Cholera Toxin: An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.Cholera: An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Vibrio cholerae: The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.G(M1) Ganglioside: A specific monosialoganglioside that accumulates abnormally within the nervous system due to a deficiency of GM1-b-galactosidase, resulting in GM1 gangliosidosis.Antitoxins: Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.T-2 Toxin: A potent mycotoxin produced in feedstuffs by several species of the genus FUSARIUM. It elicits a severe inflammatory reaction in animals and has teratogenic effects.Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.Toxoids: Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.Vibrio cholerae O1: Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 1. All are CHOLERA-causing strains (serotypes). There are two biovars (biotypes): cholerae and eltor (El Tor).Tetanus Toxin: Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.Intestinal Secretions: Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Adenylate Cyclase Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Toxins, Biological: Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.Botulinum Toxins, Type A: A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Marine Toxins: Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.Gangliosides: A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Shiga Toxins: A class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS. They include SHIGA TOXIN which is produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE and a variety of shiga-like toxins that are produced by pathologic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Virulence Factors, Bordetella: A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Pertussis Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Shiga Toxin 2: A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It shares 50-60% homology with SHIGA TOXIN and SHIGA TOXIN 1.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.Vibrio cholerae O139: Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 139. This strain emerged in India in 1992 and caused a CHOLERA epidemic.Bucladesine: A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Nucleoside Diphosphate SugarsIntestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Shiga Toxin 1: A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It is closely related to SHIGA TOXIN produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.BangladeshHaiti: A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine: A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASESJejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.ADP-Ribosylation Factors: MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47Vibrio cholerae non-O1: A strain of the VIBRIO CHOLERAE bacteria belonging to serogroup non-O1, infecting humans and other PRIMATES. It is related to VIBRIO CHOLERAE O1, but causes a disease less severe than CHOLERA. Eating raw shellfish contaminated with the bacteria results in GASTROENTERITIS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mice, Inbred BALB CRicin: A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars: Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of adenosine diphosphate.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Guanylyl Imidodiphosphate: A non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+. The nucleotide is a potent stimulator of ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate: A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.Mycotoxins: Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Cytotoxins: Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.Guanosine 5'-O-(3-Thiotriphosphate): Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Sodium Fluoride: A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Theophylline: A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.Fimbriae Proteins: Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).Galactose Oxidase: An enzyme that oxidizes galactose in the presence of molecular oxygen to D-galacto-hexodialdose. It is a copper protein. EC 1.1.3.9.

Role of DnaK in in vitro and in vivo expression of virulence factors of Vibrio cholerae. (1/2652)

The dnaK gene of Vibrio cholerae was cloned, sequenced, and used to construct a dnaK insertion mutant which was then used to examine the role of DnaK in expression of the major virulence factors of this important human pathogen. The central regulator of several virulence genes of V. cholerae is ToxR, a transmembrane DNA binding protein. The V. cholerae dnaK mutant grown in standard laboratory medium exhibited phenotypes characteristic of cells deficient in ToxR activity. Using Northern blot analysis and toxR transcriptional fusions, we demonstrated a reduction in expression of the toxR gene in the dnaK mutant strain together with a concomitant increase in expression of a htpG-like heat shock gene that is located immediately upstream and is divergently transcribed from toxR. This may be due to increased heat shock induction in the dnaK mutant. In vivo, however, although expression from heat shock promoters in the dnaK mutant was similar to that observed in vitro, expression of both toxR and htpG was comparable to that by the parental strain. In both strains, in vivo expression of toxR was significantly higher than that observed in vitro, but no reciprocal decrease in htpG expression was observed. These results suggest that the modulation of toxR expression in vivo may be different from that observed in vitro.  (+info)

Transcutaneous immunization with bacterial ADP-ribosylating exotoxins as antigens and adjuvants. (2/2652)

Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) is a new technique that uses the application of vaccine antigens in a solution on the skin to induce potent antibody responses without systemic or local toxicity. We have previously shown that cholera toxin (CT), a potent adjuvant for oral and nasal immunization, can induce both serum and mucosal immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA and protect against toxin-mediated mucosal disease when administered by the transcutaneous route. Additionally, CT acts as an adjuvant for coadministered antigens such as tetanus and diphtheria toxoids when applied to the skin. CT, a member of the bacterial ADP-ribosylating exotoxin (bARE) family, is most potent as an adjuvant when the A-B subunits are present and functional. We now show that TCI induces secondary antibody responses to coadministered antigens as well as to CT in response to boosting immunizations. IgG antibodies to coadministered antigens were also found in the stools and lung washes of immunized mice, suggesting that TCI may target mucosal pathogens. Mice immunized by the transcutaneous route with tetanus fragment C and CT developed anti-tetanus toxoid antibodies and were protected against systemic tetanus toxin challenge. We also show that bAREs, similarly organized as A-B subunits, as well as the B subunit of CT alone, induced antibody responses to themselves when given via TCI. Thus, TCI appears to induce potent, protective immune responses to both systemic and mucosal challenge and offers significant potential practical advantages for vaccine delivery.  (+info)

Zonula occludens toxin is a powerful mucosal adjuvant for intranasally delivered antigens. (3/2652)

Zonula occludens toxin (Zot) is produced by toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae and has the ability to reversibly alter intestinal epithelial tight junctions, allowing the passage of macromolecules through the mucosal barrier. In the present study, we investigated whether Zot could be exploited to deliver soluble antigens through the nasal mucosa for the induction of antigen-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses. Intranasal immunization of mice with ovalbumin (Ova) and recombinant Zot, either fused to the maltose-binding protein (MBP-Zot) or with a hexahistidine tag (His-Zot), induced anti-Ova serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers that were approximately 40-fold higher than those induced by immunization with antigen alone. Interestingly, Zot also stimulated high anti-Ova IgA titers in serum, as well as in vaginal and intestinal secretions. A comparison with Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) revealed that the adjuvant activity of Zot was only sevenfold lower than that of LT. Moreover, Zot and LT induced similar patterns of Ova-specific IgG subclasses. The subtypes IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b were all stimulated, with a predominance of IgG1 and IgG2b. In conclusion, our results highlight Zot as a novel potent mucosal adjuvant of microbial origin.  (+info)

Genetic characterization of a new type IV-A pilus gene cluster found in both classical and El Tor biotypes of Vibrio cholerae. (4/2652)

The Vibrio cholerae genome contains a 5.4-kb pil gene cluster that resembles the Aeromonas hydrophila tap gene cluster and other type IV-A pilus assembly operons. The region consists of five complete open reading frames designated pilABCD and yacE, based on the nomenclature of related genes from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli K-12. This cluster is present in both classical and El Tor biotypes, and the pilA and pilD genes are 100% conserved. The pilA gene encodes a putative type IV pilus subunit. However, deletion of pilA had no effect on either colonization of infant mice or adherence to HEp-2 cells, demonstrating that pilA does not encode the primary subunit of a pilus essential for these processes. The pilD gene product is similar to other type IV prepilin peptidases, proteins that process type IV signal sequences. Mutational analysis of the pilD gene showed that pilD is essential for secretion of cholera toxin and hemagglutinin-protease, mannose-sensitive hemagglutination (MSHA), production of toxin-coregulated pili, and colonization of infant mice. Defects in these functions are likely due to the lack of processing of N termini of four Eps secretion proteins, four proteins of the MSHA cluster, and TcpB, all of which contain type IV-A leader sequences. Some pilD mutants also showed reduced adherence to HEp-2 cells, but this defect could not be complemented in trans, indicating that the defect may not be directly due to a loss of pilD. Taken together, these data demonstrate the effectiveness of the V. cholerae genome project for rapid identification and characterization of potential virulence factors.  (+info)

Ribotypes of clinical Vibrio cholerae non-O1 non-O139 strains in relation to O-serotypes. (5/2652)

The emergence of Vibrio cholerae O139 in 1992 and reports of an increasing number of other non-O1 serogroups being associated with diarrhoea, stimulated us to characterize V. cholerae non-O1 non-O139 strains received at the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japan for serotyping. Ribotyping with the restriction enzyme BglI of 103 epidemiological unrelated mainly clinical strains representing 10 O-serotypes yielded 67 different typing patterns. Ribotype similarity within each serotype was compared by using the Dice coefficient (Sd) and different levels of homogeneity were observed (serotypes O5, O41 and O17, Sd between 82 and 90%: serotypes O13 and O141 Sd of 72; and O2, O6, O7, O11, O24 Sd of 62-66%). By cluster analysis, the strains were divided into several clusters of low similarity suggesting a high level of genetic diversity. A low degree of similarity between serotypes and ribotypes was found as strains within a specific serotypes often did not cluster but clustered with strains from other serotypes. However, epidemiological unrelated O5 strains showed identical or closely related ribotypes suggesting that these strains have undergone few genetic changes and may correspond to a clonal line. Surprisingly, 10 of 16 O141 strains studied contained a cholera toxin (CT) gene, including 7 strains recovered from stool and water samples in the United States. This is to our knowledge the first report of CT-positive clinical O141 strains. The closely related ribotypes shown by eight CT-positive strains is disturbing and suggest that these strains may be of a clonal origin and have the potential to cause cholera-like disease. Despite the low degree of correlation found between ribotypes and serotypes, both methods appears to be valuable techniques in studying the epidemiology of emerging serotypes of V. cholerae.  (+info)

Environmental signals modulate ToxT-dependent virulence factor expression in Vibrio cholerae. (6/2652)

The regulatory protein ToxT directly activates the transcription of virulence factors in Vibrio cholerae, including cholera toxin (CT) and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). Specific environmental signals stimulate virulence factor expression by inducing the transcription of toxT. We demonstrate that transcriptional activation by the ToxT protein is also modulated by environmental signals. ToxT expressed from an inducible promoter activated high-level expression of CT and TCP in V. cholerae at 30 degrees C, but expression of CT and TCP was significantly decreased or abolished by the addition of 0.4% bile to the medium and/or an increase of the temperature to 37 degrees C. Also, expression of six ToxT-dependent TnphoA fusions was modulated by temperature and bile. Measurement of ToxT-dependent transcription of genes encoding CT and TCP by ctxAp- and tcpAp-luciferase fusions confirmed that negative regulation by 37 degrees C or bile occurs at the transcriptional level in V. cholerae. Interestingly, ToxT-dependent transcription of these same promoters in Salmonella typhimurium was relatively insensitive to regulation by temperature or bile. These data are consistent with ToxT transcriptional activity being modulated by environmental signals in V. cholerae and demonstrate an additional level of complexity governing the expression of virulence factors in this pathogen. We propose that negative regulation of ToxT-dependent transcription by environmental signals prevents the incorrect temporal and spatial expression of virulence factors during cholera pathogenesis.  (+info)

