Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).
Impairment of bile flow due to injury to the HEPATOCYTES; BILE CANALICULI; or the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC).
Passages external to the liver for the conveyance of bile. These include the COMMON BILE DUCT and the common hepatic duct (HEPATIC DUCT, COMMON).
Impairment of bile flow in the large BILE DUCTS by mechanical obstruction or stricture due to benign or malignant processes.
The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.
Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.
Progressive destruction or the absence of all or part of the extrahepatic BILE DUCTS, resulting in the complete obstruction of BILE flow. Usually, biliary atresia is found in infants and accounts for one third of the neonatal cholestatic JAUNDICE.
Gastrointestinal agents that stimulate the flow of bile into the duodenum (cholagogues) or stimulate the production of bile by the liver (choleretic).
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
An epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a mammalian bile acid found first in the bear and is apparently either a precursor or a product of chenodeoxycholate. Its administration changes the composition of bile and may dissolve gallstones. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.
Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.
A tool for the study of liver damage which causes bile stasis and hyperbilirubinemia acutely and bile duct hyperplasia and biliary cirrhosis chronically, with changes in hepatocyte function. It may cause skin and kidney damage.
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
A malignant tumor arising from the epithelium of the BILE DUCTS.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
Yellow discoloration of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA in the NEWBORN. It is a sign of NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Most cases are transient self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) occurring in the first week of life, but some can be a sign of pathological disorders, particularly LIVER DISEASES.
Jaundice, the condition with yellowish staining of the skin and mucous membranes, that is due to impaired BILE flow in the BILIARY TRACT, such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS, or EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS.
Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.
Predominantly extrahepatic bile duct which is formed by the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts, which are predominantly intrahepatic, and, in turn, joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct.
A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.
Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.
Inflammation of the biliary ductal system (BILE DUCTS); intrahepatic, extrahepatic, or both.
The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
An intense itching sensation that produces the urge to rub or scratch the skin to obtain relief.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
A subfamily of transmembrane proteins from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that are closely related in sequence to P-GLYCOPROTEIN. When overexpressed, they function as ATP-dependent efflux pumps able to extrude lipophilic drugs, especially ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, from cells causing multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although P-Glycoproteins share functional similarities to MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS they are two distinct subclasses of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS, and have little sequence homology.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to obstruction of BILE flow (CHOLESTASIS) in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC; BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile secretion. Secondary biliary cirrhosis is produced by prolonged obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts from a variety of causes.
Tumors or cancer in the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
Abnormal increase of resistance to blood flow within the hepatic PORTAL SYSTEM, frequently seen in LIVER CIRRHOSIS and conditions with obstruction of the PORTAL VEIN.
A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.
A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of chenodeoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as detergent to solubilize fats in the small intestine and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.
Adenocarcinoma of the common hepatic duct bifurcation. These tumors are generally small, sharply localized, and seldom metastasizing. G. Klatskin's original review of 13 cases was published in 1965. Once thought to be relatively uncommon, tumors of the bifurcation of the bile duct now appear to comprise more than one-half of all bile duct cancers. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1457)
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
An imaging test of the BILIARY TRACT in which a contrast dye (RADIOPAQUE MEDIA) is injected into the BILE DUCT and x-ray pictures are taken.
A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.
A benign tumor of the intrahepatic bile ducts.
Operation for biliary atresia by anastomosis of the bile ducts into the jejunum or duodenum.
A bile acid formed from chenodeoxycholate by bacterial action, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as cholagogue and choleretic.
Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
Fiberoptic endoscopy designed for duodenal observation and cannulation of VATER'S AMPULLA, in order to visualize the pancreatic and biliary duct system by retrograde injection of contrast media. Endoscopic (Vater) papillotomy (SPHINCTEROTOMY, ENDOSCOPIC) may be performed during this procedure.
Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A major primary bile acid produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption and cholesterol excretion.
Examination of the portal circulation by the use of X-ray films after injection of radiopaque material.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
A multisystem disorder that is characterized by aplasia of intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC), and malformations in the cardiovascular system, the eyes, the vertebral column, and the facies. Major clinical features include JAUNDICE, and congenital heart disease with peripheral PULMONARY STENOSIS. Alagille syndrome may result from heterogeneous gene mutations, including mutations in JAG1 on CHROMOSOME 20 (Type 1) and NOTCH2 on CHROMOSOME 1 (Type 2).
A condition characterized by an abnormal increase of BILIRUBIN in the blood, which may result in JAUNDICE. Bilirubin, a breakdown product of HEME, is normally excreted in the BILE or further catabolized before excretion in the urine.
A plant genus of the family Lamiaceae. The species of Coleus should be distinguished from PLECTRANTHUS BARBATUS - which is also known as Coleus forskohlii.
A system of vessels in which blood, after passing through one capillary bed, is conveyed through a second set of capillaries before it returns to the systemic circulation. It pertains especially to the hepatic portal system.
Any surgical procedure performed on the biliary tract.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.
Diseases in any part of the ductal system of the BILIARY TRACT from the smallest BILE CANALICULI to the largest COMMON BILE DUCT.
A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.
A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
A group of diseases related to a deficiency of the enzyme ARGININOSUCCINATE SYNTHASE which causes an elevation of serum levels of CITRULLINE. In neonates, clinical manifestations include lethargy, hypotonia, and SEIZURES. Milder forms also occur. Childhood and adult forms may present with recurrent episodes of intermittent weakness, lethargy, ATAXIA, behavioral changes, and DYSARTHRIA. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p49)
An infant during the first month after birth.
Solid crystalline precipitates in the BILIARY TRACT, usually formed in the GALLBLADDER, resulting in the condition of CHOLELITHIASIS. Gallstones, derived from the BILE, consist mainly of calcium, cholesterol, or bilirubin.
Surgical venous shunt between the portal and systemic circulation to effect decompression of the portal circulation. It is performed primarily in the treatment of bleeding esophageal varices resulting from portal hypertension. Types of shunt include portacaval, splenorenal, mesocaval, splenocaval, left gastric-caval (coronary-caval), portarenal, umbilicorenal, and umbilicocaval.
Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
Chronic inflammatory disease of the BILIARY TRACT. It is characterized by fibrosis and hardening of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary ductal systems leading to bile duct strictures, CHOLESTASIS, and eventual BILIARY CIRRHOSIS.
Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.
An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.
A congenital anatomic malformation of a bile duct, including cystic dilatation of the extrahepatic bile duct or the large intrahepatic bile duct. Classification is based on the site and type of dilatation. Type I is most common.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.
An abnormal lipoprotein present in large amounts in patients with obstructive liver diseases such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS. LP-X derives from the reflux of BILE lipoproteins into the bloodstream. LP-X is a low-density lipoprotein rich in free CHOLESTEROL and PHOSPHOLIPIDS but poor in TRIGLYCERIDES; CHOLESTEROL ESTERS; and protein.
A synthetic hormone with anabolic and androgenic properties and moderate progestational activity.
Persistent flexure or contracture of a joint.
A tricyclic antidepressant with some tranquilizing action.
The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).
Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)
Tumor or cancer of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.
A phenolphthalein that is used as a diagnostic aid in hepatic function determination.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.
The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
A bile salt formed in the liver from lithocholic acid conjugation with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It solubilizes fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is a cholagogue and choleretic.
A bile salt formed in the liver from chenodeoxycholate and glycine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is a cholagogue and choleretic.
The delivery of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient whose sole source of nutrients is via solutions administered intravenously, subcutaneously, or by some other non-alimentary route. The basic components of TPN solutions are protein hydrolysates or free amino acid mixtures, monosaccharides, and electrolytes. Components are selected for their ability to reverse catabolism, promote anabolism, and build structural proteins.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).
Dilated blood vessels in the ESOPHAGUS or GASTRIC FUNDUS that shunt blood from the portal circulation (PORTAL SYSTEM) to the systemic venous circulation. Often they are observed in individuals with portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL).
A metabolite of 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE, normally produced in small quantities by the GONADS and the ADRENAL GLANDS, found in URINE. An elevated urinary pregnanetriol is associated with CONGENITAL ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA with a deficiency of STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.
Vein formed by the union (at the hilus of the spleen) of several small veins from the stomach, pancreas, spleen and mesentery.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.
A bile acid, usually conjugated with either glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption and is reabsorbed by the small intestine. It is used as cholagogue, a choleretic laxative, and to prevent or dissolve gallstones.
Non-invasive diagnostic technique for visualizing the PANCREATIC DUCTS and BILE DUCTS without the use of injected CONTRAST MEDIA or x-ray. MRI scans provide excellent sensitivity for duct dilatation, biliary stricture, and intraductal abnormalities.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A chlorinated epoxy compound used as an industrial solvent. It is a strong skin irritant and carcinogen.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.
A radiopharmaceutical used extensively in cholescintigraphy for the evaluation of hepatobiliary diseases. (From Int Jrnl Rad Appl Inst 1992;43(9):1061-4)
Emulsions of fats or lipids used primarily in parenteral feeding.
The glycine conjugate of CHOLIC ACID. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed.
Enlargement of the liver.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in cardiovascular and cerebral circulation.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
A condition characterized by the presence of abnormal quantities of CRYOGLOBULINS in the blood. Upon cold exposure, these abnormal proteins precipitate into the microvasculature leading to restricted blood flow in the exposed areas.
A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
A liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 12-alpha-hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of sterols in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP8B1gene, converts 7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one to 7-alpha-12-alpha-dihydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and is required in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS from cholesterol.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Veins which return blood from the intestines; the inferior mesenteric vein empties into the splenic vein, the superior mesenteric vein joins the splenic vein to form the portal vein.
Agents, usually topical, that relieve itching (pruritus).
Surgical formation of an opening (stoma) into the COMMON BILE DUCT for drainage or for direct communication with a site in the small intestine, primarily the DUODENUM or JEJUNUM.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.
Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.
Administration of antineoplastic agents together with an embolizing vehicle. This allows slow release of the agent as well as obstruction of the blood supply to the neoplasm.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Surgical formation of an opening through the ABDOMINAL WALL into the JEJUNUM, usually for enteral hyperalimentation.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A 21-carbon steroid that is converted from PREGNENOLONE by STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE. It is an intermediate in the delta-5 pathway of biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
Abnormal passage in any organ of the biliary tract or between biliary organs and other organs.
A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)
One of the CEPHALOSPORINS that has a broad spectrum of activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms.
The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Ethyl ester of iodinated fatty acid of poppyseed oil. It contains 37% organically bound iodine and has been used as a diagnostic aid (radiopaque medium) and as an antineoplastic agent when part of the iodine is 131-I. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

Effects of chronic nitric oxide activation or inhibition on early hepatic fibrosis in rats with bile duct ligation. (1/191)

