Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Cholera: An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.Cholera Toxin: An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Vibrio cholerae: The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Vibrio cholerae O1: Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 1. All are CHOLERA-causing strains (serotypes). There are two biovars (biotypes): cholerae and eltor (El Tor).Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Immunity, Herd: The non-susceptibility to infection of a large group of individuals in a population. A variety of factors can be responsible for herd immunity and this gives rise to the different definitions used in the literature. Most commonly, herd immunity refers to the case when, if most of the population is immune, infection of a single individual will not cause an epidemic. Also, in such immunized populations, susceptible individuals are not likely to become infected. Herd immunity can also refer to the case when unprotected individuals fail to contract a disease because the infecting organism has been banished from the population.Vibrio cholerae O139: Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 139. This strain emerged in India in 1992 and caused a CHOLERA epidemic.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.BangladeshMalaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Papillomavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Haiti: A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)Guinea: A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and MALI, east of GUINEA-BISSAU. Its capital is Conakry.Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Antitoxins: Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.Mass Vaccination: Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Pertussis Vaccine: A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Haemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated: A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.Rabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.Rotavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.PakistanTyphoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.Sanitation: The development and establishment of environmental conditions favorable to the health of the public.Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Chickenpox Vaccine: A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine: A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Mumps Vaccine: Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.Streptococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.Anthrax Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.Dengue Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.Vaccines, Virosome: Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.PhilippinesViral Hepatitis Vaccines: Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral: A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Yellow Fever Vaccine: Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.Plague Vaccine: A suspension of killed Yersinia pestis used for immunizing people in enzootic plague areas.Mice, Inbred BALB CFungal Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Rubella Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)Refugees: Persons fleeing to a place of safety, especially those who flee to a foreign country or power to escape danger or persecution in their own country or habitual residence because of race, religion, or political belief. (Webster, 3d ed)Vaccines, Acellular: Vaccines that are produced by using only the antigenic part of the disease causing organism. They often require a "booster" every few years to maintain their effectiveness.SAIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.Salmonella Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with SALMONELLA. This includes vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER or PARATYPHOID FEVER; (TYPHOID-PARATYPHOID VACCINES), and vaccines used to prevent nontyphoid salmonellosis.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle: Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.Ebola Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent EBOLA HEMORRHAGIC FEVER.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Antibody-Producing Cells: Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.IndiaEndemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Staphylococcal Vaccines
Subunit vaccines are composed of small fragments of disease causing organisms. A characteristic example is the subunit vaccine ... Examples are vaccines against flu, cholera, plague, and hepatitis A. Most vaccines of this type are likely to require booster ... Live attenuated polio and some typhoid and cholera vaccines are given orally in order to produce immunity based in the bowel. ... Artificially acquired active immunity can be induced by a vaccine, a substance that contains antigen. A vaccine stimulates a ...
... the licensed recombinant cholera B subunit (rCTB)-WC cholera vaccine Dukoral, have been developed. There are currently no ... In different trials, the rCTB-WC cholera vaccine provided high (85-100%) short-term protection. An oral ETEC vaccine candidate ... Vaccine. 34 (26): 2880-2886. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.02.076. PMID 26988259. Svennerholm AM (Feb 2011). "From cholera to ... A modified ETEC vaccine consisting of recombinant E. coli strains over-expressing the major CFs and a more LT-like hybrid ...
"Vaccines for preventing cholera: killed whole cell or other subunit vaccines (injected)". Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. (8): ... "Cholera's seven pandemics". CBC. 9 May 2008. Retrieved 15 July 2018.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ... Vaccine. Main article: Cholera vaccine. A number of safe and effective oral vaccines for cholera are available.[43] The World ... The cholera toxin (CTX or CT) is an oligomeric complex made up of six protein subunits: a single copy of the A subunit (part A ...
... can decrease the effect certain vaccines, such as the live BCG vaccine (used for tuberculosis), the cholera vaccine, ... Amikacin irreversibly binds to 16S rRNA and the RNA-binding S12 protein of the 30S subunit of prokaryotic ribosome and inhibits ... Amikacin works by blocking the function of the bacteria's 30S ribosomal subunit, making it unable to produce proteins. Amikacin ... and the live typhoid vaccine by acting as a pharmacological antagonist. ...
New third-generation vaccines being researched include recombinant live vaccines and recombinant sub-unit vaccines. In the ... The difference between smallpox vaccination and anthrax or chicken cholera vaccination was that the weakened form of the latter ... These vaccines may be given by aerosol, scarification, or subcutaneous injection. A Georgian/Russian live anthrax spore vaccine ... This was a cell-free vaccine in distinction to the live-cell Pasteur-style vaccine previously used for veterinary purposes. It ...
... provides a non-covalent linkage to the B subunit through the B subunit's central pore. The A1 chain for cholera toxin catalyzes ... For example, systemic immunization along with co-administered intra-nasal delivery of virus-cholera toxin conjugate vaccine ... The B subunit is responsible for binding to receptors to open up a pathway for the A subunit to enter the cell. The A subunit ... The B subunits form a five-membered or pentameric ring, where one end of the A subunit goes into and is held. This B subunit ...
"Vaccines for preventing cholera: killed whole cell or other subunit vaccines (injected)". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (8): ... Oral cholera vaccines were first introduced in the 1990s and oral cholera vaccine is on the World Health Organization's List of ... Cholera vaccines are vaccines that are effective at preventing cholera. For the first six months after vaccination they provide ... is the only FDA-approved vaccine for the prevention of cholera. The Vaxchora vaccine can cost more than US$250. "Cholera ...
Currently, cholera toxin sub-unit B stands as the most serviceable adjuvant (delivery mechanism), however the development of a ... The vaccine was grown in C. reinhardtii algae and provided oral vaccination in mice but was hindered by low vaccine antigen ... While previous plant based vaccines have been approved for market production in the past, all current edible algal vaccines ... consisting of a foot-and-mouth disease antigen complexed with the cholera toxin subunit B which delivered the antigen to ...
