Cholestanol: A cholesterol derivative found in human feces, gallstones, eggs, and other biological matter.Xanthomatosis, Cerebrotendinous: An autosomal recessive lipid storage disorder due to mutation of the gene CYP27A1 encoding a CHOLESTANETRIOL 26-MONOOXYGENASE. It is characterized by large deposits of CHOLESTEROL and CHOLESTANOL in various tissues resulting in xanthomatous swelling of tendons, early CATARACT, and progressive neurological symptoms.Xanthomatosis: A condition marked by the development of widespread xanthomas, yellow tumor-like structures filled with lipid deposits. Xanthomas can be found in a variety of tissues including the SKIN; TENDONS; joints of KNEES and ELBOWS. Xanthomatosis is associated with disturbance of LIPID METABOLISM and formation of FOAM CELLS.Cholestanols: Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.Sitosterols: A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.Cholestanes: Derivatives of the saturated steroid cholestane with methyl groups at C-18 and C-19 and an iso-octyl side chain at C-17.Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Jejunoileal Bypass: A procedure consisting of the SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS of the proximal part of the JEJUNUM to the distal portion of the ILEUM, so as to bypass the nutrient-absorptive segment of the SMALL INTESTINE. Due to the severe malnutrition and life-threatening metabolic complications, this method is no longer used to treat MORBID OBESITY.Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase: An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.Cholestenones: CHOLESTENES with one or more double bonds and substituted by any number of keto groups.Phytosterols: A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Cholestyramine Resin: A strongly basic anion exchange resin whose main constituent is polystyrene trimethylbenzylammonium Cl(-) anion.Desmosterol: An intermediate in the synthesis of cholesterol.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Biliary Fistula: Abnormal passage in any organ of the biliary tract or between biliary organs and other organs.SqualeneCholesterol 7-alpha-Hydroxylase: A membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 7-alpha-hydroxylation of CHOLESTEROL in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP7, converts cholesterol to 7-alpha-hydroxycholesterol which is the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS.Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Cholestenes: Steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a branched 8-carbon chain at C-17. Members include compounds with any degree of unsaturation; however, CHOLESTADIENES is available for derivatives containing two double bonds.Brain Diseases, Metabolic: Acquired or inborn metabolic diseases that produce brain dysfunction or damage. These include primary (i.e., disorders intrinsic to the brain) and secondary (i.e., extracranial) metabolic conditions that adversely affect cerebral function.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Cholestenone 5 alpha-Reductase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of 3-oxo-delta4 steroids into their corresponding 5alpha form. It plays an important role in the conversion of TESTOSTERONE into DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE and PROGESTERONE into DIHYDROPROGESTERONE.Cholic Acid: A major primary bile acid produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption and cholesterol excretion.EstersGas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Lipid Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Errors in the metabolism of LIPIDS resulting from inborn genetic MUTATIONS that are heritable.Hydroxycholesterols: Cholesterol which is substituted by a hydroxy group in any position.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Cyclodextrins: A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.beta-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Errors in metabolic processes resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Disorders affecting amino acid metabolism. The majority of these disorders are inherited and present in the neonatal period with metabolic disturbances (e.g., ACIDOSIS) and neurologic manifestations. They are present at birth, although they may not become symptomatic until later in life.Glycogen Storage Disease Type I: An autosomal recessive disease in which gene expression of glucose-6-phosphatase is absent, resulting in hypoglycemia due to lack of glucose production. Accumulation of glycogen in liver and kidney leads to organomegaly, particularly massive hepatomegaly. Increased concentrations of lactic acid and hyperlipidemia appear in the plasma. Clinical gout often appears in early childhood.Fabry Disease: An X-linked inherited metabolic disease caused by a deficiency of lysosomal ALPHA-GALACTOSIDASE A. It is characterized by intralysosomal accumulation of globotriaosylceramide and other GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS in blood vessels throughout the body leading to multi-system complications including renal, cardiac, cerebrovascular, and skin disorders.alpha-Galactosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing alpha-D-galactose residues in alpha-galactosides including galactose oligosaccharides, galactomannans, and galactolipids.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Cordyline: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE that contains spirostanol & furostanol SAPONINS.Liliaceae: A monocot family within the order Liliales. This family is divided by some botanists into other families such as Convallariaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Amaryllidaceae. Amaryllidaceae, which have inferior ovaries, includes CRINUM; GALANTHUS; LYCORIS; and NARCISSUS and are known for AMARYLLIDACEAE ALKALOIDS.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Coated Materials, Biocompatible: Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.Newcastle Disease: An acute febrile, contagious, viral disease of birds caused by an AVULAVIRUS called NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS. It is characterized by respiratory and nervous symptoms in fowl and is transmissible to man causing a severe, but transient conjunctivitis.Newcastle disease virus: The most well known avian paramyxovirus in the genus AVULAVIRUS and the cause of a highly infectious pneumoencephalitis in fowl. It is also reported to cause CONJUNCTIVITIS in humans. Transmission is by droplet inhalation or ingestion of contaminated water or food.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)

Serum sterols during stanol ester feeding in a mildly hypercholesterolemic population. (1/103)

We investigated the changes of cholesterol and non-cholesterol sterol metabolism during plant stanol ester margarine feeding in 153 hypercholesterolemic subjects. Rapeseed oil (canola oil) margarine without (n = 51) and with (n = 102) stanol (2 or 3 g/day) ester was used for 1 year. Serum sterols were analyzed with gas-liquid chromatography. The latter showed a small increase in sitostanol peak during stanol ester margarine eating. Cholestanol, campesterol, and sitosterol proportions to cholesterol were significantly reduced by 5-39% (P < 0.05 or less for all) by stanol esters; the higher their baseline proportions the higher were their reductions. The precursor sterol proportions were significantly increased by 10- 46%, and their high baseline levels predicted low reduction of serum cholesterol. The decrease of the scheduled stanol dose from 3 to 2 g/day after 6-month feeding increased serum cholesterol by 5% (P < 0. 001) and serum plant sterol proportions by 8-13% (P < 0.001), but had no consistent effect on precursor sterols. In twelve subjects, the 12-month level of LDL cholesterol exceeded that of baseline; the non-cholesterol sterol proportions suggested that stimulated synthesis with relatively weak absorption inhibition contributed to the non-responsiveness of these subjects. In conclusion, plant stanol ester feeding lowers serum cholesterol in about 88% of subjects, decreases the non-cholesterol sterols that reflect cholesterol absorption, increases the sterols that reflect cholesterol synthesis, but also slightly increases serum plant stanols. Low synthesis and high absorption efficiency of cholesterol results in the greatest benefit from stanol ester consumption.  (+info)