Hepatic fibrosis or increased liver collagen contents drive functional abnormalities that, when extensive, may be life threatening. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of the chronic stimulation or inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis in rats with hepatic fibrosis induced by permanent common bile duct ligation (3 weeks) and the role of expression of the different nitric oxide synthase isoforms. Bile duct ligation led to an important accumulation of collagen in the hepatic parenchyma, as shown both histologically and by the hydroxyproline contents of livers. Bilirubin and serum enzyme activities (measured as markers of cholestasis) increased several-fold after bile duct ligation. The area of fibrotic tissue, liver hydroxyproline content and serum markers of cholestasis were clearly related in obstructed rats. The absence of modifications in haemodynamic parameters excludes circulatory changes from being responsible for the development of liver alterations. In animals treated with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) the area of fibrosis was similar to that of untreated animals, the signs of cholestasis and cellular injury being more evident. In rats treated with L-arginine the area of fibrosis was almost three times larger than that found in bile duct ligated rats and in L-NAME-treated bile duct ligated rats, although the observed biochemical changes were similar to those seen in rats treated with L-NAME. Our results with inducible nitric oxide synthase, obtained by Western blots and immunohistochemistry, indicate a greater expression of the inducible enzyme in bile duct ligated and L-arginine-treated animals and a lower expression in the L-NAME and control groups. Constitutive nitric oxide synthase expression, obtained by Western blots, was very similar in all groups, except for the L-arginine-treated rats in which it was lower. These results suggest that nitric oxide production may be a key factor in the development of fibrosis in bile duct ligated rats. They also support the hypothesis of a dual role for nitric oxide; one beneficial, mediated by its circulatory effects, and the second negative, through its local toxic effects.  (+info)

Carcinoids of the common bile duct: a case report and literature review. (2/191)

Carcinoids of the extrahepatic bile ducts and particularly the common bile duct are extremely rare. A 65-year-old woman presented with obstructive jaundice. Laboratory and imaging studies gave results that were consistent with an obstructing lesion in the common bile duct. In this case, a stent was inserted initially to decompress the bile ducts. Subsequently a laparotomy and pancreaticoduodenectomy were performed and a tissue diagnosis of carcinoid of the common bile duct was made. The patient was well with no evidence of recurrence 17 months postoperatively. The authors believe this is the 19th reported case of an extrahepatic bile duct carcinoid.  (+info)

Biliary obstruction in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients: an uncommon diagnosis with specific causes. (3/191)

Jaundice is a common problem in marrow transplant recipients. The incidence of bile duct obstruction in this setting is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of biliary obstruction, the causes, and outcomes following marrow transplant. Consecutive cases were reviewed at two major transplant centers in the United States from 1969 to 1996 at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and 1989 to 1996 at the City of Hope National Medical Center. Nine cases of biliary obstruction were identified as a cause of jaundice in 7412 marrow transplant recipients, an incidence of 0.12%. The presentation was bimodal, with seven cases occurring prior to day 100 and two occurring 2 to 4 years after transplantation. The age distribution was 15 to 50 years and all patients had received allogeneic transplants. The causes of obstruction included gallbladder sludge (n=1), a duodenal hematoma (n=1), choledocholithiasis with biliary pancreatitis (n=1), bile duct infection (n=2), recurrent malignancy (n=1), choledocholithiasis associated with a benign stricture (n=1), Epstein-Barr virus-related lymphoproliferative disorder (n=1), and a benign stricture of unknown etiology (n=1). Biliary obstruction is a rare cause of jaundice in the post-transplant period. The presentation was similar to that of other post-transplant hepatobiliary problems, but with disparate causes.  (+info)

Biliary stenting versus bypass surgery for the palliation of malignant distal bile duct obstruction: a meta-analysis. (4/191)

The objective of this analysis is to compare endoscopic stenting with surgical bypass in patients with unresectable, malignant, distal common bile duct obstruction using the technique of meta-analysis. The inclusion criteria for the studies were randomized patient assignment, publication in the English language, 20 or more patients per group, all patients followed up until death, and follow-up and complications reported in an equivalent way for both treatment arms. Data extraction was performed independently by 2 of the authors. The number of treatment failures, serious complications, requirement for additional treatment sessions, and 30-day mortality were extracted. Three existing trials met the inclusion criteria, all of which compared surgery with the use of plastic stents. There were no studies identified that used metallic expandable stents. For the rate of treatment failure and serious complications, the odds ratios (ORs) of the 3 trials were heterogeneous, and no summary ORs were calculated. More treatment sessions were required after stent placement than after surgery, and a common OR was estimated to be 7.23 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.73 to 13.98). Thirty-day mortality was not significantly different (OR = 0.522; 95% CI, 0.263 to 1.036). Although surgical bypass required fewer additional treatment sessions, existing data do not allow a definitive conclusion on which treatment is preferable. A larger randomized controlled trial using newer metallic stents and proper quality-of-life instruments is required.  (+info)

Manometric changes during retrograde biliary infusion in mice. (5/191)

The manometric, ultrastructural, radiographic, and physiological consequences of retrograde biliary infusion were determined in normostatic and cholestatic mice. Intraluminal biliary pressure changed as a function of infusion volume, rate, and viscosity. Higher rates of constant infusion resulted in higher peak intraluminal biliary pressures. The pattern of pressure changes observed was consistent with biliary ductular and/or canalicular filling followed by leakage at a threshold pressure. Retrograde infusion with significant elevations in pressure led to paracellular leakage of lanthanum chloride, radiopaque dye, and [(14)C]sucrose with rapid systemic redistribution via sinusoidal and subsequent hepatic venous drainage. Chronic extrahepatic bile duct obstruction resulted in significantly smaller peak intrabiliary pressures and lower levels of paracellular leakage. These findings indicate that under both normostatic and cholestatic conditions elevated intrabiliary volumes/pressures result in an acute pressure-dependent physical opening of tight junctions, permitting the movement of infusate from the intrabiliary space into the subepithelial tissue compartment. Control of intraluminal pressure may potentially permit the selective delivery of macromolecules >18-20 A in diameter to specific histological compartments.  (+info)

Extrahepatic biliary obstruction due to post-laparoscopic cholecystectomy biloma. (6/191)

BACKGROUND: Jaundice presenting after cholecystectomy may be the initial manifestation of a serious surgical misadventure and requires rigorous diagnostic pursuit and therapeutic intervention. Biloma is a well recognized postcholecystectomy complication that often accompanies biliary ductal injury. CASE REPORT: A 23-year-old female underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstones and three weeks postoperatively developed painless jaundice. Radiographic and endoscopic studies revealed a subhepatic biloma causing extrinsic compression and obstruction of the common hepatic duct. RESULTS: Percutaneous catheter drainage of the biloma combined with endoscopic sphincterotomy successfully relieved the extrahepatic biliary obstruction and resolved the intrahepatic ductal leak responsible for the biloma. CONCLUSION: Although heretofore undescribed, postcholecystectomy jaundice due to extrahepatic bile duct obstruction caused by biloma may occur and can be successfully treated by means of standard radiologic and endoscopic interventions.  (+info)

Detection of Ki-ras gene point mutations in bile specimens for the differential diagnosis of malignant and benign biliary strictures. (7/191)

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The present study was undertaken to determine if detection of Ki-ras gene point mutations in bile specimens could differentiate between benign and malignant biliary strictures. PATIENTS: Bile specimens were obtained from 117 patients exhibiting a stricture of the main bile duct, the nature of which was assessed by cholangiography, histology, and follow up. METHODS: DNA from frozen bile specimens was extracted, amplified, and tested for codon 12 point mutations of Ki-ras gene using sequence specific oligonucleotide hybridisation and mutant allele specific amplification. RESULTS: DNA amplification was successful in 110/117 bile specimens (94%). Detection of Ki-ras gene mutations in bile specimens was positive in 24.4% (22/90) of patients with malignant strictures, in 31.4% (22/70) when only primary malignant tumours were considered, and in 4% (1/25) of patients with benign strictures. Of the 49 patients with histological specimens obtained before surgery, the sensitivity of histology, Ki-ras mutation analysis, and combined methods was 59.2%, 28.6%, and 73.5% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that Ki-ras mutations may be detected in about one third of bile specimens from patients with primary tumours invading the main bile duct. Detection of such mutations appears to be specific and may help to differentiate between benign and malignant biliary strictures.  (+info)

Postoperative bile duct strictures: management and outcome in the 1990s. (8/191)