The second generation of vaccines was introduced in the 1880s by Louis Pasteur who developed vaccines for chicken cholera and ... vaccine), a fragment of it can create an immune response.[38] Examples include the subunit vaccine against Hepatitis B virus ... First DIVA vaccines. The first DIVA vaccines (formerly termed marker vaccines and since 1999 coined as DIVA vaccines) and ... vaccines that have proven effective include the influenza vaccine,[6] the HPV vaccine,[7] and the chicken pox vaccine.[8] The ...
The second generation of vaccines was introduced in the 1880s by Louis Pasteur who developed vaccines for chicken cholera and ... vaccine), a fragment of it can create an immune response.[citation needed] Examples include the subunit vaccine against ... Examples include the polio vaccine, hepatitis A vaccine, rabies vaccine and some influenza vaccines.[citation needed] Some ... The first DIVA vaccines (formerly termed marker vaccines and since 1999 coined as DIVA vaccines) and companion diagnostic tests ...
... vaccine in comparison to a tetanus and diphtheria (Td) vaccine when given as booster vaccinations to healthy adults". Vaccine. ... The 'B'-subunit (binding) attaches to target regions on cell membranes, the 'A'-subunit (active) enters through the membrane ... For example, Cholera toxin ADP-ribosylates, thereby activating tissue adenylate cyclase to increase the concentration of cAMP, ... A common example of this A-subunit activity is called ADP-ribosylation in which the A-subunit catalyzes the addition of an ADP- ...
It acts similarly to the cholera toxin by raising cAMP levels through ADP-ribosylation of the alpha-subunit of a Gs protein ... "Expert Rev Vaccines. 6 (5): 809-19. doi:10.1586/14760584.6.5.809. PMID 17931160.. ... In addition to its effects on chloride secretion, which involve the same steps as the effects of cholera toxin, heat-labile ... "Expression of the B subunit of the heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli in tobacco mosaic virus-infected Nicotiana ...
Salk vaccine) and influenza vaccine bacterial: typhoid vaccine, cholera vaccine, plague vaccine, and pertussis vaccine ... Split virus vaccines are produced by using a detergent to disrupt the virus. Subunit vaccines are produced by purifying out the ... An inactivated vaccine (or killed vaccine) is a vaccine consisting of virus particles, bacteria, or other pathogens that have ... In contrast, live vaccines (which are nearly always attenuated vaccines) use pathogens that are still alive (but are almost ...
Molecular and Cellular Biology portal Drinking water Haiti cholera outbreak Cholera vaccine "Laboratory Methods for the ... which are ribosomal subunit genes used to track evolutionary relationships between bacteria. Also relevant in determining if ... A single dose vaccine is available for those traveling to an area were cholera is common. V. cholerae has two circular ... In 2002, the WHO deemed that the case fatality ratio for cholera was about 3.95%. When visiting areas with epidemic cholera, ...
... anthrax vaccines MeSH D20.215.894.135.134 --- brucella vaccine MeSH D20.215.894.135.225 --- cholera vaccines MeSH D20.215. ... poliovirus vaccine, inactivated MeSH D20.215.894.845 --- vaccines, marker MeSH D20.215.894.860 --- vaccines, subunit MeSH ... measles vaccine MeSH D20.215.894.899.404.500 --- measles-mumps-rubella vaccine MeSH D20.215.894.899.488 --- mumps vaccine MeSH ... hepatitis a vaccines MeSH D20.215.894.899.955.400 --- hepatitis b vaccines MeSH D20.215.894.899.970 --- yellow fever vaccine ...
This includes acne, cholera, brucellosis, plague, malaria, and syphilis. It is taken by mouth. Common side effects include ... Tetracycline binds to the 30S subunit of microbial ribosomes. Thus, it prevents introduction of new amino acids to the nascent ... Tetracycline is also used as a biomarker in wildlife to detect consumption of medicine- or vaccine-containing baits. In genetic ... "Bait ingestion by free-ranging raccoons and nontarget species in an oral rabies vaccine field trial in Florida". J. Wildl. Dis ...
Bhattacharya SK, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases (2003). "An evaluation of current cholera treatment". ... It binds to the 16S part of the 30S ribosomal subunit and prevents the amino-acyl tRNA from binding to the A site of the ... It can be used as an artificial biomarker in wildlife to check if wild animals are consuming a bait that contains a vaccine or ... Parsi VK (2001). "Cholera". Prim. Care Update Ob Gyns. 8 (3): 106-109. doi:10.1016/S1068-607X(00)00086-X. PMID 11378428. [1] [2 ...
"1981-Hepatitis B: First Subunit Viral Vaccine in U.S". "3/17/1995-Chickenpox Vaccine Licensed". Beyer KH (1993). " ... "Fierce Biotech: Merck JV plans to show up J&J, Sanofi with low-cost cholera vaccine". Retrieved 2015-02-07. Johnson, Carrie ( ... "www.accessdata.fda.gov" (PDF). "Mumps - History of Vaccines". "Rubella - History of Vaccines". "1971-MMR Combination Vaccine ... Medically important vaccines developed at Merck include the first mumps vaccine, the first rubella vaccine, and the first ...
These vaccines use only the capsid proteins of the virus. Hepatitis B vaccine is an example of this type of vaccine. Subunit ... Phages were heralded as a potential treatment for diseases such as typhoid and cholera, but their promise was forgotten with ... Vaccines can consist of live-attenuated or killed viruses, or viral proteins (antigens). Live vaccines contain weakened forms ... Yellow fever vaccines and international travelers. Expert Review of Vaccines. 2008;7(5):579-87. doi:10.1586/14760584.7.5.579. ...
Inactivated vaccine. *Live vector vaccine *Attenuated vaccine. *Heterologous vaccine. *Subunit/component / Peptide / Virus-like ... Vaxjo: Comprehensive vaccine adjuvant database.. References[edit]. *^ "Guideline on Adjuvants in Vaccines for Human Use" (PDF) ... Baylor NW, Egan W, Richman P (May 2002). "Aluminum salts in vaccines--US perspective". Vaccine. 20 Suppl 3 (Suppl 3): S18-23. ... In the early days of vaccine manufacture, significant variations in the efficacy of different batches of the same vaccine were ...
