Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).
Impairment of bile flow due to injury to the HEPATOCYTES; BILE CANALICULI; or the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC).
Impairment of bile flow in the large BILE DUCTS by mechanical obstruction or stricture due to benign or malignant processes.
Gastrointestinal agents that stimulate the flow of bile into the duodenum (cholagogues) or stimulate the production of bile by the liver (choleretic).
An epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a mammalian bile acid found first in the bear and is apparently either a precursor or a product of chenodeoxycholate. Its administration changes the composition of bile and may dissolve gallstones. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.
A tool for the study of liver damage which causes bile stasis and hyperbilirubinemia acutely and bile duct hyperplasia and biliary cirrhosis chronically, with changes in hepatocyte function. It may cause skin and kidney damage.
The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
Progressive destruction or the absence of all or part of the extrahepatic BILE DUCTS, resulting in the complete obstruction of BILE flow. Usually, biliary atresia is found in infants and accounts for one third of the neonatal cholestatic JAUNDICE.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
An intense itching sensation that produces the urge to rub or scratch the skin to obtain relief.
A subfamily of transmembrane proteins from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that are closely related in sequence to P-GLYCOPROTEIN. When overexpressed, they function as ATP-dependent efflux pumps able to extrude lipophilic drugs, especially ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, from cells causing multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although P-Glycoproteins share functional similarities to MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS they are two distinct subclasses of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS, and have little sequence homology.
Yellow discoloration of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA in the NEWBORN. It is a sign of NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Most cases are transient self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) occurring in the first week of life, but some can be a sign of pathological disorders, particularly LIVER DISEASES.
Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.
A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of chenodeoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as detergent to solubilize fats in the small intestine and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to obstruction of BILE flow (CHOLESTASIS) in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC; BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile secretion. Secondary biliary cirrhosis is produced by prolonged obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts from a variety of causes.
A bile acid formed from chenodeoxycholate by bacterial action, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as cholagogue and choleretic.
Jaundice, the condition with yellowish staining of the skin and mucous membranes, that is due to impaired BILE flow in the BILIARY TRACT, such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS, or EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.
Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.
The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
A major primary bile acid produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption and cholesterol excretion.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
A multisystem disorder that is characterized by aplasia of intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC), and malformations in the cardiovascular system, the eyes, the vertebral column, and the facies. Major clinical features include JAUNDICE, and congenital heart disease with peripheral PULMONARY STENOSIS. Alagille syndrome may result from heterogeneous gene mutations, including mutations in JAG1 on CHROMOSOME 20 (Type 1) and NOTCH2 on CHROMOSOME 1 (Type 2).
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
A plant genus of the family Lamiaceae. The species of Coleus should be distinguished from PLECTRANTHUS BARBATUS - which is also known as Coleus forskohlii.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.
Inflammation of the biliary ductal system (BILE DUCTS); intrahepatic, extrahepatic, or both.
A group of diseases related to a deficiency of the enzyme ARGININOSUCCINATE SYNTHASE which causes an elevation of serum levels of CITRULLINE. In neonates, clinical manifestations include lethargy, hypotonia, and SEIZURES. Milder forms also occur. Childhood and adult forms may present with recurrent episodes of intermittent weakness, lethargy, ATAXIA, behavioral changes, and DYSARTHRIA. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p49)
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.
Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.
A condition characterized by an abnormal increase of BILIRUBIN in the blood, which may result in JAUNDICE. Bilirubin, a breakdown product of HEME, is normally excreted in the BILE or further catabolized before excretion in the urine.
The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.
A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.
An abnormal lipoprotein present in large amounts in patients with obstructive liver diseases such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS. LP-X derives from the reflux of BILE lipoproteins into the bloodstream. LP-X is a low-density lipoprotein rich in free CHOLESTEROL and PHOSPHOLIPIDS but poor in TRIGLYCERIDES; CHOLESTEROL ESTERS; and protein.
A synthetic hormone with anabolic and androgenic properties and moderate progestational activity.
Persistent flexure or contracture of a joint.
A tricyclic antidepressant with some tranquilizing action.
The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
A phenolphthalein that is used as a diagnostic aid in hepatic function determination.
An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.
A bile salt formed in the liver from lithocholic acid conjugation with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It solubilizes fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is a cholagogue and choleretic.
A bile salt formed in the liver from chenodeoxycholate and glycine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is a cholagogue and choleretic.
The delivery of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient whose sole source of nutrients is via solutions administered intravenously, subcutaneously, or by some other non-alimentary route. The basic components of TPN solutions are protein hydrolysates or free amino acid mixtures, monosaccharides, and electrolytes. Components are selected for their ability to reverse catabolism, promote anabolism, and build structural proteins.
A metabolite of 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE, normally produced in small quantities by the GONADS and the ADRENAL GLANDS, found in URINE. An elevated urinary pregnanetriol is associated with CONGENITAL ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA with a deficiency of STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE.
A bile acid, usually conjugated with either glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption and is reabsorbed by the small intestine. It is used as cholagogue, a choleretic laxative, and to prevent or dissolve gallstones.
Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
A chlorinated epoxy compound used as an industrial solvent. It is a strong skin irritant and carcinogen.
Emulsions of fats or lipids used primarily in parenteral feeding.
The glycine conjugate of CHOLIC ACID. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed.
Enlargement of the liver.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.
A liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 12-alpha-hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of sterols in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP8B1gene, converts 7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one to 7-alpha-12-alpha-dihydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and is required in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS from cholesterol.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.
Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)
Agents, usually topical, that relieve itching (pruritus).
Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.
A 21-carbon steroid that is converted from PREGNENOLONE by STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE. It is an intermediate in the delta-5 pathway of biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
Abnormal passage in any organ of the biliary tract or between biliary organs and other organs.
One of the CEPHALOSPORINS that has a broad spectrum of activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Imino acids are organic compounds containing a nitrogen atom in their structure, classified as derivatives of amino acids, where the carbon atom adjacent to the carboxyl group is bonded to a nitrogen atom instead of a hydrogen atom, forming a characteristic imino functional group.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.

Sulphated and unsulphated bile acids in serum, bile, and urine of patients with cholestasis. (1/1230)

Samples of serum, bile, and urine were collected simultaneously from patients with cholestasis of varying aetiology and from patients with cirrhosis; their bile acid composition was determined by gas/liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. In cholestasis, the patterns in all three body fluids differed consistently and strikingly. In serum, cholic acid was the major bile acid and most bile acids (greater than 93%) were unsulphated, whereas, in urine, chenodeoxycholic was the major bile acid, and the majority of bile acids (greater than 60%) were sulphated. Secondary bile acids were virtually absent in bile, serum, and urine. The total amount of bile acids excreted for 24 hours correlated highly with the concentration of serum bile acids; in patients with complete obstruction, urinary excretion averaged 71-6 mg/24 h. In cirrhotic patients, serum bile acids were less raised, and chenodeoxycholic acid was the predominant acid. In healthy controls, serum bile acids were consistently richer in chenodeoxycholic acid than biliary bile acids, and no bile acids were present in urine. No unusual monohydroxy bile acids were present in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, but, in several patients, there was a considerable amount of hyocholic acid present in the urinary bile acids. The analyses of individual bile acids in serum and urine did not appear to provide helpful information in the differential diagnosis of cholestasis. Thus, in cholestasis, conjugation of chenodeoxycholic acid with sulphate becomes a major biochemical pathway, urine becomes a major route of bile acid excretion, and abnormal bile acids are formed.  (+info)

Factor VII as a marker of hepatocellular synthetic function in liver disease. (2/1230)

Factor VII levels have been measured in 100 patients with liver disease following parenteral vitamin K1 therapy. There was good agreement between specific factor VII measurements and the one-stage prothrombin time apart from six patients with compensated cirrhosis in whom the prothrombin time was prolonged despite the presence of normal factor VII levels. A mean activity of 58% was found in patients with cirrhosis. Cirrhotic patients with features of hepatic decompensation had a significantly lower mean level of activity (40%) than the "contrast" patients with surgical obstruction of the major bile ducts (93%). Patients with chronic active liver disease had moderate depression of factor VII levels and those with non-cirrhotic liver damage had mean activities similar to the contrast group. Factor VII levels could not be correlated with BSP retention but there was a correlation with serum albumin concentration. It is concluded that the prothrombin time using Quick test with a standardized thromboplastin showing good sensitivity to factor VII, eg, the Manchester reagent (BCT), provides a reliable index of coagulability in chronic liver disease, and specific factor VII assays are not indicated.  (+info)

An interpretation of the serum alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme patterns in patients with obstructive liver disease. (3/1230)

Earlier studies have identified two main isoenzymes of alkaline phosphatase in the sera of patients with obstructive liver disease. This paper reports on a study of these isoenzymes in specific types of liver disease where the pathology in relation to bile duct obstruction is known. The results have been used to support the theory that in biliary obstruction the increase in serum alkaline phosphatase is in part due to regurgitation of the biliary isoenzymes.  (+info)

Villous adenoma of the bile ducts: a case report and a review of the reported cases in Korea. (4/1230)

Villous adenomas are benign epithelial lesions with malignant potential which can occur at any site in the gastrointestinal tract. They are usually encountered in the rectum and colon, less frequently in the small bowel and very rarely in the biliary trees. Nine cases of bile duct villous adenomas have been reported in the literature. However, 4 cases of bile duct villous adenomas have been reported in the Korean literature. Recently, we experienced a case of villous adenoma in the common hepatic duct in a 77-year-old man presenting with obstructive jaundice in which preoperative histologic diagnosis of villous adenoma played a critical role in managing this patient. Herein, we present a case report of bile duct villous adenoma and a review of the reported cases in Korea to help define and manage this rare disease entity in the bile ducts. In addition, confusing nomenclature of bile duct adenomas is discussed.  (+info)

High plasma cholesterol in drug-induced cholestasis is associated with enhanced hepatic cholesterol synthesis. (5/1230)

In alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate-treated mice, plasma phospholipid (PL) levels were elevated 10- and 13-fold at 48 and 168 h, respectively, whereas free cholesterol (FC) levels increased between 48 h (17-fold) and 168 h (39-fold). Nearly all of these lipids were localized to lipoprotein X-like particles in the low-density lipoprotein density range. The PL fatty acyl composition was indicative of biliary origin. Liver cholesterol and PL content were near normal at all time points. Hepatic hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductase activity was increased sixfold at 48 h, and cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase activity was decreased by approximately 70% between 24 and 72 h. These findings suggest a metabolic basis for the appearance of abnormal plasma lipoproteins during cholestasis. Initially, PL and bile acids appear in plasma where they serve to promote the efflux of cholesterol from hepatic cell membranes. Hepatic cholesterol synthesis is then likely stimulated in the response to the depletion of hepatic cell membranes of cholesterol. We speculate that the enhanced synthesis of cholesterol and impaired conversion to bile acids, particularly during the early phase of drug response, contribute to the accumulation of FC in the plasma.  (+info)

Obstructive jaundice and acute cholangitis due to papillary stenosis. (6/1230)

Papillary stenosis is characterized by fixed fibrosis leading to structural outflow obstruction and it is usually secondary to inflammation and fibrosis from the chronic passage of gallstones, episodes of acute pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis, sclerosing cholangitis, peptic ulcer disease, and cholesterolosis. However, obstructive jaundice with or without acute cholangitis which leads the physician to suspect the presence of malignancy as a cause is a rare manifestation of papillary stenosis. We report here a case of papillary stenosis presenting with obstructive jaundice and acute cholangitis. The lesion was so difficult to exclude the presence of malignancy preoperatively and intraoperatively that a pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. Histologic examination of the resected specimen revealed fibrosis, adenomatoid ductal hyperplasia, and mild chronic inflammation of the papilla of Vater and distal common bile duct.  (+info)

MRP3, a new ATP-binding cassette protein localized to the canalicular domain of the hepatocyte. (7/1230)

