Cholestanols: Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.Cholestanol: A cholesterol derivative found in human feces, gallstones, eggs, and other biological matter.Membrane Microdomains: Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Peritoneal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PERITONEUM.

The Arabidopsis dwarf1 mutant is defective in the conversion of 24-methylenecholesterol to campesterol in brassinosteroid biosynthesis. (1/301)

Since the isolation and characterization of dwarf1-1 (dwf1-1) from a T-DNA insertion mutant population, phenotypically similar mutants, including deetiolated2 (det2), constitutive photomorphogenesis and dwarfism (cpd), brassinosteroid insensitive1 (bri1), and dwf4, have been reported to be defective in either the biosynthesis or the perception of brassinosteroids. We present further characterization of dwf1-1 and additional dwf1 alleles. Feeding tests with brassinosteroid-biosynthetic intermediates revealed that dwf1 can be rescued by 22alpha-hydroxycampesterol and downstream intermediates in the brassinosteroid pathway. Analysis of the endogenous levels of brassinosteroid intermediates showed that 24-methylenecholesterol in dwf1 accumulates to 12 times the level of the wild type, whereas the level of campesterol is greatly diminished, indicating that the defective step is in C-24 reduction. Furthermore, the deduced amino acid sequence of DWF1 shows significant similarity to a flavin adenine dinucleotide-binding domain conserved in various oxidoreductases, suggesting an enzymatic role for DWF1. In support of this, 7 of 10 dwf1 mutations directly affected the flavin adenine dinucleotide-binding domain. Our molecular characterization of dwf1 alleles, together with our biochemical data, suggest that the biosynthetic defect in dwf1 results in reduced synthesis of bioactive brassinosteroids, causing dwarfism.  (+info)

Effects of LY295427, a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor up-regulator, on LDL receptor gene transcription and cholesterol metabolism in normal and hypercholesterolemic hamsters. (2/301)

The action of LY295427 [(3alpha,4alpha, 5alpha)-4-(2-propenylcholestan-3-ol)], a compound that derepresses low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) expression in a cell-based model, was examined in hamsters. It was found that the compound does not have an effect in normal chow-fed hamsters, in which LDL-R levels are not repressed, but exerts a marked hypocholesterolemic effect (>70% decrease) in cholesterol-coconut oil-fed hamsters, in which LDL-R is repressed. In this model, there is a dose-response for cholesterol lowering with an approximate ED50 value of 40 mg/kg/day and an inverse relationship between serum cholesterol and serum LY295427 levels. LDL-R mRNA is increased (2-fold) and liver cholesterol ester content is decreased (>90%). Unlike the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarylcoenzyme A reductase inhibitor lovastatin, the decreased serum cholesterol is confined to the non-high-density lipoprotein fraction. Furthermore, LY295427 does not affect cholesterol biosynthesis, and it does not have a significant effect on cholesterol absorption. These data suggest that LY295427 acts in the hypercholesterolemic hamster by derepressing LDL-R transcription, thereby enhancing cholesterol clearance from the blood. The results with LY295427 suggest that compounds that act to increase LDL-R may represent a novel approach in the pharmacotherapy for hypercholesterolemia.  (+info)

BAS1: A gene regulating brassinosteroid levels and light responsiveness in Arabidopsis. (3/301)

The Arabidopsis bas1-D mutation suppresses the long hypocotyl phenotype caused by mutations in the photoreceptor phytochrome B (phyB). The adult phenotype of bas1-D phyB-4 double mutants mimics that of brassinosteroid biosynthetic and response mutants. bas1-D phyB-4 has reduced levels of brassinosteroids and accumulates 26-hydroxybrassinolide in feeding experiments. The basis for the mutant phenotype is the enhanced expression of a cytochrome P450 (CYP72B1). bas1-D suppresses a phyB-null allele, but not a phyA-null mutation, and partially suppresses a cryptochrome-null mutation. Seedlings with reduced BAS1 expression are hyperresponsive to brassinosteroids in a light-dependent manner and display reduced sensitivity to light under a variety of conditions. Thus, BAS1 represents one of the control points between multiple photoreceptor systems and brassinosteroid signal transduction.  (+info)

Potentiation of platinum antitumor effects in human lung tumor xenografts by the angiogenesis inhibitor squalamine: effects on tumor neovascularization. (4/301)

Squalamine is a novel anti-angiogenic aminosterol that is postulated to inhibit neovascularization by selectively inhibiting the sodium-hydrogen antiporter exchanger. To determine how to most effectively use this agent in patients with cancer, we examined the antitumor effects of squalamine with or without cytotoxic agents in human lung cancer xenografts and correlated these observations with the degree of tumor neovascularization. No direct cytotoxic effects of squalamine against tumor cells were observed in vitro with or without cisplatin. Squalamine was effective in inhibiting the establishment of H460 human tumors in BALBc nude mice but was ineffective in inhibiting the growth of H460, CALU-6, or NL20T-A human tumor xenografts when administered i.p. to mice bearing established tumors. However, when combined with cisplatin or carboplatin, squalamine increased tumor growth delay by > or =1.5-fold in the three human lung carcinoma cell lines compared with cisplatin or carboplatin alone. No enhancement of antitumor activity was observed when squalamine was combined with paclitaxel, vinorelbine, gemcitabine, or docetaxel. Repeated cycles of squalamine plus cisplatin administration delayed H460 tumor growth >8.6-fold. Squalamine plus cisplatin reduced CD31 vessel formation by 25% compared with controls, squalamine alone, or cisplatin alone; however, no inhibition in CD31 vessel formation was observed when squalamine was combined with vinorelbine. These data demonstrate that the combination of squalamine and a platinum analog has significant preclinical antitumor activity against human lung cancer that is related to the anti-angiogenic effects of squalamine.  (+info)

