Cholestanes: Derivatives of the saturated steroid cholestane with methyl groups at C-18 and C-19 and an iso-octyl side chain at C-17.Research Report: Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.ArchivesProteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.CyclopropanesDiterpenes: Twenty-carbon compounds derived from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.Pennisetum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the millets used in EDIBLE GRAIN. It contains vitexin. The common name of buffelgrass is also used for CENCHRUS.Mycolic AcidsChenopodium: A plant genus in the CHENOPODIACEAE family.Panicum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).StigmasterolPhytosterols: A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.Sitosterols: A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.Hemibody Irradiation: Irradiation of one half or both halves of the body in the treatment of disseminated cancer or widespread metastases. It is used to treat diffuse metastases in one session as opposed to multiple fields over an extended period. The more frequent treatment modalities are upper hemibody irradiation (UHBI) or lower hemibody irradiation (LHBI). Less common is mid-body irradiation (MBI). In the treatment of both halves of the body sequentially, hemibody irradiation permits radiotherapy of the whole body with larger doses of radiation than could be accomplished with WHOLE-BODY IRRADIATION. It is sometimes called "systemic" hemibody irradiation with reference to its use in widespread cancer or metastases. (P. Rubin et al. Cancer, Vol 55, p2210, 1985)Cholestadienols: Cholestadiene derivatives containing a hydroxy group anywhere in the molecule.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Exobiology: The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.Space Flight: Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.Extraterrestrial Environment: The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Earth (Planet): Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.Evolution, Chemical: Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.Cosmic Dust: Finely divided solid matter with particle sizes smaller than a micrometeorite, thus with diameters much smaller than a millimeter, moving in interplanetary space. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)Dioscorea: A plant genus best known for edible underground tubers. Yam may also refer to a moist variety of sweet potato, IPOMOEA BATATAS.Diosgenin: A spirostan found in DIOSCOREA and other plants. The 25S isomer is called yamogenin. Solasodine is a natural derivative formed by replacing the spiro-ring with a nitrogen, which can rearrange to SOLANINE.Rhizome: Root-like underground horizontal stem of plants that produces shoots above and roots below. Distinguished from true roots which don't have buds and nodes. Similar to true roots in being underground and thickened by storage deposits.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.PakistanTrillium: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE that is a short plant with a distinct whorl of 3 broad leaves.Plant Tubers: An enlarged underground root or stem of some plants. It is usually rich in carbohydrates. Some, such as POTATOES, are important human FOOD. They may reproduce vegetatively from buds.Cholestanols: Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.Hydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)Lanosterol: A triterpene that derives from the chair-boat-chair-boat folding of 2,3-oxidosqualene. It is metabolized to CHOLESTEROL and CUCURBITACINS.Desmosterol: An intermediate in the synthesis of cholesterol.Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase: An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.

Archean molecular fossils and the early rise of eukaryotes. (1/103)

Molecular fossils of biological lipids are preserved in 2700-million-year-old shales from the Pilbara Craton, Australia. Sequential extraction of adjacent samples shows that these hydrocarbon biomarkers are indigenous and syngenetic to the Archean shales, greatly extending the known geological range of such molecules. The presence of abundant 2alpha-methylhopanes, which are characteristic of cyanobacteria, indicates that oxygenic photosynthesis evolved well before the atmosphere became oxidizing. The presence of steranes, particularly cholestane and its 28- to 30-carbon analogs, provides persuasive evidence for the existence of eukaryotes 500 million to 1 billion years before the extant fossil record indicates that the lineage arose.  (+info)

Gene transfection activities of amphiphilic steroid-polyamine conjugates. (2/103)

The design and evaluation of a novel potent class of DNA delivery agents based on steroid-polyamine conjugates bearing a flexible linker are reported. The hydrophobic regions are based on steroids, i.e. chlolestane and lithocholic acid motifs. The linker, which couples a hydrophobic steroid and a hydrophilic polyamine, in this study can be regarded as a two-atom extension of the conventional carbamate linker. We found that the gene transfection activity of the steroid-polyamine conjugates is influenced by the polyamine chain length and steroid structure. Molecular modeling of the relevant amphiphilic molecules revealed low-energy structures in which the polyamine chains are folded rather than stretched. This work suggests a significant effect of space-filling, i.e. the shape and orientation of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions, upon the efficiency of gene transfection.  (+info)

Biosynthesis of bile acids in man. Hydroxylation of the C27-steroid side chain. (3/103)

The first step in the degradation of the steroid side chain during biosynthesis of bile acids from cholesterol in man was studied in microsomal and mitochondrial fraction of homogenate of livers from 14 patients. The microsomal fraction was found to catalyze an efficient 25-hydroxylation of 5,8-cholestane-3a,7a,12atriol. A small extent of 23-, 24-, and 26-hydroxylation of the same substrate was observed. 53-Cholestane-3a,7adiol was hydroxylated in the 25-position only to a very small extent. The mitochondrial fraction was found to catalyze 26-hydroxylation of cholesterol, 5-cholestene-3P,7a-diol, 5P-cholestane-3a,7a-diol, 7a-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one, and 5,0-cholestane-3a,7a,12a-triol. Addition of Mg++ stimulated the 26-hydroxylation of cholesterol but had no effect or an inhibitory effect on 26-hydroxylation of the other substrates, indicating a heterogeneity of the mitochondrial 26-hydroxylating system. The level of 26-hydroxylase activity towards different substrates varied considerably with different mitochondrial preparations. The roles of the microsomal and mitochondrial 26- hydroxylations as well as the microsomal 25-hydroxylation in biosynthesis of bile acids in man are discussed. The results indicate that microsomal 26-hydroxylation is less important than mitochondrial 26-hydroxylation under normal conditions. The possibility that microsomal 25-hydroxylation is important cannot be ruled out.  (+info)

Cholestane glycosides from the bulbs of Galtonia candicans and their cytotoxicity. (4/103)

Further search for cytotoxic compounds contained in the bulbs of Galtonia candicans (Liliaceae) led to the isolation of four potent cytotoxic cholestane glycosides (1-4) based upon 3beta,16beta,17alpha-trihydroxycholest-5-en-22-one, three of which (2-4) have not been reported previously. A new cholestane bisdesmoside (5) and a new rearranged cholestane glycoside (6) were also isolated. The structural assignment of the new constituents was carried out by spectroscopic analysis and a few chemical transformations.  (+info)

The role of a 5alpha-hydroxylated intermediate in the formation of the 5, 6-double bond in cholesterol biosynthesis. (5/103)

