Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.
An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 1. All are CHOLERA-causing strains (serotypes). There are two biovars (biotypes): cholerae and eltor (El Tor).
Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 139. This strain emerged in India in 1992 and caused a CHOLERA epidemic.
The non-susceptibility to infection of a large group of individuals in a population. A variety of factors can be responsible for herd immunity and this gives rise to the different definitions used in the literature. Most commonly, herd immunity refers to the case when, if most of the population is immune, infection of a single individual will not cause an epidemic. Also, in such immunized populations, susceptible individuals are not likely to become infected. Herd immunity can also refer to the case when unprotected individuals fail to contract a disease because the infecting organism has been banished from the population.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Bangladesh" is a country located in South Asia, not a medical term or concept. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition. It shares borders with India, Myanmar (Burma), and Bay of Bengal. The population is primarily Bengali, and the official language is Bangla (Bengali). The capital city is Dhaka. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, feel free to ask!
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.
A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)
A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and MALI, east of GUINEA-BISSAU. Its capital is Conakry.
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Pakistan" is a country located in South Asia and it does not have a medical definition. If you have any medical question or term that you would like me to define, please provide it and I will be happy to help.
The development and establishment of environmental conditions favorable to the health of the public.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Philippines" is not a medical term; it is the name of a country located in Southeast Asia. It seems there might be some misunderstanding in your question. If you have a medical query related to the Philippines or its people, I'd be happy to help clarify that for you.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.
Persons fleeing to a place of safety, especially those who flee to a foreign country or power to escape danger or persecution in their own country or habitual residence because of race, religion, or political belief. (Webster, 3d ed)
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.
A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.

Expanded safety and immunogenicity of a bivalent, oral, attenuated cholera vaccine, CVD 103-HgR plus CVD 111, in United States military personnel stationed in Panama. (1/263)

To provide optimum protection against classical and El Tor biotypes of Vibrio cholerae O1, a single-dose, oral cholera vaccine was developed by combining two live, attenuated vaccine strains, CVD 103-HgR (classical, Inaba) and CVD 111 (El Tor, Ogawa). The vaccines were formulated in a double-chamber sachet; one chamber contained lyophilized bacteria, and the other contained buffer. A total of 170 partially-immune American soldiers stationed in Panama received one of the following five formulations: (a) CVD 103-HgR at 10(8) CFU plus CVD 111 at 10(7) CFU, (b) CVD 103-HgR at 10(8) CFU plus CVD 111 at 10(6) CFU, (c) CVD 103-HgR alone at 10(8) CFU, (d) CVD 111 alone at 10(7) CFU, or (e) inactivated Escherichia coli placebo. Among those who received CVD 111 at the high or low dose either alone or in combination with CVD 103-HgR, 8 of 103 had diarrhea, defined as three or more liquid stools. None of the 32 volunteers who received CVD 103-HgR alone or the 35 placebo recipients had diarrhea. CVD 111 was detected in the stools of 46% of the 103 volunteers who received it. About 65% of all persons who received CVD 103-HgR either alone or in combination had a fourfold rise in Inaba vibriocidal titers. The postvaccination geometric mean titers were comparable among groups, ranging from 450 to 550. Ogawa vibriocidal titers were about twice as high in persons who received CVD 111 as in those who received CVD 103-HgR alone (600 versus 300). The addition of CVD 111 improved the overall seroconversion rate and doubled the serum Ogawa vibriocidal titers, suggesting that the combination of an El Tor and a classical cholera strain is desirable. While CVD 111 was previously found to be well tolerated in semiimmune Peruvians, the adverse effects observed in this study indicate that this strain requires further attenuation before it can be safely used in nonimmune populations.  (+info)

Antibody responses in the lower respiratory tract and male urogenital tract in humans after nasal and oral vaccination with cholera toxin B subunit. (2/263)

Nasal vaccine delivery is superior to oral delivery in inducing specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG antibody responses in the upper respiratory tract. Although an antibody response in the nasal passages is important in protecting against primary colonization with lung pathogens, antibodies in the lungs are usually required as well. We immunized 15 male volunteers twice nasally or orally with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and determined the specific antibody levels in serum, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and urine before and 2 weeks after immunization. Nasal immunization induced fivefold increases in the levels of specific IgA antibodies in BAL fluid of most volunteers, whereas there were no significant specific IgA responses after oral immunization. The specific IgG antibody level increased eightfold in BAL fluid in the nasally vaccinated subjects, and the major part of IgG had most probably been transferred from serum. Since the specific IgG response in serum was lower in the individuals vaccinated orally, the IgG response in BAL fluid in this group was also lower and not significant. In conclusion, nasal immunization is also preferable to the oral route when vaccinating against lower respiratory tract infections, and a systemic immune response is considerably more important in the lower than in the upper respiratory tract. Moreover, both nasal and oral immunizations were able to stimulate 6- to 10-fold specific IgA and IgG responses in urine in about half of the individuals, which indicates that distant mucosal vaccination might be used to prevent adhesion of pathogens to the urogenital tract.  (+info)

Mucosal and systemic immune responses in humans after primary and booster immunizations with orally administered invasive and noninvasive live attenuated bacteria. (3/263)

The mucosal and systemic immune responses after primary and booster immunizations with two attenuated live oral vaccine strains derived from a noninvasive (Vibrio cholerae) and an invasive (Salmonella typhi) enteric pathogen were comparatively evaluated. Vaccination with S. typhi Ty21a elicited antibody-secreting cell (ASC) responses specific for S. typhi O9, 12 lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as well as significant increases in levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA antibodies to the same antigen in serum. A strong systemic CD4(+) T-helper type 1 cell-mediated immune (CMI) response was also induced. In contrast to results with Ty21a, no evidence of a CMI response was obtained after primary immunization with V. cholerae CVD 103-HgR in spite of the good immunogenicity of the vaccine. Volunteers who received a single dose of CVD 103-HgR primarily developed an IgM ASC response against whole vaccine cells and purified V. cholerae Inaba LPS, and seroconversion of serum vibriocidal antibodies occurred in four of five subjects. Serum IgG anti-cholera toxin antibody titers were of lower magnitude. For both live vaccines, the volunteers still presented significant local immunity 14 months after primary immunization, as revealed by the elevated baseline antibody titers at the time of the booster immunization and the lower ASC, serum IgG, and vibriocidal antibody responses after the booster immunization. These results suggest that local immunity may interfere with colonization of the gut by both vaccine strains at least up to 14 months after basis immunization. Interestingly, despite a low secondary ASC response, Ty21a was able to boost both humoral (anti-LPS systemic IgG and IgA) and CMI responses. Evidence of a CMI response was also observed for one of three volunteers given a cholera vaccine booster dose. The direct comparison of results with two attenuated live oral vaccine strains in human volunteers clearly showed that the capacity of the vaccine strain to colonize specific body compartments conditions the pattern of vaccine-induced immune responses.  (+info)

Effect of small bowel bacterial overgrowth on the immunogenicity of single-dose live oral cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR. (4/263)

Several live oral vaccines (polio, bovine rotavirus, CVD 103-HgR cholera) are less immunogenic in developing than in industrialized countries. It was hypothesized that proximal small bowel bacterial overgrowth (common in children in less developed countries but rare in industrialized settings) diminishes the vibriocidal antibody response to CVD 103-HgR. In total, 202 fasting Santiago schoolchildren aged 5-9 years had lactulose breath H2 tests to detect proximal small bowel bacteria 1 day before ingesting CVD 103-HgR. Florid small bowel overgrowth was observed in 10 (5.6%) of 178 analyzable children. In children with florid overgrowth, vibriocidal seroconversion differed little from other children (60% vs. 67%), but the geometric mean titer was lower (160 vs. 368; P=.25). By logistic regression, increased peak breath H2 at small bowel time points was associated with diminished seroconversion (P=.04), as was the interaction of H2 value and weight (children >25 kg had lower seroconversion rates among subjects with heaviest overgrowth).  (+info)

Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentered trial of the efficacy of a single dose of live oral cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR in preventing cholera following challenge with Vibrio cholerae O1 El tor inaba three months after vaccination. (5/263)

CVD 103-HgR is a live oral cholera vaccine strain constructed by deleting 94% of the gene for the enzymatically active A subunit of cholera toxin from classical Inaba Vibrio cholerae O1 569B; the strain also contains a mercury resistance gene as an identifying marker. This vaccine was well tolerated and immunogenic in double-blind, controlled studies and was protective in open-label studies of volunteers challenged with V. cholerae O1. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study of vaccine efficacy was designed to test longer-term protection of CVD 103-HgR against moderate and severe El Tor cholera in U.S. volunteers. A total of 85 volunteers (50 at the University of Maryland and 35 at Children's Hospital Medical Center/University of Cincinnati) were recruited for vaccination and challenge with wild-type V. cholerae El Tor Inaba. Volunteers were randomized in a double-blind manner to receive, with buffer, a single oral dose of either CVD 103-HgR (2 x 10(8) to 8 x 10(8) CFU) or placebo (killed E. coli K-12). About 3 months after immunization, 51 of these volunteers were orally challenged with 10(5) CFU of virulent V. cholerae O1 El Tor Inaba strain N16961, prepared from a standardized frozen inoculum. Ninety-one percent of the vaccinees had a >/=4-fold rise in serum vibriocidal antibodies after vaccination. After challenge, 9 (39%) of the 23 placebo recipients and 1 (4%) of the 28 vaccinees had moderate or severe diarrhea (>/=3-liter diarrheal stool) (P < 0.01; protective efficacy, 91%). A total of 21 (91%) of 23 placebo recipients and 5 (18%) of 28 vaccinees had any diarrhea (P < 0.001; protective efficacy, 80%). Peak stool V. cholerae excretion among placebo recipients was 1.1 x 10(7) CFU/g and among vaccinees was 4.9 x 10(2) CFU/g (P < 0.001). This vaccine could therefore be a safe and effective tool to prevent cholera in travelers.  (+info)

Mass vaccination with a two-dose oral cholera vaccine in a refugee camp. (6/263)

In refugee settings, the use of cholera vaccines is controversial since a mass vaccination campaign might disrupt other priority interventions. We therefore conducted a study to assess the feasibility of such a campaign using a two-dose oral cholera vaccine in a refugee camp. The campaign, using killed whole-cell/recombinant B-subunit cholera vaccine, was carried out in October 1997 among 44,000 south Sudanese refugees in Uganda. Outcome variables included the number of doses administered, the drop-out rate between the two rounds, the proportion of vaccine wasted, the speed of administration, the cost of the campaign, and the vaccine coverage. Overall, 63,220 doses of vaccine were administered. At best, 200 vaccine doses were administered per vaccination site and per hour. The direct cost of the campaign amounted to US$ 14,655, not including the vaccine itself. Vaccine coverage, based on vaccination cards, was 83.0% and 75.9% for the first and second rounds, respectively. Mass vaccination of a large refugee population with an oral cholera vaccine therefore proved to be feasible. A pre-emptive vaccination strategy could be considered in stable refugee settings and in urban slums in high-risk areas. However, the potential cost of the vaccine and the absence of quickly accessible stockpiles are major drawbacks for its large-scale use.  (+info)

Optimizing the germfree mouse model for in vivo evaluation of oral Vibrio cholerae vaccine and vector strains. (7/263)

The germfree mouse model of Vibrio cholerae infection can be used to judge immune responses to V. cholerae vaccine and vector strains. In the original model, a single oral inoculation was administered on day 0, a booster oral inoculation was administered on day 14, and immune responses were analyzed with samples collected on day 28. Unfortunately, immune responses in this model frequently were low level, and interanimal variability occurred. In order to improve this model, we evaluated various primary and booster V. cholerae inoculation schedules. The most prominent systemic and mucosal antibody responses were measured in mice that received a multiple primary inoculation series on days 0, 2, 4, and 6 and booster inoculations on days 28 and 42. These modifications result in improved preliminary evaluation of V. cholerae vaccine and vector strains in mice.  (+info)

Use of lambda phage S and R gene products in an inducible lysis system for Vibrio cholerae- and Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium-based DNA vaccine delivery systems. (8/263)

Novel methods for adapting DNA vaccine technology to the prevention of mucosal diseases are greatly needed. Here we show that regulated expression of phage lambda lysis genes S and R causes dramatic lysis of both Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium cells with concomitant release of plasmid DNA into the surrounding media. We also used single and double DNase mutant strains to show that secreted V. cholerae DNases can adversely affect the integrity of DNA molecules released upon lysis. These results suggest that incorporation of lambda SR-mediated lysis constructs and DNA stabilizing mutations into candidate live attenuated bacterial vaccines offers a promising approach for the development of effective mucosal DNA delivery vectors for humans.  (+info)

Cholera vaccines are preventive measures used to protect against the infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. There are several types of cholera vaccines available, including:

1. Inactivated oral vaccine (ICCV): This vaccine contains killed whole-cell bacteria and is given in two doses, with each dose administered at least 14 days apart. It provides protection for up to six months and can be given to adults and children over the age of one year.
2. Live attenuated oral vaccine (LCV): This vaccine contains weakened live bacteria that are unable to cause disease but still stimulate an immune response. The most commonly used LCV is called CVD 103-HgR, which is given in a single dose and provides protection for up to three months. It can be given to adults and children over the age of six years.
3. Injectable cholera vaccine: This vaccine contains inactivated bacteria and is given as an injection. It is not widely available and its effectiveness is limited compared to oral vaccines.

Cholera vaccines are recommended for travelers visiting areas with known cholera outbreaks, particularly if they plan to eat food or drink water that may be contaminated. They can also be used in response to outbreaks to help control the spread of the disease. However, it is important to note that vaccination alone is not sufficient to prevent cholera infection and good hygiene practices, such as handwashing and safe food handling, should always be followed.

Cholera is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which is usually transmitted through contaminated food or water. The main symptoms of cholera are profuse watery diarrhea, vomiting, and dehydration, which can lead to electrolyte imbalances, shock, and even death if left untreated. Cholera remains a significant public health concern in many parts of the world, particularly in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene. The disease is preventable through proper food handling, safe water supplies, and improved sanitation, as well as vaccination for those at high risk.