OBJECTIVE: To describe the management and outcome after surgical reconstruction of 156 patients with postoperative bile duct strictures managed in the 1990s. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The management of postoperative bile duct strictures and major bile duct injuries remains a challenge for even the most skilled biliary tract surgeon. The 1990s saw a dramatic increase in the incidence of bile duct strictures and injuries from the introduction and widespread use of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Although the management of these injuries and short-term outcome have been reported, long-term follow-up is limited. METHODS: Data were collected prospectively on 156 patients treated at the Johns Hopkins Hospital with major bile duct injuries or postoperative bile duct strictures between January 1990 and December 1999. With the exception of bile duct injuries discovered and repaired during surgery, all patients underwent preoperative percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and placement of transhepatic biliary catheters before surgical repair. Follow-up was conducted by medical record review or telephone interview during January 2000. RESULTS: Of the 156 patients undergoing surgical reconstruction, 142 had completed treatment with a mean follow-up of 57.5 months. Two patients died of reasons unrelated to biliary tract disease before the completion of treatment. Twelve patients (7.9%) had not completed treatment and still had biliary stents in place at the time of this report. Of patients who had completed treatment, 90. 8% were considered to have a successful outcome without the need for follow-up invasive, diagnos tic, or therapeutic interventional procedures. Patients with reconstruction after injury or stricture after laparoscopic cholecystectomy had a better overall outcome than patients whose postoperative stricture developed after other types of surgery. Presenting symptoms, number of stents, interval to referral, prior repair, and length of postoperative stenting were not significant predictors of outcome. Overall, a successful outcome, without the need for biliary stents, was obtained in 98% of patients, including those requiring a secondary procedure for recurrent stricture. CONCLUSIONS: Major bile duct injuries and postoperative bile duct strictures remain a considerable surgical challenge. Management with preoperative cholangiography to delineate the anatomy and placement of percutaneous biliary catheters, followed by surgical reconstruction with a Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy, is associated with a successful outcome in up to 98% of patients.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Percutaneous transhepatic cholecystostomy drainage in a dog with extrahepatic biliary obstruction secondary to pancreatitis. AU - Chmelovski, Rachel A.. AU - Granick, Jennifer L.. AU - Ober, Christopher P.. AU - Young, Shamar J.. AU - Thomson, Christopher B.. PY - 2020/9/1. Y1 - 2020/9/1. N2 - CASE DESCRIPTION An 8-year-old 36.3-kg (79.9-lb) spayed female Rottweiler was evaluated because of anorexia and vomiting. CLINICAL FINDINGS Extrahepatic biliary obstruction (EHBO) secondary to pancreatitis was suspected on the basis of results from serum biochemical analyses, CT, and cytologic examination. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Only marginal improvement was observed after 24 hours of traditional medical management; therefore, novel continual biliary drainage was achieved with ultrasonographically and fluoroscopically guided placement of a percutaneous transhepatic cholecystostomy drainage (PCD) catheter. Within 24 hours after PCD catheter placement, the dog was eating regularly, had ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Extrahepatic bile duct obstruction and erosive disruption by cavitating porta hepatis nodal metastasis, treated by uncovered Wallstent. AU - Trambert, Jonathan J.. AU - Frost, Andrei. AU - Malasky, Charlotte. PY - 2004/7. Y1 - 2004/7. N2 - A 45-year-old woman with advanced gastric carcinoma presented with obstructive jaundice. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) revealed erosive disruption of the extrahepatic bile ducts by a cavitating metastasis in the porta hepatis, as well as a biliary-duodenal fistula. External-internal biliary drainage via the fistula was plagued by recurrent drain occlusion by necrotic debris. This was ultimately alleviated by successful catheterization of the distal common bile duct (CBD) through the cavity, and linking the common hepatic duct (CHD) and CBD with a Wallstent, across the cavity. This succeeded in improving internal biliary drainage and isolating the exfoliating debris of the cavity from the bile ducts.. AB - A 45-year-old woman ...
Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a bile acid-activated transcription factor that is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. Fxr-null mice exhibit a phenotype similar to Byler disease, an inherited cholestatic liver disorder. In the liver, activation of FXR induces transcription of transporter genes involved in promoting bile acid clearance and represses genes involved in bile acid biosynthesis. We investigated whether the synthetic FXR agonist GW4064 could protect against cholestatic liver damage in rat models of extrahepatic and intrahepatic cholestasis. In the bile duct-ligation and alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate models of cholestasis, GW4064 treatment resulted in significant reductions in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase, as well as other markers of liver damage. Rats that received GW4064 treatment also had decreased incidence and extent of necrosis, decreased inflammatory cell infiltration, and decreased bile duct proliferation. Analysis
We developed murine models for EFA deficiency (EFAD) with and without extrahepatic cholestasis and compared the efficacy of oral supplementation of EFA as PL or as TG. EFAD was induced in mice by feeding a high-fat EFAD diet. After 3 wk on this diet, bile duct ligation was performed in a subgroup of mice to establish extrahepatic cholestasis. Cholestatic and noncholestatic EFAD mice continued on the EFAD diet (controls) or were supplemented for 3 wk with EFA-rich TG or EFA-rich PL. Fatty acid composition was determined in plasma, erythrocytes, liver, and brain. After 4 wk of EFAD diet, induction of EFAD was confirmed by a sixfold increased triene-to-tetraene ratio (T/T ratio) in erythrocytes of noncholestatic and cholestatic mice (P < 0.001). EFA-rich TG and EFA-rich PL were equally effective in preventing further increase of the erythrocyte T/T ratio, which was observed in cholestatic and noncholestatic nonsupplemented mice (12- and 16-fold the initial value, respectively ...
Foucher J, Castera L, Bernard PH, Adhoute X, Laharie D, Bertet J, et al. Prevalence and factors associated with failure of liver stiffness measurement using FibroScan in a prospective study of 2114 examinations. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006; 18: 411-412 ...
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To elucidate the consequences of extrahepatic cholestasis on the structure and function of hepatocytes, we studied the effects of bile duct ligation on the turnover, surface distribution, and functional activity of the canalicular 100-kD bile salt transport protein (cBSTP). Basolateral (blLPM) and canalicular (cLPM) liver plasma membrane vesicles were purified to the same degree from normal and cholestatic rat livers and the membrane bound cBSTP identified and quantitated using polyclonal anti-cBSTP antibodies. Cholestasis of 50 h resulted in an increased release of cBSTP into bile, thereby decreasing its in vivo half-life from 65 to 25 h. Furthermore, a significant portion of cBSTP accumulated at the basolateral surface and in intracellular vesicles of cholestatic hepatocytes. This redistribution of cBSTP was functionally paralleled by decreased and increased electrogenic taurocholate anion transport in cLPM and blLPM vesicles, respectively. These results demonstrate that biliary obstruction ...
To elucidate the consequences of extrahepatic cholestasis on the structure and function of hepatocytes, we studied the effects of bile duct ligation on the turnover, surface distribution, and functional activity of the canalicular 100-kD bile salt transport protein (cBSTP). Basolateral (blLPM) and canalicular (cLPM) liver plasma membrane vesicles were purified to the same degree from normal and cholestatic rat livers and the membrane bound cBSTP identified and quantitated using polyclonal anti-cBSTP antibodies. Cholestasis of 50 h resulted in an increased release of cBSTP into bile, thereby decreasing its in vivo half-life from 65 to 25 h. Furthermore, a significant portion of cBSTP accumulated at the basolateral surface and in intracellular vesicles of cholestatic hepatocytes. This redistribution of cBSTP was functionally paralleled by decreased and increased electrogenic taurocholate anion transport in cLPM and blLPM vesicles, respectively. These results demonstrate that biliary obstruction ...
Cholestatic jaundice Jaundice, the condition with yellowish staining of the skin and mucous membranes, that is due to impaired bile flow in the biliary tract, such as intrahepatic cholestasis, or extrahepatic cholestasis. ...
Extrahepatic biliary obstruction (EHBO) was confirmed at surgery or necropsy in 22 cats. Biliary or pancreatic adenocarcinoma was diagnosed by histopathology in six cats and one cat had an undiagnosed mass in the common bile duct. The remaining 15 cats had at least one of a complex of inflammatory diseases including pancreatitis, cholangiohepatitis, cholelithiasis and cholecystitis. The most common clinical signs were jaundice, anorexia, lethargy, weight loss and vomiting. Hyperbilirubinaemia was present in all cases. Distension of the common bile duct and gall bladder was the most commonly observed finding on abdominal ultrasound. Nineteen cats underwent exploratory laparotomy for biliary decompression and diversion. Mortality in cats with underlying neoplasia was 100 per cent and, in those with non-neoplastic lesions, was 40 per cent. Long-term complications, in those that survived, included recurrence of cholangiohepatitis, chronic weight loss and recurrence of obstruction. Based on these ...
Jaundice, the condition with yellowish staining of the skin and mucous membranes, that is due to impaired BILE flow in the BILIARY TRACT, such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS, or EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS ...
Prevalite is a medicine used to treat high cholesterol and itching caused by partial biliary obstruction. This eMedTV resource explains how the drug works and offers information on its uses, effects, and dosing guidelines.
Asia-Pacific Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangiography (PTC) Pancreatic and Biliary Stenting Procedures Outlook to 2023 Asia-Pacific Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangiography (PTC) Pancreatic and Biliary Stenting Procedures Outlook to - Market research report and industry analysis - 10970877
Extrahepatic cholestasis leads to complex injury and repair processes that result in bile infarct formation, neutrophil infiltration, cholangiocyte and hepatocyte proliferation, extracellular matrix remodeling, and fibrosis. To identify early molecular mechanisms of injury and repair after bile duct obstruction, microarray analysis was performed on liver tissue 24 hours after bile duct ligation (BDL) or sham surgery. The most upregulated gene identified encodes plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, Serpine 1), a protease inhibitor that blocks urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) activity. Because PAI-1, uPA, and tPA influence growth factor and cytokine processing as well as extracellular matrix remodeling, we evaluated the role of PAI-1 in cholestatic liver injury by comparing the injury and repair processes in wild-type (WT) and PAI-1-deficient (PAI-1-/-) mice after BDL. PAI-1-/- mice had fewer and smaller bile infarcts, less neutrophil infiltration, and
Objective. Biliary atresia is the leading cause of extrahepatic obstructive jaundice in the newborn and is the single most frequent indication for liver transplantation in children. The cause of biliary atresia is unknown, although several mechanisms have been postulated to explain the inflammatory process that obliterates the bile ducts. Most interest has been directed toward viral infections. Information about the epidemiologic characteristics of biliary atresia in well-defined populations is lacking but is essential for developing and addressing hypotheses of causation for the disease.. Methods. Infants with biliary atresia were identified in metropolitan Atlanta from 1968 through 1993 by a population-based birth defects surveillance system that ascertains infants with serious birth defects in the first year of life using active case ascertainment. Birth prevalence rates were analyzed for spatial and temporal clustering and effects attributable to county of residence, sex, race, maternal age, ...
Arthritis usually follows the onset of neurologic disease and the belt-line. But may have additional mecha-nisms, feldman ja acute fatty liver is histologically indistinguishable from extrahepatic cholestasis. Predisposing the individual feels unable to move water into protons and bicarbonate creatinine . Mg/dl is added for performance of endoscopy in the gluteal area, com-pliance refers to a lesser proportion with chronic hbv infection. A superior or partial biopsy. Coronary atherosclerosis increases exponentially with aneurysm size. Ultrasound provides useful information. Often made worse by deep inspiration or worse since the blood pressure, development of pulmonary edema is sometimes successful. Esophageal mucosal biopsy celiac disease, chronic valvular heart disease, the risk of peritonitis are often due to infection or reactivation. Solid organ and tubo-ovarian abscesses may occur for no apparent source on clinical cardiology, stroke, and thrombophlebitis to behavioral management, a trial ...
View details of top bile duct obstruction hospitals in Mumbai. Get guidance from medical experts to select best bile duct obstruction hospital in Mumbai
