An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.
The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
A specific monosialoganglioside that accumulates abnormally within the nervous system due to a deficiency of GM1-b-galactosidase, resulting in GM1 gangliosidosis.
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
A potent mycotoxin produced in feedstuffs by several species of the genus FUSARIUM. It elicits a severe inflammatory reaction in animals and has teratogenic effects.
An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.
Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.
Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 1. All are CHOLERA-causing strains (serotypes). There are two biovars (biotypes): cholerae and eltor (El Tor).
Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.
Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.
One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
A class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS. They include SHIGA TOXIN which is produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE and a variety of shiga-like toxins that are produced by pathologic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It shares 50-60% homology with SHIGA TOXIN and SHIGA TOXIN 1.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 139. This strain emerged in India in 1992 and caused a CHOLERA epidemic.
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It is closely related to SHIGA TOXIN produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASES
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47
A strain of the VIBRIO CHOLERAE bacteria belonging to serogroup non-O1, infecting humans and other PRIMATES. It is related to VIBRIO CHOLERAE O1, but causes a disease less severe than CHOLERA. Eating raw shellfish contaminated with the bacteria results in GASTROENTERITIS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.
Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of adenosine diphosphate.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+. The nucleotide is a potent stimulator of ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.
Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.
Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.
Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).
An enzyme that oxidizes galactose in the presence of molecular oxygen to D-galacto-hexodialdose. It is a copper protein. EC 1.1.3.9.

Role of DnaK in in vitro and in vivo expression of virulence factors of Vibrio cholerae. (1/2652)

The dnaK gene of Vibrio cholerae was cloned, sequenced, and used to construct a dnaK insertion mutant which was then used to examine the role of DnaK in expression of the major virulence factors of this important human pathogen. The central regulator of several virulence genes of V. cholerae is ToxR, a transmembrane DNA binding protein. The V. cholerae dnaK mutant grown in standard laboratory medium exhibited phenotypes characteristic of cells deficient in ToxR activity. Using Northern blot analysis and toxR transcriptional fusions, we demonstrated a reduction in expression of the toxR gene in the dnaK mutant strain together with a concomitant increase in expression of a htpG-like heat shock gene that is located immediately upstream and is divergently transcribed from toxR. This may be due to increased heat shock induction in the dnaK mutant. In vivo, however, although expression from heat shock promoters in the dnaK mutant was similar to that observed in vitro, expression of both toxR and htpG was comparable to that by the parental strain. In both strains, in vivo expression of toxR was significantly higher than that observed in vitro, but no reciprocal decrease in htpG expression was observed. These results suggest that the modulation of toxR expression in vivo may be different from that observed in vitro.  (+info)

Transcutaneous immunization with bacterial ADP-ribosylating exotoxins as antigens and adjuvants. (2/2652)

Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) is a new technique that uses the application of vaccine antigens in a solution on the skin to induce potent antibody responses without systemic or local toxicity. We have previously shown that cholera toxin (CT), a potent adjuvant for oral and nasal immunization, can induce both serum and mucosal immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA and protect against toxin-mediated mucosal disease when administered by the transcutaneous route. Additionally, CT acts as an adjuvant for coadministered antigens such as tetanus and diphtheria toxoids when applied to the skin. CT, a member of the bacterial ADP-ribosylating exotoxin (bARE) family, is most potent as an adjuvant when the A-B subunits are present and functional. We now show that TCI induces secondary antibody responses to coadministered antigens as well as to CT in response to boosting immunizations. IgG antibodies to coadministered antigens were also found in the stools and lung washes of immunized mice, suggesting that TCI may target mucosal pathogens. Mice immunized by the transcutaneous route with tetanus fragment C and CT developed anti-tetanus toxoid antibodies and were protected against systemic tetanus toxin challenge. We also show that bAREs, similarly organized as A-B subunits, as well as the B subunit of CT alone, induced antibody responses to themselves when given via TCI. Thus, TCI appears to induce potent, protective immune responses to both systemic and mucosal challenge and offers significant potential practical advantages for vaccine delivery.  (+info)

Zonula occludens toxin is a powerful mucosal adjuvant for intranasally delivered antigens. (3/2652)

Zonula occludens toxin (Zot) is produced by toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae and has the ability to reversibly alter intestinal epithelial tight junctions, allowing the passage of macromolecules through the mucosal barrier. In the present study, we investigated whether Zot could be exploited to deliver soluble antigens through the nasal mucosa for the induction of antigen-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses. Intranasal immunization of mice with ovalbumin (Ova) and recombinant Zot, either fused to the maltose-binding protein (MBP-Zot) or with a hexahistidine tag (His-Zot), induced anti-Ova serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers that were approximately 40-fold higher than those induced by immunization with antigen alone. Interestingly, Zot also stimulated high anti-Ova IgA titers in serum, as well as in vaginal and intestinal secretions. A comparison with Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) revealed that the adjuvant activity of Zot was only sevenfold lower than that of LT. Moreover, Zot and LT induced similar patterns of Ova-specific IgG subclasses. The subtypes IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b were all stimulated, with a predominance of IgG1 and IgG2b. In conclusion, our results highlight Zot as a novel potent mucosal adjuvant of microbial origin.  (+info)

Genetic characterization of a new type IV-A pilus gene cluster found in both classical and El Tor biotypes of Vibrio cholerae. (4/2652)

The Vibrio cholerae genome contains a 5.4-kb pil gene cluster that resembles the Aeromonas hydrophila tap gene cluster and other type IV-A pilus assembly operons. The region consists of five complete open reading frames designated pilABCD and yacE, based on the nomenclature of related genes from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli K-12. This cluster is present in both classical and El Tor biotypes, and the pilA and pilD genes are 100% conserved. The pilA gene encodes a putative type IV pilus subunit. However, deletion of pilA had no effect on either colonization of infant mice or adherence to HEp-2 cells, demonstrating that pilA does not encode the primary subunit of a pilus essential for these processes. The pilD gene product is similar to other type IV prepilin peptidases, proteins that process type IV signal sequences. Mutational analysis of the pilD gene showed that pilD is essential for secretion of cholera toxin and hemagglutinin-protease, mannose-sensitive hemagglutination (MSHA), production of toxin-coregulated pili, and colonization of infant mice. Defects in these functions are likely due to the lack of processing of N termini of four Eps secretion proteins, four proteins of the MSHA cluster, and TcpB, all of which contain type IV-A leader sequences. Some pilD mutants also showed reduced adherence to HEp-2 cells, but this defect could not be complemented in trans, indicating that the defect may not be directly due to a loss of pilD. Taken together, these data demonstrate the effectiveness of the V. cholerae genome project for rapid identification and characterization of potential virulence factors.  (+info)

Ribotypes of clinical Vibrio cholerae non-O1 non-O139 strains in relation to O-serotypes. (5/2652)

The emergence of Vibrio cholerae O139 in 1992 and reports of an increasing number of other non-O1 serogroups being associated with diarrhoea, stimulated us to characterize V. cholerae non-O1 non-O139 strains received at the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japan for serotyping. Ribotyping with the restriction enzyme BglI of 103 epidemiological unrelated mainly clinical strains representing 10 O-serotypes yielded 67 different typing patterns. Ribotype similarity within each serotype was compared by using the Dice coefficient (Sd) and different levels of homogeneity were observed (serotypes O5, O41 and O17, Sd between 82 and 90%: serotypes O13 and O141 Sd of 72; and O2, O6, O7, O11, O24 Sd of 62-66%). By cluster analysis, the strains were divided into several clusters of low similarity suggesting a high level of genetic diversity. A low degree of similarity between serotypes and ribotypes was found as strains within a specific serotypes often did not cluster but clustered with strains from other serotypes. However, epidemiological unrelated O5 strains showed identical or closely related ribotypes suggesting that these strains have undergone few genetic changes and may correspond to a clonal line. Surprisingly, 10 of 16 O141 strains studied contained a cholera toxin (CT) gene, including 7 strains recovered from stool and water samples in the United States. This is to our knowledge the first report of CT-positive clinical O141 strains. The closely related ribotypes shown by eight CT-positive strains is disturbing and suggest that these strains may be of a clonal origin and have the potential to cause cholera-like disease. Despite the low degree of correlation found between ribotypes and serotypes, both methods appears to be valuable techniques in studying the epidemiology of emerging serotypes of V. cholerae.  (+info)

Environmental signals modulate ToxT-dependent virulence factor expression in Vibrio cholerae. (6/2652)

The regulatory protein ToxT directly activates the transcription of virulence factors in Vibrio cholerae, including cholera toxin (CT) and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). Specific environmental signals stimulate virulence factor expression by inducing the transcription of toxT. We demonstrate that transcriptional activation by the ToxT protein is also modulated by environmental signals. ToxT expressed from an inducible promoter activated high-level expression of CT and TCP in V. cholerae at 30 degrees C, but expression of CT and TCP was significantly decreased or abolished by the addition of 0.4% bile to the medium and/or an increase of the temperature to 37 degrees C. Also, expression of six ToxT-dependent TnphoA fusions was modulated by temperature and bile. Measurement of ToxT-dependent transcription of genes encoding CT and TCP by ctxAp- and tcpAp-luciferase fusions confirmed that negative regulation by 37 degrees C or bile occurs at the transcriptional level in V. cholerae. Interestingly, ToxT-dependent transcription of these same promoters in Salmonella typhimurium was relatively insensitive to regulation by temperature or bile. These data are consistent with ToxT transcriptional activity being modulated by environmental signals in V. cholerae and demonstrate an additional level of complexity governing the expression of virulence factors in this pathogen. We propose that negative regulation of ToxT-dependent transcription by environmental signals prevents the incorrect temporal and spatial expression of virulence factors during cholera pathogenesis.  (+info)

G protein activation by human dopamine D3 receptors in high-expressing Chinese hamster ovary cells: A guanosine-5'-O-(3-[35S]thio)- triphosphate binding and antibody study. (7/2652)

Despite extensive study, the G protein coupling of dopamine D3 receptors is poorly understood. In this study, we used guanosine-5'-O-(3-[35S]thio)-triphosphate ([35S]-GTPgammaS) binding to investigate the activation of G proteins coupled to human (h) D3 receptors stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Although the receptor expression level was high (15 pmol/mg), dopamine only stimulated G protein activation by 1.6-fold. This was despite the presence of marked receptor reserve for dopamine, as revealed by Furchgott analysis after irreversible hD3 receptor inactivation with the alkylating agent, EEDQ (N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline). Thus, half-maximal stimulation of [35S]-GTPgammaS binding required only 11.8% receptor occupation of hD3 sites. In contrast, although the hD2(short) receptor expression level in another CHO cell line was 11-fold lower, stimulation by dopamine was higher (2.5-fold). G protein activation was increased at hD3 and, less potently, at hD2 receptors by the preferential D3 agonists, PD 128,907 [(+)-(4aR,10bR)-3,4,4a, 10b-tetrahydro-4-propyl-2H,5H- [1]benzopyrano[4,3-b]-1, 4-oxazin-9-ol] and (+)-7-OH-DPAT (7-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin). Furthermore, the selective D3 antagonists, S 14297 ((+)-[7-(N, N-dipropylamino)-5,6,7, 8-tetrahydro-naphtho(2,3b)dihydro-2,3-furane]) and GR 218,231 (2(R, S)-(dipropylamino)-6-(4-methoxyphenylsulfonylmethyl)-1,2,3,4- tetrahydronaphtalene), blocked dopamine-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding more potently at hD3 than at hD2 sites. Antibodies against Galphai/alphao reduced dopamine-induced G protein activation at both CHO-hD3 and -hD2 membranes, whereas GalphaS antibodies had no effect at either site. In contrast, incubation with anti-Galphaq/alpha11 antibodies, which did not affect dopamine-induced G protein activation at hD2 receptors, attenuated hD3-induced G protein activation. These data suggest that hD3 receptors may couple to Galphaq/alpha11 and would be consistent with the observation that pertussis toxin pretreatment, which inactivates only Gi/o proteins, only submaximally (80%) blocked dopamine-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding in CHO-hD3 cells. Taken together, the present data indicate that 1) hD3 receptors functionally couple to G protein activation in CHO cells, 2) hD3 receptors activate G proteins less effectively than hD2 receptors, and 3) hD3 receptors may couple to different G protein subtypes than hD2 receptors, including nonpertussis sensitive Gq/11 proteins.  (+info)

Dopamine receptor subtypes modulate olfactory bulb gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors. (8/2652)

The gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor is the predominant Cl- channel protein mediating inhibition in the olfactory bulb and elsewhere in the mammalian brain. The olfactory bulb is rich in neurons containing both GABA and dopamine. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptors are also highly expressed in this brain region with a distinct and complementary distribution pattern. This distribution suggests that dopamine may control the GABAergic inhibitory processing of odor signals, possibly via different signal-transduction mechanisms. We have observed that GABAA receptors in the rat olfactory bulb are differentially modulated by dopamine in a cell-specific manner. Dopamine reduced the currents through GABA-gated Cl- channels in the interneurons, presumably granule cells. This action was mediated via D1 receptors and involved phosphorylation of GABAA receptors by protein kinase A. Enhancement of GABA responses via activation of D2 dopamine receptors and phosphorylation of GABAA receptors by protein kinase C was observed in mitral/tufted cells. Decreasing or increasing the binding affinity for GABA appears to underlie the modulatory effects of dopamine via distinct receptor subtypes. This dual action of dopamine on inhibitory GABAA receptor function in the rat olfactory bulb could be instrumental in odor detection and discrimination, olfactory learning, and ultimately odotopic memory formation.  (+info)