Cholera toxin is a protein toxin produced by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which causes the infectious disease cholera. The toxin is composed of two subunits, A and B, and its primary mechanism of action is to alter the normal function of cells in the small intestine.

The B subunit of the toxin binds to ganglioside receptors on the surface of intestinal epithelial cells, allowing the A subunit to enter the cell. Once inside, the A subunit activates a signaling pathway that results in the excessive secretion of chloride ions and water into the intestinal lumen, leading to profuse, watery diarrhea, dehydration, and other symptoms associated with cholera.

Cholera toxin is also used as a research tool in molecular biology and immunology due to its ability to modulate cell signaling pathways. It has been used to study the mechanisms of signal transduction, protein trafficking, and immune responses.

"Vibrio cholerae" is a species of gram-negative, comma-shaped bacteria that is the causative agent of cholera, a diarrheal disease. It can be found in aquatic environments, such as estuaries and coastal waters, and can sometimes be present in raw or undercooked seafood. The bacterium produces a toxin called cholera toxin, which causes the profuse, watery diarrhea that is characteristic of cholera. In severe cases, cholera can lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalances, which can be life-threatening if not promptly treated with oral rehydration therapy or intravenous fluids.

Inactivated vaccines, also known as killed or non-live vaccines, are created by using a version of the virus or bacteria that has been grown in a laboratory and then killed or inactivated with chemicals, heat, or radiation. This process renders the organism unable to cause disease, but still capable of stimulating an immune response when introduced into the body.

Inactivated vaccines are generally considered safer than live attenuated vaccines since they cannot revert back to a virulent form and cause illness. However, they may require multiple doses or booster shots to maintain immunity because the immune response generated by inactivated vaccines is not as robust as that produced by live vaccines. Examples of inactivated vaccines include those for hepatitis A, rabies, and influenza (inactivated flu vaccine).

A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular infectious disease. It typically contains an agent that resembles the disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as a threat, destroy it, and "remember" it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it encounters in the future.

Vaccines can be prophylactic (to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by a natural or "wild" pathogen), or therapeutic (to fight disease that is already present). The administration of vaccines is called vaccination. Vaccinations are generally administered through needle injections, but can also be administered by mouth or sprayed into the nose.

The term "vaccine" comes from Edward Jenner's 1796 use of cowpox to create immunity to smallpox. The first successful vaccine was developed in 1796 by Edward Jenner, who showed that milkmaids who had contracted cowpox did not get smallpox. He reasoned that exposure to cowpox protected against smallpox and tested his theory by injecting a boy with pus from a cowpox sore and then exposing him to smallpox, which the boy did not contract. The word "vaccine" is derived from Variolae vaccinae (smallpox of the cow), the term devised by Jenner to denote cowpox. He used it in 1798 during a conversation with a fellow physician and later in the title of his 1801 Inquiry.

Vaccination is a simple, safe, and effective way to protect people against harmful diseases, before they come into contact with them. It uses your body's natural defenses to build protection to specific infections and makes your immune system stronger.

A vaccination usually contains a small, harmless piece of a virus or bacteria (or toxins produced by these germs) that has been made inactive or weakened so it won't cause the disease itself. This piece of the germ is known as an antigen. When the vaccine is introduced into the body, the immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign and produces antibodies to fight it.

If a person then comes into contact with the actual disease-causing germ, their immune system will recognize it and immediately produce antibodies to destroy it. The person is therefore protected against that disease. This is known as active immunity.

Vaccinations are important for both individual and public health. They prevent the spread of contagious diseases and protect vulnerable members of the population, such as young children, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems who cannot be vaccinated or for whom vaccination is not effective.

Oral administration is a route of giving medications or other substances by mouth. This can be in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids, pastes, or other forms that can be swallowed. Once ingested, the substance is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and enters the bloodstream to reach its intended target site in the body. Oral administration is a common and convenient route of medication delivery, but it may not be appropriate for all substances or in certain situations, such as when rapid onset of action is required or when the patient has difficulty swallowing.

"Vibrio cholerae O1" is a specific serogroup of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae that is responsible for causing cholera, a diarrheal disease. The "O1" designation refers to the lipopolysaccharide (O) antigen present on the surface of the bacterial cell wall, which is used in the serological classification of Vibrio cholerae. This serogroup is further divided into two biotypes: classical and El Tor. The El Tor biotype has been responsible for the seventh pandemic of cholera that began in the late 1960s and continues to cause outbreaks in many parts of the world today.

The Vibrio cholerae O1 bacterium produces a potent enterotoxin called cholera toxin, which causes profuse watery diarrhea leading to rapid dehydration and electrolyte imbalance if left untreated. The infection is usually acquired through the ingestion of contaminated food or water. Preventive measures include improving access to safe drinking water, proper sanitation, and good hygiene practices.

"Vibrio cholerae O139" is a specific serogroup of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which is responsible for causing cholera, a diarrheal disease. The "O139" designation refers to the lipopolysaccharide antigen structure on the surface of the bacterial cell. This serogroup was first identified in 1992 in southern Asia and has since caused several outbreaks of cholera, particularly in that region. It is important to note that "Vibrio cholerae O139" is distinct from the more common "Vibrio cholerae O1," which has historically been responsible for most cholera cases worldwide. Both serogroups can cause severe diarrhea and dehydration if left untreated, but "Vibrio cholerae O139" is typically associated with a milder illness compared to "Vibrio cholerae O1."

Herd immunity, also known as community immunity or population immunity, is a form of indirect protection from infectious diseases that occurs when a large percentage of a population has become immune to an infection, either through vaccination or previous illness. This reduces the likelihood of infection for individuals who are not immune, especially those who cannot receive vaccines due to medical reasons. The more people in a community who are immune, the less likely the disease will spread and the entire community is protected, not just those who are immune.

Synthetic vaccines are artificially produced, designed to stimulate an immune response and provide protection against specific diseases. Unlike traditional vaccines that are derived from weakened or killed pathogens, synthetic vaccines are created using synthetic components, such as synthesized viral proteins, DNA, or RNA. These components mimic the disease-causing agent and trigger an immune response without causing the actual disease. The use of synthetic vaccines offers advantages in terms of safety, consistency, and scalability in production, making them valuable tools for preventing infectious diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Bangladesh" is a country located in South Asia, rather than a medical term or condition. It is bordered by India to the west, north, and east, and by Myanmar (Burma) to the southeast, with the Bay of Bengal to the south. The official name of the country is the People's Republic of Bangladesh.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help answer them for you!

A viral vaccine is a biological preparation that introduces your body to a specific virus in a way that helps your immune system build up protection against the virus without causing the illness. Viral vaccines can be made from weakened or inactivated forms of the virus, or parts of the virus such as proteins or sugars. Once introduced to the body, the immune system recognizes the virus as foreign and produces an immune response, including the production of antibodies. These antibodies remain in the body and provide immunity against future infection with that specific virus.

Viral vaccines are important tools for preventing infectious diseases caused by viruses, such as influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, hepatitis A and B, rabies, rotavirus, chickenpox, shingles, and some types of cancer. Vaccination programs have led to the control or elimination of many infectious diseases that were once common.

It's important to note that viral vaccines are not effective against bacterial infections, and separate vaccines must be developed for each type of virus. Additionally, because viruses can mutate over time, it is necessary to update some viral vaccines periodically to ensure continued protection.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

I could not find a specific medical definition for "Vaccines, DNA." However, I can provide you with some information about DNA vaccines.

DNA vaccines are a type of vaccine that uses genetically engineered DNA to stimulate an immune response in the body. They work by introducing a small piece of DNA into the body that contains the genetic code for a specific antigen (a substance that triggers an immune response). The cells of the body then use this DNA to produce the antigen, which prompts the immune system to recognize and attack it.

DNA vaccines have several advantages over traditional vaccines. They are relatively easy to produce, can be stored at room temperature, and can be designed to protect against a wide range of diseases. Additionally, because they use DNA to stimulate an immune response, DNA vaccines do not require the growth and culture of viruses or bacteria, which can make them safer than traditional vaccines.

DNA vaccines are still in the experimental stages, and more research is needed to determine their safety and effectiveness. However, they have shown promise in animal studies and are being investigated as a potential tool for preventing a variety of infectious diseases, including influenza, HIV, and cancer.

Bacterial vaccines are types of vaccines that are created using bacteria or parts of bacteria as the immunogen, which is the substance that triggers an immune response in the body. The purpose of a bacterial vaccine is to stimulate the immune system to develop protection against specific bacterial infections.

There are several types of bacterial vaccines, including:

1. Inactivated or killed whole-cell vaccines: These vaccines contain entire bacteria that have been killed or inactivated through various methods, such as heat or chemicals. The bacteria can no longer cause disease, but they still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response.
2. Subunit, protein, or polysaccharide vaccines: These vaccines use specific components of the bacterium, such as proteins or polysaccharides, that are known to trigger an immune response. By using only these components, the vaccine can avoid using the entire bacterium, which may reduce the risk of adverse reactions.
3. Live attenuated vaccines: These vaccines contain live bacteria that have been weakened or attenuated so that they cannot cause disease but still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response. This type of vaccine can provide long-lasting immunity, but it may not be suitable for people with weakened immune systems.

Bacterial vaccines are essential tools in preventing and controlling bacterial infections, reducing the burden of diseases such as tuberculosis, pneumococcal disease, meningococcal disease, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease. They work by exposing the immune system to a harmless form of the bacteria or its components, which triggers the production of antibodies and memory cells that can recognize and fight off future infections with that same bacterium.

It's important to note that while vaccines are generally safe and effective, they may cause mild side effects such as pain, redness, or swelling at the injection site, fever, or fatigue. Serious side effects are rare but can occur, so it's essential to consult with a healthcare provider before receiving any vaccine.

Combined vaccines are defined in medical terms as vaccines that contain two or more antigens from different diseases, which are given to provide protection against multiple diseases at the same time. This approach reduces the number of injections required and simplifies the immunization schedule, especially during early childhood. Examples of combined vaccines include:

1. DTaP-Hib-IPV (e.g., Pentacel): A vaccine that combines diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough), Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease, and poliovirus components in one injection to protect against these five diseases.
2. MMRV (e.g., ProQuad): A vaccine that combines measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella (chickenpox) antigens in a single injection to provide immunity against all four diseases.
3. HepA-HepB (e.g., Twinrix): A vaccine that combines hepatitis A and hepatitis B antigens in one injection, providing protection against both types of hepatitis.
4. MenACWY-TT (e.g., MenQuadfi): A vaccine that combines four serogroups of meningococcal bacteria (A, C, W, Y) with tetanus toxoid as a carrier protein in one injection for the prevention of invasive meningococcal disease caused by these serogroups.
5. PCV13-PPSV23 (e.g., Vaxneuvance): A vaccine that combines 13 pneumococcal serotypes with PPSV23, providing protection against a broader range of pneumococcal diseases in adults aged 18 years and older.

Combined vaccines have been thoroughly tested for safety and efficacy to ensure they provide a strong immune response and an acceptable safety profile. They are essential tools in preventing various infectious diseases and improving overall public health.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Haiti" is not a medical term. It is a country located in the Caribbean, specifically on the island of Hispaniola. If you have any questions about medical conditions or terminology, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Guinea" is not a medical term. It is a geographical term referring to a region on the west coast of Africa, as well as the country of Equatorial Guinea and its neighboring countries. Additionally, "Guinea" can also refer to a unit of currency in Liberia.

If you have any medical concerns or questions, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you.

Antitoxins are substances, typically antibodies, that neutralize toxins produced by bacteria or other harmful organisms. They work by binding to the toxin molecules and rendering them inactive, preventing them from causing harm to the body. Antitoxins can be produced naturally by the immune system during an infection, or they can be administered artificially through immunization or passive immunotherapy. In a medical context, antitoxins are often used as a treatment for certain types of bacterial infections, such as diphtheria and botulism, to help counteract the effects of the toxins produced by the bacteria.

An AIDS vaccine is a type of preventive vaccine that aims to stimulate the immune system to produce an effective response against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The goal of an AIDS vaccine is to induce the production of immune cells and proteins that can recognize and eliminate HIV-infected cells, thereby preventing the establishment of a persistent infection.

Despite decades of research, there is still no licensed AIDS vaccine available. This is due in part to the unique challenges posed by HIV, which has a high mutation rate and can rapidly evolve to evade the immune system's defenses. However, several promising vaccine candidates are currently being tested in clinical trials around the world, and researchers continue to explore new approaches and strategies for developing an effective AIDS vaccine.

A subunit vaccine is a type of vaccine that contains a specific piece or component of the microorganism (such as a protein, sugar, or part of the bacterial outer membrane), instead of containing the entire organism. This piece of the microorganism is known as an antigen, and it stimulates an immune response in the body, allowing the development of immunity against the targeted infection without introducing the risk of disease associated with live vaccines.

Subunit vaccines offer several advantages over other types of vaccines. They are generally safer because they do not contain live or weakened microorganisms, making them suitable for individuals with weakened immune systems or specific medical conditions that prevent them from receiving live vaccines. Additionally, subunit vaccines can be designed to focus on the most immunogenic components of a pathogen, potentially leading to stronger and more targeted immune responses.

Examples of subunit vaccines include the Hepatitis B vaccine, which contains a viral protein, and the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, which uses pieces of the bacterial polysaccharide capsule. These vaccines have been crucial in preventing serious infectious diseases and reducing associated complications worldwide.

Mass vaccination is a coordinated effort to administer vaccine doses to a large portion of a population in a short amount of time. This strategy is often used during outbreaks of infectious diseases, such as influenza or measles, to quickly build up community immunity (herd immunity) and reduce the spread of the disease. Mass vaccination campaigns can also be implemented as part of public health initiatives to control or eliminate vaccine-preventable diseases in a population. These campaigns typically involve mobilizing healthcare workers, volunteers, and resources to reach and vaccinate as many people as possible, often through mobile clinics, community centers, and other accessible locations.

Conjugate vaccines are a type of vaccine that combines a part of a bacterium with a protein or other substance to boost the body's immune response to the bacteria. The bacterial component is usually a polysaccharide, which is a long chain of sugars that makes up part of the bacterial cell wall.