Inactivated vaccine. *Live vector vaccine *Attenuated vaccine. *Heterologous vaccine. *Subunit/component / Peptide / Virus-like ... 2014). "Bovine rotavirus pentavalent vaccine development in India". Vaccine. 32 (11): A124-A128. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.03. ... live attenuated Rotavirus vaccine (ROTASIIL®)". Vaccine. 35 (22): 2962-2969. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.04.025. PMID 28434688. ... The vaccines are safe.[2] This includes their use in people with HIV/AIDS.[2] An earlier vaccine that is no longer used was ...
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. Pneumovax, Prevnar Vibrio cholerae. Cholera. Cholera ... Inactivated vaccine. *Live vector vaccine *Attenuated vaccine. *Heterologous vaccine. *Subunit/component / Peptide / Virus-like ... Rotavirus vaccine. Rotateq, Rotarix Rubella virus. Rubella. Rubella vaccine, MMR vaccine, MMRV vaccine. Priorix, MMR II, ... Japanese encephalitis vaccine. Ixiaro, Jespect, Imojev Measles virus. Measles. Measles vaccine, MMR vaccine, MMRV vaccine. ...
Inactivated vaccine. *Live vector vaccine *Attenuated vaccine. *Heterologous vaccine. *Subunit/component / Peptide / Virus-like ... DTaP-IPV-HepB vaccine is a combination vaccine whose generic name is diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis ... This vaccine article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... "DTaP-IPV-HepB vaccine" - news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (June 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template ...
Inactivated vaccine. *Live vector vaccine *Attenuated vaccine. *Heterologous vaccine. *Subunit/component / Peptide / Virus-like ... Offit, Paul A. (2005). The Cutter Incident: How America's First Polio Vaccine Led to the Growing Vaccine Crisis. Yale ... He was opposed by vaccine critics, many of whom believe vaccines cause autism, a belief that has been rejected by major medical ... doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.04.085. PMID 24814559.. *^ a b "Author royalties from autism book donated to autism research" (Press ...
Inactivated vaccine. *Live vector vaccine *Attenuated vaccine. *Heterologous vaccine. *Subunit/component / Peptide / Virus-like ... A hepatitis C vaccine, a vaccine capable of protecting against hepatitis C, is not available. Although vaccines exist for ... "Initiative for Vaccine Research (IVR): Infectious diseases: HCV Vaccine Development". WHO. Archived from the original on 22 ... No vaccine is currently available, but several vaccines are currently under development.[2][3] ...
This war was unique in the way that it did not involve the issue of Kashmir, but was rather precipitated by the crisis created by the political battle brewing in erstwhile East Pakistan between Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, Leader of East Pakistan, and Yahya Khan and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, leaders of West Pakistan. This would culminate in the declaration of Independence of Bangladesh from the state system of Pakistan. Following Operation Searchlight and the 1971 Bangladesh atrocities, about 10 million Bengalis in East Pakistan took refuge in neighbouring India.[24] India intervened in the ongoing Bangladesh liberation movement.[25][26] After a large scale pre-emptive strike by Pakistan, full-scale hostilities between the two countries commenced. Pakistan attacked at several places along India's western border with Pakistan, but the Indian Army successfully held their positions. The Indian Army quickly responded to the Pakistan Army's movements in the west and made some initial gains, including capturing ...
Opposition leaders in West Pakistan called for a national conference on February 6, 1966 to assess the trend of post-Taskent politics. On February 4, Bangabandhu, along with some members of Awami League, reached Lahore to attend the conference. The next day on February 5, he placed six points before the meeting of subject committee and urged to include the issue in the agenda of next day conference. The proposal was rejected and Bangabandhu was identified as separatist. On February 6, Bangabandhu boycotted the conference. On February 21, six points proposal was placed before the meeting of the working committee of Awami League and the proposal was accepted unanimously. The reason for proposing six points was to end Master-slave rule in Pakistan. Following the partition of India, the new state of Pakistan came into being. The inhabitants of East Pakistan (later Bangladesh) made up the majority of its population, and exports from East Pakistan (such as jute) were a majority of Pakistan's export ...
With the Partition of British India in 1947, Dhaka became the capital of East Bengal (1947-1955) and East Pakistan (1955-1971). It hosted the largest legislature in Pakistan, as East Bengalis compromised the majority of the new state's population. Dhaka's urban population increased dramatically because of Muslim migration from across Bengal and other parts of the subcontinent.[43] Dhaka began to see rapid urban expansion from the 1950s. The East Pakistan Stock Exchange Association was formed on 28 April 1954 and later became the Dhaka Stock Exchange. Orient Airways, founded by the East Pakistani industrialist Mirza Ahmad Ispahani, began the first commercial flight between Dhaka and Karachi on 6 June 1954. The airline later evolved into Pakistan International Airlines. The Dhaka Improvement Trust was established in 1956 to coordinate the city's development. The first master plan for the city was drawn up in 1959.[44] Several countries opened consulates in Dhaka, including the United States, ...
... is a left-leaning independent political organisation in Bangladesh. It was established on 26 April 1952, initially as the East Pakistan Students Union. List of Student Organizations in Bangladesh Official ...
... acts by the following mechanism: First, the B subunit ring of the cholera toxin binds to GM1 gangliosides on the surface of target cells. The B subunit can also bind to cells lacking GM1. The toxin then most likely binds to other types of glycans, such as Lewis Y and Lewis X, attached to proteins instead of lipids.[7][8][9] Once bound, the entire toxin complex is endocytosed by the cell and the cholera toxin A1 (CTA1) chain is released by the reduction of a disulfide bridge. The endosome is moved to the Golgi apparatus, where the A1 protein is recognized by the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, protein disulfide isomerase. The A1 chain is then unfolded and delivered to the membrane, where Ero1 triggers the release of the A1 protein by oxidation of protein disulfide isomerase complex.[10] As the A1 protein moves from the ER into the cytoplasm by the Sec61 channel, it refolds and avoids deactivation as a result of ubiquitination. CTA1 is ...