Highly simplified method for gas-liquid chromatographic quantitation of bile acids and sterols in human stool. (2/103)

A simple method for the gas-liquid chromatographic quantitation of human fecal bile acids and sterols is described where bile acids are subjected to n-butyl ester derivatization, without prior isolation from the stool, followed by trimethylsilylation of the sterols and bile acids. Under these conditions, bile acid derivatives are well resolved from each other and from the trimethylsilyl ether derivatives of fecal sterols and no overlap occurs. The method was shown to be highly reproducible and recoveries were similar to those obtained with other methods used for fecal bile acid analysis. Application of the method for bile acid and sterol analysis in human stool is described.  (+info)

Correlation of neomycin, faecal neutral and acid sterols with colon carcinogenesis in rats. (3/103)

High fat diets have been implicated in incidence of colon cancer both in epidemiological and animal studies. Present investigation deals with the incidence, location and numbers of large and small bowel tumours induced by 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine (DMH) in rats fed high fat diets and neomycin. Neomycin was used to modify the faecal sterol metabolism and the relationship of the high fat diet and faecal neutral and acid sterols to the large bowel tumorigenesis was evaluated. DMH administered rats were fed with (a) 20% safflower oil; (b) 20% safflower oil and neomycin; (c) 20% safflower oil, cholesterol and cholic acid; and (d) 20% safflower oil, cholesterol, cholic acid and neomycin. Neomycin was found to be associated with both increase and decrease of tumour numbers. The faecal sterols lithocholic and deoxycholic acids were found to have no participation, while cholesterol and cholic acid were found to decrease with increase in tumour numbers. However, faecal coprostanol has been found to have a significant positive correlation with tumorigenesis in all dietary groups. Therefore coprostanol might possibly be associated with colon carcinogenesis in DMH-fed rats and cholesterol metabolism in gut appears to be related to the development of tumours.  (+info)

Condensed complexes of cholesterol and phospholipids. (4/103)

Mixtures of dihydrocholesterol and phospholipids form immiscible liquids in monolayer membranes at the air-water interface under specified conditions of temperature and 2-dimensional pressure. In recent work it has been discovered that a number of these mixtures exhibit two upper miscibility critical points. Pairs of upper critical points can be accounted for by a theoretical model that implies the cooperative formation of molecular complexes of dihydrocholesterol and phospholipid molecules. These complexes are calculated to be present in the membranes both above and below the critical points. Below the critical points the complexes form a separate phase, whereas above the critical points the complexes are completely miscible with the other lipid components. The cooperativity of complex formation prompts the use of the terminology condensed complex.  (+info)

Electric field effect on cholesterol-phospholipid complexes. (5/103)

Monolayer mixtures of dihydrocholesterol and phospholipids at the air-water interface are used to model membranes containing cholesterol and phospholipids. Specific, stoichiometric interactions between cholesterol and some but not all phospholipids have been proposed to lead to the formation of condensed complexes. It is reported here that an externally applied electric field of the appropriate sign can destabilize these complexes, resulting in their dissociation. This is demonstrated through the application of an electric field gradient that leads to phase separations in otherwise homogeneous monolayers. This is observed only when the monolayer composition is close to the stoichiometry of the complex. The electric field effect is analyzed with the same mean field thermodynamic model as that used previously to account for pairs of upper miscibility critical points in these mixtures. The concentrations of dihydrocholesterol, phospholipid, and complex vary strongly and sometimes discontinuously in the monolayer membrane in the field gradient. The model is an approximation to a two-dimensional liquid in which molecules freely exchange between free and complexed form so that the chemical potentials are constant throughout the membrane. The calculations are illustrated for a complex of about 15 molecules, composed of 5 cholesterol molecules and 10 phospholipid molecules.  (+info)

Cholestanol induces apoptosis of corneal endothelial and lens epithelial cells. (6/103)

PURPOSE: To determine whether cholestanol induces cornea endothelial and lens epithelial cell death in vitro. METHODS: Cornea endothelial and lens epithelial cells were cultured in minimum essential media with 10% fetal bovine serum containing 10 microg/ml cholesterol in ethanol, 10 microg/ml cholestanol in ethanol, or 1% ethanol. These cells, stained using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) method, were analyzed by laser cytometer. The activities of ICE and CPP32 proteases in cells were also measured. RESULTS: Both cornea endothelial and lens epithelial cells cultured with 10 microg/ml cholestanol showed a significant loss of viability. The nuclei of these cells cultured with 10 microg/ml cholestanol were more frequently stained than those exposed to 10 microg/ml cholesterol or 1% ethanol. Quantitative analysis of apoptotic DNA fragmentation confirmed that the cholestanol induced apoptosis of these cells in a time-dependent manner. The activities of interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme (ICE) and CPP32 proteases for cells cultured with 10 microg/ml cholestanol were significantly higher than those observed in control cells. CONCLUSIONS: In vitro, cholestanol was taken up by corneal endothelial cells and lens epithelial cells, an event that led to apoptosis of these cells.  (+info)

Noncholesterol sterols and cholesterol lowering by long-term simvastatin treatment in coronary patients: relation to basal serum cholestanol. (7/103)

