Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.
A cholesterol derivative found in human feces, gallstones, eggs, and other biological matter.
Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Tumors or cancer of the PERITONEUM.
A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE. The tree has smooth, resinous, varicolored or white bark, marked by horizontal pores (lenticels), which usually peels horizontally in thin sheets.
Substances found in PLANTS that have antigenic activity.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Individuals licensed to practice medicine.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.

The Arabidopsis dwarf1 mutant is defective in the conversion of 24-methylenecholesterol to campesterol in brassinosteroid biosynthesis. (1/301)

Since the isolation and characterization of dwarf1-1 (dwf1-1) from a T-DNA insertion mutant population, phenotypically similar mutants, including deetiolated2 (det2), constitutive photomorphogenesis and dwarfism (cpd), brassinosteroid insensitive1 (bri1), and dwf4, have been reported to be defective in either the biosynthesis or the perception of brassinosteroids. We present further characterization of dwf1-1 and additional dwf1 alleles. Feeding tests with brassinosteroid-biosynthetic intermediates revealed that dwf1 can be rescued by 22alpha-hydroxycampesterol and downstream intermediates in the brassinosteroid pathway. Analysis of the endogenous levels of brassinosteroid intermediates showed that 24-methylenecholesterol in dwf1 accumulates to 12 times the level of the wild type, whereas the level of campesterol is greatly diminished, indicating that the defective step is in C-24 reduction. Furthermore, the deduced amino acid sequence of DWF1 shows significant similarity to a flavin adenine dinucleotide-binding domain conserved in various oxidoreductases, suggesting an enzymatic role for DWF1. In support of this, 7 of 10 dwf1 mutations directly affected the flavin adenine dinucleotide-binding domain. Our molecular characterization of dwf1 alleles, together with our biochemical data, suggest that the biosynthetic defect in dwf1 results in reduced synthesis of bioactive brassinosteroids, causing dwarfism.  (+info)

Effects of LY295427, a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor up-regulator, on LDL receptor gene transcription and cholesterol metabolism in normal and hypercholesterolemic hamsters. (2/301)

The action of LY295427 [(3alpha,4alpha, 5alpha)-4-(2-propenylcholestan-3-ol)], a compound that derepresses low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) expression in a cell-based model, was examined in hamsters. It was found that the compound does not have an effect in normal chow-fed hamsters, in which LDL-R levels are not repressed, but exerts a marked hypocholesterolemic effect (>70% decrease) in cholesterol-coconut oil-fed hamsters, in which LDL-R is repressed. In this model, there is a dose-response for cholesterol lowering with an approximate ED50 value of 40 mg/kg/day and an inverse relationship between serum cholesterol and serum LY295427 levels. LDL-R mRNA is increased (2-fold) and liver cholesterol ester content is decreased (>90%). Unlike the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarylcoenzyme A reductase inhibitor lovastatin, the decreased serum cholesterol is confined to the non-high-density lipoprotein fraction. Furthermore, LY295427 does not affect cholesterol biosynthesis, and it does not have a significant effect on cholesterol absorption. These data suggest that LY295427 acts in the hypercholesterolemic hamster by derepressing LDL-R transcription, thereby enhancing cholesterol clearance from the blood. The results with LY295427 suggest that compounds that act to increase LDL-R may represent a novel approach in the pharmacotherapy for hypercholesterolemia.  (+info)

BAS1: A gene regulating brassinosteroid levels and light responsiveness in Arabidopsis. (3/301)

The Arabidopsis bas1-D mutation suppresses the long hypocotyl phenotype caused by mutations in the photoreceptor phytochrome B (phyB). The adult phenotype of bas1-D phyB-4 double mutants mimics that of brassinosteroid biosynthetic and response mutants. bas1-D phyB-4 has reduced levels of brassinosteroids and accumulates 26-hydroxybrassinolide in feeding experiments. The basis for the mutant phenotype is the enhanced expression of a cytochrome P450 (CYP72B1). bas1-D suppresses a phyB-null allele, but not a phyA-null mutation, and partially suppresses a cryptochrome-null mutation. Seedlings with reduced BAS1 expression are hyperresponsive to brassinosteroids in a light-dependent manner and display reduced sensitivity to light under a variety of conditions. Thus, BAS1 represents one of the control points between multiple photoreceptor systems and brassinosteroid signal transduction.  (+info)

Potentiation of platinum antitumor effects in human lung tumor xenografts by the angiogenesis inhibitor squalamine: effects on tumor neovascularization. (4/301)

Squalamine is a novel anti-angiogenic aminosterol that is postulated to inhibit neovascularization by selectively inhibiting the sodium-hydrogen antiporter exchanger. To determine how to most effectively use this agent in patients with cancer, we examined the antitumor effects of squalamine with or without cytotoxic agents in human lung cancer xenografts and correlated these observations with the degree of tumor neovascularization. No direct cytotoxic effects of squalamine against tumor cells were observed in vitro with or without cisplatin. Squalamine was effective in inhibiting the establishment of H460 human tumors in BALBc nude mice but was ineffective in inhibiting the growth of H460, CALU-6, or NL20T-A human tumor xenografts when administered i.p. to mice bearing established tumors. However, when combined with cisplatin or carboplatin, squalamine increased tumor growth delay by > or =1.5-fold in the three human lung carcinoma cell lines compared with cisplatin or carboplatin alone. No enhancement of antitumor activity was observed when squalamine was combined with paclitaxel, vinorelbine, gemcitabine, or docetaxel. Repeated cycles of squalamine plus cisplatin administration delayed H460 tumor growth >8.6-fold. Squalamine plus cisplatin reduced CD31 vessel formation by 25% compared with controls, squalamine alone, or cisplatin alone; however, no inhibition in CD31 vessel formation was observed when squalamine was combined with vinorelbine. These data demonstrate that the combination of squalamine and a platinum analog has significant preclinical antitumor activity against human lung cancer that is related to the anti-angiogenic effects of squalamine.  (+info)