Cholera toxin subunit B peptide fusion proteins reveal impaired oral tolerance induction in diabetes-prone but not in diabetes-resistant mice ...
Recombinant cholera toxin B subunit activates dendritic cells and enhances antitumor immunity.: Activation of dendritic cells (DC) is crucial for priming of cyt
Cholera Toxin B subunit antibody [7954] for ELISA. Anti-Cholera Toxin B subunit mAb (GTX36671) is tested in Bacteria samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , QED \ Anti-Cholera toxin beta subunit \ 20202 for more molecular products just contact us
BACKGROUND: Cholera toxin produces intestinal secretion by activation of the adenylate cyclase complex. However animal studies have shown 5-hydroxytryptamine may be released after exposure to cholera toxin, and thereby contribute to the secretory state. AIM: To determine whether cholera toxin releases 5-hydroxytryptamine in human jejunum. SUBJECTS: Seven male subjects were given a subclinical dose of cholera toxin in a paired, controlled, randomised, double blind study. METHODS: A closed 10 cm segment of upper jejunum was exposed to 15 micrograms of cholera toxin for two hours prior to closed segment perfusion with plasma electrolyte solution containing a non-absorbable volume marker, [14C]-polyethylene glycol. 5-Hydroxytryptamine in jejunal effluent and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in urine (up to seven hours after cholera toxin) were measured by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection. RESULTS: In contrast with controls, all subjects secreted fluid in response to ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is endowed with a variety of surface-exposed proteins representing putative vaccine candidates. Lipoproteins are covalently anchored to the cell membrane and highly conserved among pneumococcal serotypes. Here, we evaluated these lipoproteins for their immunogenicity and protective potential against pneumococcal colonisation. A multiplex-based immunoproteomics approach revealed the immunogenicity of selected lipoproteins. High antibody titres were measured in sera from mice immunised with the lipoproteins MetQ, PnrA, PsaA, and DacB. An analysis of convalescent patient sera confirmed the immunogenicity of these lipoproteins. Examining the surface localisation and accessibility of the lipoproteins using flow cytometry indicated that PnrA and DacB were highly abundant on the surface of the bacteria. Mice were immunised intranasally with PnrA, DacB, and MetQ using cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) as an adjuvant, followed by an intranasal challenge with S. pneumoniae D39. PnrA protected
Extraordinary transmission based axial imaging (EOT-AIM) for cell microscopy is reported. EOT-AIM uses linear arrays of nanoapertures, each of which samples target fluorescence up to a preset axial distance from surface, in combination with wide-field microscopy for acquisition of lateral images. Current design of nanoapertures provides EOT-AIM with axial super-resolution that is as small as 20 nm for a depth range of 500 nm. Experiments were performed for the measurement of the axial distribution of ganglioside in mouse macrophage (RAW264.7) cells using FITC-conjugated cholera toxin subunit B. The results were successfully confirmed with conventional confocal and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. ...
to express cholera toxin subunit B in e.coli. The gene is inserted in a plasmid for expression in vibrio sp. 60. But i do not have the bugs. The cloning worked well in e. coli and then i said lets give it a try. I tried 3 different temperatures 37; 30 and 20 in combination with 2 different induction times 3 and 18 hours. For induction i used IPTG 1mM. And started the induction once at OD600=1.2 once at OD=0.6 and once OD=0.2 ...
Cholera toxin B subunit is a receptor-binding subunit of the oligomeric cholera toxin (Item No. 19654).1 It binds to GM1 ganglioside receptors on the surface of mammalian cells and facilitates entry of cholera toxin subunit A, which is the enzymatic subunit of the toxin that dysregulates Gs proteins and activates
A Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast expression vector, pACTBVP1, containing the fusion of the foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) VP1 gene and the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) gene was constructe
Synonyms for Cholera toxin in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Cholera toxin. 8 synonyms for toxin: poison, venom, bane, canker, contagion, poison, venom, virus. What are synonyms for Cholera toxin?
Cholera toxin acts by the following mechanism: First, the B subunit ring of the cholera toxin binds to GM1 gangliosides on the surface of target cells. The B subunit can also bind to cells lacking GM1. The toxin then most likely binds to other types of glycans, such as Lewis Y and Lewis X, attached to proteins instead of lipids.[7][8][9] Once bound, the entire toxin complex is endocytosed by the cell and the cholera toxin A1 (CTA1) chain is released by the reduction of a disulfide bridge. The endosome is moved to the Golgi apparatus, where the A1 protein is recognized by the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, protein disulfide isomerase. The A1 chain is then unfolded and delivered to the membrane, where Ero1 triggers the release of the A1 protein by oxidation of protein disulfide isomerase complex.[10] As the A1 protein moves from the ER into the cytoplasm by the Sec61 channel, it refolds and avoids deactivation as a result of ubiquitination. CTA1 is then free to bind with a human partner protein ...
The LMO 35SctxBSEK expresses a synthetic gene of the nontoxic subunit of cholera toxin that corresponds to 71% with the gene sequence of the ctxB gene from Vibrio cholerae (100% amino acid identity). The gene was adapted to the codon preference of higher plants. The ER-retention signal SEKDEL was fused to the cholera toxin subunit in order to stabilize the protein ...
Cholera toxin (CT) is one of the most effective and widely studied mucosal adjuvants. Although the ADP-ribosylating A subunit has been implicated in augmenting immune responses, the receptor-binding B subunit (CT-B) has greater immunogenicity and may
To generate vaccines that protect mucosal surfaces, a better understanding of the cells required in vivo for activation of the adaptive immune response following mucosal immunization is required. CD11c(high) conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) have been shown to be necessary for activation of naive CD8(+) T cells in vivo, but the role of cDCs in CD4(+) T cell activation is still unclear, especially at mucosal surfaces. The activation of naive Ag-specific CD4(+) T cells and the generation of Abs following mucosal administration of Ag with or without the potent mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin were therefore analyzed in mice depleted of CD11c(high) cDCs. Our results show that cDCs are absolutely required for activation of CD4(+) T cells after oral and nasal immunization. Ag-specific IgG titers in serum, as well as Ag-specific intestinal IgA, were completely abrogated after feeding mice OVA and cholera toxin. However, giving a very high dose of Ag, 30-fold more than required to detect T cell ...
The invention relates to the field of Microbiology and biotechnology, specifically to hybridoma technology, and is a clone of the hybrid cells CT-F5/H3 animals Mus Musculus L producing cell cultures and peritoneal cavity of syngeneic animals monoclonal antibodies (hereinafter MCAT) to the V. cholerae toxin (XT). Hybridoma can be used in diagnostic test systems for the specific indication of the cholera toxin in the food industry, environmental protection, medicine.. Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) and the toxin produced by them are a cause of acute intestinal diseases of humans, often ending in death. The V. cholerae toxin completely determines the symptoms of cholera and is one of the Central objects of monitoring of bacterial toxins in the environment and food. Currently, the analysis of toxins of great importance in connection with the threat of bioterrorism, as many natural toxins, including cholera toxin, can be used as components of biological weapons. The dose of the toxin that causes the ...
The introduction of HRP as a retrograde tracer by Kristensson and Olsson 27 and La Vail and La Vail 31 has greatly accelerated our knowledge of neuroanatomy. Improvements of the original technique including the use of the more sensitive chromogen TMB 39-42, the microelectrophoretic delivery technique 18 and the introduction of the HRP conjugates with wheat germ agglutinin (WGA-HRP) 11 17 53 54 57 or cholera toxin (CT-HRP) 53 54 57 have further increased the sensitivity of the technique and permit one to obtain more restricted injection sites. The remarkable increase in the number of putative transmitters has further pointed to the need for methods allowing simultaneous identification of a pathway and its neurochemical identity. For this purpose, the histochemical detection of HRP and its conjugates using DABS 8 9 33 45 or stabilized TMB 46 has been successfully coupled with the immunohistochemistry of neurochemical substances on the same sections. However, such double labeling techniques present ...
Objective To research the interrelation of cholera toxin gene (CT gene) in manifestation of chitinase gene under different pH conditions among pathogenic and Non-pathogenic strains of in time depended chitinase activity, purification of expressed protein and SDS-PAGE analysis. gradients, tolerance to stress and safety from predators[7]. Emergent properties of chemotaxis, cell multiplication, induction of competence, bio?lm formation, commensal and symbiotic relationship with higher organisms, cycling of nutrients, and pathogenicity for humans and aquatic animals[8]. As factors mediating virulence of for humans and aquatic animals derive from mechanisms of adaptation to its environment, at different levels of hierarchical level, relationships with chitin represent a useful model for examination of the part of main habitat selection in the development of traits that have been identi?ed as virulence reasons in human disease[9]. In the current study primarily we targeted different climatic factors ...
Multianalyte microphysiometry, a real-time instrument for simultaneous measurement of metabolic analytes in a microfluidic environment, was used to explore the effects of cholera toxin (CTx). Upon exposure of CTx to PC-12 cells, anaerobic respiration was triggered, measured as increases in acid and lactate production and a decrease in the oxygen uptake. We believe the responses observed are due to a CTx-induced activation of adenylate cyclase, increasing cAMP production and resulting in a switch to anaerobic respiration. Inhibitors (H-89, brefeldin A) and stimulators (forskolin) of cAMP were employed to modulate the CTx-induced cAMP responses. The results of this study show the utility of multianalyte microphysiometry to quantitatively determine the dynamic metabolic effects of toxins and affected pathways.
Many biochemical processes involve binding between carbohydrates and biomolecules on the surface of cells. These may involve multivalent interactions that can considerably alter the binding specificity and avidity of biomolecules. A novel nanocube sensor has been developed to elucidate the cooperativity in binding of biomolecules to carbohydrates. A fluidic supported lipid bilayer coated on the nanocube sensor allows this system to mimic a cell membrane in vitro. Cholera toxin B (CTB) subunit has been taken as a model system and its binding with several gangliosides has been demonstrated using this sensor. The amount of CTB bound to the lipid bilayer is then quantified by observing the shifts in the quadrupolar localized surface plasmon resonance peak using a standard laboratory spectrometer. The ultimate objective of this research is to provide a diagnostic tool to quickly identify diseases. This inexpensive, label free, high throughput technology allows the testing of several conditions ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against Cholera toxin (Beta-subunit). Beta-subunit of cholera toxin. (MAB2796) - Products - Abnova
Hi, has anybody ever used the human colon cell line FHC? We culture this cell line but with very poor growth. The only reagent missing in the media is cholera toxin (as recommended by ATCC). Does anybody know a vendor of the cholera toxin, preferrably in Germany/Europe? Any help is highly appreciated! TIA, Inko ...
beta subunit Cholera Toxin兔多克隆抗体(ab34992)经WB, ELISA, IHC, ID, P实验严格验证,被7篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Another aspect of cholera that was not understood was why its virulence varied greatly from strain to strain. Some strains even failed to produce disease. Cholera toxin, an enzyme, was eventually identified as the main virulence factor associated with strains that induced acute diarrhea. Cholera toxin is synthesized and secreted by strains in the 01 and 0139 groups, only. Those lacking this enzyme are far less pathogenic. Its mode of action eventually results in prolonged hypersecretion in the small intestine. The diarrhea is so intense that enterocytes become fragile and begin to sluff off from the basement membrane of the villus soon after symptoms appear.. Cholera toxin attaches at the level of the crypts of Lieberkühn to enterocytes that have surface ganglioside Gm1, a special glycolipid. Internalization of the toxin-ganglioside complex then occurs. The bacterial enzyme catalyses the transfer of ADP ribose from intracellular NAD+ to the s subunit of the trimeric G protein that is normally ...
Lencer, W.I. and Madara, J.L. and Jobling, M.G. and Holmes, R.K. and Hirst, Timothy R. (1996) Proteolytic activation of cholera toxin (CT) and E-coli labile toxin (LT) by intestinal epithelia. Gastroenterology, 110 (4). A342-A342. ISSN 0016-5085. (The full text of this publication is not currently available from this repository. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided) ...
The transposon TnphoA was used to generate fusions between phoA, the gene for alkaline phosphatase (PhoA), and genes encoding proteins that are secreted by Vibrio cholerae. One of the PhoA+ mutants isolated showed a dramatic reduction in its ability to colonize the intestines of suckling mice. This mutant no longer produced a 20.5-kDa protein (TcpA) that we show is the major subunit of a V. cholerae pilus. Amino-terminal sequence analysis of the TcpA pilus subunit showed that it shares amino acid homology with the pilins produced by several other pathogenic bacteria. The TcpA pilus was coordinately expressed with cholera toxin under various culture conditions, and this effect appeared to be dependent on the transcriptional activator encoded by the toxR gene. We conclude that the toxR gene plays a central role in the transcriptional regulation of multiple virulence genes of V. cholerae.. ...