Coronary patients with low baseline ratios of serum cholestanol and plant sterols to cholesterol (indicating low cholesterol absorption) but not those with high ratios (high absorption) experienced reduced recurrences of coronary events during simvastatin treatment in the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study. Thus, in the present study, serum cholesterol, its precursor sterols (reflecting cholesterol synthesis), plant sterols (campesterol and sitosterol), and cholestanol were measured before and during a 5-year period of placebo treatment (n=433) and simvastatin treatment (n=434) in patients from a subgroup of the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study to determine whether changes in cholesterol synthesis and serum levels were related to cholesterol absorption. Serum cholesterol level was unchanged, the ratios of cholesterol precursor sterols to cholesterol were decreased, and the ratios of plant sterols to cholesterol were increased in relation to increasing baseline ratios of cholestanol quartiles. The latter predicted 5-year ratios and simvastatin-induced reductions of the precursor sterols, with the lowering of the ratios (cholesterol synthesis reduction) being almost twice higher in the lowest versus the highest quartile. The ratios of plant sterols, especially campesterol, to cholesterol were markedly increased during simvastatin treatment, mostly in subjects with the highest baseline cholestanol quartiles. Simvastatin reduced serum cholesterol more (P=0.003) in the lowest versus the highest cholestanol quartile during the 5-year treatment period. The results show for the first time that baseline cholesterol metabolism, measured by serum noncholesterol sterols, predicts the effectiveness of simvastatin in reducing cholesterol synthesis and serum levels of cholesterol. The drug suppresses the synthesis of cholesterol markedly more effectively in subjects with high than with low baseline synthesis but reduces respective serum cholesterol levels less markedly than synthesis. Subjects with high cholesterol absorption and low synthesis may need a combination therapy to lower more effectively their serum cholesterol levels and prevent an increase in the levels of plant sterols.  (+info)

Condensed complexes, rafts, and the chemical activity of cholesterol in membranes. (8/103)

