most commonly observed finding on abdominal ultrasound. Nineteen cats underwent exploratory laparotomy for biliary decompression and diversion. Mortality in cats with underlying neoplasia was 100 per cent and, in those with non-neoplastic lesions, was 40 per cent. Long-term complications, in those that survived, included recurrence of cholangiohepatitis, chronic weight loss and recurrence of obstruction. Based on these ...
Jaundice, the condition with yellowish staining of the skin and mucous membranes, that is due to impaired BILE flow in the BILIARY TRACT, such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS, or EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS ...
... is a medicine used to treat high cholesterol and itching caused by partial biliary obstruction. This eMedTV resource explains how the drug works and offers information on its uses, effects, and dosing guidelines.
... Asia-Pacific Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangiography (PTC) Pancreatic and Biliary Stenting Procedures Outlook to - Market research report and industry analysis - 10970877
Extrahepatic cholestasis leads to complex injury and repair processes that result in bile infarct formation, neutrophil infiltration, cholangiocyte and hepatocyte proliferation, extracellular matrix remodeling, and fibrosis. To identify early molecular mechanisms of injury and repair after bile duct obstruction, microarray analysis was performed on liver tissue 24 hours after bile duct ligation (BDL) or sham surgery. The most upregulated gene identified encodes plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, Serpine 1), a protease inhibitor that blocks urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) activity. Because PAI-1, uPA, and tPA influence growth factor and cytokine processing as well as extracellular matrix remodeling, we evaluated the role of PAI-1 in cholestatic liver injury by comparing the injury and repair processes in wild-type (WT) and PAI-1-deficient (PAI-1-/-) mice after BDL. PAI-1-/- mice had fewer and smaller bile infarcts, less neutrophil infiltration, and
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Biliary obstruction is importantly influencing quality of life and survival of patients suffering from primary or secondary bile duct malignancies. The
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Mutations in the ATP8B1 gene cause two autosomal recessive disorders affecting liver: cholestasis, benign recurrent intrahepatic, 1 (BRIC1), cholestasis, progressive familial intrahepatic, 1 (PFIC1) and one autosomal dominant disorder: cholestasis, intrahepatic, of pregnancy, 1 (ICP1). BRIC2 is caused by mutations in the ABCB11 gene. PFIC can be caused by mutations in three other genes: ABCB11 (PFIC2), ABCB4 (PFIC3) and TJP2 (PFIC4). Mutations in the ABCB4 gene have been reported in ICP3. BRIC is characterized by intermittent episodes of cholestasis without extrahepatic bile duct obstruction. PFIC is characterized by early onset of cholestasis that progresses to hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis, and end-stage liver disease before adulthood. ICP typically occurs in the third trimester and it recurs in 45 to 70% of subsequent pregnancies. Findings include pruritus, jaundice, increased serum bile salts, and abnormal liver enzymes. This condition is reversible, but it can result in fetal complications ...
Accumulation of bile acids is a major mediator of cholestatic liver injury. Recent studies indicate bile acid composition between humans and rodents is dramatically different, as humans have a higher percent of glycine conjugated bile acids and increased chenodeoxycholate content, which increases the hydrophobicity index of bile acids. This increase may lead to direct toxicity that kills hepatocytes, and promotes inflammation. To address this issue, this study assessed how pathophysiological concentrations of bile acids measured in cholestatic patients affected primary human hepatocytes. Individual bile acid levels were determined in serum and bile by UPLC/QTOFMS in patients with extrahepatic cholestasis with, or without, concurrent increases in serum transaminases. Bile acid levels increased in serum of patients with liver injury, while biliary levels decreased, implicating infarction of the biliary tracts. To assess bile acid-induced toxicity in man, primary human hepatocytes were treated with ...
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Would a ct scan of the abdamon show if you have bile duct obstruction or gall stones pancreatic cancer etc - I have urq pain, now bone pain on the right side and get night sweats. Can a CT scan always pick up pancreatic or bile duct cancer? No test is perfect! No test is 100 percent accurate. Although a multiphase ct with contrast is a very good test for pancreatic or bile duct cancer, it is not a perfect test. Mri, mrcp and ERCP are all tests that may be useful. Generally, imaging for this problem begins with a ct, with the additional tests based on the ct results, as well as lab tests and other examinations.
ERCP for obstruction of bile duct obstruction with endoscopic bougienage and stent implantation (costs for program #148803) ✔ University Hospital of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich ✔ Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology ✔ BookingHealth.com
ERCP for obstruction of bile duct obstruction with endoscopic bougienage and stent implantation (costs for program #181225) ✔ St. Antonius Hospital ✔ Department of Internal Medicine and Internal Intensive Care Medicine ✔ BookingHealth.com
Malignant bile duct obstruction is a common problem among cancer patients with hepatic or lymphatic metastases. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) with the placement of a stent is the method of choice to improve biliary flow. Only little data exist concerning the outcome of patients with malignant biliary obstruction in relationship to microbial isolates from bile. Bile samples were taken during the ERC procedure in tumor patients with biliary obstruction. Clinical data including laboratory values, tumor-specific treatment and outcome data were prospectively collected. 206 ERC interventions in 163 patients were recorded. In 43 % of the patients, systemic treatment was (re-) initiated after successful biliary drainage. A variety of bacteria and fungi was detected in the bile samples. One-year survival was significantly worse in patients from whom multiresistant pathogens were isolated than in patients, in whom other species were detected. Increased levels of inflammatory markers were associated
Unscramble cholestasis, Unscramble letters cholestasis, Point value for cholestasis, Word Decoder for cholestasis, Word generator using the letters cholestasis, Word Solver cholestasis, Possible Scrabble words with cholestasis, Anagram of cholestasis
Sepsis and bacterial infection account for up to 20% of cases of jaundice in community hospitals, and may occur within a few days of onset of bacteremia or even before other clinical features of the underlying infection become apparent1. Although biliary obstruction is usually considered, many such patients lack extrahepatic cause for their jaundice. Gram-negative…
The majority of cells in the liver are hepatocytes, which constitute two-thirds of the mass of the liver. The remaining cell types are Kupffer cells (members of the reticuloendothelial system), stellate (Ito or fat-storing) cells, endothelial cells and blood vessels, bile ductular cells, and supporting structures. Viewed by light microscopy, the liver appears to be organized in lobules, with portal areas at the periphery and central veins in the center of each lobule. However, from a functional point of view, the liver is organized into acini, with both hepatic arterial and portal venous blood entering the acinus from the portal areas (zone 1) and then flowing through the sinusoids to the terminal hepatic veins (zone 3); the intervening hepatocytes constituting zone 2. The advantage of viewing the acinus as the physiologic unit of the liver is that it helps to explain the morphologic patterns and zonality of many vascular and biliary diseases not explained by the lobular arrangement. ...
We searched 13 electronic databases Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register from inception to January 2003. Reference lists of relevant articles were hand searched and various health services research-related resources were consulted via the Internet. Search terms included population search terms such as biliary, biliary tract, bile, gallbladder, choledocholithiasis and were combined with intervention terms such as magnetic resonance imaging, MRI and non-invasive diagnostic imaging. The search strategy is described in detail elsewhere [5]. No language or study/publication-type restrictions were applied to the searches. Inclusion criteria were adult patients with suspected biliary obstruction or dilatation, as defined by the individual studies, having MRCP and ERCP for diagnostic purposes. Outcome measures included sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratios in different patient groups, acceptability to patients and adverse effects. The ERCP test results were assumed to be ...