Bile salt excretion in skate liver is mediated by a functional analog of Bsep/Spgp, the bile salt export pump. (5/301)

Biliary secretion of bile salts in mammals is mediated in part by the liver-specific ATP-dependent canalicular membrane protein Bsep/Spgp, a member of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily. We examined whether a similar transport activity exists in the liver of the evolutionarily primitive marine fish Raja erinacea, the little skate, which synthesizes mainly sulfated bile alcohols rather than bile salts. Western blot analysis of skate liver plasma membranes using antiserum raised against rat liver Bsep/Spgp demonstrated a dominant protein band with an apparent molecular mass of 210 kDa, a size larger than that in rat liver canalicular membranes, approximately 160 kDa. Immunofluorescent localization with anti-Bsep/Spgp in isolated, polarized skate hepatocyte clusters revealed positive staining of the bile canaliculi, consistent with its selective apical localization in mammalian liver. Functional characterization of putative ATP-dependent canalicular bile salt transport activity was assessed in skate liver plasma membrane vesicles, with [(3)H]taurocholate as the substrate. [(3)H]taurocholate uptake into the vesicles was mediated by ATP-dependent and -independent mechanisms. The ATP-dependent component was saturable, with a Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)) for taurocholate of 40+/-7 microM and a K(m) for ATP of 0.6+/-0.1 mM, and was competitively inhibited by scymnol sulfate (inhibition constant of 23 microM), the major bile salt in skate bile. ATP-dependent uptake of taurocholate into vesicles was inhibited by known substrates and inhibitors of Bsep/Spgp, including other bile salts and bile salt derivatives, but not by inhibitors of the multidrug resistance protein-1 or the canalicular multidrug resistance-associated protein, indicating a distinct transport mechanism. These findings provide functional and structural evidence for a Bsep/Spgp-like protein in the canalicular membrane of the skate liver. This transporter is expressed early in vertebrate evolution and transports both bile salts and bile alcohols.  (+info)

Squalamine is not a proton ionophore. (6/301)

Squalamine, an aminosterol antibiotic isolated from the dogfish shark, creates relatively large defects in phospholipid bilayers, allowing the unrestricted translocation of small molecules across these compromised membranes (B.S. Selinsky, Z. Zhou, K.G. Fotjik, S. R. Jones, N.R. Dollahon, A.E. Shinnar, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1370 (1998) 218-234). However, an aminosterol structurally similar to squalamine was found to act as a proton ionophore in anionic phospholipid vesicles. In contrast with squalamine, gross membrane disruption was not observed with this synthetic analog (G. Deng, T. Dewa, S.L. Regen, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118 (1996) 8975-8976). In this report, the ionophoric activity of squalamine was tested in anionic and zwitterionic phospholipid vesicles. No ionophoric activity was observed for squalamine in vesicles comprised of phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylcholine (PC), or a mixture of the two lipids. Experiments using radiolabeled squalamine indicated that all of the squalamine added to PG vesicles remained with the vesicles, while approximately one-half of the squalamine added to PC vesicles was incorporated. We have synthesized the aminosterol analog of squalamine possessing ionophoric activity, and its ionophoric activity in PG vesicles was confirmed. The synthetic compound possessed no measurable lytic activity when added to preformed phospholipid vesicles. As both compounds possess significant antimicrobial activity, these results suggest that either multiple mechanisms for the antimicrobial activity of aminosterols exist, depending upon the aminosterol structure, or possibly an unrelated common mechanism for antimicrobial activity remains to be discovered.  (+info)

Auxin regulates the initiation and radial position of plant lateral organs. (7/301)

Leaves originate from the shoot apical meristem, a small mound of undifferentiated tissue at the tip of the stem. Leaf formation begins with the selection of a group of founder cells in the so-called peripheral zone at the flank of the meristem, followed by the initiation of local growth and finally morphogenesis of the resulting bulge into a differentiated leaf. Whereas the mechanisms controlling the switch between meristem propagation and leaf initiation are being identified by genetic and molecular analyses, the radial positioning of leaves, known as phyllotaxis, remains poorly understood. Hormones, especially auxin and gibberellin, are known to influence phyllotaxis, but their specific role in the determination of organ position is not clear. We show that inhibition of polar auxin transport blocks leaf formation at the vegetative tomato meristem, resulting in pinlike naked stems with an intact meristem at the tip. Microapplication of the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to the apex of such pins restores leaf formation. Similarly, exogenous IAA induces flower formation on Arabidopsis pin-formed1-1 inflorescence apices, which are blocked in flower formation because of a mutation in a putative auxin transport protein. Our results show that auxin is required for and sufficient to induce organogenesis both in the vegetative tomato meristem and in the Arabidopsis inflorescence meristem. In this study, organogenesis always strictly coincided with the site of IAA application in the radial dimension, whereas in the apical-basal dimension, organ formation always occurred at a fixed distance from the summit of the meristem. We propose that auxin determines the radial position and the size of lateral organs but not the apical-basal position or the identity of the induced structures.  (+info)

Squalamine improves retinal neovascularization. (8/301)