Epifluorescence microscopy studies of mixtures of phospholipids and cholesterol at the air-water interface often exhibit coexisting liquid phases. The properties of these liquids point to the formation of "condensed complexes" between cholesterol and certain phospholipids, such as sphingomyelin. It is found that monolayers that form complexes can incorporate a low concentration of a ganglioside G(M1). This glycolipid is visualized by using a fluorescently labeled B subunit of cholera toxin. Three coexisting liquid phases are found by using this probe together with a fluorescent phospholipid probe. The three liquid phases are identified as a phospholipid-rich phase, a cholesterol-rich phase, and a condensed complex-rich phase. The cholera toxin B labeled ganglioside G(M1) is found exclusively in the condensed complex-rich phase. Condensed complexes are likely present in animal cell membranes, where they should facilitate the formation of specialized domains such as rafts. Condensed complexes also have a major effect in determining the chemical activity of cholesterol. It is suggested that this chemical activity plays an essential role in the regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis. Gradients in the chemical activity of cholesterol should likewise govern the rates and direction of intracellular intermembrane cholesterol transport.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Condensed complexes in vesicles containing cholesterol and phospholipids. AU - Radhakrishnan, Arun. AU - McConnell, Harden. PY - 2005/9/6. Y1 - 2005/9/6. N2 - Animal cell membranes pose conceptual problems related to the physical chemistry of liquids. An avenue to the solution of some of these problems has been opened by the discovery of liquid-liquid immiscibility in synthetic membranes composed of cholesterol and phospholipids. This discovery has led to the development of a thermodynamic model involving condensed complexes. In this model, the phospholipids with longer fatty-acid chains react reversibly with cholesterol to form complexes. The complexes themselves can have a repulsive interaction with other phospholipids, leading to immiscibility. A striking example of this effect is revealed in the phase diagrams of ternary mixtures of cholesterol, a saturated phosphatidylcholine (or sphingomyelin), and an unsaturated phosphatidylcholine. As found by a number of investigators, ...
25-Hydroxyvitamin D2 and D3 (25-OH-VitD) are steroid hormones that require 1-alpha-hydroxylation before expressing biological activity. Vitamin D compounds are derived from dietary ergocalciferol (from plants, VitD2) or cholecalciferol (from animals, VitD3), or by conversion of 7-dihydrocholesterol to VitD3 in the skin upon ultraviolet exposure. VitD2 and VitD3 are subsequently 25-hydroxylated in the liver to 25-OH-VitD. 25-OH-VitD represents the main body reservoir and transport form of vitamin D, being stored in adipose tissue and tightly bound by a transport protein while in circulation. A fraction of circulating 25-OH-VitD is converted to its active metabolites 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D2 and D3 (1,25-OH-VitD), mainly by the kidneys. This process is regulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH), which increases 1,25-OH-VitD synthesis at the expense of the alternative, biologically inactive hydroxylation product 24,25-OH-VitD. Like other steroid hormones, 1,25-OH-VitD binds to a nuclear receptor, ...
Results: Sugar-cholestanols mainly consisting of GlcNAc or GlcNAc-Gal attached to cholestanol showed strong activities of cell proliferation inhibition against various cancer cells but cholestanol without sugar-moieties did not show any activity. When sugar-cholestanols were added into the culture medium of cancer cells, they were incorporated into the cells through the lipid rafts/microdomains on their cell surface in a short period of time and then into the mitochondria followed by release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria, which resulted in the induction of apoptosis by the activation of mitocondria-dependent intrinsic pathways and the caspase-cascade. Further, in vivo experiments in the mouse model for the peritoneal dissemination using colon26 cancer cells showed that tumor growth was significantly reduced and the survival rates of mice were markedly enhanced by administration of sugar-cholestanols ...
The flights were fine. (If you dont count the flight from Boston to Las Vegas, which included an extra hour on the trip due to a strong headwind, expired food, not enough meals for passengers, no movie, and no working radios. US Airways, you sucked it up on that one.) Lovenox was a success. And now I feel like Ive managed to fit in a workout, even at 35,000 feet. But Im curious to know if anyone else has ever taken Lovenox, or another kind of anti-coagulant. And if anyone has ANY tips at all on dealing with this frigging itchy rash. Its starting to go away, and I know its just part of the side-effect fun, but its making me scratchy-crazy. Its all new to me, and Id appreciate any feedback from someone whos been there. (And if you have airplane exercise tips, share those, too. Im heading to Florida in two weeks and am wondering how Im going to embarrass myself on that plane, too!). ...
0088] Colon26 cells (derived from mouse colon cancer) were inoculated to a 96-well plate (1×104 cells/50 μL, 10% FCS-RPMI medium/well), and incubated at 37° C. for 16 hours. To each well, well-known anti-cancers agent (Oxaliplatin (abbreviated as "L-OHP"), Fluorouracil (5-FU), Paclitaxel (TXL; abbreviated as "PTX"), Docetaxel (TXT; abbreviated as "DTX"), Irinotecan (CPT-11; abbreviated as "CPT"), or Cyclophosphamide (abbreviated as "CPA") and/or a cyclodextrin inclusion compound (abbreviated as "GC-CD") of a cholestanol derivative in which G in formula (1) is GlcNAcβ- (abbreviated as "GC") was added (multi-fold dilution by FCS(-)-medium: final concentration: ≦500 μM, 50 μL), followed by incubation at 37° C. for two days. GC-CD was prepared in accordance with a method disclosed in Example 1(2) in WO 2007/026869. Specifically, a 40% aqueous solution of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin was prepared, and GC was added to the solution, followed by mixing with stirring (80° C. for 30 minutes), ...
Medical definition of coprostanol: a crystalline sterol C27H47OH formed by bacterial reduction of cholesterol in the intestines and present in feces.
Encyclopedia article on this inherited disorder associated with the deposition of a form of cholesterol (cholestanol) in the brain and other tissues. ...
Seattle-based digital artist Dain Fagerholm has created a series of amazing 3D stereographic drawings. Made from a ballpoint pen and color dye...
The cholestanol content of a cataractous lens nucleus from a patient with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) was quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and found to be 0.27 micrograms per mg freeze-dried lens tissue. The cholestanol-cholesterol ratio of 1.7% in the lens nucleus was similar to that in the serum of the CTX patient. The cholestanol content and cholestanol-cholesterol ratio in the CTX lens were approximately four-fold and six-fold greater respectively than the mean levels found in three senile cataractous lens nuclei analysed simultaneously for comparative purposes. ...
Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare, disabling genetic disorder in which cholestanol and cholesterol accumulate in the nervous system and other tissues. It has an autosomal recessive mode...
Looking for normal cholesteremic xanthomatosis? Find out information about normal cholesteremic xanthomatosis. A childhood syndrome characterized by exopthalmos, diabetes insipidus, and softened or punched-out areas in the bones Explanation of normal cholesteremic xanthomatosis
27-Hydroxylase deficiency (cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX)) is a rare familial sterol storage disease with accumulation of cholestanol and cholesterol in most tissues, and in particular in xanthomas, bile, and brain. Clinically, this disorder is characterized by dementia, spinal cord paresis, cerebellar ataxia, tuberous and tendon xanthomas, early atherosclerosis, and cataracts.. More than 20 different mutations have been defined in the sterol 27-hydroxylase gene of CTX patients. The defect leads to a block in bile acid biosynthesis, with accumulation of substrates for the mitochondrial 27-hydroxylase such as 5β-cholestane-3α,7α,12α-triol and 7α-hydroxy-4-cholestene-3-one. The former metabolite is metabolized into 5β-cholestane-3α,7α,12α,25-tetrol, 5β-cholestane-3α,7α,12α,23-tetrol, and 5β-cholestane-3α,7α,12α,24,25-pentol.. These bile alcohols are excreted in gram amounts in bile and feces. At least part of the excess cholestanol in patients with CTX is formed from the ...
Lipid tracers including fatty acids, hydroxyacids, n-alkanols, sterols and triterpenoids were used to determine the origin and fate of suspended particulate organic matter (POM) collected in the Rhône River (France). This seasonal survey (April 2011 to May 2013) revealed a year-round strong terrestrial higher-plant contribution to the particulate organic matter (POM), with significant algal inputs observed in March and attributed to phytoplanktonic blooms likely dominated by diatoms. Major terrigenous contributors to our samples are gymnosperms, and more precisely their roots and stems, as evidenced by the presence of high proportions of ω-hydroxydocosanoic acid (a suberin biomarker). The high amounts of coprostanol detected clearly show that the Rhône River is significantly affected by sewage waters. Specific sterol degradation products were quantified and used to assess the part of biotic and abiotic degradation of POM within the river. Higher-plant-derived organic matter appears to be mainly
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Eruptive xanthomatosis is a skin condition that causes small yellow-red bumps to appear on the body. It can occur in people who have very high blood fats (lipids). These patients also frequently have diabetes.
d) Plot a bifurcation diagram - this is a plot of the location of the critical points as a function of alpha (plot a graph alpha as x axis and y axis showing the location of the critical point ...
A three-parameter generalized equation is proposed for surface tension from the triple point to the critical point. This equation not only fits the data well but also is good for interpolation...
Would beta sitosterols ability to inhibit DHT from binding to cytosolic androgen receptors be usefull as soon as post cycle therapy begins?
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Define Critical point drying. Critical point drying synonyms, Critical point drying pronunciation, Critical point drying translation, English dictionary definition of Critical point drying. adj. 1. Judging severely and finding fault: a writer who is very critical of the governments foreign policy. 2. a. Relating to or characterized by...
Sitosterolemia, also known as phytosterolemia, is a rare inherited plant sterol storage disease. Bhattacharyya and Connor first described this disease in 1974.{ref1}{ref2} The original report detailed... more
Source Naturals Beta Sitosterol 375mg, Mega Strength 240 tablet hytosterols are natural components of plants, including vegetables and grains. Numerous clinical stu...
Cholesterol is an essential component of both the peripheral and central nervous systems of mammals. Over the last decade, evidence has accumulated that disturbances in cholesterol metabolism are associated with the development of various neurological conditions. In addition to genetically defined defects in cholesterol synthesis, which will be covered in another review in this Thematic Series, defects in cholesterol metabolism (cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis) and intracellular transport (Niemann Pick Syndrome) lead to neurological disease. A subform of hereditary spastic paresis (type SPG5) and Huntingtons disease are neurological diseases with mutations in genes that are of importance for cholesterol metabolism. Neurodegeneration is generally associated with disturbances in cholesterol metabolism, and presence of the E4 isoform of the cholesterol transporter apolipoprotein E as well as hypercholesterolemia are important risk factors for development of Alzheimers disease. In the present review, we
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experts believe that the increased frequency of prostate cancer is definitely related to greater incidence of BPH.. By the age 50, nearly half of all men already have BPH. And by the age of 80, almost all men have it. As more ...
In the field of neurodegeneration, research on oligomeric Abeta and glutamate toxicity, as well as Pin1 isomerase activity are coupled with experimental therapeutic attempts in fibroblasts from Alzheimers disease patients and neuroblastoma cells. Voltage-gated currents and postsynaptic potentials, functional alterations of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are also investigated. The role of Parkinsons disease-related toxins, genetic alterations and neuroprotective agents on lysosomal catabolic pathways for alpha-synuclein are also investigated, as well as cholinergic and hypocretinergic regulation of synaptic circuits in the prefrontal cortex. Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis and Spastic paraplegia type 5 are used as models of neurodegeneration due to defective cholesterol metabolism. Metalloprotease ADAM10 is investigated as a new potential target in the Huntingtons disease brain. Prion Protein (PrPc) folding in neuronal membranes and lipid rafts constituents are also established research topics, ...
Dynamical fluctuations in globally conserved quantities such as baryon number, strangeness, charge, and isospin are suggested to carry information about the de-confinement and chiral phase transitions. An observation of enhanced dynamical fluctuations or non-monotonic behavior of transverse momentum correlations as a function of colliding energy might indicate the system has probed the predicted QCD critical point. The STAR experiment has performed a comprehensive study of the energy and charge dependence of dynamical particle ratio ($K/\pi$, $p/\pi$, and $K/p$) fluctuations, net-charge fluctuations, and transverse momentum correlations in the STAR TPC at mid-rapidity, as well as neutral-charge pion fluctuations at forward rapidity. The charge dependence of particle ratio fluctuations exhibit differences between same and opposite sign dynamical particle ratio fluctuations compared to inclusive charged dynamical fluctuations. Neutral-charge pion fluctuations at forward rapidity are measured by ...
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Dr. Samantha Morris three December 2018 Publications Evaluation of Wu et al.: Comprehending Global and Local Structure of Single-Cell Datasets. Kong W, Morris SA. Cell… ...