G protein activation by human dopamine D3 receptors in high-expressing Chinese hamster ovary cells: A guanosine-5'-O-(3-[35S]thio)- triphosphate binding and antibody study. (7/2652)

Despite extensive study, the G protein coupling of dopamine D3 receptors is poorly understood. In this study, we used guanosine-5'-O-(3-[35S]thio)-triphosphate ([35S]-GTPgammaS) binding to investigate the activation of G proteins coupled to human (h) D3 receptors stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Although the receptor expression level was high (15 pmol/mg), dopamine only stimulated G protein activation by 1.6-fold. This was despite the presence of marked receptor reserve for dopamine, as revealed by Furchgott analysis after irreversible hD3 receptor inactivation with the alkylating agent, EEDQ (N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline). Thus, half-maximal stimulation of [35S]-GTPgammaS binding required only 11.8% receptor occupation of hD3 sites. In contrast, although the hD2(short) receptor expression level in another CHO cell line was 11-fold lower, stimulation by dopamine was higher (2.5-fold). G protein activation was increased at hD3 and, less potently, at hD2 receptors by the preferential D3 agonists, PD 128,907 [(+)-(4aR,10bR)-3,4,4a, 10b-tetrahydro-4-propyl-2H,5H- [1]benzopyrano[4,3-b]-1, 4-oxazin-9-ol] and (+)-7-OH-DPAT (7-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin). Furthermore, the selective D3 antagonists, S 14297 ((+)-[7-(N, N-dipropylamino)-5,6,7, 8-tetrahydro-naphtho(2,3b)dihydro-2,3-furane]) and GR 218,231 (2(R, S)-(dipropylamino)-6-(4-methoxyphenylsulfonylmethyl)-1,2,3,4- tetrahydronaphtalene), blocked dopamine-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding more potently at hD3 than at hD2 sites. Antibodies against Galphai/alphao reduced dopamine-induced G protein activation at both CHO-hD3 and -hD2 membranes, whereas GalphaS antibodies had no effect at either site. In contrast, incubation with anti-Galphaq/alpha11 antibodies, which did not affect dopamine-induced G protein activation at hD2 receptors, attenuated hD3-induced G protein activation. These data suggest that hD3 receptors may couple to Galphaq/alpha11 and would be consistent with the observation that pertussis toxin pretreatment, which inactivates only Gi/o proteins, only submaximally (80%) blocked dopamine-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding in CHO-hD3 cells. Taken together, the present data indicate that 1) hD3 receptors functionally couple to G protein activation in CHO cells, 2) hD3 receptors activate G proteins less effectively than hD2 receptors, and 3) hD3 receptors may couple to different G protein subtypes than hD2 receptors, including nonpertussis sensitive Gq/11 proteins.  (+info)

Dopamine receptor subtypes modulate olfactory bulb gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors. (8/2652)

The gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor is the predominant Cl- channel protein mediating inhibition in the olfactory bulb and elsewhere in the mammalian brain. The olfactory bulb is rich in neurons containing both GABA and dopamine. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptors are also highly expressed in this brain region with a distinct and complementary distribution pattern. This distribution suggests that dopamine may control the GABAergic inhibitory processing of odor signals, possibly via different signal-transduction mechanisms. We have observed that GABAA receptors in the rat olfactory bulb are differentially modulated by dopamine in a cell-specific manner. Dopamine reduced the currents through GABA-gated Cl- channels in the interneurons, presumably granule cells. This action was mediated via D1 receptors and involved phosphorylation of GABAA receptors by protein kinase A. Enhancement of GABA responses via activation of D2 dopamine receptors and phosphorylation of GABAA receptors by protein kinase C was observed in mitral/tufted cells. Decreasing or increasing the binding affinity for GABA appears to underlie the modulatory effects of dopamine via distinct receptor subtypes. This dual action of dopamine on inhibitory GABAA receptor function in the rat olfactory bulb could be instrumental in odor detection and discrimination, olfactory learning, and ultimately odotopic memory formation.  (+info)

*Cholera toxin

... acts by the following mechanism: First, the B subunit ring of the cholera toxin binds to GM1 gangliosides on the ... Cholera toxin was discovered in 1959 by Late Prof. Sambhu Nath De at Kolkata (India) The cholera toxin is an oligomeric complex ... Once bound, the entire toxin complex is endocytosed by the cell and the cholera toxin A1 (CTA1) chain is released by the ... Cholera toxin (also known as choleragen and sometimes abbreviated to CTX, Ctx or CT) is protein complex secreted by the ...

*Keratinocyte

Cholera toxin. Within the epidermis keratinocytes are associated with other cell types such as melanocytes and Langerhans cells ...

*Hes3 signaling axis

Treatment with cholera toxin. This has been shown in vitro. This particular treatment may bypass the STAT3-Ser stage and act ... Androutsellis-Theotokis A, Walbridge S, Park DM, Lonser RR, McKay RD (2010). "Cholera toxin regulates a signaling pathway ...

*Enterocyte

Toxins such as cholera toxin may increase the secretion or decrease the intake of water and electrolytes, leading to possibly ... Joaquín Sánchez, Jan Holmgren (February 2011). "Cholera toxin - A foe & a friend" (PDF). Indian Journal of Medical Research. ...

*TA-CD

It is created by combining norcocaine with inactivated cholera toxin. It works in much the same way as a regular vaccine. A ...

*NPLOC4

McConnell E, Lass A, Wójcik C (2007). "Ufd1-Npl4 is a negative regulator of cholera toxin retrotranslocation". Biochem. Biophys ...

*John Woollam (physicist)

"Repeatability of ellipsometric data in cholera toxin GM1-ELISA structures". Surface Science. 601 (8): 1795. Bibcode:2007SurSc. ...

*GM1

The bacteria Vibrio cholerae produces a multimeric toxin called the cholera toxin. The secreted toxin attaches to the surface ... Besides its function in the physiology of the brain, GM1 acts as the site of binding for both Cholera toxin and E. coli heat- ... When the cholera patient is given a solution containing water, sodium and glucose, the SGLT1 receptor will reabsorb sodium and ... The A1 subunit of this toxin will gain entry to intestinal epithelial cells with the assistance of the B subunit via the GM1 ...

*Cystic fibrosis

With the discovery that cholera toxin requires normal host CFTR proteins to function properly, it was hypothesized that ... "Cystic fibrosis heterozygote resistance to cholera toxin in the cystic fibrosis mouse model". Science. 266 (5182): 107-9. ... Over time, this can lead to scarring and nodularity (cirrhosis). The liver fails to rid the blood of toxins and does not make ... In both cases, the low level of cystic fibrosis outside of Europe, in places where both cholera and typhoid fever are endemic, ...

*Symporter

S. N. Dey and Cholera Toxin Willmer, Pat (2009). Environmental Physiology of Animals. Wiley-Blackwell. Symporters at the US ...

*Vibrio mimicus

V. mimicus was isolated from cultures of stool specimens, and genes encoding cholera toxin were identified by polymerase chain ... V. mimicus, when carrying genes that encode cholera toxin, can cause severe watery diarrhea. Consumers and physicians should be ... and cholera toxin genes were not detected using PCR. D. MacEachern; J. McCullough; J. Duchin; M. Tran; K. MacDonald; A. Marfin ...

*Heat-labile enterotoxin family

In molecular biology, the heat-labile enterotoxin family includes Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin and cholera toxin secreted ... a close relative of cholera toxin". J. Mol. Biol. 230 (3): 890-918. doi:10.1006/jmbi.1993.1209. PMID 8478941. van den Akker F, ... These toxins consist of an AB5 multimer structure, in which a pentamer of B chains has a membrane-binding function and an A ...

*Differentiation therapy

Other agents investigated (pre-clinically) to encourage MET include cholera toxin (CTx) and forskolin (Fsk). Sell, Stewart. ( ...

*Alfred G. Gilman

Schleifer, LS; Kahn, RA; Hanski, E; Northup, JK; Sternweis, PC; Gilman, AG (1982). "Requirements for cholera toxin-dependent ... Bokoch, GM; Gilman, AG (1984). "Inhibition of receptor-mediated release of arachidonic acid by pertussis toxin". Cell. 39 (2 Pt ...

*Cholera

O'Neal CJ, Jobling MG, Holmes RK, Hol WG (2005). "Structural basis for the activation of cholera toxin by human ARF6-GTP". ... Prevention and control of cholera outbreaks: WHO policy and recommendations Cholera-World Health Organization Cholera - Vibrio ... Of particular interest have been the genetic mechanisms by which cholera bacteria turn on the protein production of the toxins ... Descriptions of cholera are found as early as the 5th century BC in Sanskrit. The study of cholera in England by John Snow ...

*Channel blocker

"Thiazolidinone CFTR inhibitor identified by high-throughput screening blocks cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion ... are affected by many different toxins. Tetrodotoxin (TTX), a toxin found in pufferfish, completely blocks sodium ion ... Much of the structure of the pores of ion channels has been elucidated from studies that used toxins to inhibit channel ... "Topology of the pore-region of a K+ channel revealed by the NMR-derived structures of scorpion toxins". Neuron. 15 (5): 1169-81 ...

*Cytochalasin B

When adding cytochalasin B and the beta-andrenergic agonist (-)-isoproterenol, prostaglandin E1 or cholera toxin to wild type ... Insel, PA; Koachman, AM (1982). "Cytochalasin B Enhances Hormone and Cholera Toxin-Stimulated Cyclic AMP Accumulation in S49 ...

*ARL1

Hong JX, Lee FJ, Patton WA, Lin CY, Moss J, Vaughan M (1998). "Phospholipid- and GTP-dependent activation of cholera toxin and ... "Different ARF domains are required for the activation of cholera toxin and phospholipase D". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (1): 21-4. doi: ... described as activators of cholera toxin (CT) ADP-ribosyltransferase activity, regulate intracellular vesicular membrane ...

*Short linear motif

The KDEL motif of the bacteria encoded cholera toxin mediates cell entry of the cholera toxin. Linear motif mediated protein- ... "Targeting of cholera toxin and Escherichia coli heat labile toxin in polarized epithelia: Role of COOH-terminal KDEL". The ...

*ARF6

... a family of approximately 20-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that activate cholera toxin". Mol. Cell. Biochem. 138 (1-2 ... ARF genes encode small guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that stimulate the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of cholera toxin ...

*Crofelemer

In 1999 the drug was reported to improve the symptoms of cholera toxin induced diarrhoea in mice. SP-303 was eventually named ...

*ARF1

... two guanine nucleotide-dependent activators of cholera toxin". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86 (16): 6101-5. doi:10.1073/pnas. ... a guanine nucleotide-binding activator of cholera toxin". J Biol Chem. 267 (13): 9028-34. PMID 1577740. "Entrez Gene: ARF1 ADP- ... a family of approximately 20-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that activate cholera toxin". Mol. Cell. Biochem. 138 (1-2 ... members encode small guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that stimulate the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of cholera toxin ...