Disorders of the biliary tract affect a significant portion of the worldwide population, and the overwhelming majority of cases are attributable to cholelithiasis (gallstones). In the United States, 20% of persons older than 65 years have gallstones and 1 million newly diagnosed cases of gallstones are reported each year.
Has anyone experienced intraheptic Cholestasis before ? I have an extreme itch that I cannot get to go away . No amount of itching or lotion or anything is helping . Ive been reading stories on the internet (I know , bad idea) about this and they all result in still birth . I have an appointment tomorrow but has anyone who has experienced this tell me differences between this and a regular itch ? I feel like crying because I cant stop itching
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Hi, Im currently pregnant with my 2nd. Im only 5/6 weeks so wouldnt have it yet anyway, but I developed OC first time round and ... Read more on Netmums
In the study, serum and blood levels of copper that is known to cause severe hepatic damage by hepatic accumulation because of primary hepatic insufficiency or secondary bile duct obstruction, in dogs with hepatitis in which bile duct obstruction is clinically detected was investigated (1, 2).. 12 dogs with clinically detected obstructive jaundice and hepatic cirrhosis according to laboratory and ultrasonographic examinations formed the study group and 12 other dogs clinically healthy formed the control group. Changes in serum alanine aminotranspherase (ALT) alkalen phosphatase (ALP), gama glutamyl transpherase (GGT) and total bilirubin (T.Bilirubin) levels in blood samples taken for biochemical analyses were detected with an Expres Ciba Corning auto-analyser with use of Biobak® Commercial Kits by spectrophotometric technic. Changes occurring in serum copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) levels were detected with a Shimadzu AA-680 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. In the same time, the obstructions in ...
Cholestasis is a condition that results when excretion of bile acids from the liver is interrupted. Liver injury occurs in both humans and animals as a result of cholestasis, and recent studies have shown that inflammation is required for injury. The mechanism by which cholestasis increases production of proinflammatory mediators is not completely understood. One recent study showed that farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a bile acid nuclear receptor, upregulates proinflammatory mediators in response to bile acids in vitro. This suggests that FXR is important for inflammation during cholestasis. To test this hypothesis in vivo, wild-type and FXR knockout mice were subjected to bile duct ligation (BDL), a commonly used model of cholestasis. Three days later, levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), both important for the recruitment of neutrophils to the liver, were measured. ICAM-1 levels were increased to a similar extent in wild-type and FXR ...
Melittin inhibits cholangiocyte proliferation in DDC-fed mice. Immunofluorescence staining shows co-localization of PCNA staining with CK-7 (arrow head) followi
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27 week appt yesterday and on top of out Trisomy 21 diagnosis I now gave cholestasis which means she will be delivered at 37 weeks to avoid possible complications. My poor baby girl. Even more so because of the DS diagnosis I just wanted her to stay cozy as long as possible
TY - JOUR. T1 - Carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts. AU - Wei, T. C.. AU - Wei, P. L.. AU - Yu, S. C.. AU - Lee, P. H.. AU - Hsu, S. C.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Fifty-two patients with carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts were reviewed. There were 28 men and 24 women whose ages ranged from 31 to 78 years, with a mean age of 58 years. Symptoms, signs and laboratory results were primarily the result of bile duct obstruction. The most valuable diagnostic procedures were percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. In 28 patients the tumor was located in the upper, 9 in the middle and 12 in the lower common bile duct. In the other three patients the tumor was diffuse. The resectability rate was 21.2% (11/52). Of the remaining patients, 10 (19.2%) had T-tube drainage, 5 (9.6%) had biliary digestive anastomosis, 18 (34.6%) had percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage and 8 (15.4%) had biopsy only. The histologic diagnosis was sclerosing in ...
Carcinoid tumors of the extrahepatic bile duct. A rare cause of malignant biliary obstruction.: Carcinoid tumor of the bile duct is a rare form of malignant bil
The placement of SEMS with minor ES is better comparable with the incidence of PEP in previous large clinical trials. Post ES bleeding was lower in minor ES comparable to standard sphincterotomy. The bleeding rate of SEMS insertion after minor ES was lower compared with standard sphincterotomy prior to stent placement. Minor ES was safe and effective procedure as not increasing severe bleeding to facilitate the SEMS placement in patients with malignant biliary obstruction.. ...
Pancreatic cancer patients often experience a number of disease-related complications, either at presentation or as the cancer progresses. Bile duct obstruction can occur as the disease progresses and presents with jaundice, nausea, and vomiting with or without fever. An ERCP or MRCP is used to stent the bile duct and allow for bile drainage and resolution of symptoms. If internal stenting in not successful, percutaneous stents may be placed to resolve bile duct obstruction as well. If patients also present with fever, antibiotic management for cholangitis is indicated with broad-spectrum coverage of gram-negatives, coliforms, and anaerobes.1. GI obstruction can occur as well, presenting with severe nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. It is often managed with bowel rest and decompression. If obstruction continues, a gastrostomy or gastrojejunostomy tube can be placed for decompression. Pancreatic function may also be compromised either by the cancer itself or as a complication of surgical and ...
Reviews of a wide variety of topics of recent and current interest in academic and practical gastroenterology. Small-intestinal absorption is considered in terms of histology and physiology with specific attention to water, electrolytes, steatorrhea, and disaccharide malabsorption. Six papers consider drug toxicity with particular reference to the liver. Normal and pathological aspects of gastrin are considered in seven papers and vagotomy, in six. Special topics reviewed in the last five papers are telemetry, gastric freezing for duodenal ulcer, postgastrectomy bone disease, radiology of the colon, and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography. Indexed. These papers are relatively brief, though highly readable, treatments of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recent advances in plastic stents. T2 - A comprehensive review. AU - Bink, Nienke. AU - Mohan, Velram Balaji. AU - Fakirov, Stoyko. N1 - Taylor & Francis deal. PY - 2019/11/7. Y1 - 2019/11/7. N2 - Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are globally the number one cause of death reported by the World Health Organization. A relevant CVD is coronary artery disease (CAD) in which a layer of plaque is formed on the interior of the coronary arteries which limits the flow of oxygen-rich blood through the body and specifically to the heart. A well-known but invasive surgical technique to manage CAD is bypass surgery. A minimally invasive technique is the implantation of stents. Nowadays, the aim is to use biodegradable plastics as a stent material instead of metals. These plastic stents are to disappear after the blood vessel has healed. The biggest challenge is to match the mechanical requirements while still being deliverable and suitable to be inside human blood vessels for the total healing ...
Cholestasis is defined as a decrease in bile flow due to impaired secretion by hepatocytes or to obstruction of bile flow through intra-or extrahepatic bile ducts. Therefore, the clinical definition of cholestasis is any condition in which substances normally excreted into bile are retained.