Bile secretion in liver is driven in large part by ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-type proteins that reside in the canalicular membrane and effect ATP-dependent transport of bile acids, phospholipids, and non-bile acid organic anions. Canalicular ABC-type proteins can be classified into two subfamilies based on membrane topology and sequence identity: MDR1, MDR3, and SPGP resemble the multidrug resistance (MDR) P-glycoprotein, whereas MRP2 is similar in structure and sequence to the multidrug resistance protein MRP1 and transports similar substrates. We now report the isolation of the rMRP3 gene from rat liver, which codes for a protein 1522 amino acids in length that exhibits extensive sequence similarity with MRP1 and MRP2. Northern blot analyses indicate that rMRP3 is expressed in lung and intestine of Sprague-Dawley rats as well as in liver of Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats and TR- mutant rats, which are deficient in MRP2 expression. rMRP3 expression is also transiently induced in liver shortly after birth and during obstructive cholestasis. Antibodies raised against MRP3 recognize a polypeptide of 190-200 kDa, which is reduced in size to 155-165 kDa after treatment with endoglycosidases. Immunoblot analysis and immunoconfocal microscopy indicate that rMRP3 is present in the canalicular membrane, suggesting that it may play a role in bile formation.  (+info)

The pathogenetic role of endogenous angiotensin II in stress ulcer in obstructive jaundice rats. (8/1230)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pathogenetic role of endogenous angiotensin II (Ang II) in the mechanism of stress ulcer in obstructive jaundice rats and to detect the effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) on stress ulcer in obstructive jaundice rats. METHODS: After common bile duct ligation (CBDL) in Wistar rats, the content of plasma and gastric mucosal Ang II, gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF) and gastric mucosal damage were measured, and the relationship among them was analyzed. RESULTS: The plasma Ang II contents increased much more significantly at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days following CBDL than those in non-CBDL rats (P < 0.05, < 0.01, < 0.01 and < 0.01, respectively). Within 120 minutes following cold-restraint stress, plasma and gastric mucosal Ang II contents were elevated, GMBF decreased, and ulcer index and gastric mucosal damage increased more significantly than those in non-cold-restraint stress rats (P < 0.05, < 0.05, < 0.01, < 0.01 and < 0.05, respectively). Administration of an ACEI, enalaprili, to CBDL rats (5 mg.kg-1.day-1, orally for two days) before stress reduced both the plasma and gastric mucosal Ang II levels, inhibited the decrease of GMBF and decreased ulcer index and gastric mucosal damage (P < 0.001, < 0.01, < 0.01, < 0.01 and < 0.05, respectively). CONCLUSION: The endogenous Ang II plays a significant pathogenetic role in the development of stress ulcer in obstructive jaundice rats, and ACEI may prevent stress ulcer.  (+info)

Cholestasis is a medical condition characterized by the interruption or reduction of bile flow from the liver to the small intestine. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the breakdown and absorption of fats. When the flow of bile is blocked or reduced, it can lead to an accumulation of bile components, such as bilirubin, in the blood, which can cause jaundice, itching, and other symptoms.

Cholestasis can be caused by various factors, including liver diseases (such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, or cancer), gallstones, alcohol abuse, certain medications, pregnancy, and genetic disorders. Depending on the underlying cause, cholestasis may be acute or chronic, and it can range from mild to severe in its symptoms and consequences. Treatment for cholestasis typically involves addressing the underlying cause and managing the symptoms with supportive care.

Intrahepatic cholestasis is a medical condition characterized by the interruption or reduction of bile flow within the liver. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins. Intrahepatic cholestasis occurs when there is a problem with the transport of bile components inside the liver cells (hepatocytes). This can lead to an accumulation of bile acids, bilirubin, and other substances in the liver, which can cause damage to liver cells and result in symptoms such as jaundice, itching, and dark urine.

Intrahepatic cholestasis can be caused by various factors, including medications, alcohol abuse, hepatitis viruses, autoimmune disorders, genetic defects, and cancer. Depending on the underlying cause, intrahepatic cholestasis can be acute or chronic, and it can range from mild to severe. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition, as well as providing supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Extrahepatic cholestasis is a medical condition characterized by the impaired flow of bile outside of the liver. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the absorption and digestion of fats. When the flow of bile is obstructed or blocked, it can lead to an accumulation of bile components, such as bilirubin, in the bloodstream, resulting in jaundice, dark urine, light-colored stools, and itching.

Extrahepatic cholestasis can be caused by various factors, including gallstones, tumors, strictures, or inflammation of the bile ducts. It is essential to diagnose and treat extrahepatic cholestasis promptly to prevent further complications, such as liver damage or infection. Treatment options may include medications, endoscopic procedures, or surgery, depending on the underlying cause of the condition.

Cholagogues and choleretics are terms used to describe medications or substances that affect bile secretion and flow in the body. Here is a medical definition for each:

1. Cholagogue: A substance that promotes the discharge of bile from the gallbladder into the duodenum, often by stimulating the contraction of the gallbladder muscle. This helps in the digestion and absorption of fats. Examples include chenodeoxycholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid, and some herbal remedies like dandelion root and milk thistle.
2. Choleretic: A substance that increases the production of bile by the liver or its flow through the biliary system. This can help with the digestion of fats and the elimination of waste products from the body. Examples include certain medications like ursodeoxycholic acid, as well as natural substances such as lemon juice, artichoke extract, and turmeric.

It is important to note that while cholagogues and choleretics can aid in digestion, they should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as improper use or overuse may lead to complications like diarrhea or gallstone formation.

Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a naturally occurring bile acid that is used medically as a therapeutic agent. It is commonly used to treat gallstones, particularly cholesterol gallstones, and other conditions associated with abnormal liver function, such as primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). UDCA works by decreasing the amount of cholesterol in bile and protecting liver cells from damage. It is also known as ursodiol or Ursotan.

1-Naphthylisothiocyanate (also known as 1-NIT or ANS) is a chemical compound that is used in research and scientific studies. It is an isothiocyanate derivative of 1-naphthol, which means it has a molecular structure containing a naphthalene ring with an isothiocyanate functional group attached to it.

In medical and biological research, 1-Naphthylisothiocyanate has been used as a tool for studying various cellular processes, including the regulation of calcium signaling and the activation of certain enzymes. It can also act as an irritant and may cause respiratory and skin irritation in humans.

It is important to note that 1-Naphthylisothiocyanate is not a drug or medication, and it should only be used under controlled laboratory conditions by trained professionals.

Bile ducts are tubular structures that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder for storage or directly to the small intestine to aid in digestion. There are two types of bile ducts: intrahepatic and extrahepatic. Intrahepatic bile ducts are located within the liver and drain bile from liver cells, while extrahepatic bile ducts are outside the liver and include the common hepatic duct, cystic duct, and common bile duct. These ducts can become obstructed or inflamed, leading to various medical conditions such as cholestasis, cholecystitis, and gallstones.

Bile acids and salts are naturally occurring steroidal compounds that play a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of lipids (fats) in the body. They are produced in the liver from cholesterol and then conjugated with glycine or taurine to form bile acids, which are subsequently converted into bile salts by the addition of a sodium or potassium ion.

Bile acids and salts are stored in the gallbladder and released into the small intestine during digestion, where they help emulsify fats, allowing them to be broken down into smaller molecules that can be absorbed by the body. They also aid in the elimination of waste products from the liver and help regulate cholesterol metabolism.

Abnormalities in bile acid synthesis or transport can lead to various medical conditions, such as cholestatic liver diseases, gallstones, and diarrhea. Therefore, understanding the role of bile acids and salts in the body is essential for diagnosing and treating these disorders.

Bile canaliculi are the smallest bile-transporting structures in the liver. They are formed by the close apposition of hepatocyte (liver cell) plasma membranes, and they are responsible for the majority of bile production. The bile canaliculi merge to form bile ductules, which then merge to form larger bile ducts that transport bile to the gallbladder and small intestine. Bile is a fluid that contains water, electrolytes, bile salts, cholesterol, phospholipids, and bilirubin, which are produced by the liver and play important roles in digestion and elimination of waste products.

Bile is a digestive fluid that is produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It plays an essential role in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the small intestine. Bile consists of bile salts, bilirubin, cholesterol, phospholipids, electrolytes, and water.

Bile salts are amphipathic molecules that help to emulsify fats into smaller droplets, increasing their surface area and allowing for more efficient digestion by enzymes such as lipase. Bilirubin is a breakdown product of hemoglobin from red blood cells and gives bile its characteristic greenish-brown color.

Bile is released into the small intestine in response to food, particularly fats, entering the digestive tract. It helps to break down large fat molecules into smaller ones that can be absorbed through the walls of the intestines and transported to other parts of the body for energy or storage.

Bilirubin is a yellowish pigment that is produced by the liver when it breaks down old red blood cells. It is a normal byproduct of hemoglobin metabolism and is usually conjugated (made water-soluble) in the liver before being excreted through the bile into the digestive system. Elevated levels of bilirubin can cause jaundice, a yellowing of the skin and eyes. Increased bilirubin levels may indicate liver disease or other medical conditions such as gallstones or hemolysis. It is also measured to assess liver function and to help diagnose various liver disorders.

Biliary atresia is a rare, progressive liver disease in infants and children, characterized by the inflammation, fibrosis, and obstruction of the bile ducts. This results in the impaired flow of bile from the liver to the intestine, leading to cholestasis (accumulation of bile in the liver), jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), and eventually liver cirrhosis and failure if left untreated.

The exact cause of biliary atresia is not known, but it is believed to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. It can occur as an isolated condition or in association with other congenital anomalies. The diagnosis of biliary atresia is typically made through imaging studies, such as ultrasound and cholangiography, and confirmed by liver biopsy.

The standard treatment for biliary atresia is a surgical procedure called the Kasai portoenterostomy, which aims to restore bile flow from the liver to the intestine. In this procedure, the damaged bile ducts are removed and replaced with a loop of intestine that is connected directly to the liver. The success of the Kasai procedure depends on several factors, including the age at diagnosis and surgery, the extent of liver damage, and the skill and experience of the surgeon.

Despite successful Kasai surgery, many children with biliary atresia will eventually develop cirrhosis and require liver transplantation. The prognosis for children with biliary atresia has improved significantly over the past few decades due to earlier diagnosis, advances in surgical techniques, and better postoperative care. However, it remains a challenging condition that requires close monitoring and multidisciplinary management by pediatric hepatologists, surgeons, and other healthcare professionals.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

Pruritus is a medical term derived from Latin, in which "prurire" means "to itch." It refers to an unpleasant sensation on the skin that provokes the desire or reflex to scratch. This can be caused by various factors, such as skin conditions (e.g., dryness, eczema, psoriasis), systemic diseases (e.g., liver disease, kidney failure), nerve disorders, psychological conditions, or reactions to certain medications.

Pruritus can significantly affect a person's quality of life, leading to sleep disturbances, anxiety, and depression. Proper identification and management of the underlying cause are essential for effective treatment.

P-glycoproteins (P-gp), also known as multidrug resistance proteins (MDR), are a type of transmembrane protein that functions as an efflux pump, actively transporting various substrates out of cells. They play a crucial role in the protection of cells against xenobiotics, including drugs, toxins, and carcinogens. P-gp is expressed in many tissues, such as the intestine, liver, kidney, and blood-brain barrier, where it helps limit the absorption and distribution of drugs and other toxic substances.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, P-glycoproteins are particularly relevant due to their ability to confer multidrug resistance in cancer cells. Overexpression of P-gp in tumor cells can lead to reduced intracellular drug concentrations, making these cells less sensitive to chemotherapeutic agents and contributing to treatment failure. Understanding the function and regulation of P-glycoproteins is essential for developing strategies to overcome multidrug resistance in cancer therapy.

Neonatal jaundice is a medical condition characterized by the yellowing of a newborn baby's skin and eyes due to an excess of bilirubin in the blood. Bilirubin is a yellowish substance produced by the normal breakdown of red blood cells, which are then processed by the liver and excreted through the bile. In neonatal jaundice, the liver is not yet fully developed and cannot process bilirubin quickly enough, leading to its accumulation in the body.

Neonatal jaundice typically appears within the first 2-4 days of life and can range from mild to severe. Mild cases may resolve on their own without treatment, while more severe cases may require medical intervention such as phototherapy or a blood transfusion. Risk factors for neonatal jaundice include prematurity, bruising during birth, blood type incompatibility between mother and baby, and certain genetic disorders.