*History of emerging infectious diseases

The study showed that a series of genetic mutations in some people provide resistance to cholera toxin; but these mutations ... scientific representatives from 21 countries voted unanimously to resolve that cholera was caused by environmental toxins from ... "Cystic fibrosis heterozygote resistance to cholera toxin in the cystic fibrosis mouse model". Science. 266 (5182): 107-9. ... Before the discovery of an infectious cause, the symptoms of cholera were thought to be caused by an excess of bile in the ...

*AB toxin

De Haan L, Hirst TR (2004). "Cholera toxin: a paradigm for multi-functional engagement of cellular mechanisms (Review)". Mol. ... Examples of the "A" component of an AB toxin include C. perfringens iota toxin Ia, C. botulinum C2 toxin CI, and Clostridium ... The AB5 toxins are usually considered a type of AB toxin, characterized by B pentamers. Less commonly, the term "AB toxin" is ... The Diphtheria toxin also is an AB toxin. It inhibits protein synthesis in the host cell through phosphorylation of the ...

*Inovirus

At least one of the viruses (Vibrio phage CTX) is medically important as it encodes the cholera toxin. The type species is ...

*Anterograde tracing

Luppi PH, Fort P, Jouvet M (November 1990). "Iontophoretic application of unconjugated cholera toxin B subunit (CTb) combined ...
Recombinant cholera toxin B subunit activates dendritic cells and enhances antitumor immunity.: Activation of dendritic cells (DC) is crucial for priming of cyt
Cholera Toxin B subunit antibody [7954] for ELISA. Anti-Cholera Toxin B subunit mAb (GTX36671) is tested in Bacteria samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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BACKGROUND: Cholera toxin produces intestinal secretion by activation of the adenylate cyclase complex. However animal studies have shown 5-hydroxytryptamine may be released after exposure to cholera toxin, and thereby contribute to the secretory state. AIM: To determine whether cholera toxin releases 5-hydroxytryptamine in human jejunum. SUBJECTS: Seven male subjects were given a subclinical dose of cholera toxin in a paired, controlled, randomised, double blind study. METHODS: A closed 10 cm segment of upper jejunum was exposed to 15 micrograms of cholera toxin for two hours prior to closed segment perfusion with plasma electrolyte solution containing a non-absorbable volume marker, [14C]-polyethylene glycol. 5-Hydroxytryptamine in jejunal effluent and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in urine (up to seven hours after cholera toxin) were measured by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection. RESULTS: In contrast with controls, all subjects secreted fluid in response to ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is endowed with a variety of surface-exposed proteins representing putative vaccine candidates. Lipoproteins are covalently anchored to the cell membrane and highly conserved among pneumococcal serotypes. Here, we evaluated these lipoproteins for their immunogenicity and protective potential against pneumococcal colonisation. A multiplex-based immunoproteomics approach revealed the immunogenicity of selected lipoproteins. High antibody titres were measured in sera from mice immunised with the lipoproteins MetQ, PnrA, PsaA, and DacB. An analysis of convalescent patient sera confirmed the immunogenicity of these lipoproteins. Examining the surface localisation and accessibility of the lipoproteins using flow cytometry indicated that PnrA and DacB were highly abundant on the surface of the bacteria. Mice were immunised intranasally with PnrA, DacB, and MetQ using cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) as an adjuvant, followed by an intranasal challenge with S. pneumoniae D39. PnrA protected
Extraordinary transmission based axial imaging (EOT-AIM) for cell microscopy is reported. EOT-AIM uses linear arrays of nanoapertures, each of which samples target fluorescence up to a preset axial distance from surface, in combination with wide-field microscopy for acquisition of lateral images. Current design of nanoapertures provides EOT-AIM with axial super-resolution that is as small as 20 nm for a depth range of 500 nm. Experiments were performed for the measurement of the axial distribution of ganglioside in mouse macrophage (RAW264.7) cells using FITC-conjugated cholera toxin subunit B. The results were successfully confirmed with conventional confocal and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. ...
to express cholera toxin subunit B in e.coli. The gene is inserted in a plasmid for expression in vibrio sp. 60. But i do not have the bugs. The cloning worked well in e. coli and then i said lets give it a try. I tried 3 different temperatures 37; 30 and 20 in combination with 2 different induction times 3 and 18 hours. For induction i used IPTG 1mM. And started the induction once at OD600=1.2 once at OD=0.6 and once OD=0.2 ...
A Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast expression vector, pACTBVP1, containing the fusion of the foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) VP1 gene and the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) gene was constructe
Synonyms for Cholera toxin in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Cholera toxin. 8 synonyms for toxin: poison, venom, bane, canker, contagion, poison, venom, virus. What are synonyms for Cholera toxin?
The LMO 35SctxBSEK expresses a synthetic gene of the nontoxic subunit of cholera toxin that corresponds to 71% with the gene sequence of the ctxB gene from Vibrio cholerae (100% amino acid identity). The gene was adapted to the codon preference of higher plants. The ER-retention signal SEKDEL was fused to the cholera toxin subunit in order to stabilize the protein ...
Cholera toxin (CT) is one of the most effective and widely studied mucosal adjuvants. Although the ADP-ribosylating A subunit has been implicated in augmenting immune responses, the receptor-binding B subunit (CT-B) has greater immunogenicity and may
To generate vaccines that protect mucosal surfaces, a better understanding of the cells required in vivo for activation of the adaptive immune response following mucosal immunization is required. CD11c(high) conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) have been shown to be necessary for activation of naive CD8(+) T cells in vivo, but the role of cDCs in CD4(+) T cell activation is still unclear, especially at mucosal surfaces. The activation of naive Ag-specific CD4(+) T cells and the generation of Abs following mucosal administration of Ag with or without the potent mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin were therefore analyzed in mice depleted of CD11c(high) cDCs. Our results show that cDCs are absolutely required for activation of CD4(+) T cells after oral and nasal immunization. Ag-specific IgG titers in serum, as well as Ag-specific intestinal IgA, were completely abrogated after feeding mice OVA and cholera toxin. However, giving a very high dose of Ag, 30-fold more than required to detect T cell ...
The introduction of HRP as a retrograde tracer by Kristensson and Olsson 27 and La Vail and La Vail 31 has greatly accelerated our knowledge of neuroanatomy. Improvements of the original technique including the use of the more sensitive chromogen TMB 39-42, the microelectrophoretic delivery technique 18 and the introduction of the HRP conjugates with wheat germ agglutinin (WGA-HRP) 11 17 53 54 57 or cholera toxin (CT-HRP) 53 54 57 have further increased the sensitivity of the technique and permit one to obtain more restricted injection sites. The remarkable increase in the number of putative transmitters has further pointed to the need for methods allowing simultaneous identification of a pathway and its neurochemical identity. For this purpose, the histochemical detection of HRP and its conjugates using DABS 8 9 33 45 or stabilized TMB 46 has been successfully coupled with the immunohistochemistry of neurochemical substances on the same sections. However, such double labeling techniques present ...
Objective To research the interrelation of cholera toxin gene (CT gene) in manifestation of chitinase gene under different pH conditions among pathogenic and Non-pathogenic strains of in time depended chitinase activity, purification of expressed protein and SDS-PAGE analysis. gradients, tolerance to stress and safety from predators[7]. Emergent properties of chemotaxis, cell multiplication, induction of competence, bio?lm formation, commensal and symbiotic relationship with higher organisms, cycling of nutrients, and pathogenicity for humans and aquatic animals[8]. As factors mediating virulence of for humans and aquatic animals derive from mechanisms of adaptation to its environment, at different levels of hierarchical level, relationships with chitin represent a useful model for examination of the part of main habitat selection in the development of traits that have been identi?ed as virulence reasons in human disease[9]. In the current study primarily we targeted different climatic factors ...
Multianalyte microphysiometry, a real-time instrument for simultaneous measurement of metabolic analytes in a microfluidic environment, was used to explore the effects of cholera toxin (CTx). Upon exposure of CTx to PC-12 cells, anaerobic respiration was triggered, measured as increases in acid and lactate production and a decrease in the oxygen uptake. We believe the responses observed are due to a CTx-induced activation of adenylate cyclase, increasing cAMP production and resulting in a switch to anaerobic respiration. Inhibitors (H-89, brefeldin A) and stimulators (forskolin) of cAMP were employed to modulate the CTx-induced cAMP responses. The results of this study show the utility of multianalyte microphysiometry to quantitatively determine the dynamic metabolic effects of toxins and affected pathways.
Many biochemical processes involve binding between carbohydrates and biomolecules on the surface of cells. These may involve multivalent interactions that can considerably alter the binding specificity and avidity of biomolecules. A novel nanocube sensor has been developed to elucidate the cooperativity in binding of biomolecules to carbohydrates. A fluidic supported lipid bilayer coated on the nanocube sensor allows this system to mimic a cell membrane in vitro. Cholera toxin B (CTB) subunit has been taken as a model system and its binding with several gangliosides has been demonstrated using this sensor. The amount of CTB bound to the lipid bilayer is then quantified by observing the shifts in the quadrupolar localized surface plasmon resonance peak using a standard laboratory spectrometer. The ultimate objective of this research is to provide a diagnostic tool to quickly identify diseases. This inexpensive, label free, high throughput technology allows the testing of several conditions ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against Cholera toxin (Beta-subunit). Beta-subunit of cholera toxin. (MAB2796) - Products - Abnova
Hi, has anybody ever used the human colon cell line FHC? We culture this cell line but with very poor growth. The only reagent missing in the media is cholera toxin (as recommended by ATCC). Does anybody know a vendor of the cholera toxin, preferrably in Germany/Europe? Any help is highly appreciated! TIA, Inko ...
beta subunit Cholera Toxin兔多克隆抗体(ab34992)经WB, ELISA, IHC, ID, P实验严格验证,被7篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Another aspect of cholera that was not understood was why its virulence varied greatly from strain to strain. Some strains even failed to produce disease. Cholera toxin, an enzyme, was eventually identified as the main virulence factor associated with strains that induced acute diarrhea. Cholera toxin is synthesized and secreted by strains in the 01 and 0139 groups, only. Those lacking this enzyme are far less pathogenic. Its mode of action eventually results in prolonged hypersecretion in the small intestine. The diarrhea is so intense that enterocytes become fragile and begin to sluff off from the basement membrane of the villus soon after symptoms appear.. Cholera toxin attaches at the level of the crypts of Lieberkühn to enterocytes that have surface ganglioside Gm1, a special glycolipid. Internalization of the toxin-ganglioside complex then occurs. The bacterial enzyme catalyses the transfer of ADP ribose from intracellular NAD+ to the s subunit of the trimeric G protein that is normally ...
Lencer, W.I. and Madara, J.L. and Jobling, M.G. and Holmes, R.K. and Hirst, Timothy R. (1996) Proteolytic activation of cholera toxin (CT) and E-coli labile toxin (LT) by intestinal epithelia. Gastroenterology, 110 (4). A342-A342. ISSN 0016-5085. (The full text of this publication is not currently available from this repository. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided) ...
The transposon TnphoA was used to generate fusions between phoA, the gene for alkaline phosphatase (PhoA), and genes encoding proteins that are secreted by Vibrio cholerae. One of the PhoA+ mutants isolated showed a dramatic reduction in its ability to colonize the intestines of suckling mice. This mutant no longer produced a 20.5-kDa protein (TcpA) that we show is the major subunit of a V. cholerae pilus. Amino-terminal sequence analysis of the TcpA pilus subunit showed that it shares amino acid homology with the pilins produced by several other pathogenic bacteria. The TcpA pilus was coordinately expressed with cholera toxin under various culture conditions, and this effect appeared to be dependent on the transcriptional activator encoded by the toxR gene. We conclude that the toxR gene plays a central role in the transcriptional regulation of multiple virulence genes of V. cholerae.. ...