If the biological conversion of cholest-7-en-3beta-ol (I) into cholesterol (IV) occurred thorugh the intermediacy of cholest-7-ene-3beta,5alpha-diol (II) then the factor(s) adversely affecting the convwesion of the 5alpha-hydroxy sterol (II) into cholesterol must at least equally adversely affect the formation of cholesterol from cholest-7-en-3beta-ol. By using partial denaturation techniquws and dual-labelled precursors it was shown that the enzyme system responsible for the conversion of the 5alpha-hydroxy sterol (II) into cholesterol denatured faster than that for the corresponding conversion from cholest-7-en-3beta-ol (I).  (+info)

Four new 26-aminocholestane-type glycosides from Solanum abutiloides. (6/103)

From the fresh roots of Solanum abutiloides, four new 26-aminocholesteryl glycosides were obtained, and their structures were characterized by analysis of their spectra data, including two-dimensional (2D) NMR spectroscopy. These compounds were regarded as key intermediates in the biogenesis of steroidal alkaloids.  (+info)

Rapid transbilayer movement of spin-labeled steroids in human erythrocytes and in liposomes. (7/103)

The transbilayer movement and distribution of spin-labeled analogs of the steroids androstane (SLA) and cholestane (SLC) were investigated in the human erythrocyte and in liposomes. Membranes were labeled with SLA or SLC, and the analogs in the outer leaflet were selectively reduced at 4C using 6-O-phenylascorbic acid. As shown previously, 6-O-phenylascorbic acid reduces rapidly nitroxides exposed on the outer leaflet, but its permeation of membranes is comparatively slow and thus does not interfere with the assay. From the reduction kinetics, we infer that transbilayer movement of SLA in erythrocytes is rapid at 4C with a half-time of approximately 4.3 min and that the probe distributes almost symmetrically between both halves of the plasma membrane. We have no indication that a protein-mediated transport is involved in the rapid transbilayer movement of SLA because 1) pretreatment of erythrocytes with N-ethyl maleimide affected neither flip-flop nor transbilayer distribution of SLA and 2) flip-flop of SLA was also rapid in pure lipid membranes. The transbilayer dynamics of SLC in erythrocyte membranes could not be resolved by our assay. Thus, the rate of SLC flip-flop must be on the order of, or even faster than, that of probe reduction rate on the exoplasmic leaflet (half-time approximately 0.5 min). The results are discussed with regard to the transbilayer dynamics of cholesterol.  (+info)

Appetite suppression and weight reduction by a centrally active aminosterol. (8/103)

The rise in obesity and its complications has generated enormous interest in the regulation of feeding and body weight. We show that a spermine metabolite of cholesterol (MSI-1436) decreases body weight, specifically fat, by suppressing feeding and preventing the reduction in energy expenditure, hormonal changes, and patterns of neuropeptide expression normally associated with weight loss. MSI-1436 enters the brain after peripheral injection and is more potent when injected into the cerebral ventricle (intracerebroventricular [ICV]). Systemic or ICV MSI-1436 administration induced similar patterns of Fos immunoreactivity in the brain, especially the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN). This brain region integrates neural signals from hypothalamic and brain stem nuclei and regulates feeding behavior, autonomic function, and neuroendocrine function. Microinjection of MSI-1436 into the PVN potently suppressed feeding and reduced body weight for several days. Unlike caloric restriction, MSI-1436 decreased mRNA levels of agouti-related peptide and neuropeptide Y in the hypothalamus. These findings indicate that MSI-1436 acts in the brain to regulate food intake and energy expenditure, likely through suppression of orexigenic hypothalamic pathways.  (+info)