Find out about itching during pregnancy, including causes, ways to ease itching, and when you need to seek medical attention fast for possible intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), also called obstetric cholestasis.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Bin Tian, Xue-Long Wang, Ya Huang, Li-Hua Chen, Ruo-Xiao Cheng, Feng-Ming Zhou, Ran Guo, Jun-Cheng Li, Tong Liu].
This is the first study comparing TRBO and complications among the three types of SEMSs (uncovered, partially covered, and fully covered). All SEMS were constructed of same material and configuration (Wallflex™); the stent covering was the only difference among the three types. Although it did not differ significantly, the recurrent biliary obstruction rate of partially covered SEMS (28.6%) was lower than that of uncovered (45.4%, p = 0.215) and fully covered (55.2%, p = 0.106) stents. Tumor ingrowth was observed significantly more frequently in the uncovered group (25.0%), and stent migration was observed significantly more frequently in the fully covered group (31.0%). These complications were not observed in the partially covered group. Accordingly, the partially covered group had longer TRBO than the other two groups and multivariate analysis demonstrated that the use of partially covered stents was an independent factor to decrease the risk of recurrent biliary obstruction.. SEMS are ...
Around Monday of last week my wife began complaining of intense itching all over her body 24 hours a day. Its been horrible she hasnt slept in a week.
Africa demonstrates a complex process of the hominin evolution with a series of adaptive radiations during several millions of years that led to diverse morphological forms. Recently, Hammer et al. (2011) and Harvati et al. (2011) provided integrated morphological and genetic evidence of interbreeding between modern humans and unknown archaic hominins in Africa as recently as 35,000 years ago. However, a genetic evidence of hybridization between hominin lineages during the Lower and Middle Pleistocene epochs is unknown and the direct retrieval of DNA from extinct lineages of African hominins remains elusive. The availability of both nuclear and mitochondrial genome sequences from modern humans, Neanderthals, and Denisovans allows collecting nuclear DNA sequences of mitochondrial origin (numts) inserted into the nuclear genome of the ancestral hominin lineages and drawing conclusions about the hominin evolution in the remote past. The mtDNA and numt analysis uncovered a deep division of mtDNA ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Efficacy of the Za Self-Expandable Metal Stent for Palliation of Malignant Biliary Obstruction. AU - Varadarajulu, Shyam. AU - Tutuian, Radu. AU - Gostout, Christopher. AU - Kozarek, Richard. AU - Wilcox, C. Mel. AU - Cotton, Peter B.. PY - 2004/1. Y1 - 2004/1. N2 - Background: The efficacy and safety of the uncoated self-expandable Za metal stent for palliation of malignant distal biliary obstruction was prospectively analyzed. Methods: Twenty-one patients with unresectable malignant tumors involving mid to distal common bile duct who presented with obstructive jaundice underwent endoscopic implantation of an uncoated self-expandable metal stent. Technical success with stent placement, adverse events, patient survival, duration of stent patency, and device performance were analyzed. Results: Endoscopic biliary stenting was successful in all patients. No adverse events were encountered. The mean follow-up period of the 21 patients was 128 days (range, 3-263): 14 died of ...
Cholestasis is a condition where bile cannot flow from the liver to the duodenum. The two basic distinctions are an obstructive type of cholestasis where there is a mechanical blockage in the duct system that can occur from a gallstone or malignancy, and metabolic types of cholestasis which are disturbances in bile formation that can occur because of genetic defects or acquired as a side effect of many medications. Itchiness (pruritus). Pruritus is the primary symptom of cholestasis and is thought to be due to interactions of serum bile acids with opioidergic nerves. In fact, the opioid antagonist naltrexone is used to treat pruritus due to cholestasis. Jaundice. Jaundice is an uncommon occurrence in intrahepatic (metabolic) cholestasis, but is common in obstructive cholestasis. Pale stool. This symptom implies obstructive cholestasis. Dark urine Possible causes: pregnancy androgens birth control pills antibiotics (such as TMP/SMX) abdominal mass (e.g. cancer) biliary atresia and other pediatric ...
Differentiating malignant from benign bile duct strictures is a conundrum, since no diagnostic test is highly sensitive for diagnosing cancer. While ERC
Bile duct strictures are problematic in terms of management and distinction between benign and malignant. Pathology Aetiology There are numerous causes of biliary duct strictures, including 1,2 : malignant cholangiocarcinoma involvement by...
Evidence-based recommendations on endoscopic bipolar radiofrequency ablation for biliary obstruction caused by bile duct and pancreas cancers..
Post written by Andrea Tringali, MD, PhD, from the Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Roma, Italia, Digestive Endoscopy Unit, and the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Roma, Italia. Centre for Endoscopic Research Therapeutics and Training-CERTT. Our study is focused on a large series of patients treated by endoscopic insertion of multiple plastic stents (MPS)…
SummaryIntroduction Cholestasis and the newborn infant are a heterogeneous group of diseases that pose a problem etiologic diagnosis and management. Objective Report our experience in cholestasis in newborns and infants. Patients and methods This is a retrospective study of 60 cases of infants with cholestatic jaundice collected in the pediatric ward of the University Hospital of Marrakech Mohamed {VI} over a period from January 2008 to September 2014. Results The frequency of cholestasis was 10.7 cases/year, the average age was 5 months (17 days-2 years), and the peak frequency was noted at 2 months with a male predominance (61.6%) and inbreeding in 40% of cases. Cholestasis was total and permanent in 60% of cases. A laboratory test was disrupted in all cases showing a very significant cytolysis in 33% of cases, a biological cholestasis with normal {GGT} in 4 cases. Abdominal ultrasound showed absence of visualization of the gall bladder in 14.5% of cases, liver cirrhosis with portal hypertension 14.5%
Diagnosis Code D13.5 information, including descriptions, synonyms, code edits, diagnostic related groups, ICD-9 conversion and references to the diseases index.
Objective : To determine the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes resulting from intrahepatic cholestasis. Methods : We analyzed 91 women with singleton pregnancies complicated by cholestasis who gave birth at Kuopio University Hospital from January 1990 to December 1996. Logistic regression analysis was used to compare pregnancy outcomes of this...
A prospective study was undertaken to evaluate fat malabsorption during intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), a disease characterized by a mild cholestasis of short duration appearing in otherwise healthy young women. An abnormal fecal fat exc
Both endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) and p ropranolol transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) are invasive procedures with a 2 to 5 risk of complications but offer the opportunity for a therapeutic intervention (see later). 244.
Cholestasis, benign recurrent intrahepatic, 2 (BRIC2) [MIM:605479]: A disorder characterized by intermittent episodes of cholestasis without progression to liver failure. There is initial elevation of serum bile acids, followed by cholestatic jaundice which generally spontaneously resolves after periods of weeks to months. The cholestatic attacks vary in severity and duration. Patients are asymptomatic between episodes, both clinically and biochemically. {ECO:0000269,PubMed:15300568, ECO:0000269,PubMed:16039748}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry ...
The information on this website is not intended for direct diagnostic use or medical decision-making without review by a genetics professional. Individuals should not change their health behavior solely on the basis of information contained on this website. Neither the University of Utah nor the National Institutes of Health independently verfies the submitted information. If you have questions about the information contained on this website, please see a health care professional. ...