Cholera, Cell, Children, Cholera Toxin, Infection, Adults, Vaccines, Vibrio, Disease, Patients, Vibrio Cholerae, Cholera Toxin B Subunit, Igg, Water, Memory, Diarrhea, Iga, Plasma, Antibodies, Immunization
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The development of subunits and subunit analogs of the cholera exotoxin by recombinant DNA techniques provides vaccine products that can retain their biological activity and immunogenicity, and can co
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Robert M Caudle, Andrew J Mannes, Jason Keller, Federico M Perez, Shelby K Suckow, John K Neubert].
1PZK: 3,5-Substituted phenyl galactosides as leads in designing effective cholera toxin antagonists; synthesis and crystallographic studies
1EEI: Exploration of the GM1 receptor-binding site of heat-labile enterotoxin and cholera toxin by phenyl-ring-containing galactose derivatives.
... : Toxoid specific antibody response (IgG1, IgG2a, IgA) elicited after oral immunization in mice. BALB/c mice (n=6) were orally immunized with a single dose of BSA (80 μg) either free or adjuvanted with 10 μg of CT (Cholera Toxin) or rVTX1 (recombinant verotoxin). Antibody response against the corresponding protein-adjuvant was determined up to 5 weeks. Significant differences between CT and rVTX1 groups are indicated by asterisks (*P. 0.05 ...
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http://atcc.org/Products/All/CRL-10317.aspx#culturemethod MCF 10A] (adherent) ,, [http://bio.lonza.com/go/literature/356 MEGM BulletKit] ,u,without,/u, GA-1000 ,, 100 ng/mL cholera toxin,sup,3,/sup ...
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Testing for toxins in your nervous system There is a simple on-line test to determine if you have toxins that are affecting your nervous system. The toxins can
Article New proof of Arctic toxins. The Fulmars, which are one of the ordinary seabirds, is the newest proof of the widespread presence of environmental toxins in the Arctic. Investigations on Fulmar from Bjørnøya (Bear Island) indicate that the leve...
If you have ever taken a CT scan or MRI, which is most likely the case, you would know just how costly these tests are. And, do you... read more ...
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Tracer or toxin injections. For tracer experiments, under chloral hydrate anesthesia (7% in saline; 350 mg/kg), a fine glass pipette containing 1.0% cholera toxin subunit B (CTB; List Biologic, Campbell, CA), 12.5% biotinylated dextran (BD), or a mixture of 1% CTB and 12.5% BD was lowered to the precalculated targets based on the rat atlas of Paxinos and Watson (1998), and 9 nl of a solution containing the tracers was injected by an air pressure system. Phaseolus vulgaris leukoagglutinin (PHA-L; 2.5%) was injected by iontophoresis with a current of 5 μA for 15 min (7 s on and 7 s off). After two additional minutes, the pipette was slowly withdrawn and the incision was closed with wound clips. Animals survived for 7 d. The coordinates for tracer injections were as follows: medial prefrontal cortex, anteroposterior (AP), 2.20 mm, medial-lateral (ML), 0.4 mm, dorsoventral (DV), 4.6 mm; midline thalamus, AP, -2.8 mm, ML, 0 mm, DV, 4.4 mm; intralaminar thalamus, AP, -2.8 mm, ML, 0.8 mm, DV, 5.6 mm; ...
In the present study, we demonstrated that clathrin and AP-1 are required for the retrograde transport from recycling endosomes to the Golgi. CTxB appeared to reach recycling endosomes in the clathrin- or AP-1-knockdown cells, similar to in control cells, suggesting that clathrin and AP-1 are not essential for the transport of CTxB from the plasma membrane through early endosomes to recycling endosomes. It has been shown that clathrin localizes to the TGN, early endosomes and the plasma membrane (Brodsky, 2012). We showed that CHC also localized to recycling endosomes. CHC colocalized with the recycling endosome proteins, Rab11, Tfn and SMAP2 in COS-1 cells (in which the Golgi, early endosomes and recycling endosomes are spatially distinct) (Lee et al., 2015; Misaki et al., 2007; Uchida et al., 2011). The recycling endosomes that were dispersed from the perinuclear region to the cytoplasm by nocodazole treatment remained positive for CHC. The localization of AP-1 to recycling endosomes (Folsch ...
Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, requires two coordinately regulated factors for full virulence: cholera toxin (CT), a potent enterotoxin, and toxin-coregulated pili (TCP), surface organelles required for intestinal colonization. The structural genes for CT are shown here to be encoded by a filamentous bacteriophage (designated CTXΦ), which is related to coliphage M13. The CTXΦ genome chromosomally integrated or replicated as a plasmid. CTXΦ used TCP as its receptor and infected V. cholerae cells within the gastrointestinal tracts of mice more efficiently than under laboratory conditions. Thus, the emergence of toxigenic V. cholerae involves horizontal gene transfer that may depend on in vivo gene expression. ...
Interaction of a cholera toxin derivative containing a reduced number of receptor binding sites with intact cells in culture ...
Cholera toxin animation, Welcome to viralinfections.info, we recommend viral infections related blog articles and classify them by tag.
The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is activated robustly by an immune challenge such as the systemic administration of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Because IL-1β is not believed to cross the blood-brain barrier in any significant amount, it is likely that IL-1β elicits CeA cell recruitment by means of activation of afferents to the CeA. However, although many studies have investigated the origins of afferent inputs to the CeA, we do not know which of these also respond to IL-1β. Therefore, to identify candidate neurons responsible for the recruitment of CeA cells by an immune challenge, we iontophoretically deposited a retrograde tracer, cholera toxin b-subunit (CTb), into the CeA of rats 7 days before systemic delivery of IL-1β (1 μg/kg, i.a.). By using combined immunohistochemistry, we then quantified the number of Fos-positive CTb cells in six major regions known to innervate the CeA. These included the medial prefrontal cortex, paraventricular thalamus ...
Neuronal communication relies on synaptic vesicles undergoing regulated exocytosis and recycling for multiple rounds of fusion. Whether all synaptic vesicles have identical protein content has been challenged, suggesting that their recycling ability may differ greatly. Botulinum neurotoxin type-A (BoNT/A) is a highly potent neurotoxin that is internalized in synaptic vesicles at motor nerve terminals and induces flaccid paralysis. Recently, BoNT/A was also shown to undergo retrograde transport, suggesting it might enter a specific pool of synaptic vesicles with a retrograde trafficking fate. Using high-resolution microscopy techniques including electron microscopy and single molecule imaging, we found that the BoNT/A binding domain is internalized within a subset of vesicles that only partially co-localize with cholera toxin B-subunit and have markedly reduced VAMP2 immunoreactivity ...
Summary and Conclusions 1. A simple method for the laboratory diagnosis of cholera is presented: (a) Peptone water is inoculated with fresh stool and incubated 8 hours, (b) Alkaline nutrient agar plates are streaked and incubated overnight, (c) Transparent colonies are tested for agglutination with anti-cholera O serum. (d) Agglutinable vibrio are tested for hemolysis using 5 per cent sheep or goat cells. 2. V. cholerae are present in the intestinal tract only in the first few days of illness, therefore sulfonamides or other bactericidal agents are effective only if given early in the course of the disease. 3. The value of sulfonamides in cholera carriers cannot be definitely evaluated at this time. 4. Of 3,000 contacts, 61 became contact carriers. Two of these developed the disease. The number of clinical cases developing from contact carriers is very small.
Eleven years ago, Professor Adrian Lee, head of the School of Microbiology and Immunology at the University of New South Wales commented on the failure of the first Helicobacter vaccine to work in a European trial. The Astra Research Center in Boston, USA collaborated with the New South Wales University on the project. Professor Lee believed that two or three recombinant antigens, and a much more potent adjuvant were required. Not only did the first vaccine, which had only one antigen, not work, but the e. coli and cholera toxin adjuvants caused diarrhoea in the vaccine recipients ...
In this study, we report the development of a novel, rationally designed immunostimulatory adjuvant based on chemical conjugation of CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) to the nontoxic B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB). We demonstrate that the immunostimulatory effects of CpG can be dramatically enhanced by conjugation to CTB. Thus, CpG ODN linked to CTB (CTB-CpG) was shown to be a more potent stimulator of proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine responses in murine splenocytes and human PBMCs than those of CpG ODN alone in vitro. The presence of CpG motif, but not modified phosphorothioate ODN backbone, was found to be critical for the enhanced immunostimulatory effects of CTB-CpG. Our mode-of-action studies, including studies on cells from specifically gene knockout mice suggest that similar to CpG, CTB-CpG exerts its immunostimulatory effects through a TLR9/MyD88- and NF-kappaB-dependent pathway. Surprisingly, and as opposed to CpG ODN, CTB-CpG-induced immunity was shown to be independent of ...
Hudson, T H. and Johnson, G L., "Peptide mapping of adenylate cyclase regulatory proteins that are cholera toxin substrates." (1980). Subject Strain Bibliography 1980. 3108 ...
If you develop severe, watery diarrhea and vomiting - particularly after eating raw shellfish or traveling to a country where cholera is epidemic -seek medical help immediately. Cholera is highly treatable, but because dehydration can happen quickly, its important to get cholera treatment right away.. Hydration is the mainstay of treatment for cholera. Depending on how severe the diarrhea is, treatment will consist of oral or intravenous solutions to replace lost fluids. Antibiotics, which kill the bacteria, are not part of emergency treatment for mild cases. But they can reduce the duration of diarrhea by half and also reduce the excretion of the bacteria, thus helping to prevent the spread of the disease.. ...
Cholera is inherently linked to water supply and is spread when people consume contaminated food or water. "Cholera is a disease of inequity. The poverty map of the world is the same as the cholera map," says Dominique Legros, a cholera expert at WHO. Typical at-risk areas are peri-urban slums, with precarious basic infrastructures, as well as internally displaced or refugee camps, where minimum requirements of clean water and sanitation are often not met.. ...
Cholera was one of the most feared infectious diseases of the Industrial age. Indeed, it is still a major killer in the Third World and in areas where sanitation is poor. Cholera first struck England in 1831, killing some 30,000 people in an outbreak lasting the best part of a year. The vast majority of these deaths were of people living in overcrowded slums with poor housing and little, if any, provision of clean water. The rate of death prompted several enquiries into the cause of the disease, including John Snows breakthrough in the 1850s. Known as King Cholera due to the way in which the disease mastered, controlled and decided the fate the people it struck on several further occasions in the 19th century. Pasteurs germ theory and the subsequent identification of the cholera germ provided the scientific evidence required to force through change, and by the turn of the century, Cholera was no longer king. Things to think about:. ...
Progress with respect to enrichment and separation of native membrane components in complex lipid environments, such as native cell membranes, has so far been very limited. The reason for the slow progress can be related to the lack of efficient means to generate continuous and laterally fluid supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) made from real cell membranes. We show in this work how the edge of a hydrodynamically driven SLB can be used to induce rupture of adsorbed lipid vesicles of compositions that typically prevent spontaneous SLB formation, such as vesicles made of complex lipid compositions, containing high cholesterol content or being derived from real cell membranes. In particular, upon fusion between the moving edge of a preformed SLB and adsorbed vesicles made directly from 3T3 fibroblast cell membranes, the membrane content of the vesicles was shown to be efficiently transferred to the SLB. The molecular transfer was verified using cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) binding to monosialoganglioside