Cholestane glycosides from Ornithogalum saundersiae bulbs and the induction of apoptosis in HL-60 cells by OSW-1 through a mitochondrial-independent signaling pathway (2019 ...
Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)
Spawns only during daytime (Ref. 27547). At spawning, males lie close to the bottom in the current of the spawning area while females stay along the banks and in still water (Ref. 27547). A female moves from the bank of the stream usually escorted by 2-4 males to the spawning area at the center of the stream. The males crowd beside her; egg deposition occurs as the males try to clasp the female with their pelvic fins or vibrate against her with their anal fins. This spawning act lasts for 3-5 seconds and may occur as often as 6-40 times per hour. After the eggs are deposited, the sexes separate and return to their previous stream positions (Ref.1998). Fish that moved out of a lake to spawn generally return to the lake a few days after spawning. However, river-resident fish may stay on or near the spawning area for much of the summer (Ref. 27547). Many spawn in two or even three consecutive years but others may skip one or two years between spawning (Ref. 10928). ...
During diagenesis and catagenesis, the biological stereospecificity of sterols, particularly at C-5, C-14, C-17 and C-20 is usually lost, and a large range of isomers is generated (see above for numbering). The term alphabetabeta sterane (sometimes just alphabeta) is commonly used as short-hand to denote steranes with the 5alpha(H), 14beta(H), 17beta(H) configuration, while alphaalphaalpha sterane would denote 5alpha(H), 14alpha(H), 17alpha(H) stereochemistry. The notation 14alpha(H) indicates that the hydrogen is located below the plane of the paper, whereas in 14beta(H) it is above the plane. In steranes, if no other carbon number is cited, S and R always refer to the stereochemistry at C-20. The prefix nor, as for example in 24-norcholestane, indicates that the molecule is formally derived for the parent structure by loss of the indicated carbon atom, i.e. C-24 is removed from cholestane. The term desmethylsteranes is sometimes used to distinguish steranes that do not possess an ...
Squalamine, a 7,24 dihydroxylated 24-sulfated cholestane steroid conjugated to a spermidine at position C-3. This steroidal compound was initially found in tiss
The 11 Malagasy species of the genus Ecnomus McLachlan, 1864 that do not belong to the psychomyiellodes species group are studied. One of them (Ecnomus salgiel Malicky, 2015) was recently described from Nosy Be Island. Ten are new and described: Ecnomus felix n. sp., E. dobignyi n. sp., E. matsaboryi n. sp., E. granjoni n. sp., E. commersoni n. sp., E. menavavae n. sp., E. ikopaensis n. sp., E. ru ...
Subcellular localization of 3 alpha, 7 alpha-dihydroxy- and 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoyl-coenzyme A ligase(s) in rat liver ...
A novel sulfur-containing sterane, 4,7-epithio-5-cholestane, has been identified in a sediment extract from the Miocene Northern Apennines marl (Italy) after its isolation by column chromatography and high pressure liquid chromatography. The compound has been characterised by GC-MS and mild Nickel boride desulfurisation and one and two-dimensional 1H NMR techniques. C27-C29 ... read more homologs have been detected in sediment extracts of three different formations and in one petroleum sample. These sulfur-containing steroids are A novel sulfur-containing sterane, 4,7-epithio-5-cholestane, has been identified in a sediment extract from the Miocene Northern Apennines marl (Italy) after its isolation by column chromatography and high pressure liquid chromatography. The compound has been characterised by GC-MS and mild Nickel boride desulfurisation and one and two-dimensional 1H NMR techniques. C27-C29 homologs have been detected in sediment extracts of three different formations and in one ...
Steroidal saponins are plant metabolites with a broad range of biological activities (Hostettmann & Marston, 1995). They are composed by a glycoside and a triterpene or steroidal fragment. Hydrolysis of saponins provides a glycoside free portion termed sapogenin which can be of the cholestane, furostane or spirostane type. The spirostane sapogenins also display economic importance due to their application in the synthesis of biologically active compounds such as insect hormones (Lee et al., 1976) cephalostatins and ritterazines (Lee et al., 2009, Phillips & Shair, 2007 and Pettit et al., 1988). In previous studies we reported the preparation of epoxycholestane derivatives as useful intermediates in the synthesis of norbrassinosteroid analogues (Rincón et al., 2006), in continuation with our studies we report herein on the synthesis and crystal structure of the title compound, (I), obtained by treatment of the previously reported ...
Adults home to certain gravelly spawning streams. Two to four males crowd around a female and press against her with their fins. Eggs are scattered and adhere to the gravel or are carried downstream and adhere to the substrate when the water is calmer. The spawning act lasts for 3-4 seconds and may occur 6-40 times an hour (Ref. 1998). Spent adults return to the lake 10-14 days after spawning began. Most females return to the lake during the first half of the downstream migration followed by most males in the latter half. Downstream fry migration occurs between dusk and dawn (Ref. 10928). ...
The present invention relates to a piperazine of the formula I wherein ring B is phenyl, pyridyl or pyrimidyl; each R3 is independently selected from hydrogen, halogen, N02, COOR wherein R is hydrogen or C1-6alkyl, CN, CF3, C1-6 alkyl, -S-C1-6 alkyl, -SO-C1-6 alkyl, -S02-C1-6 alkyl, C1-6 alkoxy and up to CIO aryloxy, n is 1, 2 or 3; P is a direct bond; Ring A is piperazinyl; Both X2 and X1 are N; Y is -SO2-; Z is -N(OH)CHO and Q is CH2; R1 is H, C1-6 alkyl, C5-7 cycloalkyl, up to C10aryl, up to C10aryl, up to C10heteroaryl, up to C12heteroarylalkyl, all optionally substituted by up to three groups independently selected from NO2, CF3, halogen, C1-4alkyl, carboxy (Cl-4) alkyl, up to C6 cycloalkyl, -OR4, -SR4, Cl-4 alkyl substituted with -OR4, SR4 (and its oxidized analogues), NR4, N-Y-R4, or Cl-4 alkyl-Y-NR4, with the proviso that where Rl is -OH, -OR4, -SR4, or NR4, or N-Y-R4 then Z is not -N(OH)CHO, Rl is 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-pentafluorophenyl; R4 is hydrogen, C1-6 alkyl, up to C10 aryl or up to C10 ...
Additions of one to two equivalents of Lewis acids that include magnesium salts to free-radical reduction reactions involving ester functionalized radicals and (1R,2S,5R)-menthyldiphenyltin hydride 4, bis((1R,2S,5R)-menthyl)phenyltin hydride 5, tris((1R,2S,5R)-menthyl)tin hydride 6, bis((1R,2S,5R)-menthyl)-[8-(N,N-dimethylamino)naphthyl]tin hydride 12, bis((1R,2S,5R)-menthyl)-[1-((S)-N,N-dimethylaminoethyl)phenyl]tin hydride 13 or 3α-dimethylstannyl-5α-cholestane 14 result in remarkable enantioselectivities. Examples include (S)-naproxen ethyl ester 16, produced in 74% yield and greater than 99% ee at −78°C from the bromide and 5 in the presence of MgBr2, and ethyl (R)-N-trifluoroacetyl-D-phenylglycinate 18, obtained in 78% yield and 99% ee under identical conditions. Kinetic and computational studies provide insight into the origins of these observations ...
As part of our PowerVR Graphics SDK v3.2 release, were announcing a public developer support and feedback system for PowerVR Insider members.