It is important to monitor newborns closely for signs of jaundice and seek medical attention if concerned, as untreated neonatal jaundice can lead to serious complications such as brain damage or hearing loss.

Liver function tests (LFTs) are a group of blood tests that are used to assess the functioning and health of the liver. These tests measure the levels of various enzymes, proteins, and waste products that are produced or metabolized by the liver. Some common LFTs include:

1. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT): An enzyme found primarily in the liver, ALT is released into the bloodstream in response to liver cell damage. Elevated levels of ALT may indicate liver injury or disease.
2. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST): Another enzyme found in various tissues, including the liver, heart, and muscles. Like ALT, AST is released into the bloodstream following tissue damage. High AST levels can be a sign of liver damage or other medical conditions.
3. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP): An enzyme found in several organs, including the liver, bile ducts, and bones. Elevated ALP levels may indicate a blockage in the bile ducts, liver disease, or bone disorders.
4. Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT): An enzyme found mainly in the liver, pancreas, and biliary system. Increased GGT levels can suggest liver disease, alcohol consumption, or the use of certain medications.
5. Bilirubin: A yellowish pigment produced when hemoglobin from red blood cells is broken down. Bilirubin is processed by the liver and excreted through bile. High bilirubin levels can indicate liver dysfunction, bile duct obstruction, or certain types of anemia.
6. Albumin: A protein produced by the liver that helps maintain fluid balance in the body and transports various substances in the blood. Low albumin levels may suggest liver damage, malnutrition, or kidney disease.
7. Total protein: A measure of all proteins present in the blood, including albumin and other types of proteins produced by the liver. Decreased total protein levels can indicate liver dysfunction or other medical conditions.

These tests are often ordered together as part of a routine health checkup or when evaluating symptoms related to liver function or disease. The results should be interpreted in conjunction with clinical findings, medical history, and other diagnostic tests.

Taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) is a bile acid that is conjugated with the amino acid taurine. Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and released into the small intestine to aid in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins. TCDCA, along with other bile acids, is reabsorbed in the terminal ileum and transported back to the liver through the enterohepatic circulation. It plays a role in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis and has been studied for its potential therapeutic effects in various medical conditions, including gallstones, cholestatic liver diseases, and neurological disorders.

Ligation, in the context of medical terminology, refers to the process of tying off a part of the body, usually blood vessels or tissue, with a surgical suture or another device. The goal is to stop the flow of fluids such as blood or other substances within the body. It is commonly used during surgeries to control bleeding or to block the passage of fluids, gases, or solids in various parts of the body.

Biliary cirrhosis is a specific type of liver cirrhosis that results from chronic inflammation and scarring of the bile ducts, leading to impaired bile flow, liver damage, and fibrosis. It can be further classified into primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and secondary biliary cirrhosis. PBC is an autoimmune disease, while secondary biliary cirrhosis is often associated with chronic gallstones, biliary tract obstruction, or recurrent pyogenic cholangitis. Symptoms may include fatigue, itching, jaundice, and abdominal discomfort. Diagnosis typically involves blood tests, imaging studies, and sometimes liver biopsy. Treatment focuses on managing symptoms, slowing disease progression, and preventing complications.

Lithocholic acid (LCA) is a secondary bile acid that is produced in the liver by bacterial modification of primary bile acids, specifically chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a steroid acid that plays a role in various physiological processes such as cholesterol metabolism, drug absorption, and gut microbiota regulation. However, high levels of LCA can be toxic to the liver and have been linked to several diseases, including colon cancer and cholestatic liver diseases.

Obstructive Jaundice is a medical condition characterized by the yellowing of the skin, sclera (whites of the eyes), and mucous membranes due to the accumulation of bilirubin in the bloodstream. This occurs when there is an obstruction or blockage in the bile ducts that transport bile from the liver to the small intestine.

Bile, which contains bilirubin, aids in digestion and is usually released from the liver into the small intestine. When the flow of bile is obstructed, bilirubin builds up in the blood, causing jaundice. The obstruction can be caused by various factors, such as gallstones, tumors, or strictures in the bile ducts.

Obstructive jaundice may present with additional symptoms like dark urine, light-colored stools, itching, abdominal pain, and weight loss, depending on the cause and severity of the obstruction. It is essential to seek medical attention if jaundice is observed, as timely diagnosis and management can prevent potential complications, such as liver damage or infection.

Liver diseases refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the normal functioning of the liver. The liver is a vital organ responsible for various critical functions such as detoxification, protein synthesis, and production of biochemicals necessary for digestion.

Liver diseases can be categorized into acute and chronic forms. Acute liver disease comes on rapidly and can be caused by factors like viral infections (hepatitis A, B, C, D, E), drug-induced liver injury, or exposure to toxic substances. Chronic liver disease develops slowly over time, often due to long-term exposure to harmful agents or inherent disorders of the liver.

Common examples of liver diseases include hepatitis, cirrhosis (scarring of the liver tissue), fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, autoimmune liver diseases, genetic/hereditary liver disorders (like Wilson's disease and hemochromatosis), and liver cancers. Symptoms may vary widely depending on the type and stage of the disease but could include jaundice, abdominal pain, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, and weight loss.

Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent progression and potential complications associated with liver diseases.

Jaundice is a medical condition characterized by the yellowing of the skin, sclera (whites of the eyes), and mucous membranes due to an excess of bilirubin in the bloodstream. Bilirubin is a yellow-orange pigment produced when hemoglobin from red blood cells is broken down. Normally, bilirubin is processed by the liver and excreted through bile into the digestive system. However, if there's an issue with bilirubin metabolism or elimination, it can accumulate in the body, leading to jaundice.

Jaundice can be a symptom of various underlying conditions, such as liver diseases (hepatitis, cirrhosis), gallbladder issues (gallstones, tumors), or blood disorders (hemolysis). It is essential to consult a healthcare professional if jaundice is observed, as it may indicate a severe health problem requiring prompt medical attention.

Intrahepatic bile ducts are the small tubular structures inside the liver that collect bile from the liver cells (hepatocytes). Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins from food. The intrahepatic bile ducts merge to form larger ducts, which eventually exit the liver and join with the cystic duct from the gallbladder to form the common bile duct. The common bile duct then empties into the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine, where bile aids in digestion. Intrahepatic bile ducts can become obstructed or damaged due to various conditions such as gallstones, tumors, or inflammation, leading to complications like jaundice, liver damage, and infection.

The biliary tract is a system of ducts that transport bile from the liver to the gallbladder and then to the small intestine. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the breakdown and absorption of fats in the small intestine. The main components of the biliary tract are:

1. Intrahepatic bile ducts: These are the smaller branches of bile ducts located within the liver that collect bile from the liver cells or hepatocytes.
2. Gallbladder: A small pear-shaped organ located beneath the liver, which stores and concentrates bile received from the intrahepatic bile ducts. The gallbladder releases bile into the small intestine when food is ingested, particularly fats, to aid digestion.
3. Common hepatic duct: This is a duct that forms by the union of the right and left hepatic ducts, which carry bile from the right and left lobes of the liver, respectively.
4. Cystic duct: A short duct that connects the gallbladder to the common hepatic duct, forming the beginning of the common bile duct.
5. Common bile duct: This is a larger duct formed by the union of the common hepatic duct and the cystic duct. It carries bile from the liver and gallbladder into the small intestine.
6. Pancreatic duct: A separate duct that originates from the pancreas, a gland located near the liver and stomach. The pancreatic duct joins the common bile duct just before they both enter the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine.
7. Ampulla of Vater: This is the dilated portion where the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct join together and empty their contents into the duodenum through a shared opening called the papilla of Vater.

Disorders related to the biliary tract include gallstones, cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder), bile duct stones, bile duct strictures or obstructions, and primary sclerosing cholangitis, among others.

Ethinyl estradiol is a synthetic form of the hormone estrogen that is often used in various forms of hormonal contraception, such as birth control pills. It works by preventing ovulation and thickening cervical mucus to make it more difficult for sperm to reach the egg. Ethinyl estradiol may also be used in combination with other hormones to treat menopausal symptoms or hormonal disorders.

It is important to note that while ethinyl estradiol can be an effective form of hormonal therapy, it can also carry risks and side effects, such as an increased risk of blood clots, stroke, and breast cancer. As with any medication, it should only be used under the guidance and supervision of a healthcare provider.

Cholic acid is a primary bile acid, which is a type of organic compound that plays a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the body. It is produced in the liver from cholesterol and is then conjugated with glycine or taurine to form conjugated bile acids, which are stored in the gallbladder and released into the small intestine during digestion.

Cholic acid helps to emulsify fats, allowing them to be broken down into smaller droplets that can be absorbed by the body. It also facilitates the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamin A, D, E, and K. In addition to its role in digestion, cholic acid is also involved in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism and the excretion of bile acids from the body.

Abnormalities in cholic acid metabolism can lead to various medical conditions, such as cholestatic liver diseases, gallstones, and genetic disorders that affect bile acid synthesis.

Pregnancy complications refer to any health problems that arise during pregnancy which can put both the mother and the baby at risk. These complications may occur at any point during the pregnancy, from conception until childbirth. Some common pregnancy complications include:

1. Gestational diabetes: a type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy in women who did not have diabetes before becoming pregnant.
2. Preeclampsia: a pregnancy complication characterized by high blood pressure and damage to organs such as the liver or kidneys.
3. Placenta previa: a condition where the placenta covers the cervix, which can cause bleeding and may require delivery via cesarean section.
4. Preterm labor: when labor begins before 37 weeks of gestation, which can lead to premature birth and other complications.
5. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR): a condition where the fetus does not grow at a normal rate inside the womb.
6. Multiple pregnancies: carrying more than one baby, such as twins or triplets, which can increase the risk of premature labor and other complications.
7. Rh incompatibility: a condition where the mother's blood type is different from the baby's, which can cause anemia and jaundice in the newborn.
8. Pregnancy loss: including miscarriage, stillbirth, or ectopic pregnancy, which can be emotionally devastating for the parents.

It is important to monitor pregnancy closely and seek medical attention promptly if any concerning symptoms arise. With proper care and management, many pregnancy complications can be treated effectively, reducing the risk of harm to both the mother and the baby.

Alagille syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects the liver, heart, and other parts of the body. It is also known as Arteriohepatic dysplasia or Alagille-Watson syndrome. The main features of this condition include:

1. Liver disease: Most individuals with Alagille syndrome have a liver disorder called bile duct paucity, which means that the small tubes (bile ducts) inside the liver that carry bile to the intestine are narrowed or missing. This can lead to liver scarring and damage over time.
2. Heart defects: About 90% of people with Alagille syndrome have a congenital heart defect, such as pulmonary stenosis (narrowing of the pulmonary valve) or tetralogy of Fallot (a combination of four heart defects).
3. Skeletal abnormalities: Many individuals with Alagille syndrome have distinctive facial features and skeletal changes, such as a broad forehead, wide-set eyes, a pointed chin, and butterfly-shaped vertebrae in the spine.
4. Eye problems: Approximately 90% of people with Alagille syndrome have eye abnormalities, including posterior embryotoxon (a narrowing of the drainage angle of the eye) or retinal changes.
5. Kidney issues: Up to 40% of individuals with Alagille syndrome may experience kidney problems, such as renal dysplasia (abnormal kidney development) or vesicoureteral reflux (backflow of urine from the bladder into the ureters).
6. Other features: Some people with Alagille syndrome may have growth delays, cognitive impairment, or hearing loss.

Alagille syndrome is caused by mutations in one of two genes: JAG1 or NOTCH2. These genes play crucial roles in embryonic development and tissue growth. Inheritance of Alagille syndrome is autosomal dominant, meaning that a person has a 50% chance of inheriting the condition if one parent carries the mutated gene. However, about 30-40% of cases result from new (de novo) mutations and have no family history of the disorder.