Bile salt excretion in skate liver is mediated by a functional analog of Bsep/Spgp, the bile salt export pump. (5/301)

Biliary secretion of bile salts in mammals is mediated in part by the liver-specific ATP-dependent canalicular membrane protein Bsep/Spgp, a member of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily. We examined whether a similar transport activity exists in the liver of the evolutionarily primitive marine fish Raja erinacea, the little skate, which synthesizes mainly sulfated bile alcohols rather than bile salts. Western blot analysis of skate liver plasma membranes using antiserum raised against rat liver Bsep/Spgp demonstrated a dominant protein band with an apparent molecular mass of 210 kDa, a size larger than that in rat liver canalicular membranes, approximately 160 kDa. Immunofluorescent localization with anti-Bsep/Spgp in isolated, polarized skate hepatocyte clusters revealed positive staining of the bile canaliculi, consistent with its selective apical localization in mammalian liver. Functional characterization of putative ATP-dependent canalicular bile salt transport activity was assessed in skate liver plasma membrane vesicles, with [(3)H]taurocholate as the substrate. [(3)H]taurocholate uptake into the vesicles was mediated by ATP-dependent and -independent mechanisms. The ATP-dependent component was saturable, with a Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)) for taurocholate of 40+/-7 microM and a K(m) for ATP of 0.6+/-0.1 mM, and was competitively inhibited by scymnol sulfate (inhibition constant of 23 microM), the major bile salt in skate bile. ATP-dependent uptake of taurocholate into vesicles was inhibited by known substrates and inhibitors of Bsep/Spgp, including other bile salts and bile salt derivatives, but not by inhibitors of the multidrug resistance protein-1 or the canalicular multidrug resistance-associated protein, indicating a distinct transport mechanism. These findings provide functional and structural evidence for a Bsep/Spgp-like protein in the canalicular membrane of the skate liver. This transporter is expressed early in vertebrate evolution and transports both bile salts and bile alcohols.  (+info)

Squalamine is not a proton ionophore. (6/301)

Squalamine, an aminosterol antibiotic isolated from the dogfish shark, creates relatively large defects in phospholipid bilayers, allowing the unrestricted translocation of small molecules across these compromised membranes (B.S. Selinsky, Z. Zhou, K.G. Fotjik, S. R. Jones, N.R. Dollahon, A.E. Shinnar, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1370 (1998) 218-234). However, an aminosterol structurally similar to squalamine was found to act as a proton ionophore in anionic phospholipid vesicles. In contrast with squalamine, gross membrane disruption was not observed with this synthetic analog (G. Deng, T. Dewa, S.L. Regen, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118 (1996) 8975-8976). In this report, the ionophoric activity of squalamine was tested in anionic and zwitterionic phospholipid vesicles. No ionophoric activity was observed for squalamine in vesicles comprised of phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylcholine (PC), or a mixture of the two lipids. Experiments using radiolabeled squalamine indicated that all of the squalamine added to PG vesicles remained with the vesicles, while approximately one-half of the squalamine added to PC vesicles was incorporated. We have synthesized the aminosterol analog of squalamine possessing ionophoric activity, and its ionophoric activity in PG vesicles was confirmed. The synthetic compound possessed no measurable lytic activity when added to preformed phospholipid vesicles. As both compounds possess significant antimicrobial activity, these results suggest that either multiple mechanisms for the antimicrobial activity of aminosterols exist, depending upon the aminosterol structure, or possibly an unrelated common mechanism for antimicrobial activity remains to be discovered.  (+info)

Auxin regulates the initiation and radial position of plant lateral organs. (7/301)

Leaves originate from the shoot apical meristem, a small mound of undifferentiated tissue at the tip of the stem. Leaf formation begins with the selection of a group of founder cells in the so-called peripheral zone at the flank of the meristem, followed by the initiation of local growth and finally morphogenesis of the resulting bulge into a differentiated leaf. Whereas the mechanisms controlling the switch between meristem propagation and leaf initiation are being identified by genetic and molecular analyses, the radial positioning of leaves, known as phyllotaxis, remains poorly understood. Hormones, especially auxin and gibberellin, are known to influence phyllotaxis, but their specific role in the determination of organ position is not clear. We show that inhibition of polar auxin transport blocks leaf formation at the vegetative tomato meristem, resulting in pinlike naked stems with an intact meristem at the tip. Microapplication of the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to the apex of such pins restores leaf formation. Similarly, exogenous IAA induces flower formation on Arabidopsis pin-formed1-1 inflorescence apices, which are blocked in flower formation because of a mutation in a putative auxin transport protein. Our results show that auxin is required for and sufficient to induce organogenesis both in the vegetative tomato meristem and in the Arabidopsis inflorescence meristem. In this study, organogenesis always strictly coincided with the site of IAA application in the radial dimension, whereas in the apical-basal dimension, organ formation always occurred at a fixed distance from the summit of the meristem. We propose that auxin determines the radial position and the size of lateral organs but not the apical-basal position or the identity of the induced structures.  (+info)

Squalamine improves retinal neovascularization. (8/301)