Vibrio cholerae is a bacterium causing the disease cholera. It is part of the genus Vibrio, in the family Vibrionaceae. Like all Proteobacteria, it is gram negative. V. cholerae can respire aerobically if oxygen is present and can switch to anaerobic respiration if oxygen is not present (fermentation).. ...
This war was unique in the way that it did not involve the issue of Kashmir, but was rather precipitated by the crisis created by the political battle brewing in erstwhile East Pakistan between Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, Leader of East Pakistan, and Yahya Khan and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, leaders of West Pakistan. This would culminate in the declaration of Independence of Bangladesh from the state system of Pakistan. Following Operation Searchlight and the 1971 Bangladesh atrocities, about 10 million Bengalis in East Pakistan took refuge in neighbouring India.[24] India intervened in the ongoing Bangladesh liberation movement.[25][26] After a large scale pre-emptive strike by Pakistan, full-scale hostilities between the two countries commenced. Pakistan attacked at several places along India's western border with Pakistan, but the Indian Army successfully held their positions. The Indian Army quickly responded to the Pakistan Army's movements in the west and made some initial gains, including capturing ...
ICD-10-CM Diagnosis codes are to be used and reported at their highest number of digits available. They are composed of codes with 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7 digits. Three digits are used as the heading of a category of codes that may be further subdivided by the use of fourth and/or fifth digits (preceded by a decimal, i.e. A00.1 Cholera due to Vibrio cholerae 01, biovar eltor), which provides greater detail. A code is invalid if it has not been coded to the full number of characters required for that code, including the 7th character, if applicable. ...
As recently as the late 19th-century sewerage systems in some parts of the rapidly industrializing United Kingdom were so inadequate that water-borne diseases such as cholera and typhoid remained a risk. From as early as 1535 there were efforts to stop polluting the River Thames in London. Beginning with an Act passed that year that was to prohibit the dumping of excrement into the river. Leading up to the Industrial Revolution the River Thames was identified as being thick and black due to sewage, and it was even said that the river "smells like death."[46] As Britain was the first country to industrialize, it was also the first to experience the disastrous consequences of major urbanisation and was the first to construct a modern sewerage system to mitigate the resultant unsanitary conditions.[citation needed] During the early 19th century, the River Thames was effectively an open sewer, leading to frequent outbreaks of cholera epidemics. Proposals to modernize the ...
Opposition leaders in West Pakistan called for a national conference on February 6, 1966 to assess the trend of post-Taskent politics. On February 4, Bangabandhu, along with some members of Awami League, reached Lahore to attend the conference. The next day on February 5, he placed six points before the meeting of subject committee and urged to include the issue in the agenda of next day conference. The proposal was rejected and Bangabandhu was identified as separatist. On February 6, Bangabandhu boycotted the conference. On February 21, six points proposal was placed before the meeting of the working committee of Awami League and the proposal was accepted unanimously. The reason for proposing six points was to end Master-slave rule in Pakistan. Following the partition of India, the new state of Pakistan came into being. The inhabitants of East Pakistan (later Bangladesh) made up the majority of its population, and exports from East Pakistan (such as jute) were a majority of Pakistan's export ...
Misisi compound, the primary location for major Project Zambia efforts, is a shanty town home to around 80,000 people, and is one of the most deprived areas in sub-Saharan Africa. HIV is common among adults and children, many of whom have lost their parents to the disease. Average life expectancy is just 32. The lack of clean water has led to regular cholera outbreaks, long eradicated in the western world but still a killer in underdeveloped countries. As in many Zambian Urban Compounds, food is scarce. Project Zambia is making headway in creating both long and short term solutions to this problem. As well as extending the agricultural project, and providing chicken runs, it is also creating social economy projects, the profits of which feed back into the various projects. An example of this would be the bakery project. ...
Ak človek skonzumuje dostatočne veľkú dávku vibrií (cca 1 milión baktérií u inak zdravého dospelého; väčšina totiž neprežije nízke pH žalúdočnej šťavy), časť z nich prejde až do tenkého čreva a tu sa začne množiť. Vibrio cholerae produkuje enterotoxín choleragén, ktorý je príčinou vodnatých hnačiek - človek tak môže strácať až 25 litrov vody denne. Baktéria nepoškodzuje priamo črevnú stenu, ale svojim toxínom pôsobí na reguláciu chloridového kanála, známeho ako CFTR (z anglického "cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator"). Tento objav viedol k hypotéze, že nositelia génu pre cystickú fibrózu sú chránení pred ťažkými formami infekcie, pretože ich chloridový kanál má porušenú funkciu a nedochádza k tak rýchlej strate tekutín. Vysvetľovalo by to i štatisticky vyšší výskyt cystickej fibrózy v populáciách, ktoré boli v minulosti vystavené epidémiám cholery. Zatiaľ sa však tieto predpoklady nepodarilo ...
Ak človek skonzumuje dostatočne veľkú dávku vibrií (cca 1 milión baktérií u inak zdravého dospelého; väčšina totiž neprežije nízke pH žalúdočnej šťavy), časť z nich prejde až do tenkého čreva a tu sa začne množiť. Vibrio cholerae produkuje enterotoxín choleragén, ktorý je príčinou vodnatých hnačiek - človek tak môže strácať až 25 litrov vody denne. Baktéria nepoškodzuje priamo črevnú stenu, ale svojim toxínom pôsobí na reguláciu chloridového kanála, známeho ako CFTR (z anglického "cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator"). Tento objav viedol k hypotéze, že nositelia génu pre cystickú fibrózu sú chránení pred ťažkými formami infekcie, pretože ich chloridový kanál má porušenú funkciu a nedochádza k tak rýchlej strate tekutín. Vysvetľovalo by to i štatisticky vyšší výskyt cystickej fibrózy v populáciách, ktoré boli v minulosti vystavené epidémiám cholery. Zatiaľ sa však tieto predpoklady nepodarilo ...