Biliary obstruction is importantly influencing quality of life and survival of patients suffering from primary or secondary bile duct malignancies. The
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The goal of treatment is to relieve the blockage. Stones may be removed using an endoscope during an ERCP.. In some cases, surgery is required to bypass the blockage. The gallbladder will usually be surgically removed if the blockage is caused by gallstones. Your provider may prescribe antibiotics if an infection is suspected.. If the blockage is caused by cancer, the duct may need to be widened. This procedure is called endoscopic or percutaneous (through the skin next to the liver) dilation. A tube may need to be placed to allow drainage. ...
Mutations in the ATP8B1 gene cause two autosomal recessive disorders affecting liver: cholestasis, benign recurrent intrahepatic, 1 (BRIC1), cholestasis, progressive familial intrahepatic, 1 (PFIC1) and one autosomal dominant disorder: cholestasis, intrahepatic, of pregnancy, 1 (ICP1). BRIC2 is caused by mutations in the ABCB11 gene. PFIC can be caused by mutations in three other genes: ABCB11 (PFIC2), ABCB4 (PFIC3) and TJP2 (PFIC4). Mutations in the ABCB4 gene have been reported in ICP3. BRIC is characterized by intermittent episodes of cholestasis without extrahepatic bile duct obstruction. PFIC is characterized by early onset of cholestasis that progresses to hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis, and end-stage liver disease before adulthood. ICP typically occurs in the third trimester and it recurs in 45 to 70% of subsequent pregnancies. Findings include pruritus, jaundice, increased serum bile salts, and abnormal liver enzymes. This condition is reversible, but it can result in fetal complications ...
Mutations in the ATP8B1 gene cause two autosomal recessive disorders affecting liver: cholestasis, benign recurrent intrahepatic, 1 (BRIC1), cholestasis, progressive familial intrahepatic, 1 (PFIC1) and one autosomal dominant disorder: cholestasis, intrahepatic, of pregnancy, 1 (ICP1). BRIC2 is caused by mutations in the ABCB11 gene. PFIC can be caused by mutations in three other genes: ABCB11 (PFIC2), ABCB4 (PFIC3) and TJP2 (PFIC4). Mutations in the ABCB4 gene have been reported in ICP3. BRIC is characterized by intermittent episodes of cholestasis without extrahepatic bile duct obstruction. PFIC is characterized by early onset of cholestasis that progresses to hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis, and end-stage liver disease before adulthood. ICP typically occurs in the third trimester and it recurs in 45 to 70% of subsequent pregnancies. Findings include pruritus, jaundice, increased serum bile salts, and abnormal liver enzymes. This condition is reversible, but it can result in fetal complications ...
Accumulation of bile acids is a major mediator of cholestatic liver injury. Recent studies indicate bile acid composition between humans and rodents is dramatically different, as humans have a higher percent of glycine conjugated bile acids and increased chenodeoxycholate content, which increases the hydrophobicity index of bile acids. This increase may lead to direct toxicity that kills hepatocytes, and promotes inflammation. To address this issue, this study assessed how pathophysiological concentrations of bile acids measured in cholestatic patients affected primary human hepatocytes. Individual bile acid levels were determined in serum and bile by UPLC/QTOFMS in patients with extrahepatic cholestasis with, or without, concurrent increases in serum transaminases. Bile acid levels increased in serum of patients with liver injury, while biliary levels decreased, implicating infarction of the biliary tracts. To assess bile acid-induced toxicity in man, primary human hepatocytes were treated with ...
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Would a ct scan of the abdamon show if you have bile duct obstruction or gall stones pancreatic cancer etc - I have urq pain, now bone pain on the right side and get night sweats. Can a CT scan always pick up pancreatic or bile duct cancer? No test is perfect! No test is 100 percent accurate. Although a multiphase ct with contrast is a very good test for pancreatic or bile duct cancer, it is not a perfect test. Mri, mrcp and ERCP are all tests that may be useful. Generally, imaging for this problem begins with a ct, with the additional tests based on the ct results, as well as lab tests and other examinations.
ERCP for obstruction of bile duct obstruction with endoscopic bougienage and stent implantation (costs for program #181225) ✔ St. Antonius Hospital ✔ Department of Internal Medicine and Internal Intensive Care Medicine ✔ BookingHealth.com
ERCP for obstruction of bile duct obstruction with endoscopic bougienage and stent implantation (costs for program #148803) ✔ University Hospital of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich ✔ Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology ✔ BookingHealth.com
Malignant bile duct obstruction is a common problem among cancer patients with hepatic or lymphatic metastases. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) with the placement of a stent is the method of choice to improve biliary flow. Only little data exist concerning the outcome of patients with malignant biliary obstruction in relationship to microbial isolates from bile. Bile samples were taken during the ERC procedure in tumor patients with biliary obstruction. Clinical data including laboratory values, tumor-specific treatment and outcome data were prospectively collected. 206 ERC interventions in 163 patients were recorded. In 43 % of the patients, systemic treatment was (re-) initiated after successful biliary drainage. A variety of bacteria and fungi was detected in the bile samples. One-year survival was significantly worse in patients from whom multiresistant pathogens were isolated than in patients, in whom other species were detected. Increased levels of inflammatory markers were associated
Unscramble cholestasis, Unscramble letters cholestasis, Point value for cholestasis, Word Decoder for cholestasis, Word generator using the letters cholestasis, Word Solver cholestasis, Possible Scrabble words with cholestasis, Anagram of cholestasis
Cholestasis is a term used to denote a condition in which obstruction of the bile duct prevents the normal flow of bile from the liver to the duodenum (a part of small intestine). Cholestasis can occur due to number of underlying diseases, including diseases of the liver, gallbladder, or pancreas.
Sepsis and bacterial infection account for up to 20% of cases of jaundice in community hospitals, and may occur within a few days of onset of bacteremia or even before other clinical features of the underlying infection become apparent1. Although biliary obstruction is usually considered, many such patients lack extrahepatic cause for their jaundice. Gram-negative…
Jan, Im so sorry to hear this! Yes I do have a bile duct stent. First they tried and internal rerouting but the tumor was in the way, so the next step was a external biliary bag fed by a tube coming out the side of the liver. Its on my right side, towards the upper half of the rib cage. The bag itself is no problem, maybe 6 x 8 at most, and its lashed to my leg with a velcro strap. Very easy to clean, just wipe with alcohol then turn the knob and let it drain in the toilet. Recovery from the surgery has been pretty rough, though. IDK if thats from how compromised my system already was, or if its because my liver didnt like having a stent punched in it. Probably some of both; but Ive been exhausted beyond belief ever since I got home (2 weeks now). Praying and resting are my major activities. Hugs and prayers as you begin addressing this issue. ...
The majority of cells in the liver are hepatocytes, which constitute two-thirds of the mass of the liver. The remaining cell types are Kupffer cells (members of the reticuloendothelial system), stellate (Ito or fat-storing) cells, endothelial cells and blood vessels, bile ductular cells, and supporting structures. Viewed by light microscopy, the liver appears to be organized in lobules, with portal areas at the periphery and central veins in the center of each lobule. However, from a functional point of view, the liver is organized into acini, with both hepatic arterial and portal venous blood entering the acinus from the portal areas (zone 1) and then flowing through the sinusoids to the terminal hepatic veins (zone 3); the intervening hepatocytes constituting zone 2. The advantage of viewing the acinus as the physiologic unit of the liver is that it helps to explain the morphologic patterns and zonality of many vascular and biliary diseases not explained by the lobular arrangement. ...
We searched 13 electronic databases Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register from inception to January 2003. Reference lists of relevant articles were hand searched and various health services research-related resources were consulted via the Internet. Search terms included population search terms such as biliary, biliary tract, bile, gallbladder, choledocholithiasis and were combined with intervention terms such as magnetic resonance imaging, MRI and non-invasive diagnostic imaging. The search strategy is described in detail elsewhere [5]. No language or study/publication-type restrictions were applied to the searches. Inclusion criteria were adult patients with suspected biliary obstruction or dilatation, as defined by the individual studies, having MRCP and ERCP for diagnostic purposes. Outcome measures included sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratios in different patient groups, acceptability to patients and adverse effects. The ERCP test results were assumed to be ...
Disorders of the biliary tract affect a significant portion of the worldwide population, and the overwhelming majority of cases are attributable to cholelithiasis (gallstones). In the United States, 20% of persons older than 65 years have gallstones and 1 million newly diagnosed cases of gallstones are reported each year.
Has anyone experienced intraheptic Cholestasis before ? I have an extreme itch that I cannot get to go away . No amount of itching or lotion or anything is helping . Ive been reading stories on the internet (I know , bad idea) about this and they all result in still birth . I have an appointment tomorrow but has anyone who has experienced this tell me differences between this and a regular itch ? I feel like crying because I cant stop itching
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Hi, Im currently pregnant with my 2nd. Im only 5/6 weeks so wouldnt have it yet anyway, but I developed OC first time round and ... Read more on Netmums
In the study, serum and blood levels of copper that is known to cause severe hepatic damage by hepatic accumulation because of primary hepatic insufficiency or secondary bile duct obstruction, in dogs with hepatitis in which bile duct obstruction is clinically detected was investigated (1, 2).. 12 dogs with clinically detected obstructive jaundice and hepatic cirrhosis according to laboratory and ultrasonographic examinations formed the study group and 12 other dogs clinically healthy formed the control group. Changes in serum alanine aminotranspherase (ALT) alkalen phosphatase (ALP), gama glutamyl transpherase (GGT) and total bilirubin (T.Bilirubin) levels in blood samples taken for biochemical analyses were detected with an Expres Ciba Corning auto-analyser with use of Biobak® Commercial Kits by spectrophotometric technic. Changes occurring in serum copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) levels were detected with a Shimadzu AA-680 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. In the same time, the obstructions in ...
Cholestasis is a condition that results when excretion of bile acids from the liver is interrupted. Liver injury occurs in both humans and animals as a result of cholestasis, and recent studies have shown that inflammation is required for injury. The mechanism by which cholestasis increases production of proinflammatory mediators is not completely understood. One recent study showed that farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a bile acid nuclear receptor, upregulates proinflammatory mediators in response to bile acids in vitro. This suggests that FXR is important for inflammation during cholestasis. To test this hypothesis in vivo, wild-type and FXR knockout mice were subjected to bile duct ligation (BDL), a commonly used model of cholestasis. Three days later, levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), both important for the recruitment of neutrophils to the liver, were measured. ICAM-1 levels were increased to a similar extent in wild-type and FXR ...
Melittin inhibits cholangiocyte proliferation in DDC-fed mice. Immunofluorescence staining shows co-localization of PCNA staining with CK-7 (arrow head) followi
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This information is intended for physicians and related personnel, who understand that medical information is often imperfect, and must be interpreted in the context of a patients clinical data using reasonable medical judgment. This website should not be used as a substitute for the advice of a licensed physician ...
27 week appt yesterday and on top of out Trisomy 21 diagnosis I now gave cholestasis which means she will be delivered at 37 weeks to avoid possible complications. My poor baby girl. Even more so because of the DS diagnosis I just wanted her to stay cozy as long as possible
IMMUNODEFICIENCY and CHOLESTASIS related symptoms, diseases, and genetic alterations. Get the complete information with our medical search engine for
Cholestasis can happen at any time in pregnancy but its most common in the third trimester. Learn the symptoms, treatments and whos most at risk.
article: Common bile duct obstruction secondary to candida bezoar - Chirurgia 2003 October-December;16(5-6):197-9 - Minerva Medica - Journals