Hepatocytes are the predominant type of cells in the liver, accounting for about 80% of its cytoplasmic mass. They play a key role in protein synthesis, protein storage, transformation of carbohydrates, synthesis of cholesterol, bile salts and phospholipids, detoxification, modification, and excretion of exogenous and endogenous substances, initiation of formation and secretion of bile, and enzyme production. Hepatocytes are essential for the maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

'Coleus' is a plant genus that belongs to the family Lamiaceae. It is native to tropical regions of Africa, Asia, and Australia. The plants in this genus are grown for their ornamental leaves, which come in various colors and patterns. While 'Coleus' species have been used in traditional medicine in some cultures, there is no widely accepted medical definition or specific medicinal use of the term 'Coleus' in modern Western medicine.

It is worth noting that one species of Coleus, Coleus forskohlii, has been studied for its potential medicinal properties. The root extract of this plant contains a compound called forskolin, which has been found to have various effects on the body, such as increasing cyclic AMP (a cellular messenger) levels and relaxing smooth muscles. However, more research is needed before any definitive medical claims can be made about its effectiveness or safety.

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are a family of membrane proteins that utilize the energy from ATP hydrolysis to transport various substrates across extra- and intracellular membranes. These transporters play crucial roles in several biological processes, including detoxification, drug resistance, nutrient uptake, and regulation of cellular cholesterol homeostasis.

The structure of ABC transporters consists of two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) that bind and hydrolyze ATP, and two transmembrane domains (TMDs) that form the substrate-translocation pathway. The NBDs are typically located adjacent to each other in the cytoplasm, while the TMDs can be either integral membrane domains or separate structures associated with the membrane.

The human genome encodes 48 distinct ABC transporters, which are classified into seven subfamilies (ABCA-ABCG) based on their sequence similarity and domain organization. Some well-known examples of ABC transporters include P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), multidrug resistance protein 1 (ABCC1), and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2).

Dysregulation or mutations in ABC transporters have been implicated in various diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, neurological disorders, and cancer. In cancer, overexpression of certain ABC transporters can contribute to drug resistance by actively effluxing chemotherapeutic agents from cancer cells, making them less susceptible to treatment.

The common bile duct is a duct that results from the union of the cystic duct (which drains bile from the gallbladder) and the common hepatic duct (which drains bile from the liver). The common bile duct transports bile, a digestive enzyme, from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine.

The common bile duct runs through the head of the pancreas before emptying into the second part of the duodenum, either alone or in conjunction with the pancreatic duct, via a small opening called the ampulla of Vater. The common bile duct plays a crucial role in the digestion of fats by helping to break them down into smaller molecules that can be absorbed by the body.

Cholangitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the bile ducts, which are the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the small intestine. Bile is a digestive juice produced by the liver that helps break down fats in food.

There are two types of cholangitis: acute and chronic. Acute cholangitis is a sudden and severe infection that can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, fever, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), and dark urine. It is usually caused by a bacterial infection that enters the bile ducts through a blockage or obstruction.

Chronic cholangitis, on the other hand, is a long-term inflammation of the bile ducts that can lead to scarring and narrowing of the ducts. This can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, itching, and jaundice. Chronic cholangitis can be caused by various factors, including primary sclerosing cholangitis (an autoimmune disease), bile duct stones, or tumors in the bile ducts.

Treatment for cholangitis depends on the underlying cause of the condition. Antibiotics may be used to treat bacterial infections, and surgery may be necessary to remove blockages or obstructions in the bile ducts. In some cases, medications may be prescribed to manage symptoms and prevent further complications.

Citrullinemia is a rare inherited metabolic disorder characterized by the body's inability to properly process and eliminate certain toxic byproducts that are generated during the breakdown of proteins. This condition results from a deficiency of the enzyme argininosuccinate synthetase, which is required for the normal functioning of the urea cycle. The urea cycle is a series of biochemical reactions that occur in the liver and help to convert ammonia, a toxic substance, into urea, which can then be excreted by the kidneys.

There are two main types of citrullinemia: type I (also known as classic citrullinemia) and type II (also known as citrullinemia type II or adult-onset citrullinemia). Type I is typically more severe and can present in newborns with symptoms such as poor feeding, vomiting, seizures, and developmental delays. If left untreated, it can lead to serious complications, including intellectual disability, coma, and even death.

Type II citrullinemia, on the other hand, tends to present later in life, often in adulthood, and may cause symptoms such as confusion, seizures, and neurological problems. It is important to note that some individuals with type II citrullinemia may never develop any symptoms at all.

Treatment for citrullinemia typically involves a combination of dietary restrictions, supplements, and medications to help manage the buildup of toxic byproducts in the body. In severe cases, liver transplantation may be considered as a last resort.

Hepatitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the liver, often resulting in damage to liver cells. It can be caused by various factors, including viral infections (such as Hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E), alcohol abuse, toxins, medications, and autoimmune disorders. Symptoms may include jaundice, fatigue, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, and dark urine. The severity of the disease can range from mild illness to severe, life-threatening conditions, such as liver failure or cirrhosis.

Organic anion transporters (OATs) are membrane transport proteins that are responsible for the cellular uptake and excretion of various organic anions, such as drugs, toxins, and endogenous metabolites. They are found in various tissues, including the kidney, liver, and brain, where they play important roles in the elimination and detoxification of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.

In the kidney, OATs are located in the basolateral membrane of renal tubular epithelial cells and mediate the uptake of organic anions from the blood into the cells. From there, the anions can be further transported into the urine by other transporters located in the apical membrane. In the liver, OATs are expressed in the sinusoidal membrane of hepatocytes and facilitate the uptake of organic anions from the blood into the liver cells for metabolism and excretion.

There are several isoforms of OATs that have been identified, each with distinct substrate specificities and tissue distributions. Mutations in OAT genes can lead to various diseases, including renal tubular acidosis, hypercalciuria, and drug toxicity. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of OATs is important for developing strategies to improve drug delivery and reduce adverse drug reactions.

Hyperbilirubinemia is a medical condition characterized by an excessively high level of bilirubin in the bloodstream. Bilirubin is a yellowish pigment produced by the liver when it breaks down old red blood cells. Normally, bilirubin is conjugated (made water-soluble) in the liver and then excreted through the bile into the digestive system. However, if there is a problem with the liver's ability to process or excrete bilirubin, it can build up in the blood, leading to hyperbilirubinemia.

Hyperbilirubinemia can be classified as either unconjugated or conjugated, depending on whether the bilirubin is in its direct (conjugated) or indirect (unconjugated) form. Unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia can occur due to increased production of bilirubin (such as in hemolytic anemia), decreased uptake of bilirubin by the liver, or impaired conjugation of bilirubin in the liver. Conjugated hyperbilirubinemia, on the other hand, is usually caused by a problem with the excretion of conjugated bilirubin into the bile, such as in cholestatic liver diseases like hepatitis or cirrhosis.

Symptoms of hyperbilirubinemia can include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), dark urine, light-colored stools, itching, and fatigue. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the condition and may involve medications, dietary changes, or surgery.

Taurocholic acid is a bile salt, which is a type of organic compound that plays a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the small intestine. It is formed in the liver by conjugation of cholic acid with taurine, an amino sulfonic acid.

Taurocholic acid has a detergent-like effect on the lipids in our food, helping to break them down into smaller molecules that can be absorbed through the intestinal wall and transported to other parts of the body for energy production or storage. It also helps to maintain the flow of bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine, where it is stored until needed for digestion.

Abnormal levels of taurocholic acid in the body have been linked to various health conditions, including gallstones, liver disease, and gastrointestinal disorders. Therefore, it is important to maintain a healthy balance of bile salts, including taurocholic acid, for optimal digestive function.

Organic anion transporters (OATs) are membrane transport proteins that facilitate the movement of organic anions across biological membranes. The term "sodium-dependent" refers to a specific type of OAT that requires sodium ions (Na+) as a co-transport substrate to move organic anions across the membrane. These transporters play crucial roles in the elimination and distribution of various endogenous and exogenous organic anions, including drugs, toxins, and metabolites. Sodium-dependent OATs are primarily located in the kidneys and liver, where they help maintain homeostasis by regulating the reabsorption and secretion of these substances.

Lipoprotein-X (Lp-X) is a type of lipoprotein that is typically found in the blood under certain pathological conditions. Unlike other lipoproteins such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL) or high-density lipoprotein (HDL), Lp-X does not contain apolipoproteins and is not associated with cholesterol transport. Instead, Lp-X is rich in free cholesterol and phospholipids, and it can be formed when there is an increase in the concentration of these lipids in the blood due to the breakdown of cell membranes or other lipoproteins.

Lp-X is often found in the blood of patients with liver diseases such as cirrhosis or hepatitis, as well as in those with severe malnutrition or who have experienced massive trauma. It can also be present in the blood of pregnant women, particularly those with preeclampsia or HELLP syndrome.

Because Lp-X lacks apolipoproteins, it is not recognized by the liver and cannot be cleared from the blood efficiently. As a result, high levels of Lp-X can contribute to the development of fatty liver disease, inflammation, and other complications associated with liver dysfunction.

Norethandrolone is a synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroid, which is a type of drug that is similar to the male hormone testosterone. It is used in the treatment of conditions such as breast cancer in women, delayed puberty in boys, and wasting syndrome in people with HIV/AIDS. Norethandrolone works by promoting the growth of muscle tissue, increasing appetite, and changing the way the body uses certain nutrients.

It is important to note that anabolic-androgenic steroids are controlled substances in many countries due to their potential for abuse and serious side effects, including liver damage, cardiovascular disease, and hormonal imbalances. They should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Arthrogryposis is a medical term that describes a condition characterized by the presence of multiple joint contractures at birth. A contracture occurs when the range of motion in a joint is limited, making it difficult or impossible to move the joint through its full range of motion. In arthrogryposis, these contractures are present in two or more areas of the body.

The term "arthrogryposis" comes from two Greek words: "arthro," meaning joint, and "gyros," meaning curved or bent. Therefore, arthrogryposis literally means "curving of the joints."

There are many different types of arthrogryposis, each with its own specific set of symptoms and causes. However, in general, arthrogryposis is caused by decreased fetal movement during pregnancy, which can be due to a variety of factors such as genetic mutations, nervous system abnormalities, or environmental factors that restrict fetal movement.

Treatment for arthrogryposis typically involves a combination of physical therapy, bracing, and surgery to help improve joint mobility and function. The prognosis for individuals with arthrogryposis varies depending on the severity and type of contractures present, as well as the underlying cause of the condition.

Dothiepin is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) that was commonly used in the past to treat depression and anxiety disorders. It works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and noradrenaline, in the brain. However, due to its side effects and the availability of safer and more effective antidepressants, dothiepin is not commonly prescribed anymore.

Dothiepin has a sedative effect, which can help people with depression who have trouble sleeping. It also has an analgesic effect, which can be helpful in treating chronic pain conditions. However, its use is associated with several side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, dizziness, and weight gain. In addition, dothiepin can cause orthostatic hypotension (a drop in blood pressure upon standing), which can increase the risk of falls and fractures in older adults.

Dothiepin is available in immediate-release and sustained-release formulations, and it is usually taken orally once or twice a day. The dosage depends on the individual's response to treatment and the severity of their symptoms. It is important to follow the doctor's instructions carefully when taking dothiepin and to report any bothersome side effects promptly.

Like other TCAs, dothiepin has a potential for overdose and can be fatal if taken in large quantities. Therefore, it should be stored in a safe place, away from children and pets. People who are taking dothiepin should inform their healthcare provider about any other medications they are taking, as well as any medical conditions they have, to avoid dangerous interactions and complications.

Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a medical term used to describe the delivery of nutrients directly into a patient's bloodstream through a vein, bypassing the gastrointestinal tract. It is a specialized medical treatment that is typically used when a patient cannot receive adequate nutrition through enteral feeding, which involves the ingestion and digestion of food through the mouth or a feeding tube.

PN can be used to provide essential nutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, and electrolytes to patients who have conditions that prevent them from absorbing nutrients through their gut, such as severe gastrointestinal tract disorders, malabsorption syndromes, or short bowel syndrome.

PN is administered through a catheter that is inserted into a vein, typically in the chest or arm. The nutrient solution is prepared under sterile conditions and delivered through an infusion pump to ensure accurate and controlled delivery of the solution.

While PN can be a life-saving intervention for some patients, it also carries risks such as infection, inflammation, and organ damage. Therefore, it should only be prescribed and administered by healthcare professionals with specialized training in this area.