There are six different stakeholder groups you should be listening to periodically to determine whether youre moving in the right direction. These six groups are:. 1. Customers: How your customers see you is critical to any organization. Since not all feedback systems work equally to uncover customer perceptions, you should use a variety of feedback systems. Some examples are suggestion cards, phone calls, emails, interviews, focus groups, and so on.. 2. Employees: You should to track your employees level of engagement and satisfaction. Again, you should use a variety of feedback systems to gauge their perceptions. Your employees have a big impact on your long-term performance, especially when youre trying to execute changes in strategy.. 3. Vendors: In the old world, companies didnt care what their vendors thought of them. But in the new world, everyone is connected and part of a greater whole. In developing flexibility with your strategy, all of your relationships are potential assets that ...
Feedback Systems An Introduction for Scientists and Engineers Karl Johan Åström Richard M. Murray Version v2.1b (February 22, 29) This is the electronic edition of Feedback Systems and is available from
The module introduces the topic of feedback control systems and presents methods of modelling that lead to transient, steady state and stability performances in control systems. An emphasis is placed on links between time responses and complex frequency domains. Principal topics are feedback systems, Bode, Nyquist and root-locus analysis, stability conditions and compensation design. The overall aim is to understand and be able to apply basic techniques for the analysis and design of feedback control systems.. ...
27-Hydroxylase deficiency (cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX)) is a rare familial sterol storage disease with accumulation of cholestanol and cholesterol in most tissues, and in particular in xanthomas, bile, and brain. Clinically, this disorder is characterized by dementia, spinal cord paresis, cerebellar ataxia, tuberous and tendon xanthomas, early atherosclerosis, and cataracts.. More than 20 different mutations have been defined in the sterol 27-hydroxylase gene of CTX patients. The defect leads to a block in bile acid biosynthesis, with accumulation of substrates for the mitochondrial 27-hydroxylase such as 5β-cholestane-3α,7α,12α-triol and 7α-hydroxy-4-cholestene-3-one. The former metabolite is metabolized into 5β-cholestane-3α,7α,12α,25-tetrol, 5β-cholestane-3α,7α,12α,23-tetrol, and 5β-cholestane-3α,7α,12α,24,25-pentol.. These bile alcohols are excreted in gram amounts in bile and feces. At least part of the excess cholestanol in patients with CTX is formed from the ...
Effect of bile acids on DNA synthesis by the regenerating liver was investigated in mice in vivo after partial hepatectomy (PH). Radioactivity incorporation into DNA after [14C]thymidine intraperitoneal administration peaked at 48 h after PH. At this time a significant taurocholate-induced dose-dependent reduction in DNA synthesis without changes in total liver radioactivity content was found (half-maximal effect at approximately 0.1 mumol/g body wt). Effect of taurocholate (0.5 mumol/g body wt) was mimicked by chocolate, ursodeoxycholate, deoxycholate, dehydrocholate, tauroursodeoxycholate, taurochenodeoxycholate, and taurodeoxycholate. In contrast, chenodeoxycholate, glycocholate, glycochenodeoxycholate, glycoursodeoxycholate, glycodeoxycholate, 5 beta-cholestane, bromosulfophthalein, and free taurine lacked this effect. No relationship between hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance and inhibitory effect was observed. Analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography indicated that inhibition of ...
Variants in the cholesterol ester transfer healthy protein and also lipoprotein lipase genes are predictors of plasma cholesterol feedback to dietary change. A meta-analysis of 67 regulated trials of nutritional soluble fiber as a single intervention revealed that the effects on complete cholesterol as well as LDL cholesterol levels were small. An extensive review of plant get more info stanols as well as sterols showed that these materials lower LDL cholesterol degrees in persons at danger of coronary heart disease.15 This evaluation included a meta-analysis of 41 trials revealing that 2 g per day of either stanols or sterols lowers LDL cholesterol levels by 10 percent. Exec Summary of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education and learning Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Discovery, Assessment, and also Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Grownups (Grownup Treatment Panel III). Private irregularity in cardiovascular condition risk element feedbacks to low-fat as well as ...
Variants in the cholesterol ester transfer healthy protein as well as lipoprotein lipase genes are predictors of plasma cholesterol feedback to nutritional modification. A meta-analysis of 67 controlled trials of nutritional soluble fiber as a single intervention revealed that the impacts on total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol degrees were small. An extensive evaluation of plant stanols as well as sterols showed that these compounds lower LDL cholesterol degrees in persons at danger of coronary heart disease.15 This testimonial included a meta-analysis of 41 tests showing that 2 g each day of either stanols or sterols decreases LDL website cholesterol degrees by 10 percent. Executive Summary of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Specialist Panel on Discovery, Assessment, and also Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Grownups (Grownup Therapy Panel III). Specific irregularity in cardiovascular condition risk aspect responses to low-saturated-fat and also ...
318027337 - EP 2153025 A2 2010-02-17 - REAL TIME CLOSED LOOP INTERPRETATION OF TUBING TREATMENT SYSTEMS AND METHODS - [origin: WO2008152599A2] A technique facilitates the treatment of a subterranean formation. The technique involves the use of a fluid delivery system that comprises a continuous feedback system. The continuous feedback system utilizes a real time closed loop interpretation technique to instantaneously synchronize and adjust actions at a well site surface relative to measured downhole events. Sensors are used to monitor at least one downhole property in real time. Based on the real time data, the continuous feedback system enables adjustments to be made with respect to the at least one property in a manner designed to influence a downhole event.[origin: WO2008152599A2] A technique facilitates the treatment of a subterranean formation. The technique involves the use of a fluid delivery system that comprises a continuous feedback system. The continuous feedback system utilizes a real time
Basically what im asking is that does it involve the hypothalamus or pituitary gland etc. as the control centre? (If it involves one). Is the message gone to there (CNS) where it comes back to say, the liver or pancreas to issue a response ...
Four new steroidal components (1−4) along with two known analogues (5−6) were obtained from the roots and rhizomes of Smilacina henryi. The components structures were determined as (25S)-5α-spirost-9(11)-ene-3β, 17α, 21-triol (1), (24S, 25S)-5α-spirost-9(11)-ene-3β, 17α, 24-triol (2), (25S)-5α-spirost-9(11)-ene-3β, 17α-dihydroxy-12-one (3), 5α-cholest-9(11)-ene-3β, 26-dihydroxy-16, 22-dione (4 ...
Dr. Sutherland responded: Make an egg. The role of the ovaries is to make an egg each month which has the potential to be fertilized making an embryo, and then to support implantation of the embryo. The ovaries do this by producing an ebb and flow of hormones that interact with the pituatary gland in a complex feedback system. If implantation does not occur, the hormones decline, signaling a period to start.
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27-Deoxy-5b-cyprinol is an intermediate in Bile acid synthesis pathway, in a sequence of reactions catalyzed by sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27) in the oxidation of 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha,27-tetrol into 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholestanoic acid (PMID: 8496170 ). 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha,25-tetrol 3-glucuronide, a metabolite of 27-Deoxy-5b-cyprinol, is the major bile alcohol component in serum from cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis patients (PMID: 7920441 ...