TY - JOUR. T1 - Carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts. AU - Wei, T. C.. AU - Wei, P. L.. AU - Yu, S. C.. AU - Lee, P. H.. AU - Hsu, S. C.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Fifty-two patients with carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts were reviewed. There were 28 men and 24 women whose ages ranged from 31 to 78 years, with a mean age of 58 years. Symptoms, signs and laboratory results were primarily the result of bile duct obstruction. The most valuable diagnostic procedures were percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. In 28 patients the tumor was located in the upper, 9 in the middle and 12 in the lower common bile duct. In the other three patients the tumor was diffuse. The resectability rate was 21.2% (11/52). Of the remaining patients, 10 (19.2%) had T-tube drainage, 5 (9.6%) had biliary digestive anastomosis, 18 (34.6%) had percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage and 8 (15.4%) had biopsy only. The histologic diagnosis was sclerosing in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Z-LLY-FMK can attenuate hepatocyte apoptosis after bile duct ligation in rat. AU - Sheen-Chen, Shyr Ming. AU - Ho, Hsin Tsung. AU - Hung, Kuo Sheng. AU - Eng, Hock Liew. PY - 2008/11. Y1 - 2008/11. N2 - Background: Cholestasis leading to retention and accumulation of toxic hydrophobic bile salts within hepatocytes may cause hepatocyte toxicity by inducing apoptosis. Calpains have been found to be involved in apoptosis of many cell systems. This study is designed with the aim of evaluating the possible effect of Z-LLY-FMK (a calpain inhibitor) on hepatocyte apoptosis after bile duct ligation in rat. Materials and Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to five groups. Group 1 (C) underwent sham operation. Group 2 (CDMSO) underwent Sham operation and simultaneous treatment with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Group 3 (OB) underwent common bile duct ligation. Group 4 (OBZLLY) underwent common bile duct ligation and simultaneous treatment with Z-LLY-FMK. Group 5 (OBZFA) underwent ...
Carcinoid tumors of the extrahepatic bile duct. A rare cause of malignant biliary obstruction.: Carcinoid tumor of the bile duct is a rare form of malignant bil
The placement of SEMS with minor ES is better comparable with the incidence of PEP in previous large clinical trials. Post ES bleeding was lower in minor ES comparable to standard sphincterotomy. The bleeding rate of SEMS insertion after minor ES was lower compared with standard sphincterotomy prior to stent placement. Minor ES was safe and effective procedure as not increasing severe bleeding to facilitate the SEMS placement in patients with malignant biliary obstruction.. ...
Isolated ACTH deficiency (IAD) is a rare cause of neonatal cholestasis and hypoglycaemia. This diagnosis has a 20% mortality potential if unrecognised. We describe a case of an infant presenting with cholestatic jaundice and hypoglycaemia. The patient had laboratory findings suggestive of IAD, which …
Pancreatic cancer patients often experience a number of disease-related complications, either at presentation or as the cancer progresses. Bile duct obstruction can occur as the disease progresses and presents with jaundice, nausea, and vomiting with or without fever. An ERCP or MRCP is used to stent the bile duct and allow for bile drainage and resolution of symptoms. If internal stenting in not successful, percutaneous stents may be placed to resolve bile duct obstruction as well. If patients also present with fever, antibiotic management for cholangitis is indicated with broad-spectrum coverage of gram-negatives, coliforms, and anaerobes.1. GI obstruction can occur as well, presenting with severe nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. It is often managed with bowel rest and decompression. If obstruction continues, a gastrostomy or gastrojejunostomy tube can be placed for decompression. Pancreatic function may also be compromised either by the cancer itself or as a complication of surgical and ...
Reviews of a wide variety of topics of recent and current interest in academic and practical gastroenterology. Small-intestinal absorption is considered in terms of histology and physiology with specific attention to water, electrolytes, steatorrhea, and disaccharide malabsorption. Six papers consider drug toxicity with particular reference to the liver. Normal and pathological aspects of gastrin are considered in seven papers and vagotomy, in six. Special topics reviewed in the last five papers are telemetry, gastric freezing for duodenal ulcer, postgastrectomy bone disease, radiology of the colon, and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography. Indexed. These papers are relatively brief, though highly readable, treatments of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recent advances in plastic stents. T2 - A comprehensive review. AU - Bink, Nienke. AU - Mohan, Velram Balaji. AU - Fakirov, Stoyko. N1 - Taylor & Francis deal. PY - 2019/11/7. Y1 - 2019/11/7. N2 - Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are globally the number one cause of death reported by the World Health Organization. A relevant CVD is coronary artery disease (CAD) in which a layer of plaque is formed on the interior of the coronary arteries which limits the flow of oxygen-rich blood through the body and specifically to the heart. A well-known but invasive surgical technique to manage CAD is bypass surgery. A minimally invasive technique is the implantation of stents. Nowadays, the aim is to use biodegradable plastics as a stent material instead of metals. These plastic stents are to disappear after the blood vessel has healed. The biggest challenge is to match the mechanical requirements while still being deliverable and suitable to be inside human blood vessels for the total healing ...
Cholestasis is defined as a decrease in bile flow due to impaired secretion by hepatocytes or to obstruction of bile flow through intra-or extrahepatic bile ducts. Therefore, the clinical definition of cholestasis is any condition in which substances normally excreted into bile are retained.
Find out about itching during pregnancy, including causes, ways to ease itching, and when you need to seek medical attention fast for possible intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), also called obstetric cholestasis.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Bin Tian, Xue-Long Wang, Ya Huang, Li-Hua Chen, Ruo-Xiao Cheng, Feng-Ming Zhou, Ran Guo, Jun-Cheng Li, Tong Liu].
This is the first study comparing TRBO and complications among the three types of SEMSs (uncovered, partially covered, and fully covered). All SEMS were constructed of same material and configuration (Wallflex™); the stent covering was the only difference among the three types. Although it did not differ significantly, the recurrent biliary obstruction rate of partially covered SEMS (28.6%) was lower than that of uncovered (45.4%, p = 0.215) and fully covered (55.2%, p = 0.106) stents. Tumor ingrowth was observed significantly more frequently in the uncovered group (25.0%), and stent migration was observed significantly more frequently in the fully covered group (31.0%). These complications were not observed in the partially covered group. Accordingly, the partially covered group had longer TRBO than the other two groups and multivariate analysis demonstrated that the use of partially covered stents was an independent factor to decrease the risk of recurrent biliary obstruction.. SEMS are ...
Cholestasis of pregnancy is a liver problem. It slows or stops the normal flow of bile from the gallbladder. This causes itching and yellowing of your skin, eyes, and mucous membranes (jaundice). Cholestasis sometimes starts in early pregnancy. But it is more common in the second and third trimesters. It most often goes away within a few days after delivery. The high levels of bile may cause serious problems for your developing baby (fetus).
Cholestasis of pregnancy is a liver problem. It slows or stops the normal flow of bile from the gallbladder. This causes itching and yellowing of your skin, eyes, and mucous membranes (jaundice). Cholestasis sometimes starts in early pregnancy. But it is more common in the second and third trimesters. It most often goes away within a few days after delivery. The high levels of bile may cause serious problems for your developing baby (fetus).
Background/Objective: The study aims to evaluate the alterations in the brain due to oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation resulting from obstructive jaundice. ...
We offer discounted hepatic and extrahepatic microsomes, S9, and cytosol from a variety of representative preclinical species, including canine (dog), mouse, non-human primate (monkey), and rat.
Around Monday of last week my wife began complaining of intense itching all over her body 24 hours a day. Its been horrible she hasnt slept in a week.
Africa demonstrates a complex process of the hominin evolution with a series of adaptive radiations during several millions of years that led to diverse morphological forms. Recently, Hammer et al. (2011) and Harvati et al. (2011) provided integrated morphological and genetic evidence of interbreeding between modern humans and unknown archaic hominins in Africa as recently as 35,000 years ago. However, a genetic evidence of hybridization between hominin lineages during the Lower and Middle Pleistocene epochs is unknown and the direct retrieval of DNA from extinct lineages of African hominins remains elusive. The availability of both nuclear and mitochondrial genome sequences from modern humans, Neanderthals, and Denisovans allows collecting nuclear DNA sequences of mitochondrial origin (numts) inserted into the nuclear genome of the ancestral hominin lineages and drawing conclusions about the hominin evolution in the remote past. The mtDNA and numt analysis uncovered a deep division of mtDNA ...
... which is a late-stage complication of extra-hepatic cholestasis. (Eponym known from historical literature). Gombault-Philippe ...
... of the bile salt-homeostatic hormone fibroblast growth factor 19 in the liver of patients with extrahepatic cholestasis". ... FGF19 is also found in the liver of patients with cholestasis. It can be synthesised in the gall-bladder and secreted into bile ...
... of the bile salt-homeostatic hormone fibroblast growth factor 19 in the liver of patients with extrahepatic cholestasis". ...
UDCA has been used for intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. UDCA lessens itching in the mother and may reduce the number of ... Kotb MA (July 2008). "Review of historical cohort: ursodeoxycholic acid in extrahepatic biliary atresia". Journal of Pediatric ... Evidence is accumulating that ursodeoxycholic acid is ineffective and unsafe in neonatal hepatitis and neonatal cholestasis. ... 7 September 2019). "Ursodeoxycholic acid versus placebo in women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (PITCHES): a ...
... drug-induced hepatitis Extrahepatic cholestasis, e.g., pancreatic cancer, gallstones Severe hemolysis, e.g., some heart valves ...
... cholestasis MeSH C06.130.120.135.150 - cholestasis, extrahepatic MeSH C06.130.120.135.250 - cholestasis, intrahepatic MeSH ...
These areas are known as bile lakes, and are typically seen only with extra-hepatic obstruction.[citation needed] Extrahepatic ... In cholestasis, bile accumulates in the hepatic parenchyma. Cholestasis can be suspected when there is an elevation of both 5'- ... Jaundice is an uncommon occurrence in intrahepatic (metabolic) cholestasis, but is common in obstructive cholestasis. Pale ... density lipoprotein found in cholestasis Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis ...
... progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis), Caroli disease, choledochal cyst, cholestasis, congenital cytomegalovirus ... There are three main types of extra-hepatic biliary atresia:[citation needed] Type I: Atresia is restricted to the common bile ... Kotb, Magd A. (March 2015). "Evidence of Disruption of p53 and Glutathione S Transferase Pi in Extrahepatic Biliary Atresia in ... Unlike other forms of jaundice, however, biliary-atresia-related cholestasis mostly does not result in kernicterus, a form of ...
In the new system of Nakanuma, the stage of disease is based on fibrosis, bile duct loss, and features of cholestasis, i.e. ... People with PBC may also sometimes have the findings of an associated extrahepatic autoimmune disorder such as thyroid disease ... Finally, it may also be appropriate in the presence of other extrahepatic comorbidities. Low-magnification micrograph of PBC, H ... a condition called cholestasis. Further slow damage to the liver tissue can lead to scarring, fibrosis, and eventually ...
Complications of PBC can be related to chronic cholestasis or cirrhosis of the liver. Chronic cholestasis leads to osteopenic ... People with PBC may also sometimes have the findings of an associated extrahepatic autoimmune disorder such as rheumatoid ... It helps reduce the cholestasis and improves liver function tests. It has a minimal effect on symptoms and whether it improves ... a condition called cholestasis. Further slow damage to the liver tissue can lead to scarring, fibrosis, and eventually ...
A diameter of more than 8 mm is regarded as abnormal dilatation and is a sign of cholestasis. It normally gets slightly dilated ... Anatomy figure: 38:06-08 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "The gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts ... "Etiological Causes of Intrahepatic and Extrahepatic Bile Duct Dilatation" (PDF). International Journal of New Technology and ...
... including cholestasis necrosis acute hepatitis and chronic hepatitis of different forms, cirrhosis Effects of Acetaminophen ( ... degeneration of liver malignant neoplasm of the gallbladder malignant neoplasm of other parts of biliary tract extrahepatic ...
Prasad, AS; Gupta, S; Kohli, V; Pande, GK; Sahni, P; Nundy, S (Feb 1994). "Proximal splenorenal shunts for extrahepatic portal ... "Therapeutic interventions in progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis: experience from a tertiary care centre in north ...
... extrahepatic - extrapleural pneumonectomy false-negative test result - false-positive test result - familial adenomatous ... cholestasis - chondrocyte - chondroitin sulfate - chondrosarcoma - chordoma - chorioallantoic membrane - choriocarcinoma - ...
Much like ALP, GGT measurements are usually elevated if cholestasis is present. In acute viral hepatitis, the GGT levels can ... In parenchymal liver disease and incomplete extrahepatic obstruction, the rise in conjugated bilirubin is less than the ... For example, hepatitis A has increased ALP due to cholestasis (impaired bile formation or bile flow obstruction) and would have ...