Drug-Induced Liver Injury (DILI) is a medical term that refers to liver damage or injury caused by the use of medications or drugs. This condition can vary in severity, from mild abnormalities in liver function tests to severe liver failure, which may require a liver transplant.

The exact mechanism of DILI can differ depending on the drug involved, but it generally occurs when the liver metabolizes the drug into toxic compounds that damage liver cells. This can happen through various pathways, including direct toxicity to liver cells, immune-mediated reactions, or metabolic idiosyncrasies.

Symptoms of DILI may include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), fatigue, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and dark urine. In severe cases, it can lead to complications such as ascites, encephalopathy, and bleeding disorders.

The diagnosis of DILI is often challenging because it requires the exclusion of other potential causes of liver injury. Liver function tests, imaging studies, and sometimes liver biopsies may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment typically involves discontinuing the offending drug and providing supportive care until the liver recovers. In some cases, medications that protect the liver or promote its healing may be used.

Sulfobromophthalein (BSP or bromsulphthalein) is not typically defined in a medical dictionary as it is a chemical compound. However, I can provide you with some information about its use in a medical context:

Sulfobromophthalein is a chemical compound primarily used for liver function tests. It is a dye that is injected into the patient's bloodstream, and then its clearance rate from the blood is measured to evaluate liver function. A healthy liver should quickly remove the dye from the blood and excrete it through the bile ducts into the digestive system. If the liver is not functioning properly, the clearance of sulfobromophthalein will be slower, leading to higher levels of the dye remaining in the bloodstream over time.

The test using sulfobromophthalein has largely been replaced by more modern and specific liver function tests; however, it was once widely used for assessing overall liver health and diagnosing conditions such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver damage due to various causes.

Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), also known as gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, is an enzyme found in many tissues, including the liver, bile ducts, and pancreas. GGT is involved in the metabolism of certain amino acids and plays a role in the detoxification of various substances in the body.

GGT is often measured as a part of a panel of tests used to evaluate liver function. Elevated levels of GGT in the blood may indicate liver disease or injury, bile duct obstruction, or alcohol consumption. However, it's important to note that several other factors can also affect GGT levels, so abnormal results should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical findings and diagnostic tests.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Cholic acids are a type of bile acid, which are naturally occurring steroid acids that play a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the body. Cholic acid is the primary bile acid synthesized in the liver from cholesterol. It is then conjugated with glycine or taurine to form conjugated cholic acids, which are stored in the gallbladder and released into the small intestine during digestion to aid in fat emulsification and absorption.

Cholic acid and its derivatives have also been studied for their potential therapeutic benefits in various medical conditions, including liver diseases, gallstones, and bacterial infections. However, more research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms of action and potential side effects of cholic acids and their derivatives before they can be widely used as therapeutic agents.

Taurolithocholic acid (TLCA) is not a medical term per se, but rather a chemical compound that can be mentioned in the context of medical or biological research. TLCA is a bile acid, which is a type of organic compound that plays a crucial role in digestion and metabolism. Specifically, TLCA is a taurine conjugate of lithocholic acid, meaning it contains a taurine molecule attached to the lithocholic acid molecule.

Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and then released into the small intestine to aid in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins. TLCA is a secondary bile acid, which means it is formed in the gut by the bacterial metabolism of primary bile acids.

Abnormal levels of TLCA or other bile acids can be associated with various medical conditions, such as liver disease, cholestasis (a condition characterized by reduced bile flow), and intestinal disorders. Therefore, measuring the levels of TLCA and other bile acids in blood, urine, or stool samples can provide valuable diagnostic information for these conditions.

Glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA) is a type of bile acid that is produced in the liver and then conjugated with glycine. Bile acids are formed from cholesterol and play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the small intestine.

GCDCA is a secondary bile acid, which means that it is produced by bacterial metabolism of primary bile acids (such as cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid) in the colon. Once formed, GCDCA is then reabsorbed into the bloodstream and transported back to the liver, where it can be conjugated with glycine or taurine and excreted into bile again.

Abnormal levels of GCDCA and other bile acids have been associated with various health conditions, including cholestatic liver diseases, gallstones, and colon cancer. Therefore, measuring the levels of these acids in blood, urine, or feces can provide valuable diagnostic information for these conditions.

Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN) is a medical term used to describe a specialized nutritional support system that is delivered through a vein (intravenously). It provides all the necessary nutrients that a patient needs, such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals. TPN is typically used when a patient cannot eat or digest food through their gastrointestinal tract for various reasons, such as severe malabsorption, intestinal obstruction, or inflammatory bowel disease. The term "total" indicates that the nutritional support is complete and meets all of the patient's nutritional needs.

Pregnanetriol is not a medication, but rather a metabolite of the hormone progesterone. It is a steroid compound that is produced in the body and can be detected in urine. Pregnanetriol is often used as a biomarker to help diagnose certain medical conditions related to steroid hormone metabolism, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). In these cases, abnormal levels of pregnanetriol in the urine can indicate an enzyme deficiency that affects the production or breakdown of steroid hormones.

Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) is a bile acid that is naturally produced in the human body. It is formed in the liver from cholesterol and is then conjugated with glycine or taurine to become a primary bile acid. CDCA is stored in the gallbladder and released into the small intestine during digestion, where it helps to emulsify fats and facilitate their absorption.

CDCA also has important regulatory functions in the body, including acting as a signaling molecule that binds to specific receptors in the liver, intestines, and other tissues. It plays a role in glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation, and cell growth and differentiation.

In addition to its natural functions, CDCA is also used as a medication for the treatment of certain medical conditions. For example, it is used to dissolve gallstones that are composed of cholesterol, and it is also used to treat a rare genetic disorder called cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX), which is characterized by the accumulation of CDCA and other bile acids in various tissues.

It's important to note that while CDCA has therapeutic uses, it can also have adverse effects if taken in high doses or for extended periods of time. Therefore, it should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Biliary tract diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the biliary system, which includes the gallbladder, bile ducts, and liver. Bile is a digestive juice produced by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and released into the small intestine through the bile ducts to help digest fats.

Biliary tract diseases can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, jaundice, fever, nausea, vomiting, and changes in stool color. Some of the common biliary tract diseases include:

1. Gallstones: Small, hard deposits that form in the gallbladder or bile ducts made up of cholesterol or bilirubin.
2. Cholecystitis: Inflammation of the gallbladder, often caused by gallstones.
3. Cholangitis: Infection or inflammation of the bile ducts.
4. Biliary dyskinesia: A motility disorder that affects the contraction and relaxation of the muscles in the biliary system.
5. Primary sclerosing cholangitis: A chronic autoimmune disease that causes scarring and narrowing of the bile ducts.
6. Biliary tract cancer: Rare cancers that affect the gallbladder, bile ducts, or liver.

Treatment for biliary tract diseases varies depending on the specific condition and severity but may include medications, surgery, or a combination of both.

Epichlorohydrin is an industrial chemical with the formula C3H5ClO. It is a colorless liquid with an irritating odor, and it is used primarily as a building block in the production of other chemicals, including epoxy resins, synthetic gums, and plastics. Epichlorohydrin is produced by reacting chlorine with propylene in the presence of a catalyst. It is classified as a probable human carcinogen based on evidence from animal studies, and exposure to this chemical can cause irritation of the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. Therefore, it is important to handle epichlorohydrin with care and to use appropriate safety measures when working with this chemical.

Fat emulsions for intravenous use are a type of parenteral nutrition solution that contain fat in the form of triglycerides, which are broken down and absorbed into the body to provide a source of energy and essential fatty acids. These emulsions are typically used in patients who are unable to consume food orally or enterally, such as those with gastrointestinal tract disorders, malabsorption syndromes, or severe injuries.

The fat emulsion is usually combined with other nutrients, such as carbohydrates and amino acids, to create a complete parenteral nutrition solution that meets the patient's nutritional needs. The emulsion is administered through a vein using a sterile technique to prevent infection.

Fat emulsions are typically made from soybean oil or a mixture of soybean and medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oils. MCTs are more easily absorbed than long-chain triglycerides (LCTs), which are found in soybean oil, and may be used in patients with malabsorption syndromes or other conditions that affect fat absorption.

It is important to monitor patients receiving intravenous fat emulsions for signs of complications such as infection, hyperlipidemia (elevated levels of fats in the blood), and liver function abnormalities.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Glycocholic Acid" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. It seems there might be a misunderstanding or a typo in your request.

If you meant "Glycocholic," it's a term that refers to a substance conjugated with glycine, which is an amino acid. This process often occurs in the liver during the metabolism of certain substances, like bile acids.

"Glycocholic" could theoretically refer to a glycine conjugate of a bile acid such as cholic acid, which would make it a derivative called "Glycocholic Acid." However, I couldn't find any specific medical or scientific literature that directly refers to "Glycocholic Acid" as a known compound or concept.

If you could provide more context or clarify your question, I would be happy to help further!

Hepatomegaly is a medical term that refers to an enlargement of the liver beyond its normal size. The liver is usually located in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen and can be felt during a physical examination. A healthcare provider may detect hepatomegaly by palpating (examining through touch) the abdomen, noticing that the edge of the liver extends past the lower ribcage.

There are several possible causes for hepatomegaly, including:
- Fatty liver disease (both alcoholic and nonalcoholic)
- Hepatitis (viral or autoimmune)
- Liver cirrhosis
- Cancer (such as primary liver cancer, metastatic cancer, or lymphoma)
- Infections (e.g., bacterial, fungal, or parasitic)
- Heart failure and other cardiovascular conditions
- Genetic disorders (e.g., Gaucher's disease, Niemann-Pick disease, or Hunter syndrome)
- Metabolic disorders (e.g., glycogen storage diseases, hemochromatosis, or Wilson's disease)

Diagnosing the underlying cause of hepatomegaly typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies like ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI. Treatment depends on the specific cause identified and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or, in some cases, surgical intervention.

Cytoplasmic receptors and nuclear receptors are two types of intracellular receptors that play crucial roles in signal transduction pathways and regulation of gene expression. They are classified based on their location within the cell. Here are the medical definitions for each:

1. Cytoplasmic Receptors: These are a group of intracellular receptors primarily found in the cytoplasm of cells, which bind to specific hormones, growth factors, or other signaling molecules. Upon binding, these receptors undergo conformational changes that allow them to interact with various partners, such as adapter proteins and enzymes, leading to activation of downstream signaling cascades. These pathways ultimately result in modulation of cellular processes like proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Examples of cytoplasmic receptors include receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), serine/threonine kinase receptors, and cytokine receptors.
2. Nuclear Receptors: These are a distinct class of intracellular receptors that reside primarily in the nucleus of cells. They bind to specific ligands, such as steroid hormones, thyroid hormones, vitamin D, retinoic acid, and various other lipophilic molecules. Upon binding, nuclear receptors undergo conformational changes that facilitate their interaction with co-regulatory proteins and the DNA. This interaction results in the modulation of gene transcription, ultimately leading to alterations in protein expression and cellular responses. Examples of nuclear receptors include estrogen receptor (ER), androgen receptor (AR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), thyroid hormone receptor (TR), vitamin D receptor (VDR), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs).

Both cytoplasmic and nuclear receptors are essential components of cellular communication networks, allowing cells to respond appropriately to extracellular signals and maintain homeostasis. Dysregulation of these receptors has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and autoimmune disorders.

Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins (MRPs) are a subfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins that play a crucial role in the efflux of various substrates, including drugs and organic anions, out of cells. They are located in the plasma membrane of many cell types, including epithelial cells in the liver, intestine, kidney, and blood-brain barrier.

MRPs are known to transport a wide range of molecules, such as glutathione conjugates, bilirubin, bile acids, and various clinical drugs. One of the most well-known MRPs is MRP1 (ABCC1), which was initially identified in drug-resistant tumor cells. MRP1 can confer resistance to chemotherapeutic agents by actively pumping them out of cancer cells, thereby reducing their intracellular concentration and effectiveness.

The activity of MRPs can have significant implications for the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs, as they can affect drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME). Understanding the function and regulation of MRPs is essential for developing strategies to overcome multidrug resistance in cancer therapy and optimizing drug dosing regimens in various clinical settings.