By itself, a polysaccharide is not very immunogenic, meaning it does not stimulate a strong immune response. However, when it is conjugated or linked to a protein or other carrier molecule, it becomes much more immunogenic and can elicit a stronger and longer-lasting immune response.

Conjugate vaccines are particularly effective in protecting against bacterial infections that affect young children, such as Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and pneumococcal disease. These vaccines have been instrumental in reducing the incidence of these diseases and their associated complications, such as meningitis and pneumonia.

Overall, conjugate vaccines work by mimicking a natural infection and stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies that can protect against future infections with the same bacterium. By combining a weakly immunogenic polysaccharide with a protein carrier, these vaccines can elicit a stronger and more effective immune response, providing long-lasting protection against bacterial infections.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Pakistan" is a country in South Asia and not a medical term or condition. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I would be happy to help!

Sanitation is the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human feces and urine, and the cleaning of homes, workplaces, streets, and other spaces where people live and work. This includes the collection, transport, treatment, and disposal or reuse of human waste, as well as the maintenance of hygienic conditions in these areas to prevent the spread of diseases.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines sanitation as "the use of toilets or latrines that safely dispose of human waste, as well as the safe management of human waste at the household, community, and national levels." Sanitation is an essential component of public health and is critical for preventing the spread of infectious diseases such as cholera, typhoid, hepatitis A, and polio.

Poor sanitation can have serious consequences for individuals and communities, including increased risk of disease and death, decreased productivity, reduced economic growth, and negative impacts on social and mental well-being. Providing access to safe sanitation is a key target of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with a goal to ensure that everyone has access to adequate and equitable sanitation by 2030.

Attenuated vaccines consist of live microorganisms that have been weakened (attenuated) through various laboratory processes so they do not cause disease in the majority of recipients but still stimulate an immune response. The purpose of attenuation is to reduce the virulence or replication capacity of the pathogen while keeping it alive, allowing it to retain its antigenic properties and induce a strong and protective immune response.

Examples of attenuated vaccines include:

1. Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV): This vaccine uses live but weakened polioviruses to protect against all three strains of the disease-causing poliovirus. The weakened viruses replicate in the intestine and induce an immune response, which provides both humoral (antibody) and cell-mediated immunity.
2. Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine: This combination vaccine contains live attenuated measles, mumps, and rubella viruses. It is given to protect against these three diseases and prevent their spread in the population.
3. Varicella (chickenpox) vaccine: This vaccine uses a weakened form of the varicella-zoster virus, which causes chickenpox. By introducing this attenuated virus into the body, it stimulates an immune response that protects against future infection with the wild-type virus.
4. Yellow fever vaccine: This live attenuated vaccine is used to prevent yellow fever, a viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and South America. The vaccine contains a weakened form of the yellow fever virus that cannot cause the disease but still induces an immune response.
5. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine: This live attenuated vaccine is used to protect against tuberculosis (TB). It contains a weakened strain of Mycobacterium bovis, which does not cause TB in humans but stimulates an immune response that provides some protection against the disease.

Attenuated vaccines are generally effective at inducing long-lasting immunity and can provide robust protection against targeted diseases. However, they may pose a risk for individuals with weakened immune systems, as the attenuated viruses or bacteria could potentially cause illness in these individuals. Therefore, it is essential to consider an individual's health status before administering live attenuated vaccines.

Malaria vaccines are biological preparations that induce immunity against malaria parasites, thereby preventing or reducing the severity of malaria disease. They typically contain antigens (proteins or other molecules derived from the parasite) that stimulate an immune response in the recipient, enabling their body to recognize and neutralize the pathogen upon exposure.

The most advanced malaria vaccine candidate is RTS,S/AS01 (Mosquirix), which targets the Plasmodium falciparum parasite's circumsporozoite protein (CSP). This vaccine has shown partial protection in clinical trials, reducing the risk of severe malaria and hospitalization in young children by about 30% over four years. However, it does not provide complete immunity, and additional research is ongoing to develop more effective vaccines against malaria.

Immunization is defined medically as the process where an individual is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, typically through the administration of a vaccine. The vaccine stimulates the body's own immune system to recognize and fight off the specific disease-causing organism, thereby preventing or reducing the severity of future infections with that organism.

Immunization can be achieved actively, where the person is given a vaccine to trigger an immune response, or passively, where antibodies are transferred to the person through immunoglobulin therapy. Immunizations are an important part of preventive healthcare and have been successful in controlling and eliminating many infectious diseases worldwide.

Immunologic adjuvants are substances that are added to a vaccine to enhance the body's immune response to the antigens contained in the vaccine. They work by stimulating the immune system and promoting the production of antibodies and activating immune cells, such as T-cells and macrophages, which help to provide a stronger and more sustained immune response to the vaccine.

Immunologic adjuvants can be derived from various sources, including bacteria, viruses, and chemicals. Some common examples include aluminum salts (alum), oil-in-water emulsions (such as MF59), and bacterial components (such as lipopolysaccharide or LPS).

The use of immunologic adjuvants in vaccines can help to improve the efficacy of the vaccine, particularly for vaccines that contain weak or poorly immunogenic antigens. They can also help to reduce the amount of antigen needed in a vaccine, which can be beneficial for vaccines that are difficult or expensive to produce.

It's important to note that while adjuvants can enhance the immune response to a vaccine, they can also increase the risk of adverse reactions, such as inflammation and pain at the injection site. Therefore, the use of immunologic adjuvants must be carefully balanced against their potential benefits and risks.

Papillomavirus vaccines are vaccines that have been developed to prevent infection by human papillomaviruses (HPV). HPV is a DNA virus that is capable of infecting the skin and mucous membranes. Certain types of HPV are known to cause cervical cancer, as well as other types of cancer such as anal, penile, vulvar, and oropharyngeal cancers. Other types of HPV can cause genital warts.

There are currently two papillomavirus vaccines that have been approved for use in the United States: Gardasil and Cervarix. Both vaccines protect against the two most common cancer-causing types of HPV (types 16 and 18), which together cause about 70% of cervical cancers. Gardasil also protects against the two most common types of HPV that cause genital warts (types 6 and 11).

Papillomavirus vaccines are given as a series of three shots over a period of six months. They are most effective when given to people before they become sexually active, as this reduces the risk of exposure to HPV. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that all boys and girls get vaccinated against HPV at age 11 or 12, but the vaccine can be given to people as young as age 9 and as old as age 26.

It is important to note that papillomavirus vaccines do not protect against all types of HPV, and they do not treat existing HPV infections or cervical cancer. They are intended to prevent new HPV infections and the cancers and other diseases that can be caused by HPV.

Meningococcal vaccines are vaccines that protect against Neisseria meningitidis, a type of bacteria that can cause serious infections such as meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord) and septicemia (bloodstream infection). There are several types of meningococcal vaccines available, including conjugate vaccines and polysaccharide vaccines. These vaccines work by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies that can protect against the different serogroups of N. meningitidis, including A, B, C, Y, and W-135. The specific type of vaccine used and the number of doses required may depend on a person's age, health status, and other factors. Meningococcal vaccines are recommended for certain high-risk populations, such as infants, young children, adolescents, and people with certain medical conditions, as well as for travelers to areas where meningococcal disease is common.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Philippines" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in Southeast Asia, comprised of over 7,000 islands. If you have any questions about medical conditions or terms, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune function of the human body. It is primarily found in external secretions, such as saliva, tears, breast milk, and sweat, as well as in mucous membranes lining the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. IgA exists in two forms: a monomeric form found in serum and a polymeric form found in secretions.

The primary function of IgA is to provide immune protection at mucosal surfaces, which are exposed to various environmental antigens, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and allergens. By doing so, it helps prevent the entry and colonization of pathogens into the body, reducing the risk of infections and inflammation.

IgA functions by binding to antigens present on the surface of pathogens or allergens, forming immune complexes that can neutralize their activity. These complexes are then transported across the epithelial cells lining mucosal surfaces and released into the lumen, where they prevent the adherence and invasion of pathogens.

In summary, Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a vital antibody that provides immune defense at mucosal surfaces by neutralizing and preventing the entry of harmful antigens into the body.

Antibody formation, also known as humoral immune response, is the process by which the immune system produces proteins called antibodies in response to the presence of a foreign substance (antigen) in the body. This process involves several steps:

1. Recognition: The antigen is recognized and bound by a type of white blood cell called a B lymphocyte or B cell, which then becomes activated.
2. Differentiation: The activated B cell undergoes differentiation to become a plasma cell, which is a type of cell that produces and secretes large amounts of antibodies.
3. Antibody production: The plasma cells produce and release antibodies, which are proteins made up of four polypeptide chains (two heavy chains and two light chains) arranged in a Y-shape. Each antibody has two binding sites that can recognize and bind to specific regions on the antigen called epitopes.
4. Neutralization or elimination: The antibodies bind to the antigens, neutralizing them or marking them for destruction by other immune cells. This helps to prevent the spread of infection and protect the body from harmful substances.

Antibody formation is an important part of the adaptive immune response, which allows the body to specifically recognize and respond to a wide variety of pathogens and foreign substances.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

"Hepatitis B vaccines are vaccines that prevent infection caused by the hepatitis B virus. They work by introducing a small and harmless piece of the virus to your body, which triggers your immune system to produce antibodies to fight off the infection. These antibodies remain in your body and provide protection if you are exposed to the real hepatitis B virus in the future.

The hepatitis B vaccine is typically given as a series of three shots over a six-month period. It is recommended for all infants, children and adolescents who have not previously been vaccinated, as well as for adults who are at increased risk of infection, such as healthcare workers, people who inject drugs, and those with certain medical conditions.

It's important to note that hepatitis B vaccine does not provide protection against other types of viral hepatitis, such as hepatitis A or C."

Medically, the term "refugees" does not have a specific definition. However, in a broader social and humanitarian context, refugees are defined by the United Nations as:

"People who are outside their country of nationality or habitual residence; have a well-founded fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group or political opinion; and are unable or unwilling to avail themselves of the protection of that country, or to return there, for fear of persecution."

Refugees often face significant health challenges due to forced displacement, violence, trauma, limited access to healthcare services, and harsh living conditions. They may experience physical and mental health issues, including infectious diseases, malnutrition, depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Providing medical care and support for refugees is an important aspect of global public health.

Diarrhea is a condition in which an individual experiences loose, watery stools frequently, often exceeding three times a day. It can be acute, lasting for several days, or chronic, persisting for weeks or even months. Diarrhea can result from various factors, including viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections, food intolerances, medications, and underlying medical conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome. Dehydration is a potential complication of diarrhea, particularly in severe cases or in vulnerable populations like young children and the elderly.

A measles vaccine is a biological preparation that induces immunity against the measles virus. It contains an attenuated (weakened) strain of the measles virus, which stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies that protect against future infection with the wild-type (disease-causing) virus. Measles vaccines are typically administered in combination with vaccines against mumps and rubella (German measles), forming the MMR vaccine.

The measles vaccine is highly effective, with one or two doses providing immunity in over 95% of people who receive it. It is usually given to children as part of routine childhood immunization programs, with the first dose administered at 12-15 months of age and the second dose at 4-6 years of age.

Measles vaccination has led to a dramatic reduction in the incidence of measles worldwide and is considered one of the greatest public health achievements of the past century. However, despite widespread availability of the vaccine, measles remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in some parts of the world, particularly in areas with low vaccination coverage or where access to healthcare is limited.

A Pertussis vaccine is a type of immunization used to protect against pertussis, also known as whooping cough. It contains components that stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies against the bacteria that cause pertussis, Bordetella pertussis. There are two main types of pertussis vaccines: whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccines and acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines. wP vaccines contain killed whole cells of B. pertussis, while aP vaccines contain specific components of the bacteria, such as pertussis toxin and other antigens. Pertussis vaccines are often combined with diphtheria and tetanus to form combination vaccines, such as DTaP (diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis) and TdaP (tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis). These vaccines are typically given to young children as part of their routine immunization schedule.

Haemophilus vaccines are vaccines that are designed to protect against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), a bacterium that can cause serious infections such as meningitis, pneumonia, and epiglottitis. There are two main types of Hib vaccines:

1. Polysaccharide vaccine: This type of vaccine is made from the sugar coating (polysaccharide) of the bacterial cells. It is not effective in children under 2 years of age because their immune systems are not yet mature enough to respond effectively to this type of vaccine.
2. Conjugate vaccine: This type of vaccine combines the polysaccharide with a protein carrier, which helps to stimulate a stronger and more sustained immune response. It is effective in infants as young as 6 weeks old.

Hib vaccines are usually given as part of routine childhood immunizations starting at 2 months of age. They are administered through an injection into the muscle. The vaccine is safe and effective, with few side effects. Vaccination against Hib has led to a significant reduction in the incidence of Hib infections worldwide.

A rural population refers to people who live in areas that are outside of urban areas, typically defined as having fewer than 2,000 residents and lacking certain infrastructure and services such as running water, sewage systems, and paved roads. Rural populations often have less access to healthcare services, education, and economic opportunities compared to their urban counterparts. This population group can face unique health challenges, including higher rates of poverty, limited access to specialized medical care, and a greater exposure to environmental hazards such as agricultural chemicals and industrial pollutants.

BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccine is a type of immunization used primarily to prevent tuberculosis (TB). It contains a live but weakened strain of Mycobacterium bovis, which is related to the bacterium that causes TB in humans (Mycobacterium tuberculosis).

The BCG vaccine works by stimulating an immune response in the body, enabling it to better resist infection with TB bacteria if exposed in the future. It is often given to infants and children in countries where TB is common, and its use varies depending on the national immunization policies. The protection offered by the BCG vaccine is moderate and may not last for a very long time.

In addition to its use against TB, the BCG vaccine has also been investigated for its potential therapeutic role in treating bladder cancer and some other types of cancer. The mechanism of action in these cases is thought to be related to the vaccine's ability to stimulate an immune response against abnormal cells.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tanzania" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in East Africa. If you have any questions about medical terms or conditions, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated (IPV) is a vaccine used to prevent poliomyelitis (polio), a highly infectious disease caused by the poliovirus. IPV contains inactivated (killed) polioviruses of all three poliovirus types. It works by stimulating an immune response in the body, but because the viruses are inactivated, they cannot cause polio. After vaccination, the immune system recognizes and responds to the inactivated viruses, producing antibodies that protect against future infection with wild, or naturally occurring, polioviruses. IPV is typically given as an injection in the leg or arm, and a series of doses are required for full protection. It is a safe and effective way to prevent polio and its complications.