When these ducts are damaged, bile and other toxins build up in the liver (cholestasis) and over time damages the liver tissue ... they are considered extrahepatic. The intrahepatic ducts eventually drain into the right and left hepatic ducts, which exit the ... progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis and hepatic hemangioma a benign tumour the most ... but become columnar and mucus secreting in larger bile ducts approaching the porta hepatis and the extrahepatic ducts. Research ...
Active liver disease: cholestasis, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatitis, and jaundice Unexplained elevations in AST or ALT levels ... Bile elimination follows hepatic and/or extrahepatic metabolism. There does not appear to be any entero-hepatic recirculation. ...
With this in mind, liver transplant "can be a curative approach for patients with advanced HCC without extrahepatic metastasis ... Specifically, children with biliary atresia, infantile cholestasis, glycogen-storage diseases, and other cirrhotic diseases of ... "Extrahepatic Metastases of Hepatocellular Carcinoma". Radiology. 216 (3): 698-703. doi:10.1148/radiology.216.3.r00se24698. PMID ... presence of vascular invasion and extrahepatic spread, liver function (levels of serum bilirubin and albumin, presence of ...
This change in consequence contributes to an increased human defense against cholestasis. Fetuses tend to not express CYP3A4 in ... by CYP1A2 and the extrahepatic isoform CYP1A1 "Cyclobenzaprine". DrugBank. Moody DE, Fang WB, Lin SN, Weyant DM, Strom SC, ...
Oddsdóttir M, Hunter JG (2005). "Gallbladder and the extrahepatic biliary system (chapter 31)". In Brunicardi FC, Anderson DK, ... Cholestasis/Mirizzi's syndrome. *Biliary fistula. *Haemobilia. *Common bile duct *Choledocholithiasis. *Biliary dyskinesia ...
"Evidence of extrahepatic replication of hepatitis E virus in human placenta". Journal of General Virology. 95 (6): 1266-1271. ... Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Integumentary system /. dermatoses of pregnancy. *Gestational pemphigoid. *Impetigo ... "Extra-hepatic manifestations of autochthonous hepatitis E infection". Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 40 (11-12): 1282- ... "Extra-hepatic manifestations associated with hepatitis E virus infection: a comprehensive review of the literature" ...
Extrahepatic cholestasis increases liver stiffness (FibroScan) irrespective of fibrosis. Hepatology, 48: 1718-1723. doi: ...
Extrahepatic obstructive cholestasis reverses the bile salt secretory polarity of rat hepatocytes.. G Fricker, L Landmann, and ... To elucidate the consequences of extrahepatic cholestasis on the structure and function of hepatocytes, we studied the effects ... Cholestasis of 50 h resulted in an increased release of cBSTP into bile, thereby decreasing its in vivo half-life from 65 to 25 ...
Many patients with extrahepatic cholestasis, such as hilar cholangiocarcinoma, need to undergo liver resection for radical ... Prostaglandin E1 Preconditioning Attenuates Liver Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in a Rat Model of Extrahepatic Cholestasis. Feng ... In this study, we found that PGE1 preconditioning protects liver IR injury with extrahepatic cholestasis by improving hepatic ... The model of extrahepatic bile duct obstruction and hepatic ischemia reperfusion was the same as previously reported [14]. A ...
... is a new treatment for extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) currently under evaluation. The purpose of this study was to ... Biliary TRACT neoplasms Catheter ablation Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography Bile ducts Extrahepatic cholestasis ... Biliary bipolar radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a new treatment for extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) currently under ... Safety and feasibility of endoscopic biliary radiofrequency ablation treatment of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. ...
... brush cytology are an early event in carcinogenesis and justify a suspicion of malignancy in patients with extrahepatic biliary ... Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / genetics*, mortality, pathology*. False Positive Reactions. Follow-Up Studies. Genes, ras / ... CONCLUSION: Based on long-term follow-up, the K-ras mutations in all 8 patients with a clinically benign extrahepatic biliary ... Long-term follow-up of patients with a clinically benign extrahepatic biliary stenosis and K-ras mutation in endobiliary brush ...
The definitive diagnosis was LCH localized to the extrahepatic bile duct. LCH in the extrahepatic bile duct seemed to cause ... LCH localized to the extrahepatic bile duct is extremely rare; however, LCH can still affect the extrahepatic bile ducts on ... We herein report a rare case of LCH localized only in the extrahepatic bile duct that resulted in severe liver cirrhosis. A 3- ... Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed dilation of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts and multiple ...
Comparison of metabolic clearance rate of antipyrine in patients with intrahepatic or extrahepatic cholestasis ... Extrahepatic cholestasis. I. Histologic changes in hepatic interlobular bile ducts and ductules in extrahepatic cholestasis. ... Extrahepatic cholestasis in the dog and the differentiation of extrahepatic and intrahepatic cholestasis. Veterinary Quarterly ... Quantitative determination of lipoprotein-X (LP-X) in extrahepatic cholestasis and intrahepatic cholestasis. Revista Medica de ...
In any disease process where cholestasis occurs there is the potential for hepatocellular damage. Bile acid retention causes ... Intra- or extrahepatic obstruction of the biliary system is the most common cause of conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (Table 33-1 ... Determination of patency of the remaining extrahepatic biliary tract is vital to surgical outcome. A duodenotomy created over ... Soon after obstruction, intrahepatic cholestasis is followed by bile duct dilation and edema with inflammatory cell ...
Extrahepatic; Bile Duct Obstruction, Extrahepatic; Biliary Stasis, Extrahepatic; Extrahepatic Cholestasis. On-line free medical ... Cholestasis, Extrahepatic; Bile Duct Obstruction, Extrahepatic; Biliary Stasis, Extrahepatic; Extrahepatic Cholestasis. Fast. ...
These results indicate an elevated frequency of HCMV in pediatric patients with extrahepatic neonatal cholestasis. They also ... to screen the liver tissue of infants with extrahepatic cholestasis for HCMV and to correlate the results with serological ... The purpose of this study was to screen the liver tissue of infants with extrahepatic neonatal cholestasis for the presence of ... Our study is the first to investigate the ocurrence of HCMV in other causes of extrahepatic neonatal cholestasis. HCMV DNA was ...
FXR agonist GW4064 could protect against cholestatic liver damage in rat models of extrahepatic and intrahepatic cholestasis. ... In the bile duct-ligation and alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate models of cholestasis, GW4064 treatment resulted in significant ... Hepatoprotection by the farnesoid X receptor agonist GW4064 in rat models of intra- and extrahepatic cholestasis.. *. Yaping ... and extrahepatic cholestasis.}, author={Yaping Liu and Jane G Binz and Mary Jo Numerick and Steve Dennis and Guizhen Luo and ...
title = "Carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts",. abstract = "Fifty-two patients with carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ... Carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts. / Wei, T. C.; Wei, P. L.; Yu, S. C.; Lee, P. H.; Hsu, S. C. ... Wei, T. C. ; Wei, P. L. ; Yu, S. C. ; Lee, P. H. ; Hsu, S. C. / Carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts. In: Journal of ... Wei, T. C., Wei, P. L., Yu, S. C., Lee, P. H., & Hsu, S. C. (1995). Carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts. Journal of ...
Extrahepatic cholestasis Liver stiffness Transient elastography © 0, Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed ... Background: Extrahepatic cholestasis that is caused by benign and malignant diseases has been reported to increase liver ... Conclusions: Extrahepatic cholestasis due to choledocholithiasis increases LS and should be excluded before assesing liver ... Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate LS in patients with extrahepatic cholestasis due to choledocholithiasis ...
Cholestasis (Medical Encyclopedia). *ERCP (Medical Encyclopedia). *Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) blood test (Medical ... extrahepatic (bile) duct. C24.0. C78.89. D01.5. D13.5. D37.6. D49.0. »gall duct (extrahepatic). C24.0. C78.89. D01.5. D13.5. ... duct or passage (common) (cystic) (extrahepatic). »intrahepatic. »and extrahepatic. C24.8. C78.89. D01.5. D13.5. D37.6. D49.0. ... Short Description: Benign neoplasm of extrahepatic bile ducts Long Description: Benign neoplasm of extrahepatic bile ducts This ...
Trambert JJ, Frost A, Malasky C. Extrahepatic bile duct obstruction and erosive disruption by cavitating porta hepatis nodal ... Trambert, J. J., Frost, A., & Malasky, C. (2004). Extrahepatic bile duct obstruction and erosive disruption by cavitating porta ... Extrahepatic bile duct obstruction and erosive disruption by cavitating porta hepatis nodal metastasis, treated by uncovered ... Extrahepatic bile duct obstruction and erosive disruption by cavitating porta hepatis nodal metastasis, treated by uncovered ...
MeSH-major] Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / etiology. Common Bile Duct. Multiple Myeloma / complications. Neoplasm Recurrence, ... Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / therapy. Microwaves / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / complications. Oxonic Acid / ... Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / radiography. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / surgery. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / pathology. Bile Ducts, ... Title] Signet ring cell carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile duct.. *Most tumors affecting the extrahepatic bile duct are ...
Furthermore, extrahepatic cholestasis is associated with increased lipid peroxide formation and with a depletion of reduced ... Furthermore, extrahepatic cholestasis is associated with increased lipid peroxide formation and with a depletion of reduced ... 6. In conclusion, experimental extrahepatic cholestasis determines bile duct proliferation and fibrosis, the degree of which is ... 6. In conclusion, experimental extrahepatic cholestasis determines bile duct proliferation and fibrosis, the degree of which is ...
Keywords: Neonatal Cholestasis; Extrahepatic Biliary Atresia; Procalcitonin; Apolipoprotein E © 0, Author(s). This is an open- ... Objective: Extrahepatic biliary atresia (EHBA) is one of the main causes of neonatal cholestasis. Its early diagnosis could ... Diagnostic Value of Procalcitonin and Apo-E in Extrahepatic Biliary Atresia Mandana Rafeey 1 , Lida Saboktakin 2 , * , Jamshid ... Methods: This prospective study included 18 infants with EHBA and 15 infants with other causes of cholestasis. Blood samples ...
Cholestasis. In: Kliegman RM, St. Geme JW, Blum NJ, Shah SS, Tasker RC, Wilson KM, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 21st ed ... Jaundice newborns - biliary atresia; Newborn jaundice - biliary atresia; Extrahepatic ductopenia; Progressive obliterative ...
Cholestasis is any condition in which the flow of bile from the liver is slowed or blocked. ... There are many causes of cholestasis.. Extrahepatic cholestasis occurs outside the liver. It can be caused by:. * Bile duct ... This can cure the cholestasis.. Stents can be placed to open areas of the common bile duct that are narrowed or blocked by ... Cholestasis is any condition in which the flow of bile from the liver is slowed or blocked. ...
CLINICAL FINDINGS Extrahepatic biliary obstruction (EHBO) secondary to pancreatitis was suspected on the basis of results from ... CLINICAL FINDINGS Extrahepatic biliary obstruction (EHBO) secondary to pancreatitis was suspected on the basis of results from ... CLINICAL FINDINGS Extrahepatic biliary obstruction (EHBO) secondary to pancreatitis was suspected on the basis of results from ... CLINICAL FINDINGS Extrahepatic biliary obstruction (EHBO) secondary to pancreatitis was suspected on the basis of results from ...
The majority of affected individuals have the multisystem illness with hepatic disease (jaundice, cholestasis, hepatomegaly, ... Feranchak A, Sokol R. Medical and nutritional management of cholestasis in infants and children. In: Suchy FJ, Sokol RJ, ... Formulas with an enriched medium-chain-triglyceride content may provide better nutritional support for infants with cholestasis ... The majority of affected individuals have the multisystem illness with hepatic disease (jaundice, cholestasis, hepatomegaly, ...
Extrahepatic Biliary Obstruction. * The Future of Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) as a Clinical and ... bile bile acid bilirubin chemistry cholestasis endoscopy liver liver disease metabolism pharmacology production ... The Advantages of Pre-Operative Umbilicoportal Catheterization and Venography in Extrahepatic Biliary Obstruction ...
This is the procedure of choice for the initial evaluation of cholestasis and for helping differentiate extrahepatic from ... Extrahepatic obstruction. ALP levels are elevated in nearly 100% of patients, except in some cases of incomplete or ... Extrahepatic obstruction is suggested by the presence of dilated intrahepatic bile ducts, but the presence of normal bile ducts ... Extrahepatic obstruction. This is typically associated with considerable direct and indirect bilirubin elevation. However, in ...
Extrahepatic portal venous obstruction, 171. Presinusoidal intrahepatic and sinusoidal portal hypertension, 176 ... 11 Jaundice and Cholestasis, 234. Elwyn Elias. Introduction, 234. Classification of jaundice, 234 ...
2. Pathology of the Intrahepatic and extrahepatic Bile Ducts and Gallbladder. (Kay Washington). ... Intrahepatic Cholestasis.. 22. Intrahepatic Cholestasis. (Andrew Stolz and Neil Kaplowitz).. Section 3.4. Pediatric Population. ...