Steroid 12-alpha-hydroxylase is an enzyme that is involved in the metabolism of steroids. It is specifically responsible for adding a hydroxyl group (-OH) to the 12th carbon atom of certain steroid molecules. This enzyme plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of bile acids and corticosteroids, including cortisol and aldosterone, which are important hormones produced by the adrenal gland.

The gene that encodes this enzyme is called CYP12A1, and mutations in this gene can lead to various disorders related to steroid metabolism. For example, a deficiency in steroid 12-alpha-hydroxylase can result in the accumulation of bile acids that are not properly hydroxylated, which can cause liver damage and cholestatic pruritus (itching). Additionally, impaired cortisol and aldosterone production due to defects in this enzyme can lead to conditions such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia and salt-wasting crisis.

Liver transplantation is a surgical procedure in which a diseased or failing liver is replaced with a healthy one from a deceased donor or, less commonly, a portion of a liver from a living donor. The goal of the procedure is to restore normal liver function and improve the patient's overall health and quality of life.

Liver transplantation may be recommended for individuals with end-stage liver disease, acute liver failure, certain genetic liver disorders, or liver cancers that cannot be treated effectively with other therapies. The procedure involves complex surgery to remove the diseased liver and implant the new one, followed by a period of recovery and close medical monitoring to ensure proper function and minimize the risk of complications.

The success of liver transplantation has improved significantly in recent years due to advances in surgical techniques, immunosuppressive medications, and post-transplant care. However, it remains a major operation with significant risks and challenges, including the need for lifelong immunosuppression to prevent rejection of the new liver, as well as potential complications such as infection, bleeding, and organ failure.

Alanine transaminase (ALT) is a type of enzyme found primarily in the cells of the liver and, to a lesser extent, in the cells of other tissues such as the heart, muscles, and kidneys. Its primary function is to catalyze the reversible transfer of an amino group from alanine to another alpha-keto acid, usually pyruvate, to form pyruvate and another amino acid, usually glutamate. This process is known as the transamination reaction.

When liver cells are damaged or destroyed due to various reasons such as hepatitis, alcohol abuse, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, or drug-induced liver injury, ALT is released into the bloodstream. Therefore, measuring the level of ALT in the blood is a useful diagnostic tool for evaluating liver function and detecting liver damage. Normal ALT levels vary depending on the laboratory, but typically range from 7 to 56 units per liter (U/L) for men and 6 to 45 U/L for women. Elevated ALT levels may indicate liver injury or disease, although other factors such as muscle damage or heart disease can also cause elevations in ALT.

Aspartate aminotransferases (ASTs) are a group of enzymes found in various tissues throughout the body, including the heart, liver, and muscles. They play a crucial role in the metabolic process of transferring amino groups between different molecules.

In medical terms, AST is often used as a blood test to measure the level of this enzyme in the serum. Elevated levels of AST can indicate damage or injury to tissues that contain this enzyme, such as the liver or heart. For example, liver disease, including hepatitis and cirrhosis, can cause elevated AST levels due to damage to liver cells. Similarly, heart attacks can also result in increased AST levels due to damage to heart muscle tissue.

It is important to note that an AST test alone cannot diagnose a specific medical condition, but it can provide valuable information when used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluation.

Liver failure is a serious condition in which the liver is no longer able to perform its normal functions, such as removing toxins and waste products from the blood, producing bile to help digest food, and regulating blood clotting. This can lead to a buildup of toxins in the body, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), fluid accumulation in the abdomen, and an increased risk of bleeding. Liver failure can be acute (sudden) or chronic (developing over time). Acute liver failure is often caused by medication toxicity, viral hepatitis, or other sudden illnesses. Chronic liver failure is most commonly caused by long-term damage from conditions such as cirrhosis, hepatitis, alcohol abuse, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

It's important to note that Liver Failure is a life threatening condition and need immediate medical attention.

Antipruritics are a class of medications or substances that are used to relieve or prevent itching (pruritus). They work by reducing the sensation of itchiness and can be applied topically to the skin, taken orally, or administered intravenously. Some common antipruritics include diphenhydramine, hydroxyzine, and corticosteroids.

A "newborn infant" refers to a baby in the first 28 days of life outside of the womb. This period is crucial for growth and development, but also poses unique challenges as the infant's immune system is not fully developed, making them more susceptible to various diseases.

"Newborn diseases" are health conditions that specifically affect newborn infants. These can be categorized into three main types:

1. Congenital disorders: These are conditions that are present at birth and may be inherited or caused by factors such as infection, exposure to harmful substances during pregnancy, or chromosomal abnormalities. Examples include Down syndrome, congenital heart defects, and spina bifida.

2. Infectious diseases: Newborn infants are particularly vulnerable to infections due to their immature immune systems. Common infectious diseases in newborns include sepsis (bloodstream infection), pneumonia, and meningitis. These can be acquired from the mother during pregnancy or childbirth, or from the environment after birth.

3. Developmental disorders: These are conditions that affect the normal growth and development of the newborn infant. Examples include cerebral palsy, intellectual disabilities, and vision or hearing impairments.

It is important to note that many newborn diseases can be prevented or treated with appropriate medical care, including prenatal care, proper hygiene practices, and timely vaccinations. Regular check-ups and monitoring of the newborn's health by a healthcare provider are essential for early detection and management of any potential health issues.

17-alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone is a steroid hormone that is produced in the adrenal glands and, to a lesser extent, in the gonads (ovaries and testes). It is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of steroid hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones such as testosterone and estrogen.

17-alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone is formed from pregnenolone through the action of the enzyme 17α-hydroxylase. It can then be converted to 17-hydroxyprogesterone, which is a precursor to both cortisol and androgens such as testosterone.

While 17-alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone itself does not have significant physiological activity, its role in the biosynthesis of other steroid hormones makes it an important intermediate in the endocrine system. Dysregulation of its production or metabolism can contribute to various medical conditions, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia and certain forms of cancer.

A biliary fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the biliary system (which includes the gallbladder, bile ducts, and liver) and another organ or structure, usually in the abdominal cavity. This connection allows bile, which is a digestive fluid produced by the liver, to leak out of its normal pathway and into other areas of the body.

Biliary fistulas can occur as a result of trauma, surgery, infection, or inflammation in the biliary system. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, fever, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), nausea, vomiting, and clay-colored stools. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the fistula, such as draining an infection or repairing damaged tissue, and diverting bile flow away from the site of the leak. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the fistula.

Cefotiam is a type of antibiotic known as a cephalosporin, which is used to treat various bacterial infections. It works by interfering with the bacteria's ability to form a cell wall, leading to bacterial cell death. Cefotiam has a broad spectrum of activity and is effective against many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

Here is the medical definition of 'Cefotiam':

Cefotiam is a semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, beta-lactam antibiotic belonging to the cephalosporin class. It has activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including many strains that are resistant to other antibiotics. Cefotiam inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), leading to bacterial cell death.

Cefotiam is available in various formulations, including intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) injections, for the treatment of a wide range of infections, such as:

* Lower respiratory tract infections (e.g., pneumonia, bronchitis)
* Urinary tract infections (e.g., pyelonephritis, cystitis)
* Skin and soft tissue infections (e.g., cellulitis, wound infections)
* Bone and joint infections (e.g., osteomyelitis, septic arthritis)
* Intra-abdominal infections (e.g., peritonitis, appendicitis)
* Septicemia (bloodstream infections)

Cefotiam is generally well tolerated, but like other antibiotics, it can cause side effects, including gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), skin rashes, and allergic reactions. In rare cases, cefotiam may cause serious adverse effects, such as seizures, interstitial nephritis, or hemorrhagicystitis. It should be used with caution in patients with a history of allergy to beta-lactam antibiotics, impaired renal function, or a history of seizure disorders.

It is essential to complete the full course of treatment as prescribed by a healthcare professional, even if symptoms improve, to ensure that the infection is entirely eradicated and to reduce the risk of developing antibiotic resistance.

A biopsy is a medical procedure in which a small sample of tissue is taken from the body to be examined under a microscope for the presence of disease. This can help doctors diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as cancer, infections, or autoimmune disorders. The type of biopsy performed will depend on the location and nature of the suspected condition. Some common types of biopsies include:

1. Incisional biopsy: In this procedure, a surgeon removes a piece of tissue from an abnormal area using a scalpel or other surgical instrument. This type of biopsy is often used when the lesion is too large to be removed entirely during the initial biopsy.

2. Excisional biopsy: An excisional biopsy involves removing the entire abnormal area, along with a margin of healthy tissue surrounding it. This technique is typically employed for smaller lesions or when cancer is suspected.

3. Needle biopsy: A needle biopsy uses a thin, hollow needle to extract cells or fluid from the body. There are two main types of needle biopsies: fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA extracts loose cells, while a core needle biopsy removes a small piece of tissue.

4. Punch biopsy: In a punch biopsy, a round, sharp tool is used to remove a small cylindrical sample of skin tissue. This type of biopsy is often used for evaluating rashes or other skin abnormalities.

5. Shave biopsy: During a shave biopsy, a thin slice of tissue is removed from the surface of the skin using a sharp razor-like instrument. This technique is typically used for superficial lesions or growths on the skin.

After the biopsy sample has been collected, it is sent to a laboratory where a pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope and provide a diagnosis based on their findings. The results of the biopsy can help guide further treatment decisions and determine the best course of action for managing the patient's condition.

Imino acids are organic compounds that contain a nitrogen atom as part of an amide-like structure. They are structurally similar to amino acids, which contain a carboxyl group and an amino group, but instead of the amino group, imino acids have a structural unit known as an imine or Schiff base, which is a carbon-nitrogen double bond with a hydrogen atom attached to the nitrogen atom.

One example of an imino acid is proline, which is a cyclic imino acid that plays important roles in protein structure and function. Proline is unique among the 20 standard amino acids because its side chain is linked to the nitrogen atom of the backbone, forming a ring-like structure. This structural feature gives proline unique properties, such as restricted rotation around the bond between the nitrogen and alpha carbon atoms, which can affect protein folding and stability.

Other imino acids may be formed through chemical reactions or enzymatic processes, and they can play important roles in various biological pathways, including the biosynthesis of amino acids, nucleotides, and other biomolecules. However, imino acids are not typically considered to be part of the standard set of 20 amino acids that make up proteins.