Rabies vaccines are medical products that contain antigens of the rabies virus, which stimulate an immune response in individuals who receive them. The purpose of rabies vaccines is to prevent the development of rabies, a viral disease that is almost always fatal once symptoms appear.

There are two primary types of rabies vaccines available:

1. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) vaccines: These vaccines are given to individuals who are at high risk of coming into contact with the rabies virus, such as veterinarians, animal handlers, and travelers visiting areas where rabies is common. The vaccine series typically consists of three doses given over a period of 28 days.
2. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) vaccines: These vaccines are administered to individuals who have already been exposed to the rabies virus, usually through a bite or scratch from an infected animal. The vaccine series typically consists of four doses given over a period of 14 days, along with a dose of rabies immune globulin (RIG) to provide immediate protection while the immune system responds to the vaccine.

Both types of rabies vaccines are highly effective at preventing the disease, but it is essential to receive them as soon as possible after exposure or before potential exposure, as the virus can be fatal if left untreated.

Antibody-producing cells, also known as plasma cells, are a type of white blood cell that is responsible for producing and secreting antibodies in response to a foreign substance or antigen. These cells are derived from B lymphocytes, which become activated upon encountering an antigen and differentiate into plasma cells.

Once activated, plasma cells can produce large amounts of specific antibodies that bind to the antigen, marking it for destruction by other immune cells. Antibody-producing cells play a crucial role in the body's humoral immune response, which helps protect against infection and disease.

Rotavirus vaccines are preventive measures used to protect against rotavirus infections, which are the leading cause of severe diarrhea and dehydration among infants and young children worldwide. These vaccines contain weakened or inactivated forms of the rotavirus, a pathogen that infects and causes symptoms by multiplying inside cells lining the small intestine.

The weakened or inactivated virus in the vaccine stimulates an immune response in the body, enabling it to recognize and fight off future rotavirus infections more effectively. The vaccines are usually administered orally, as a liquid droplet or on a sugar cube, to mimic natural infection through the gastrointestinal tract.

There are currently two licensed rotavirus vaccines available globally:

1. Rotarix (GlaxoSmithKline): This vaccine contains an attenuated (weakened) strain of human rotavirus and is given in a two-dose series, typically at 2 and 4 months of age.
2. RotaTeq (Merck): This vaccine contains five reassortant viruses, combining human and animal strains to provide broader protection. It is administered in a three-dose series, usually at 2, 4, and 6 months of age.

Rotavirus vaccines have been shown to significantly reduce the incidence of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis and related hospitalizations among infants and young children. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the inclusion of rotavirus vaccination in national immunization programs, particularly in countries with high child mortality rates due to diarrheal diseases.

A disease outbreak is defined as the occurrence of cases of a disease in excess of what would normally be expected in a given time and place. It may affect a small and localized group or a large number of people spread over a wide area, even internationally. An outbreak may be caused by a new agent, a change in the agent's virulence or host susceptibility, or an increase in the size or density of the host population.

Outbreaks can have significant public health and economic impacts, and require prompt investigation and control measures to prevent further spread of the disease. The investigation typically involves identifying the source of the outbreak, determining the mode of transmission, and implementing measures to interrupt the chain of infection. This may include vaccination, isolation or quarantine, and education of the public about the risks and prevention strategies.

Examples of disease outbreaks include foodborne illnesses linked to contaminated food or water, respiratory infections spread through coughing and sneezing, and mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika virus and West Nile virus. Outbreaks can also occur in healthcare settings, such as hospitals and nursing homes, where vulnerable populations may be at increased risk of infection.