Notice how the A2 chain (spacefill) connects the A1 fragment (white) to the B pentamer (pink). The A2 chain is crucial for toxin assembly and successful functioning since there are few direct stabilizing interactions between A1 and B. The A2 subunit assumes a complete alpha-helical structure except for a 52-degree kink in the central portion of the protein. There are three discrete units of the A2 chain: an amino-terminal helix (green), a length of chain that winds through the pore of the B pentamer (blue), and a carboxyl-terminal helix (red). It is interesting to note that the last four residues of the A2 chain are KDEL (red), which is an endoplasmic reticulum retention signal and integral for toxin stability ...
Other than a role for Ca2+ store depletion, the molecular mechanisms that regulate antigen-stimulated Ca2+ influx into mast cells are not well-understood. The observation that CT dramatically enhances 45Ca2+ influx into RBL-2H3 cells suggests that this reagent might be a useful tool to study the Ca2+ entry pathway (Narasimhan et al., 1988). That CT amplifies both antigen-evoked ICRAC and 45Ca2+ influx to a similar extent bolsters the idea that CRAC channels are a major pathway for FcεRI-mediated Ca2+ uptake into RBL-2H3 mast cells (Zhang and McCloskey, 1995).. Two hypotheses to explain the effect of CT on 45Ca2+ influx are immediately testable by patch clamping. First, it is possible that CT activates Cl− or K+ channels, and thereby increases the electrical force propelling Ca2+ entry. This indirect mechanism cannot explain the enhancement of Ca2+ influx currents that we observed, because voltage-clamp measurements eliminate any difference in membrane potential between control and CT-treated ...
On behalf of the Japanese Panel of Cholera and Other Bacterial Enteric Infections, I welcome you to the United States-Japan Cooperative Medical Science Program (UJCMSP) 49th Annual Joint Panel Meeting. The meeting will be held from January 14 through January 16, 2015 in Gainesville, Florida, USA. The US-Japan Joint meeting has generally been held in the US and Japan in turns. However, a revolutionary and wonderful change of the tradition has been made by the US Cholera Panel recently, having the joint meeting held, in the years that it was the US turn for the meeting, in non-US and non-Japanese Asian countries where diarrhea is prevalent. It is actually the Japanese turn to host this coming meeting. However, my old friend, Professor Glenn Morris of University of Florida ...
On behalf of the Japanese Panel of Cholera and Other Bacterial Enteric Infections, I welcome you to the United States-Japan Cooperative Medical Science Program (UJCMSP) 49th Annual Joint Panel Meeting. The meeting will be held from January 14 through January 16, 2015 in Gainesville, Florida, USA. The US-Japan Joint meeting has generally been held in the US and Japan in turns. However, a revolutionary and wonderful change of the tradition has been made by the US Cholera Panel recently, having the joint meeting held, in the years that it was the US turn for the meeting, in non-US and non-Japanese Asian countries where diarrhea is prevalent. It is actually the Japanese turn to host this coming meeting. However, my old friend, Professor Glenn Morris of University of Florida ...
The municipality of Plaine du Nord and Grison-Garde, La Bruyere and La Souffriere (the areas of the municipality of Acul du Nord) continue to send cholera patients to the CTC of Robillard. I do not see anything done yet to improve the situation of Robillard that is becoming chaotic. I do not want to have to experience such a stressful experience like the one of last Sunday. Cholera is an issue of public health. I do not understand the reason why the cholera patients of the CTC of Robillard are treated the way they are treated. Who has the financial means to help the cholera patients in Haiti? Can you help me know who received financial assistance to help them? Forgive my complaints, because I am tired to have to carry the burden of the cholera patients while the are people who have the responsibility to do that. I have to reapeat that the situation of Robilard is urgent. Those who have to improve that situation, what are they waiting for? Are they waiting for an human disaster to move quickly? I ...
News Analysis Scientists Continue to Use Outdated Methods The use of underperforming computational tools is a major offender in sciences reproducibility crisis-and theres growing momentum to avoid it.. ...
هدف: عامل کلونیزاسیون پیلی tcpAو توکسین کلرا مهم‌ترین عوامل بیماری‌زایی ویبریو کلرا هستند و توانایی تحریک سیستم ایمنی را دارند. هدف از این تحقیق بررسی بیوانفورماتیکی، بیان پروتئین کایمر نوترکیب CTXB-TCPA در باکتری اشریشیا کلی و تولید آنتی‌بادی علیه آن در موش بود. مواد و روش‌ها: کاست ژنی دربردارنده ژن‌های ctxB، tcpAو فاصله‌انداز با روش‌ بیوانفورماتیکی طراحی شد. شاخصه‌هایی از قبیل ساختار پروتئین کایمر و اپی توپ‌ها بررسی شد. برای ساخت کاست ژنی، ژن‌های ctxBو tcpAتکثیر و در ناقل pET28a همسانه‌سازی شدند. بیان ژن‌های ctxB-tcpAدر pET28a(+) تحت القای IPTG انجام شد. پروتئین نوترکیب CTXB
Cholera, an infectious disease that affects people through drinking water contaminated with cholera bacteria, can kill people within 24
Cholera, caused by the secretion of cholera toxin (CT) by Vibrio cholerae within the intestinal lumen, triggers massive secretory diarrhea which may lead to life-threatening dehydration. CT is an AB5-type protein toxin that is comprised of an ...
This practical field guide brings together lessons learned from Oxfams past interventions in the prevention and control of cholera, and other related guidance. The aim is to provide a quick, step-by-step guide to inform cholera outbreak interventions and ensure public health programmes that are rapid, community-based, well-tailored, and gender and diversity aware. Published in August, 2012 ...
I received the following email from Partners in Health a short while ago. The numbers are shocking. With hurricane season in full swing, the cholera epidemic is more dire than ever. From Partners in Health (PIH) As you may be aware, a second wave of cholera is battering Haiti. What you may not know is…
THE toxin that makes cholera lethal belongs not to the cholera bacterium itself, but to a threadlike virus which hijacks it to hitch a ride into cells. Thi
NEW YORK, USA, 25 October 2010 - Concern is growing in Haiti as the number of cases of acute diarrhoea caused by cholera continues to rise, and fear of a wider outbreak grows. Since the first cases were confirmed last week, a total of some 3,000 cholera cases and more than 250 deaths from the waterborne illness have been reported.
Cholera is an infectious disease caused by bacteria. You can get cholera if you eat food or drink water that is contaminated with the bacteria.
Delhi is facing the worst episode of cholera in last 16 years. MCD has reported as many as 548 cases of cholera in the city up to May 15. In the earlier years
Severe diarrhea has killed at least 135 in Haiti and while doctors await test results, cholera remains at the top of the list of suspects.
A cholera outbreak in Haiti has killed more than 500 people as relief agencies struggle to cope with the impact of Hurricane Tomas, the World Health Organization says.
Robert Bazell (NBC Nightly News) reports on the fight to hold back Haitis growing cholera epidemic as torrential rainfall is expected in a place where millions are without shelter.. ...
Nearly 7,000 people have now died from cholera in Haiti in an epidemic which has become one of the worst of recent decades, a top health official said Friday.
Doctors in Haitis hard-hit southwestern region say they are starting to see cholera cases again, leading to worries that cases of the water-borne disease that can kill in hours could spike. The disease killed 9,000 people and sickened more than 700,000 in the last six years, with the outbreak eventually traced to U.N. peacekeepers.
Cholera cases are on the rise in Haiti following the onset of the rainy season, and the country is not adequately prepared to combat the deadly disease.
Cholera is an infectious disease that can cause severe watery diarrhea, dehydration, and death. Read about symptoms, treatment, prevention, vaccines, and outbreaks throughout history.
After a long pause, MSPP has posted another weeks worth of cholera statistics on its Documentation page. Im not sure I believe a digit of it. Apart from the routine unexplained jump in numbers, which usually happens in the first...
Cholera can kill a person in a matter of hours. It's a severe gastrointestinal disease that can trigger so much diarrhea and vomiting that patients
You searched for: Collections Medicine in the Americas, 1610-1920 Remove constraint Collections: Medicine in the Americas, 1610-1920 Collections Cholera Online, 1817 to 1900 Remove constraint Collections: Cholera Online, 1817 to 1900 Subjects Cholera -- therapy Remove constraint Subjects: Cholera -- therapy Start Over ...
This indicator is available in the following set of views in the "By topic" section of the Global Health Observatory. These links will open a new browser tab or window onto the selected view. ...
N.C. Communicable Disease Branch page for cholera. Includes a definition of the illness, prevention information, and links to relevant CDC resources.
Ive found PAHOs missing posts. You can find them here: One Team Against Cholera. The old site seems to have been taken down. The new site has the posts I couldnt find on Saturday, but nothing new, so its already...
How was it possible that the number of people infected by cholera fell from 14,000 new cases per week in January 2011 to fewer than 1,000 a year later?
The kidneys are chiefly responsible for discharging toxins out of bloodstream. When kidneys are poorly functioning, the toxins gradually accumulate in bloodstream. Elevations of those toxins are not only indicators for damaged kidneys, but
Find all tickets for all The Walking Toxins upcoming shows. Discover The Walking Toxins concert details and information. Explore The Walking Toxins photos, videos, and more from past shows.
Fannin Scientific specialise in the supply and support of the Pathogen Spoilage organisms, bacterial toxins, viruses. Get in touch today to find out more.
Toxins are everywhere in our modern society. They are damaging your childs health and causing disease. How can you get rid of these chemicals and detox?
How to Clean Without Using Toxins. Many people have a cabinet full of cleaning products, and most of them contain harsh chemicals. Finding green cleaning products can be difficult in your area supermarket, and you cant always trust the...
We need to cleanse our blood through detoxification to keep it from circulating toxins, chemicals and drugs. What can we do to keep our blood healthy?
Find out the most prevalent toxins that affect the human body and how to properly detox. We live in a toxic environment. In fact, your risk of chronic...
A genomic interrogation of homosexuality turns up speculative links between genetic elements and sexual orientation, but researchers say the study is too small to be significant. 6 Comments. ...
Author Summary Cholera outbreaks have had catastrophic impact on societies for centuries. Despite more than half a century of advocacy for safe water, sanitation and hygiene, approximately 100,000 cholera cases and 5,000 deaths were reported in Zimbabwe between August 2008 and by July 2009. Safe and effective oral cholera vaccines have been licensed and used by affluent tourists for more than a decade to prevent cholera. We asked whether oral cholera vaccines could be used to protect high risk populations at a time of cholera. We calculated how many cholera cases could have been prevented if mass cholera vaccinations would have been implemented in reaction to past cholera outbreaks. We estimate that determined, well organized mass vaccination campaigns could have prevented 34,900 (40%) cholera cases and 1,695 deaths (40%) in Zimbabwe. In the sites with endemic cholera, Kolkata and Zanzibar, a significant number of cases could have been prevented but the impact would have been less dramatic. The barriers
Cholera toxin (CT) may induce uncontrolled firing in recurrent networks of secretomotor neurons in the submucous plexus. This hypothesis was tested in chloralose-anesthetized rats in vivo. The secretory reflex response to graded intestinal distension was measured with or without prior exposure to luminal CT. The transmural potential difference (PD) was used as a marker for electrogenic chloride secretion. In controls, distension increased PD, and this response was reduced by the neural blocker tetrodotoxin given serosally and the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptor antagonist [4Cl-D-Phe(6),Leu(17)]VIP (2 mu g.min(-1).kg(-1) iv) but unaffected by the serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist granisetron, by the nicotinic receptor antagonist hexamethonium, by the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine, or by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. Basal PD increased significantly with time in CT-exposed segments, an effect blocked by granisetron, by indomethacin, and by [4Cl-D-Phe(6),Leu(17)]VIP