Illustration of a Lithocholic Acid molecular model. Recent research has shown that lithocholic acid (LCA), which is naturally produced in the liver during digestion, can kill several types of cancer cells, including those found in some brain tumours and breast cancer. Key: black=carbon, white=hydrogen, red=oxygen. - Stock Image C022/4469
The body uses two different feedback systems to help maintain homeostasis. One is used to strengthen a system while the other reduces the output of the system. Briefly describe the two feedback system, choose two body systems and.
There is a similar and slightly extended version of this post on the blog I have on the POZ website. Its in two parts: Part 1 Part 2 HIV infection and
Catalyzes the first step in the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates; the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol. Has also a vitamin D3-25-hydroxylase activity.
Image by digitalART2 via Flickr In Robert Sapolskys book, Why Zebras Dont Get Ulcers, he details a biological feedback system wherein psychological stress leads to the release of glucocorticoids that have beneficial effects in the near-term but negative effects (e.g. ulcers, depression, etc.) in the long-term. The key to getting the near-term benefits and avoiding…
Homeostasis regulates the heart rate and all of its internal functions to maintain equilibrium. According to Biology Online, homeostasis uses a negative and positive feedback system to keep the human...
Seven new polyoxygenated steroids (1-7) were isolated together with seven known analogues (8-14) from the South China Sea soft coral, Sarcophyton sp. The structures of the new compounds were identified on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and comparison with reported data. All the steroids are characterized with 3β,5α,6β-hydroxy moiety, displaying carbon skeletons of cholestane, ergostane, gorgostane and 23,24-dimethyl cholestane. In the in vitro bioassay, metabolites exhibited different levels of antimicrobial activity against bacterial species Escherichia coli and Bacillus megaterium, and fungal species Microbotryum violaceum and Septoria tritici. No inhibition was detected towards microalga Chlorella fusca. Preliminary structure-activity analysis suggests that the 11α-acetoxy group may increase both antibacterial and antifungal activities. The terminal-double bond and the cyclopropane moiety at the side chain may also contribute to the bioactivity.
Seven new polyoxygenated steroids (1-7) were isolated together with seven known analogues (8-14) from the South China Sea soft coral, Sarcophyton sp. The structures of the new compounds were identified on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and comparison with reported data. All the steroids are characterized with 3β,5α,6β-hydroxy moiety, displaying carbon skeletons of cholestane, ergostane, gorgostane and 23,24-dimethyl cholestane. In the in vitro bioassay, metabolites exhibited different levels of antimicrobial activity against bacterial species Escherichia coli and Bacillus megaterium, and fungal species Microbotryum violaceum and Septoria tritici. No inhibition was detected towards microalga Chlorella fusca. Preliminary structure-activity analysis suggests that the 11α-acetoxy group may increase both antibacterial and antifungal activities. The terminal-double bond and the cyclopropane moiety at the side chain may also contribute to the bioactivity.
Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare, disabling genetic disorder in which cholestanol and cholesterol accumulate in the nervous system and other tissues. It has an autosomal recessive mode...
0038] Referring to, for example, FIG. 3C, in the exemplary embodiment, the motors 40, 42 may have suitable position feedback systems 50, 52. The position feedback systems 50, 52 may be non-invasive with respect to the isolated atmosphere in the transport chamber, as will be described below. The feedback system 50, 52 for motors 40, 42 may be generally similar to the feedback system 150, 152 shown in FIG. 6. The feedback systems 150, 152 for each rotor may be similar to each other and may generally incorporate sensors 150A, 150G, 1501 and target indexing to establish absolute and incremental rotational position, as well as radial or centered position of the rotor 140R, 142R. In alternate embodiments, the sensors 150A, 150G, 1051 may provide feedback information for any one or more of the absolute and incremental rotational position and the radial position. For example, the sensors 150A, 150G, 1501 may be electromagnetic sensors such as Hall effect sensor, or may be optical or other beam sensors. ...
A steroid is an organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration. Examples include the dietary lipid cholesterol, the sex hormones estradiol and testosterone and the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone. Steroids have two principal biological functions: certain steroids (such as cholesterol) are important components of cell membranes which alter membrane fluidity, and many steroids are signaling molecules which activate steroid hormone receptors. The steroid core structure is composed of seventeen carbon atoms, bonded in four "fused" rings: three six-member cyclohexane rings (rings A, B and C in the first illustration) and one five-member cyclopentane ring (the D ring). Steroids vary by the functional groups attached to this four-ring core and by the oxidation state of the rings. Sterols are forms of steroids with a hydroxyl group at position three and a skeleton derived from cholestane. They can also vary more markedly by changes to the ring structure (for ...
The Salish Sucker is a freshwater fish and is under the responsibility of the federal government. The Species at Risk Act (SARA, Section 37) requires the competent minister to prepare recovery strategies for listed extirpated, endangered or threatened species. The Salish Sucker was listed as endangered under SARA in June 2005. The development of this recovery strategy was co-led by Fisheries and Oceans Canada - Pacific Region and the British Columbia Ministry of Environment, in cooperation and consultation with many individuals, organizations and government agencies, as indicated below. The strategy meets SARA requirements in terms of content and process (Sections 39-41) and the British Columbia Ministry of Environment has reviewed and accepts this document as scientific advice. Success in the recovery of this species depends on the commitment and cooperation of many different constituencies that will be involved in implementing the directions set out in this strategy and will not be achieved by
Catalog #: P2010002 - 250 U Cholesterol oxidase is a flavoprotein involved in the first step of cholesterol catabolism. The enzyme first oxidizes cholesterol to cholest-5-en-3-one then isomerizes it to cholest-4-en-3-one while producing hydrogen peroxide H2O2. Available in a 250 Units and custom bulk sizes. Live Enquiry about this product via Text/SMS: 1-858-900-3210 (8 am - 8 pm PST ...
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Ergosterol is the major sterol found in the membranes of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. While past studies have identified some ergosterol mutants in C. reinhardtii, very little is known about sterol biosynthesis pathways in this species. With the elucidation of the Chlamydomonas genome, bioinformatics analysis has allowed us to determine potential genes involved in ergosterol biosynthesis. With this knowledge, a working model of the pathway was designed for future analysis. Several of the ergosterol biosynthetic genes were analyzed in respect to their role and involvement in flagellar regeneration. These genes were upregulated during the regrowth of the flagella. Also Chlamydomonas strains lacking flagella were analyzed by Q-RT PCR to determine what role ergosterol biosynthetic genes played in the absence of their flagella. Finally, one of the genes with homology to the yeast sterol C-5 desaturase, ERG3, was chosen for further analysis. To test whether ERG3 of C. reinhardtii had a similar function, yeast