A cholera vaccine is a vaccine that is effective at preventing cholera. For the first six months after vaccination it provides ... "Vaxchora- cholera vaccine, live, oral kit". DailyMed. 24 October 2018. Retrieved 30 July 2020. "Vaxchora- cholera vaccine, live ... "Cholera Vaccine Information Statement". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). October 2019. Cholera Vaccines ... The first cholera vaccines were developed in the late 1900s. They were the first widely used vaccine that was made in a ...
... has prequalified three bivalent cholera vaccines-Dukoral (SBL Vaccines), containing a non-toxic B-subunit of cholera toxin and ... Oral Cholera Vaccine (OCV) has been recognized as an adjunct tool for prevention and control of cholera. The World Health ... "Is a vaccine available to prevent cholera?". CDC disease info: Cholera. 2010-10-22. Archived from the original on 2010-10-26. ... Prevention methods against cholera include improved sanitation and access to clean water. Cholera vaccines that are given by ...
First vaccine for cholera by Louis Pasteur 1885 - First vaccine for rabies by Louis Pasteur and Émile Roux 1890 - First vaccine ... First oral polio vaccine (Sabin vaccine) 1963 - First vaccine for measles 1967 - First vaccine for mumps 1970 - First vaccine ... First vaccine for malaria 2015 - First vaccine for dengue fever 2019 - First vaccine for Ebola approved 2020 - First vaccine ... First vaccine for tick-borne encephalitis 1952 - First vaccine for polio (Salk vaccine) 1954 - First vaccine for Japanese ...
Vaccine. Cholera Control in Three Continents: Vaccines, Antibiotics and WASH. 38: A31-A40. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.07.078. ... Snow published a second edition of his prior book On the Mode of Communication of Cholera in 1855. Snow did not live to see the ... Though the city was not fully convinced of John Snow's theory on cholera, they removed the handle on the pump when Snow asked. ... The child's doctor Joseph Grancher asked Pasteur to treat the boy even though Pasteur was unsure of the vaccine's affect on a ...
D, Sinclair; K, Abba; K, Zaman; F, Qadri; PM, Graves (16 March 2011). "Oral vaccines for preventing cholera". The Cochrane ... Challenge studies have been used to expedite evaluation of vaccines for several diseases, such as cholera, typhoid fever, ... The vaccine sponsor may have required proof of safety and efficacy of adjuvants for delivering the vaccine, demonstrated what ... A challenge study to test promising vaccines for prevention of COVID-19 was under consideration during 2020 by several vaccine ...
Cholera and BCG vaccines. Probenecid reduces renal excretion and increases blood levels of amoxicillin. Oral contraceptives ...
The oral cholera vaccine has been found to be 50-60% effective over two years. There are a number of vaccines against ... Cholera morbus is a historical term that was used to refer to gastroenteritis rather than specifically cholera. Many of the ... Two commercial rotavirus vaccines exist and several more are in development. In Africa and Asia these vaccines reduced severe ... "Oral vaccines for preventing cholera". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2011 (3): CD008603. doi:10.1002/14651858. ...
... which maintains vaccine stockpiles for cholera, announced a plan in June 2017 to send one million doses of oral cholera vaccine ... Cholera vaccines that are given by mouth provide reasonable protection for about six months. Two oral killed vaccines are ... "Cholera vaccines: WHO position paper" (PDF). Relevé Épidémiologique Hebdomadaire. 85 (13): 117-28. March 2010. PMID 20349546. ... "Continued cholera epidemic in Yemen". The Global Alliance Against Cholera (G.A.A.C). Archived from the original on 15 February ...
Reports, Vaccine News. "Cholera outbreak in Sierra Leone slows". Archived from the original on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 25 ... Cholera's seven pandemics Archived 2008-05-13 at the Wayback Machine, cbc.ca, December 2, 2008. "Cholera - Cholera through ... But, as cholera was not present in the city, there were no cholera-related deaths. As a result of the pollution, the city made ... Cholera, Cholera pandemics, Gastroenterology, Intestinal infectious diseases, Cholera outbreaks). ...
Anthrax vaccine Cholera vaccine Plague vaccine Salmonella vaccine Tuberculosis vaccine Typhoid vaccine Live attenuated ... vaccine Polio vaccine Rotavirus vaccine Rubella vaccine Smallpox vaccine Varicella vaccine Yellow fever vaccine Zoster/shingles ... oral polio vaccine, recombinant live attenuated cholera vaccine, oral typhoid vaccine, oral rotavirus vaccine) Oral vaccines or ... mumps and rubella vaccine, varicella vaccine, yellow fever vaccine) Intradermal (e.g. tuberculosis vaccine, smallpox vaccine) ...
Oral cholera vaccines have the potential to shorten cholera outbreaks, and hence reduce the morbidity and mortality associated ... "Conakry Residents Demand Cholera Vaccine". IRIN. 13 September 2012. Retrieved 14 September 2012. Enserink, Martin (17 August ... "Sierra Leone cholera outbreak". Oxfam. Retrieved 31 August 2012. "Isle of Man help for Sierra Leone cholera outbreak". BBC. 4 ... "Cholera Ebbing in Sierra Leone". IRIN. 18 October 2012. Retrieved 20 October 2012. "Cholera Outbreak Leaves 224 Dead in Sierra ...
Oral cholera vaccines in mass immunization campaigns (PDF). WHO. 2010. pp. 6-8. ISBN 978-92-4-150043-2. Archived (PDF) from the ... New vaccines against rotavirus, Shigella, Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), and cholera are under development, as well ... a Cholera vaccine showed a strong reduction in morbidity and mortality, though the overall impact of vaccination was minimal as ... Cholera is not one of the major causative pathogens of diarrheal disease. Since this time, more effective vaccines have been ...
First vaccine for cholera. 1881 - Louis Pasteur develops an anthrax vaccine. 1882 - Louis Pasteur develops a rabies vaccine. ... First vaccine for pertussis 1927 - First vaccine for tuberculosis 1927 - First vaccine for tetanus 1930 - First successful sex ... 2020 - First vaccine for COVID-19. 2022 - The complete human genome is sequenced. Timeline of antibiotics Timeline of vaccines ... 2006 - First HPV vaccine approved. 2006 - The second rotavirus vaccine approved (first was withdrawn). 2007 - The visual ...
In fact, Pasteur's vaccine against chicken cholera was not regular in its effects and was a failure. In the 1870s, he applied ... "History of the Cholera Vaccine , Passport Health". www.passporthealthusa.com. Archived from the original on 21 January 2021. ... The vaccine had been tested in 50 dogs before its first human trial. This vaccine was used on 9-year-old Joseph Meister, on 6 ... See fr:Sériciculture in the French Wikipedia.) Pasteur's first work on vaccine development was on chicken cholera. He received ...
"Cholera Vaccine Succeeds in Haiti". pih.org. February 20, 2015. Retrieved January 24, 2021. "Louise C. Ivers, MB, BCH, BAO, MD ... Ivers later published a paper in 2015 showing that PIH's intervention and vaccine distribution slowed the spread of cholera in ... Ivers, Louise C.; Walton, David A. (January 1, 2012). "The "First" Case of Cholera in Haiti: Lessons for Global Health". The ... Dwyer, Dialynn (January 15, 2021). "'We should end each day with no covid19 vaccines in the freezer': MGH doctor urges Gov. ...
2014: Oral cholera vaccine in Bangladesh was found to have significant impact on cholera incidence when delivered through ... 2001: Oral cholera vaccine, tested at ICDDR,B, is approved for use by WHO. 2001: Studies on the effects of arsenic on health ... 2007: Oral cholera vaccine Dukoral, tested at Matlab in 1985, launched in Bangladesh. 2008: Introduce SHEBA (an integrated ... It played a key role in community trials of oral rehydration solution (ORS) and early cholera vaccine studies. Zia Uddin Ahmed ...
Yang, Wei (July 2010). "[The pioneer of cholera vaccine and plague vaccine-Haffkine]". Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi (Beijing, China: ... Plague vaccine is a vaccine used against Yersinia pestis to prevent the plague. Inactivated bacterial vaccines have been used ... attenuated vaccines and recombinant protein vaccines have been developed to prevent the disease. The first plague vaccine was ... Drugs that are a vaccine, Commons category link from Wikidata, Vaccines, Live vaccines, Plague (disease), All stub articles, ...
The oral cholera vaccine, while effective for cholera, is of questionable use for travelers' diarrhea. Preventive antibiotics ... The oral cholera vaccine, while effective for prevention of cholera, is of questionable use for prevention of TD. A 2008 review ... Jelinek T, Kollaritsch H (2008). "Vaccination with Dukoral against travelers' diarrhea (ETEC) and cholera". Expert Rev Vaccines ... Several vaccine candidates targeting ETEC or Shigella are in various stages of development. One 2007 review found that ...
There are currently two vaccines for cholera: Dukoral and Shanchol. Both vaccines use whole killed V. cholerae cells however, ... Cholera toxin acts by the following mechanism: First, the B subunit ring of the cholera toxin binds to GM1 gangliosides on the ... Another application of the CTB subunit may be as a vaccine adjuvant to other vaccines. It has been shown that coupling CTB and ... Dukoral also contains recombinant cholera toxin β (rCTB). Some studies suggest that the inclusion of rCTB may improve vaccine ...
"Cholera Vaccine (Cholera Vaccine): Uses, Dosage, Side Effects, Interactions, Warning". RxList. Retrieved 2021-11-19. " ... Due to the abundant number of vaccines, pharmaceutics combines two or more vaccines to save more time. These types of vaccines ... The storage are necessary to improve vaccine shelf life and transport vaccine worldwide. Vaccine storage was first developed in ... and rubella II vaccines, which are transported between −25 °C and −15 °C. Some vaccines, such as the COVID-19 vaccine, require ...
Lutzkerand, Edythe; Carol Jochnowitz (1987). "Waldemar Haffkine: Pioneer of the Cholera Vaccine" (PDF). 53 (7). American ... developed vaccine against cholera and plague Boris Hessen, physicist Abram Ioffe, nuclear scientist Isaak Markovich Khalatnikov ... prophylactic vaccination against cholera and bubonic plague in British India" (PDF). Journal of Medical Biography. SAGE ...
Both the live cholera vaccine and live typhoid vaccine can be made ineffective if given with ampicillin. Ampicillin is normally ... "Drug interactions between ampicillin and cholera vaccine, live". Drugs.com. Archived from the original on 23 February 2018. ... "Drug interactions between ampicillin and typhoid vaccine, live". Drugs.com. Archived from the original on 23 February 2018. ... Handa S (22 June 2017). "Cholera Medication". Medscape. Archived from the original on 23 February 2018. Retrieved 23 February ...
"Gov't declares hog cholera alert in Luzon". Gmanews.tv. Retrieved 2009-04-25. "New mothers urged to get swine flu vaccine". BBC ... Vaccine. 27 (15): 2114-20. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.01.125. PMID 19356614. "Last Year's (2009) H1N1 Flu Vaccine Was Safe, ... Several commercial vaccines are available including a trivalent one being used in sow vaccination and a vaccine against pdmH1N1 ... "FDA Approves Vaccines for 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus". FDA. Retrieved 2009-10-15. "NIH studies on Swine flu vaccine". NIH. ...
This low-cost vaccine option will be most suited for regions with highest cholera cases such as Africa and South Asia. Hilleman ... "Hilleman Labs rotavirus and cholera vaccines enter phase I/II clinical trial". livemint.com. Retrieved 30 September 2016. " ... "Indian firm develops inexpensive cholera vaccine". wsj.com. Retrieved 30 September 2016. "Hilleman Laboratories to develop next ... The firm's focus is to heat stabilize the existing vaccine and bring it to vaccine vial monitor (VVM) 30 levels and higher. ...
... whose product line includes FDA-approved typhoid vaccine Vivotif and cholera vaccine Vaxchora, from its owner, Cerebus Capital ... Vaxchora is the only oral vaccine against cholera approved by the FDA in the US. The acquisition also includes rights to ... The BioThrax vaccines will go to the SNS. The contract will supply around 29.4 million doses of the vaccine. Additionally, the ... Gregg, Aaron (August 12, 2018). "Emergent Biosolutions to acquire cholera and typhoid vaccines in $270 million deal". The ...
He was noted especially for his research on cholera and typhus vaccines. "Hetsch, Heinrich," in Neue Deutsche Biographie, 1972 ...
The Dukoral cholera vaccine comes as a 3ml suspension along with 5.6g of effervescent granules, which are mixed and added to ... Meningococcal Group B vaccine, Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, Hib/MenC vaccine, MMR vaccine, Pre-school Booster, HPV vaccine, ... The combined Hepatitis A and B vaccine, combined Hepatitis A and typhoid vaccine, and Rabies vaccine are all 1ml. Joint ... "Types of vaccine". Vaccine Knowledge Project. Oxford Vaccine Group. 12 January 2019. Retrieved 16 January 2020. "Information ...
"Mozambique Asks for Additional Cholera Vaccine After Cyclone Freddy". VOA. 18 April 2023. Archived from the original on 18 ... Millions of children were at risk of an increase in cholera cases as well. Due to cholera being transmitted through ... Mozambique has requested an additional 2 million doses of a cholera vaccine from the World Health Organization (WHO). By 18 ... Cholera cases also increased among affected populations. A total of 8 provinces were damaged by the cyclone. 1,017 schools took ...
In different trials, the rCTB-WC cholera vaccine provided high (85-100%) short-term protection. An oral ETEC vaccine candidate ... WC cholera vaccine Dukoral, have been developed. There are currently no licensed vaccines for ETEC, though several are in ... Vaccine. 34 (26): 2880-86. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.02.076. PMID 26988259. Svennerholm AM (February 2011). "From cholera to ... Oral inactivated vaccines consisting of toxin antigen and whole cells, i.e. the licensed recombinant cholera B subunit (rCTB)- ...
... to use in vaccines). Using this method, he developed vaccines for gonorrhea, some staphylococcal infections, and cholera. These ... He did not succeed in his effort to develop a practical vaccine. The next step would be taken by Rudolf Weigl in 1930. Despite ... He first tried this vaccine on himself, and when he stayed healthy he tried it on a few children (because of their better ... Nicolle surmised that he could make a simple vaccine by crushing up the lice and mixing it with blood serum from recovered ...
cholera vaccine.. 2 Cholera vaccine. Your health care provider can give you more information.. The cholera vaccine used in the ... Cholera vaccine is a live, attenuated (weakened) Most travelers do not need cholera vaccine. If you vaccine which can be shed ... Cholera vaccine can prevent cholera.. Tell your vaccine provider if the person getting Cholera is spread through contaminated ... vaccine for you.. Cholera vaccine is not 100% effective against cholera and does not protect from other foodborne or waterborne ...
Cholera Vaccine: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... The cholera vaccine used in the United States is an oral (swallowed) vaccine. Only one dose is needed. Booster doses are not ... In clinical studies, cholera vaccine was very effective in preventing severe or life-threatening cholera. However, it is not ... No serious problems reported after cholera vaccine were considered related to the vaccine. ...
... to know for adult patients who are traveling to cholera outbreak areas and who may be candidates for the new cholera vaccine. ... When discussing cholera vaccine with travelers, explain that cholera is rare but can be severe, and emphasize the need to focus ... FDA Approves Vaccine to Prevent Cholera for Travelers Karen Wong, MD, MPH, is a medical officer in the Division of Foodborne, ... The vaccine is not currently licensed for children.. A study of cholera patients reported in the United States found that about ...
A cholera vaccine is a vaccine that is effective at preventing cholera. For the first six months after vaccination it provides ... "Vaxchora- cholera vaccine, live, oral kit". DailyMed. 24 October 2018. Retrieved 30 July 2020. "Vaxchora- cholera vaccine, live ... "Cholera Vaccine Information Statement". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). October 2019. Cholera Vaccines ... The first cholera vaccines were developed in the late 1900s. They were the first widely used vaccine that was made in a ...
Recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee Cholera Vaccine ... CHOLERA VACCINE Cholera vaccines *, whether prepared from Classic or El Tor strains, are of limited usefulness. In field trials ... Official name: Cholera Vaccine. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Bart KJ, Gangarosa EJ. Cholera. In: Kelley VC, ed. Brennemanns practice ... yellow fever and cholera vaccines ideally should be given at least 3 weeks apart. If that is not possible, and both vaccines ...
... the water we drink and the medicines and vaccines that treat and protect us. The Organization aims to provide every child, ... The small facility in northern Malawi had been repurposed to serve as a cholera treatment centre to care for hundreds of ... A surge in cholera outbreaks globally has strained the supply of cholera vaccines, prompting the International Coordinating ... Vaccines help battle cholera outbreak in Malawi 22 February 2023. Lilongwe, Malawi - In late 2022 staff at Tukombo health ...
THE LIVE ATTENUATED ORAL CHOLERA VACCINE IS DERIVED FROM: V … ... FOR THE USE OF LYOPHILIZED CVD 103-HGR VACCINE (CVD 103-HGR) ( ... THE LIVE ATTENUATED ORAL CHOLERA VACCINE IS DERIVED FROM: Vibrio cholerae O1 and is administered in a single dose. Cholera is a ... ACIP recommends CVD 103-HgR, the only cholera vaccine licensed for use in the United States, for prevention of cholera among ... Cholera Vaccine: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 2022 MMWR Recomm Rep. 2022 Sep 30;71(2):1 ...
Cholera Vaccine, Live, for Oral Administration) may treat, side effects, dosage, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling ... Vaxchora (Cholera Vaccine, Live, Oral) is a vaccine indicated for active immunization against disease caused by Vibrio cholera ... VAXCHORA (Cholera Vaccine, Live, Oral) is a live, attenuated bacterial vaccine suspension for oral administration containing ... Inform vaccine recipients that VAXCHORA is a live attenuated vaccine and has the potential for transmission of the vaccine ...
Single Cholera Vaccine Dose May Slow Cholera Epidemics ... VOA News: Single Cholera Vaccine Dose May Slow Cholera ... "When it comes to a vaccine to prevent cholera, one dose may be as good as two. That is the finding of a new study whose authors ... Single Dose Of Cholera Vaccine Might Be Nearly As Effective As 2 Doses In Halting Outbreaks, Study Shows. Aug 27, 2015 ... Nearly 25% Of World Might Not Get COVID-19 Vaccine Until 2022; FDA Committee Considering Moderna Vaccine; Media Outlets Cover ...