Because cholera toxin (CT) is responsible for most of the symptoms induced by |i|Vibrio cholerae|/i| infection, detection of CT is critical for diagnosis of the disease. In this study, we constructed an immunochromatographic test strip for detection of CT (CT-IC) with polyclonal antibodies developed against purified recombinant whole CT protein. The detection limit of the CT-IC was 10 ng/mL of purified recombinant CT, and it could detect the CT in culture supernatant of all 15 toxigenic |i|V. cholerae|/i| isolates examined, whereas no false-positive signal was detected in all 5 nontoxigenic |i|V. cholerae|/i| isolates examined. The specificity of the CT-IC was examined with recombinant heat-labile toxin (LT), which shares high homology with CT, and it was revealed that the minimum detection limit for LT was 100 times higher than that for CT. In addition, |i|lt|/i| gene-positive enterotoxigenic |i|Escherichia coli|/i| (ETEC) was examined by CT-IC. The false-positive signals were observed in 3 out
January 3, 2014. California-based vaccine manufacturer PaxVax has reportedly submitted an application to begin international trials of a novel oral cholera vaccine that contains live, genetically modified (GM) bacteria. VacTruth.com reports that the new vaccine is set to be tested on more than 1,000 individuals, many of whom are young children, in a three-part clinical trial series to take place throughout Australia.. In a recent application filing with the Australian Government, PaxVax makes plain its intent to administer the live, GM bacteria in both young and old and in every region of the country. Participants will be instructed to literally consume a cocktail of mercury-resistant, GM Shigella flexneri NR1 bacteria derived from the Vibrio cholera bacterial strain, which is recognized as the causative agent of the gastroenteritis disease known as cholera.. According to the filing, the GM cholera strain used in the vaccine has essentially been artificially neutralized to prevent the toxic ...
In addition to improved water supply and sanitation, the two-dose killed oral cholera vaccine (OCV) is an important tool for the prevention and control of cholera. We aimed to document the immunogenicity and protection (efficacy and effectiveness) conferred by a single OCV dose against cholera. The meta-analysis showed an estimated 73% and 77% of individuals seroconverted to the Ogawa and Inaba serotypes, respectively, after an OCV first dose. The estimates of single-dose vaccine protection from available studies are 87% at 2 months decreasing to 33% at 2 years. Current immunologic and clinical data suggest that protection conferred by a single dose of killed OCV may be sufficient to reduce short-term risk in outbreaks or other high-risk settings, which may be especially useful when vaccine supply is limited. However, until more data suggests otherwise, a second dose should be given as soon as circumstances allow to ensure robust protection.. ...
To investigate the possibility of using commensal bacteria as signal mediators for inhibiting the disease cholera (caused by infection with the marine bacterium V. cholerae), we stably transformed commensal bacteria to express the autoinducer molecule CAI-1 (shown previously to prevent virulence when present with another signaling molecule, AI-2 at high concentrations) and determined the effect on V. cholerae virulence gene expression and infectivity in an infant mouse model. We found that pretreatment of mice for 8 hours with commensal bacteria engineered to express CAI-1 (Nissle-cqsA) greatly increased the mices survival (92%) from ingestion of V. cholerae. Pretreatment with Nissle-cqsA for only 4 hours increased survival by 77%, while ingesting Nissle-cqsA at the same time as V. cholerae increased survival rates by 27%. Immuno-staining revealed an 80% reduction in cholera toxin binding to the intestines of mice pretreated for 8 hours with Nissle-cqsA. Further, the numbers of V. cholerae in ...
New clinical strains of cholera appear to have evolved a distinctly different mechanism to cause the same disease according to research published in the current issue of the online journal mBioà ®.. Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent for the diarrheal disease cholera. While there are more than 200 different serogroups only the O1 and the O139 strains have been known to cause epidemic and pandemic outbreaks of disease, using a toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) and cholera toxin (CT), which other strains lack.. "While non-O1, non-O139 strains have caused sporadic disease globally, the virulence mechanisms are not fully understood, since most of these strains lack TCP and CT," say the researchers from Harvard Medical School and the International Center for Diarrhoeal Research in Dhaka, Bangladesh.. The researchers studied a newly identified non-O1, non-O139 strain of the bacteria called AM-19226. Using comparative genomics, they investigated how this new strain causes diarrhea.. Many pathogenic ...
The world has experienced 7 cholera pandemics since 1817. The first six were caused by the classic biotype of the O1 serogroup of Vibrio cholerae. The 7th pandemic which began in 1961 and is still ongoing (with spread to Haiti and Mexico) is due to the less virulent El Tor biotype of O1 V.cholerae. In a project, my colleagues and I estimated global cholera costs as exceeding $3 billion annually. It was in 1849 during the 2nd pandemic that Dr. John Snow made his pathbreaking epidemiological discovery regarding the role of water in the spread of the cholera microbe--yet to be identified (see The Ghost Map and The Strange Case of the Broad Street Pump). During that pandemic, Dr. John Neill of Philadelphia preserved an intestine from a patient for further study.. The New England Journal of Medicine just published the results of a successful attempt to extract the cholera microbe from that over-a-century old specimen. The bacterium recovered was of the classical biotype (as predicted) and had a ...
The crystal structure of the murine Fab S-20-4 from a protective anti-cholera Ab specific for the lipopolysaccharide Ag of the Ogawa serotype has been determined in its unliganded form and in complex with synthetic fragments of the Ogawa O-specific polysaccharide (O-SP). The upstream terminal O-SP monosaccharide is shown to be the primary antigenic determinant. Additional perosamine residues protrude outwards from the Ab surface and contribute only marginally to the binding affinity and specificity. A complementary water-excluding hydrophobic interface and five Ab-Ag hydrogen bonds are crucial for carbohydrate recognition. The structure reported here explains the serotype specificity of anti-Ogawa Abs and provides a rational basis toward the development of a synthetic carbohydrate-based anti-cholera vaccine.
I can give two: one where we responded to prevent cholera and another where oral cholera vaccine (OCV) was used to contain it. Firstly, in 2014 there was an influx of refugees from South Sudan into the Gambella region of Ethiopia. In Gambella at that time there had been no cholera reported for years, but we knew there was cholera in South Sudan. Together with MSF, WHO and the national health partner (ARRA) we were able to make a strong case for oral cholera vaccination of the refugee population and surrounding host communities. If cholera came it could be contained - we wanted to make sure we were ahead of the curve. Through some good joint advocacy with partners and donors, we were able to get it approved and the Minister of Health supported it. We implemented it, and no cholera cases were reported during that acute emergency. The second example is in Tanzania, where we had a cholera outbreak. This was an emergency in 2015 with refugees coming from Burundi, and we had a cholera outbreak around ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Production of a fusion protein consisting of the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin B subunit and a tuberculosis antigen in Arabidopsis thaliana. AU - Rigano, M. M.. AU - Alvarez, M. L.. AU - Pinkhasov, J.. AU - Jin, Y.. AU - Sala, F.. AU - Arntzen, C. J.. AU - Walmsley, A. M.. PY - 2004/2. Y1 - 2004/2. N2 - Transgenic plants are potentially safe and inexpensive vehicles to produce and mucosally deliver protective antigens. However, the application of this technology is limited by the poor response of the immune system to non-particulate, subunit vaccines. Co-delivery of therapeutic proteins with carrier proteins could increase the effectiveness of the antigen. This paper reports the ability of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants to produce a fusion protein consisting of the B subunit of the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin and a 6 kDa tuberculosis antigen, the early secretory antigenic target ESAT-6. Both components of the fusion protein were detected ...
The nontoxigenic V. cholerae El Tor strains ferment sorbitol faster than the toxigenic strains, hence fast-fermenting and slow-fermenting strains are defined by sorbitol fermentation test. This test has been used for more than 40 years in cholera surveillance and strain analysis in China. Understanding of the mechanisms of sorbitol metabolism of the toxigenic and nontoxigenic strains may help to explore the genome and metabolism divergence in these strains. Here we used comparative proteomic analysis to find the proteins which may be involved in such metabolic difference. We found the production of formate and lactic acid in the sorbitol fermentation medium of the nontoxigenic strain was earlier than of the toxigenic strain. We compared the protein expression profiles of the toxigenic strain N16961 and nontoxigenic strain JS32 cultured in sorbitol fermentation medium, by using fructose fermentation medium as the control. Seventy-three differential protein spots were found and further identified by MALDI
In the adrenal tumor cell system ganglioside Gm1 inhibited cholera enterotoxin (CT)-induced steroidogenesis if it was preincubated with the toxin or added to adrenal cells 10 min before CT. In the preincubation studies a molar ratio of Gm1 to toxin of 3:1 was necessary for half-maximal inhibition of steroidogenesis. On the other hand, horse serum anticholeragenoid neutralized the steroidogenic response to cell-bound CT by 50% if it was added to adrenal monolayer cultures 15 min after the toxin. Specific antiserum was able to neutralized 20% of the toxin-induced activity even if it was added to adrenal cultures 2 h after CT. Phase contrast microscopy demonstrated that partial neutralization of the biochemical effect of CT by horse serum anticholeragenoid was accompanied by partial prevention of toxin-induced rounding of adrenal cells. Further studies showed that pretreatment of cultured adrenal cells with a maximal dose of CT increased cyclic adenosine 3-5-monophosphate formation in response to ...
Since mid-August 1986, 12 cases of cholera have been identified among residents of Louisiana. The cases occurred in nine families living in New Orleans and in other towns in six parishes (Jefferson, LaFourche, Assumption, St. Mary, Iberia, and Jefferson Davis) within a 200-mile radius to the south and west of New Orleans. None of the patients had traveled abroad within the past year. Onset of symptoms occurred between August 8 and October 1. Ten of the patients had severe diarrhea, seven required hospitalization, and four required treatment in an intensive care unit for hypotension. All patients recovered following intravenous fluid therapy. Seven patients had stool cultures yielding toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1, biotype El Tor, serotype Inaba. The remaining five patients did not have stool cultures performed but had vibriocidal antibody titers greater than or equal to 1280, suggesting recent infection with V. cholerae O1. Sewer system surveillance using Moore swabs has detected toxigenic V. ...
Three freshwater lakes, Lisi Lake, Kumisi Lake and Tbilisi Sea, near Tbilisi, Georgia, were studied from January 2006 to December 2007 to determine the presence of Vibrio cholerae employing both bacteriological culture method and direct detection methods, namely PCR and direct fluorescent antibody (DFA). For PCR, DNA extracted from water samples was tested for presence of V. cholerae and genes coding for selected virulence factors. Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 was routinely isolated by culture from all three lakes; whereas V. cholerae O1 and O139 were not. Water samples collected during the summer months from Lisi Lake and Kumisi Lake were positive for both V. cholerae and V. cholerae ctxA, tcpA, zot, ompU and toxR by PCR. Water samples collected during the same period from both Lisi and Kumisi Lake were also positive for V. cholerae serogroup O1 by DFA. All of the samples were negative for V. cholerae serotype O139. The results of this study provide evidence for an environmental presence of ...
World Health Organisation (WHO) has warned on Thursday that cholera has spread the border from Iraq to Iran. Cholera, which is continuing to spread within Iraq, can be carried by refugees and pilgrims, and through normal trade, even closing borders wont stop the germ. Iraq shares borders with Iran, Turkey, Syria, Jordan, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. Some 60,000 Iraqis flee their homes each month and 2.2 million Iraqis have crossed into neighboring countries, mainly Syria and Jordan, according to the United Nations. It highlighted the need for Iraqs neighboring countries to boost their defences against the deadly disease.Countries affected should stock up on intravenous fluids and oral rehydration salts to combat dehydration in victims.The UN agency said it did not recommend any travel or trade restrictions on Iraq.. Cholera has struck at least 3,315 people in Iraq since mid-August, killing at least 15. According to WHO global cholera coordinator Claire-Lise Chaignat, up to 10 cases have also been ...