Oral vaccine * Type 1 diabetes Identity. PubMed Central ID * PMC3856580 International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) * 0014-2980 ... Cholera toxin subunit B peptide fusion proteins reveal impaired oral tolerance induction in diabetes-prone but not in diabetes- ...
Efficacy of a food plant-based oral cholera toxin B subunit vaccine.. Arakawa T1, Chong DK, Langridge WH. ... Transgenic potatoes were engineered to synthesize a cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) pentamer with affinity for GMI-ganglioside. ... The cytopathic effect of cholera holotoxin (CT) on Vero cells was neutralized by serum from mice immunized with transgenic ...
Cholera Toxin B-subunit) by using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated co-transformation system. To assess the genome-wide ... We have developed a rice-based oral cholera vaccine named MucoRice-CTB ( ... We have developed a rice-based oral cholera vaccine named MucoRice-CTB (Cholera Toxin B-subunit) by using an Agrobacterium ... transgenic rice expressing cholera toxin B-subunit (CTB) designed as an oral vaccine against cholera [7]. MucoRice provides a ...
Development of a selection marker-free rice-based oral cholera toxin B-subunit vaccine and determination of genomic location ... a whole genome resequencing approachDevelopment of a selection marker-free rice-based oral cholera toxin B-subunit vaccine and ...
title = "Cross-protection by B subunit-whole cell cholera vaccine against diarrhea associated with heat-labile toxin-producing ... T1 - Cross-protection by B subunit-whole cell cholera vaccine against diarrhea associated with heat-labile toxin-producing ... Cross-protection by B subunit-whole cell cholera vaccine against diarrhea associated with heat-labile toxin-producing ... Cross-protection by B subunit-whole cell cholera vaccine against diarrhea associated with heat-labile toxin-producing ...
... killed whole cell or other subunit vaccines (injected): Cochrane systematic review answers are found in the Cochrane Abstracts ... vaccines__injected_:_Cochrane_systematic_review. Vaccines for Preventing Cholera: Killed Whole Cell or Other Subunit Vaccines ( ... Vaccines for preventing cholera: killed whole cell or other subunit vaccines (injected): Cochrane systematic review is a topic ... "Vaccines for Preventing Cholera: Killed Whole Cell or Other Subunit Vaccines (injected): Cochrane Systematic Review." Cochrane ...
... but Chinas vaccine industry and immunization program have some characteristics that differ from other countries. We... ... Background Vaccine regulation in China meets World Health Organization standards, ... Cholera. B recombinant subunit /cholera vaccine. DT. Diphtheria and tetanus combined vaccine ... 3). Hib vaccine, PCV13, oral rotavirus vaccine (ORV), varicella vaccine (Var), and seasonal influenza vaccine (InfV) were ...
... recent studies on the immunological properties of cholera toxin B subunit (CtxB) and E. coli enterotoxin B subunit (EtxB) have ... A mutant cholera toxin B subunit that binds GM1- ganglioside but lacks immunomodulatory or toxic activity. A. T. Aman, S. ... Alanine-Scanning Mutagenesis of the Conserved Val-52 to Ile-58 Loop in Cholera Toxin B Subunit.. Residues Val-52 to Ile-58 of ... A mutant cholera toxin B subunit that binds GM1- ganglioside but lacks immunomodulatory or toxic activity ...
Safety and immunogenicity of an oral recombinant cholera B subunit-whole cell vaccine in Swedish volunteers. Vaccine 10:130-132 ... Immunological memory after immunization with oral cholera B subunit-the whole-cell vaccine in Swedish volunteers. Vaccine 12: ... The state-of-the art of approved and under-development cholera vaccines. Vaccine 31:4069-4078. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.06. ... oral cholera vaccine in adults. Vaccine 25:1149-1155. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.09.049. ...
"Vaccines for preventing cholera: killed whole cell or other subunit vaccines (injected)". Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. (8): ... "Choleras seven pandemics". CBC. 9 May 2008. Retrieved 15 July 2018.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ... Vaccine. Main article: Cholera vaccine. A number of safe and effective oral vaccines for cholera are available.[43] The World ... The cholera toxin (CTX or CT) is an oligomeric complex made up of six protein subunits: a single copy of the A subunit (part A ...
The development of subunits and subunit analogs of the cholera exotoxin by recombinant DNA techniques provides vaccine products ... The development of subunits and subunit analogs of the cholera exotoxin by recombinant DNA techniques provides vaccine products ... 5. An improved anti-cholera vaccine comprising an effective amount of modified cholera toxin which can elicit a cholera toxin- ... The term "catalytic subunit of cholera toxin" used in this disclosure refers to both the A region of cholera toxin and the A1 ...
Cholera vaccine (inactivated, oral) - Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC) by Valneva UK Limited ... The vaccine contains killed whole V. cholerae O1 bacteria and the recombinant non-toxic B-subunit of the cholera toxin (CTB). ... Recombinant cholera toxin B subunit (rCTB) 1 mg (produced in V. cholerae O1 Inaba, classical biotype strain 213.). * Bacterial ... The vaccine is acid labile. Food and/or drink will increase acid production in the stomach and the effect of the vaccine may be ...
Mucosal adjuvants and anti-infection and anti-immunopathology vaccines based on cholera toxin, cholera toxin B subunit and CpG ... Among these are the non-toxic, recombinantly produced cholera toxin B-subunit (CTB). CTB is a specific protective antigen ... component of a widely registered oral cholera vaccine as well as a promising vector for either giving rise to mucosal anti- ... The most potent (but also toxic) mucosal adjuvants are cholera toxin (CT) and the closely related Escherichia coli heat-labile ...