PURPOSE: Modalities for inhibiting neovascularization may be one avenue to the development of effective therapies for retinopathy. The effect of squalamine, an antiangiogenic amino sterol, on oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) was assessed in a mouse model. METHODS: OIR was induced in C57BL6 mice by a 5-day exposure to 75% oxygen from postnatal day (P)7 through P12. Squalamine (25 mg/kg, subcutaneous)treated animals received either daily doses for five days from P12 to P16 or one dose just after removal from oxygen on P12. Each set of animals was killed at P17 to P21. Retinopathy was assessed with a retinopathy scoring system evaluation of retinal wholemounts and by quantification of neovascular nuclei on retinal sections. RESULTS: Animals receiving 5 days of squalamine after a 5-day exposure to oxygen had total retinopathy scores (expressed as median score with 25th and 75th quartiles in parentheses) of 4(3, 5) versus oxygen-only-reared animals with scores of 8(7, 9; P < 0.001). Animals reared in room air and animals exposed to squalamine only had similar retinopathy scores: 1(1, 2) and 1(0, 2). Oxygen-reared animals receiving single-dose squalamine also showed improvement, with a median retinopathy score of 4(4, 6.75) versus oxygen-only-reared animals with median retinopathy score of 9(7, 10; P < 0.001). There was a decreased number of neovascular nuclei extending beyond the inner limiting membrane on retinal sections in animals treated with 5 days (P < 0.01) and 1 day (P < 0.001) of squalamine. CONCLUSIONS: Squalamine significantly improved retinopathy and may be a novel agent for effective treatment of ocular neovascularization.  (+info)

*List of MeSH codes (D04)