Background Suboptimal use of cardiovascular prevention medications has been reported. We report recent trends in secondary cardiovascular disease prevention drug use in Europe. Design We used the 2004-2013 data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), a large longitudinal cohort study in middle-aged and elderly Europeans. Methods Cross-sectional and panel data logistic regression models were used to study trends in cholesterol- and blood pressure-lowering drug use and effects of participant characteristics on the likelihood of drug use among participants with histoty of cardiovascular disease in SHARE. Results In SHARE 21,388 participants reported history of cardiovascular disease and provided data on cholesterol- and blood pressure-lowering drug use. At initial report, 40% and 60% of them used cholesterol- or blood pressure-lowering drugs, respectively. Increasing cross-sectional time trends were observed for both medication classes (odds ratios of use in 2013 vs. 2004, 1.6
The invention relates to a device for the representation and determination of the rigidity of materials, by means of which measured physical values can be represented at a vicinity distant from the place of measurement and above all by means of a tactile representation, in other words, using the sense of touch. According to the invention, a force feedback system has been developed which permits the user or operator to gain a feeling for the mechanical rigidity value. The value for rigidity, measured for example for medical purposes by endoscope or arthroscope, controls the pressure found in an external touch cushion (2), by means of one of the voltages (U), given by an analytical device recording the appropriate test region. The rigidity of the cushion (2) thus gives an equivalent feel to the measured rigidity of the material under evaluation, or the biological probe. In the above rigidity transmitter (1) a pressure (P) is generated in a closed pressure system by means of an input converter (3) and
A system for controlling fuel metering for an internal combustion engine having a feedback system which has a controller for calculating a feedback correction coefficient, using an adaptive control law to correct a quantity of fuel injection such that a detected air/fuel ratio is brought to a desired air/fuel ratio. In the system, it is discriminated whether the feedback correction coefficient and the detected air/fuel ratio are in phase, and the feedback system is instable when they are discriminated to be in phase. Since the coefficient acts to correct the deviation of the detected air/fuel ratio from the desired air/fuel ratio, they are normally in antiphase. It is thus possible to find the system instable, by discriminating whether they are in phase or not.
Fig. 7 Two-dimensional plot of track curvature versus centroid velocity.. In the drug environment, the worm is classified as active, semiactive, or inactive as demonstrated in Fig. 4, and the plot is accordingly segregated into the three areas of activity. We are primarily interested in combinations that induce inactivity in the worm. (A) In iteration 1, two combinations (that is, P1 and T3) are able to make the worm inactive. Besides in P3, the active worm does not succumb to any other combination and is classified as being active. (B) In iteration 2, only P1 makes the worm inactive. The rest of the combinations do not seem to affect the active worm. (C) In iteration 3, the worm is in a semiactive or active state for all combinations. (D) In iteration 4, three combinations (T1, T2, and T3) are able to make the worm inactive, and the winning combination is chosen as T3. ...
PTP1B serving as a key negative regulator of insulin signaling is a novel target for type 2 diabetes and obesity. Modification at ring B of N-{4-[(3-Phenyl-ureido)-methyl]-phenyl}-methane-sulfonamide template to interact with residues Arg47 and Lys41 in the C site of PTP1B by molecular docking aided design resulted in the discovery of a series of novel high potent and selective inhibitors of PTP1B. The structure activity relationship interacting with the C site of PTP1B was well illustrated. Compounds 8 and 18 were shown to be the high potent and most promising PTP1B inhibitors with cellular activity and great selectivity over the highly homologous TCPTP and other PTPs ...
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Crystalline lithocholic (3α-hydroxycholanic) acid was isolated from a pooled sample of feces from healthy men for the first time. This acid, which occurs in small amounts in human bile, was obtained by alcohol extraction, followed by solvent partition and chromatography. Under these conditions most of the acid was recovered in the form of its methyl ester. ...
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule 14alpha-ethyl-5alpha-cholest-7-ene-3beta,15alpha-diol (C29H50O2) from the PQR.
If youre like most people, you might have trouble controlling your weight. Or maybe its under control, but it wont go down to where youd like it to be.. Weight loss, however, doesnt have to be stressful or complicated. A few simple habit changes could make a big difference - over the long term.. Will these changes take you from being 100 pounds overweight to slim and sexy in four weeks? Not at all. These are simple things that are designed to make gradual and sustainable changes.. Create some simple habits, and the weight will come off. Eventually.. This is not a step-by-step guide, and you will probably not want to implement every suggestion. Choose those that would work best for you.. 1. Weigh yourself and chart it. Each morning, weigh yourself on a digital scale and log it immediately. Your weight, of course, will fluctuate from day-to-day, and your sense of accomplishment or disappointment shouldnt hinge on your daily weight. However, your weight can be used as a useful feedback system ...
If youre like most people, you might have trouble controlling your weight. Or maybe its under control, but it wont go down to where youd like it to be.. Weight loss, however, doesnt have to be stressful or complicated. A few simple habit changes could make a big difference - over the long term.. Will these changes take you from being 100 pounds overweight to slim and sexy in four weeks? Not at all. These are simple things that are designed to make gradual and sustainable changes.. Create some simple habits, and the weight will come off. Eventually.. This is not a step-by-step guide, and you will probably not want to implement every suggestion. Choose those that would work best for you.. 1. Weigh yourself and chart it. Each morning, weigh yourself on a digital scale and log it immediately. Your weight, of course, will fluctuate from day-to-day, and your sense of accomplishment or disappointment shouldnt hinge on your daily weight. However, your weight can be used as a useful feedback system ...
Barker, H.A. and Murray-Smith, D.J. (1968) Sensitivity analysis and design of linear feedback systems. In: 2nd IFAC Symposium on System Sensitivity and Adaptivity, Dubrovnik, Jugoslavia, 26-31 Aug 1968, B36-B53. ...
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Biosynthesis of 24-isopropyl cholestane precursors in various rhizaria[9] suggests a relevant ecological role already during ...
Cholestanes: 24S-Hydroxycholesterol. *Cholesterol. *Pregnanes: 3α-Dihydroprogesterone. *3β-Dihydroprogesterone ...