First Cleanse 1. Do not use if you have acute stomach irritation, inflammation, stomach or duodenal ulcers or bile duct obstruction. Do not use if you are allergic to plants of the Asteraceae/Compositae/Daisy family. Consult a health care practitioner prior to use if you have diabetes, gallstones, are taking protease inhibitors and/or antiplatelet medication, or if you have iron deficiency. Consult a health care practitioner if constipation persists after one week of use or if symptoms worsen. Some people may experience headaches. Stop use and seek medical attention immediately if you experience dizziness, confusion, muscle weakness or pain, abnormal heartbeat and/or difficulty breathing. Hypersensitivity has been known to occur, in which case, discontinue use. Consult a health care practitioner if symptoms persist or worsen. Do not use if you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Keep out of reach of children.. First Cleanse 2. Do not use if you have abdominal pain, nausea, fever, or vomiting. Do not ...
So many people are suffering at this very moment from jaundice symptoms that it is important to have a resource for those in pain. If you have any comments feel free to email us at any time. We would love to get feedback and interact with you. The email for obstructive jaundice is JaundiceSymptoms (at) gmail (dot) com. Thanks for reading you guys. ...
Here at obstructive jaundice .com we offer the leading information on the subject. Our author is one of the leading physicians who publishes content online. If you want to contact us for any reason please feel free to drop a line. Find out our email address on the contact page. ...
View details of top cholestasis hospitals in Mumbai. Get guidance from medical experts to select best cholestasis hospital in Mumbai
Christina DePino thought the severe itching she felt was a normal symptom of pregnancy. Luckily she had gone to a checkup before things turned for the worse as she found out she could have given birth to a premature or stillborn baby and then shares awareness of cholestasis of pregnancy causes.
In Jaundice, the skin and the front white portion of the eye turn yellow. It is a condition that takes place as a result of building up of a substance called Bilirubin. Newborn babies are more susceptible to jaundice, as it takes time for their livers to function properly. There are three kinds of jaundice that tend to affect adults, namely, Hemolytic jaundice, Hepatocellular jaundice and Obstructive jaundice.. ...
jaundice - MedHelps jaundice Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for jaundice. Find jaundice information, treatments for jaundice and jaundice symptoms.
GD/Cholestasis: So being my third pregnancy i was surprised to get GD but it wasnt as bad as i had thought and since my last two pregnancies ended in emergency c-sections this one was going to be a scheduled c-section and i was scheduled for July 7 and original due date was July 16th... But last week i was having extreme itchiness on feet and arms so i got sent to get blood work. ...
noun a condition in which little or no bile is secreted or the flow of bile into the digestive tract is obstructed • Syn: ↑acholia • Hypernyms: ↑disorder, ↑upset * * * cholestatic /koh leuh stat ik, kol euh /, adj. /koh leuh stay sis, stas is,…
Ath Ayurdhamah presents an Ayurvedic perspective about Jaundice - including symptoms of Jaundice & Treatment of Jaundice - by Dr. Parmeshwar Arora.
... ? Jaundice is not a disease but rather a sign that can occur in many different diseases. Jaundice is the yellowish staining of the skin and scl…
Oh my goodness I have never been so itchy in all my life! I have finally officially been diagnosed with PUPPPS after 4 weeks of insane itching & a
Jaundice is a yellow tinge of the skin and the whites of the eyes. In older babies and children, jaundice is not considered normal and can indicate an underlying infection or illness.
জণ্ডিছ ৰোগ, Jaundice Causes Symptoms and Treatments, Pankaj Pathak Treatment, পংকজ পাঠকৰ আয়ুৰ্বেদিক আৰু প্ৰাচীন চিকিৎসা, পৰম্পৰাগত প্ৰাকৃতিক চিকিৎসা
TY - JOUR. T1 - Impaired hepatic bacterial clearance is reversed by surgical relief of obstructive jaundice. AU - Katz, Schmuel. AU - Yang, Rong. AU - Rodefeld, Mark. AU - Folkening, Walter J.. AU - Grosfeld, Jay L.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - Sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants with cholestatic jaundice. Previous studies have shown that biliary obstruction in rats causes a significant decrease in hepatic phagocytosis of viable Escherichia coli. This study tests this hypothesis and further evaluates whether the impaired function of the reticuloendothelial system of the liver (Kupffer cells) can be reversed by the relief of the biliary obstruction. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 140 to 150 g) were placed in three groups. Group I (n = 10) consisted of sham-operated controls. In Group II (n = 30), ligation and division of distal common bile duct (CDL) was performed. Group III (n = 30) underwent choledochoduodenostomy 2 weeks following ligation and division of common ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - TRAIL mediates liver injury by the innate immune system in the bile duct-ligated mouse. AU - Kahraman, Alisan. AU - Barreyro, Fernando J.. AU - Bronk, Steven F.. AU - Werneburg, Nathan W.. AU - Mott, Justin L. AU - Akazawa, Yuko. AU - Masuoka, Howard C.. AU - Howe, Charles L.. AU - Gores, Gregory J.. PY - 2008/4/1. Y1 - 2008/4/1. N2 - The contribution of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a death ligand expressed by cells of the innate immune system, to cholestatic liver injury has not been explored. Our aim was to ascertain if TRAIL contributes to liver injury in the bile duct-ligated (BDL) mouse. C57/BL6 wild-type (wt), TRAIL heterozygote (TRAIL+/-), and TRAIL knockout (TRAIL-/-) mice were used for these studies. Liver injury and fibrosis were examined 7 and 14 days after BDL, respectively. Hepatic TRAIL messenger RNA (mRNA) was 6-fold greater in BDL animals versus sham-operated wt animals (P , 0.01). The increased hepatic TRAIL expression was ...
Naren K A, MS, Thakur D Yadav, MS, Vikas Gupta, Mch, SGE, Ashim Das, MD, Virendra Singh, MD, Saroj K Sinha, DM. PGIMER Chandigarh. OBJECTIVES:. The Objective was to see the sensitivity and specificity of fibroscan in detecting biliary cirrhosis secondary to malignant biliary obstruction. A secondary objective was to correlate fibroscan with liver biopsy, so as to avoid the invasive liver biopsy in future.. METHODS AND PROCEDURES:. In our study all the patients with unresectable disease underwent a percutaneous core liver biopsy ( under local anesthesia) and in resectable patients undergoing Surgery (under General Anesthesia) , a core biopsy of the normal liver parenchyma was taken as a part of the primary procedure planned . The staging system (ISHAKs Modified Histological Activity Index ) was used to assess the severity of fibrosis Fibroscan was performed in all the patients The probe was placed at the intercostal space overlying the liver with the patient in supine position in right arm ...
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) would be performed to confirm the position and length of the biliary malignant. The radiofrequency ablation (RFA) catheter (EMcision, London, United Kingdom) would be placed under fluoroscopic guidance across the biliary stricture. Radiofrequency energy will be delivered to the malignant site. After that,A self expanding metallic stent (SEMS) would be placed to bypass the site of ...
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) would be performed to confirm the position and length of the biliary malignant. The radiofrequency ablation (RFA) catheter (EMcision, London, United Kingdom) would be placed under fluoroscopic guidance across the biliary stricture. Radiofrequency energy will be delivered to the malignant site. After that,A self expanding metallic stent (SEMS) would be placed to bypass the site of ...
MRC is emerging as the latest imaging technology to evaluate the biliary tree. This noninvasive method is used to visualize these structures without using a contrast agent. Because the magnetic resonance images can be directly acquired in any plane, 3-dimensional representation of biliary tract anatomy and pathology can be accurately obtained. Patients receive no radiation exposure and unlike other imaging modalities, such as ultrasonography, ERCP, or percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, MRC does not rely on operator skill. The limitations of MRC include imaging artifact caused by metallic surgical clips and air in the biliary tree. Additionally, MRC does depend on technology that requires a multicoil device for better spatial resolution, which is currently not widely available (1). Should MRC be used in the routine diagnosis of biliary tract disease, and where does it fit in the diagnostic work-up? Although Soto and colleagues should be commended for their efforts, it is difficult to ...
Tumor staging of extrahepatic bile duct (EBD) carcinoma is problematic for a number of reasons, including definitional problems with the current T classification of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system and the common occurrence of severe desmoplastic stromal reaction around the adva
Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis 2 is a rare condition and is one of many forms of cholestasis. Cholestasis is a rare disease where a persons liver can not move the bile it makes to the small intestine. The liver, an organ, is responsible for producing bile. Bile is a compound that helps people digest fats. Once the bile has been made, it is supposed to go to the small intestine, another organ, to digest the fats there. However, in people with cholestasis, the bile can not move to the small intestine because there is either a physical block or because the bile is stuck in the liver cells. Symptoms of cholestasis are itchiness, jaundice (yellowing of the skin), pale stool, and dark urine. People with progressive familial intraheptic cholestasis 2 are not able to move the bile from the cells in the liver that produce it to the small intestine to digest fats. Talk with your doctor to find the best treatment for you if you have been diagnosed with progressive familial intraheptic ...
Histological typing of tumours of the gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts / J. Albores-Saavedra, D.E. Henson and L.H. Sobin ; in collaboration with pathologists in 5 countries. ...
Neoadjuvant therapy (Chemotherapy and Radiation) is treatment that is provided before primary therapy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be performed to help shrink a tumor that is inoperable in its current state, so that it can be surgically removed.. Patient education: Biliary Metal Stents and Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA). The WallFlexTM Biliary RX metal stent is FDA cleared for use in the treatment of biliary strictures (abnormal narrowing of the bile duct) produced by malignant neoplasms (cancerous cells) and relief of malignant biliary obstruction (blockage) prior to surgery. WallFlex Biliary RX metal stents may be an option for pancreatic cancer patients who are candidates for treatment to help relieve malignant biliary obstruction while they receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy in preparation for surgery. Additionally, RFA therapy can be used with stenting to perform endoscopic biliary drainage or decompression (opening the duct) for symptom relief and may prolong patency (unobstruction) of the ...
definition of SCIH, what does SCIH mean?, meaning of SCIH, Sickle Cell Intrahepatic Cholestasis, SCIH stands for Sickle Cell Intrahepatic Cholestasis
A rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the part of bile duct that is outside the liver. Also known as Cholangiocarcinoma.
The biliary tree consists of intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts and is lined by biliary epithelial cells (or cholangiocytes). There are also peribiliary glands around the intrahepatic large bile ducts and extrahepatic bile ducts. The biliary tr
The liver holds about 1 pint (13%) of the bodys blood supply at any given moment. The liver has 2 main parts (lobes). Both of these are made up of 8 segments that consist of a thousand small lobes (lobules). These lobules are connected to small tubes (ducts) that connect with larger ducts from the common hepatic duct. The common hepatic duct transports the bile produced by the liver cells to the gallbladder and the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). It does this through the common bile duct. Bile is a clear green or yellow fluid that helps break down the food you eat. ...
Kasai classification is used to describe the three main anatomical types of biliary atresia. Classification type I: obliteration of common bile duct (patent cystic and common hepatic duct) type II IIa: obliteration of common hepatic duct (pat...
Based on One Report of Brother and Sister, Hepatomegaly, Progressive or Intermittent Jaundice Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Cholestatic Jaundice, Dysmyelination with Jaundice, Liver Neoplasm. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
To evaluate liver function reserve after relief of obstructive jaundice, we investigated the correlation between outcome after hepatectomy and 16 perioperative clinical factors in 13 patients with...
Choopa, M S et al. Usefulness of ultrasonography and biochemical features in the diagnosis of cholestatic jaundice in infants. S. Afr. j. child health, Mar 2016, vol.10, no.1, p.75-78. ISSN 1999- ...
The differential diagnosis for jaundice, click here. The differential diagnosis for jaundice and RUQ pain, click here. The differential diagnosis for jaundice and pruritis, click here. The differential diagnosis for jaundice and fever, click here. The differential diagnosis for jaundice, fever, and RUQ pain, click here. The differential diagnosis for jaundice, pruritis and RUQ pain, click here. ...
The differential diagnosis for jaundice, click here. The differential diagnosis for jaundice and RUQ pain, click here. The differential diagnosis for jaundice and pruritis, click here. The differential diagnosis for jaundice and fever, click here. The differential diagnosis for jaundice, fever, and RUQ pain, click here. The differential diagnosis for jaundice, pruritis and RUQ pain, click here. ...
Another name for Jaundice is Jaundice. What is jaundice? A person with jaundice has yellow skin or eyes, caused by an abnormally elevated bilirubin level ...
Global Hospitals offers comprehensive Jaundice treatment in India for all Jaundice Diseases in India with locations across Chennai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad & Mumbai.
In jaundice, the skin, whites of the eyes and mucus membranes take on a yellowish color. Jaundice itself is not an illness, but a sign of an underlying disease, says Dr. Richard Mackey, a
The freeMD virtual doctor has found 2 conditions that can cause Absence of Periods and New Jaundice. There is 1 uncommon condition that can cause Absence of Periods and New Jaundice. There is 1 rare condition that can cause Absence of Periods and New Jaundice.
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Think that is fairly quick tbh at our hospital (when it was really bad last time it took a week! This time I am pushing everything as quick as) and its not like last time so if it is its only just starting. They are keeping a very close eye on me (most of the staff know me by name now!!) but I will hear tomorrow (or hopefully not!) I wish it had been same day but tbh if I hadnt had it last time then I wouldnt know anything at all was up as its minor and may just be normal itching- they did test me at 16 weeks too and that was clear ...
How to Identify Symptoms of Jaundice. Jaundice is a condition in which the bilirubin circulating in your blood is increased, often causing your skin and the whites of your eyes to appear yellow. Bilirubin is a normally occurring, yellowish...
The differential diagnosis of neonatal cholestasis is extensive; etiologies are often divided into obstructive, infectious, and metabolic causes (2). Hypothyroidism and hypopituitarism are 2 endocrinopathies associated with neonatal cholestasis. Hyperthyroidism is not typically considered a cause of neonatal conjugated hyperbilirubinemia, although to date 2 previous reports have detailed instances in which hyperthyroid infants born to mothers with Graves disease have developed cholestasis (3,4). In addition, hepatic dysfunction with cholestatic jaundice has also been reported in adults with symptomatic hyperthyroidism (5). We present a third case of neonatal cholestasis associated with hyperthyroidism and suggest that hyperthyroidism be considered a potential etiology of cholestasis and liver dysfunction in neonates.. Neonatal hyperthyroidism caused by maternal Graves disease is a transient process because of transplacental passage of maternal antibodies, which stimulate the fetal thyroid. A ...
A paraneoplastic syndrome can often present as the first manifestation of an underlying malignancy. We report a patient who presented with cholestatic jaundice as a paraneoplastic syndrome from his newly diagnosed metastatic prostate cancer. He received initial treatment with androgen deprivation therapy followed by six cycles of docetaxel resulting in resolution of his cholestatic process, normalization of liver enzyme levels, and excellent biochemical and radiographic response. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of metastatic prostate cancer with cholestatic jaundice as a paraneoplastic phenomenon to be safely treated with androgen deprivation therapy and upfront docetaxel, reflecting the latest shift in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer.
Scriven, M.W, Thomas, M, Manku, M.S, Steward, J.C.M, Horribin, D.F and Puntis, MC.A (1990) Essential fatty acid metabolism is abnormal in obstructive jaundice. Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery, Sup211. ISSN 1868-6974 ...