PURPOSE: Modalities for inhibiting neovascularization may be one avenue to the development of effective therapies for retinopathy. The effect of squalamine, an antiangiogenic amino sterol, on oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) was assessed in a mouse model. METHODS: OIR was induced in C57BL6 mice by a 5-day exposure to 75% oxygen from postnatal day (P)7 through P12. Squalamine (25 mg/kg, subcutaneous)treated animals received either daily doses for five days from P12 to P16 or one dose just after removal from oxygen on P12. Each set of animals was killed at P17 to P21. Retinopathy was assessed with a retinopathy scoring system evaluation of retinal wholemounts and by quantification of neovascular nuclei on retinal sections. RESULTS: Animals receiving 5 days of squalamine after a 5-day exposure to oxygen had total retinopathy scores (expressed as median score with 25th and 75th quartiles in parentheses) of 4(3, 5) versus oxygen-only-reared animals with scores of 8(7, 9; P < 0.001). Animals reared in room air and animals exposed to squalamine only had similar retinopathy scores: 1(1, 2) and 1(0, 2). Oxygen-reared animals receiving single-dose squalamine also showed improvement, with a median retinopathy score of 4(4, 6.75) versus oxygen-only-reared animals with median retinopathy score of 9(7, 10; P < 0.001). There was a decreased number of neovascular nuclei extending beyond the inner limiting membrane on retinal sections in animals treated with 5 days (P < 0.01) and 1 day (P < 0.001) of squalamine. CONCLUSIONS: Squalamine significantly improved retinopathy and may be a novel agent for effective treatment of ocular neovascularization.  (+info)