... cholestanols MeSH D04.808.247.100.250 --- cholestanol MeSH D04.808.247.125 --- cholestanones MeSH D04.808.247.222 --- ...
Carcinoma of the skin is the most common type of cancer diagnosed in the United States, with the most deadly type being malignant melanoma. The incidence of this disease has continued to rise for the last three decades, with an estimated 70,000 individuals expected to receive a new diagnosis of malignant melanoma in 2014. Using three melanoma models we have shown that this aminosterol is capable of significantly reducing melanoma cell viability and propose a potential therapeutic property in squalamine ...
Several solution fluorescence parameters were acquired for the four tetrol hydrolysis products of benzo[a]pyrene-trans-7,8-dihydrodiol9,10-epoxide (BPDE)-DNA adducts, tetrols complexed with DNA, and BPDE-DNA adducts in several methanol/water solvents. The relative polarity of the environment for the tetrols and BPDE-DNA adducts was determined by using a modified definition of the ,i,R,/i, value that is commonly employed for pyrene. The ,i,R,/i, values for the tetrols and BPDE-DNA adducts were calculated by obtaining the ratios of the intensities of the two major fluorescence emission bands at 380 and 400 nm (,i,I,/i,,sub,380,/sub,/,i,I,/i,,sub,400,/sub,). The positions of the hydroxyl groups on the hydroaromatic ring of the tetrols were compared in reference to the ,i,R,/i, values and the changes in the ,i,R,/i, values as a function of methanol/water composition. This approach resulted in a method for determining whether the hydroxyl groups in the 9 and 10 positions were on the same side or ...
27-Deoxy-5b-cyprinol is an intermediate in Bile acid synthesis pathway, in a sequence of reactions catalyzed by sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27) in the oxidation of 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha,27-tetrol into 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acid (PMID: 8496170 ). 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha,25-tetrol 3-glucuronide, a metabolite of 27-Deoxy-5b-cyprinol, is the major bile alcohol component in serum from cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis patients (PMID: 7920441 ...
Purpose: : To evaluate the ocular safety and ocular tissue distribution of a novel eye drop formulation of Squalamine, a potent antiangiogenic small molecule inhibitor of multiple growth factors (VEGF, PDGF, bFGF) with previously demonstrated systemic activity in vivo in ocular pathologies and in clinical trials for exudative macular degeneration. Methods: : Male Dutch belted rabbits (n=24) were administered Squalamine eye drops bilaterally, either QD (every 24 hours) or BID (every 12 hours) for 1, 7, and 14 days (n=4/group/dose). Ocular tissues were harvested 24 (±2) or 12(±1) hours post last dosing in the QD or BID groups, respectively. Posterior sclera/choroid, aqueous and vitreous humors, and plasma were assayed for Squalamine concentrations using a validated LC-MS/MS method with a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 10ng/g of tissue. Ocular toxicity and irritation were also evaluated. Results: : Squalamine eye drops, given QD or BID were well tolerated with no adverse clinical ...
Provide the most valuable information resources about Urs-12-en-28-oic acid,2,3,6,23-tetrahydroxy-, (2a,3b,4a,6b)-,CAS 18449-41-7,Molecular Formula C30H48O6,structure,manufactures etc. ★Find quality Urs-12-en-28-oic acid,2,3,6,23-tetrahydroxy-, (2a,3b,4a,6b)- CAS:18449-41-7 manufacturers, suppliers, exporters, importers, buyers, wholesalers,producers start here!
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule (3beta,7beta,12beta,25s)-3,7,12,20-tetrahydroxy-11,15,23-trioxolanost-8-en-26-oic acid (C30H44O9) from the PQR.
Squalamine, a 7,24 dihydroxylated 24-sulfated cholestane steroid conjugated to a spermidine at position C-3. This steroidal compound was initially found in tiss
1,3,4,5-Tetrahydroxy-2-methoxy-7-methylanthracene-9,10-dione/ACM7229698 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
Subcellular localization of 3 alpha, 7 alpha-dihydroxy- and 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoyl-coenzyme A ligase(s) in rat liver ...
[65 Pages Report] Check for Discount on TETRAHYDROXY-1,4-QUINONE HYDRATE Global Market and Forecast Research report by ChemReport. DescriptionWe provide independent and unbiased information on manufacturers, prices, production...
Dear chemists and other colleagues in science. Can someone please advise where I can obtain inokosterone? This is a steroid hormone derived from ecdysone and has the systematic name of: (2beta,3beta,14alpha,20R,22R,26-hexahydroxy-5beta-cholest-7-en-6-one). According to one reference (Hoppe-Seylers Z. Physiol. Chem. 359 1269, (1978)) Rohto Pharmaceuticals (Osaka, Japan) have supplied it previously. However, this company has not responded to fax enquiries. I need 5 to 10 milligrams of same for a start. Norman Gare (Dr) School of Biomedical Sciences Curtin University of Technology GPO Box U1987 PERTH WA 6001 cc: drosophila, parasitology ...
Catalyzes the first step in the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates; the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol. Has also a vitamin D3-25-hydroxylase activity.
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Total RNA was isolated from seedlings by the acid-guanidinium-phenol-chloroform method (Sambrook et al., 1989). Polyadenylated RNA was purified with the Oligotex-dT30 kit (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis) and converted into double-stranded cDNA with the use of a Super Script Choice cDNA Synthesis kit (Invitrogen) and with an oligo(dT)24 primer containing a T7 polymerase promoter site at its 3′ end (Amersham Biosciences AB, Uppsala). Biotin-labeled cRNA was generated from the double-stranded cDNA using the BioArray High Yield RNA transcript labeling kit (Enzo Diagnostics, New York) and was then purified with the use of the RNeasy RNA purification kit (Qiagen USA, Valencia, CA). Each cRNA sample (20 μg) was fragmented by incubation for 35 min at 94°C in fragmentation buffer (40 mm Tris-acetate [pH 8.1], 100 mmpotassium acetate, and 30 mm magnesium acetate). The hybridization mixture comprised 15 μg of fragmented cRNA in 300 μL of a solution containing 100 mm MES, 1 m[Na+], 20 mm EDTA, 0.01% ...
RATIONALE: Squalamine lactate may stop or slow the growth of ovarian cancer by stopping blood flow to the tumor. Drugs used in chemotherapy use differen
[tabs titles=Recently, 2013 ~, 2000 ~ 2012, ~ 1999] [tab] 2017 Plant Physiology Brassinosteroid biosynthesis is modulated via a transcription factor cascade of COG1, PIF4 and PIF5 Zhuoyun Wei, Tong Yuan, Danuše Tarkowská, Jeongsik Kim, Hong Gil Nam, Ondřej Novák, Kai He, Xiaoping Gou, and Jia Li 174(2):1260-1273 [toggle title=Abstra...
... ,Rhodomycin A,Rhodomycin A,[7R-(7alpha,8beta,10beta)]-8-Ethyl-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-1,6,8,11-tetrahydroxy-7,10-bis[[2,3,6-trideoxy-3-(dimethylamino)-alpha-L-lyxo-hexopyranosyl]oxy]-5,12-naphthacenedione,beta-rhodomycin II,Dihydrochloride,Rhodomycins Dihydrochloride,Perchlorate,Rhodomycins Perchlorate,Rhodomycin B,Rhodomycin B,[7R-(7alpha,8beta,10beta)]-8-Ethyl-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-1,6,7,8,11-pentahydroxy-10-[[2,3,6-trideoxy-3-(dimethylamino)-alpha-L-lyxo-hexopyranosyl]oxy]-5,12-naphthacenedione,Hydrochloride,Rhodomycins Hydrochloride
There is book entitled Sharks dont get cancer. Its not too bad, but actually, it is due to several factors, one being they do not have calcium, only cartilage. Second, they produce a compound called squalamine. -Merlin ...
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The main interest of the group is the signal transduction pathway that plant cells use to respond to the growth promoting hormones, brassinosteroids. Brassinosteroids are ubiquitously distributed throughout the plant kingdom sterol derivatives. Brassinosteroid deficient mutants display dramatic developmental defects including dwarfism, male sterility, delayed flowering, reduced apical dominance, and a light-grown morphology when grown in dark. Like their animal counterparts, brassinosteroids regulate the expression of numerous genes, impact the activity of complex metabolic pathways, contribute to the regulation of cell division and differentiation, and help control overall development. Brassinosteroids regulate photomorphogenesis, etiolation and cell expansion. Brassinosteroids have a broad spectrum of activities that have a positive effect on the quantity and quality of crops and they increase plant resistance to stress and pathogens ...
Autor: Svatos, Ales et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 2004; Keywords: Biosynthesis|br/|Ionization|br/|Enzymes|br/|Plants.|br/|Spectroscopy/Instrumentation/Analytical Sciences in Current|br/|Contents(R)/Physical, Chemical & Earth Sciences.; Titel: Determination of brassinosteroids in the sub-femtomolar range using dansyl-3-aminophenylboronate derivatization and electrospray mass spectrometry