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In these final few weeks prior to ICD-10 implementation, your coding countdown checklist should include several key and critical points to consider. T...
Fecal sample extraction (using 100% ethanol) and radioimmunoassay procedures were validated to permit accurate noninvasive assessments of fecal steroid metabolites in captive golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) and peregrine falcons (Falcoperegrinus). Furthermore, laboratory validations illustrated that serial dilutions of fecal extracts yielded displacement curves parallel to those of standard preparations for all assays. Recovery of known concentrations of unlabeled steroids in males and females for both species ranged from 97.3 9.8% (y = 1.03x - 0.63, R2= 0.98) to 119.4 5.3% (y = 1.04x + 4.11, R2 = 1.00). Additionally, in the golden eagles, HPLC analyses of fecal B in males and females illustrated that 2.7% and 2.5%, respectively, coeluted with [3HJB; however, a total of 7.5% and 11 .9% of total immunoreactivity coeluted with the reference tracer in the peregrine falcon males and females, respectively. Chromatographic profiles of E metabolites in golden eagle and peregrine falcon females ...
Lane and coworkers go on to show that the electron density in the three diols is really topologically identical, just differing in a matter of degree. They conclude that the existence of a bond critical point should not be the sole arbiter of bonding, but one of the criteria that can be utilized to assess bonding.. While I am not at all in conflict with this conclusion, the paper contains some issues that need be addressed. First off, "bonding" is not a concept of either-or, rather there is a continuum of bonding. Hydrogen bonding should not at all be confused with covalent or ionic bonding - it is dramatically weaker and so one might consider whether the bcp criteria is applicable at all. The authors really fall into this trap stating "… the absence of a BCP should not necessarily be considered evidence as to the absence of a chemical bond (emphasis mine)." Do we want to consider a hydrogen bond as a chemical bond?. I think the key element overlooked in this study is the strength of the ...
Plant sterols appear to be beneficial for lowering cholesterol and reducing the risk of heart disease. This eMedTV segment discusses other potential benefits of plant sterols and explains how the natural compounds work for reducing cholesterol levels.
Campesterol is a phytochemincal in the class of Phytosterols, belonging to the group of Lipids, found abundantly in banana, pomegranate, pepper, coffee, grapefruit, cucumber, onion, oat, potato, etc. Health benefits 1. Cardiovascular diseases In the review of the studies published between January 1950 and April 2010 that reported either risk ratios (RR) of CVD in …. ...
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Scanning electron microscope for the visualisation of biological and material samples. Sample preparation is also available (critical point dryer and gold-coater ...
Das ABCG5-Gen befindet sich in einer Kopf-an-Kopf-Position zum ABCG8-Gen. Beide nutzen offensichtlich den selben Promotor und kodieren Transportproteine mit ähnlicher Funktion. Sie sind für die Exkretion von pflanzlichen Sterolen sowohl in die Gallenflüssigkeit wie auch in den Darm verantwortlich. Mutationen können zu den autosomal rezessiven Erkrankungen Sitosterolämia und Mediterrane Makrothrombozytopenie führen.. ...
Salam semua.....menurut pakar kesihatan dari Filipina Herminia de Guzman, kangkung dianggap sebagai penghilang racun dari tubuh. Kangkung juga kaya dengan vitamin A, B1, C, protein, kalsium, fosfor, zat besi, karoten, sitosterol dan hentriakontan. Lepas ni kena la makan kangkung banyak-banyak. Lagipun harga seikat kangkung tak la mahal dan senang untuk didapati. Kalau rajin dan ada masa, ada ruang boleh la tanam sendiri kangkung ni. Lagi pun nak tanam kangkung bukannya susahkan. Lepas ni melor nak tanam kangkung banyak-banyak kat belakang rumah. Boleh la dapat bekalan segar setiap hari ...
NIH Rare Diseases : 50 sitosterolemia is a rare inherited condition in which plant sterols accumulate in the blood and tissues. plant sterols, including sitosterol, stigmasterol, and campesterol, are fatty substances found in vegetable oils and nuts. individuals with sitosterolemia have extremely high levels of sitosterol (30 to 100 times higher than normal), along with mildly to moderately elevated levels of cholesterol in their blood. these plant sterols and cholesterol build up in the arteries, leading to premature thickening of the artery walls and early heart disease. affected individuals may also develop small yellowish growths called xanthomas on or under the skin and in the tendons. sitosterolemia is caused by mutations in the abcg5 or abcg8 gene. the condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. treatment involves restricting foods that are high in plant and shellfish sterols, and taking medications that decrease the concentration of these products in the blood. last ...
A 60-year-old man presented with an ataxic and spastic gait with paraparesis, having reported a tick bite. Brain MRI depicted bilateral corticospinal tract hyperintensities (figure). He had a mild lymphocytic meningitis (12 leukocytes/mm3, proteinorachia 1.48 g/L). ELISA was positive for Lyme disease in serum (immunoglobulin G [IgG] 176 UI and immunoglobulin M ,4 UI) and CSF (IgG 300 UI) with an intrathecal synthesis (index of CSF/serum-specific antibodies equal to 16 using ELISA [normal value ,1.5]). Western blot was positive for Lyme-specific antibodies in serum (18, 22, 32, 41, 60, and 75 kDa) and CSF (41 and 60 kDa). Syphilis serology was negative. After treatment (IV ceftriaxone 2 g daily for 4 weeks), gait improved and brain MRI was normal. This MRI pattern has been previously reported in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis1 and in metabolic diseases (Krabbe disease,2 X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis) or infectious diseases (human T-cell lymphotropic virus 1). ...
70846 Oilseed contains sterols and related compounds with economic potential. The extraction and analysis of these compounds would be aided by the availability of highly selective aptamers with high affinities for their particular sterol ligands. This project will develop aptamers for use in microarrays to analyze and extract sterol contents of oil and other biological extracts. Bacterial expression vectors will be prepared from which the aptamers can be expressed in large quantities. In Phase I, one or more DNA aptamers for sitosterol will be selected. The aptamers will be evaluated for their specificity and affinity for sitosterol and related compounds. A bacterial expression vector will be developed from which aptamers can be prepared. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits as described by the awardee: Commercial applications include (1) the use of aptamers in the analysis and extraction of sitosterol and related compounds, and (2) a general method for economically mass-producing DNA ...