Carcinoma of the skin is the most common type of cancer diagnosed in the United States, with the most deadly type being malignant melanoma. The incidence of this disease has continued to rise for the last three decades, with an estimated 70,000 individuals expected to receive a new diagnosis of malignant melanoma in 2014. Using three melanoma models we have shown that this aminosterol is capable of significantly reducing melanoma cell viability and propose a potential therapeutic property in squalamine ...
Several solution fluorescence parameters were acquired for the four tetrol hydrolysis products of benzo[a]pyrene-trans-7,8-dihydrodiol9,10-epoxide (BPDE)-DNA adducts, tetrols complexed with DNA, and BPDE-DNA adducts in several methanol/water solvents. The relative polarity of the environment for the tetrols and BPDE-DNA adducts was determined by using a modified definition of the ,i,R,/i, value that is commonly employed for pyrene. The ,i,R,/i, values for the tetrols and BPDE-DNA adducts were calculated by obtaining the ratios of the intensities of the two major fluorescence emission bands at 380 and 400 nm (,i,I,/i,,sub,380,/sub,/,i,I,/i,,sub,400,/sub,). The positions of the hydroxyl groups on the hydroaromatic ring of the tetrols were compared in reference to the ,i,R,/i, values and the changes in the ,i,R,/i, values as a function of methanol/water composition. This approach resulted in a method for determining whether the hydroxyl groups in the 9 and 10 positions were on the same side or ...
27-Deoxy-5b-cyprinol is an intermediate in Bile acid synthesis pathway, in a sequence of reactions catalyzed by sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27) in the oxidation of 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha,27-tetrol into 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acid (PMID: 8496170 ). 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha,25-tetrol 3-glucuronide, a metabolite of 27-Deoxy-5b-cyprinol, is the major bile alcohol component in serum from cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis patients (PMID: 7920441 ...
Purpose: : To evaluate the ocular safety and ocular tissue distribution of a novel eye drop formulation of Squalamine, a potent antiangiogenic small molecule inhibitor of multiple growth factors (VEGF, PDGF, bFGF) with previously demonstrated systemic activity in vivo in ocular pathologies and in clinical trials for exudative macular degeneration. Methods: : Male Dutch belted rabbits (n=24) were administered Squalamine eye drops bilaterally, either QD (every 24 hours) or BID (every 12 hours) for 1, 7, and 14 days (n=4/group/dose). Ocular tissues were harvested 24 (±2) or 12(±1) hours post last dosing in the QD or BID groups, respectively. Posterior sclera/choroid, aqueous and vitreous humors, and plasma were assayed for Squalamine concentrations using a validated LC-MS/MS method with a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 10ng/g of tissue. Ocular toxicity and irritation were also evaluated. Results: : Squalamine eye drops, given QD or BID were well tolerated with no adverse clinical ...
Provide the most valuable information resources about Urs-12-en-28-oic acid,2,3,6,23-tetrahydroxy-, (2a,3b,4a,6b)-,CAS 18449-41-7,Molecular Formula C30H48O6,structure,manufactures etc. ★Find quality Urs-12-en-28-oic acid,2,3,6,23-tetrahydroxy-, (2a,3b,4a,6b)- CAS:18449-41-7 manufacturers, suppliers, exporters, importers, buyers, wholesalers,producers start here!
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule (3beta,7beta,12beta,25s)-3,7,12,20-tetrahydroxy-11,15,23-trioxolanost-8-en-26-oic acid (C30H44O9) from the PQR.
Squalamine, a 7,24 dihydroxylated 24-sulfated cholestane steroid conjugated to a spermidine at position C-3. This steroidal compound was initially found in tiss
1,3,4,5-Tetrahydroxy-2-methoxy-7-methylanthracene-9,10-dione/ACM7229698 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Subcellular localization of 3 alpha, 7 alpha-dihydroxy- and 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoyl-coenzyme A ligase(s) in rat liver ...
Cholestan-6-one, 3-hydroxy-, (3β,5α)-. CAS Number: 1175-06-0. Catalog Number: AA000EAS. MDL Number: MFCD00003572. Molecular Formula: C27H46O2. Molecular Weight: 402.6529. AA Blocks.
[65 Pages Report] Check for Discount on TETRAHYDROXY-1,4-QUINONE HYDRATE Global Market and Forecast Research report by ChemReport. DescriptionWe provide independent and unbiased information on manufacturers, prices, production...
Dear chemists and other colleagues in science. Can someone please advise where I can obtain inokosterone? This is a steroid hormone derived from ecdysone and has the systematic name of: (2beta,3beta,14alpha,20R,22R,26-hexahydroxy-5beta-cholest-7-en-6-one). According to one reference (Hoppe-Seylers Z. Physiol. Chem. 359 1269, (1978)) Rohto Pharmaceuticals (Osaka, Japan) have supplied it previously. However, this company has not responded to fax enquiries. I need 5 to 10 milligrams of same for a start. Norman Gare (Dr) School of Biomedical Sciences Curtin University of Technology GPO Box U1987 PERTH WA 6001 cc: drosophila, parasitology ...
Catalyzes the first step in the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates; the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol. Has also a vitamin D3-25-hydroxylase activity.
3alpha,7alpha-Dihydroxy-5beta-cholestane + [Reduced NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] + Oxygen ,=, 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-Trihydroxy-5beta-cholestane + [Oxidized NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] + ...
If you are checking China Brassinolide 0.004% SL, Brassinolide 0.04 g/l SL, Brassinolide 0.01% EC, Brassinolide 0.1 g/l EC, pesticide manufacturer, and agrochemical manufacturer, please feel free to contact King Quenson, we are a professional brassinolide supplier equipped with productive factory.
Brassinolide is a plant steroid that promotes cell elongation and cell devision and thus regulates plant growth and development. Buy Others inhibitor Brassinolide (Brassin lactone) from AbMole BioScience.