Cholera, Cell, Children, Cholera Toxin, Infection, Adults, Vaccines, Vibrio, Disease, Patients, Vibrio Cholerae, Cholera Toxin B Subunit, Igg, Water, Memory, Diarrhea, Iga, Plasma, Antibodies, Immunization
引用Abcams Anti-beta subunit Cholera Toxin抗体(ab34992)的参考文献列表。为您列举引用本产品的发表文章,并提供信息包括论文文献数据库中的检索编号以便您搜寻文章
Bacterial toxin-mediated diarrheal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this work we designed an on-bead library of protease-resistant, acid-stable peptoid molecules and screened for high affinity binding of cholera toxin. From 100 000 compounds, we discovered a single sequence of residues that can bind and retain cholera toxin at high affinity when immobilized on a solid-phase particle. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these peptoid-displaying particles can sequester active cholera toxin from cell culture media sufficient to protect intestinal cells. We foresee this work as contributory to a potential adjunct therapeutic strategy against cholera infections and other toxin-mediated diseases ...
Sublingual oral tolerance induction with antigen conjugated to cholera toxin B subunit generates regulatory T cells that induce apoptosis and depletion of eff
The development of subunits and subunit analogs of the cholera exotoxin by recombinant DNA techniques provides vaccine products that can retain their biological activity and immunogenicity, and can co
The Protein Data Bank hosts the current body of structural data on proteins and their complexes that has been acquired so far by researchers from all over the world. Beyond that, under General Education it also offers the Molecule of the Month: concise but at the same time thrilling accounts on selected molecules to be found in the Protein Data Bank. The stories are presented by David S. Goodsell, together with beautifully painted images of the protein structures. To the right you can see a reproduction of Goodsells painting of the Cholera Toxin. Such pore-proteins have inspired some of our research on DNA origami nanopores. If you ever wondered why some bacteria make you sick, read this shocking story about Cholera (original story and how it relates to other bacterial toxins to be found here): Cholera Toxin Sept 2005 Molecule of the Month by David S. Goodsell Bacteria pull no punches when they fight to protect themselves. Some bacteria build toxins so powerful that a single molecule can ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Robert M Caudle, Andrew J Mannes, Jason Keller, Federico M Perez, Shelby K Suckow, John K Neubert].
19F-NMR-based fragment screening for 14 completely different biologically lively RNAs and 10 DNA and protein counter-screens We report right here on the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) 19 F screening of 14… Read more ». ...
Excessive stage expression of recombinant proteins in micro organism typically leads to their aggregation into inclusion our bodies. Formation of inclusion our bodies poses a significant bottleneck in high-throughput restoration… Read more ». ...
1PZK: 3,5-Substituted phenyl galactosides as leads in designing effective cholera toxin antagonists; synthesis and crystallographic studies
Staphylococcus aureus; strain: Newman; locus tag: NWMN_1927 (NWMN_RS11120); symbol: lukG; product: leukocidin/hemolysin toxin subunit F
1EEI: Exploration of the GM1 receptor-binding site of heat-labile enterotoxin and cholera toxin by phenyl-ring-containing galactose derivatives.
Figure 2: Toxoid specific antibody response (IgG1, IgG2a, IgA) elicited after oral immunization in mice. BALB/c mice (n=6) were orally immunized with a single dose of BSA (80 μg) either free or adjuvanted with 10 μg of CT (Cholera Toxin) or rVTX1 (recombinant verotoxin). Antibody response against the corresponding protein-adjuvant was determined up to 5 weeks. Significant differences between CT and rVTX1 groups are indicated by asterisks (*P. 0.05 ...
We have examined the molecular pathways involved in the adjuvant action of cholera toxin (CT) and two novel nontoxic molecules, multiple-mutated CT (mmCT) and ...
http://atcc.org/Products/All/CRL-10317.aspx#culturemethod MCF 10A] (adherent) ,, [http://bio.lonza.com/go/literature/356 MEGM BulletKit] ,u,without,/u, GA-1000 ,, 100 ng/mL cholera toxin,sup,3,/sup ...
http://atcc.org/Products/All/CRL-10317.aspx#culturemethod MCF 10A] (adherent) ,, [http://bio.lonza.com/go/literature/356 MEGM BulletKit] ,u,without,/u, GA-1000 ,, 100 ng/mL cholera toxin,sup,3,/sup ...
What are toxins: Body toxins are chemicals that harm the health of the body. Body toxins are composed of four main groups: toxic chemicals, heavy metals, toxins and bacterial waste, viruses and by-products produced during the bodys metabolism. Contamination of large quantities of toxins can cause acute poisoning, such
Zeova ti dir bann Izraelit ki zot bann sakrifis pa ti vo lapenn akoz zot move kondwit. Avek kouraz, Zeremi ti devwal pese ek lipokrizi bann Izraelit.
Testing for toxins in your nervous system There is a simple on-line test to determine if you have toxins that are affecting your nervous system. The toxins can
Do you ever think about the effect that toxins can have on your body? When your body becomes too clogged with toxins, other organs such as the skin often have to pick up the slack.
Article New proof of Arctic toxins. The Fulmars, which are one of the ordinary seabirds, is the newest proof of the widespread presence of environmental toxins in the Arctic. Investigations on Fulmar from Bjørnøya (Bear Island) indicate that the leve...
If you have ever taken a CT scan or MRI, which is most likely the case, you would know just how costly these tests are. And, do you... read more ...
Detox and body cleanse with panchakarma and purvakarma procedures - the basis to treat every disease. Success is guaranteed! We accumulate toxins all life long that make us live shorter. Ancient Indians discovered the best manner to get rid of toxins - with ayurvedic therapies.
Tracer or toxin injections. For tracer experiments, under chloral hydrate anesthesia (7% in saline; 350 mg/kg), a fine glass pipette containing 1.0% cholera toxin subunit B (CTB; List Biologic, Campbell, CA), 12.5% biotinylated dextran (BD), or a mixture of 1% CTB and 12.5% BD was lowered to the precalculated targets based on the rat atlas of Paxinos and Watson (1998), and 9 nl of a solution containing the tracers was injected by an air pressure system. Phaseolus vulgaris leukoagglutinin (PHA-L; 2.5%) was injected by iontophoresis with a current of 5 μA for 15 min (7 s on and 7 s off). After two additional minutes, the pipette was slowly withdrawn and the incision was closed with wound clips. Animals survived for 7 d. The coordinates for tracer injections were as follows: medial prefrontal cortex, anteroposterior (AP), 2.20 mm, medial-lateral (ML), 0.4 mm, dorsoventral (DV), 4.6 mm; midline thalamus, AP, -2.8 mm, ML, 0 mm, DV, 4.4 mm; intralaminar thalamus, AP, -2.8 mm, ML, 0.8 mm, DV, 5.6 mm; ...
In the late twentieth century, oral cholera vaccines started to be used on a massive scale, with millions of vaccinations taking place, as a tool to control cholera outbreaks in addition to the traditional interventions of improving safe water supplies, sanitation, handwashing and other means of improving hygiene.[16] The Dukoral monovalent vaccine from Sweden, which combines formalin, heat-killed whole cells of Vibrio cholerae O1 and a recombinant cholera toxin B subunit, was licensed in 1991, mainly for travellers. Out of a million doses sold during the following decade, 63 negative side effects were reported.[8] The Shanchol/mORCVAX bivalent vaccine, which combines the O1 and O139 serogroups, was originally licensed in Vietnam in 1997 and given in 20 million doses to children in Vietnam during the following decade.[8] As of 2010[update], Vietnam continued to incorporate oral cholera vaccination in its public health programme, administering the vaccination through targeted mass vaccination of ...
In the present study, we demonstrated that clathrin and AP-1 are required for the retrograde transport from recycling endosomes to the Golgi. CTxB appeared to reach recycling endosomes in the clathrin- or AP-1-knockdown cells, similar to in control cells, suggesting that clathrin and AP-1 are not essential for the transport of CTxB from the plasma membrane through early endosomes to recycling endosomes. It has been shown that clathrin localizes to the TGN, early endosomes and the plasma membrane (Brodsky, 2012). We showed that CHC also localized to recycling endosomes. CHC colocalized with the recycling endosome proteins, Rab11, Tfn and SMAP2 in COS-1 cells (in which the Golgi, early endosomes and recycling endosomes are spatially distinct) (Lee et al., 2015; Misaki et al., 2007; Uchida et al., 2011). The recycling endosomes that were dispersed from the perinuclear region to the cytoplasm by nocodazole treatment remained positive for CHC. The localization of AP-1 to recycling endosomes (Folsch ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fuc-GM1 ganglioside mimics the receptor function of GM1 for cholera toxin. AU - Masserini, M.. AU - Freire, E.. AU - Palestini, P.. AU - Calappi, E.. AU - Tettamanti, G.. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - The ability of Fuc-GM1 ganglioside to mimic the receptor function of GM1 for cholera toxin (CT) has been investigated. For this purpose, rat glioma C6 cultured cells were enriched with Fuc-GM1 and the responsiveness to CT was compared with that of cells enriched with GM1 ganglioside. Fuc-GM1 was taken up by cells as rapidly and to the same extent as GM1. When comparable amounts of ganglioside were associated, the cells enriched with Fuc-GM1 bound the same amount of 125I-CT as did cells enriched with GM1. Under conditions in which GM1- and Fuc-GM1-enriched cells bound comparable amounts of CT, the Fuc-GMl-treated cells accumulated virtually the same amount of cyclic AMP as did GM1-treated cells, and activation of adenylate cyclase was also similar. The lag time preceding the CT-induced ...
Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, requires two coordinately regulated factors for full virulence: cholera toxin (CT), a potent enterotoxin, and toxin-coregulated pili (TCP), surface organelles required for intestinal colonization. The structural genes for CT are shown here to be encoded by a filamentous bacteriophage (designated CTXΦ), which is related to coliphage M13. The CTXΦ genome chromosomally integrated or replicated as a plasmid. CTXΦ used TCP as its receptor and infected V. cholerae cells within the gastrointestinal tracts of mice more efficiently than under laboratory conditions. Thus, the emergence of toxigenic V. cholerae involves horizontal gene transfer that may depend on in vivo gene expression. ...
FIG. 3. RPA for ctxAB transcript in various vieSAB mutant strain backgrounds. (A) Genetic organization of the V. cholerae ctxAB operon. Putative promoters are indicated by arrows. Probes designed to detect the ctxA and ctxB portions of the message are indicated by hatched bars drawn to scale. (B) RPA for ctxA message. Total RNA (1 μg) isolated from strains grown under the AKI inducing condition for 7 h as described in Materials and Methods was analyzed by using the ctxA-specific probe. A probe against rpoB was included as an internal loading control. Lanes: 1, RNA marker; 2 and 3, undigested ctxA and rpoB probes, respectively; 4 and 5, AC-V66 RNA ctxA probe only and rpoB probe only, respectively. Lanes 6 to 12 all contain both ctxA and rpoB probes. Lanes: 6, AC-V66; 7, Bah-2; 8, AC-V494; 9, AC-V752; 10, AC-V765; 11, AC-V279; 12, AC-V323b. wt, wild type. Protected bands of the expected sizes are indicated by arrows to the right. The sizes of the molecular weight markers in base pairs are given ...
Interaction of a cholera toxin derivative containing a reduced number of receptor binding sites with intact cells in culture ...
Cholera toxin animation, Welcome to viralinfections.info, we recommend viral infections related blog articles and classify them by tag.
UN efforts to tackle cholera in Haiti are almost non-existent, a charity says, as the world body faces court action for inadvertently starting a cholera epidemic in the country.. Late last year, the UN launched a $2.2bn-appeal (£1.5bn) to improve water supplies in Haiti.. But Medecins Sans Frontieres says this has had almost no practical effect.. The UN is accused of negligently allowing peacekeeping soldiers to pollute Haitis water with cholera.. The epidemic, which is spread by infected sewage, has killed more than 8,000 people since late 2010.. Alarming situation. There have been grand plans - a 10-year $2.2bn project, Duncan McClean, a senior manager for MSF, told the BBC.. But the UN plan had not been implemented, he added.. I travel regularly to Haiti; the impact on the ground today is almost non-existent.. The UN plan to improve drinking water and sewage outlets - which MSF says is unfulfilled - was widely seen as the international bodys attempt to deflect calls by the victims ...
The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is activated robustly by an immune challenge such as the systemic administration of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Because IL-1β is not believed to cross the blood-brain barrier in any significant amount, it is likely that IL-1β elicits CeA cell recruitment by means of activation of afferents to the CeA. However, although many studies have investigated the origins of afferent inputs to the CeA, we do not know which of these also respond to IL-1β. Therefore, to identify candidate neurons responsible for the recruitment of CeA cells by an immune challenge, we iontophoretically deposited a retrograde tracer, cholera toxin b-subunit (CTb), into the CeA of rats 7 days before systemic delivery of IL-1β (1 μg/kg, i.a.). By using combined immunohistochemistry, we then quantified the number of Fos-positive CTb cells in six major regions known to innervate the CeA. These included the medial prefrontal cortex, paraventricular thalamus ...
Neuronal communication relies on synaptic vesicles undergoing regulated exocytosis and recycling for multiple rounds of fusion. Whether all synaptic vesicles have identical protein content has been challenged, suggesting that their recycling ability may differ greatly. Botulinum neurotoxin type-A (BoNT/A) is a highly potent neurotoxin that is internalized in synaptic vesicles at motor nerve terminals and induces flaccid paralysis. Recently, BoNT/A was also shown to undergo retrograde transport, suggesting it might enter a specific pool of synaptic vesicles with a retrograde trafficking fate. Using high-resolution microscopy techniques including electron microscopy and single molecule imaging, we found that the BoNT/A binding domain is internalized within a subset of vesicles that only partially co-localize with cholera toxin B-subunit and have markedly reduced VAMP2 immunoreactivity ...