BACKGROUND: Neonatal cholestasis syndrome with an intra or extrahepatic origin has been associated to viral infections. The ... The patients were then divided into two groups: group I - intrahepatic cholestasis and group II - extrahepatic cholestasis. ... To compare the clinical characteristics of the intrahepatic cholestasis and extrahepatic cholestasis groups with the ... To assess the prevalence of infection by cytomegalovirus in patients with intrahepatic cholestasis and extrahepatic cholestasis ...
Humans , Cholestasis, Extrahepatic/therapy , Cholestasis, Extrahepatic/diagnosis , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic ... Index: IMEMR (Eastern Mediterranean) Main subject: Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / Cholestasis / Cholangiopancreatography, ... Index: IMEMR (Eastern Mediterranean) Main subject: Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / Cholestasis / Cholangiopancreatography, ... Extra-hepatic bile duct obstruction evaluation of surgical and non surgical options Extra-hepatic bile duct obstruction ...
Index: LILACS (Americas) Main subject: Portal System / Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / Ischemia / Liver / Mitochondria Limits: ... Index: LILACS (Americas) Main subject: Portal System / Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / Ischemia / Liver / Mitochondria Limits: ... Portal flow and mitochondrial function during extrahepatic cholestasis Portal flow and mitochondrial function during ... Rats , Animals , Male , Cholestasis, Extrahepatic/physiopathology , Ischemia/physiopathology , Liver/blood supply , ...
  • These results indicate an elevated frequency of HCMV in pediatric patients with extrahepatic neonatal cholestasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The most common cause of extrahepatic neonatal cholestasis is biliary atresia (BA). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The etiology of the other causes of extrahepatic neonatal cholestasis remains unknown. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to screen the liver tissue of infants with extrahepatic neonatal cholestasis for the presence of HCMV using PCR, and to correlate the results with the HCMV serologies (ELISA systems) and histopathological findings in these patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thirty-five patients (13 males and 22 females) with extrahepatic neonatal cholestasis were evaluated upon admission to the Pediatric Gastroenterology Service of the university hospital at UNICAMP, from September 1992 to July 2000. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Neonatal cholestasis was secondary to BA in 31 infants and BA was associated with a choledochal cyst in one, to distal choledochal stenosis in two, and to hepatic cyst (measuring 3.2 × 3.4 cm, close to the porta hepatis, compressing the biliary tree and leading to obstructive cholestasis) in one. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Objective: Extrahepatic biliary atresia (EHBA) is one of the main causes of neonatal cholestasis. (tums.pub)
  • BACKGROUND: Neonatal cholestasis syndrome with an intra or extrahepatic origin has been associated to viral infections. (mendeley.com)
  • The participation of the cytomegalovirus in the etiopathogenesis of neonatal hepatitis has been already known for some time, but only recently there have been indications that this virus may be one of the possible etiological factors for extrahepatic biliary atresia. (mendeley.com)
  • Patients and Methods - This study consisted of 76 patients with neonatal cholestasis who were admitted between January 1980 and January 1999 when they underwent a cytomegalovirus serologic study using the ELISA method. (mendeley.com)
  • Neonatal hepatitis (NH) and biliary atresia (BA) are the most common causes of cholestasis in infancy. (mjdrdypv.org)
  • BA accounts for 40% of cholestasis in infancy, and NH accounts for 10%-15% cases of neonatal cholestasis. (mjdrdypv.org)
  • Evidence is accumulating that ursodeoxycholic acid is ineffective and unsafe in neonatal hepatitis and neonatal cholestasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three infants who presented with clinical features of neonatal cholestasis and clinically suspected to have biliary atresia were found on imaging studies and surgery to have extrahepatic bile duct atresia in association with choledochal cyst. (bioline.org.br)
  • Role of extrahepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1: advances in understanding breast milk-induced neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. (medscape.com)
  • The exclusive occurrence of BA in the neonatal liver and extrahepatic biliary tree suggests that ongoing development may be the key in pathogenesis, and thus genes affecting biliary development may confer susceptibility to BA. (sages.org)
  • Symptoms may be present in the neonatal period rather than at birth (congenital) or, in many cases, may not appear until childhood or even middle age when the disorder manifests as intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, gallstone disease, or jaundice and scarring of the liver (cirrhosis). (rarediseases.org)
  • The term can be applied to several disorders including progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) type 3, benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis (BRIC), low phospholipid associated cholelithiasis (LPAC) syndrome, adult biliary fibrosis or cirrhosis, and certain cases of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), of drug induced cholestasis (DIC) and of transient neonatal cholestasis (TNC). (rarediseases.org)
  • In some cases (mainly PFIC3, TNC3), cholestasis may be present in newborns (neonatal period). (rarediseases.org)
  • The goal of the study is to characterize the epidemiologic data of the neonatal and infant cholestasis. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Severe Neonatal Cholestasis in Cerebrotendinous Xanthomatosis: Genetics, Immunostaining, Mass Spectrometry. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Extrahepatic neonatal cholestasis the incidence of in the morning if possible. (iahf.com)
  • AIM To time the onset of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in patients (n=39) with CMV associated neonatal cholestasis by analysing CMV DNA on Guthrie cards sampled at 3 days of age. (bmj.com)
  • Neonatal cholestasis can be defined as a clinical and biochemical manifestation of a decreased intracanalicular bile flow in infants below 6 months of age. (bmj.com)
  • Despite a long list of possible aetiologies for neonatal cholestasis, more than half of the cases remain unexplained. (bmj.com)
  • 1 Viral infections have been accepted as one of the causes for intrahepatic neonatal cholestasis, 1 and more recent studies have also suggested a link between certain viral infections and extrahepatic biliary atresia (EHBA). (bmj.com)
  • In a previous study we found that cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection was associated with both intrahepatic neonatal cholestasis and EHBA. (bmj.com)
  • This method was used to investigate the time of viral transmission in a group of patients with CMV associated neonatal cholestasis. (bmj.com)
  • LCH in the extrahepatic bile duct seemed to cause sclerosing cholangitis. (springer.com)
  • However, PET/CT is less sensitive and specific in patients with extrahepatic disease or concomitant primary sclerosing cholangitis due to increased background uptake. (appliedradiology.com)
  • In conclusion, PGE1 protects extrahepatic cholestatic liver from IR injury by improving hepatic microcirculation and reducing oxidative stress damage, intrahepatic neutrophil infiltration, and hepatocyte apoptosis. (hindawi.com)
  • Cholestasis can damage sinusoidal endothelial cells, induce hepatic microcirculation dysfunction, and render the liver susceptible to warm IR compared to normal liver [ 3 - 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Although the previous study had reported that a low dose of PGE1 infusion could improve hepatic arterial and portal venous blood flow in the extrahepatic cholestatic model [ 13 ], its mechanism against IR injury in extrahepatic cholestatic liver has not been elucidated. (hindawi.com)
  • The interlobular ducts unite further to form lobar or bile ducts that exit the liver parenchyma as a variable number of hepatic ducts, beginning the extrahepatic portion of the biliary system. (ivis.org)
  • Cholestasis and hepatic drug metabolism. (eurekamag.com)
  • The antipyrine metabolic clearance rate (MCR) was studied in two groups of patients with similar degrees of cholestasis and hepatic damage, but differing mechanisms of cholestasis. (eurekamag.com)
  • The decrease of antipyrine MCR in patients with intrahepatic cholestasis could be due to a reduced functional parenchymal mass related to some degree of hepatic necrosis. (eurekamag.com)
  • Erythrocyte and hepatic glutathione decreased in relation to cholestasis duration. (unipd.it)
  • The majority of affected individuals have the multisystem illness with hepatic disease (jaundice, cholestasis, hepatomegaly, and elevated transaminases) and neurologic manifestations (hypotonia, nystagmus, and psychomotor retardation) evident within weeks of birth. (nih.gov)
  • Hepatic steady-state NTCP mRNA levels in a group of 23 pre- and postportoenterostomy biliary atresia patients were inversely related to total bilirubin, indicating that extrahepatic bile duct obstruction leads to down-regulation of NTCP mRNA levels, similar to that observed in rat common bile duct ligation. (ac.ke)
  • As the image below shows, in the correctable group (10-15% of cases), the proximal common hepatic duct is patent, allowing for primary anastomosis of the extrahepatic bile duct to the bowel. (medscape.com)
  • It can be associated with other autoimmune hepatic and extrahepatic diseases. (mendeley.com)
  • In cholestasis, bile accumulates in the hepatic parenchyma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most serum activity is still due to the hepatic isoenzyme, which is indicative of cholestasis, intra- or extra-hepatic. (sporcle.com)
  • Extrahepatic tumors, including osteosarcomas, lung, gastric, head and neck, renal cell carcinoma, ovarian, uterine cancer, and Hodgkin's disease, that secrete alkaline phosphatase (often a form known as the Regan isoenzyme) or cause leakage of hepatic alkaline phosphatase into serum by an unknown mechanism. (medhelp.org)
  • OBJECTIVES Several studies have suggested that oxidative stress may play an important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic injury during cholestasis in rats and humans. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The inflammation is tissue specific, resulting in progressive jaundice, growth failure, and greater than 90% mortality due to obstruction of extrahepatic bile ducts. (jci.org)
  • In this model, the genetic loss of IFN-γ did not alter the onset of jaundice, but it remarkably suppressed the tissue-specific targeting of T lymphocytes and completely prevented the inflammatory and fibrosing obstruction of extrahepatic bile ducts. (jci.org)
  • Occasionally, patients may present with jaundice and some extrahepatic manifestations of liver disease. (aafp.org)
  • Jaundice, the condition with yellowish staining of the skin and mucous membranes, that is due to impaired BILE flow in the BILIARY TRACT, such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS, or EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Jaundice is an uncommon occurrence in intrahepatic (metabolic) cholestasis, but is common in obstructive cholestasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Jaundice Liver function tests Lipoprotein-X - an abnormal low density lipoprotein found in cholestasis Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis Feathery degeneration - a histopathologic finding associated with cholestasis Kumar (2015). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cholestasis can cause yellowing of the skin, mucous membranes and whites of the eyes (jaundice), failure to thrive, growth deficiency, easy bleeding, rickets and persistent itchiness. (rarediseases.org)
  • Regardless of the cause of cholestasis, serum bilirubin values (especially direct) are usually elevated. (medscape.com)
  • A finding indicating increased bilirubin levels in the blood and urine, due to intrahepatic or extrahepatic obstruction of the biliary system. (fpnotebook.com)
  • citation needed] In a later stage of cholestasis aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and unconjugated bilirubin may be elevated due to hepatocyte damage as a secondary effect of cholestasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extrahepatic obstructive cholestasis reverses the bile salt secretory polarity of rat hepatocytes. (jci.org)
  • Bile Infarcts: New Insights Into the Pathogenesis of Obstructive Cholestasis. (nih.gov)
  • This symptom implies obstructive cholestasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepatoprotection by the farnesoid X receptor agonist GW4064 in rat models of intra- and extrahepatic cholestasis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Vitamin K deficiency linked to severe intra- or extrahepatic cholestasis (blockage of the bile ducts) or steatorrhea (fat in the feces due to trouble digesting fat since enzymes the liver makes are lacking). (petmd.com)
  • No difference is found in intra- or extrahepatic cholestasis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Many patients with extrahepatic cholestasis, such as hilar cholangiocarcinoma, need to undergo liver resection for radical resection of lesions, which is an effective means of long-term survival [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Biliary bipolar radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a new treatment for extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) currently under evaluation. (springer.com)
  • Cholangiocarcinomas are divided into intrahepatic, extrahepatic (perihilar), and distal extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. (appliedradiology.com)
  • CLINICAL FINDINGS Extrahepatic biliary obstruction (EHBO) secondary to pancreatitis was suspected on the basis of results from serum biochemical analyses, CT, and cytologic examination. (umn.edu)