Malawi secured a tranche of 2.9 million doses from the Gavi-supported Global oral Cholera Vaccine Stockpile in November. ... Malawis worst cholera epidemic in decades has sparked massive demand for vaccines but stocks are reportedly running low. ... Malawis worst cholera epidemic in decades has sparked massive demand for vaccines but stocks are reportedly running low.. ** ... A health worker takes a cholera vaccine at the Bwaila Hospital in Lilongwe central Malawi Wednesday, Jan. 11, 2023. - Copyright ...
... b will administer the second dose of oral cholera vaccine in five areas of Dhaka from August 3 to 10, under the supervision of ... Cholera Vaccinecholera vaccine drivedirectorate general of health servicesDGHSoral cholera vaccineDhakadisease preventive ... Administering 2nd dose of cholera vaccine from Aug 3 to 10 in Dhaka. ... Icddr,b will administer the second dose of oral cholera vaccine in five areas of Dhaka from August 3 to 10, under the ...
HomeHealthLebanon has received its first batch of cholera vaccines. Lebanon has received its first batch of cholera vaccines. ... Lebanon has received its first batch of cholera vaccines as part of the international effort to help curb the spread of the ... The WHO, which recommends the use of cholera vaccines in line with other preventive measures such as the supply of clean water ... said earlier this month that the strained global supply of cholera vaccines prompted it to reduce the standard two-dose ...
... cholera vaccine), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & lactation ... Immune responses to cholera vaccine may be diminished when it is coadministered with chloroquine. Administer cholera vaccine at ... Immune responses to cholera vaccine may be diminished when it is coadministered with chloroquine. Administer cholera vaccine at ... encoded search term (cholera vaccine (Vaxchora)) and cholera vaccine (Vaxchora) What to Read Next on Medscape ...
The arrival of the cholera vaccine reflects the collective efforts of all partners on the ground to curb the spread of cholera ... WHOs complete cholera kits contain intravenous fluids, essential medicines, and supplies for cholera and cholera beds. ... Damascus, 29 November 2022 - Trucks carrying two million doses of Oral Cholera Vaccines (OCV) arrived in Damascus, Syria, today ... Syria , News , Two million doses of oral cholera vaccines arrive in Syria ...
... TOPICS:American Chemical SocietyBacteriaCholeraInfectious ... Edible Cholera Vaccine - Made of Powdered Rice - Proves Safe in Phase 1 Human Trials ... Current cholera vaccines contain killed or weakened V. cholerae bacteria and are administered orally. They offer the lowest ... Be the first to comment on New Type of Cholera Vaccine May Offer Much Longer-Lasting Protection. ...
... is the only vaccine available in the United States for protection against cholera. The vaccine is a live, attenuated oral ... vaccine that is given as a single dose. It is made from a strain of Vibrio cholerae that is not harmful and does not cause ... cholera vaccine recombinant live oral) is the only vaccine available in the United States for protection against cholera. The ... Cholera Vaccine Vaxchora (Recombinant Live Oral) Single-dose 100mL **Refrigerated Item by Emergent Travel Health Inc ...
U.S. cholera vaccine market by product. 6.2.2.2. U.S. cholera vaccine market by end user. 6.2.2.3. Canada cholera vaccine ... UK cholera vaccine market by product. 6.3.2.6. UK cholera vaccine market by end user. 6.3.2.7. Italy cholera vaccine market by ... Rest of LAMEA cholera vaccine market by end user. 6.5.3. LAMEA cholera vaccine market, by product. 6.5.4. LAMEA cholera vaccine ... Canada cholera vaccine market by end user. 6.2.2.5. Mexico cholera vaccine market by product. 6.2.2.6. Mexico cholera vaccine ...
Probiotic Vaccines Could Be The Cholera Prevention Breakthrough Humanity Has Been Waiting For ... Probiotic Vaccines Could Be The Cholera Prevention Breakthrough Humanity Has Been Waiting For. ... "Probiotic Vaccines Could Be The Cholera Prevention Breakthrough Humanity Has Been Waiting For". ... both these new vaccine candidates could help meet the World Health Organizations goal of reducing cholera deaths by 90 percent ...
... between the level of vaccine coverage in an individuals social network and the incidence of cholera in individual vaccine ... we found incidence rates of cholera among placebo recipients were inversely related to levels of vaccine coverage (5.28 cases ... Receipt of vaccine by an individual and the level of vaccine coverage of the individuals social network were independently ... data from a placebo-controlled trial of B subunit-killed whole-cell and killed whole-cell-only oral cholera vaccines in ...
Dukoral suspension and effervescent granules for oral suspension, Cholera vaccine (inactivated, oral) *. Pharmacy Only: ... Dukoral suspension and effervescent granules for oral suspension, Cholera vaccine (inactivated, oral) ...
IVI and EuBiologics sign memorandum of understanding with DEK Vaccines Limited to support fill and finish of oral cholera ... IVI and EuBiologics sign memorandum of understanding with DEK Vaccines Limited to support fill and finish of oral cholera ... IVI and EuBiologics sign memorandum of understanding with DEK Vaccines Limited to support fill and finish of oral cholera ... IVI developed the worlds first low-cost oral cholera vaccine, pre-qualified by the World Health Organization (WHO), and ...
"Introduction to the cholera vaccine session" 202202, no. 11 (2022). Sanchez, Pablo "Introduction to the cholera vaccine session ... Influenza vaccines for older adults Cite CITE. Title : Influenza vaccines for older adults Personal Author(s) : Groskopf, Lisa ... Seasonal influenza vaccines Cite CITE. Title : Seasonal influenza vaccines Personal Author(s) : Talbot, H. Keipp Corporate ... Cholera Vaccine Work Group. Conference Author(s) : United States. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Meeting (2022 ...
In our country, Cholera disease burden consists of both cholera outbreaks and endemic cholera comprising at least 300,000 ... Safety and Immunogenicity of Locally Manufactured New (HL-OCV) Oral Cholera Vaccine. The safety and scientific validity of this ... Knowledge gap: The WHO recommends OCV for use in both endemic and epidemic cholera settings4. At present there are two vaccines ... Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine most safe and immunogenic formulation for new oral cholera vaccine HL- ...
Cholera Vaccine. *Introduction pdf icon[4 pages]. Dr. P Sanchez. *Vaxchora pediatric dose development pdf icon[12 pages]. Dr. J ... Influenza Vaccines. *Introduction pdf icon[4 pages]. Dr. K Talbot. *Influenza vaccines for older adults pdf icon[65 pages]. Dr ... Hepatitis B Vaccines. *Introduction pdf icon[3 pages]. Dr. K Ault. *Safety & immunogenicity of a 3-Antigen hepatitis B vaccine ... EtR for TBE vaccine use among laboratory workers pdf icon[17 pages]. Dr. S Hills ...
Vaccines for Cholera Control: Does Herd Immunity Play a Role? Share Share Share ...
The Generating evidence for decision-making on the use of the oral cholera vaccine from Wellcome Trust supports ... Home » Grants » Generating evidence for decision-making on the use of the oral cholera vaccine (worldwide) ... The Generating evidence for decision-making on the use of the oral cholera vaccine from Wellcome Trust supports ... Generating evidence for decision-making on the use of the oral cholera vaccine (worldwide). ...
Cholera can be prevented by heeding food and water precautions and receiving cholera vaccine before travel. ... Review CDC resources on the epidemiology of cholera vaccine to use in clinical decision making about offering vaccine to ... https://www2.cdc.gov/vaccines/ed/vaxadmin/va/ce.asp. Cholera VIS:. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/cholera. ... List recommendations for prevention strategies for cholera.. *Discuss cholera vaccine recommendations and CDC resources for ...
... cholera vaccine), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & lactation ... encoded search term (cholera vaccine (Vaxchora)) and cholera vaccine (Vaxchora) What to Read Next on Medscape ... History of severe allergic reaction (eg, anaphylaxis) to any vaccine ingredient or to a previous dose of any cholera vaccine ... Cholera vaccine has not been shown to protect against disease caused by V cholerae serogroup O139 or other non-O1 serogroups ...
We prepared GBS capsular polysaccharide (CPS) - recombinant cholera toxin B subunit (rCTB) conjugate vaccines by different ... Group B streptococcus capsular polysaccharide - Cholera toxin B subunit conjugate vaccine for mucosal immunisation : ... An optimally effective GBS vaccine should induce both mucosal and systemic immunity. ... development and preclinical evaluation of experimental conjugate vaccines. Abstract. Group B streptococci (GBS) can colonize ...
  • From 2010 through 2014, 91 cases of cholera were confirmed in the United States among people who had traveled internationally in the week before illness onset. (cdc.gov)
  • Last year, MSF teams in Guinea noticed cases of cholera months ahead of the rainy season. (globalbiodefense.com)
  • He says the district has so far seen nearly 100 cases of cholera, with five deaths but only three hospital admissions as of Monday. (hosmas.com)
  • From October 2010 to date, Haiti reported more than 790,000 cases of cholera with more than 9,300 deaths. (outbreaknewstoday.com)
  • Already in 2016,an average of 771 new cases of cholera is being reported every week, with 28,559 total cases reported through mid-September, before the hurricane struck. (outbreaknewstoday.com)
  • For instance, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), 2019, around 1.3 million to 4.0 million cases of cholera and approximately 10 million cases of tuberculosis were reported globally in the year 2018. (medgadget.com)
  • Since the outbreak began in October 2010, there were nearly 800,000 cases of cholera reported throughout the country. (cdc.gov)
  • Travelers going to cholera-affected areas should be counseled to eat only food that is cooked and served hot, and to drink only beverages from sealed bottles or cans. (medscape.com)
  • Now, An FDA-approved vaccine is available for use in the United States for travelers going to cholera-affected areas. (blogspot.com)
  • Such reactions from a vaccine are very rare, estimated at about 1 in a million doses, and would happen within a few minutes to a few hours after the vaccination. (medlineplus.gov)
  • With the oral vaccine, two or three doses are typically recommended. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Shanchol bivalent vaccine (also manufactured under the name mORCVAX), which combines the O1 and O139 serogroups, was originally licensed in Vietnam in 1997 and given in 20 million doses to children in Vietnam during the following decade. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the threat or occurrence of epidemic cholera, health authorities of some countries may require evidence of a complete primary series of two doses or a booster dose within 6 months before arrival. (cdc.gov)
  • Since the onset of the cholera outbreak in Malawi in March 2022, World Health Organization has supported the country to access 4.9 million doses of oral cholera vaccines from the International Coordinating Group-the body that manages emergency supplies of vaccines- with funding from Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. (who.int)
  • We will continue to engage with partners and donors to ensure that if a need for additional oral cholera doses arise, we are well prepared and support the Ministry of Health accordingly. (who.int)
  • Malawi secured a tranche of 2.9 million doses from the Gavi-supported Global Oral Cholera Vaccine Stockpile in November. (africanews.com)
  • The 13,440 doses of Sanofi-produced vaccines, supported by the French government, would "play a key role in limiting the spread of cholera," Abiad was quoted by the National News Agency as saying. (famagusta-gazette.com)
  • Damascus, 29 November 2022 - Trucks carrying two million doses of Oral Cholera Vaccines (OCV) arrived in Damascus, Syria, today. (who.int)
  • Starting in April of last year the Guinean Ministry of Health and MSF administered 316,250 doses of vaccine during two vaccination rounds in the coastal districts of Boffa and Forecariah, Guinea over six weeks. (globalbiodefense.com)
  • The two doses vaccine coverage was 75.8% in Boffa and 75.9% in Forecariah, respectively. (globalbiodefense.com)
  • IVI's killed whole-cell vaccine was originally produced by Vietnam which has till now used 9 million doses of it. (aarogya.com)
  • A third producer of oral cholera vaccine has been approved that is expected to provide 3 million doses in 2016, the World Health Organization said on Friday, doubling the world's stockpile against a disease that can kill within hours. (lessonsfromhaiti.org)
  • In addition to providing clean water, the response to help the country control cholera includes 1 million doses of cholera vaccine from the WHO. (outbreaknewstoday.com)
  • Cholera is easily treated with fluids and in some cases antibiotics, but if it isn't, it can kill in a matter of hours.Only a few million doses of cholera vaccines are available until the end of the year. (genevasolutions.news)
  • A global stockpile of vaccines, funded by a number of international organizations and foundations, initially made 2 million doses of the vaccine available. (nepalforeignaffairs.com)
  • Lowering the doses administered to every particular person will make it potential to ship vaccines to all affected nations. (6oyor-aljanah.com)
  • Vaxchora™ is a single-dose oral cholera vaccine recommended for adults aged 18-64 years who are traveling to an area of active toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 transmission. (medscape.com)
  • In clinical trials, Vaxchora reduced the risk for severe diarrhea after a cholera challenge by 90% at 10 days after vaccination, and by 80% at 3 months after vaccination. (medscape.com)
  • Vaxchora ( Cholera Vaccine , Live, Oral) is a vaccine indicated for active immunization against disease caused by Vibrio cholera serogroup O1. (rxlist.com)
  • Vaxchora is approved for use in adults 18 through 64 years of age traveling to cholera-affected areas. (rxlist.com)
  • After preparation, a single dose of Vaxchora is 100 mL, which is administered a minimum of 10 days before potential exposure to cholera. (rxlist.com)
  • Avoid food or drink for 60 minutes before and after Vaxchora vaccine administration. (rxlist.com)
  • Our Vaxchora (Cholera Vaccine, Live, Oral) Side Effects Drug Center provides a comprehensive view of available drug information on the potential side effects when taking this medication. (rxlist.com)
  • VAXCHORA ( Cholera Vaccine, Live, Oral) is a live, attenuated bacterial vaccine suspension for oral administration containing the V. cholerae strain CVD 103-HgR. (rxlist.com)
  • VAXCHORA is a vaccine indicated for active immunization against disease caused by Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 in persons 2 through 64 years of age traveling to cholera-affected areas. (rxlist.com)
  • The effectiveness of VAXCHORA has not been established in persons living in cholera-affected areas. (rxlist.com)
  • The effectiveness of VAXCHORA has not been established in persons who have pre-existing immunity due to previous exposure to V. cholerae or receipt of a cholera vaccine. (rxlist.com)
  • Vaxchora (cholera vaccine recombinant live oral) is the only vaccine available in the United States for protection against cholera. (mountainside-medical.com)
  • Vaxchora, which received its FDA license in 2016, is a single dose oral vaccine that contains live attenuated cholera bacteria. (blogspot.com)
  • The Military Health System is bringing attention to a vaccine newly approved by the Food and Drug Administration that has proven effective in the fight against this disease: Vaxchora. (blogspot.com)
  • Vaxchora reduces the chance of severe diarrhea by 90 percent within 10 days after receiving the vaccine and by 80 percent within three months, said Halvorson. (blogspot.com)
  • The Department of Defense follows Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommendations and will release policy and guidance for use of the vaccine among military members and beneficiaries following the publication of the ACIP Vaxchora recommendations. (blogspot.com)
  • Historically, endemic and epidemic cholera commonly has occurred in parts of southern and southeastern Asia. (cdc.gov)
  • Since 1961, cholera caused by the El Tor biotype has been epidemic throughout much of Asia, the Middle East, and Africa and in certain parts of Europe. (cdc.gov)
  • Cholera is rare in the United States, but cases occur among travelers to countries where cholera is endemic or epidemic and associated with unsafe water and inadequate sanitation. (nih.gov)
  • Malawi's worst cholera epidemic in decades has sparked massive demand for vaccines but stocks are reportedly running low. (africanews.com)
  • If Malawi is the epicentre of the African epidemic, cholera is surging globally. (africanews.com)
  • To combat this situation, Vaccination against cholera has been proved effective both in endemic and epidemic settings. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • However, the global demand for the vaccine far exceeds the present supply for both epidemic and also endemic settings3. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Knowledge gap: The WHO recommends OCV for use in both endemic and epidemic cholera settings4. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • These early cholera cases and other factors, including the lack of a cholera epidemic in Guinea for several years, and the ongoing cholera epidemic in neighboring Sierra Leone, were strong indications to MSF and the Ministry of Health that a major cholera epidemic was imminent. (globalbiodefense.com)
  • Nine months after that disaster, a cholera epidemic struck. (ibtimes.com)
  • A severe cholera epidemic occurred in Haiti after the earthquake in 2010 and lasted until 2017. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In Haiti's case, they need help fighting an ongoing epidemic of cholera, made worse by the standing water and flooding. (cdc.gov)
  • The cholera vaccine is widely used by backpackers and persons visiting locations where there is a high risk of cholera infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The risk of cholera to U.S. travelers is so low that the vaccine is not likely to benefit most U.S. travelers. (cdc.gov)
  • A booster 6 months later if there is continued risk of cholera. (medthical.com)
  • 0.01), but not of older children, was independently associated with a lower risk of cholera in children less than 2 years of age. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • It may be especially important for travelers at higher risk for exposure to cholera or at higher risk of having a poor outcome from infection. (medscape.com)
  • Travelers who follow the usual tourist itinerary and who use standard accommodations in countries affected by cholera are at virtually no risk of infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Vaccine should not be used to manage contacts of persons with imported cases or to control the spread of infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Persons using standard tourist accomodations in countries affected by cholera are at virtually no risk of infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused when someone consumes food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. (who.int)