Summary and Conclusions 1. A simple method for the laboratory diagnosis of cholera is presented: (a) Peptone water is inoculated with fresh stool and incubated 8 hours, (b) Alkaline nutrient agar plates are streaked and incubated overnight, (c) Transparent colonies are tested for agglutination with anti-cholera O serum. (d) Agglutinable vibrio are tested for hemolysis using 5 per cent sheep or goat cells. 2. V. cholerae are present in the intestinal tract only in the first few days of illness, therefore sulfonamides or other bactericidal agents are effective only if given early in the course of the disease. 3. The value of sulfonamides in cholera carriers cannot be definitely evaluated at this time. 4. Of 3,000 contacts, 61 became contact carriers. Two of these developed the disease. The number of clinical cases developing from contact carriers is very small.
Eleven years ago, Professor Adrian Lee, head of the School of Microbiology and Immunology at the University of New South Wales commented on the failure of the first Helicobacter vaccine to work in a European trial. The Astra Research Center in Boston, USA collaborated with the New South Wales University on the project. Professor Lee believed that two or three recombinant antigens, and a much more potent adjuvant were required. Not only did the first vaccine, which had only one antigen, not work, but the e. coli and cholera toxin adjuvants caused diarrhoea in the vaccine recipients ...
In this study, we report the development of a novel, rationally designed immunostimulatory adjuvant based on chemical conjugation of CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) to the nontoxic B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB). We demonstrate that the immunostimulatory effects of CpG can be dramatically enhanced by conjugation to CTB. Thus, CpG ODN linked to CTB (CTB-CpG) was shown to be a more potent stimulator of proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine responses in murine splenocytes and human PBMCs than those of CpG ODN alone in vitro. The presence of CpG motif, but not modified phosphorothioate ODN backbone, was found to be critical for the enhanced immunostimulatory effects of CTB-CpG. Our mode-of-action studies, including studies on cells from specifically gene knockout mice suggest that similar to CpG, CTB-CpG exerts its immunostimulatory effects through a TLR9/MyD88- and NF-kappaB-dependent pathway. Surprisingly, and as opposed to CpG ODN, CTB-CpG-induced immunity was shown to be independent of ...
Hudson, T H. and Johnson, G L., Peptide mapping of adenylate cyclase regulatory proteins that are cholera toxin substrates. (1980). Subject Strain Bibliography 1980. 3108 ...
If you develop severe, watery diarrhea and vomiting - particularly after eating raw shellfish or traveling to a country where cholera is epidemic -seek medical help immediately. Cholera is highly treatable, but because dehydration can happen quickly, its important to get cholera treatment right away.. Hydration is the mainstay of treatment for cholera. Depending on how severe the diarrhea is, treatment will consist of oral or intravenous solutions to replace lost fluids. Antibiotics, which kill the bacteria, are not part of emergency treatment for mild cases. But they can reduce the duration of diarrhea by half and also reduce the excretion of the bacteria, thus helping to prevent the spread of the disease.. ...
Cholera is inherently linked to water supply and is spread when people consume contaminated food or water. Cholera is a disease of inequity. The poverty map of the world is the same as the cholera map, says Dominique Legros, a cholera expert at WHO. Typical at-risk areas are peri-urban slums, with precarious basic infrastructures, as well as internally displaced or refugee camps, where minimum requirements of clean water and sanitation are often not met.. ...
Cholera was one of the most feared infectious diseases of the Industrial age. Indeed, it is still a major killer in the Third World and in areas where sanitation is poor. Cholera first struck England in 1831, killing some 30,000 people in an outbreak lasting the best part of a year. The vast majority of these deaths were of people living in overcrowded slums with poor housing and little, if any, provision of clean water. The rate of death prompted several enquiries into the cause of the disease, including John Snows breakthrough in the 1850s. Known as King Cholera due to the way in which the disease mastered, controlled and decided the fate the people it struck on several further occasions in the 19th century. Pasteurs germ theory and the subsequent identification of the cholera germ provided the scientific evidence required to force through change, and by the turn of the century, Cholera was no longer king. Things to think about:. ...
Progress with respect to enrichment and separation of native membrane components in complex lipid environments, such as native cell membranes, has so far been very limited. The reason for the slow progress can be related to the lack of efficient means to generate continuous and laterally fluid supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) made from real cell membranes. We show in this work how the edge of a hydrodynamically driven SLB can be used to induce rupture of adsorbed lipid vesicles of compositions that typically prevent spontaneous SLB formation, such as vesicles made of complex lipid compositions, containing high cholesterol content or being derived from real cell membranes. In particular, upon fusion between the moving edge of a preformed SLB and adsorbed vesicles made directly from 3T3 fibroblast cell membranes, the membrane content of the vesicles was shown to be efficiently transferred to the SLB. The molecular transfer was verified using cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) binding to monosialoganglioside
Notice how the A2 chain (spacefill) connects the A1 fragment (white) to the B pentamer (pink). The A2 chain is crucial for toxin assembly and successful functioning since there are few direct stabilizing interactions between A1 and B. The A2 subunit assumes a complete alpha-helical structure except for a 52-degree kink in the central portion of the protein. There are three discrete units of the A2 chain: an amino-terminal helix (green), a length of chain that winds through the pore of the B pentamer (blue), and a carboxyl-terminal helix (red). It is interesting to note that the last four residues of the A2 chain are KDEL (red), which is an endoplasmic reticulum retention signal and integral for toxin stability ...
Other than a role for Ca2+ store depletion, the molecular mechanisms that regulate antigen-stimulated Ca2+ influx into mast cells are not well-understood. The observation that CT dramatically enhances 45Ca2+ influx into RBL-2H3 cells suggests that this reagent might be a useful tool to study the Ca2+ entry pathway (Narasimhan et al., 1988). That CT amplifies both antigen-evoked ICRAC and 45Ca2+ influx to a similar extent bolsters the idea that CRAC channels are a major pathway for FcεRI-mediated Ca2+ uptake into RBL-2H3 mast cells (Zhang and McCloskey, 1995).. Two hypotheses to explain the effect of CT on 45Ca2+ influx are immediately testable by patch clamping. First, it is possible that CT activates Cl− or K+ channels, and thereby increases the electrical force propelling Ca2+ entry. This indirect mechanism cannot explain the enhancement of Ca2+ influx currents that we observed, because voltage-clamp measurements eliminate any difference in membrane potential between control and CT-treated ...
On behalf of the Japanese Panel of Cholera and Other Bacterial Enteric Infections, I welcome you to the United States-Japan Cooperative Medical Science Program (UJCMSP) 49th Annual Joint Panel Meeting. The meeting will be held from January 14 through January 16, 2015 in Gainesville, Florida, USA. The US-Japan Joint meeting has generally been held in the US and Japan in turns. However, a revolutionary and wonderful change of the tradition has been made by the US Cholera Panel recently, having the joint meeting held, in the years that it was the US turn for the meeting, in non-US and non-Japanese Asian countries where diarrhea is prevalent. It is actually the Japanese turn to host this coming meeting. However, my old friend, Professor Glenn Morris of University of Florida ...
On behalf of the Japanese Panel of Cholera and Other Bacterial Enteric Infections, I welcome you to the United States-Japan Cooperative Medical Science Program (UJCMSP) 49th Annual Joint Panel Meeting. The meeting will be held from January 14 through January 16, 2015 in Gainesville, Florida, USA. The US-Japan Joint meeting has generally been held in the US and Japan in turns. However, a revolutionary and wonderful change of the tradition has been made by the US Cholera Panel recently, having the joint meeting held, in the years that it was the US turn for the meeting, in non-US and non-Japanese Asian countries where diarrhea is prevalent. It is actually the Japanese turn to host this coming meeting. However, my old friend, Professor Glenn Morris of University of Florida ...
The municipality of Plaine du Nord and Grison-Garde, La Bruyere and La Souffriere (the areas of the municipality of Acul du Nord) continue to send cholera patients to the CTC of Robillard. I do not see anything done yet to improve the situation of Robillard that is becoming chaotic. I do not want to have to experience such a stressful experience like the one of last Sunday. Cholera is an issue of public health. I do not understand the reason why the cholera patients of the CTC of Robillard are treated the way they are treated. Who has the financial means to help the cholera patients in Haiti? Can you help me know who received financial assistance to help them? Forgive my complaints, because I am tired to have to carry the burden of the cholera patients while the are people who have the responsibility to do that. I have to reapeat that the situation of Robilard is urgent. Those who have to improve that situation, what are they waiting for? Are they waiting for an human disaster to move quickly? I ...
This protocol describes the immunofluorescent labeling technique used to identify serotonin expression in CtB-labelled phrenic motor neurons and within a defined region of interest...
News Analysis Scientists Continue to Use Outdated Methods The use of underperforming computational tools is a major offender in sciences reproducibility crisis-and theres growing momentum to avoid it.. ...
هدف: عامل کلونیزاسیون پیلی tcpAو توکسین کلرا مهم‌ترین عوامل بیماری‌زایی ویبریو کلرا هستند و توانایی تحریک سیستم ایمنی را دارند. هدف از این تحقیق بررسی بیوانفورماتیکی، بیان پروتئین کایمر نوترکیب CTXB-TCPA در باکتری اشریشیا کلی و تولید آنتی‌بادی علیه آن در موش بود. مواد و روش‌ها: کاست ژنی دربردارنده ژن‌های ctxB، tcpAو فاصله‌انداز با روش‌ بیوانفورماتیکی طراحی شد. شاخصه‌هایی از قبیل ساختار پروتئین کایمر و اپی توپ‌ها بررسی شد. برای ساخت کاست ژنی، ژن‌های ctxBو tcpAتکثیر و در ناقل pET28a همسانه‌سازی شدند. بیان ژن‌های ctxB-tcpAدر pET28a(+) تحت القای IPTG انجام شد. پروتئین نوترکیب CTXB
Cholera, an infectious disease that affects people through drinking water contaminated with cholera bacteria, can kill people within 24
Cholera, caused by the secretion of cholera toxin (CT) by Vibrio cholerae within the intestinal lumen, triggers massive secretory diarrhea which may lead to life-threatening dehydration. CT is an AB5-type protein toxin that is comprised of an ...
This practical field guide brings together lessons learned from Oxfams past interventions in the prevention and control of cholera, and other related guidance. The aim is to provide a quick, step-by-step guide to inform cholera outbreak interventions and ensure public health programmes that are rapid, community-based, well-tailored, and gender and diversity aware. Published in August, 2012 ...
I received the following email from Partners in Health a short while ago. The numbers are shocking. With hurricane season in full swing, the cholera epidemic is more dire than ever. From Partners in Health (PIH) As you may be aware, a second wave of cholera is battering Haiti. What you may not know is…
THE toxin that makes cholera lethal belongs not to the cholera bacterium itself, but to a threadlike virus which hijacks it to hitch a ride into cells. Thi
NEW YORK, USA, 25 October 2010 - Concern is growing in Haiti as the number of cases of acute diarrhoea caused by cholera continues to rise, and fear of a wider outbreak grows. Since the first cases were confirmed last week, a total of some 3,000 cholera cases and more than 250 deaths from the waterborne illness have been reported.
Cholera is an infectious disease caused by bacteria. You can get cholera if you eat food or drink water that is contaminated with the bacteria.
Delhi is facing the worst episode of cholera in last 16 years. MCD has reported as many as 548 cases of cholera in the city up to May 15. In the earlier years
The global burden of cholera, as determined through a systematic review with clearly stated assumptions, is high. The findings of this study provide a contemporary basis for planning public health interventions to control cholera.
Severe diarrhea has killed at least 135 in Haiti and while doctors await test results, cholera remains at the top of the list of suspects.
A cholera outbreak in Haiti has killed more than 500 people as relief agencies struggle to cope with the impact of Hurricane Tomas, the World Health Organization says.
One of the key aspects to gaining control of the fast-moving cholera outbreak in Haiti is the simplest of human necessities, actor and activist Sean Penn told CNNs AC360 .
Robert Bazell (NBC Nightly News) reports on the fight to hold back Haitis growing cholera epidemic as torrential rainfall is expected in a place where millions are without shelter.. ...
Nearly 7,000 people have now died from cholera in Haiti in an epidemic which has become one of the worst of recent decades, a top health official said Friday.
Haiti is facing the worst epidemic of cholera in the world, with some 500 cases a week of the potentially fatal bacterial infection
Doctors in Haitis hard-hit southwestern region say they are starting to see cholera cases again, leading to worries that cases of the water-borne disease that can kill in hours could spike. The disease killed 9,000 people and sickened more than 700,000 in the last six years, with the outbreak eventually traced to U.N. peacekeepers.
Cholera cases are on the rise in Haiti following the onset of the rainy season, and the country is not adequately prepared to combat the deadly disease.
Cholera or similar illnesses are caused by exposure to fecal matter. Good sanitation can prevent the illness and proper rehydration can cure it.
Cholera is an infectious disease that can cause severe watery diarrhea, dehydration, and death. Read about symptoms, treatment, prevention, vaccines, and outbreaks throughout history.
After a long pause, MSPP has posted another weeks worth of cholera statistics on its Documentation page. Im not sure I believe a digit of it. Apart from the routine unexplained jump in numbers, which usually happens in the first...