Alagille syndrome 2  | Connective Tissue Gene TestsAlagille syndrome 2 | Connective Tissue Gene Tests

BRIC1 is characterized by intermittent episodes of cholestasis without extrahepatic bile duct obstruction. PFIC1 is ... Extrahepatic findings are not usually present. Recently, a patient with clinical findings consistent with ALGS (ALGS, ATP8B1 ... The main clinical findings of Alagille syndrome include cholestasis due to bile duct paucity, congenital heart defects, ... Mutations in the ATP8B1 gene cause autosomal recessive disorders: cholestasis, benign recurrent intrahepatic, 1 (BRIC1; MIM ...
more infohttp://ctgt.net/disorder/alagille-syndrome-2

Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for Glycocholic acid (HMDB0000138)Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for Glycocholic acid (HMDB0000138)

Xia S, Chen Z, Li L: [Relationship of vascular endothelial growth factor with bile acid in intrahepatic cholestasis of ... Extrahepatic biliary atresia (EHBA). *7119120 details. Blood. Detected and Quantified. 14.8(5.2-25.3) uM. Infant (0-1 year old) ...
more infohttp://www.hmdb.ca/metabolites/HMDB0000138

Prostaglandin E1 Preconditioning Attenuates Liver Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in a Rat Model of Extrahepatic CholestasisProstaglandin E1 Preconditioning Attenuates Liver Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in a Rat Model of Extrahepatic Cholestasis

Many patients with extrahepatic cholestasis, such as hilar cholangiocarcinoma, need to undergo liver resection for radical ... Prostaglandin E1 Preconditioning Attenuates Liver Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in a Rat Model of Extrahepatic Cholestasis. Feng ... In this study, we found that PGE1 preconditioning protects liver IR injury with extrahepatic cholestasis by improving hepatic ... The model of extrahepatic bile duct obstruction and hepatic ischemia reperfusion was the same as previously reported [14]. A ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2018/3812424/