  • Immunosuppressives may diminish therapeutic effects of vaccines and increase risk of adverse effects (increased risk of infection). (medscape.com)
  • Cholera is an acute intestinal infection that causes rapidly dehydrating diarrheal disease, which is caused by toxigenic serogroups of the bacterium Vibrio cholera. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Cholera is a devastating gastrointestinal infection that continues to afflict millions of people worldwide every year. (iflscience.com)
  • Designed to colonize the intestines without inducing harmful effects, experiments in rabbits revealed that the vaccine protects against infection from dangerous, wild-type V. cholerae strains just 24 hours after dosing. (iflscience.com)
  • 3) GBS CPS III-rCTB and Ia-rCTB conjugates prepared by reductive amination may serve as a basis for development of effective bivalent or multivalent mucosal vaccines to prevent mucosal colonization and invasive infection caused by GBS. (gu.se)
  • NIAID supports university-based and pharmaceutical and biotechnology researchers who are working to develop new cholera treatments and vaccines to prevent infection. (nih.gov)
  • The conclusion drawn was that vaccination reduced the amount of cholera in the environment, and therefore, the risk of infection to everyone in the community. (nih.gov)
  • Cholera is an acute diarrheal infection caused by ingesting food or water contaminated with bacteria. (hosmas.com)
  • Expression of the El Tor rstR in either El Tor or classical live-attenuated V. cholerae vaccine strains effectively protected these vaccines from CTXphi infection. (omicsdi.org)
  • Cholera, according to WHO, is an acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. (nepalforeignaffairs.com)
  • Effects of undernutrition on infection with Vibrio cholerae O1 and on response to oral cholera vaccine. (bvsalud.org)
  • The association between undernutrition and the risk of colonization and disease with Vibrio cholerae O1 , concentrations of salivary IgA and the serologic response to infection and to orally administered cholera B subunit were examined prospectively in a family study in Bangladesh . (bvsalud.org)
  • Historically, devastating outbreaks of cholera resulted in millions of cases and hundreds of thousands of deaths. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Large outbreaks of cholera continue to occur wherever there is poverty and people lack access to clean drinking water and sanitary disposal of human waste. (msdmanuals.com)
  • UN NEWS CENTRE (6 July 2015)- Use of oral vaccines is proving to be an effective tool to control outbreaks of cholera, the United Nations World Health Organization ( WHO ) said today, adding that the deadly water-borne disease is a major public health concern from Tanzania to South Sudan, and Nepal to Yemen. (nepalforeignaffairs.com)
  • Cholera is caused by bacteria, and spread through contaminated food or water. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cholera, a diarrheal disease caused by the highly transmissible bacteria Vibrio cholerae , kills tens of thousands of people each year worldwide. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Current cholera vaccines contain killed or weakened V. cholerae bacteria and are administered orally. (scitechdaily.com)
  • The virus-like particle could mimic natural bacteria by presenting multiple copies of OSP on its surface, the researchers say, and it warrants further evaluation as a next-generation cholera vaccine. (scitechdaily.com)
  • The team headed by Troy Hubbard of Harvard Medical School created an orally administered vaccine composed of live bacteria from a genetically modified version of a highly virulent Haitian strain, called HaitiV. (iflscience.com)
  • Also based upon the concept of a duking microbiome, the investigation led by Ning Mao of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology discovered that the common Lactococcus lactis bacteria - a lactic acid-producing species humans have been using to preserve foods for millennia - can inhibit proliferation of virulent cholera strains by lowering the pH of the gut. (iflscience.com)
  • Cholera is a disease spread by drinking water or eating food contaminated with toxigenic Vibrio cholerae bacteria. (cdc.gov)
  • Killed" or inactivated vaccines are those that contain cholera bacteria that have been made harmless so as not to infect the vaccinated recipient. (nih.gov)
  • In the 1990s, researchers discovered that the bacteria Vibrio cholerae, which causes cholera, was endemic to the country. (ibtimes.com)
  • Because stomach acid kills the bacteria, people who produce less stomach acid are more likely to get cholera. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In Nsanje, one of the most affected districts in the Southern region, cholera cases dropped from an average of 10 cases a day to less than three cases a day between May and December 2022. (who.int)
  • The country's 29 health districts reported cholera cases since the confirmation of the first case in March 2022. (africanews.com)
  • It will administer the second dose of oral cholera vaccine from 8 am until 4pm - except for Friday (August 5, 2022) and the day of Ashura on Tuesday (August 9). (thedailystar.net)
  • Reference: "Virus-like Particle Display of Vibrio cholerae O-specific Polysaccharide as a Potential Vaccine against Cholera" by Zahra Rashidijahanabad, Meagan Kelly and Mohammad Kamruzzaman, 16 February 2022, ACS Infectious Diseases . (scitechdaily.com)
  • The current Uganda Cholera Prevention and Control Strategic Plan (2017 - 2022 seeks to achieve a 50% reduction in cholera prevalence by 2022. (outbreaknewstoday.com)
  • The group manages the global stockpile of vaccines for cholera, as well as ebola, meningitis and yellow fever. (genevasolutions.news)
  • The Dukoral monovalent vaccine from Sweden, which combines formalin, heat-killed whole cells of Vibrio cholerae O1, and a recombinant cholera toxin B subunit, was licensed in 1991, mainly for travellers. (wikipedia.org)
  • WC-rBS (marketed as "Dukoral") is a monovalent inactivated vaccine containing killed whole cells of V. cholerae O1 plus additional recombinant cholera toxin B subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • BivWC (marketed as "Shanchol" and "mORCVAX") is a bivalent inactivated vaccine containing killed whole cells of V. cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccine available in the United States is prepared from a combination of phenol-inactivated suspensions of classic Inaba and Ogawa strains of Vibrio cholerae grown on agar or in broth. (cdc.gov)
  • Cholera is a toxin-mediated bacterial gastrointestinal illness caused by toxigenic V. cholerae serogroup O1 or, uncommonly, O139. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, a marker was inserted into the hemolysin gene locus (hlyA) to enable differentiation of the vaccine strain from wild type V. cholerae O1. (rxlist.com)
  • The vaccine generated long-lasting antibody responses against V. cholerae in mice. (scitechdaily.com)
  • The vaccine works by protecting against the toxins that V. cholerae produces. (mountainside-medical.com)
  • Cholera, a rapidly dehydrating watery diarrheal disease transmitted through water or food contaminated with the bacterium, Vibrio cholerae, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in low income countries like Bangladesh. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Ltd in collaboration with Goteberg University, Sweden has engineered new oral cholera vaccine HL-OCV,consisting of formaldehyde-inactivated recombinant V.cholerae strain ,MS 1568 expressing both Ogawa and Inaba antigens. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Vibrio cholerae and cholera : molecular to global perspectives / edited by I. Kaye Wachsmuth, Paul A. Blake, Orjan Olsvik. (who.int)
  • The most serious illness, cholera, is caused by Vibrio cholerae . (msdmanuals.com)
  • CTXphi is a filamentous bacteriophage that encodes cholera toxin, the principal virulence factor of Vibrio cholerae. (omicsdi.org)
  • CTXphi can infect the existing live-attenuated V. cholerae vaccine strains derived from either the El Tor or classical V. cholerae biotypes and result in vaccine reversion to toxinogenicity. (omicsdi.org)
  • Introduction of rstR into V. cholerae vaccine strains should enhance their biosafety. (omicsdi.org)
  • Children ages 1 to 8 years who were family contacts of patients hospitalized with culture-confirmed cholera were visited within 24 hours of the hospitalization and daily for 10 days, queried for the presence of diarrhea and cultured for V. cholerae O1. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cholera is an infectious disease caused by Vibrio Cholerae. (medthical.com)
  • We prepared GBS capsular polysaccharide (CPS) - recombinant cholera toxin B subunit (rCTB) conjugate vaccines by different methods and evaluated their systemic and mucosal immunogenicity in mice. (gu.se)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the use of cholera vaccines in combination with other measures among those at high risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends both preventive and reactive use of the vaccine, making the following key statements: WHO recommends that current available cholera vaccines be used as complements to traditional control and preventive measures in areas where the disease is endemic and should be considered in areas at risk for outbreaks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the Public Health Service no longer requires cholera vaccination for travelers coming to the United States from cholera-infected areas, and the World Health Organization (WHO) no longer recommends cholera vaccination for travel to or from cholera-infected areas. (cdc.gov)
  • This vaccine is prequalified by the World Health Organization, and can be given to all except pregnant women and those who have received any other vaccine within the last 14 days. (thedailystar.net)
  • IVI developed the world's first low-cost oral cholera vaccine, pre-qualified by the World Health Organization (WHO), and developed a new-generation typhoid conjugate vaccine that is currently under assessment for WHO PQ. (ivi.int)
  • When people are outside their homes, water and sanitation systems are disrupted," Tarik Jasarevic, a spokesman for the World Health Organization (WHO), said, pointing out that cholera is spread through contaminated water. (ibtimes.com)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) said on Tuesday it would seek to obtain oral vaccines to quell an outbreak of cholera in the Caribbean island that has so far killed at least seven people, according to figures by national authorities. (genevasolutions.news)
  • For instance, in October 2018, Sanofi Pasteur received the prequalification status from the World Health Organization (WHO) for its inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV), ShanIPV. (medgadget.com)
  • The trend of cholera changed significantly in the Southern region after the oral cholera vaccination campaign, and this helped the government to focus on other aspects of rebuilding the health system post-floods," says Dr Charles Mwansambo, Secretary for Health in the Ministry of Health. (who.int)
  • Icddr,b is undertaking the largest cholera vaccination campaign with support from the Dhaka North and South City Corporation and under the supervision of the DGHS. (thedailystar.net)
  • The recipients are being urged to take precautionary measures against Covid -19 while taking the cholera vaccine to prevent the disease and to assist in the vaccination campaign. (thedailystar.net)
  • Given the importance of open and timely data sharing for evidence-informed responses to outbreak diseases, successful applicants will be required to share research findings and data relevant to any cholera outbreak or cholera vaccination campaign regularly during the lifetime of the grant and as widely as possible. (scientifyresearch.org)
  • Using results from a mass vaccination campaign of more than 300,000 people conducted in Guinea last year, MSF and Epicentre show the feasibility of implementing a mass vaccination campaign with oral cholera at the onset of an outbreak, similar to the way reactive vaccination campaigns are conducted when diseases such as measles or meningitis are reported in an area. (globalbiodefense.com)
  • Malawi has rolled out a vaccination campaign to help stop an outbreak of cholera. (hosmas.com)
  • For instance, in August 2019, the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF), reported that around 400,000 people including 65,000 children were vaccinated in a six day oral cholera vaccination campaign run by the local health authorities of Yemen in three cities of Yemen (Aden, Al Dhale'e, and Taizz). (medgadget.com)
  • Vaccination is recommended for adult travelers going to areas of active cholera transmission. (medscape.com)
  • ACIP recommends CVD 103-HgR, the only cholera vaccine licensed for use in the United States, for prevention of cholera among travelers aged 2-64 years to an area with active cholera transmission. (nih.gov)
  • Health care providers can use these guidelines to develop the pretravel consultation for persons traveling to areas with active cholera transmission. (nih.gov)
  • All travelers to an area of active cholera transmission should use personal protective measures against exposure to cholera, which include following safe food and water recommendations and frequent handwashing, including those who are vaccinated," said Halvorson. (blogspot.com)
  • CVD 103-HgR was constructed from the serogroup O1 classical Inaba strain 569B by deleting the catalytic domain sequence of both copies of the ctxA gene, which prevents the synthesis of active cholera toxin ( CT ). (rxlist.com)
  • Cholera toxin (CT) has been considered an important protein in several medical research and technology advancements. (mdpi.com)
  • In conflict-wracked Yemen and earthquake-ravaged Nepal, WHO has been working with national authorities and partners on the ground to prepare for any outbreak of cholera, as well as acute watery diarrhoea. (nepalforeignaffairs.com)
  • UNICEF and WHO lead an oral cholera vaccine campaign amid an acute cholera outbreak in Yemen, in September 2019. (genevasolutions.news)
  • For instance, in February 2019, according to the journal of the American Chemical Society (ACS), Nano Letters, researchers have developed the oral vaccines coupled with micromotors. (medgadget.com)
  • For instance, in February 2019, Bharat Biotech acquired Chiron Behring vaccines, a manufacturer of rabies vaccine and subsidiary of GlaxoSmithKline. (medgadget.com)
  • A single dose vaccine is available for those traveling to an area where cholera is common. (wikipedia.org)
  • A surge in cholera outbreaks globally has strained the supply of cholera vaccines, prompting the International Coordinating Group to temporarily suspend the standard two-dose vaccination regimen in cholera outbreak response campaigns, using instead a single-dose approach. (who.int)
  • The vaccine is a live, attenuated oral vaccine that is given as a single dose. (mountainside-medical.com)
  • We are very focused on feasibility - the idea of being able to come in with a single-dose intervention that works rapidly but confers immunity over a long period of time is our target for the best possible vaccine. (iflscience.com)
  • Azman, AS & Luquero, FJ 2016, ' Single-dose oral cholera vaccine in Bangladesh ', New England Journal of Medicine , vol. 375, no. 7, pp. e12. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • In addition, the need for buffer to formulate the vaccine makes it less fieldable for mass vaccination programs.Another whole killed OCV, ShancholTM, which is WHO prequalified, is based on similar bacterial components as Dukoral and licensed in India but not in Bangladesh. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The technology used to create Dukoral was later transferred to Vietnam and India, where a modified killed cholera vaccine is being produced as OCV-Vax in Vietnam and as Shanchol in India. (nih.gov)
  • Dr Clemens added, "The only WHO-prequalified OCV to date is the double dose Swedish vaccine called Dukoral. (aarogya.com)
  • A Cholera oral vaccine called Dukoral is available. (medthical.com)
  • The WHO, which recommends the use of cholera vaccines in line with other preventive measures such as the supply of clean water and sanitation, said earlier this month that the strained global supply of cholera vaccines prompted it to reduce the standard two-dose provision to one dose. (famagusta-gazette.com)
  • Live-attenuated vaccines should be avoided for at least 3 mo after cessation of immunosuppressive therapy. (medscape.com)
  • The vaccines are generally developed from live attenuated or killed forms of the disease causing microorganism, its toxins, or its surface proteins. (medgadget.com)
  • Currently, cholera remains an important public health problem in many countries, occurring as an endemic disease in some regions and causing major epidemics in some low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). (researchandmarkets.com)
  • The international medical humanitarian organization Doctors Without Borders / Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) and its scientific research arm, Epicentre, recently presented results of one of the first-ever, large-scale use of an oral cholera vaccine during a cholera outbreak - a major breakthrough in the understanding and future control of deadly cholera epidemics. (globalbiodefense.com)
  • Changes in the CTB sequences play an important role in the global epidemics of cholera. (mdpi.com)
  • However the group will proceed to watch the scenario of the varied epidemics and vaccine shares to revive two-dose immunizations as quickly as potential. (6oyor-aljanah.com)
  • Certain travelers to cholera-affected areas may be at high risk for cholera. (medscape.com)
  • Has had an allergic reaction after a previous to person, but it can be spread through contact with dose of cholera vaccine , or has any severe, life- the feces of an infected person. (cdc.gov)
  • Cholera causes severe threatening allergies . (cdc.gov)
  • Cholera is a disease that can cause severe diarrhea and vomiting. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In clinical studies, cholera vaccine was very effective in preventing severe or life-threatening cholera. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you have ever had a life-threatening allergic reaction after a previous dose of any cholera vaccine, or if you have a severe allergy to any ingredient in this vaccine, you should not get the vaccine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When discussing cholera vaccine with travelers, explain that cholera is rare but can be severe, and emphasize the need to focus first on food and water precautions, even for those who are vaccinated against cholera. (medscape.com)
  • Up to 10% of infections manifest as severe cholera (i.e., cholera gravis), profuse watery diarrhea that can cause severe dehydration and death within hours. (nih.gov)