The closest most of us have come to cholera is through reading the works of Gabriel Garcia Marquez. But an outbreak Haiti has killed over 1000 people and will likely worsen.
Cholera toxin. Within the epidermis keratinocytes are associated with other cell types such as melanocytes and Langerhans cells ...
Treatment with cholera toxin. This has been shown in vitro. This particular treatment may bypass the STAT3-Ser stage and act ... Androutsellis-Theotokis A, Walbridge S, Park DM, Lonser RR, McKay RD (2010). "Cholera toxin regulates a signaling pathway ...
Cholera toxin may increase the secretion or decrease the intake of water and electrolytes, leading to possibly severe ... Joaquín Sánchez, Jan Holmgren (February 2011). "Cholera toxin - A foe & a friend" (PDF). Indian Journal of Medical Research. ...
"Cholera Toxins: Immunogenicity of the Rabbit Ileal Loop Toxin and Related Antigens" (PDF). American Society for Microbiology. ... Dutta N. K., Panse N. V., Kulkarni D. R. (1959). "Role of cholera a toxin in experimental cholera". J. Bacteriol. 78 (4): 594-5 ... N. K. Dutta, N. B. Oza (1965). "A new approach to the treatment of cholera based on experimental evidence". Br J Exp Pathol. 46 ... He was known for his contributions to the studies on cholera and was an elected fellow of the National Academy of Medical ...
"Repeatability of ellipsometric data in cholera toxin GM1-ELISA structures". Surface Science. 601 (8): 1795. Bibcode:2007SurSc. ...
The bacteria Vibrio cholerae produces a multimeric toxin called the cholera toxin. The secreted toxin attaches to the surface ... Besides its function in the physiology of the brain, GM1 acts as the site of binding for both cholera toxin and E. coli heat- ... When the cholera patient is given a solution containing water, sodium and glucose, the SGLT1 receptor will reabsorb sodium and ... The A1 subunit of this toxin will gain entry to intestinal epithelial cells with the assistance of the B subunit via the GM1 ...
He continued his work on cholera toxin as a post-doc at the Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics at Harvard ... "Synthesis of cholera toxin is positively regulated at the transcriptional level by toxR". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 81 (11): ... a gene that affects the expression of the cholera toxin operon ctxAB, the discovery that the Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin ... strains with altered toxin production ability) which led to the genetic mapping of the toxin-regulatory mutants in this ...
... the bacterium that causes cholera. It carries the genes for cholera toxin (CTX), which makes cholera especially virulent. It ... The second non-CT toxin encoded within the CTXφ genome is zonula occludens toxin (Zot). Zot, though absolutely essential for ... Recent research suggests that at least two toxins other than CT are produced from genes of the CTXφ genome. The first of these ... The first is the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP), which also aids the bacterium in adhering to the intestinal cell wall. The TCP ...
S. N. Dey and Cholera Toxin Willmer, Pat (2009). Environmental Physiology of Animals. Wiley-Blackwell. Symporters at the US ...
V. mimicus was isolated from cultures of stool specimens, and genes encoding cholera toxin were identified by polymerase chain ... V. mimicus, when carrying genes that encode cholera toxin, can cause severe watery diarrhea. Consumers and physicians should be ... and cholera toxin genes were not detected using PCR. D. MacEachern; J. McCullough; J. Duchin; M. Tran; K. MacDonald; A. Marfin ...
Schleifer, LS; Kahn, RA; Hanski, E; Northup, JK; Sternweis, PC; Gilman, AG (1982). "Requirements for cholera toxin-dependent ... Bokoch, GM; Gilman, AG (1984). "Inhibition of receptor-mediated release of arachidonic acid by pertussis toxin". Cell. 39 (2 Pt ...
In addition, AB5 toxins such as cholera hijack the endosomal pathway while evading lysosomal degradation. Lysosomes are ...
"Thiazolidinone CFTR inhibitor identified by high-throughput screening blocks cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion ... are affected by many different toxins. Tetrodotoxin (TTX), a toxin found in pufferfish, completely blocks sodium ion ... Much of the structure of the pores of ion channels has been elucidated from studies that used toxins to inhibit channel ... "Topology of the pore-region of a K+ channel revealed by the NMR-derived structures of scorpion toxins". Neuron. 15 (5): 1169-81 ...
When adding cytochalasin B and the beta-andrenergic agonist (-)-isoproterenol, prostaglandin E1 or cholera toxin to wild type ... Insel, PA; Koachman, AM (1982). "Cytochalasin B Enhances Hormone and Cholera Toxin-Stimulated Cyclic AMP Accumulation in S49 ...
A yet-unidentified 120 kDa protein also inhibits changes in cAMP levels induced by cholera toxin. S. boulardii encodes extra ... Both S. boulardii and S. cerevisiae produce proteins that inhibit pathogenic bacteria and their toxins, specifically pho8 and ... natives of Southeast Asia chewing on the skin of lychee and mangosteen in an attempt to control the symptoms of cholera. In ...
The KDEL motif of the bacteria encoded cholera toxin mediates cell entry of the cholera toxin. Linear motif mediated protein- ... November 1995). "Targeting of cholera toxin and Escherichia coli heat labile toxin in polarized epithelia: role of COOH- ...
In 1999 the drug was reported to improve the symptoms of cholera toxin induced diarrhea in mice. SP-303 was eventually named ...
cholera toxin - increases cAMP levels. *forskolin - a diterpene natural product that activates adenylyl cyclase ... pertussis toxin, which increases cAMP levels by inhibiting Gi to its GDP (inactive) form. This leads to an increase in adenylyl ...
Kahn, RA; Gilman, AG (1986). "The protein cofactor necessary for ADP-ribosylation of Gs by cholera toxin is itself a GTP ...
The diameters of the functioning toxins such as Bacillus anthracis, Staphylococcus aureus, Cholera toxin and others were ... "The ionic channels formed by cholera toxin in planar bilayer lipid membranes are entirely attributable to its B-subunit". ... After 1981, his laboratory became known for experiments on channels induced in membranes by bacterial pore-forming toxins of ... Lipid bilayer Transmembrane protein Patch clamp Pore-forming toxin Krasilnikov, Oleg Vladimirovich. Protein channels in the ...
... s are similar in structure to the toxins found in cholera, tetanus, diphtheria and botulinum; and their physiological ... There is an enormous variation in sensitivity to the toxin, and a lethal dose may be as little as two-millionths of body weight ... The toxins present in poisonous mushrooms such as Amanita phalloides are quite different from toxalbumins and are mostly ... Plant toxins and acute medicinal plant poisoning in children: A systematic literature review' Lectin Phytotoxin Plant defense ...
A study with two retrograde cholera toxin tracers". Anat. Embryol. 185: 1-16. doi:10.1007/bf00213596. PMID 1736680. Liberman, ...
... cholera toxin of vibrio cholera; heat-labile enterotoxin of E.Coli; Exotoxin A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Pertussis toxin of B ... It is also the basis for the toxicity of bacterial compounds such as cholera toxin, diphtheria toxin, and others. The first ... Histone code Cell signaling PARP-1 Cholera toxin NAD+ ADP-ribosyltransferase Pertussis toxin Post-translational modification ... Pertussis; C3 toxin of C. botulinum; and Diphtheria toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. ...
Cholera toxin Thompson FL, Gevers D, Thompson CC, Dawyndt P, Naser S, Hoste B, Munn CB, Swings J (2005). "Phylogeny and ... Filippo Pacini isolated micro-organisms he called "vibrions" from cholera patients in 1854, because of their motility. Several ... Pathogenic Vibrio species include V. cholerae (the causative agent of cholera), V. parahaemolyticus, and V. vulnificus. V. ...
G proteins are also classified according to their susceptibility to cholera toxin (CTX) and pertussis toxin (PTX, whooping ... Karlsson E, Jolkkonen M, Mulugeta E, Onali P, Adem A (September 2000). "Snake toxins with high selectivity for subtypes of ... "Muscarinic toxins". Toxicon. 58 (6-7): 455-63. doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2011.08.004. PMID 21906611. ...
1998). "Effects of arfaptin 1 on guanine nucleotide-dependent activation of phospholipase D and cholera toxin by ADP- ...
For example, fluorophores conjugated to cholera-toxin B-subunit, which binds to the raft constituent ganglioside GM1 is used ...
Galleria mellonella are influenced by cholera toxin and its B-subunit". Results in Immunology. 2 (Supplement C): 54-65. doi: ...
Type III, intracellular toxins or A/B toxins interfere with internal cell function and include shiga toxin, cholera toxin, and ... anthrax lethal toxin. (note that Shigella and Vibrio cholera are Gram negative organisms). In gram-negative sepsis, free LPS ... Toxins produced by pathogens cause an immune response; in gram-negative bacteria these are endotoxins, which are bacterial ... Recently, severe damage to liver ultrastructure has been noticed from treatment with cell-free toxins of Salmonella. Unless the ...
The most common cause of this type of diarrhea is a cholera toxin that stimulates the secretion of anions, especially chloride ... Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli, such as E coli o157:h7, are the most common cause of infectious bloody diarrhea in the ... Various toxins such as mushroom poisoning and drugs can also cause acute diarrhea. Chronic diarrhea can be the part of the ... Oral cholera vaccines in mass immunization campaigns (PDF). WHO. 2010. pp. 6-8. ISBN 978-92-4-150043-2. Archived (PDF) from the ...
"J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis. 20 (1): 44. doi:10.1186/1678-9199-20-44. PMC 4197285. PMID 25320574.. ... Malaria, cholera, typhoid fever, meningitis, other viral haemorrhagic fevers[1]. Prevention. Coordinated medical services, ... cholera, typhoid fever, meningitis and other viral haemorrhagic fevers may resemble EVD.[1] Blood samples are tested for viral ... cholera, sepsis, borreliosis, EHEC enteritis, leptospirosis, scrub typhus, plague, Q fever, candidiasis, histoplasmosis, ...
Diphtheria toxin. *NAD(P)+:arginine ADP-ribosyltransferase *Pertussis toxin. *Cholera toxin. *Poly ADP ribose polymerase ...
Cystic fibrosis heterozygote resistance to cholera toxin in the cystic fibrosis mouse model. Science, október 1994, roč. 266, ... A00.0: Cholera zapríčinená Vibrio cholerae 01, biovar cholerae (klasická cholera). *A00.1: Cholera zapríčinená Vibrio cholerae ... PARSI, Vida K. Cholera. Primary Care Update for OB/GYNS, máj 2001, roč. 8, čís. 3, s. 106-109. DOI: 10.1016/S1068-607X(00)00086 ... Cholera v Uhorsku[upraviť , upraviť zdroj]. V Uhorsku bola posledná veľká epidémia cholery v lete a na jeseň roku 1892. ...
Diphtheria toxin. *NAD(P)+:arginine ADP-ribosyltransferase *Pertussis toxin. *Cholera toxin. *Poly ADP ribose polymerase ...
Tetanus toxin is so lethal that humans cannot develop immunity to a natural infection, as the amount of toxin and time required ... Some diseases, such as tetanus, cause disease not by bacterial growth but by bacterial production of a toxin. ... However the tetanus toxin is easily denatured losing its ability to produce disease, but leaving it able to induce immunity to ... to kill a person is much less than is required by the immune system to recognize the toxin and produce antibodies against it.[ ...
... made especially dangerous by the toxin.[1]:74 Some German researchers had also discovered the diphtheria toxin and were trying ... using the cholera vibrio, discovered ten years before by Robert Koch, as an antigen, Richard F. J. Pfeiffer introduced it in ... The anti-diphtheria serum which was able to agglutinate the bacteria and neutralize the toxin was supplied by a horse ... Unlike diphtheria, which releases toxins via exocytotic secretion, typhoid pathogens encapsulate endotoxins which survive even ...
... medications and toxins.[47] Medications that commonly cause this problem include the chemotherapeutic agent cyclophosphamide ...
Biological Toxins[edit]. Main article: Toxin. *X - botulinum toxin A. *XR - partially purified botulinum toxin A ... HO - cholera. *AB - bovine brucellosis. *US - porcine brucellosis. *NX - porcine brucellosis. *AM - caprine brucellosis ...
Ribbon diagram of a mouse antibody against cholera that binds a carbohydrate antigen ... various toxins, and digestive/metabolic enzymes obtained from slaughterhouses. In the 1950s, the Armour Hot Dog Co. purified 1 ...
The cholera toxin (CTX or CT) is an oligomeric complex made up of six protein subunits: a single copy of the A subunit (part A ... "Cholera's seven pandemics". CBC. 9 May 2008. Retrieved 15 July 2018.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ... Cholera - Vibrio cholerae infection-Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. *. "Cholera". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ... The gene encoding the cholera toxin was introduced into V. cholerae by horizontal gene transfer. Virulent strains of V. ...
... enzymes or toxins (such as cholera toxin in pathogenic bacteria for example Vibrio cholerae) from across the interior ( ... This secretion system was first discovered in Yersinia pestis and showed that toxins could be injected directly from the ... secretes the pertussis toxin partly through the type IV system. Legionella pneumophila, the causing agent of legionellosis ( ... The best characterized are the RTX toxins and the lipases. Type I secretion is also involved in export of non-proteinaceous ...
"Use of automated sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-generated amplicons to identify three types of cholera toxin subunit B ...
"Cystic fibrosis heterozygote resistance to cholera toxin in the cystic fibrosis mouse model". Science 266 (5182): 107-9. ...
Most strains of C jejuni produce a toxin (cytolethal distending toxin) that hinders the cells from dividing and activating the ... A cholera-like enterotoxin was once thought to be also made, but this appears not to be the case. The organism produces diffuse ... These infections were named cholera infantum,[10] or summer complaint.[11] The species was first isolated by Sir John McFadyean ...
Shiga toxin · Verotoxin/shiga-like toxin (E. coli) · E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin/enterotoxin · Cholera toxin · Pertussis ... "toxin" tại Từ điển Y học Dorland *^ "toxin - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary". Truy cập ngày 13 tháng 12 ... type I (Superantigen) · type II (Pore forming toxins) · type III (AB toxin/AB5) ... Clostridium: tetani (Tetanospasmin) · perfringens (Alpha toxin, Enterotoxin) · difficile (A, B) · botulinum (Botox). khác: ...