Cholestasis, Extrahepatic; Bile Duct Obstruction, Extrahepatic; Biliary Stasis, Extrahepatic; Extrahepatic CholestasisCholestasis, Extrahepatic; Bile Duct Obstruction, Extrahepatic; Biliary Stasis, Extrahepatic; Extrahepatic Cholestasis

Extrahepatic; Bile Duct Obstruction, Extrahepatic; Biliary Stasis, Extrahepatic; Extrahepatic Cholestasis. On-line free medical ... Cholestasis, Extrahepatic; Bile Duct Obstruction, Extrahepatic; Biliary Stasis, Extrahepatic; Extrahepatic Cholestasis. Fast. ...
more infohttps://lookfordiagnosis.com/results.php?symptoms=Cholestasis%2C+Extrahepatic%3B%20Bile%20Duct%20Obstruction%2C%20Extrahepatic%3B%20Biliary%20Stasis%2C%20Extrahepatic%3B%20Extrahepatic%20Cholestasis&lang=1&parent=%2F&mode=F&therapy_plants=1

Hepatoprotection by the farnesoid X receptor agonist GW4064 in rat models of intra- and extrahepatic cholestasis. - Semantic...Hepatoprotection by the farnesoid X receptor agonist GW4064 in rat models of intra- and extrahepatic cholestasis. - Semantic...

FXR agonist GW4064 could protect against cholestatic liver damage in rat models of extrahepatic and intrahepatic cholestasis. ... In the bile duct-ligation and alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate models of cholestasis, GW4064 treatment resulted in significant ... Hepatoprotection by the farnesoid X receptor agonist GW4064 in rat models of intra- and extrahepatic cholestasis.. *. Yaping ... and extrahepatic cholestasis.}, author={Yaping Liu and Jane G Binz and Mary Jo Numerick and Steve Dennis and Guizhen Luo and ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Hepatoprotection-by-the-farnesoid-X-receptor-agoni-Liu-Binz/36fca5fd61be0014791958144c5fb40a2c2ec84e

Hepatitis Monthly |  Increased liver stiffness in extrahepatic cholestasis caused by choledocholithiasisHepatitis Monthly | Increased liver stiffness in extrahepatic cholestasis caused by choledocholithiasis

Extrahepatic cholestasis Liver stiffness Transient elastography © 0, Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed ... Background: Extrahepatic cholestasis that is caused by benign and malignant diseases has been reported to increase liver ... Conclusions: Extrahepatic cholestasis due to choledocholithiasis increases LS and should be excluded before assesing liver ... Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate LS in patients with extrahepatic cholestasis due to choledocholithiasis ...
more infohttp://hepatmon.com/en/articles/70266.html

Altered lipid peroxidation/glutathione ratio in experimental extrahepatic cholestasis. | IRIS Università degli Studi di PadovaAltered lipid peroxidation/glutathione ratio in experimental extrahepatic cholestasis. | IRIS Università degli Studi di Padova

Furthermore, extrahepatic cholestasis is associated with increased lipid peroxide formation and with a depletion of reduced ... Furthermore, extrahepatic cholestasis is associated with increased lipid peroxide formation and with a depletion of reduced ... 6. In conclusion, experimental extrahepatic cholestasis determines bile duct proliferation and fibrosis, the degree of which is ... 6. In conclusion, experimental extrahepatic cholestasis determines bile duct proliferation and fibrosis, the degree of which is ...
more infohttps://www.research.unipd.it/handle/11577/2508677

High frequency of Human Cytomegalovirus DNA in the Liver of Infants with Extrahepatic Neonatal Cholestasis | BMC Infectious...High frequency of Human Cytomegalovirus DNA in the Liver of Infants with Extrahepatic Neonatal Cholestasis | BMC Infectious...

These results indicate an elevated frequency of HCMV in pediatric patients with extrahepatic neonatal cholestasis. They also ... to screen the liver tissue of infants with extrahepatic cholestasis for HCMV and to correlate the results with serological ... The purpose of this study was to screen the liver tissue of infants with extrahepatic neonatal cholestasis for the presence of ... Our study is the first to investigate the ocurrence of HCMV in other causes of extrahepatic neonatal cholestasis. HCMV DNA was ...
more infohttps://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2334-5-108

Cholestasis: MedlinePlus Medical EncyclopediaCholestasis: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

Cholestasis is any condition in which the flow of bile from the liver is slowed or blocked. ... There are many causes of cholestasis.. Extrahepatic cholestasis occurs outside the liver. It can be caused by:. * Bile duct ... This can cure the cholestasis.. Stents can be placed to open areas of the common bile duct that are narrowed or blocked by ... Cholestasis is any condition in which the flow of bile from the liver is slowed or blocked. ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000215.htm

DESTOLIT 150 mg tablets - Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC) - (emc)DESTOLIT 150 mg tablets - Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC) - (emc)

Extrahepatic cholestasis - Intrahepatic cholestasis. - Ileal resection. - Regional ileitis. - Ileal stoma. Acute, chronic or ...
more infohttps://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/product/1023/smpc

Diseases of the Liver and Bile Ducts | SpringerLinkDiseases of the Liver and Bile Ducts | SpringerLink

Extrahepatic Cholestasis Matthew Estill, Salam F. Zakko. Pages 217-228 * Cholecystitis Douglas Robertson, Salam F. Zakko ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-1-4612-1808-1

SLCO1A2 Gene - GeneCards | SO1A2 Protein | SO1A2 AntibodySLCO1A2 Gene - GeneCards | SO1A2 Protein | SO1A2 Antibody

extrahepatic cholestasis. *extrahepatic biliary stasis. bile duct disease. *bile duct disorder nos ... Diseases associated with SLCO1A2 include Intrahepatic Cholestasis and Aneurysmal Bone Cysts. Among its related pathways are ...
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=SLCO1A2

Get PDF - Cholestasis and hepatic drug metabolism. Comparison of metabolic clearance rate of antipyrine in patients with...Get PDF - Cholestasis and hepatic drug metabolism. Comparison of metabolic clearance rate of antipyrine in patients with...