Total RNA was isolated from seedlings by the acid-guanidinium-phenol-chloroform method (Sambrook et al., 1989). Polyadenylated RNA was purified with the Oligotex-dT30 kit (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis) and converted into double-stranded cDNA with the use of a Super Script Choice cDNA Synthesis kit (Invitrogen) and with an oligo(dT)24 primer containing a T7 polymerase promoter site at its 3′ end (Amersham Biosciences AB, Uppsala). Biotin-labeled cRNA was generated from the double-stranded cDNA using the BioArray High Yield RNA transcript labeling kit (Enzo Diagnostics, New York) and was then purified with the use of the RNeasy RNA purification kit (Qiagen USA, Valencia, CA). Each cRNA sample (20 μg) was fragmented by incubation for 35 min at 94°C in fragmentation buffer (40 mm Tris-acetate [pH 8.1], 100 mmpotassium acetate, and 30 mm magnesium acetate). The hybridization mixture comprised 15 μg of fragmented cRNA in 300 μL of a solution containing 100 mm MES, 1 m[Na+], 20 mm EDTA, 0.01% ...
Brassinosteroids control many aspects of plant development. Their receptors constitutively cycle between the cell surface and the internal membranes. Wu et al. now show that degradation of the brassinosteroid receptor BRI1 is stimulated by dephosphorylation of activated receptors and that the dephosphorylation is specified by methylation of a phosphatase, which causes the phosphatase to accumulate in membranes where it would encounter BRI1. These results provide insight into a regulatory mechanism controlling the abundance of receptors that constitutively cycle and suggest that cells can discriminate between unphosphorylated receptors that have not been activated (continue to cycle) and activated receptors that were subsequently dephosphorylated (become degraded).. ...
Quickly and all around assimilated; ,75% bioavailability.{01}. Circulation:. Zopiclone is circulated into human bosom milk; its focus is roughly half that of plasma concentrations.{01}. Protein authoritative:. Moderate (roughly 45%).{01}. Biotransformation:. Broadly processed in the liver by means of decarboxylation (significant pathway), demethylation, and side chain oxidation. Metabolites incorporate a N-oxide subsidiary (feebly dynamic; around 12% of a portion) and a N-desmethyl metabolite (idle; roughly 16%). Around half of a portion is changed over to other dormant metabolites by means of decarboxylation. Hepatic microsomal chemicals are obviously not associated with zopiclone clearance.{01}{02}. Half-life:. Conveyance-:. 1.2 hours.{01}. Disposal-:. Roughly 5 hours (run, 3.8 to 6.5 hours); delayed to 11.9 hours in patients with hepatic insufficiency.{01}. Other-:. Roughly 4.5 hours (N-oxide metabolite).{01}. Time to top focus:. Under 2 hours; expanded to 3.5 hours in patients with hepatic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - On the stereospecificity of microsomal 26-hydroxylation in bile acid biosynthesis.. AU - Gustafsson, J.. AU - Sjöstedt, S.. PY - 1978/1/10. Y1 - 1978/1/10. N2 - The stereospecificity of microsomal 26 -hydroxylation in bile acid biosynthesis was studied. Cholesterol was biosynthesized from [2-14C] mevalonate by a rat liver preparation. The cholesterol was converted stepwise into 3alpha, 7alpha, 12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestan-26-oic acid by microsomal and soluble fractions of rat liver homogenate. The 3alpha, 7alpha, 12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestan-26-oic acid was decarboxylated chemically and the carbon dioxide was assayed for 14C. The amount of radioactivity in the liberated carbon dioxide was assayed for 14C. The amount of radioactivity in the liberated carbon dioxide was such as to indicate complete stereospecificity of the microsomal 26 -hydroxylase system. The system hydroxylates the methyl group in position C-26 (the 25-pro-R methyl group) and its ...
This graph shows the total number of publications written about Brassinosteroids by people in this website by year, and whether Brassinosteroids was a major or minor topic of these publications ...
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule 7-chloro-8,10,18,20-tetrahydroxy-17-methoxy-14-methyl-13-oxa-2-azatricyclo[14.3.1.0~6,11~]icosa-1(20),6,8,10,16,18-hexaene-3,12-dione (C20H20ClNO8) from the PQR.
RATIONALE: Squalamine lactate may stop or slow the growth of ovarian cancer by stopping blood flow to the tumor. Drugs used in chemotherapy use differen
[tabs titles=Recently, 2013 ~, 2000 ~ 2012, ~ 1999] [tab] 2017 Plant Physiology Brassinosteroid biosynthesis is modulated via a transcription factor cascade of COG1, PIF4 and PIF5 Zhuoyun Wei, Tong Yuan, Danuše Tarkowská, Jeongsik Kim, Hong Gil Nam, Ondřej Novák, Kai He, Xiaoping Gou, and Jia Li 174(2):1260-1273 [toggle title=Abstra...
Mannitol Mannitol Systematic (IUPAC) name (2R,3R,4R,5R)-Hexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexol Identifiers CAS number 87-78-5 ATC code A06AD16 B05BC01 B05CX04 PubChem 453
Rhodomycins,Rhodomycin A,Rhodomycin A,[7R-(7alpha,8beta,10beta)]-8-Ethyl-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-1,6,8,11-tetrahydroxy-7,10-bis[[2,3,6-trideoxy-3-(dimethylamino)-alpha-L-lyxo-hexopyranosyl]oxy]-5,12-naphthacenedione,beta-rhodomycin II,Dihydrochloride,Rhodomycins Dihydrochloride,Perchlorate,Rhodomycins Perchlorate,Rhodomycin B,Rhodomycin B,[7R-(7alpha,8beta,10beta)]-8-Ethyl-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-1,6,7,8,11-pentahydroxy-10-[[2,3,6-trideoxy-3-(dimethylamino)-alpha-L-lyxo-hexopyranosyl]oxy]-5,12-naphthacenedione,Hydrochloride,Rhodomycins Hydrochloride
There is book entitled Sharks dont get cancer. Its not too bad, but actually, it is due to several factors, one being they do not have calcium, only cartilage. Second, they produce a compound called squalamine. -Merlin ...
Reaction mass of 5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-25, 26, 27, 28-tetrahydroxy-2,8,14,20-tetrasulfonyl [19.3.1.13,7.19,13.115,19]octacosa-1(25),3,5,7(28),9,11,13(27),15,17,19(26),21,23-dodecaeneand5,11,17,23,29,35,41,47-octa-tert-butyl-49,50,51,52,53,54,55,56-octahydroxy-2,8,14,20,26,32,38,44-octasulfonyl[43.3.1.13,7.19,13.115,19.121,25.127,31.133,37.139,43]hexapentaconta-1(49),3,5,7(56),9,11,13(55),15,17,19(54),21,23,25(53),27,29,31(52),33,35,37(51),39,41,43(50),45,47-tetracosaeneEC number 481-490-7 has no EC name accompanied in the EC inventory. It was not possible to enter an EC name in the reference substance. ...