Vaccines for preventing cholera: killed whole cell or other subunit vaccines (injected). Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD000974.. ... Vaccines for preventing rotavirus diarrhoea: vaccines in use. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD008521.. [Google Scholar] ... Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines for preventing vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease and x-ray defined pneumonia in ... Social and News Media Enable Estimation of Epidemiological Patterns Early in the 2010 Haitian Cholera Outbreak Rumi Chunara, ...
Vaccines for preventing cholera: killed whole cell or other subunit vaccines (injected). ... Knox R. Doctors urge cholera vaccine for Haiti, neighbors. NPR.org. 10 December 2010. Accessed atwww.npr.org/2010/12/10/ ... for cholera spread. However, because vaccination is increasingly delayed, larger shares of the vaccine were optimally ... 131950133/doctors-urge-cholera-vaccine-for-haiti-neighborson 15 December 2010. ...
Safety, immunogenicity, and lot stability of the whole cell/recombinant B subunit (WC/rCTB) cholera vaccine in Peruvian adults ... To assess the safety, immunogenicity, and lot stability of the whole cell/recombinant B subunit cholera vaccine, 2 lots ... An accelerated schedule for tick-borne encephalitis vaccine: the American Military experience in Bosnia. S C Craig, P R Pittman ... A phase I safety and immunogenicity trial with the candidate malaria vaccine RTS,S/SBAS2 in semi-immune adults in The Gambia. J ...
"Oral immunisation of mice with transgenic rice calli expressing cholera toxin B subunit fused to consensus dengue cEDIII ... Prevention of travellers diarrhoea by oral B-subunit/whole-cell cholera vaccine ... Optimizing oral vaccines-induction of systemic and mucosal B Cell and antibody-responses to tetanus toxoid by use of cholera- ... Expression of a cholera toxin B subunit and consensus dengue virus envelope protein domain III fusion gene in transgenic rice ...
B subunit-whole cell and whole cell-only oral vaccines against cholera: studies on reactogenicity and immunogenicity. J Infect ... Peru-15, a live attenuated oral cholera vaccine, is safe and immunogenic in Bangladeshi toddlers and infants. Vaccine2007;25: ... Efficacy trial of single-dose live oral cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR in North Jakarta, Indonesia, a cholera-endemic area. ... Earlier live oral vaccines against rotavirus,71 72 73 74 as well as those against cholera75 76 77 and polio,78 79 have ...
Mechanism of enhancement of the immune responses to influenza vaccine with cholera toxin B subunit and a trace amount of ... Mutants of cholera toxin as an effective and safe adjuvant for nasal influenza vaccine. ... Characterization of protective immune responses induced by nasal influenza vaccine containing mutant cholera toxin as a safe ... influenza virus infection afforded by trivalent inactivated vaccines inoculated intranasally with cholera toxin B subunit. ...
Subunit vaccines primarily induce antibody-mediated humoral responses, whereas potent antigen-specific cellular responses are ... We will also explore the cellular fate of nanoparticle vaccines. Nanoparticle-based antigen delivery systems have the potential ... This review provides an overview of nanoparticle vaccine development; in particular, the preparation of nanoparticles using a ... Nanoparticles have been utilised in nanomedicine and are promising candidates for vaccine or drug delivery. Nanoparticle ...
"Fragments of the Cholera toxin A subunit and haemolysin A genes were cloned into separate plasmids. The gene fragments were ... Oral cholera vaccine loaded with GMOs to be tested on babies worldwide * ... Oral cholera vaccine developed using brain-damaging mercury. To some, this might all sound like positive progress in the ... Then, there is the issue of the new PaxVax oral cholera vaccine having been programmed to grow in the presence of mercury, a ...
Detection of residual pertussis toxin in vaccines using a modified ribosylation assay.. Cloning and expression of S1 subunit of ... Cholera toxin--a foe & a friend. ...
Read about symptoms, treatment, prevention, vaccines, and outbreaks throughout history. ... Cholera is an infectious disease that can cause severe watery diarrhea, dehydration, and death. ... Two vaccines (Shanchol and Dukoral) are composed of killed V. cholerae bacteria and dont contain the enterotoxin B subunit. ... What causes cholera, and how is cholera transmitted?. *What are risk factors for cholera, and where do cholera outbreaks occur? ...
Vaccines for rotavirus and cholera have the potential to reduce diarrhea morbidity and mortality burden. But there is no ... The estimated effect of cholera, shigella, Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and rotavirus vaccines was determined by ... reduction in cholera incidence due to their respective vaccines. We did not find sufficient evidence and a suitable outcome to ... A total of 24 papers were selected and analyzed for all the four vaccines. Based on the evidence, we propose a 74% mortality ...
Prevention of travellers diarrhoea by oral B-subunit/whole-cell cholera vaccine. Lancet 1991; 338 : 1285-1289. ... WER, Cholera 2011, Vol. 87, No. 31-32, p. 289-304, August 2012. WER, Cholera vaccines: WHO proposition paper, Vol 85, No 13, p ... Vaccine 1993; 11 (2) : 207-212.. *Levine MM, Kaper JB. Live oral cholera vaccine : from principle to product. Bulletin Institut ... Pastor, M. Predraz, J.L., Esquisabel, A. The state-of-the-art of approved and under-development cholera vaccines, Vaccine 2013 ...