Membrane transport proteins are specialized biological molecules, specifically integral membrane proteins, that facilitate the movement of various substances across the lipid bilayer of cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and regulated transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, nucleotides, and other molecules into and out of cells, as well as within different cellular compartments. These proteins can be categorized into two main types: channels and carriers (or pumps). Channels provide a passive transport mechanism, allowing ions or small molecules to move down their electrochemical gradient, while carriers actively transport substances against their concentration gradient, requiring energy usually in the form of ATP. Membrane transport proteins play a crucial role in maintaining cell homeostasis, signaling processes, and many other physiological functions.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

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... can present in newborn infants within the first few months of life. The incidence of neonatal cholestasis ... While neonatal cholestasis can present from a number of pathologic causes, 35-40% of neonatal cholestasis cases are caused by ... Generally, treatment of neonatal cholestasis involves treating the underlying disease. Prognosis of neonatal cholestasis also ... If neonatal cholestasis is suspected or an infant is presenting with jaundice after two weeks of life, total and conjugated ...
GeneReview/NIH/UW entry on Low γ-GT Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis OMIM entry on CHOLESTASIS, PROGRESSIVE FAMILIAL ... Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) is a group of familial cholestatic conditions caused by defects in biliary ... How ATP8B1 mutation leads to cholestasis is not yet well understood.[citation needed] PFIC-2 is caused by a variety of ... Serum cholesterol levels are typically not elevated, as is seen usually in cholestasis, as the pathology is due to a ...
... (ICP), also known as obstetric cholestasis, cholestasis of pregnancy, jaundice of ... Cholestasis Cholestatic pruritus List of cutaneous conditions Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy (PUPPP) an ... July 1989). "Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy in twin pregnancies". Journal of Hepatology. 9 (1): 84-90. doi:10.1016/0168- ... "Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy". www.marchofdimes.org. Retrieved 2022-04-27. Dixon, PH; Wadsworth, CA; Chambers, J; ...
... is a cutaneous condition caused by a mutation in the VPS33B gene. Most of ... "Orphanet: Arthrogryposis renal dysfunction cholestasis syndrome". www.orpha.net. Retrieved 18 May 2019. Rapini, Ronald P.; ...
Pauli-Magnus C, Meier PJ, Stieger B (2010). "Genetic determinants of drug-induced cholestasis and intrahepatic cholestasis of ... This is seen in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, which occurs in 0.4 to 15% of pregnancies (highly variable depending on ... Arrese M, Reyes H (2006). "Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: a past and present riddle". Ann Hepatol. 5 (3): 202-5. doi: ... Pusl T, Beuers U (2007). "Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy". Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2: 26. doi:10.1186/1750-1172-2-26. PMC ...
Li, MK; Crawford, JM (Feb 2004). "The pathology of cholestasis". Semin Liver Dis. 24 (1): 21-42. doi:10.1055/s-2004-823099. ... Desmet, VJ (1995). "Histopathology of cholestasis". Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol. 79: 233-40. PMID 8600686. ... death associated with cholestasis. Cells undergoing this form of cell death have a flocculant appearing cytoplasm, and are ...
Drug-induced cholestasis is an adverse outcome of drug-induced-liver-disease. Mechanisms other than direct hepatocyte injury ... Padda, Manmeet S.; Sanchez, Mayra; Akhtar, Abbasi J.; Boyer, James L. (2011). "Drug-induced cholestasis". Hepatology. 53 (4): ...
... including types of cholestasis such as intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, portosystemic shunt, and hepatic microvascular ... Pusl T, Beuers U (2007). "Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy". Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2: 26. doi:10.1186/1750-1172-2-26. PMC ... Glantz A, Marschall HU, Lammert F, Mattsson LA (December 2005). "Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: a randomized controlled ... primary sclerosing cholangitis or intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid has been used for ...
Davit-Spraul A, Gonzales E, Baussan C, Jacquemin E (January 2009). "Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis". Orphanet ... Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (associated with HCC) and Trisomy 18 (associated with hepatoblastoma). Many ...
Cholestasis can manifest as pruritus and jaundice. Glucuronide metabolites of EE, via effects on the ABCB11 (BSEP) and MRP2 ( ... Very high concentrations of estradiol, via its metabolite estradiol glucuronide, are also implicated in cholestasis, for ... Trauner M, Jansen PJ (2004). Molecular Pathogenesis of Cholestasis. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 260-. ISBN 978-0-306 ... it is widely considered that COCs containing EE should be avoided in women with a history of cholestasis of pregnancy, hepatic ...
Some neonates present with cholestasis. Hormonal contraceptives and pregnancy may lead to overt jaundice and icterus (yellowing ...
... and cholestasis 1; 208085; VPS33B Arthrogryposis, renal dysfunction, and cholestasis 2; 613404; VIPAR Arthropathy, progressive ... ABCB11 Cholestasis, benign recurrent intrahepatic; 243300; ATP8B1 Cholestasis, familial intrahepatic, of pregnancy; 147480; ... ABCB4 Cholestasis, progressive familial intrahepatic 1; 211600; ATP8B1 Cholestasis, progressive familial intrahepatic 2; 601847 ... ABCB11 Cholestasis, progressive familial intrahepatic 3; 602347; ABCB4 Cholestasis, progressive familial intrahepatic 4; 607765 ...
Reported liver biopsies tend to show cholestasis; however, blood biomarkers can show a range of cholestatic, mixed, or ...
Larrey D, Geneve J, Pessayre D, Machayekhi JP, Degott C, Benhamou JP (February 1987). "Prolonged cholestasis after ...
Progressive intrahepatic cholestasis Treatment Schedule: 3 to 5 eight-hour treatment sessions on consecutive days Continuous ... Progressive intrahepatic cholestasis Treatment Schedule: 3 to 5 eight-hour treatment sessions on consecutive days Continuous ... Bergasa, NV; Thomas, DA; Vergalla, J; Turner, ML; Jones, EA (1993). "Plasma from patients with the pruritus of cholestasis ... Jones, EA; Bergasa, NV (Dec 16, 1992). "The pruritus of cholestasis and the opioid system". JAMA. 268 (23): 3359-62. doi: ...
It is also called cholestasis-lymphedema syndrome (CLS). The first case of cholestasis usually improves spontaneously during ... Aagenaes, Øystein (January 1998). "Hereditary Cholestasis with Lymphoedema (Aagenaes Syndrome, Cholestasis-Lymphoedema Syndrome ... AAGENAES, ØYSTEIN (January 1998). "Hereditary Cholestasis with Lymphoedema (Aagenaes Syndrome, Cholestasis-Lymphoedema Syndrome ... Neonatal cholestasis lasted no more than one year in some patients or lasted until the age of 6/7 years in some cases. In ...
It has been used in the symptomatic treatment of itching due to intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Gonzalez MC, Iglesias J ... Reyes H, Simon FR (August 1993). "Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: an estrogen-related disease". Semin Liver Dis. 13 (3 ... Reyes H (December 1992). "The spectrum of liver and gastrointestinal disease seen in cholestasis of pregnancy". Gastroenterol ... September 1992). "Epomediol ameliorates pruritus in patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy". J Hepatol. 16 (1-2): ...
UDCA has been used for intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. UDCA lessens itching in the mother and may reduce the number of ... September 2019). "Ursodeoxycholic acid versus placebo in women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (PITCHES): a ... "Ursodeoxycholic acid use is associated with significant risk of morbidity and mortality in infants with cholestasis: A strobe ... "Pharmacological interventions for treating intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews ...
Weiland MD, Nowicki MJ, Jones JK, Giles HW (May 2011). "COACH syndrome: an unusual cause of neonatal cholestasis". The Journal ...
Fatal familial intrahepatic cholestasis in an Amish kindred". Am. J. Dis. Child. 117 (1): 112-24. doi:10.1001/archpedi. ... October 2001). "FIC1, the protein affected in two forms of hereditary cholestasis, is localized in the cholangiocyte and the ... Mutations in this gene may result in progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 1 and in benign recurrent intrahepatic ... Carlton VE, Knisely AS, Freimer NB (Oct 1995). "Mapping of a locus for progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (Byler ...
Neonatal cholestasis, liver tumours, hepatopulmonary syndrome, pulmonary hypertension and encephalopathy are common clinical ... In children, CPSS may present as neonatal cholestasis. These complications are generally induced by long term portosystemic ...
Loss of function is implicated in hereditary cholestasis. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000140798 - Ensembl, May 2017 ...
... progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis), Caroli disease, choledochal cyst, cholestasis, congenital cytomegalovirus ... Unlike other forms of jaundice, however, biliary-atresia-related cholestasis mostly does not result in kernicterus, a form of ... "Role of some viral infections in neonatal cholestasis". The Egyptian Journal of Immunology. 11 (2): 149-55. PMID 16734127. Wen ... and total parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis. Most (>95%) infants with biliary atresia will undergo an operation ...
"Recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy - biochemical and clinical". Ginekologia Polska, 1974. "Free amino acids in the ... cholestasis in pregnancy, pathophysiology of blood coagulation in pregnancy, gestational diabetes, infections in pregnancy, ...
"Clusterin expression in cholestasis, hepatocellular carcinoma and liver fibrosis". Histopathology. 54 (5): 561-70. doi:10.1111/ ...
This may be involved in estradiol glucuronide-induced cholestasis. Estrogen glucuronides can be deglucuronidated into the ... receptor 30/adenylyl cyclase/protein kinase A pathway is involved in estradiol 17ß-D-glucuronide-induced cholestasis". ...
... is a gene associated with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 2 (PFIC2). PFIC2 caused by mutations in the ... April 2009). "Contribution of variant alleles of ABCB11 to susceptibility to intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy". Gut. 58 (4 ... December 2008). "Diagnosis of BSEP/ABCB11 mutations in Asian patients with cholestasis using denaturing high performance liquid ... Kalaranjini KV, Glaxon JA, Vasudevan S, Arunkumar ML (June 2021). "Benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis - 2 (BRIC-2)/ ...
Sokol RJ, Heubi JE, Balistreri WF (August 1983). "Intrahepatic "cholestasis facies": is it specific for Alagille syndrome?". ... Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis synd/729 at Who Named It? Alagille D, Odièvre M, Gautier M, Dommergues JP ( ...
... benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis, biliary atresia, and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Chronic cholestasis ... Familial intrahepatic cholestasis (FIH) is a group of disorders that lead to intrahepatic cholestasis in children. Most often, ... Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is an acute cause of cholestasis that manifests most commonly in the third ... However, this does not indicate cholestasis alone. In the case of TPN-induced cholestasis, there is an excessive elevation of ...
Cholestasis is any condition in which the flow of bile from the liver is slowed or blocked. ... Cholestasis is any condition in which the flow of bile from the liver is slowed or blocked. ... This can cure the cholestasis.. Stents can be placed to open areas of the common bile duct that are narrowed or blocked by ... Cholestasis is any condition in which the flow of bile from the liver is slowed or blocked. ...
Therefore, the clinical definition of cholestasis is any condition in which substances normally excreted into bile are retained ... Cholestasis is defined as a decrease in bile flow due to impaired secretion by hepatocytes or to obstruction of bile flow ... One of the major clinical effects of cholestasis, particularly chronic cholestasis, is failure to thrive. The mechanisms of ... Vitamin A deficiency does not result in clinical disease in cholestasis. In chronic cholestasis, careful attention must be paid ...
Cholestasis Market size is valued at $6.22M by 2019, and is anticipated to grow at a CAGR of 4.9% during the forecast period ... By Cholestasis Type: Intrahepatic Cholestasis, Extrahepatic Cholestasis and Others.. By Diagnosis Type: Blood Tests, Imaging ... Moreover, cholestasis can be hereditary in nature and there is a significant presence of chronic cholestasis in children owing ... In 2019,Cholestasis Market is estimated to be fragmented in nature. Cholestasis Market top 10 companies are Eli Lily and ...
... is a class of chronic cholestasis disorders that begin in infancy and usually progress to cirrhosis within the first decade of ... Familial cholestasis: progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis and intrahepatic ... Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) is a class of chronic cholestasis disorders that comprises a variety of ... Mutations in the ATP8B1 gene also cause a less severe form of cholestasis, known as benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis ...
Learn about diagnosis and specialist referrals for Cholestasis-pigmentary retinopathy-cleft palate syndrome. ... Cholestasis-pigmentary retinopathy-cleft palate syndrome. Other Names: Hardikar syndromeHardikar syndrome. Read More ...
Cholestasis of pregnancy typically does not present a danger to the safety of the mother but can cause major problems for the ... Is Cholestasis Of Pregnancy An Emergency?. Cholestasis of pregnancy is not a medical emergency but it needs to be treated. What ... The recurrence of cholestasis in a subsequent pregnancy is 45 to 90% and often occurs earlier than the first time, sometimes ... Cholestasis of pregnancy causes intense itching, with no apparent eczema-like lesions. They most often appear in the 3rd ...
Cholestasis, induced by liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), is characterized by dilatation of bile canaliculi and loss of ... Cholestasis, induced by liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), is characterized by dilatation of bile canaliculi and loss of ... TUDCA prevents cholestasis and canalicular damage induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury in the rat, modulating PKC alpha-ezrin ... 2008). TUDCA prevents cholestasis and canalicular damage induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury in the rat, modulating PKC ...