China Agriculture Fertilizer Pgr Natural 4% Formulation Brassinolide, Find details about China Brassinolide, Growth Regulator from Agriculture Fertilizer Pgr Natural 4% Formulation Brassinolide - Shanghai Fuang Agrochemical Co. Ltd.
The main interest of the group is the signal transduction pathway that plant cells use to respond to the growth promoting hormones, brassinosteroids. Brassinosteroids are ubiquitously distributed throughout the plant kingdom sterol derivatives. Brassinosteroid deficient mutants display dramatic developmental defects including dwarfism, male sterility, delayed flowering, reduced apical dominance, and a light-grown morphology when grown in dark. Like their animal counterparts, brassinosteroids regulate the expression of numerous genes, impact the activity of complex metabolic pathways, contribute to the regulation of cell division and differentiation, and help control overall development. Brassinosteroids regulate photomorphogenesis, etiolation and cell expansion. Brassinosteroids have a broad spectrum of activities that have a positive effect on the quantity and quality of crops and they increase plant resistance to stress and pathogens ...
Autor: Svatos, Ales et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 2004; Keywords: Biosynthesis|br/|Ionization|br/|Enzymes|br/|Plants.|br/|Spectroscopy/Instrumentation/Analytical Sciences in Current|br/|Contents(R)/Physical, Chemical & Earth Sciences.; Titel: Determination of brassinosteroids in the sub-femtomolar range using dansyl-3-aminophenylboronate derivatization and electrospray mass spectrometry
Detail záznamu - Brassinosteroids cause cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of human breast cancer cells - Detail záznamu - Knihovna Akademie věd České republiky
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Knowles, CL and Koutoulis, A and Reid, JB (2004) Microtubule Orientation in the Brassinosteroid Mutants lk, lka and lkb of Pea. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 23. pp. 146-155. ISSN 0721-7595 ...
butane-1,2,3,4-tetrol 149-32-6 NMR spectrum, butane-1,2,3,4-tetrol H-NMR spectral analysis, butane-1,2,3,4-tetrol C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Helen Mawdsley.. Abstract not available. This talk is part of the Sainsbury Laboratory Seminars series.. ...
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details ...
Fàbregas, N.; Lozano-Elena, F.; Blasco-Escámez, D.; Tohge, T.; Martínez-Andújar, C.; Albacete, A.; Osorio, S.; Bustamante, M.; Riechmann, J. L.; Nomura, T. et al.; Yokota, T.; Conesa, A.; Alfocea, F. P.; Fernie, A. R.; Caño-Delgado, A. I.: Overexpression of the vascular brassinosteroid receptor BRL3 confers drought resistance without penalizing plant growth. Nature Communications 9 (1), 4680 (2018 ...
Fàbregas, N.; Lozano-Elena, F.; Blasco-Escámez, D.; Tohge, T.; Martínez-Andújar, C.; Albacete, A.; Osorio, S.; Bustamante, M.; Riechmann, J. L.; Nomura, T. et al.; Yokota, T.; Conesa, A.; Alfocea, F. P.; Fernie, A. R.; Caño-Delgado, A. I.: Overexpression of the vascular brassinosteroid receptor BRL3 confers drought resistance without penalizing plant growth. Nature Communications 9 (1), 4680 (2018 ...
Synonyms: Dipturus kenojei, Raia fusca, Raia kenojei, Raia porosa, Raja cf. porosa, Raja fusca, Raja japonica, Raja karagea, Raja katsukii, Raja kenojei, Raja porosa, Raja tobae, Raja (Okamejei) fusca, Raja (Okamejei) kenojei, Raja (Okamejei) porosa, Raja (Okamejei) porosa ...
Scientists have known for some time how important plant steroids called brassinosteroids are for regulating plant growth and development. But until now, they did not know how extensive their reach is. Now researchers, including ...
chemBlink provides information about CAS # 2097-89-4, (3alpha,5beta,7alpha,12alpha)-3,7,12-Tris(formyloxy)cholan-24-oic acid, molecular formula: C27H40O8.
2S,3S,5R,10R,12S,14S,15R,16R)-2-amino-12,16-dimethylicosane-3,5,10,14,15-pentol + pyruvate = (3S,5R,10R,12S,14S,15R,16R)-3,5,10,14,15-pentahydroxy-12,16-dimethylicosan-2-one + L-alanine ...
27-Hydroxylase deficiency (cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX)) is a rare familial sterol storage disease with accumulation of cholestanol and cholesterol in most tissues, and in particular in xanthomas, bile, and brain. Clinically, this disorder is characterized by dementia, spinal cord paresis, cerebellar ataxia, tuberous and tendon xanthomas, early atherosclerosis, and cataracts.. More than 20 different mutations have been defined in the sterol 27-hydroxylase gene of CTX patients. The defect leads to a block in bile acid biosynthesis, with accumulation of substrates for the mitochondrial 27-hydroxylase such as 5β-cholestane-3α,7α,12α-triol and 7α-hydroxy-4-cholestene-3-one. The former metabolite is metabolized into 5β-cholestane-3α,7α,12α,25-tetrol, 5β-cholestane-3α,7α,12α,23-tetrol, and 5β-cholestane-3α,7α,12α,24,25-pentol.. These bile alcohols are excreted in gram amounts in bile and feces. At least part of the excess cholestanol in patients with CTX is formed from the ...
Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare, disabling genetic disorder in which cholestanol and cholesterol accumulate in the nervous system and other tissues. It has an autosomal recessive mode...
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroidal plant hormones with potent plant growth promoting activity. Because BR-deficient mutants of rice exhibit altered plant architecture and important agronomic traits, we conducted a systemic search for specific inhibitors of BR biosynthesis to manipulate the BR levels in plant tissues. Although previous studies have been conducted with BR biosynthesis inhibitors in dicots, little is known regarding the effects of BR biosynthesis inhibition in monocot plants. In this work, we used potent inhibitors of BR biosynthesis in Arabidopsis, and we performed a hydroponic culture of rice seedlings to evaluate the effects of BR biosynthesis inhibition. Among the test compounds, we found that 1-[[2-(4-Chlorophenyl)-4-(phenoxymethyl)-1,3-dioxolan-2-yl]methyl]-1H-1,2,4-triazole (1) is a potent inhibitor that could induce phenotypes in rice seedlings that were similar to those observed in brassinosteroid deficient plants. The IC50 value for the retardation of plant growth in rice