Biological toxinsEdit. Toxin Toxin Comes From: Toxin Causes: Comments Botulinum. Clostridium botulinum. Botulism. One of the ... Cholera. Could be spread by contaminating water supplies[9]. Shigella dysenteriae;. Some species of Escherichia coli. Dysentery ... Vibrio cholerae (cholera). Contaminated food & water. Japan to attack China[9]. 2001. Bacillus anthraces (anthrax). Mailed ... "What Are Biological and Toxin Weapons?". The United Nations Office at Geneva. The United Nations. Retrieved February 8, 2016.. ...
These are geared towards lay readers, not readers who are technically proficient. Do not replace easy to understand lay variants (e.g. "smell") with difficult variants lay readers will not understand (e.g. "olfaction ...
For example, Clostridium tetani releases a toxin that paralyzes muscles, and staphylococcus releases toxins that produce shock ... Diarrheal diseases are caused by many different organisms, including cholera, botulism, and E. coli to name a few. See also: ... In the mid-19th century John Snow and William Budd did important work demonstrating the contagiousness of typhoid and cholera ... Both are credited with decreasing epidemics of cholera in their towns by implementing measures to prevent contamination of ...
Cholera → 콜레라 (C). *Common cold → 감기 (C). *Dengue fever → 뎅기열 (B). *Diphtheria → 디프테리아 (E) ... Toxin → 독소 (E). *Aneurysm → 동맥류 (E). *Brain damage → 뇌손상 (E). *Bleeding → 출혈 (D) ...
... and prostaglandin E1 via a cholera toxin-sensitive mechanism in human erythroleukemia cells.". Mol. Pharmacol. 45 (6): 1160-7. ...
... cholera toxin, isobutylmethylxanthine, diacylglycerol analogues, and UV irradiation all trigger melanogenesis and in turn, ...
AB5 Toxins Biochemistry Cholera toxin Pertussis toxin Shiga toxin Subtilase Le Nours, J.; Paton, A. W.; Byres, E.; Troy, S.; ... Cholera toxin, pertussis toxin, and shiga toxin all have their targets in the cytosol of the cell. After their B subunit binds ... Cholera toxin, shiga toxin, and SubAB toxin all have B subunits that are made up of five identical protein components, meaning ... For the cholera toxin, the principal glycolipid receptor for the cholera toxin is ganglioside GM1. After endocytosis to the ...
Brucellosis infections Used toxin/antitoxin as a vaccine for diphtheria (1909). In the process of investigating an epidemic of ... Smith erroneously believed he had found the causative agent of hog cholera. Smith turned his attention to Texas fever, a ...
Possible pathogens include viruses, bacteria, including Salmonella, Cholera, Campylobacter and Shigella, and protozoa, ... but it cannot remove chemical toxins or impurities.[20] For human health, complete sterilization of water is not required, ... His 1855 essay On the Mode of Communication of Cholera conclusively demonstrated the role of the water supply in spreading the ... John Snow was the first to successfully use chlorine to disinfect the water supply in Soho that had helped spread the cholera ...
... and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe or its toxins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to ... Cholera. Cholera vaccine. Dukoral, Shanchol Vaccines under research[edit]. Viral diseases[edit]. *Adenovirus vaccine[2] ...
The oral cholera vaccine, while effective for prevention of cholera, is of questionable use for prevention of TD.[6] A 2008 ... Mechanisms of action vary: some bacteria release toxins which bind to the intestinal wall and cause diarrhea; others damage the ... The oral cholera vaccine, while effective for cholera, is of questionable use for traveler's diarrhea.[6] Preventive ... Blood or mucus in the diarrhea, significant abdominal pain, or high fever suggests a more serious cause, such as cholera, ...
"Use of automated sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-generated amplicons to identify three types of cholera toxin subunit B ...
Shiga toxin/Verotoxin. *E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin. *Cholera toxin/Heat-labile enterotoxin ... Microbial toxins. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g Montecucco C, Molgó J (June 2005). "Botulinal neurotoxins: revival of an ... Toxin production[edit]. Botulism toxins are produced by bacteria of the genus Clostridium, namely Clostridium botulinum, C. ... Botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum is the cause of botulism.[17] Humans most commonly ingest the toxin from ...
The AvrA toxin injected by the SPI1 type III secretion system of S. Typhimurium works to inhibit the innate immune system by ... Salmonella Choleraesuis was thought to be the causative agent of hog cholera, so Salmon and Smith named it "Hog-cholerabacillus ... An infection can only begin after living salmonellae (not merely Salmonella-produced toxins) reach the gastrointestinal tract. ... "The acetyltransferase activity of the bacterial toxin YopJ of Yersinia is activated by eukaryotic host cell inositol ...
Shiga toxin/Verotoxin. *E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin. *Cholera toxin/Heat-labile enterotoxin ... note: some toxins are produced by lower species and pass through intermediate species ... Cardiotoxin III (CTX III, also known as cytotoxin 3) is a sixty amino-acid polypeptide toxin from the Taiwan Cobra Naja atra. ... Snake toxin-like (2 families) - Orientations of Proteins in Membranes (OPM) database". Retrieved 2008-12-13.. .mw-parser-output ...
Cholera toxin acts by the following mechanism: First, the B subunit ring of the cholera toxin binds to GM1 gangliosides on the ... the entire toxin complex is endocytosed by the cell and the cholera toxin A1 (CTA1) chain is released by the reduction of a ... Cholera toxin (also known as choleragen and sometimes abbreviated to CTX, Ctx or CT) is AB5 multimeric protein complex secreted ... The cholera toxin is an oligomeric complex made up of six protein subunits: a single copy of the A subunit (part A, enzymatic, ...
... the causative organism of the disease Cholera, colonizes the small intestine and produces several different toxins among which ... the enterotoxin, or more widely known as cholera toxin ( ... Cholera Toxin (CT): Regulation of the Relevant Virulence Genes ... Colon biogenesis biological functions cholera toxins genetics host cell interactions physiology regulation structure toxin ... or more widely known as cholera toxin (CT), happens to be the major virulence determinant that is responsible for the diarrheal ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Science.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
The development of subunits and subunit analogs of the cholera exotoxin by recombinant DNA techniques provides vaccine products ... 5. An improved anti-cholera vaccine comprising an effective amount of modified cholera toxin which can elicit a cholera toxin- ... 2. The modified cholera toxin of claim 1, which is capable of eliciting a cholera toxin-neutralizing immune response. 3. The ... The term "catalytic subunit of cholera toxin" used in this disclosure refers to both the A region of cholera toxin and the A1 ...
The specificity of the CT-IC was examined with recombinant heat-labile toxin (LT), which shares high homology with CT, and it ... Because cholera toxin (CT) is responsible for most of the symptoms induced by ,i,Vibrio cholerae,/i, infection, detection of CT ... In the case of diagnosis of cholera, after or along with the detection of bacterium, verification of cholera toxin (CT) ... Because cholera toxin (CT) is responsible for most of the symptoms induced by Vibrio cholerae infection, detection of CT is ...
Cholera toxin--a foe & a friend.(Report) by Indian Journal of Medical Research; Health, general Biological sciences Genetic ... Mucosal adjuvants and anti-infection and anti-immunopathology vaccines based on cholera toxin, cholera toxin B subunit and CpG ... Subunit structure of cholera toxin. J Gen Microbiol 1973; 76 : 417-27. (4.) Holmgren J. Actions of cholera toxin and the ... Cholera toxin: An intracellular journey into the cytosol by way of the endoplasmic reticulum. Toxins 2010; 2 : 310-25. (36.) ...
References for Abcams Anti-Cholera Toxin antibody (ab51572). Please let us know if you have used this product in your ...
Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, requires two coordinately regulated factors for full virulence: cholera toxin ... Lysogenic Conversion by a Filamentous Phage Encoding Cholera Toxin Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... CT), a potent enterotoxin, and toxin-coregulated pili (TCP), surface organelles required for intestinal colonization. The ...
The structure and function of a previously unknown toxin in the cholera bacteria Vibrio cholera has been discovered by ... The structure and function of a previously unknown toxin in the cholera bacteria Vibrio cholera has been discovered by ... Focusing on Cholera Hotspots Could Cut Africas Cholera Burden in Half. *Halting the spread of cholera through a neighborhood ... New toxin in Cholera bacteria discovered. Last Updated July 4, 2018. by Healthcanal Staff ...
One of the best characterized recognition pairs is formed by ganglioside GM1 and the cholera toxin (CT). Recently, Krengel´s ... Double-site ligands for the inhibition of Cholera toxin. Desde 2011-01-01 hasta 2012-12-31, proyecto cerrado ... This project is connected to the activities of the COST D34/001/05 WG, working on cholera toxin inhibition and sensing. This ... One of the best characterized recognition pairs is formed by ganglioside GM1 and the cholera toxin (CT). Recently, Krengel´s ...
... was used to explore the effects of cholera toxin (CTx). Upon exposure of CTx to PC-12 cells, anaerobic respiration was ... study show the utility of multianalyte microphysiometry to quantitatively determine the dynamic metabolic effects of toxins and ... Keywords: cholera toxin; metabolism; multianalyte; microphysiometry; cyclic AMP; forskolin; PC-12 cholera toxin; metabolism; ... "The Effects of Cholera Toxin on Cellular Energy Metabolism." Toxins 2, no. 4: 632-648. ...
Cholera Toxin beta Rabbit anti-Bacteria, Biotin, Polyclonal, Invitrogen 1 mL; Biotin ... The beta subunit of cholera toxin binds to a GM1-ganglioside receptor which is widely accepted to initiate toxin action by ... Cholera toxin (sometimes abbreviated to CTX, Ctx, or CT) is a protein complex secreted by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. CTX is ... The PA1-73190 antibody reacts with Cholera toxin beta subunit. PA1-73190 has been successfully used in ELISA applications. The ...
Upon infection with Vibrio cholerae, bacterial secretion of the cholera toxin (CT) leads to diarrhea through inhibition in Na+ ...
... cholera toxin explanation free. What is cholera toxin? Meaning of cholera toxin medical term. What does cholera toxin mean? ... Looking for online definition of cholera toxin in the Medical Dictionary? ... cholera toxin. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Financial, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to cholera toxin: ... See also toxin.. botulinal toxin (botulinum toxin) (botulinus toxin) one of seven type-specific, immunologically differentiable ...
Cholera toxin (CT), the enterotoxin derived from pathogenic strains of Vibrio cholerae, is a potent modulator of immune ... Spleen Cell Cholera Toxin Challenge Immunization Cell Class Plaque Form Cell These keywords were added by machine and not by ... Cholera toxin (CT), the enterotoxin derived from pathogenic strains of Vibrio cholerae, is a potent modulator of immune ... Friedman H., Lyons S. (1980) Modulation of T Cells and Macrophages by Cholera Toxin Treatment in Vivo and in Vitro. In: Escobar ...
Efficacy of a food plant-based oral cholera toxin B subunit vaccine.. Arakawa T1, Chong DK, Langridge WH. ... Transgenic potatoes were engineered to synthesize a cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) pentamer with affinity for GMI-ganglioside. ... The cytopathic effect of cholera holotoxin (CT) on Vero cells was neutralized by serum from mice immunized with transgenic ...
Reset and spin the cholera toxin protein. Notice that the cholera toxin is composed of three distinct subunits. The wedge- ... On this page, you can see a 3D structure of the cholera toxin protein. Cholera toxin is secreted by the bacterium Vibrio ... The presence of five separate binding sites in one molecule of toxin suggests that cholera toxin is highly efficient in ... 3D Structure of Cholera Toxin. CPK Color Scheme. C O N P ... Here is another view of the cholera toxin protein. Note that it ...
Cholera toxin B subunit: an efficient transmucosal carrier-delivery system for induction of peripheral immunological tolerance ... Cholera toxin B subunit: an efficient transmucosal carrier-delivery system for induction of peripheral immunological tolerance ... Cholera toxin B subunit: an efficient transmucosal carrier-delivery system for induction of peripheral immunological tolerance ... Cholera toxin B subunit: an efficient transmucosal carrier-delivery system for induction of peripheral immunological tolerance ...
Cholera toxin (Ctx) and its close homologue, the heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (Etx), are hexameric AB5 toxins ... GM1-ganglioside receptor binding by the B subunit of cholera toxin (CtxB) is widely accepted to initiate toxin action by ... A mutant cholera toxin B subunit that binds GM1- ganglioside but lacks immunomodulatory or toxic activity. A. T. Aman, S. ... Alternatively, cholera toxin may require interaction, not only with GM1, but also with a coreceptor for it to exert its ...
... including cholera toxin (CT), which directly causes voluminous diarrhea, producing cholera. A complex regulatory network ... Identification and characterization of the functional toxboxes in the Vibrio cholerae cholera toxin promoter.. Dittmer JB1, ... However, the toxboxes required for the activation of transcription from the cholera toxin promoter PctxAB have not been ... Identification and Characterization of the Functional Toxboxes in the Vibrio cholerae Cholera Toxin Promoter ...
5-Substituted phenyl galactosides as leads in designing effective cholera toxin antagonists; synthesis and crystallographic ... Chain D: Cholera Toxin B Subunit. Chain Downloadable Files. Download FASTA File. View Sequence & DSSP Image. Download Sequence ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Cholera Toxin Beta Antibody (23043) [DyLight 488]. Validated: ELISA, IHC, IHC-Fr. Tested Reactivity: ... Home » Cholera Toxin Beta » Cholera Toxin Beta Antibodies » Cholera Toxin Beta Antibody (23043) [DyLight 488] ... Blogs on Cholera Toxin Beta. There are no specific blogs for Cholera Toxin Beta, but you can read our latest blog posts. ... Reviews for Cholera Toxin Beta Antibody (NB100-64675G) (0) There are no reviews for Cholera Toxin Beta Antibody (NB100-64675G ...
The Vibrio cholerae vieSAB Locus Encodes a Pathway Contributing to Cholera Toxin Production. Anna D. Tischler, Sang Ho Lee, ... The Vibrio cholerae vieSAB Locus Encodes a Pathway Contributing to Cholera Toxin Production ... The Vibrio cholerae vieSAB Locus Encodes a Pathway Contributing to Cholera Toxin Production ... The Vibrio cholerae vieSAB Locus Encodes a Pathway Contributing to Cholera Toxin Production ...