Detail záznamu - Brassinosteroids cause cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of human breast cancer cells - Detail záznamu - Knihovna Akademie věd České republiky
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Knowles, CL and Koutoulis, A and Reid, JB (2004) Microtubule Orientation in the Brassinosteroid Mutants lk, lka and lkb of Pea. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 23. pp. 146-155. ISSN 0721-7595 ...
butane-1,2,3,4-tetrol 149-32-6 NMR spectrum, butane-1,2,3,4-tetrol H-NMR spectral analysis, butane-1,2,3,4-tetrol C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Helen Mawdsley.. Abstract not available. This talk is part of the Sainsbury Laboratory Seminars series.. ...
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details ...
Fàbregas, N.; Lozano-Elena, F.; Blasco-Escámez, D.; Tohge, T.; Martínez-Andújar, C.; Albacete, A.; Osorio, S.; Bustamante, M.; Riechmann, J. L.; Nomura, T. et al.; Yokota, T.; Conesa, A.; Alfocea, F. P.; Fernie, A. R.; Caño-Delgado, A. I.: Overexpression of the vascular brassinosteroid receptor BRL3 confers drought resistance without penalizing plant growth. Nature Communications 9 (1), 4680 (2018 ...
Synonyms: Dipturus kenojei, Raia fusca, Raia kenojei, Raia porosa, Raja cf. porosa, Raja fusca, Raja japonica, Raja karagea, Raja katsukii, Raja kenojei, Raja porosa, Raja tobae, Raja (Okamejei) fusca, Raja (Okamejei) kenojei, Raja (Okamejei) porosa, Raja (Okamejei) porosa ...
Scientists have known for some time how important plant steroids called brassinosteroids are for regulating plant growth and development. But until now, they did not know how extensive their reach is. Now researchers, including ...
2S,3S,5R,10R,12S,14S,15R,16R)-2-amino-12,16-dimethylicosane-3,5,10,14,15-pentol + pyruvate = (3S,5R,10R,12S,14S,15R,16R)-3,5,10,14,15-pentahydroxy-12,16-dimethylicosan-2-one + L-alanine ...
27-Hydroxylase deficiency (cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX)) is a rare familial sterol storage disease with accumulation of cholestanol and cholesterol in most tissues, and in particular in xanthomas, bile, and brain. Clinically, this disorder is characterized by dementia, spinal cord paresis, cerebellar ataxia, tuberous and tendon xanthomas, early atherosclerosis, and cataracts.. More than 20 different mutations have been defined in the sterol 27-hydroxylase gene of CTX patients. The defect leads to a block in bile acid biosynthesis, with accumulation of substrates for the mitochondrial 27-hydroxylase such as 5β-cholestane-3α,7α,12α-triol and 7α-hydroxy-4-cholestene-3-one. The former metabolite is metabolized into 5β-cholestane-3α,7α,12α,25-tetrol, 5β-cholestane-3α,7α,12α,23-tetrol, and 5β-cholestane-3α,7α,12α,24,25-pentol.. These bile alcohols are excreted in gram amounts in bile and feces. At least part of the excess cholestanol in patients with CTX is formed from the ...
Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare, disabling genetic disorder in which cholestanol and cholesterol accumulate in the nervous system and other tissues. It has an autosomal recessive mode...
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroidal plant hormones with potent plant growth promoting activity. Because BR-deficient mutants of rice exhibit altered plant architecture and important agronomic traits, we conducted a systemic search for specific inhibitors of BR biosynthesis to manipulate the BR levels in plant tissues. Although previous studies have been conducted with BR biosynthesis inhibitors in dicots, little is known regarding the effects of BR biosynthesis inhibition in monocot plants. In this work, we used potent inhibitors of BR biosynthesis in Arabidopsis, and we performed a hydroponic culture of rice seedlings to evaluate the effects of BR biosynthesis inhibition. Among the test compounds, we found that 1-[[2-(4-Chlorophenyl)-4-(phenoxymethyl)-1,3-dioxolan-2-yl]methyl]-1H-1,2,4-triazole (1) is a potent inhibitor that could induce phenotypes in rice seedlings that were similar to those observed in brassinosteroid deficient plants. The IC50 value for the retardation of plant growth in rice
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3a,7a,12a,24-Tetrahydroxy-5b-cholestanoyl-CoA is an intermediate in bile acid synthesis. Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in bile of mammals. The distinction between different bile acids is minute, depends only on presence or absence of hydroxyl groups on positions 3, 7, and 12. Bile acids are physiological detergents that facilitate excretion, absorption, and transport of fats and sterols in the intestine and liver. Bile acids are also steroidal amphipathic molecules derived from the catabolism of cholesterol. They modulate bile flow and lipid secretion, are essential for the absorption of dietary fats and vitamins, and have been implicated in the regulation of all the key enzymes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Bile acids recirculate through the liver, bile ducts, small intestine and portal vein to form an enterohepatic circuit. They exist as anions at physiological pH and, consequently, require a carrier for transport across the membranes of the enterohepatic tissues. The ...
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Read "24-Epibrassinolide alleviates organic pollutants-retarded root elongation by promoting redox homeostasis and secondary metabolism in Cucumis sativus L, Environmental Pollution" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Pellizzari, E., Bunch, J. E., Bursey, J. T., Berkley, R. E., Sawicki, E., & Krost, K. (1976). Estimation of N-Nitrosodimethylamine Levels in Ambient Air by Capillary Gas-Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. Analytical Letters, 9, 579 ...
In BR biosynthesis, Fujioka and Sakurai (1997b) have demonstrated that there are at least two branched biochemical pathways to the end product BL (Figure 1; Fujioka and Sakurai, 1997a, 1997b; Sakurai and Fujioka, 1997). Depending on the oxidation state of C-6, they are referred to as the early or late C-6 oxidation pathways. In the early pathway, the C-6 is oxidized to a ketone at campestanol (CN), whereas in the late pathway it is oxidized at 6-deoxocastasterone (6-deoxoCS). Otherwise, the two pathways share equivalent reactions. Our results from the experiments with the available BR intermediates clearly demonstrate that dwf4 is defective in the 22α-hydroxylation steps in each of the pathways. Application of all 22α-hydroxylated intermediates in these pathways, such as CT and 6-deoxoCT, cause dramatic elongation of dwf4 plants, but compounds not hydroxylated at C-22 had no effect. This result also suggests that DWF4 recognizes at least two substrates: CN and 6-oxoCN. It seems reasonable to ...
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The phenotypes of the dwf12 mutants can be summarized by the statement that all organs are reduced in size. The specific characteristics examined in this research, such as plant height and the length of pedicels, siliques, petioles, hypocotyls, and roots, all are significantly shorter than wild type (Table I; Figs. 1 and 2). These morphological alterations are typical of BR biosynthetic or signaling mutants (Figs. 1 and 2). Thus, it is likely that the dwf12mutants are defective in BR biosynthesis or signaling. One interesting exception in dwf12 is a typical leaf curling in the abaxial direction. Downward curling leaves are often found in mutants that are defective in auxin signaling, such as axr1 andaxr2 (Lincoln et al., 1990; Timpte et al., 1992). These shared phenotypes between dwf12 and auxin mutants suggest that DWF12 also plays a role in auxin signaling in specific cell types.. Two lines of evidence strongly suggest that the dwf12mutants are BR insensitive. First, a BR biosynthetic ...
Steroids are important hormones in both animals and plants. Brassinosteroids regulate many aspects of growth and development in plants. Mutants deficient in brassinosteroids are often stunted and infertile. Brassinosteroids are similar in many respects to animal steroids, but appear to function very differently at the cellular level. Animal cells usually respond to steroids using internal receptor molecules within the cell nucleus, whereas in plants the receptors, called receptor-like kinases, are anchored to the outside surface of the cell membranes. For over a decade, scientists have tried to understand how the signal is passed from the cell surface to the nucleus to regulate gene expression. The final gaps were bridged in the study published in the advanced on-line issue of Nature Cell Biology September 6, 2009 ...