Cholestasis is a disorder in which bile flow is obstructed from the liver and to the duodenum and other organs. ... cholestasis ayurvedic treatment, cholestasis causes, cholestasis diagnosis, cholestasis of pregnancy, cholestasis symptoms, ... Types of Cholestasis. There are 2 types of cholestasis:. *Intrahepatic cholestasis: It can occur due to any previous disease, ... Natural Cure For Cholestasis January 15, 2022. Dr. Vikram Chauhan 0 Comments cholestasis after pregnancy, ...
Therefore, the clinical definition of cholestasis is any condition in which substances normally excreted into bile are retained ... Cholestasis is defined as a decrease in bile flow due to impaired secretion by hepatocytes or to obstruction of bile flow ... One of the major clinical effects of cholestasis, particularly chronic cholestasis, is failure to thrive. The mechanisms of ... Vitamin A deficiency does not result in clinical disease in cholestasis. In chronic cholestasis, careful attention must be paid ...
PFIC Networks mission is to improve the lives of patients affected by Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis (PFIC), a ... Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis (PFIC). Join us in Cincinnati!. The PFIC Family & Scientific Conference is back! ... Ⓒ 2022 Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis Advocacy and Resource Network, Inc. All Rights Reserved. PFIC Network is a ... to be able to offer programs specifically for patients and caregivers affected by Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis ...
Cholestasis is a medical condition characterized by impaired bile flow from the liver, leading to a buildup of bile acids in ... Cholestasis: Causes, Symptoms, Natural Treatment Approaches. Posted on April 1, 2024. Cholestasis is a medical condition ... While cholestasis can occur as a complication of liver disease, pregnancy-related cholestasis (also known as intrahepatic ... Understanding Cholestasis. Cholestasis occurs when the flow of bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver, becomes ...
Educational script for teen patients with cholestasis of pregnancy. ... Cholestasis affects your liver. Your liver makes a digestive fluid. The name for this fluid is bile. When you have cholestasis ... Cholestasis is rare, but it can be serious. If you think it may be affecting you, see your doctor. They can tell you for sure. ... Cholestasis can cause you to have health issues. You may have liver problems later in life. It can also cause issues that ...
Neonatal Cholestasis - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical ... Etiology of Neonatal Cholestasis Cholestasis (see also Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia Jaundice is a ... Pathophysiology of Neonatal Cholestasis In cholestasis, the primary failure is of bilirubin excretion, resulting in excess ... Symptoms and Signs of Neonatal Cholestasis Cholestasis typically is noted in the first 2 weeks of life. Infants are jaundiced ...
... is a class of chronic cholestasis disorders that begin in infancy and usually progress to cirrhosis within the first decade of ... Familial cholestasis: progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis and intrahepatic ... Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) is a class of chronic cholestasis disorders that begin in infancy and ... Mutations in the ATP8B1 gene also cause a less severe form of cholestasis, known as benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis ...
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Shortly after the birth of my son, I began to follow several mommy blogs on Facebook and read an article about how a womans complaint on Facebook about itching during pregnancy could have saved her babys life. Two years later during our second pregnancy with our... ...
Get natural cures for Cholestasis Of Pregnancy that can make a difference in your life or the life of someone you love with ... Cholestasis Of Pregnancy by state. Cholestasis Of Pregnancy in Alabama. Cholestasis Of Pregnancy in Alaska. Cholestasis Of ... Cholestasis Of Pregnancy in Iowa. Cholestasis Of Pregnancy in Kansas. Cholestasis Of Pregnancy in Kentucky. Cholestasis Of ... Cholestasis Of Pregnancy in North Dakota. Cholestasis Of Pregnancy in Ohio. Cholestasis Of Pregnancy in Oklahoma. Cholestasis ...
Refractory pruritus from malignant cholestasis: Management. Research output: Contribution to Journal/Magazine › Journal article ... Gunasekara Vidana Mestrige Fernando, C., & Preston, N. (2023). Refractory pruritus from malignant cholestasis: Management. BMJ ... Refractory_pruritus_from_malignant_cholestasis Rights statement: This article has been accepted for publication in BMJ ... Gunasekara Vidana Mestrige Fernando, C & Preston, N 2023, Refractory pruritus from malignant cholestasis: Management, BMJ ...
Primary bile acids as potential biomarkers for the clinical grading of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.. Jianbo Chen, ... OBJECTIVE: To identify possible biomarkers for the clinical grading of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) through ...
Tests / Metabolic Disorders / Lipid metabolism / Cholestasis benign recurrent intrahepatic BRIC. Cholestasis benign recurrent ...
... known as Cholestasis. Explore what it means and the potential impact on mothers and newborns. ... A patient with cholestasis of pregnancy or intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) has a weakened liver that causes bile to ... Cholestasis of Pregnancy Can Put You and Your Baby in Harms Way. High levels of bile acids threaten the fetus when they build ... Detecting and Confirming Cholestasis in Pregnant Patients. High bile acids in the bloodstream confirm the diagnosis of the ...
We have optimized all our processes to accept a wide range of samples, always adapting to each case ...
Cholestasis. Causes Grouped by strength of evidence. Strong Evidence. estrogens / DES. manganese ...
Targeted Audience General practitioners Hepatologists Oncologists Health care professionals A rare case of cholestasis ... Dr Gustav Buescher presented a rare case of cholestasis. The experts Annika Bergquist, Kristine Wiencke and Ansgar W. Lohse ... Dr Gustav Buescher presented a rare case of cholestasis. The experts Annika Bergquist, Kristine Wiencke and Ansgar W. Lohse ... he received a fellowship at the Center for Sepsis Control and Care and worked on the molecular mechanisms of septic cholestasis ...
Obstetric Cholestasis. Dr. Lynne Jones :. To ask the Secretary of State for Health what information she has on the number of ... Between 1986 and 1992 there were no cases of stillbirths registered in England and Wales with obstetric cholestasis or ... intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy mentioned as a cause on the certificate. Information relating to Scotland and Northern ... still births that arise as a result of the condition known as obstetric cholestasis both in the United Kingdom and abroad. ...
History of cholestasis. a. Pregnancy related. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 2. ...
Cholestasis. 43/F. None. Abdominal pain. Doxycycline. 21. 1979 (13). Pulmonary abscess. 61/F. Rheumatoid arthritis, prednisone ...
Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Hobson S, Gandhi S, Sobel M. Hobson S, et al. Among authors: gandhi s. CMAJ. 2022 Dec 12 ...
Obstetric Cholestasis. This is intense itching of the hands and feet. Its not a common condition and only affects one ... Left undiagnosed obstetric cholestasis can lead to premature birth, excessive bleeding or (rarely) stillbirth. Treatment ...
  • Jaundice is an uncommon occurrence in intrahepatic (metabolic) cholestasis, but is common in obstructive cholestasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinically, DIC can manifest as acute bland (pure) cholestasis, acute cholestatic hepatitis, secondary sclerosing cholangitis (involving bile duct injury), or vanishing bile duct syndrome (loss of intrahepatic bile ducts). (wikipedia.org)
  • Intrahepatic cholestasis occurs inside the liver. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) is a class of chronic cholestasis disorders that comprises a variety of genetic diseases. (medscape.com)
  • These terms now have been superseded by the term progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis . (medscape.com)
  • Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) is a class of chronic cholestasis disorders that begin in infancy and usually progress to cirrhosis within the first decade of life. (medscape.com)
  • A patient with cholestasis of pregnancy or intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) has a weakened liver that causes bile to pool in the bloodstream. (pediatricmalpracticeguide.com)
  • Only in rare disorders of bilirubin metabolism (eg, Dubin-Johnson syndrome , Rotor syndrome) does an isolated increase in the serum concentration of conjugated bilirubin appear, so increased serum conjugated bilirubin indicates cholestasis. (medscape.com)
  • Extrahepatic cholestasis occurs outside the liver. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cholestasis is defined as a decrease in bile flow due to impaired secretion by hepatocytes or to obstruction of bile flow through intra-or extrahepatic bile ducts. (medscape.com)
  • Obstructive cholestasis is usually the result of physical obstruction of the biliary system at the level of the extrahepatic bile ducts. (medscape.com)
  • The majority of patients with chronic cholestasis also experience fatigue. (wikipedia.org)
  • 208 Acute and chronic cholestasis can be caused by certain drugs or their metabolites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typical of obstructive cholestasis is bile plugging of the interlobular bile ducts, portal expansion, and bile duct proliferation in association with centrilobular cholate injury. (medscape.com)
  • The typical histopathologic features of hepatocellular cholestasis include the presence of bile within hepatocytes and canalicular spaces, in association with generalized cholate injury. (medscape.com)
  • The condition was inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and was characterized by hepatocellular cholestasis. (medscape.com)
  • BSEP is the major canalicular bile acid pump, and thus the loss of BSEP function results in severe hepatocellular cholestasis. (medscape.com)
  • Cholestasis of pregnancy is treated to relieve itching and prevent complications. (naturalcurefor.com)
  • If your doctor failed to identify and diagnose cholestasis, or was delayed in diagnosing the liver disease, which led to complications for your baby or yourself, it is important to explore and understand your rights and legal options. (pediatricmalpracticeguide.com)
  • Pruritus or itching is often present in many patients with cholestasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gunasekara Vidana Mestrige Fernando, C & Preston, N 2023, ' Refractory pruritus from malignant cholestasis: Management ', BMJ Supportive and Palliative Care , vol. 13, no. e1, 002051. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • abstract = "This case report deals with a patient managed in a tertiary-care cancer hospital who suffered pruritus associated with malignant cholestasis. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Educational script for teen patients with cholestasis of pregnancy. (writing.io)
  • Cholestasis of pregnancy is a condition of intense itching particularly on the hands and feet in late pregnancy. (naturalcurefor.com)
  • Oftentimes, the only symptom of cholestasis of pregnancy is intense itching specifically on the palms and soles of the feet, which may be intolerable during night time. (naturalcurefor.com)
  • One pregnancy condition with distinct symptoms is cholestasis of pregnancy , a late-term liver condition characterized by extreme itchiness. (pediatricmalpracticeguide.com)
  • The signs and symptoms of cholestasis vary according to the cause. (wikipedia.org)
  • This may be the mechanism involved in the cholestasis observed in Alagille syndrome , which is associated with heart, skeleton, eye, kidney, and facial manifestations. (medscape.com)
  • 17 Bland cholestasis occurs when there is obstruction to bile flow in the absence of inflammation or biliary and hepatic injury, whereas these features are present in cholestatic hepatitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanisms of cholestasis can be broadly classified into hepatocellular, where an impairment of bile formation occurs, and obstructive, where impedance to bile flow occurs after it is formed. (medscape.com)
  • Cholestasis occurs in 1/2500 full-term infants. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Many patients may experience jaundice as a result of cholestasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, patients with cholestasis may present with a deficiency in vitamins A, D, E, or K due to a decline in bile flow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with cholestasis may also experience pale stool and dark urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Etiology references Cholestasis is failure of bilirubin secretion, resulting in conjugated hyperbilirubinemia and jaundice. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Severe Cholestasis and Bile Acid Nephropathy From Anabolic Steroids Successfully Treated With Plasmapheresis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Severe cholestasis with anabolic androgenic steroids is well-known to cause acute liver injury . (bvsalud.org)
  • Drug-induced cholestasis (DIC) falls under drug-induced liver injury (DILI), specifically the cholestatic or mixed type. (wikipedia.org)
  • The identification of defective transporters in some familial cholestatic disorders has led to improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms of human cholestasis. (medscape.com)
  • However, demonstrable retention of several substances is needed to establish a diagnosis of cholestasis. (medscape.com)
  • The two basic distinctions are an obstructive type of cholestasis where there is a mechanical blockage in the duct system that can occur from a gallstone or malignancy, and metabolic types of cholestasis which are disturbances in bile formation that can occur because of genetic defects or acquired as a side effect of many medications. (wikipedia.org)
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine whether hepatic biochemical changes, as measured by routinely available tests indicative of hepatocellular necrosis, cholestasis, or altered hepatic clearance of bilirubin, occur in association with low to moderate exposure to styrene commonly experienced in industrial production. (cdc.gov)
  • Localization of pain to the upper right quadrant can be indicative of cholecystitis or choledocholithiasis, which can progress to cholestasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the clinical definition of cholestasis is any condition in which substances normally excreted into bile are retained. (medscape.com)
  • The histopathologic definition of cholestasis is the appearance of bile within the elements of the liver, usually associated with secondary cell injury. (medscape.com)
  • The hormones you produce while you are pregnant may slow down the flow of bile, causing cholestasis. (writing.io)
  • Cholestasis is a condition where bile cannot flow from the liver to the duodenum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cholestasis is any condition in which the flow of bile from the liver is slowed or blocked. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Your doctor will be able to tell if you have cholestasis. (writing.io)