A liquid-liquid critical point (or LLCP) is the endpoint of a liquid-liquid phase transition line (LLPT); it is a critical point where two types of local structures coexist at the exact ratio of unity. This hypothesis was first developed by H. Eugene Stanley to obtain a quantitative understanding of the huge number of anomalies present in water. Near an LLCP, there is always a mixture of two alternative local structures. For instance, in supercooled water, two types of local structures exist, a low-density liquid (LDL) and a high-density liquid (HDL) so above the critical pressure, a higher percentage of HDL exists while below the critical pressure a higher percentage of LDL is present. The ratio r = LDL/(LDL + HDL) is determined according to the thermodynamic equilibrium of the system which is often governed by external variables such as pressure and temperature. A discontinuity is present in r when crossing the LLPT, which separates the LDL rich phase from the LDL poor phase. At any point of ...
INCLUSION/EXCLUSION CRITERIA. Male or female, age greater than or equal to 10 years are eligible.. Patients must have a diagnosis of homozygous sitosterolemia with an elevated plasma sitosterol level (greater than 5 mg/dL at screening visit) on their current regimen.. All women of childbearing potential must be practicing an effective method of contraception.. All women of childbearing potential must have a negative urine pregnancy test within 72 hours prior to the start of the study medication.. Patients must not have any condition which, in the opinion of the investigator, would be likely to render the patient unable to complete the study or for which study participation would produce significant risk or not be in the best interests of the patient.. Individual with poor mental function, drug or substance abuse, or individuals with unstable psychiatric illness, which, in the opinion of the investigator, may interfere with optimal participation in the study will be excluded.. Women must not be ...
For a given composition, only certain phases are possible at a given temperature and pressure. The number and type of phases that will form is hard to predict and is usually determined by experiment. The results of such experiments can be plotted in phase diagrams. The phase diagram shown here is for a single component system. In this simple system, which phases that are possible depends only on pressure and temperature. The markings show points where two or more phases can co-exist in equilibrium. At temperatures and pressures away from the markings, there will be only one phase at equilibrium. In the diagram, the blue line marking the boundary between liquid and gas does not continue indefinitely, but terminates at a point called the critical point. As the temperature and pressure approach the critical point, the properties of the liquid and gas become progressively more similar. At the critical point, the liquid and gas become indistinguishable. Above the critical point, there are no longer ...
Supports Healthy Cholesterol Levels already within the normal range* With CardioAid®-S Plant Sterol Esters Plus added Fish Oil CardioAid®-S Plant Sterol Esters
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Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
This entry was posted in Best Prostate, Prostate Health Beta Sitosterol, Prostate Health Beta Sitosterol prostate and tagged beta-sitosterol, beta-sitosterol prostate, beta-sitosterol prostate formula by admin. Bookmark the permalink ...
Learn more about Xanthelasma and Xanthoma at Doctors Hospital of Augusta DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Hydrolysis of this ester gave cholestanol 39. The route from cholestanol to cholesterol was already known (see: Robinson ... The conversion of cholestanol to cholesterol was already demonstrated by oxidation of the ketone, bromination to the ... 7 and then to allopregnanolone 8 allowed the addition of the tail group as the acetate in 9 and then conversion to cholestanol ...
An inherited disorder associated with the deposition of a steroid known as cholestanol in the brain and other tissues and with ... Elevated levels of serum cholestanol are diagnostic of CTX. Alternatively analysis of 27-hydroxycholesterol and 7 alpha ...
"Mechanism of accumulation of cholesterol and cholestanol in tendons and the role of sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1)". ...
5α-cholestanol is formed naturally in the environment by bacteria and generally does not have a faecal origin. Samples with ... As well as the faecally derived stanol, two other isomers can be identified in the environment; 5α-cholestanol (5α-cholestan-3β ... This reaction occurs principally in anaerobic reducing sediments and the 5α-cholestanol / cholesterol ratio may be used as a ... In the environment, bacteria preferentially produce 5α-cholestan-3β-ol (5α-cholestanol) from cholesterol rather than the 5β ...
Cholestanol, cholesterol, androsterone, Δ4-3α-hydroxy-17-ketoandrostene, 5β,3α-hydroxy-17-ketoandrostane, 5α,3β,17α- ...
... cholestanol MeSH D10.570.938.208.222 --- cholesterol, dietary MeSH D10.570.938.208.250 --- cholesterol esters MeSH D10.570. ...
... cholestanol MeSH D04.808.247.808.197.200 --- cholesterol esters MeSH D04.808.247.808.197.250 --- dehydrocholesterols MeSH ... cholestanol MeSH D04.808.247.125 --- cholestanones MeSH D04.808.247.222 --- cholestenes MeSH D04.808.247.222.159 --- ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
... by multiple logistic regression analysis between the lowest and highest quarter of cholestanol. The ratio of cholestanol was ... Baseline serum cholestanol as predictor of recurrent coronary events in subgroup of Scandinavian simvastatin survival study BMJ ... Baseline serum cholestanol as predictor of recurrent coronary events in subgroup of Scandinavian simvastatin survival study. ... Baseline serum cholestanol as predictor of recurrent coronary events in subgroup of Scandinavian simvastatin survival study ...
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Presenile cataract: Consider cholestanol. Alexandra Tészás, Zoltán Pfund, Éva Morava, György Kosztolányi, Erik Sistermans, Ron ... Presenile cataract : Consider cholestanol. / Tészás, Alexandra; Pfund, Zoltán; Morava, Éva; Kosztolányi, György; Sistermans, ... Presenile cataract : Consider cholestanol. In: Archives of ophthalmology. 2006 ; Vol. 124, No. 10. pp. 1490-1492. ... title = "Presenile cataract: Consider cholestanol",. author = "Alexandra T{\e}sz{\a}s and Zolt{\a}n Pfund and {\E}va Morava ...
0042] Alternatively, the cholestanol derivative (1) may be prepared into a liposomal formulation, whereby the cholestanol ... cholestanol derivatives (1) in which G is GlcNAc-Gal-Glc-, G is preferably GlcNAcβ1,3-Galβ1,4-Glc-. Among the cholestanol ... cholestanol derivatives. [0007] However, no cases have been reported in which the aforementioned cholestanol derivatives and ... Among the cholestanol derivatives (1) in which G is Gal-, G is preferably Galβ-. Among the cholestanol derivatives (1) in which ...
Lipids measured included: cholesterol, lanosterol, lathosterol, cholestanol, 7-dehydrocholesterol, β-sitosterol, campesterol, ... cholestanol, desmosterol, lanosterol, and lathosterol. 15. The method of claim 1, further comprising, when a positive response ... cholestanol, desmosterol, lanosterol, and lathosterol. 28. The method of claim 21, wherein: said lipid profile includes at ... cholestanol (CSTN), desmosterol (DESM), lanosterol (LANO), lathosterol (LATHO). If these same metabolites are found to decrease ...
Phase II Study of Cholesterol- and Cholestanol-Free Diet, Lovastatin, and Chenodeoxycholic Acid for Cerebrotendinous ...