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are potent regulators of photosynthesis and crop yield in agricultural crops; however, the mechanism by which BRs increase photosynthesis is not fully understood. Here, we show that foliar application of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) resulted in increases in CO(2) assimilation, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) accumulation, and leaf area in cucumber. H(2)O(2 ...
Researchers think that brassinosteroids, since they dont work through the androgen cell receptor, may instead interact with an as yet unidentified steroid hormone receptor. Although the effects of brassinosteroids appear very promising, dont expect to
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Arabidopsis BKI1 protein: a BRI1-interacting protein, BKI1,which is a negative regulator of brassinosteroid signaling is reported; BKI1 is a substrate of BRI1 kinase & limits interaction of BRI1 with its proposed coreceptor, BAK1, suggesting that BKI1 prevents activation of BRI1
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TY - JOUR UR - http://lib.ugent.be/catalog/pug01:1954389 ID - pug01:1954389 LA - eng TI - Plants grow on brassinosteroids PY - 2011 JO - (2011) CURRENT OPINION IN PLANT BIOLOGY SN - 1369-5266 PB - 2011 AU - Gudesblat, Gustavo AU - Russinova, Eugenia WE09 801002090510 0000-0002-0569-1977 AB - Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant steroid hormones known mainly for promoting organ growth through their combined effect on cell expansion and division. In addition, BRs regulate a broad spectrum of plant developmental and physiological responses, including plant architecture, vascular differentiation, male fertility, flowering, senescence, photomorphogenesis and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Recently, a complete core BR signaling pathway was defined in which BR signals are conveyed from the cell surface to the nucleus through sequential signaling modules. A major challenge now is to understand precisely how this signaling pathway controls the different BR-regulated actions. The current ...
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Plant growth and development are coordinated by several groups of small-molecule hormones, including brassinosteroids (BRs) and gibberellins (GAs). Physiological and molecular studies have suggested the existence of crosstalk between BR and GA signaling. We report that BZR1, a key transcription factor activated by BR signaling, interacts in vitro and in vivo with REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA), a member of the DELLA family of transcriptional regulators that inhibits the GA signaling pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetic analyses of plants with mutations in the genes encoding RGA and BZR1 revealed that RGA suppressed root and hypocotyl elongation of the gain-of-function mutant bzr1-1D. Ectopic expression of proteins of the DELLA family reduced the abundance and transcriptional activity of BZR1. Reporter gene analyses further indicated that BZR1 and RGA antagonize each others transcriptional activity. Our data indicated that BZR1 and RGA served as positive and negative regulators, respectively, of ...
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Pine pollen can be a potent herbal taken from a pine plant. Many people and companies make the natural powder out from the pollen. It is then simple for men and women to accept it. There are many advantages that come with pine pollen powder.. Two of the popular Phyto-androgens are Gibberellins and brassinosteroids. Gibberellins are like testosterone in framework and therefore are greatly employed in the very first stages of germination. Professionals have found out that Gibberellins imitate male growth hormone thus stimulate the creation of androgen. The Phyto androgens have been found to control the measures in the prostate. The sterol element of gibberellins oversees how big the prostate. In case the prostate is just too large, it shrinks and viceversa. The brassinosteroids help with removing xenobiotic materials in the liver therefore maintaining you more healthy.. The product is not merely suitable for men-its also well suited for women. Industry experts have found out that the Eurycoma ...
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The cholestanol content of a cataractous lens nucleus from a patient with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) was quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and found to be 0.27 micrograms per mg freeze-dried lens tissue. The cholestanol-cholesterol ratio of 1.7% in the lens nucleus was similar to that in the serum of the CTX patient. The cholestanol content and cholestanol-cholesterol ratio in the CTX lens were approximately four-fold and six-fold greater respectively than the mean levels found in three senile cataractous lens nuclei analysed simultaneously for comparative purposes. ...
Free of charge sterols show up to stabilize the structures of cellular and intracellular membranes. As the sheath of nerve fibres is really a deposit of numerous levels of the membranes of neighbouring cells, mature mammalian nerve tissue (e.g., beef Mind) is the richest source of cholesterol. Cholesterol is also converted in animals to steroids that have a range of essential features As well as in crops to steroids whose functions are a lot less Evidently understood. The bile acids (cholanoic acids, also referred to as cholanic acids) of bigger vertebrates type conjugates Together with the amino acids taurine and glycine, as well as bile alcohols (cholane derivatives) of reduce animals kind esters with sulfuric acid (sulfates ...
Absolutely free sterols seem to stabilize the constructions of mobile and intracellular membranes. Because the sheath of nerve fibres can be a deposit of numerous layers on the membranes of neighbouring cells, experienced mammalian nerve tissue (e.g., beef brain) would be the richest supply of cholesterol. Cholesterol also is transformed in animals to steroids which have a variety of crucial capabilities As well as in plants to steroids whose features are fewer Obviously comprehended. The bile acids (cholanoic acids, also known as cholanic acids) of higher vertebrates kind conjugates While using the amino acids taurine and glycine, and also the bile alcohols (cholane derivatives) of decrease animals variety esters with sulfuric acid (sulfates ...
Inositol or cyclohexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexol is a chemical compound with formula C6H12O6 or (-CHOH-)6, a six-fold alcohol (polyol) of cyclohexane. It exists in nine possible stereoisomers, of which the most prominent form, widely occuring in nature, is cis-1,2,3,5-trans-4,6-cyclohexanehexol, or myo-inositol. Other naturally occurring isomers (though in minimal quantities) are scyllo-, muco-, D-chiro-, and neo-inositol. The other possible isomers are L-chiro-, allo-, epi-, and cis-inositol. (Wikipedia ...
You may also wish to search for items by Krupcik. 26 matching references were found. Soják, L.; Krupcík, J.; Janák, J., Gas chromatography of all C15-C18 linear alkenes on capillary columns with very high resolution power, J. Chromatogr., 1980, 195, 1, 43-64, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)81542-3 . [all data] Krupcik, J.; Leclercq, P.A.; Garaj, J.; Masaryk, J., Analysis of Divalent Metal Dialkyldithiocarbamates by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry, J. Chromatogr., 1979, 171, 285-304, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)95308-7 . [all data] Matisova, E.; Krupcik, J.; Cellar, P.; Garaj, J., Quantitative Analysis of Hydrocarbons in Gasolines by Capillary Gas-Liquid Chromatography. I. Isothermal Analysis, J. Chromatogr., 1984, 303, 151-163, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(01)96054-6 . [all data] Krupcik, J.; Repka, D.; Benicka, E.; Hevesi, T.; Nolte, J.; Paschold, B.; Mayer, H., Use of Retention Temperatures for the Identification of Phenols Separated on OV-1701 Capillary ...
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Plants must constantly adjust their growth and defense responses to deal with the wide variety of stresses they encounter in their environment. Among phytohormones, brassinosteroids (BRs) are an important group of plant steroid hormones involved in numerous aspects of the plant lifecycle including growth, development, and responses to various stresses including insects. Here, we show that BRs regulate glucosinolate (GS) biosynthesis and function in insect herbivory. Preference tests and larval feeding experiments using the generalist herbivore, diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), revealed that the larvae of this moth prefer to feed on Arabidopsis thaliana brassinosteroid insensitive 1 (bri1-5) plants than on wild-type Ws-2 or BRI1-Flag (bri1-5 background) transgenic plants, which leads an increase in larval weight ...