  • The estimated effect of cholera, shigella, Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and rotavirus vaccines was determined by applying the standard Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG) rules. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In studies of travellers to countries or areas reporting cholera outbreaks, WC/rBS was found also to induce approximately 50% short-term protection against diarrhoea caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC).Two closely related bivalent oral cholera vaccines are available in India and Viet Nam. (who.int)
  • We assessed serologic responses to an oral, killed whole-cell enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli plus cholera toxin B-subunit (ETEC-rCTB) vaccine in 73 Egyptian adults, 105 schoolchildren, and 93 preschool children. (asm.org)
  • Serum and plasma specimens obtained from each volunteer before vaccination and 10-14 days after the second dose were tested for vibriocidal and anti-cholera toxin antibodies. (ajtmh.org)
  • The vaccine acts by inducing antibodies against both the bacterial components and CTB. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is hypothesized that a mucosal vaccine against a combination of S. mutans surface proteins would protect against dental caries by inducing specific salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies which may reduce bacterial pathogenesis and adhesion to the tooth surface by affecting several adhesins simultaneously. (asm.org)
  • An essential goal in the development of a vaccine for dental caries is to induce antibodies that block bacterial adhesion and, therefore, prevent bacterial colonization. (asm.org)
  • Plasma antibodies to rCTB and four vaccine-shared colonization factors (CFs) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (asm.org)
  • An ideal HBV vaccine would be both preventive and therapeutic which means that this vaccine should promote the production of specific neutralizing antibodies and cell-mediated responses (particularly T helper 1 and cytotoxic T-cells) against the virus. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Accordingly, the research presented covered diverse topics, including the application of antiretrovirals and antibodies as microbicides, live vaginal bacteria microbicides, using plants to manufacture proteins for vaccines, and utilizing microparticles to enhance the induction of immune responses. (iavireport.org)
  • This vaccine grew out of work with tetrapalmitoylated preparations of N-terminal Aβ fragments, which rapidly stimulated anti-Aβ antibodies that dissolve amyloid fibers in vitro and in vivo. (alzforum.org)
  • Despite the increased cost, subunit vaccines are being developed because they are safe, effective, and can elicit antibodies that confer protection against diseases that are not currently vaccine-preventable. (jove.com)
  • What is not yet clear is how the binding of the B subunits to receptors such as GM1 can trigger signal transduction or induce toxin internalization. (pnas.org)
  • The non-active B-subunit of the cholera toxin molecule, in other words, is reportedly still synthesized in the bacteria, but it allegedly no longer holds the capacity to induce either disease or toxicity. (prisonplanet.com)
  • Subunit vaccines primarily induce antibody-mediated humoral responses, whereas potent antigen-specific cellular responses are required for prevention against some pathogenic infections. (mdpi.com)
  • Oral vaccines which are intended for global use do not necessarily induce the same immune responses in all children worldwide. (karger.com)
  • In fact, several vaccines often induce less frequent and lower mean antibody responses in children in developing countries, suggesting that the vaccines may be less protective among children in these areas. (karger.com)
  • One of the most unexpected and striking effects of the B subunits is their capacity to trigger the selective apoptosis of CD8 + T cells, as well as to alter CD4 + T-cell differentiation, activate B cells, and modulate antigen processing and presentation by macrophages ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Nanoparticle-based antigen delivery systems have the potential to develop new generation vaccines against currently unpreventable infectious diseases. (mdpi.com)
  • All field trials of toxoid vaccines have used CT-1 antigen against the prevailing epitype of CT, usually CT-2. (springer.com)
  • Studies like these may lead to the development of rational synthetic peptide vaccines, but a vaccine composed only of CT antigen can only protect against severe life-threatening diarrhea, not all the diarrhea caused by cholera vibrios. (springer.com)
  • 5). Available vaccines are mostly designed according to the immunostimulatory properties of Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) which is also called envelope antigen. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Yasmin Thanavala, a professor of immunology and oncology at the Roswell Park Cancer Institute in New York, presented research in which people who had previously been vaccinated with hepatitis B vaccine were given transgenic raw potatoes expressing hepatitis B surface antigen. (iavireport.org)
  • Therefore, chloroplast transformation vectors were made for tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa), with endogenous (Nt-Nt, Ls-Ls) or heterologous (Nt-Ls, Ls-Nt) psbA promoter, 5' UTR and 3' UTR, regulating expression of the anthrax protective antigen (PA) or human proinsulin (Pins) fused with the cholera toxin B-subunit (CTB). (nih.gov)
  • Although more than 200 serogroups of V. cholerae have been identified, most cases of cholera are caused by two serogoups, O1 and O139 ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • From October 19, 2010-when the first cases were confirmed in the National Public Health Laboratory-to April 4, 2011, 274,418 cases of cholera and 4,787 deaths related to cholera had been reported across all ten departments of Haiti . (plos.org)
  • But we believe that such efforts are an essential service that has contributed to the relatively few cases of cholera in the camps (as compared to other urban and rural areas). (plos.org)
  • In 1998, worldwide, a total of 293,111 cases of cholera and 10,586 deaths from cholera were reported to the World Health Organization (WHO). (who.int)
  • Both of these vaccines have questionable compositions, using V. cholerae O1 strains isolated in 1947 that have been inactivated by heat and formalin treatments that may denature protein. (asm.org)
  • Bacterial strains of both Inaba and Ogawa serotypes and of El Tor and Classical biotypes are included in the vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collectively these four organisms account for a great number of cases of diarrhea across the world and vaccines targeting the most common strains of all these pathogens are currently being developed, improved and undergoing trials across the globe. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This idea played a role in the development of bacillus Calmette-Guérin but is even more obvious in the selection of rhesus and bovine rotavirus strains to aid the creation of human rotavirus vaccines as mentioned below under Reassortment . (pnas.org)
  • The strains of V. cholerae that cause epidemic cholera belong to serogroups O1 and O139 ( 3 , 4 , 28 , 41 , 50 ). (asm.org)
  • He developed a vaccine against poliomyelitis by cultivating three strains of the virus separately in monkey tissue. (todayinsci.com)
  • Sabin and Boulger, "History o Sabin attenuated poliovirus oral live vaccine strains," Journal of Biological Standardization 1: 115-118, 1973. (patentgenius.com)