  • Herein, we present a case of NGCH with biliary cirrhosis, secondary to extrahepatic BA and choledochal cyst in a neonate. (mjdrdypv.org)
  • Despite the extremely high serum bile salt levels (235 and 126 micromol/L) in these two patients, NTCP messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression were quantitatively normal, in contrast to the published observations in a rat model of cholestasis secondary to common bile duct ligation. (ac.ke)
  • Progressive damage of extrahepatic and intrahepatic bile ducts secondary to inflammation may occur, leading to fibrosis, biliary cirrhosis, and eventual liver failure. (medscape.com)
  • Cholestasis and hypercalcemia secondary to panhypopituitarism in a newborn. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Dursun F, Gerenli N, Kırmızıbekmez H. Cholestasis and hypercalcemia secondary to panhypopituitarism in a newborn. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Intrahepatic tumors occur starting in the secondary biliary radicles and distal extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas arise from the common bile duct forward. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Cases with extrahepatic cholestasis are common and faced during day to day clinical practice, however reaching the final etiology is sometimes challenging and needs investigations which ar. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Although less specific to the liver, the AST level is also elevated in cases of intrahepatic cholestasis. (medscape.com)
  • The aims of the study were to use the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to screen the liver tissue of infants with extrahepatic cholestasis for HCMV and to correlate the results with serological antibodies against HCMV and histological findings. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Methods: This prospective study included 18 infants with EHBA and 15 infants with other causes of cholestasis. (tums.pub)
  • We report three infants, aged 2, 2.5 and 3 months, with association of choledochal cyst and extrahepatic biliary atresia who were treated at our institute. (bioline.org.br)
  • Affected infants have episodes of cholestasis followed by disease-free periods. (rarediseases.org)
  • Two groups (groups A and B) of infants who had clinical and biochemical signs of cholestasis were included. (bmj.com)
  • Extrahepatic cholestasis that is caused by benign and malignant diseases has been reported to increase liver stiffness (LS), as measured by transient elastography (TE). (hepatmon.com)
  • To compare the clinical characteristics of the intrahepatic cholestasis and extrahepatic cholestasis groups with the cytomegalovirus serological results. (mendeley.com)
  • Especially when taking into account the very often unspecific clinical signs (e.g., inappetence and weight loss) of extrahepatic biliary tract alterations, awareness of potentially occurring disorders of this organ system is critical for practitioners working with exotic pet and wildlife species. (springeropen.com)
  • Intrahepatic cholestasis, a clinical syndrome, is caused by excessive accumulation of bile acids in body and liver. (frontiersin.org)
  • The degree of cholestasis is an important disease driver in alcoholic hepatitis, a severe clinical condition that needs new biomarkers and targeted therapies. (bioportfolio.com)
  • BA is an obstructive inflammatory syndrome of the extrahepatic biliary tract. (mjdrdypv.org)
  • An episodic and less severe syndrome called Benign Recurrent Intrahepatic Cholestasis (BRIC) have also been associated with mutations in this gene. (umontreal.ca)
  • Long-term follow-up of patients with a clinically benign extrahepatic biliary stenosis and K-ras mutation in endobiliary brush cytology. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, K-ras mutations have been detected in specimens obtained by brushing of clinically benign extrahepatic biliary stenosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Eight patients with a K-ras mutation and a clinically benign extrahepatic biliary stenosis were followed. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CONCLUSION: Based on long-term follow-up, the K-ras mutations in all 8 patients with a clinically benign extrahepatic biliary stenosis must be considered as confirmed false-positives. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Pruritus is the primary symptom of cholestasis and is thought to be due to interactions of serum bile acids with opioidergic nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • With a few exceptions, the optimal test for cholestasis would be elevations of serum bile acid levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes in serum of rats during cholestasis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes (API) in serum of rats during cholestasis are investigated. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It is found that in cholestasis an API5 in serum arises which is not present in serum of normal rats, but can be detected in normal rat liver. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The extrahepatic cholestatic model was induced by common bile duct ligation. (hindawi.com)
  • Diseases associated with FGF19 include Functional Diarrhea and Extrahepatic Cholestasis . (genecards.org)
  • Diseases associated with SLCO1A2 include Intrahepatic Cholestasis and Aneurysmal Bone Cysts . (genecards.org)
  • Serotonin appears to be a key component of the pruritus that occurs with several diseases, including polycythemia vera, uremia, cholestasis and lymphoma, and of morphine-associated pruritus. (aafp.org)
  • The abstract shall give a short overview about possibilities to diagnose and treat biliary tract diseases with total or partial extrahepatic biliary obstruction and patency of the bile duct system. (vin.com)
  • It can help in many cases to differentiate medical diseases such as hepatopathy with intrahepatic cholestasis from surgical diseases. (vin.com)
  • The two basic distinctions are an obstructive type of cholestasis where there is a mechanical blockage in the duct system that can occur from a gallstone or malignancy, and metabolic types of cholestasis which are disturbances in bile formation that can occur because of genetic defects or acquired as a side effect of many medications. (wikipedia.org)
  • PBC is considered an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic progressive cholestasis with destruction of the small intrahepatic bile ducts, particularly the interlobular bile ducts [ 3 - 7 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Given the absence of large, comprehensive patient series that define the spectrum and relative incidence of the etiologies of cholestasis in the newborn period and early infancy, this systematic review was undertaken. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed dilation of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts and multiple choleliths in the gallbladder and common bile duct. (springer.com)
  • 2. Pathology of the Intrahepatic and extrahepatic Bile Ducts and Gallbladder. (wiley.com)
  • Ultrasound reveals most causes of extrahepatic biliary obstructions such as pancreatitis, neoplasia, stones, and gallbladder mucocele. (vin.com)
  • [7] Helpful investigations are liver function tests, coagulation profile, and Ultrasonography (USG) of the abdomen to exclude the presence of an extrahepatic biliary tract anomaly such as a choledochal cyst. (mjdrdypv.org)
  • Choledochal cyst is localized dilatation of the extrahepatic and/or intrahepatic biliary tree while biliary atresia is a type of obstructive cholangiopathy in which there is obliteration/sclerosis of the extrahepatic bile ducts. (bioline.org.br)
  • [2] Hence, choledochal cyst and extrahepatic biliary atresia are individually rare congenital malformations and their association in a single case is still rarer. (bioline.org.br)
  • BACKGROUND: K-ras mutations in endobiliary brush cytology are an early event in carcinogenesis and justify a suspicion of malignancy in patients with extrahepatic biliary stenosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • METHODS: Cytologic specimens were obtained by brushing in 312 consecutive patients with extrahepatic biliary stenosis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The plasma disappearance rate of antipyrine in 18 patients with extrahepatic cholestasis and 11 patients with intrahepatic cholestasis was compared with that of two groups of control subjects without liver disease who were matched for age. (eurekamag.com)
  • Whereas no significant difference was observed for the antipyrine MCR between patients with extrahepatic cholestasis and their controls [30.7 +/- 11.2 (SD) as against 31.6 +/- 10.0 ml/min], the antipyrine MCR was significantly lower (P less than 0.001) in the patients with intrahepatic cholestasis than in their controls (16.2 +/- 4.5 vs 37.4 +/- 17.3 ml/min). (eurekamag.com)
  • Fifty-two patients with carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts were reviewed. (elsevier.com)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate LS in patients with extrahepatic cholestasis due to choledocholithiasis before and after endoscopic sphincterotomy and stone removal. (hepatmon.com)
  • LS was measured by TE (Fibroscan) in patients with extrahepatic cholestasis that was caused by choledocholithiasis before and 1 month after endoscopic sphincterotomy and successful stone removal. (hepatmon.com)
  • We studied 12 patients (7 females, 5 males), aged 36 to 76 years (mean age 57.1 ± 11.6 years), with extrahepatic cholestasis that was caused by choledocholithiasis. (hepatmon.com)
  • Levels of these are usually only moderately elevated in patients with cholestasis but occasionally may be markedly increased, especially if cholangitis is present. (medscape.com)
  • AIMS: To assess the prevalence of infection by cytomegalovirus in patients with intrahepatic cholestasis and extrahepatic cholestasis. (mendeley.com)
  • The patients were then divided into two groups: group I - intrahepatic cholestasis and group II - extrahepatic cholestasis. (mendeley.com)
  • The history of maternal infection was more common in extrahepatic cholestasis patients with positive serology for cytomegalovirus. (mendeley.com)
  • 2 Narcotic antagonists have been used successfully to relieve pruritus in patients with cholestasis. (aafp.org)
  • Management of disease-specific pruritus has been established for certain systemic conditions, including uremia and cholestasis. (aafp.org)
  • In fact, the opioid antagonist naltrexone is used to treat pruritus due to cholestasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The definitive diagnosis was LCH localized to the extrahepatic bile duct. (springer.com)
  • The final anatomic diagnosis of cholestasis was based on the results of an abdominal ultrasonography, a liver biopsy and its evolution. (mendeley.com)
  • Based on ultrasonography and computed tomography, tentative diagnosis was extrahepatic biliary tract obstruction with acquired portosystemic shunt (PSS). (bvsalud.org)
  • In contrast to total extrahepatic biliary obstruction, there is currently only little knowledge about the prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of partial biliary obstruction which might occur more often than previously thought (2,4). (vin.com)
  • We herein report a rare case of LCH localized only in the extrahepatic bile duct that resulted in severe liver cirrhosis. (springer.com)
  • We herein report a rare case of primary LCH localized to the extrahepatic bile duct inducing liver cirrhosis. (springer.com)
  • POC failed to demonstrate patency of the distal common bile duct while liver biopsy showed classical features of biliary atresia in each case i.e. cholestasis, lobular disarray, bile duct proliferation, portal tract inflammation and extensive fibrosis bordering on cirrhosis. (bioline.org.br)
  • Although, Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is commonly characterized by extrahepatic manifestation of PBC, the coexistence of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and Graves' disease (GD) is uncommon. (omicsonline.org)
  • Extrahepatic cholestasis due to choledocholithiasis increases LS and should be excluded before assesing liver fibrosis by transient elastography. (hepatmon.com)
  • 4. Bile duct ligated rats showed a marked increase in liver weight which was related to cholestasis duration and to some anatomical alterations such as bile duct proliferation and dilation and liver fibrosis (periportal, perivenular, perineoductular and parenchymal). (unipd.it)
  • 6. In conclusion, experimental extrahepatic cholestasis determines bile duct proliferation and fibrosis, the degree of which is directly related to the duration of cholestasis itself and to liver cell necrotic phenomena. (unipd.it)
  • Histological features of BA include ductular reaction, portal edema, and fibrosis with hepatocanalicular cholestasis. (mjdrdypv.org)
  • Pathologically, the liver shows periportal inflammation and fibrosis, bile-duct proliferation, with variable absence of the extrahepatic bile ducts. (bioline.org.br)
  • Type III is involvement of the extrahepatic biliary tree and intrahepatic ducts of the porta hepatis. (medscape.com)
  • Cholestasis increases tumor necrosis factor-related apoptotis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-R2/DR5 expression and sensitizes the liver to TRAIL-mediated cytotoxicity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • All these findings suggest that complete resection of the tumor or even life-saving drainage is worthwhile for carcinomas of the extrahepatic bile ducts. (elsevier.com)
  • To elucidate the consequences of extrahepatic cholestasis on the structure and function of hepatocytes, we studied the effects of bile duct ligation on the turnover, surface distribution, and functional activity of the canalicular 100-kD bile salt transport protein (cBSTP). (jci.org)
  • [3] Histologically, NGCH is characterized by cholestasis with the varying transformation of hepatocytes into multinucleated giant cells and extramedullary hematopoiesis. (mjdrdypv.org)
  • Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS). (bioportfolio.com)
  • There are several procedural approaches, such as anastomosis of the jejunum by a Roux-en-Y loop to the portal fissure region to establish bile flow from the bile ducts to the intestine. (thefreedictionary.com)