Get natural cures for Cerebrotendinous Xanthomatosis that can make a difference in your life or the life of someone you love with alternative treatments.
The chain oxidation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.NADH by perhydroxyl radicals and propagated by molecular oxygen was studied by the xanthine-xanthine oxidase system, 60Co gamma-ray, and pulse radiolysis. The chain length, amount of NADH oxidized per HO2 generated, increases with increasing acidity of the medium and reaches a value of 73 at pH 5.0. The rate constant for the oxidation of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.NADH complex by HO2 was estimated to be 2 X 10(7) M-1 S-1 at ambient temperatures (23-24 degrees C). Rate studies as a function of pH indicate that O2- is unreactive toward the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.NADH complex. Other dehydrogenases (malate dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, and isocitric dehydrogenase) studied showed no catalytic activity in the oxidation of NADH by HO2/O2-. ...
China Gibberellic Acid & Heteroaxin & Brassinolide Effective Plant Growth Regulator, Find details about China Plant Growth Regulator, Gibberellic Acid from Gibberellic Acid & Heteroaxin & Brassinolide Effective Plant Growth Regulator - Shanghai Fuang Agrochemical Co. Ltd.
Although Yamamuro et al. (2000) have characterized the BR-insensitive mutant d61 of rice, to our knowledge, no BR-biosynthetic mutant of rice has been published. Yamamuro et al. stated that the main functions of BRs in rice are internode elongation, bending of lamina joints, and skotomorphogenesis. Although the phenotypes of leaf sheaths of both d61, a loss-of-function mutant of OsBRI1, and transgenic rice carrying the antisense strand of OsBRI1(Yamamuro et al., 2000) suggested a relationship between BRs and the elongation of leaf sheaths, direct evidence that BRs elongate the leaf sheaths had not been obtained.. By using the brd1 mutant, we have shown that BRs play an essential role in the elongation of leaf sheaths and leaf blades (Figs.2 and 3). One reason for the extremely short leaf sheaths ofbrd1 is the prevention of longitudinal cell elongation (Fig.4, A and B). Cells of the eighth leaf sheath are several times larger in the wild-type plant than in the brd1 mutant. But the length of the ...
3a,7a,12a,24-Tetrahydroxy-5b-cholestanoyl-CoA is an intermediate in bile acid synthesis. Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in bile of mammals. The distinction between different bile acids is minute, depends only on presence or absence of hydroxyl groups on positions 3, 7, and 12. Bile acids are physiological detergents that facilitate excretion, absorption, and transport of fats and sterols in the intestine and liver. Bile acids are also steroidal amphipathic molecules derived from the catabolism of cholesterol. They modulate bile flow and lipid secretion, are essential for the absorption of dietary fats and vitamins, and have been implicated in the regulation of all the key enzymes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Bile acids recirculate through the liver, bile ducts, small intestine and portal vein to form an enterohepatic circuit. They exist as anions at physiological pH and, consequently, require a carrier for transport across the membranes of the enterohepatic tissues. The ...
24-Epibrassinolide Cas No: [78821-43-9] specifications & features from suppliers/manufacturer It is a new plant growth regulator and have widely application. we can offer with a best price! please dont hesitate to contatc to us.
Read 24-Epibrassinolide alleviates organic pollutants-retarded root elongation by promoting redox homeostasis and secondary metabolism in Cucumis sativus L, Environmental Pollution on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Pellizzari, E., Bunch, J. E., Bursey, J. T., Berkley, R. E., Sawicki, E., & Krost, K. (1976). Estimation of N-Nitrosodimethylamine Levels in Ambient Air by Capillary Gas-Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. Analytical Letters, 9, 579 ...
In BR biosynthesis, Fujioka and Sakurai (1997b) have demonstrated that there are at least two branched biochemical pathways to the end product BL (Figure 1; Fujioka and Sakurai, 1997a, 1997b; Sakurai and Fujioka, 1997). Depending on the oxidation state of C-6, they are referred to as the early or late C-6 oxidation pathways. In the early pathway, the C-6 is oxidized to a ketone at campestanol (CN), whereas in the late pathway it is oxidized at 6-deoxocastasterone (6-deoxoCS). Otherwise, the two pathways share equivalent reactions. Our results from the experiments with the available BR intermediates clearly demonstrate that dwf4 is defective in the 22α-hydroxylation steps in each of the pathways. Application of all 22α-hydroxylated intermediates in these pathways, such as CT and 6-deoxoCT, cause dramatic elongation of dwf4 plants, but compounds not hydroxylated at C-22 had no effect. This result also suggests that DWF4 recognizes at least two substrates: CN and 6-oxoCN. It seems reasonable to ...
THCA is tetrahydrocannabinolic acid found in live, unprocessed Cannabis plants. THCA is transformed into THC as Cannabis plants dry, and then further accelerated by heat (like, when you light the bud…). Elevate with THCA in its most authentic Crystalline form, where potencies can reach 99.9%. The purest of extracts can be used in your favorite dab rig or vape for a clean, clear and energetic high.. Each Order Contains 1Gram ...
Buy Elite Elevation THCA with Terpene Sauce from Low Price Bud a leading online dispensary of marijuana and cannabis products in Canada.
Dr. Raja Muhammad Irfan is one of the best General Practice in UAE. Set up an appointment with Dr. Raja Muhammad Irfan on PlacidWay.