... and production of cholera toxin (CT), an ADP-ribosylating toxin, to cause the severe diarrheal disease cholera. CT and TCP are ... The Vibrio cholerae vieSAB Locus Encodes a Pathway Contributing to Cholera Toxin Production. Anna D. Tischler, Sang Ho Lee, ... The genes encoding cholera toxin (CT), ctxAB, are coregulated with those for other Vibrio cholerae virulence factors by a ... Intestinal fluid accumulation induced by oral challenge with Vibrio cholerae or cholera toxin in infant mice. Infect. Immun. 15 ...
... to colonize the human intestinal epithelium and cholera toxin (CT) to elicit diarrhea. This chapter covers each of the known ... Biopsies taken from cholera patients indicate that the intestinal epithelium remains intact during the infectious stage, ... Identification of a Vibrio cholerae RTX toxin gene cluster that is tightly linked to the cholera toxin prophage. Proc. Natl. ... Distinct cytokine regulation by cholera toxin and type II heat-labile toxins involves differential regulation of CD40 ligand on ...
Cholera is a diarrheal disease caused by a protein toxin released by Vibrio cholera in the hosts intestine. The toxin enters ... Turnbull, WB orcid.org/0000-0002-7352-0360 and Kumar, V (2018) Carbohydrate inhibitors of cholera toxin. Beilstein Journal of ... In this review we introduce the structural features of the toxin that have guided the design of diverse inhibitors and ... Over recent years, considerable effort has been invested in developing inhibitors of toxin adhesion that mimic the carbohydrate ...
Exposure to cholera toxin caused no change in any of these measurements whereas bisacodyl caused an increase in the luminal ... We conclude that the secretion stimulated by cholera toxin is not mediated by locally produced prostaglandins. ... capacity of the mucosa to synthesise and degrade prostaglandin E2 both in control animals and after exposure to cholera toxin ...
Cholera toxin (CT) has been found to be an extremely potent immunogen for mucosal IgA responses when administered via the ... Generalized systemic and mucosal immunity in mice after mucosal stimulation with cholera toxin.. C O Elson and W Ealding ... Generalized systemic and mucosal immunity in mice after mucosal stimulation with cholera toxin. ... Generalized systemic and mucosal immunity in mice after mucosal stimulation with cholera toxin. ...
Sensitization of spinal cord nociceptive neurons with a conjugate of substance P and cholera toxin.. [Robert M Caudle, Andrew J ... These data demonstrate that cholera toxin can be targeted to specific cell types by coupling the catalytic subunit to a peptide ... stimulate cells rather than kill them we have conjugated the neuropeptide substance P to the catalytic subunit of cholera toxin ... By producing deficits in function these toxin conjugates have yielded valuable information about the role of these cells. In an ...
  • abstract = "Binding of cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) to its receptor and toxin transport into the intestinal epithelial cells are the causative events for the potentially lethal disease cholera. (ku.dk)
  • Vibrio cholerae, the causative organism of the disease Cholera, colonizes the small intestine and produces several different toxins among which the enterotoxin, or more widely known as cholera toxin (CT), happens to be the major virulence determinant that is responsible for the diarrheal syndrome. (springer.com)
  • Vibrio cholerae , the causative agent of cholera, requires two coordinately regulated factors for full virulence: cholera toxin (CT), a potent enterotoxin, and toxin-coregulated pili (TCP), surface organelles required for intestinal colonization. (sciencemag.org)
  • Cholera toxin (CT), the enterotoxin derived from pathogenic strains of Vibrio cholerae , is a potent modulator of immune responses, both in vivo and in vitro (1, 2, 5, 6, 7). (springer.com)
  • Cholera toxin (Ctx) and its close homologue, the heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (Etx), are hexameric AB 5 toxins responsible for causing profuse and, at times, life-threatening diarrheal disease (for review, see refs. (pnas.org)
  • However, recent studies on the immunological properties of cholera toxin B subunit (CtxB) and E. coli enterotoxin B subunit (EtxB) have shown that they can trigger signaling events in their own right, which alter leukocyte differentiation, survival, and death ( 5 ) (R. Salmond, T.R.H., and N.A.W., unpublished observations). (pnas.org)
  • NB100-64675 detects the labile enterotoxin normally associated with V. cholera and reacts with an epitope on the B chain. (novusbio.com)
  • Structure and function of cholera toxin and the related Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin. (asm.org)
  • Symptoms are caused by the action of cholera toxin, secreted by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, or by a closely related heat-labile enterotoxin, produced by Escherichia coli, that causes a milder, more common traveler's diarrhea. (asm.org)
  • The recent elucidation of the three-dimensional structure of the heat-labile enterotoxin has provided an opportunity to examine and compare the correlations between structure and function of the two toxins. (asm.org)
  • The virulence factor predominantly responsible for this watery diarrhea is cholera toxin (CT), * a powerful enterotoxin encoded by the ctxA and ctxB genes carried on the transmissible prophage CTXΦ ( 4 , 5 ). (rupress.org)
  • This antibody recognizes the beta subunit of cholera toxin and does not cross-react with the alpha subunit, however it cross-reacts with E. coli heat labile enterotoxin. (qedbio.com)
  • We expressed the heat-labile enterotoxin B (LTB) subunit from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and the cholera toxin B (CTB) subunit from Vibrio cholerae under the control of the rice ( Oryza sativa ) globulin ( Glb ) promoter. (springeropen.com)
  • The heat-labile enterotoxin B (LTB) produced by E. coli and the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) produced by Vibrio cholerae are similar in structure, function and immunogenicity. (springeropen.com)
  • The B subunit (BS) of cholera toxin and that of the heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are genetically similar. (elsevier.com)
  • Pathogenic O1 and O139 V. cholerae have the ability to produce cholera toxin, a type of enterotoxin that affects intestinal cells. (britannica.com)
  • CT is not just another enterotoxin that causes the signs and symptoms of the dreaded disease , cholera . (bvsalud.org)
  • We have structures for a number mutant toxins containing various single site mutantations near the active site of the heat-labile enterotoxin. (washington.edu)
  • The receptor for cholera toxin and heat-labile enterotoxin is ganglioside GM1. (washington.edu)
  • Later experiments showed that insulin autoantigen induced immune tolerance could be greatly enhanced by linkage of β-cell autoantigens (Auto Ag) to adjuvant molecules such as the non-toxic cholera enterotoxin B subunit (CTB). (llu.edu)
  • Cholera toxin (also known as choleragen and sometimes abbreviated to CTX , Ctx or CT ) is AB5 multimeric protein complex secreted by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cholera toxin B pentamer, Vibrio cholerae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene encoding the cholera toxin is introduced into V. cholerae by horizontal gene transfer . (wikipedia.org)
  • This book provides for the first time comprehensive and up-to-date information about all the toxins of Vibrio cholerae, their physical and chemical structures, their biosynthesis and its genetic regulation, their physiology, the molecular biology of their interactions with the host as well as their role in the development of an appropriate and effective cholera vaccine. (springer.com)
  • It also offers relevant and necessary background information on the basic biology of the Vibrio cholerae cell and cholera bacteriophages. (springer.com)
  • Because cholera toxin (CT) is responsible for most of the symptoms induced by Vibrio cholerae infection, detection of CT is critical for diagnosis of the disease. (hindawi.com)
  • In the case of diagnosis of cholera, after or along with the detection of bacterium, verification of cholera toxin (CT) production is required because only the V. cholerae which can produce CT is responsible for cholera symptoms such as acute "rice water" diarrhea. (hindawi.com)
  • The bacterium Vibrio cholerae was discovered more than 150 years ago but remains as one of the main causes of bacterial infectious disease globally, especially in low-income nations where it occurs endemic, and outbreaks of cholera disease can lead to major epidemics. (healthcanal.com)
  • In addition to causing cholera disease characterized by very severe watery diarrhea, different variants of V. cholerae can cause, for example, wound infections and ear inflammation. (healthcanal.com)
  • A team led by Professor Sun Nyunt Wai at the Department of Molecular Biology and The Laboratory for Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden, MIMS, used the worm Caenorhabditis elegans as a predatory host for the bacteria and identified by molecular genetic analysis the V. cholerae genes required for production and release of the new protein toxin, now called MakA. (healthcanal.com)
  • Sun Nyunt Wai and her colleagues were also curious about the details of the bacterial release mechanism of the newly discovered toxin from V. cholerae. (healthcanal.com)
  • This is the first time that scientists show how the flagellum functions as a secretion apparatus for a toxin from Vibrio cholerae. (healthcanal.com)
  • Upon infection with Vibrio cholerae , bacterial secretion of the cholera toxin (CT) leads to diarrhea through inhibition in Na + absorption and stimulation of anion secretion. (biologists.org)
  • Cholera toxin is secreted by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and is responsible for the debilitating symptoms and effects of cholera infection. (davidson.edu)
  • Identification and characterization of the functional toxboxes in the Vibrio cholerae cholera toxin promoter. (nih.gov)
  • Following the consumption of contaminated food or water by a human host, the Vibrio cholerae bacterium produces virulence factors, including cholera toxin (CT), which directly causes voluminous diarrhea, producing cholera. (nih.gov)
  • The genes encoding cholera toxin (CT), ctxAB , are coregulated with those for other Vibrio cholerae virulence factors by a cascade of transcriptional activators, including ToxR, TcpP, and ToxT. (asm.org)
  • The gram-negative bacterium Vibrio cholerae requires both colonization of the small intestinal epithelium, mediated by the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP), and production of cholera toxin (CT), an ADP-ribosylating toxin, to cause the severe diarrheal disease cholera. (asm.org)
  • The bacterial agent of disease, Vibrio cholerae , was presumed to require only two virulence factors: toxincoregulated pili (TCP) to colonize the human intestinal epithelium and cholera toxin (CT) to elicit diarrhea. (asmscience.org)
  • In contrast to HRP, which is passively taken up by neurons, cholera-toxin (a bacterial toxin produced by Vibrio cholerae) binds specifically to surface receptors of neurons and is actively taken up and transported by the axons. (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • Vibrio cholerae bacteria express lectins as AB toxins on the pili which are key to bacterial establishment and subsequent infection. (rsc.org)
  • Use of automated sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-generated amplicons to identify three types of cholera toxin subunit B in Vibrio cholerae O1 strains. (asm.org)
  • The DNA sequences of the cholera toxin subunit B structural genes from 45 Vibrio cholerae O1 strains isolated in 29 countries over a period of 70 years were determined by automated DNA sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-generated amplicons. (asm.org)
  • BUFFALO, N.Y. -- Working with Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes the severe diarrheal disease of cholera, microbiologists at the University at Buffalo have revealed new information on a cellular signaling system that ultimately will help scientists understand how cholera toxin and virulent proteins of other pathogenic bacteria migrate through their cellular membranes to cause disease. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Using chitinase, a protein known to be secreted by V. cholerae by the same mechanism as cholera toxin, the researchers engineered a series of insertions, deletions and mutations in its amino-acid chain. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The contribution of accessory toxins to the acute inflammatory response to Vibrio cholerae was assessed in a murine pulmonary model. (rupress.org)
  • Intranasal administration of an El Tor O1 V. cholerae strain deleted of cholera toxin genes ( ctxAB ) caused diffuse pneumonia characterized by infiltration of PMNs, tissue damage, and hemorrhage. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, the reduced virulence of KFV101 makes it a prototype for multi-toxin deleted vaccine strains that could be used for protection against V. cholerae without the adverse effects of the accessory cholera toxins. (rupress.org)
  • The immunoglobulin subclass responses to homologous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and to cholera toxin (CT) in adult patients infected with Vibrio cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 were studied. (asm.org)
  • Knowledge about the subclass distribution of specific antibodies in acute watery diarrhea caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 is limited, and no information is available on the disease caused by V. cholerae O139, which has emerged as the second causative agent of cholera ( 2 , 41 ). (asm.org)
  • The B subunits of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (LTB) and cholera toxin of Vibrio cholerae (CTB) are candidate vaccine antigens. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Distribution of serogroups of Vibrio cholerae non-O1 non-O139 with specific reference to their ability to produce cholera toxin , and addition of novel serogroups. (freethesaurus.com)
  • Changing genotypes of cholera toxin (CT) of Vibrio cholerae O139 in Bangladesh and description of three new CT genotypes. (freethesaurus.com)
  • Cholera , an acute infection of the small intestine caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and characterized by extreme diarrhea with rapid and severe depletion of body fluids and salts. (britannica.com)
  • however, only two serogroups of V. cholerae -O1 and O139 (sometimes called the Bengal serogroup)-are known to cause cholera. (britannica.com)
  • Chapter 2 will focus on two experiments that shed light on understanding the mechanisms by which cholera toxin (CT) is endocytosed into host epithelial cells is critical for understanding the pathogenesis of Vibrio cholerae and thus for the development of treatment and prevention against cholera. (unr.edu)