Cholestanes: 24S-Hydroxycholesterol. *Cholesterol. *Pregnanes: 3α-Dihydroprogesterone. *3β-Dihydroprogesterone ...
Cholestanes: 24S-Hydroxycholesterol. *Cholesterol. *Pregnanes: 3α-Dihydroprogesterone. *3β-Dihydroprogesterone ...
5-alpha-cholestanes, and cholest-5-enes. Many of the compounds reported for P. oceanica were, however, not detected by ...
Cholestanes: 24S-Hydroxycholesterol. *Cholesterol. *Pregnanes: 3α-Dihydroprogesterone. *3β-Dihydroprogesterone ...
7-Dehydrocholesterol is the precursor of cholecalciferol.[7] Within the epidermal layer of skin, 7-Dehydrocholesterol undergoes an electrocyclic reaction as a result of UVB light at wavelengths between 290 and 315 nm, with peak synthesis occurring between 295 and 300 nm.[27] This results in the opening of the vitamin precursor B-ring through a conrotatory pathway making previtamin D3 (pre-cholecalciferol).[28] In a process which is independent of UV light, the pre-cholecalciferol then undergoes a [1,7] antarafacial sigmatropic rearrangement [29] and therein finally isomerizes to form vitamin D3.. The active UVB wavelengths are present in sunlight, and sufficient amounts of cholecalciferol can be produced with moderate exposure of the skin, depending on the strength of the sun.[27] Time of day, season, and altitude affect the strength of the sun, and pollution, cloud cover or glass all reduce the amount of UVB exposure. Exposure of face, arms and legs, averaging 5-30 minutes twice per week, may ...
... , along with ergostane and stigmastane are used as biomarkers for early eukaryotic life. High abundance of cholestane ... doi:10.1016/0016-7037(88)90031-2. Cholestanes at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... Cholestane is a saturated 27-carbon tetracyclic triterpene. ...
Cholestane Ergostane Kurauti, Yukiti; Kazuno, Taro (January 1939). "Tetraoxycholan, Trioxycholen und Trioxy-bis- ...
5beta-cholestane-3alpha,7alpha,12alpha,26-tetraol + NADP+ + H2O The 4 substrates of this enzyme are 5beta-cholestane-3alpha, ... Other names in common use include 5beta-cholestane-3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-triol 26-hydroxylase, 5beta-cholestane-3alpha,7alpha, ... Mechanism of oxidation of 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha,27-tetrol into 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta- ... Okuda K, Hoshita N (1968). "Oxidation of 5-beta-cholestane-3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-triol by rat-liver mitochondria". Biochim ...
5alpha-cholestane-3beta,5alpha,6beta-triol The enzyme works equally well with either epoxide as substrate. Levin, W.; Michaud, ... 5alpha-cholestane-3beta,5alpha,6beta-triol (2) 5,6beta-epoxy-5beta-cholestan-3beta-ol + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons ...
26-tetraol to 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha, 7-alpha, 12-alpha-triol-26-oic acid via 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha, 7-alpha, 12-alpha- ... Masui T, Herman R, Staple E (March 1966). "The oxidation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha, 7-alpha, 12-alpha, ...
Along with cholestane and stigmastane, this sterane is used as a biomarker for early eukaryotes. Cholane Cholestane Lanostane ...
... may refer to: 5beta-cholestane-3alpha,7alpha-diol 12alpha-hydroxylase, an enzyme 7alpha- ...
5beta-cholestane-3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-triol + NADP+ + H2O The 4 substrates of this enzyme are 5beta-cholestane-3alpha,7alpha- ... In enzymology, a 5beta-cholestane-3alpha,7alpha-diol 12alpha-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.13.96) is an enzyme that catalyzes the ... Cytochrome P-450 LM4 and 12alpha-hydroxylation of 5beta-cholestane-3alpha, 7alpha-diol". Eur. J. Biochem. 125 (2): 423-9. doi: ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 5beta-cholestane-3alpha,7alpha-diol,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (12alpha- ...
26-tetraol to 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha, 7-alpha, 12-alpha-triol-26-oic acid via 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha, 7-alpha, 12-alpha- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is (25R)-5beta-cholestane-3alpha,7alpha,12alpha,26-tetraol:NAD+ 26-oxidoreductase. ... Masui T, Herman R, Staple E (1966). "The oxidation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha, 7-alpha, 12-alpha, ... Other names in common use include cholestanetetrol 26-dehydrogenase, 5beta-cholestane-3alpha,7alpha,12alpha,26-tetrol ...
... and the cholestane cholesterol. These neurosteroids have excitatory effects on neurotransmission. They act as potent negative ... and the cholestane 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol (NMDA receptor-selective; very potent). Pheromones are neurosteroids that influence ...
... rearrangement is a classic organic reaction in organic chemistry describing a rearrangement reaction of cholestane-3β,5α,6β- ...
These include terpenoids, terpenes, pristane, phytane, cholestane, chlorins and porphyrins, which are large, chelating ...
Alternatively, it can be converted into 5β-cholestane-3α,7α-diol and then to chenodeoxycholic acid, the other major primary ...
The discovery of steranes including cholestane in 2.7-billion year-old shales from Pilbara Craton, Australia, suggests that ...
5-alpha cholestane, perylene, benzo perylene, coronene, tetra decylprene, dodecyl sulfide, benzodiphenylene sulfide, ...
5beta-cholestane-3alpha,7alpha-diol 12alpha-hydroxylase EC 1.14.13.97: taurochenodeoxycholate 6α-hydroxylase EC 1.14.13.98: ...
cholestane About biomarkers [email protected] Accessed 8 October 2009.. ...
Sterols are forms of steroids with a hydroxyl group at position three and a skeleton derived from cholestane. They can also ... the steroid is said to have a cholestane framework. The two common 5α and 5β stereoisomeric forms of steroids exist because of ...
A related and important molecule is 24-n-propyl cholestane (figure 1, right), also with the cholestane skeleton, but with an n- ... However, as with the marine algae, analysis of the ratio of 24-isopropyl cholestane to 24-n-propyl cholestane may clarify the ... can be decoupled by considering the ratio of 24-isopropyl cholestane to 24-n-propyl cholestane. In many rocks, this ratio is ... and the ratio of 24-isopropyl cholestane to 24-n-propyl cholestane is used an age-specific proxy for the Proterozoic- ...
24-dimethyl cholestane. In the in vitro bioassay, metabolites exhibited different levels of antimicrobial activity against ... All the steroids are characterized with 3β,5α,6β-hydroxy moiety, displaying carbon skeletons of cholestane, ergostane, ... All the steroids are characterized with 3β,5α,6β-hydroxy moiety, displaying carbon skeletons of cholestane, ergostane, ... gorgostane and 23,24-dimethyl cholestane. In the in vitro bioassay, metabolites exhibited different levels of antimicrobial ...
Cholestane steroid glycosides from the rhizomes of Dioscorea villosa (wild yam). Carbohydr Res. 2013;370:86-91. ...
substituted in position 17 beta by a chain of three or more carbon atoms, e.g. cholane, cholestane, ergosterol, sitosterol. ... substituted in position 17 beta by a chain of three or more carbon atoms, e.g. cholane, cholestane, ergosterol, sitosterol. ... cholane or cholestane derivatives, optionally cyclised, e.g. 17-beta-phenyl or 17-beta-furyl derivatives. ... cholane or cholestane derivatives, optionally cyclised, e.g. 17-beta-phenyl or 17-beta-furyl derivatives. ...
Cholesterols and derivatives are compounds containing a 3-hydroxylated cholestane core. Thus, 4-alpha-methyl-5-alpha-cholest-7- ...
A new method for the extraction and quantification of cholesterol, 7-ketocholesterol, cholestane-3beta-5alpha-6beta-triol, 25- ...
Your personal data will be used to support your experience throughout this website, to manage access to your account, and for other purposes described in our privacy policy. ...