Berkat kesabaran dan doa kepada Allah SWT, Raja Farah sudah membuktikan beliau tidak mandul seperti yang dikatakan oleh orang ramai apabila kini sudah hamil
Semenjak menghiasi muka depan majalah Nona, nama Raja Ema yang popular dengan lagu Jejaka Idaman kembali meletup. Salah satu persoalan yang ditimbulkan oleh
BRI3BP - BRI3BP - Human, 4 unique 29mer shRNA constructs in retroviral RFP vector shRNA available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
A long-term association between Campden BRI and Agilent Technologies on DNA and protein analysis has brought significant practical benefits to industry, Government and both Agilent and Campden BRI.
We are a UK model shop specialising in Model Car and Bike Kits, Decals, Transkits, Photoetched Parts, Paints and General Accessories.
购买BIN1兔多克隆抗体(ab27796),BIN1抗体经WB验证,可与人,小鼠,大鼠样本反应。1篇文献引用,产品出库一年都在质保范围内。中国现货速达。
... cholestanols MeSH D04.808.247.100.250 - cholestanol MeSH D04.808.247.125 - cholestanones MeSH D04.808.247.222 - cholestenes ...
Novel sugar-cholestanols generate a new therapeutic agent against peritoneal dissemination. Takayuki Asao, Shinji Hashimoto, ... Novel sugar-cholestanols generate a new therapeutic agent against peritoneal dissemination. Takayuki Asao, Shinji Hashimoto, ... Novel sugar-cholestanols generate a new therapeutic agent against peritoneal dissemination. Takayuki Asao, Shinji Hashimoto, ... When sugar-cholestanols were added into the culture medium of cancer cells, they were incorporated into the cells through the ...
Cholestanols / chemistry * Cholestanols / metabolism* * Dose-Response Relationship, Drug * Endocytosis* * Endosomes / ...
Cholestanols * Ketocholesterols * cholestane-3,5,6-triol * 7-ketocholesterol Supplementary concepts * Lysosomal acid lipase ...
Cholestanols. Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In ...
0 (Ambergris); 0 (Antibiotics, Antineoplastic); 0 (Antioxidants); 0 (Cholestanols); 0 (Free Radicals); 0 (Naphthols); 0 ( ...
Bet v 1l is a naturally occurring hypoallergenic isoform of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1. The Bet v 1 protein belongs… Expand ...
... cholestanols MeSH D04.808.247.100.250 - cholestanol MeSH D04.808.247.125 - cholestanones MeSH D04.808.247.222 - cholestenes ...
Cholestanols / therapeutic use. Cholestanols / toxicity. Lactates / therapeutic use. Lactates / toxicity. Lung Neoplasms / drug ... Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Cholestanols; 0 / Lactates; 4WE915J1KX / squalamine lactate; ...
The group went on to describe how a type of molecule called cholestanols disrupted this internal signaling and significantly ...
... leading to accumulation of cholestanols. Features include infantile diarrhea, childhood cataracts, xanthomas, and psychiatric ...
Cholestanols/metabolism*. *Phytosterols/metabolism*. *Plant Growth Regulators/metabolism*. *Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism* ...
Ando, T., Komaki, G., Karibe, M., Kawamura, N., Hara, S., Takii, M., Naruo, T., Kurokawa, N., Takei, M., Tatsuta, N., Ohba, M., Nozoe, S., Kubo, C. & Ishikawa, T., Oct 30 2001, In: Psychiatric Genetics. 11, 3, p. 157-160 4 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review ...
Cholestanols/metabolism. *Colchicine/pharmacology. *DNA/metabolism. *DNA Damage. *DNA Topoisomerases, Type I/metabolism* ...
... , Mitosis/drug effects , Onions/growth & development , Plant Growth Regulators/pharmacology , Plant ... Animals , Antibodies , Cholestanols/pharmacology , Cotyledon/drug effects , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Indoleacetic ... Adaptation, Physiological/drug effects , Cholestanols/pharmacology , Germination/drug effects , Hot Temperature , Lycopersicon ... Cholestanols/pharmacology , Cold Temperature , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Hydrogen Peroxide/toxicity , Mustard Plant/drug ...
Cholestanols - blood , Humans , Biomarkers - blood , Niemann-Pick Disease, Type C - blood , Niemann-Pick Disease, Type C - ...
Cholestanols ; Water pollution detection ; Hydrazine/dinitrophenyl ; Chemical oxygen demand ; TOC(Total Organic Carbon) ...
cholestanols*eye abnormalities*yy1 transcription factor*cholic acids*autonomic pathways*diencephalon*branchial region*ganglia ...
Full text: Available Index: LILACS (Americas) Main subject: Plant Growth Regulators / Steroids, Heterocyclic / Cholestanols / ... Full text: Available Index: LILACS (Americas) Main subject: Plant Growth Regulators / Steroids, Heterocyclic / Cholestanols / ... Cholestanols/pharmacology , Mitosis/drug effects , Onions/growth & development , Plant Growth Regulators/pharmacology , Plant ...
... cholestanols, stigmasterols, etc.) : The carbon is a member of an acyclic chain of exactly two carbons (e.g., 3 keto-4,17(20)- ...
... cholestanols, stigmasterols, etc.) Publication date: 2015-05-21 Patent application number: 20150141678 ...
Cholestanols D4.808.247.100 D4.210.500.247.100 Cholestanones D4.808.247.125 D4.210.500.247.125 Cholestenes D4.808.247.222 ...
Teplyuk NM, Zhang Y, Lou Y, Hawse JR, Hassan MQ, Teplyuk VI, Pratap J, Galindo M, Stein JL, Stein GS, Lian JB, van Wijnen AJ. The osteogenic transcription factor runx2 controls genes involved in sterol/steroid metabolism, including CYP11A1 in osteoblasts. Mol Endocrinol. 2009 Jun; 23(6):849-61 ...
Cholestanols - pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cholestanols - chemistry , Culture Media , Peracetic Acid - ... Cholestanols - chemical synthesis , Disinfectants - chemistry , Microscopy, Electron , ...
Exactly one oxygen bonded directly to the cyclopentanohydrophenanthrene ring system (e.g., cholesterols, cholestanols, ...
cholestanols*vicia faba*gibberellins. Genomes and Genes. *HAB1 *ABI1 products*PP2CA products*RCAR1 *AHG1 *ABI2 products*PYL1 * ...
  • Results: Sugar-cholestanols mainly consisting of GlcNAc or GlcNAc-Gal attached to cholestanol showed strong activities of cell proliferation inhibition against various cancer cells but cholestanol without sugar-moieties did not show any activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CTX is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by reduced mitochondrial sterol-27-hydroxylase activity ( CYP27A1 gene), leading to accumulation of cholestanols. (neurology.org)