Comparison of metabolic clearance rate of antipyrine in patients with intrahepatic or extrahepatic cholestasis ... Extrahepatic cholestasis. I. Histologic changes in hepatic interlobular bile ducts and ductules in extrahepatic cholestasis. ... Extrahepatic cholestasis in the dog and the differentiation of extrahepatic and intrahepatic cholestasis. Veterinary Quarterly ... Quantitative determination of lipoprotein-X (LP-X) in extrahepatic cholestasis and intrahepatic cholestasis. Revista Medica de ...
more infohttps://eurekamag.com/research/042/530/042530184.php

Program Members | Yale Cancer CenterProgram Members | Yale Cancer Center

Barrett Esophagus; Bile Duct Neoplasms; Cholestasis, Extrahepatic; Biliary Tract Diseases; Biliary Tract Neoplasms; Cholangitis ... Cholecystitis; Cholelithiasis; Cholestasis; Cholestasis, Intrahepatic; Colonic Neoplasms; Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary ...
more infohttps://www.yalecancercenter.org/research/programs/therapeutics/people/?page=8&tab=4

CM- Jaundice and Cholestasis  Flashcards by heather Fahey | BrainscapeCM- Jaundice and Cholestasis Flashcards by heather Fahey | Brainscape

When extrahepatic causes of cholestasis have been ruled out, what is the next lab test you should do? ... CM- Jaundice and Cholestasis Flashcards Preview GI, Liver, GallBladder, Pancreas , CM- Jaundice and Cholestasis , Flashcards ... In cholestasis there is a lack of bile salts which cause deficiency of fat soluble vitamins. What are the 4 main fat soluble ... Cholestasis = obstruction in the biliary system/elevated alk phos Ex. of J without C = hemolysis, genetic conjugation disorders ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/cm-jaundice-and-cholestasis-1710141/packs/3239092

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome             | Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - an NCATS ProgramZollinger-Ellison syndrome | Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - an NCATS Program

Extrahepatic cholestasis. 0012334 Glucagonoma. 0030404 Growth hormone excess. 0000845 Hematochezia. Rectal bleeding ...
more infohttps://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/7918/zollinger-ellison-syndrome

Klatskin tumor             | Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - an NCATS ProgramKlatskin tumor | Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - an NCATS Program

Extrahepatic cholestasis. 0012334 Jaundice. Yellow skin Yellowing of the skin [ more ] 0000952 ... This includes treating cholestasis and cholangitis, which secondarily prolongs survival.[5][6] ...
more infohttps://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/10175/klatskin-tumor

Long-term follow-up of patients with a clinically benign extrahepatic biliary stenosis and K-ras mutation in endobiliary brush...Long-term follow-up of patients with a clinically benign extrahepatic biliary stenosis and K-ras mutation in endobiliary brush...

... brush cytology are an early event in carcinogenesis and justify a suspicion of malignancy in patients with extrahepatic biliary ... Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / genetics*, mortality, pathology*. False Positive Reactions. Follow-Up Studies. Genes, ras / ... CONCLUSION: Based on long-term follow-up, the K-ras mutations in all 8 patients with a clinically benign extrahepatic biliary ... Long-term follow-up of patients with a clinically benign extrahepatic biliary stenosis and K-ras mutation in endobiliary brush ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Long-term-follow-up-patients/12024145.html

Antifibrotic and antioxidant effects of N-acetylcysteine in an experimental cholestatic model. - Semantic ScholarAntifibrotic and antioxidant effects of N-acetylcysteine in an experimental cholestatic model. - Semantic Scholar

... have suggested that oxidative stress may play an important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic injury during cholestasis in ... Vitamin A Supplementation Alleviates Extrahepatic Cholestasis Liver Injury through Nrf2 Activation. *Guiyang Wang, Peng Xiu, Fu ... The Role of e-NOS in Chronic Cholestasis-Induced Liver and Renal Injury in Rats: The Effect of N-Acetyl Cysteine. *Yusuf Gunay ... have suggested that oxidative stress may play an important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic injury during cholestasis in ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Antifibrotic-and-antioxidant-effects-of-in-an-Galicia-Moreno-Favari/b8a551f8acfb7310fcb7d011ca7c6537ee10bb45

Microsurgery In Liver Research:: volume 1 | BenthamScienceMicrosurgery In Liver Research:: volume 1 | BenthamScience

Extrahepatic Cholestasis Pp. 137-156 (20). Maria Angeles Aller, Isabel Prieto, Arturo Cruz, Manuel Losada, Jose-Ignacio Arias, ...
more infohttp://www.eurekaselect.com/53250

Imaging of Hepatic Fibrosis | SpringerLinkImaging of Hepatic Fibrosis | SpringerLink

Extrahepatic cholestasis increases liver stiffness (FibroScan) irrespective of fibrosis. Hepatology. 2008;48(5):1718-23.PubMed ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11894-018-0652-7

Inoperable Pancreatic Cancer Patients Who Have Prolonged Survival Exhibit an Increased Risk of CholangitisInoperable Pancreatic Cancer Patients Who Have Prolonged Survival Exhibit an Increased Risk of Cholangitis

Keywords: Cholangitis, Cholestasis, Extrahepatic, Pancreatic Neoplasms, Stents. INTRODUCTION. During the past ten years ...
more infohttp://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC3371335/?lang=en-ca

Boyer JL[au] - PubMed - NCBIBoyer JL[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Deleterious effect of oltipraz on extrahepatic cholestasis in bile duct-ligated mice. ... Treatment of chronic cholestasis: What we know and what we will know? ... Solute Carrier Organic Anion Transporter Family Member 3A1 Is a Bile Acid Efflux Transporter in Cholestasis. ... Sirtuin 1 activation alleviates cholestatic liver injury in a cholic acid-fed mouse model of cholestasis. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Boyer+JL%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50
  • Cholestasis can damage sinusoidal endothelial cells, induce hepatic microcirculation dysfunction, and render the liver susceptible to warm IR compared to normal liver [ 3 - 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • We assume, therefore, that API5 in cholestasis is produced by cells of the bile canaliculi rather than by liver parenchymal cells in the sinusoidal area. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 4. Bile duct ligated rats showed a marked increase in liver weight which was related to cholestasis duration and to some anatomical alterations such as bile duct proliferation and dilation and liver fibrosis (periportal, perivenular, perineoductular and parenchymal). (unipd.it)
  • We previously reported the effects of dioscin against α-naphthylisothio- cyanate (ANIT)-induced cholestasis in rats. (frontiersin.org)
  • The aims of the study were to use the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to screen the liver tissue of infants with extrahepatic cholestasis for HCMV and to correlate the results with serological antibodies against HCMV and histological findings. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cholestasis is a condition caused by rapidly developing (acute) or long-term (chronic) interruption in the excretion of bile (a digestive fluid that helps the body process fat). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Furthermore, extrahepatic cholestasis is associated with increased lipid peroxide formation and with a depletion of reduced glutathione both in the liver and in the erythrocytes. (unipd.it)
  • 1. Lipid peroxidation can occur in the presence of a cellular antioxidant-oxidant imbalance, but the role of lipid peroxides in cholestasis is not well understood. (unipd.it)