  • 3. The modified cholera toxin of claim 1, which is obtained by site-specific mutagenesis resulting in a mutation of catalytic subunit A which is less active or essentially inactive as determined by assay of ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 7. The improved vaccine of claim 5, wherein the modified cholera toxin has been derived by site-specific mutagenesis resulting in a mutation of catalytic subunit A which has less or essentially no ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Site-specific mutagenesis of the catalytic subunit of cholera toxin: substituting lysine for Arginine 7 causes loss of activity," Infect. (patentgenius.com)
  • This narrative review outlines the current knowledge regarding E. histolytica and E. dispar and insight in the development of a vaccine. (hindawi.com)
  • Prevention must also include advocacy for scaled-up production of cholera vaccine and the development of a vaccine strategy for Haiti. (plos.org)
  • One key consideration in the development of a vaccine is risk-versus-benefit, and in an environment of perceived low risk, the benefit of vaccination may not be recognised. (springer.com)
  • To control rampant mucosal infectious diseases, the development of new effective oral vaccines is needed. (omicsonline.org)
  • With most pathogenic and etiologic agents of deadly diseases acquiring resistance to currently used drugs, the development and formulation of vaccines against predominant infectious diseases has taken centre stage. (jyi.org)
  • However, there is an on-going need to develop new and more effective vaccine formulations so as to offer protection against new emerging diseases [e.g. severe acuter respiratory syndrome (SARS) virus coronavirus, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)] and re-emerging old and/or persistent infectious diseases (e.g. (springer.com)
  • Recombinant subunit vaccines are some of the safest and most effective vaccines available, but their high cost and the requirement of advanced medical infrastructure for administration make them impractical for many developing world diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Microalgae could be poised to become the next candidate in recombinant subunit vaccine production, as they present several advantages over terrestrial crop plant-based platforms including scalable and contained growth, rapid transformation, easily obtained stable cell lines, and consistent transgene expression levels. (frontiersin.org)
  • The oral polio vaccine of Albert Sabin and the measles, rubella, mumps, and varicella vaccines were all made possible through selection of clones by cell-culture passage in vitro ( 17 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 21 ). (pnas.org)
  • Agarwal A, Sharma D, Kumari S, Khare S: Antibody response to three doses of standard and double dose of trivalent oral polio vaccine. (karger.com)
  • Triki H, Abdallah MV, Ben AR, et al: Influence of host related factors on the antibody response to trivalent oral polio vaccine in Tunisian infants. (karger.com)
  • Swartz TA, Skalska P, Gerichter CG, Cockburn WC: Routine administration of oral polio vaccine in a subtropical area. (karger.com)
  • Enders, Weller, and Robbins ( 16 ) showed that many viruses could be grown in cell culture, including polio and measles, and this method was vigorously taken up by vaccine developers. (pnas.org)
  • V. cholerae O139 Bengal, which emerged as a new cause of epidemic cholera in Asia in 1992, could also appear in Latin America (5) . (cdc.gov)
  • The key to controlling epidemic cholera lies in limiting its spread by using measures that prevent sustained transmission. (cdc.gov)
  • Despite sporadic cases along the U.S. Gulf Coast and repeated introduction of the epidemic organisms by travelers, epidemic cholera has not occurred in the United States since the nineteenth century ( 9 , 10 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Two oral doses of vaccine or placebo given 2 weeks apart were given with buffer to 216 Peruvian adults and children. (ajtmh.org)
  • Oral vaccines, when given to children in developing countries, may require higher doses of vaccine, booster doses, calorie, micronutrient and vitamin supplements, withdrawal of breast milk before vaccine administration, deworming medications or other measures to realize their full benefit. (karger.com)
  • some protection can be obtained from oral vaccines while avoiding areas where cholera commonly occurs or has had a recent outbreak. (medicinenet.com)
  • Iraq has been grappling with a growing outbreak of cholera, with 3,300 cases and 14 deaths since August, largely in the northeast of the country. (medindia.net)
  • The cholera outbreak in northern Iraq has infected some 16,000 people since late August, of whom at least 10 have died, the World Health Organisation said on Friday. (medindia.net)
  • In July 2012, a cholera outbreak began in Cuba, despite the fact that cholera was thought to have been eradicated in this country. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • AIM] Maputo -The Mozambican health authorities have declared a cholera outbreak in three districts in the northern province of Cabo Delgado - namely Macomia, Mocimboa da Praia and Ibo. (medworm.com)
  • Since the English physician John Snow first mapped London 's cholera outbreak to a local water pump in the 1850s, it has been understood that a community's design affects the health of its inhabitants. (medworm.com)
  • Genetically-engineered modifications of the subunits result in products that retain immunogenicity, yet are reduced in, or are essentially free of, enzymatic activity associated with toxin reactogenicity. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Pertusis Holotoxoid Formed in vitro with a Genetically Deactivated S1 Subunit," PNAS USA 86:8353-8357 (1989). (patentgenius.com)
  • We have employed pAbs and mAbs, genetically engineered chimeric B-subunit proteins, checkerboard immunoblotting (CBIB), synthetic peptides and their antisera, and sequential overlapping synthetic hexapeptides representing the B-subunit chain to identify epitopes in the CT family. (springer.com)
  • Algae are an attractive platform for producing subunit vaccines because they are relatively inexpensive to grow, genetically tractable, easily scaled to large volumes, have a short generation time, and are devoid of inflammatory, viral, or prion contaminants often present in other systems. (jove.com)
  • Compartmental mathematical model allowing person-to-person and waterborne transmission of cholera. (annals.org)
  • John Snow demonstrated waterborne transmission of cholera during a large epidemic in London in 1856 (11) . (cdc.gov)
  • An accelerated schedule for tick-borne encephalitis vaccine: the American Military experience in Bosnia. (ajtmh.org)
  • Another possibility is that high affinity binding of the B subunits to GM1 permits their direct lower affinity interaction with cell-surface signaling proteins. (pnas.org)
  • Therefore, a mixture of S. mutans surface proteins, enriched with fimbria components, appears to be a promising immunogen candidate for a mucosal vaccine against dental caries. (asm.org)
  • Pubmed ID: 22615931 Subunit vaccines are significantly more expensive to produce than traditional vaccines because they are based primarily on recombinant proteins that must be purified from the expression system. (jove.com)
  • In the present study, we assessed the frequency and magnitude of systemic IgA and IgG antibody responses to the vaccine in these same cohorts and examined isotype-specific patterns of response. (asm.org)