Novel sugar-cholestanols generate a new therapeutic agent against peritoneal dissemination | Molecular Cancer TherapeuticsNovel sugar-cholestanols generate a new therapeutic agent against peritoneal dissemination | Molecular Cancer Therapeutics

Novel sugar-cholestanols generate a new therapeutic agent against peritoneal dissemination. Takayuki Asao, Shinji Hashimoto, ... Novel sugar-cholestanols generate a new therapeutic agent against peritoneal dissemination. Takayuki Asao, Shinji Hashimoto, ... Novel sugar-cholestanols generate a new therapeutic agent against peritoneal dissemination. Takayuki Asao, Shinji Hashimoto, ... When sugar-cholestanols were added into the culture medium of cancer cells, they were incorporated into the cells through the ...
more infohttp://mct.aacrjournals.org/content/6/11_Supplement/B268

stage iia non small cell carcinoma of the lung drug therapy 2000:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search enginestage iia non small cell carcinoma of the lung drug therapy 2000:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine

Cholestanols / therapeutic use. Cholestanols / toxicity. Lactates / therapeutic use. Lactates / toxicity. Lung Neoplasms / drug ... Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Cholestanols; 0 / Lactates; 4WE915J1KX / squalamine lactate; ...
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Replacing Opioids: Developing drugs to treat pain  | Technology NetworksReplacing Opioids: Developing drugs to treat pain | Technology Networks