These bile alcohols are mainly 5 -cholestane-3a,7a,12a,24S, 25-pentol, Sp-diolestane-3a,7a,12a,23 ,25-pentol and 5P-du)lestane- ... Steroid standards were purchased from the following sources Cholestane - 3/9,5a, 6/9-triol and 7a-hydroxycholesterol from ... 8-cholestane-3a,7a,12a-triol was inhibited by biliary obstruction [127]. Whether the... [Pg.249]. Yamasaki et al. have studied ...
Cholestane Derivatives *Enzyme Inhibitors for Glycolipids *Fatty Acids and Methyl Esters *Fluorescent Standards ...
26,27-Oxido-5 alpha-cholestane-3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-triol can be obtained in a homogeneous state in gram quantities by ...
... cholestane-,TEX,$3{\beta}$,/TEX,, ,TEX,$5{\alpha}$,/TEX,, ,TEX,$6{\beta}$,/TEX, triol (triol), ,TEX,${\alpha}$,/TEX,-epoxide ... hydroxy cholesterol, 25-hydroxy cholesterol, cholestane-. $3{\beta}$. , $5{\alpha}$. , $6{\beta}$. triol (triol), ${\alpha}$. - ...
Cholestanes: 24S-Hydroxycholesterol. *Cholesterol. *Pregnanes: 3α-Dihydroprogesterone. *3β-Dihydroprogesterone ...
OSW-1 is a new member of cholestane saponin family, which is cytotoxic against several types of malignant cells. The majority ...
Sterol is ideally u...展开 Sterol is a kind of steroid that has a basic structure of cholestane, 3 β-hydroxide cholestanes, is ... Sterol is a kind of steroid that has a basic structure of cholestane, 3 β-hydroxide cholestanes, is one kind of saturated sec- ...
Inecalcitol is an analogue of calcitriol, the naturally active metabolite of vitamin D. Calcitriol and their analogues activate the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Vitamin D has a major role in regulating calcium absorption from the gut, storage in mineral form in the bones, and excretion by the kidney and effectively prevents rickets in infants. Vitamin D and calcitriol can cause hypercalcemia at high or frequently repeated doses; in turn, hypercalcemia can cause kidney toxicity by accumulation of calcium-containing micro-crystals and heart and muscle dysfunction by impairing contractions. [Hybrigenics Website] The mechanism of action is currently unknown, but it is proposed that inecalcitol exerts its superagonistic action through enhancing coactivator binding by the VDR.. ...
... the cholesterol metabolite 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol, synthetic glucocorticoids and antiglucocorticoids ... the cholesterol metabolite 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol, synthetic glucocorticoids and antiglucocorticoids ...
5alpha butyl chlorinated cholestane coprostanol dihydrocholesterol epicoprostanol ether experiment extraction fid final gc ... 5alpha butyl chlorinated cholestane coprostanol dihydrocholesterol epicoprostanol ether experiment extraction fid final gc ...
D4.210.500.247.222.222.347 Cholestanes D4.808.247 D4.210.500.247 Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase D8.244.453.499.750 D8.811. ...
5 alpha-cholestane A[I], 3 beta-chloro-5-bromo 6 beta-amino-5 alpha-cholestane B[II], 3 beta-Acetoxy-6-phthalimid choloest-5- ...
5 alpha-cholestane-3, 6-dione (4), beta-sitosterol (5) and saringosterol (6).,/p,,p,,b,CONCLUSION,/b,Compounds 1-3 and 5 were ...
3alpha,5beta,7alpha,12alpha)-Cholestane-3,7,12,26-tetrol. ChEBI. 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha,26-Tetrahydroxy-5beta-cholestane. ChEBI ... 5beta-Cholestane-3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-triol + Oxygen + NADPH → 27-Deoxy-5b-cyprinol + NADP + Water. details. ... Mechanism of oxidation of 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha,27-tetrol into 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta- ... Catalyzes the first step in the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates; the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane- ...
6-halohydrins of 5α-cholestan-3β-ol and 3β-acetoxy-5α-cholestane. 1982, Vol. 47, Issue 11, pp. 2946-2960 [Abstract] ...
3 alpha,7 alpha,26-Trihydroxy-5beta-cholestane. Description. 3 alpha,7 alpha,26-Trihydroxy-5beta-cholestane, also known as (25R ... 3a,7a-Dihydroxy-5b-cholestane + NADPH + Oxygen → 3 alpha,7 alpha,26-Trihydroxy-5beta-cholestane + NADP + Water. details. ... 5beta-cholestane-3alpha,7alpha,26-triol or (3alpha,5beta,7alpha)-cholestane-3,7,26-triol, belongs to the class of organic ... Catalyzes the first step in the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates; the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane- ...
Cholestane Derivatives *Enzyme Inhibitors for Glycolipids *Fatty Acids and Methyl Esters *Fluorescent Standards ...
RTBs mission is to spread the Christian Gospel by demonstrating that sound reason and scientific research-including the very latest discoveries-consistently support, rather than erode, confidence in the truth of the Bible and faith in the personal, transcendent God revealed in both Scripture and nature. Learn More ». ...
Sterol is ideally u...展开 Sterol is a kind of steroid that has a basic structure of cholestane, 3 β-hydroxide cholestanes, is ... Sterol is a kind of steroid that has a basic structure of cholestane, 3 β-hydroxide cholestanes, is one kind of saturated sec- ...
  • Activated by naturally occurring steroids such as pregnenolone and progesterone, the cholesterol metabolite 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol, synthetic glucocorticoids and antiglucocorticoids and 16-alpha-carbonitrile (PCN). (uniprot.org)
  • The transbilayer movement and distribution of spin-labeled analogs of the steroids androstane (SLA) and cholestane (SLC) were investigated in the human erythrocyte and in liposomes. (nih.gov)
  • 4-alpha-Methyl-5-alpha-cholest-7-en-3-one, also known as (4alpha,5alpha)-4-methylcholest-7-en-3-one, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as cholesterols and derivatives. (ymdb.ca)
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: We showed that patho-physiological concentrations of either 7-keto-cholesterol (7-KC), or cholestane-3beta, 5alpha, 6beta-triol (TRIOL) caused the eryptotic death of human red blood cells (RBC), strictly dependent on the early production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). (bvsalud.org)
  • 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC), cholestane-3Beta-5Alpha-6Beta-triol (Triol), 3,5-cholestane-7-one (Cholestone), 3Alpha-5Beta -6Alpha-cholestane-3,6-diol (Diol), cholesteryl acetate (Acetate), 7-oxocolesterol-5-em-3-beta-yl-acetate (7-oxo), 5Beta-6Beta epoxycholesterol (Epoxy) in MSC of individuals with AML. (usp.br)
  • 8777839 ). Lathosterol oxidase (EC 1.14.21.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 5alpha-cholest-7-en-3beta-ol + NAD(P)H + H+ + O2 cholesta-5,7-dien-3beta-ol + NAD(P)+ + 2 H2O. (hmdb.ca)
  • W. B. Zhang, P. B. Addis and T. P. Krick, "Quantifica tion of 5α-Cholestane-3β, 5, 6β-Triol and Other Choles terol Oxidation Products in Fast Food French Fried Pota toes," Journal of Food Science, Vol. 56, No. 3, 1991, pp. 716-718. (scirp.org)
  • The effects of cholestane 3β, 5α, 6β-triol on intestinal epithelial crypt cells were investigated using the IEC-6 cell line. (go.jp)
  • Cholestane 3β, 5α, 6β-triol decreased SH groups (glutathione and protein SH) in the cell, and showed cytotoxicity in a time-dependent manner. (go.jp)
  • Although the concentration of cholestane 3β, 5α, 6β-triol used in this study (100 μM) was very high compared with that in plasma of experimental animals, cholestane 3β, 5α, 6β-triol did not show any cytotoxicity on IEC-6 cells without fetal calf serum (FCS). (go.jp)
  • Unknown components in FSC (not VLDL or LDL) were suggested to be associated with the cytotoxicity of cholestane 3β, 5α, 6β-triol. (go.jp)
  • the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol. (ximbio.com)
  • For 108 patients (aged from 2 weeks to 7 years) the levels of cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol (C-triol) and chitotriosidase (ChT) were measured. (biomedcentral.com)