  • Cholera is an acute diarrheal disease spread via contaminated water and food which can cause severe dehydration. (africanews.com)
  • In our country, Cholera disease burden consists of both cholera outbreaks and endemic cholera comprising at least 300,000 severe cases and 1.2 million infections each year. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Severe cholera is characterized by large amounts of watery diarrhea, often described as "rice-water stool" because it can have a pale, milky appearance. (cdc.gov)
  • Cholera can quickly lead to severe dehydration and death without prompt treatment. (nepalforeignaffairs.com)
  • Severe reaction is rare unless you have allergy to the vaccine. (medthical.com)
  • However, since it does not provide 100 percent immunity from the disease, food hygiene precautions are also recommended when visiting an area where there is a high risk of becoming infected with cholera. (wikipedia.org)
  • The administration of the vaccine to adults confers additional indirect protection (herd immunity) to children. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccines for Cholera Control: Does Herd Immunity Play a Role? (ox.ac.uk)
  • An optimally effective GBS vaccine should induce both mucosal and systemic immunity. (gu.se)
  • This phenomenon, called community or "herd" immunity, occurs with many vaccines, and demonstrates the power of vaccination to quickly control and eliminate infectious disease, even when some in the population are not vaccinated. (nih.gov)
  • In the case of cholera, one epidemiological model in Bangladesh showed that because of community immunity, a vaccine containing inactivated cholera conferring relatively short-lived immunity could eliminate cholera entirely if 70 percent of the population was vaccinated. (nih.gov)
  • According to Ganguly, the two-year-immunity limit that this vaccine offers would greatly benefit India where diarrhoeal diseases account for an estimated 600,000 deaths each year in children aged under 5 years. (aarogya.com)
  • CTXphi immunity: application in the development of cholera vaccines. (omicsdi.org)
  • CT plays an important role in the induction of protective immunity against cholera. (mdpi.com)
  • CTB-associated mucosal immunity has been further explored in the development of vaccines against several pathogens. (mdpi.com)
  • Vaccines are biologically prepared products, which provide active acquired immunity to diseases such as cholera, polio, rotavirus, smallpox, yellow fever and others. (medgadget.com)
  • One dose of vaccine will usually satisfy entry requirements for persons who anticipate travel to such countries and who will be vaccinated in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • The investigators will provide 2 dose of vaccine for three groups in 14 days interval. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Dr Firdausi Qadri, senior scientist and acting senior director of Infectious Diseases Division at icddr,b, urged everyone to get vaccinated with the oral cholera vaccine, and maintain disease preventive measures such as the use of safe water, safe sanitation and personal hygiene, to be protected from many infectious diseases including diarrhoea. (thedailystar.net)
  • There is an increase in the demand for cholera vaccine due to lack of proper sanitation & consumption of contaminated food and growth in the awareness about cholera preventive care. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • NIAID efforts to develop a preventive cholera vaccine have targeted two distinct but overlapping approaches: live and "killed" vaccines. (nih.gov)
  • Bangladesh has been working toward preventive vaccination in known cholera flashpoints in an effort to keep outbreaks from starting. (lifegurunewshubb.com)
  • Ongoing efforts are working to enhance surveillance, investigate outbreaks and implement preventive measures across the world to reduce the burden of cholera," said Halvorson. (blogspot.com)
  • Lebanon has so far tallied 388 cholera cases, including 17 deaths. (famagusta-gazette.com)
  • The true number of cholera-related deaths, however, is estimated to be as many as 120,000 each year. (aarogya.com)
  • Authorities report more than 350 cases and 17 deaths from cholera across eight districts of southern Malawi. (hosmas.com)
  • In its latest report on Monday, the ministry said the country had recorded 367 cholera cases in all with 17 deaths and 19 hospital admissions. (hosmas.com)
  • Ugandan Health Minister Dr Jane Ruth Aceng said Uganda records an annual average of 1,850 cases and 45 deaths from cholera. (outbreaknewstoday.com)
  • Although new cholera cases and deaths continue to be reported in all 10 departments in Haiti, the number of cases was significantly lowered from over 300,000 in 2011 to about 36,000 in 2015 thanks to intensified prevention and control efforts from national and international actors. (outbreaknewstoday.com)
  • The WHO-led Global Task Force on Cholera Control aims to end cholera deaths by strengthening international collaboration and increasing coordination among partners in three of the main situations where cholera circulates. (nepalforeignaffairs.com)
  • Cholera vaccine is not 100% effective against cholera and does not protect from other foodborne or waterborne diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • Being careful about what you eat and drink while traveling, and practicing good personal hygiene, can help prevent waterborne and foodborne diseases, including cholera. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, it is not 100% effective against cholera and does not protect from other foodborne or waterborne diseases. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The traveler's best protection against cholera, as well as against many other enteric diseases, is to avoid food and water that might be contaminated. (cdc.gov)
  • The BIKEN Group is strengthening its commitment to eradicate serious infectious diseases by developing next-generation vaccines. (nature.com)
  • Vaccine development at the Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences has played a vital role in fighting infectious diseases. (nature.com)
  • Developed by the International Vaccine Institute (IVI) in Seoul, which has transferred the production technology to an Indian pharma company, the vaccine has been found to be safe when tried in a phase II trial on 70,000 human subjects (aged 12 months and older) in Kolkata by the National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases (NICED). (aarogya.com)
  • So far, the WHO, which is monitoring for diseases in cooperation with Nepal's Ministry of Health, has not received any reports of cholera or other intestinal illnesses in Nepal, Jasarevic said. (ibtimes.com)
  • As climate change causes conditions to change and temperatures to rise, ancient diseases like cholera will have new opportunities to reemerge, the WHO warned. (genevasolutions.news)
  • Vaccines can protect you from diseases that may be common outside of the United States. (ucsd.edu)
  • The good antitoxin response to B subunit among undernourished children is of particular importance in considering the use of future oral cholera vaccines in areas where such undernutrition is common. (bvsalud.org)
  • The vaccine is used to control cholera and is mainly recommended for travelers and the people living in cholera-affected region. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • In the late twentieth century, oral cholera vaccines started to be used on a massive scale, with millions of vaccinations taking place, as a tool to control cholera outbreaks in addition to the traditional interventions of improving safe water supplies, sanitation, handwashing, and other means of improving hygiene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oral cholera vaccination should be used in conjunction with improvements in water and sanitation to control cholera outbreaks and for prevention in targeted areas known to be at high risk for cholera," says Dr Neema Kimambo, WHO Representative in Malawi. (who.int)
  • If used on a broader scale, the vaccines could reduce global cholera rates, especially if antimicrobial and oral rehydration therapies are also available, and sanitation programs are supported by community education. (nih.gov)
  • Our vaccine is not an alternative but an additional tool alongside better water quality and improved sanitation. (aarogya.com)
  • Rural districts, where sanitation is poor and health services are poorer, have a higher risk of facing cholera outbreaks, but those living in cities are not immune either, as urban areas become more crowded and residents face rising competition for safe drinking water. (ibtimes.com)
  • Cholera is rare except in areas where sanitation is inadequate. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A second problem is that the funds to buy more cholera vaccines often come out of the same limited envelope allotted for the drinking water and sanitation work that is necessary in an outbreak, said Gian Gandhi, the chief of health emergencies strategy for UNICEF's supply division. (lifegurunewshubb.com)
  • The use of Oral Cholera Vaccines (OCV) must be both supported by local authorities and used hand-in-hand with focused, sustainable water and sanitation actions in targeted communities, the agency recommends in a press release . (nepalforeignaffairs.com)
  • In the case of cholera, these include the use of oral cholera vaccine, improving water and sanitation practices, engaging the community in implementation of control measures, and sustaining control efforts to prevent its re-emergence. (nepalforeignaffairs.com)
  • Even before the hurricane, Haiti had some of the lowest levels of access to clean water and sanitation in the entire Western Hemisphere and was experiencing one of the largest cholera outbreaks in recent history. (cdc.gov)
  • The International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh hospital, where the cholera treatment was pioneered and which played a key role in the development of the vaccine, saw a record number of cholera patients in March and April this year. (lifegurunewshubb.com)
  • The global cholera vaccine market is segmented based on product, end user, and region. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Cholera is a risk mostly to people traveling to Has a weakened immune system or has close countries where the disease is common (Haiti, and contacts (e.g., household contacts) with a weakened parts of Africa, Asia, and the Pacific). (cdc.gov)
  • This partnership will help increase supply and significantly contribute to preventing the spread of cholera in Africa. (ivi.int)
  • I'm very happy with this partnership with IVI and EuBiologics through which we are going to make oral cholera vaccine in Accra, Ghana to supply Africa, and we hope to do this with typhoid conjugate vaccine as well. (ivi.int)
  • Once common throughout the world, cholera is now most common in parts of Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and South and Central America. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Cholera still occur in parts of Africa, India and South America. (medthical.com)
  • This includes providing cholera treatment kits and supplies, including rapid diagnostics tests and tablets for home-based water treatment. (who.int)
  • About 100,000-130,000 people are thought to die from cholera each year, almost all of them in countries where the disease is common. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cholera can be a serious or even fatal disease, but it is rare and treatable when rehydration is started as soon as possible. (medscape.com)
  • In countries where the disease is common, the vaccine appears to be cost effective. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cholera vaccination is crucial in outbreak control but should be complemented by measures to address the triggers of the disease. (who.int)
  • Travelers might be at increased risk for poor outcomes from cholera if they cannot readily access medical services or if they have a medical condition that would be worsened by dehydration, such as cardiovascular or kidney disease. (nih.gov)
  • If left untreated, up to 30% of cholera cases can be fatal and in extreme cases, the disease can kill within hours. (africanews.com)
  • We hope that those who have received the first dose of cholera vaccine must protect themselves against the disease by receiving the second dose as well," he said. (thedailystar.net)
  • Lebanon has received its first batch of cholera vaccines as part of the international effort to help curb the spread of the life-threatening disease in the country, Lebanese Health Minister Firas Abiad announced Monday. (famagusta-gazette.com)
  • The modified virus-like particles were recognized by antibodies in blood taken from recovering cholera patients, but not from patients with typhoid, another bacterial disease. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Vaccines are usually evaluated in field studies by comparing the incidence of disease (in this case, cholera) in a vaccinated population to an unvaccinated placebo control population. (nih.gov)
  • Oral cholera vaccine was added to the WHO recommendation for cholera treatment in 2010, but so far has not been commonly used as a public health tool for control of the disease. (globalbiodefense.com)
  • A double dose Oral Cholera Vaccine (OCV) that provides 70% protection against the diarrhoeal disease over two years could soon be used in India. (aarogya.com)
  • India used to administer an injectible vaccine in the 1970s when cholera was a notifiable disease. (aarogya.com)
  • This means that cholera is a disease that can easily be reversed and we have treatment options with us," said Kawalazila. (hosmas.com)
  • The health agency said it was preparing a request to the International Coordination Group on Vaccine Provision, a joint programme by WHO, UNICEF, the International Federation of the Red Cross and Doctors Without Borders, tasked with providing vaccines for emergency disease outbreaks. (genevasolutions.news)
  • Finally, cholera can be a consequence of a humanitarian crisis, as it was the case in South Sudan in 2013, or in the recent outbreak in Tanzania when thousands of people displaced by fighting in neighbouring Burundi were successfully vaccinated against the disease. (nepalforeignaffairs.com)
  • Cholera is a disease that is often transmitted through contaminated food or water. (blogspot.com)
  • AN estimated three to 5 million people a year are affected by cholera - a disease found in contaminated food or water. (blogspot.com)
  • Travelers visiting friends and relatives in cholera-affected areas, long-term travelers, and those who drink untreated water, eat poorly cooked seafood, or do not follow hygiene precautions can be at higher risk for the disease, said Halvorson. (blogspot.com)
  • Undernutrition, defined in a child as weight less than 70% of the Harvard reference weight-for-age, was not associated with colonization, disease or the duration or severity of cholera. (bvsalud.org)
  • A vaccine comprise an agent resembling to the disease causing microorganism. (medgadget.com)
  • Cholera is a disease of poverty. (cdc.gov)
  • are an adult 18 through 64 years old traveling to an area where people are getting infected with cholera, your health care provider might recommend the vaccine for you. (cdc.gov)
  • The development of a vaccine containing live cholera involves reducing the bacteria's virulence and ability to cause diarrhea while preserving its ability to induce an immune response. (nih.gov)
  • So, the general message to the general population is that they should quickly present themselves to our health workers in our different health facilities whenever they notice the signs and symptoms of cholera which is profuse diarrhea and vomiting in some cases. (hosmas.com)
  • Although cholera is rare in US travelers, CDC recommends that adults traveling to certain areas be vaccinated. (medscape.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Killed oral cholera vaccines are internationally licensed for older children and adults, but not for infants and young children. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • According to ICMR director general Dr V M Katoch, experts in India have decided to recommend using the vaccine in endemic districts and outbreak settings, to start with. (aarogya.com)
  • Cholera continues to create havoc in India and in some cases leads to death within 24 hours when left untreated. (aarogya.com)
  • An important re-analysis of a large study involving a vaccine containing inactivated cholera found that the incidence of cholera among the placebo recipients varied inversely with the level of vaccination in the community. (nih.gov)
  • Vaccine herd protection of children less than 2 years of age, who were too young to participate in the trial, was evaluated by determining whether the incidence of cholera during the first year of follow-up of this age group was lower in residential clusters with higher levels of vaccine coverage than in clusters with lower levels of vaccine coverage. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • UNICEF engages communities through selected media and dialogues, door-to-door visits, and key messaging on the causes, symptoms, and prevention of cholera. (who.int)
  • Cholera vaccine can prevent cholera . (cdc.gov)
  • Vaccination should not disrupt the provision of other high priority health interventions to control or prevent cholera outbreaks. (wikipedia.org)
  • When it comes to a vaccine to prevent cholera, one dose may be as good as two. (kff.org)
  • Data have indicated that persons given yellow fever and cholera vaccines simultaneously or 1-3 weeks apart had initially lower-titered antibody responses to both vaccines. (cdc.gov)
  • Requirements for yellow fever vaccine. (who.int)
  • This vaccine can cost more than $250, and travelers may have to pay out of pocket if their insurance does not cover travel vaccines. (medscape.com)
  • The acquisition enhanced Bharat Biotech offerings for rabies vaccine and strengthened its market presence. (medgadget.com)
  • Dr N K Ganguly, advisor to the Union health minister and former DG of ICMR, said, "After 38 years of drought in cholera vaccination, we finally have an affordable orally administered vaccine available now. (aarogya.com)
  • A health worker takes a cholera vaccine at the Bwaila Hospital in Lilongwe central Malawi Wednesday, Jan. 11, 2023. (africanews.com)
  • IVI and EuBiologics sign memorandum of understanding with DEK Vaccines Limited during a signing ceremony held at Ghana's National Vaccine Institute on September 4, 2023. (ivi.int)
  • September 4, 2023 , SEOUL, Republic of Korea - The International Vaccine Institute (IVI), EuBiologics, and DEK Vaccines Limited (DEK) signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) today at Ghana's National Vaccine Institute establishing a new partnership to support the fill and finish of the EuBiologics oral cholera vaccine (OCV) in DEK's manufacturing facilities in Ghana. (ivi.int)
  • Cholera vaccines *, whether prepared from Classic or El Tor strains, are of limited usefulness. (cdc.gov)
  • Do note that the vaccine does not convey full protection as it does not cover all strains of cholera. (medthical.com)