anti-Cholera Toxin B subunit antibody [7954]  | GeneTexanti-Cholera Toxin B subunit antibody [7954] | GeneTex

Anti-Cholera Toxin B subunit mAb (GTX36671) is tested in Bacteria samples. 100% Ab-Assurance. ... Cholera Toxin B subunit antibody [7954]. Specificity. Specific for the B subunit of cholera toxin. Reacts with intact toxin. ... Cholera Toxin B subunit antibody [7954] See all Cholera Toxin B subunit products ... Storage Conditions: Cholera Toxin B subunit antibody [7954]. Storage Buffer. 0.01 M phosphate buffered saline, pH 7.2 and ...
more infohttp://www.genetex.com/Cholera-Toxin-B-subunit-antibody-7954-GTX36671.html

Recombinant cholera toxin B subunit activates dendritic cells...Recombinant cholera toxin B subunit activates dendritic cells...

Recombinant cholera toxin B subunit activates dendritic cells and enhances antitumor immunity.: Activation of dendritic cells ( ... we examined an adjuvant capacity of recombinant cholera toxin B subunit (rCTB), which is non-toxic subunit of cholera toxin, on ... Recombinant cholera toxin B subunit activates dendritic cells and enhances antitumor immunity.. Authors * Isomura, Iwao ...
more infohttps://www.mysciencework.com/publication/show/recombinant-cholera-toxin-b-subunit-activates-dendritic-cells-enhances-antitumor-immunity-36bf36c2

Prison Planet.com  » Oral cholera vaccine loaded with GMOs to be tested on babies worldwidePrison Planet.com » Oral cholera vaccine loaded with GMOs to be tested on babies worldwide

"Fragments of the Cholera toxin A subunit and haemolysin A genes were cloned into separate plasmids. The gene fragments were ... The non-active B-subunit of the cholera toxin molecule, in other words, is reportedly still synthesized in the bacteria, but it ... Oral cholera vaccine loaded with GMOs to be tested on babies worldwide * ... Oral cholera vaccine developed using brain-damaging mercury. To some, this might all sound like positive progress in the ...
more infohttps://www.prisonplanet.com/oral-cholera-vaccine-loaded-with-gmos-to-be-tested-on-babies-worldwide.html

ADP-ribosylation factor-like protein 3ADP-ribosylation factor-like protein 3

Does not act as an allosteric activator of the cholera toxin catalytic subunit. ADP-ribosylation factor-like 3 is a member of ...
more infohttps://pharos.nih.gov/idg/targets/P36405

Cholera toxin - WikipediaCholera toxin - Wikipedia

Cholera toxin acts by the following mechanism: First, the B subunit ring of the cholera toxin binds to GM1 gangliosides on the ... the entire toxin complex is endocytosed by the cell and the cholera toxin A1 (CTA1) chain is released by the reduction of a ... Cholera toxin (also known as choleragen and sometimes abbreviated to CTX, Ctx or CT) is AB5 multimeric protein complex secreted ... The cholera toxin is an oligomeric complex made up of six protein subunits: a single copy of the A subunit (part A, enzymatic, ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cholera_toxin

Scrutinizing Cholera Toxin | ScienceScrutinizing Cholera Toxin | Science

Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Science.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
more infohttp://science.sciencemag.org/content/309/5737/985j

Cholera Toxins | SpringerLinkCholera Toxins | SpringerLink

... the causative organism of the disease Cholera, colonizes the small intestine and produces several different toxins among which ... the enterotoxin, or more widely known as cholera toxin ( ... Cholera Toxin (CT): Regulation of the Relevant Virulence Genes ... Colon biogenesis biological functions cholera toxins genetics host cell interactions physiology regulation structure toxin ... or more widely known as cholera toxin (CT), happens to be the major virulence determinant that is responsible for the diarrheal ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-540-88452-1

FHC cell line/vendor for cholera toxinFHC cell line/vendor for cholera toxin

The only reagent missing in the media is cholera toxin (as recommended by ATCC). Does anybody know a vendor of the cholera ... FHC cell line/vendor for cholera toxin. Inko Nimmrich Inko.Nimmrich at MPI-Dortmund.MPG.de Fri Apr 11 07:09:55 EST 1997 * ... toxin, preferrably in Germany/Europe? Any help is highly appreciated! TIA, Inko *Previous message: low level expression vectors ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/1997-April/056493.html

Anti-Cholera Toxin antibody (ab51572) References | AbcamAnti-Cholera Toxin antibody (ab51572) References | Abcam

References for Abcams Anti-Cholera Toxin antibody (ab51572). Please let us know if you have used this product in your ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/cholera-toxin-antibody-ab51572-references.html

3D Structure of Cholera Toxin3D Structure of Cholera Toxin

Reset and spin the cholera toxin protein. Notice that the cholera toxin is composed of three distinct subunits. The wedge- ... On this page, you can see a 3D structure of the cholera toxin protein. Cholera toxin is secreted by the bacterium Vibrio ... The presence of five separate binding sites in one molecule of toxin suggests that cholera toxin is highly efficient in ... 3D Structure of Cholera Toxin. CPK Color Scheme. C O N P ... Here is another view of the cholera toxin protein. Note that it ...
more infohttp://www.bio.davidson.edu/Courses/Molbio/MolStudents/spring2010/Wang/1xtc_RightFrame.html

Modified cholera toxin based on mutagenized subunit A - Amgen Inc.Modified cholera toxin based on mutagenized subunit A - Amgen Inc.