Phase II Study of Cholesterol- and Cholestanol-Free Diet, Lovastatin, and Chenodeoxycholic Acid for Cerebrotendinous ...
Serum cholestanol concentrations and ratios to cholesterol were similarly decreased by 0.4-9% and 1-4% in both study groups (. ... Cholestanol is a 5α-saturated derivative of cholesterol produced by the liver. It has been shown earlier in trials where ... In some earlier studies, the results of cholestanol concentration and its ratio to cholesterol have varied for unknown reasons ... After adjustment with the changes in the nutrient intakes, the serum cholestanol concentration declined significantly only in ...
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R. Breslow and S.W. Baldwin, Conversion of Cholestanol to 12-Ketocho lestanol and to 14- and 8(14)-Cholestenol by Remote ... R. Breslow, R.L. Wife, and D. Prezant, Radical Relay Chlorination of Cholestanol Directed by an Attached Diphenylsulfide ... Efficient Conversion of Cholestanol to Corticosteroid Intermediates, Tetrahedron Lett. 33, 4145-4148 (1992). ... R. Batra and R. Breslow, Double Functionalization of Cholestanol Directed by Selective Bifunctional Templates, Tetrahedron ...
Plasma cholestanol is a helpful diagnostic marker. The prognosis may be improved through therapy with cholic or ...
cholestanol. cholestan-3β-ol. 9003101. 406([M+NH4]+) [M+NH4]+. Details ...
Cholestanol 3.7. Cholestanol Ratio: 104. Demosterol 2.39. Demosterol ratio 66. Liver, Renal, Electrolytes are all optimal ...
Hydrolysis of this ester gave cholestanol 39. The route from cholestanol to cholesterol was already known (see: Robinson ... The conversion of cholestanol to cholesterol was already demonstrated by oxidation of the ketone, bromination to the ... 7 and then to allopregnanolone 8 allowed the addition of the tail group as the acetate in 9 and then conversion to cholestanol ...
Cholestanol (Coprostanol) 5. ezetimibe (Zetia) 6. sitosterol (beta-sitosterol) 7. Sitosterolemia 8. campesterol ...
5alpha-Cholestanol. C27H48O. 388.6694. 388.370516158. *Feces. HMDB0000921. 601-57-0 ...
Cholestanol standard peak is marked with a C. Dilution factor is indicated in parentheses. ... Before analysis, TLEs, along with 200 ng of cholestanol standard, or alcohol fractions were derivatized to either acetate ...
Cholestanol (Coprostanol)IBA 02/01/2001 - "Clinically, CTX patients present with tendon xanthomas, juvenile cataracts, and ... 12/01/2006 - "Its characterized by accumulation of cholestanol and cholesterol in many tissues, in particular tendons and ... 12/01/2006 - "Its characterized by accumulation of cholestanol and cholesterol in many tissues, in particular tendons and ... cholestanol and cholesterol, resulting in tendinous xanthomas, juvenile cataracts, progressive neurological defects and ...
Polyurethanes prepared from dispersions or solutions of cholesterol or cholestanol-containing polymers in a polyol. ...
The ratios of cholestanol, campesterol, and sitosterol were significantly higher in all lipoprotein fractions (except IDL ... The ratios of the absorption sterols were usually lowest in VLDL, surprisingly high in IDL (except cholestanol in type 2), and ... Correlation of lathosterol and cholestanol ratios with each other in serum (r = −0.498; P = 0.003). ○, type 1 diabetes; •, type ... The ratios of the absorption markers correlated negatively with those of the synthesis markers as shown for cholestanol and ...
The serum desmosterol and cholestanol levels were significantly related to cholesterol (. , and , , resp.). The lathosterol, ... and cholestanol (5-α saturated derivative of cholesterol indicates intestinal cholesterol uptake) [24-26]. ... the ratio of campesterol to cholesterol was significantly related to the ratio of cholestanol to cholesterol (Table 3). The ...
An inherited disorder associated with the deposition of a steroid known as cholestanol in the brain and other tissues and with ... Elevated levels of serum cholestanol are diagnostic of CTX. Alternatively analysis of 27-hydroxycholesterol and 7 alpha ...
2008) (Table 6, entries 6 and 7). Furthermore, the enzyme was active on cholestanol, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ...
Cholestanol, synthesized in liver, is an efficient substrate for cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (52). The elevated levels in plasma ... The elevated level of cholestanol in plasma of the two homozygous patients that we studied is consistent with decreased ... Plasma sterol analysis. In addition to hypercholesterolemia, increased levels of cholestanol (5α-cholest-3β-ol), 7- ...
  • The diagnosis should be suspected in the presence of a suggestive clinical triad characterized by early-onset cataract, tendinous xanthomata and neurological symptoms and signs, notably cerebellar ataxia, mental retardation and pyramidal syndrome.The diagnosis is confirmed by demonstrating an increased blood level of cholestanol, or/and by molecular genetic analysis.In typical cases, brain MRI shows bilateral hyperintensity of the cerebellar nucleus dentatus together with cerebral atrophy and leukoencephalopathy. (ac.be)
  • Androsterone had been synthesized from epi-cholestanol by Ruzicka, but it soon proved to be not identical with the genuine male hormone from the testicles. (nobelprize.org)
  • The ratio of cholestanol was related inversely to the body mass index and directly to high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations but their quarters of distribution were not related to risk reduction. (bmj.com)
  • The cholestanol content and cholestanol-cholesterol ratio in the CTX lens were approximately four-fold and six-fold greater respectively than the mean levels found in three senile cataractous lens nuclei analysed simultaneously for comparative purposes. (bmj.com)
  • Conversion of 6 to pregnenolone 7 and then to allopregnanolone 8 allowed the addition of the tail group as the acetate in 9 and then conversion to cholestanol 10. (wikipedia.org)
  • 8777839 ). Lathosterol oxidase (EC 1.14.21.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 5alpha-cholest-7-en-3beta-ol + NAD(P)H + H+ + O2 cholesta-5,7-dien-3beta-ol + NAD(P)+ + 2 H2O. (hmdb.ca)
  • Bromination/debromination which is an important organic reaction that aims in purification of crude cholesterol from impurities which include 3-cholestanol, 7-cholesten-3-ol, and 5,7-chlestadien-3-ol was performed in a laboratory scale for two weeks. (ukessays.com)
  • A total of 22 pure compounds were isolated and identified including 1 cholestanol, 17 furostanol, and 4 spirostanol glycosides, among which 16 appeared to be novel organic compounds. (springer.com)
  • Attention was drawn to the high number of sulfated compounds including six furostanols, two spirostanols, and one cholestanol. (springer.com)
  • CYP46A1 is involved in cholestanol removal from the brain and that several factors contribute to the preferential increase in cholestanol in the cerebellum arising from CYP27A1 deficiency. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Methods: A series of chemically synthesized sugar-cholestanols consisting of mono- and oligo-saccharides attached to cholestanol were assayed for their cytotoxicitic activities against various cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Results: Sugar-cholestanols mainly consisting of GlcNAc or GlcNAc-Gal attached to cholestanol showed strong activities of cell proliferation inhibition against various cancer cells but cholestanol without sugar-moieties did not show any activity. (aacrjournals.org)