The group went on to describe how a type of molecule called cholestanols disrupted this internal signaling and significantly ...
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List of MeSH codes (D04) - WikipediaList of MeSH codes (D04) - Wikipedia

... cholestanols MeSH D04.808.247.100.250 --- cholestanol MeSH D04.808.247.125 --- cholestanones MeSH D04.808.247.222 --- ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D04)

Brassinosteroid signal transduction: still casting the actors.  - PubMed - NCBIBrassinosteroid signal transduction: still casting the actors. - PubMed - NCBI

Cholestanols/metabolism*. *Phytosterols/metabolism*. *Plant Growth Regulators/metabolism*. *Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism* ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=10679450%5BPMID%5D

Search Articles | University of Toronto LibrariesSearch Articles | University of Toronto Libraries

Cholestanols - blood , Humans , Biomarkers - blood , Niemann-Pick Disease, Type C - blood , Niemann-Pick Disease, Type C - ...
more infohttps://query.library.utoronto.ca/index.php/search/q?kw=SubjectTerms:Triols

Patents 5686506 - 5686763Patents 5686506 - 5686763

... cholestanols, stigmasterols, etc.) : The carbon is a member of an acyclic chain of exactly two carbons (e.g., 3 keto-4,17(20)- ...
more infohttp://www.everypatent.com/idx/pdir2143.html

IONIZABLE CATIONIC LIPID FOR RNA DELIVERY - Patent applicationIONIZABLE CATIONIC LIPID FOR RNA DELIVERY - Patent application

... cholestanols, stigmasterols, etc.) Publication date: 2015-05-21 Patent application number: 20150141678 ...
more infohttp://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20150141678

Replacing Opioids: Developing drugs to treat pain  | Articles | Analytical CannabisReplacing Opioids: Developing drugs to treat pain | Articles | Analytical Cannabis

The group went on to describe how a type of molecule called cholestanols disrupted this internal signaling and significantly ...
more infohttps://www.analyticalcannabis.com/articles/replacing-opioids-developing-drugs-to-treat-pain-289925

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Cholestanols - pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cholestanols - chemistry , Culture Media , Peracetic Acid - ... Cholestanols - chemical synthesis , Disinfectants - chemistry , Microscopy, Electron , ...
more infohttps://query.library.utoronto.ca/index.php/search/q?kw=Author:Drancourt,%20Michel

Structure-activity relationship of bile acids and bile acid analogs in regard to FXR activation<...Structure-activity relationship of bile acids and bile acid analogs in regard to FXR activation<...

TY - JOUR. T1 - Structure-activity relationship of bile acids and bile acid analogs in regard to FXR activation. AU - Fujino, Tomofumi. AU - Une, Mizuho. AU - Imanaka, Tsuneo. AU - Inoue, Kazuhide. AU - Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko. PY - 2004/1/1. Y1 - 2004/1/1. N2 - The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a bile acid-activated nuclear receptor that plays a major role in bile acid and cholesterol metabolism. To obtain an insight into the structure-activity relationships of FXR ligands, we investigated the functional roles of structural elements in the physiological ligands chenodeoxycholic acid [CDCA; (3α,7α)], cholic acid [CA; (3α,7α,12α)], deoxycholic acid [DCA; (3α,12α)], and lithocholic acid (3α) in regard to FXR activation in a cell-based FXR response element-driven luciferase assay and an in vitro coactivator association assay. Conversion of the carboxyl group of CDCA or CA to an alcohol did not greatly diminish their ability to activate FXR. In contrast, the 7β-epimers of the alcohols were ...
more infohttps://kyushu-u.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/structure-activity-relationship-of-bile-acids-and-bile-acid-analo

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             - Kyushu UniversityFind Research Outputs - Kyushu University

Goigoux, T., Ascher, P., Blank, B., Gerbaux, M., Giovinazzo, J., Grévy, S., Kurtukian Nieto, T., Magron, C., Ahn, D. S., Doornenbal, P., Fukuda, N., Inabe, N., Kiss, G., Kubo, T., Kubono, S., Nishimura, S., Sakurai, H., Shimizu, Y., Sidong, C., Söderström, P. A. & 34 others, Sumikama, T., Suzuki, H., Takeda, H., Vi, P., Wu, J., Fujita, Y., Tanaka, M., Agramunt, J., Algora, A., Guadilla, V., Montaner-Piza, A., Morales, A. I., Orrigo, S. E. A., Rubio, B., Gelletly, W., Aguilera, P., Molina, F., Diel, F., Lubos, D., de Angelis, G., Napoli, D., Borcea, C., Boso, A., Cakirli, R. B., Ganioglu, E., Chiba, J., Nishimura, D., Oikawa, H., Takei, Y., Yagi, S., Wimmer, K., De France, G., Go, S. & Brown, B. A., Mar 2019, In : Acta Physica Polonica B. 50, 3, p. 399-404 6 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
more infohttps://kyushu-u.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/?showAdvanced=false&%3BallConcepts=true&%3BinferConcepts=true&%3BoriginalSearch=&%3BimprovedLayoutOrganisationUuid=&%3Bformat=&format=&descending=false&ordering=type&page=17

chI, Ch D, Ch B, CH, Online Medical Terminology Catalogch'I, Ch D, Ch B, CH, Online Medical Terminology Catalog

chI, Ch D, Ch B, CH, Online Electronic Medical Dictionary Terminology, Articles, Glossary
more infohttps://med-word.com/?l=CH

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