The development of subunits and subunit analogs of the cholera exotoxin by recombinant DNA techniques provides vaccine products ... 5. An improved anti-cholera vaccine comprising an effective amount of modified cholera toxin which can elicit a cholera toxin- ... 2. The modified cholera toxin of claim 1, which is capable of eliciting a cholera toxin-neutralizing immune response. 3. The ... The term "catalytic subunit of cholera toxin" used in this disclosure refers to both the A region of cholera toxin and the A1 ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/5770203.html

Development of an Immunochromatographic Test Strip for Detection of Cholera ToxinDevelopment of an Immunochromatographic Test Strip for Detection of Cholera Toxin

The specificity of the CT-IC was examined with recombinant heat-labile toxin (LT), which shares high homology with CT, and it ... Because cholera toxin (CT) is responsible for most of the symptoms induced by ,i,Vibrio cholerae,/i, infection, detection of CT ... In the case of diagnosis of cholera, after or along with the detection of bacterium, verification of cholera toxin (CT) ... Because cholera toxin (CT) is responsible for most of the symptoms induced by Vibrio cholerae infection, detection of CT is ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/679038/

Lysogenic Conversion by a Filamentous Phage Encoding Cholera Toxin | ScienceLysogenic Conversion by a Filamentous Phage Encoding Cholera Toxin | Science

Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, requires two coordinately regulated factors for full virulence: cholera toxin ... Lysogenic Conversion by a Filamentous Phage Encoding Cholera Toxin Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... CT), a potent enterotoxin, and toxin-coregulated pili (TCP), surface organelles required for intestinal colonization. The ...
more infohttps://science.sciencemag.org/content/272/5270/1910?ijkey=046d5e025946db6479bc018a1572e526420cf5ea&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Cholera toxin | definition of cholera toxin by Medical dictionaryCholera toxin | definition of cholera toxin by Medical dictionary

... cholera toxin explanation free. What is cholera toxin? Meaning of cholera toxin medical term. What does cholera toxin mean? ... Looking for online definition of cholera toxin in the Medical Dictionary? ... cholera toxin. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Financial, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to cholera toxin: ... See also toxin.. botulinal toxin (botulinum toxin) (botulinus toxin) one of seven type-specific, immunologically differentiable ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/cholera+toxin

Cholera toxin targets the retromer | Journal of Cell ScienceCholera toxin targets the retromer | Journal of Cell Science

Upon infection with Vibrio cholerae, bacterial secretion of the cholera toxin (CT) leads to diarrhea through inhibition in Na+ ...
more infohttp://jcs.biologists.org/content/131/16/e1602

Cholera Toxin beta Rabbit anti-Bacteria, Biotin, Polyclonal, Invitrogen
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Cholera Toxin beta Rabbit anti-Bacteria, Biotin, Polyclonal, Invitrogen 1 mL; Biotin ... The beta subunit of cholera toxin binds to a GM1-ganglioside receptor which is widely accepted to initiate toxin action by ... Cholera toxin (sometimes abbreviated to CTX, Ctx, or CT) is a protein complex secreted by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. CTX is ... The PA1-73190 antibody reacts with Cholera toxin beta subunit. PA1-73190 has been successfully used in ELISA applications. The ...
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Cholera ToxinCholera Toxin

Our site uses cookies so that we can remember you and understand how you use our site. If you do not agree with our use of cookies please press decline or close this browser window ...
more infohttps://meridianlifescience.com/cholera-toxin

Toxins | Free Full-Text | The Effects of Cholera Toxin on Cellular Energy MetabolismToxins | Free Full-Text | The Effects of Cholera Toxin on Cellular Energy Metabolism

... was used to explore the effects of cholera toxin (CTx). Upon exposure of CTx to PC-12 cells, anaerobic respiration was ... study show the utility of multianalyte microphysiometry to quantitatively determine the dynamic metabolic effects of toxins and ... Keywords: cholera toxin; metabolism; multianalyte; microphysiometry; cyclic AMP; forskolin; PC-12 cholera toxin; metabolism; ... "The Effects of Cholera Toxin on Cellular Energy Metabolism." Toxins 2, no. 4: 632-648. ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/2072-6651/2/4/632

The Discovery of Cholera-ToxinThe Discovery of Cholera-Toxin

In contrast to HRP, which is passively taken up by neurons, cholera-toxin (a bacterial toxin produced by Vibrio cholerae) binds ... Cholera-toxin is actually composed of two molecular subunits: A and B. Subunit A is responsible for the toxic effect, whereas ... Surprisingly, cholera-toxin chemically combined with HRP (CT-HRP) was originally described as a sensitive tracer in the ... We were the first to inject free cholera-toxin (B subunit) which was not chemically bound with HRP. We were surprised to ...
more infohttp://sommeil.univ-lyon1.fr/articles/luppi/frenchcorner/sommaire.php

Efficacy of a food plant-based oral cholera toxin B subunit vaccine.  - PubMed - NCBIEfficacy of a food plant-based oral cholera toxin B subunit vaccine. - PubMed - NCBI

Efficacy of a food plant-based oral cholera toxin B subunit vaccine.. Arakawa T1, Chong DK, Langridge WH. ... Transgenic potatoes were engineered to synthesize a cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) pentamer with affinity for GMI-ganglioside. ... The cytopathic effect of cholera holotoxin (CT) on Vero cells was neutralized by serum from mice immunized with transgenic ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9528012?dopt=Abstract

Double-site ligands for the inhibition of Cholera toxin | Projects | FP7-PEOPLE | CORDIS | European CommissionDouble-site ligands for the inhibition of Cholera toxin | Projects | FP7-PEOPLE | CORDIS | European Commission

One of the best characterized recognition pairs is formed by ganglioside GM1 and the cholera toxin (CT). Recently, Krengel´s ... Double-site ligands for the inhibition of Cholera toxin. Desde 2011-01-01 hasta 2012-12-31, proyecto cerrado ... This project is connected to the activities of the COST D34/001/05 WG, working on cholera toxin inhibition and sensing. This ... One of the best characterized recognition pairs is formed by ganglioside GM1 and the cholera toxin (CT). Recently, Krengel´s ...
more infohttps://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/97115_es.html

anti-Cholera Toxin B subunit antibody [B038M]  | GeneTexanti-Cholera Toxin B subunit antibody [B038M] | GeneTex

Anti-Cholera Toxin B subunit mAb (GTX44121) is tested in Vibrio cholerae samples. 100% Ab-Assurance. ... Cholera Toxin B subunit antibody [B038M] for ELISA. ... Cholera Toxin B subunit antibody [B038M] See all Cholera Toxin ...
more infohttp://www.genetex.com/Cholera-Toxin-B-subunit-antibody-B038M-GTX44121.html

Cholera Toxin Beta Antibody (23043) [DyLight 488] (NB100-64675G): Novus BiologicalsCholera Toxin Beta Antibody (23043) [DyLight 488] (NB100-64675G): Novus Biologicals

Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Cholera Toxin Beta Antibody (23043) [DyLight 488]. Validated: ELISA, IHC, IHC-Fr. Tested Reactivity: ... Home » Cholera Toxin Beta » Cholera Toxin Beta Antibodies » Cholera Toxin Beta Antibody (23043) [DyLight 488] ... Blogs on Cholera Toxin Beta. There are no specific blogs for Cholera Toxin Beta, but you can read our latest blog posts. ... Reviews for Cholera Toxin Beta Antibody (NB100-64675G) (0) There are no reviews for Cholera Toxin Beta Antibody (NB100-64675G ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/products/cholera-toxin-beta-antibody-23043_nb100-64675g

Cholera Toxin Beta Antibody (23043) [DyLight 350] (NB100-64675UV): Novus BiologicalsCholera Toxin Beta Antibody (23043) [DyLight 350] (NB100-64675UV): Novus Biologicals

Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Cholera Toxin Beta Antibody (23043) [DyLight 350]. Validated: ELISA, IHC, IHC-Fr. Tested Reactivity: ... Home » Cholera Toxin Beta » Cholera Toxin Beta Antibodies » Cholera Toxin Beta Antibody (23043) [DyLight 350] ... Blogs on Cholera Toxin Beta. There are no specific blogs for Cholera Toxin Beta, but you can read our latest blog posts. ... Reviews for Cholera Toxin Beta Antibody (NB100-64675UV) (0) There are no reviews for Cholera Toxin Beta Antibody (NB100-64675UV ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/products/cholera-toxin-beta-antibody-23043_nb100-64675uv
  • In the case of diagnosis of cholera, after or along with the detection of bacterium, verification of cholera toxin (CT) production is required because only the V. cholerae which can produce CT is responsible for cholera symptoms such as acute "rice water" diarrhea. (hindawi.com)
  • The specificity of the CT-IC was examined with recombinant heat-labile toxin (LT), which shares high homology with CT, and it was revealed that the minimum detection limit for LT was 100 times higher than that for CT. (hindawi.com)
  • Multianalyte microphysiometry, a real-time instrument for simultaneous measurement of metabolic analytes in a microfluidic environment, was used to explore the effects of cholera toxin (CTx). (mdpi.com)
  • The GM1 gangliosides are exposed on the luminal surface of intestinal epithelial cells and are believed to bind to the B pentamer (magenta) with the toxin facing the membrane surface. (davidson.edu)
  • However animal studies have shown 5-hydroxytryptamine may be released after exposure to cholera toxin, and thereby contribute to the secretory state. (bmj.com)
  • After exposure to cholera toxin median urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid was 5.7 (4.1 to 6.3), which was similar to controls 4.9 (4.1 to 6.3), which was similar to controls 4.9 (4.1 to 6.2). (bmj.com)
  • We have determined the release of prostaglandin E2 into the lumen of closed ileal loops in the rat and have measured the capacity of the mucosa to synthesise and degrade prostaglandin E2 both in control animals and after exposure to cholera toxin or bisacodyl. (bmj.com)
  • Exposure to cholera toxin caused no change in any of these measurements whereas bisacodyl caused an increase in the luminal PGE2 content. (bmj.com)
  • The main objective of our project is to develop new dual-site ligands for cholera toxin inhibition featuring 2 pharmacophoric fragments, a GM1 mimic and a blood group mimic, connected across a linker able to span the two binding sites of enterotoxins. (europa.eu)
  • This project is connected to the activities of the COST D34/001/05 WG, working on cholera toxin inhibition and sensing. (europa.eu)
  • The seventh pandemic of cholera which began in 1961 is still ongoing. (hindawi.com)
  • Recently, Krengel´s group has identified a second binding site, which appears to be present in the close CT congener LT and in CT from the El Tor strain, responsible for the current cholera pandemic. (europa.eu)
  • CONCLUSION: Thus, cholera toxin induced a secretory state and promoted the release of 5-hydroxytryptamine into the intestinal lumen, but quantitative changes in urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were not detectable. (bmj.com)
  • Prostaglandins are not mediators of the intestinal response to cholera toxin. (bmj.com)
  • The cytopathic effect of cholera holotoxin (CT) on Vero cells was neutralized by serum from mice immunized with transgenic potato tissues. (nih.gov)
  • One of the best characterized recognition pairs is formed by ganglioside GM1 and the cholera toxin (CT). (europa.eu)
  • The combined effects result in rapid fluid loss from the intestine, up to 2 liters per hour, leading to severe dehydration and other factors associated with cholera, including a rice-water stool. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some cases of food poisoning, symptoms are almost immediate because the toxin is taken directly with the food. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Second, perhaps researchers were reluctant to USC cholera toxin because of its potential toxic properties. (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • RESULTS: In contrast with controls, all subjects secreted fluid in response to cholera toxin, median-2.1 ml/cm/h (interquartile range-4.1 to -0.1). (bmj.com)
  • 5-Hydroxytryptamine in jejunal effluent and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in urine (up to seven hours after cholera toxin) were measured by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection. (bmj.com)