  • Cholera toxin is an AB 5 hexameric assembly secreted by Vibrio cholerae . (washington.edu)
  • The effect of these toxins on human populations ranges from the relatively mild travelers' diarrhea caused by infection with E. coli strains producing LT to the acute and life-threatening diarrhea caused by V. cholerae infection and the equally serious hemolytic uremic syndrome (`hamburger disease') caused by members of the shiga toxin family. (washington.edu)
  • The invention relates to the field of Microbiology and biotechnology, specifically to hybridoma technology, and is a clone of the hybrid cells CT-F5/H3 animals Mus Musculus L producing cell cultures and peritoneal cavity of syngeneic animals monoclonal antibodies (hereinafter MCAT) to the V. cholerae toxin (XT). (russianpatents.com)
  • Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) and the toxin produced by them are a cause of acute intestinal diseases of humans, often ending in death. (russianpatents.com)
  • The V. cholerae toxin completely determines the symptoms of cholera and is one of the Central objects of monitoring of bacterial toxins in the environment and food. (russianpatents.com)
  • Cholera toxin (CT), secreted from Vibrio cholerae, causes a massive fluid and electrolyte efflux in the small intestine that results in life-threatening diarrhea and dehydration which impacts 3-5 million people per year. (ucf.edu)
  • The development of subunits and subunit analogs of the cholera exotoxin by recombinant DNA techniques provides vaccine products that can retain their biological activity and immunogenicity, and can confer protection against disease challenge. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 6. The improved vaccine of claim 5, wherein the toxin-neutralizing immune response provides immunoprotection against cholera disease. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 7. The improved vaccine of claim 5, wherein the modified cholera toxin has been derived by site-specific mutagenesis resulting in a mutation of catalytic subunit A which has less or essentially no ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 8. The improved vaccine of claim 5, wherein the modified cholera toxin includes B oligomer (SEQ ID NO: 4). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Efficacy of a food plant-based oral cholera toxin B subunit vaccine. (nih.gov)
  • Heterogenicity in the B subunit could have implications for vaccine development and diagnostic tests for cholera toxin and antitoxin. (asm.org)
  • We have developed a rice-based oral cholera vaccine named MucoRice-CTB (Cholera Toxin B-subunit) by using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated co-transformation system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we describe the construction of an edible vaccine consisting of a fusion protein composed of cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and insulin that is produced in silkworm larvae at levels of up to 0.3 mg/ml of hemolymph. (deepdyve.com)
  • 1999 ). CTB is applied as an oral vaccine against cholera, and immune responses against CTB are thought to prevent the toxic A subunit from entering host cells (Clemens et al. (springeropen.com)
  • The animals getting the vaccine fended off a subsequent oral dose of full-strength cholera toxin , while mice that had received regular rice powder experienced severe diarrhea, the researchers report in an upcoming Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. (freethesaurus.com)
  • We therefore assessed whether a combined cholera toxin BS/whole-cell (BS-WC) oral vaccine against cholera conferred cross-protection against LT-producing ETEC (LT-ETEC) diarrhea in a randomized, double-blind field trial among rural Bangladeshi children and women. (elsevier.com)
  • The 24,770 persons who ingested two or more doses of BS-WC vaccine were compared with 24,842 controls who took two or more doses of killed whole-cell (WC) oral cholera vaccine. (elsevier.com)
  • In order to use the toxin as a vaccine component it is obviously desirable to reduce or abolish the cytotoxicity while retaining the toxins ability to stimulate the immune system. (washington.edu)
  • We conclude that the secretion stimulated by cholera toxin is not mediated by locally produced prostaglandins. (bmj.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Cholera toxin produces intestinal secretion by activation of the adenylate cyclase complex. (bmj.com)
  • As an intestinal secretagogue, these findings suggest that 5-hydroxytryptamine may play a part in mediating cholera toxin induced secretion in humans. (bmj.com)
  • Cholera toxin is the principal factor causing the profuse intestinal fluid secretion that is characteristic of cholera. (asm.org)
  • In general, production of specific antibodies to ovalbumin and cholera toxin in the reproductive tract secretion and serum following immunisation into the gut indicates that the possum possesses a common mucosal immune system. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • The technology allows for the expression and secretion of an antigen genetically coupled to the non-toxic B subunit of cholera toxin to enhance immunogenicity. (freethesaurus.com)
  • Prostaglandins are not mediators of the intestinal response to cholera toxin. (bmj.com)
  • RESULTS: In contrast with controls, all subjects secreted fluid in response to cholera toxin, median-2.1 ml/cm/h (interquartile range-4.1 to -0.1). (bmj.com)
  • The role of antigen form and the induction of an intestinal immune response to cholera toxin/toxoid in rats. (elsevier.com)
  • Regulation by butyrate of the cAMP response to cholera toxin and forskolin in pituitary GH1 cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Analyses with chemical inhibitors confirmed that the hyperactivation of CFTR channel function is responsible for the increased response to cholera toxin. (elsevier.com)
  • The cholera toxin is an oligomeric complex made up of six protein subunits: a single copy of the A subunit (part A, enzymatic, P01555 ), and five copies of the B subunit (part B, receptor binding, P01556 ), denoted as AB 5 . (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1969 Finkelstein and LoSpalluto (2) had purified the toxin and shown it to be a 84 kDa protein. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Using a combination of electron microscopy and light microscopy with molecular genetic methods we obtained evidence that this protein toxin is transported through the channel of the flagellum filamentous structure", Sun Nyunt Wai explains. (healthcanal.com)
  • The pertussis toxin (also an AB5 protein) produced by Bordetella pertussis acts in a similar manner with the exception that it ADP-ribosylates the Gαi subunit, rendering it unable to inhibit cAMP production. (wikipedia.org)
  • On this page, you can see a 3D structure of the cholera toxin protein. (davidson.edu)
  • Reset and spin the cholera toxin protein. (davidson.edu)
  • Here is another view of the cholera toxin protein. (davidson.edu)
  • The A2 chain is crucial for toxin assembly and successful functioning since there are few direct stabilizing interactions between A1 and B. The A2 subunit assumes a complete alpha-helical structure except for a 52-degree kink in the central portion of the protein. (davidson.edu)
  • Cholera is a diarrheal disease caused by a protein toxin released by Vibrio cholera in the host's intestine. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • These data demonstrate that cholera toxin can be targeted to specific cell types by coupling the catalytic subunit to a peptide agonist for a g-protein coupled receptor. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Immunization with the Recombinant Cholera Toxin B Fused to Fimbria 2 Protein Protects against Bordetella pertussis Infection. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This study examined the immunogenic properties of the fusion protein fimbria 2 of Bordetella pertussis (Fim2)-cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) in the intranasal murine model of infection. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The work presents significant developments in the understanding of multivalent carbohydrate-protein interactions and in the use of SERS-active glyconanoparticles for the detection of a bacterial toxin in samples which mimic natural bodies of water. (rsc.org)
  • We investigated the influence of CT on T helper (Th)-type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cell-regulated Ag-specific B cell isotype and IgG subclass Ab responses elicited when the toxin was co-administered orally with different protein Ags. (jimmunol.org)
  • Both toxins bind receptors in intestinal epithelial cells and insert an enzymatic subunit that modifies a G protein associated with the adenylate cyclase complex. (asm.org)
  • This information may improve our understanding of the disease process itself, as well as illuminate the role of the toxin in studies of signal transduction and G-protein function. (asm.org)
  • By contrast, the ctxAB mutant with an additional deletion in the actin-cross-linking repeats-in-toxin (RTX) toxin gene ( rtxA ) caused a less severe pathology and decreased serum levels of proinflammatory molecules interleukin (IL)-6 and murine macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2. (rupress.org)
  • To address this, in the present study, two TCC cell lines, T24 and UM‑UC‑3, were treated with cholera toxin [protein kinase A (PKA) activator] and KT5720 (PKA inhibitor). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In this study, expression of consensus envelope protein domain III (cEDIII) fused to cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) in transgenic rice calli was improved using the luminal binding protein BiP at the N-terminus and the SEKDEL signal sequences at the C-terminus, targeting the recombinant protein to endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (deepdyve.com)
  • This effect was dose-dependent, with maximal effects at 10 microM LPA, and was attenuated by pertussis toxin but not by cholera toxin pretreatment of the cells, indicating that the effect was likely to be produced by a Gi-like G-protein. (biochemj.org)
  • The cholera toxin is an oligomeric complex made up of six protein subunits: a single copy of the A subunit, and five copies of the B subunit. (viralinfections.info)
  • Cholera toxin: A paradigm of a multifunctional protein. (bvsalud.org)
  • α 1 , IFN-α 2 , and cholera toxin B subunit (CT-B). Thus, using [3H] LKEKK, we demonstrated the existence of a non-protein receptor common for TM-α 1 , IFN-α 2 , and CT-B on human T lymphocytes, and rat intestine epithelial cell membranes. (symbiosisonlinepublishing.com)
  • Oral immunisation of mice with transgenic rice calli expressing cholera toxin B subunit fused to. (deepdyve.com)
  • Generalized systemic and mucosal immunity in mice after mucosal stimulation with cholera toxin. (jimmunol.org)
  • Cholera toxin (CT) has been found to be an extremely potent immunogen for mucosal IgA responses when administered via the intestine. (jimmunol.org)
  • Cholera toxin (CT) is one of the most effective and widely studied mucosal adjuvants. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Mucosal adjuvant effect of cholera toxin in mice results from induction of T helper 2 (Th2) cells and IL-4. (jimmunol.org)
  • Despite pathophysiologic effects including diarrhea, cholera toxin (CT) is a potent mucosal immunogen and adjuvant. (jimmunol.org)
  • The bacterial enterotoxins, cholera toxin and the heat labile toxin of E. coli , are well known adjuvants for mucosal immune response. (begellhouse.com)
  • More important, there is no clear understanding of the early effects of the toxins on the local (and draining) mucosal lymphoid tissues. (begellhouse.com)
  • Cholera toxin is an effective mucosal antigen and acts as an adjuvant when given orally with various antigens. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • The direct immunisation of cholera toxin and ovalbumin into ileal lumen, significantly increased cholera toxin antibody levels in serum and reproductive tract secretions but it did not reliably increase ovalbumin antibodies in serum or mucosal secretions which suggests that cholera toxin was not an effective adjuvant to potentiate the serum immune response to ovalbumin in this experiment. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • Because these toxins stimulate the mucosal immune system, there is great interest in using an engineered form of the toxin as a basis for the design of vaccines against a wide range of diseases. (washington.edu)
  • [1] [2] CTX is responsible for the massive, watery diarrhea characteristic of cholera infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent experimental studies using a porcine model demonstrated that ETEC strains expressing LT or STa as the only toxin are sufficiently virulent to cause diarrhea ( 7 , 43 , 46 ). (asm.org)
  • As more than two-thirds of human ETEC diarrheal cases and more than one-quarter of porcine ETEC diarrhea cases are caused by STa-producing ETEC strains ( 15 , 16 , 28 , 31 , 35 , 42 , 48 ), anti-toxin vaccines must also induce anti-STa immunity in order to provide effective protection against ETEC toxins. (asm.org)
  • It becomes evident that both anti-toxin immunity, including anti-LT and anti-ST immunity, and anti-adhesin immunity are needed for broadly effective protection against ETEC-associated diarrhea ( 36 ). (asm.org)
  • Biologists at the University of California, San Diego have identified an underlying biochemical mechanism that helps make cholera toxin so deadly, often resulting in life-threating diarrhea that causes people to lose as much as half of their body fluids in a single day. (esciencenews.com)
  • The UC San Diego researchers found that cholera toxin acts by two entirely distinct, but cooperating mechanisms to produce diarrhea. (esciencenews.com)
  • The results of the present study suggest that the combined expression of CTB and LTB proteins can be utilized to produce vaccines against enterotoxigenic strains of Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholera , for the prevention of diarrhea. (springeropen.com)
  • It is proposed that the human colonic goblet cells play a role in the secretory diarrhea in patients with cholera and that milk might have a prophylactic or therapeutic application in the management of cholera. (ku.dk)
  • The specificity of the CT-IC was examined with recombinant heat-labile toxin (LT), which shares high homology with CT, and it was revealed that the minimum detection limit for LT was 100 times higher than that for CT. (hindawi.com)
  • Taking the crystal structure of the heat-labile toxin (LT) from Escherichia coli as a reference6, many of the amino acid residues in the CTB pentamer that point towards the interior of the pore are charged, some being charged negatively and others positively. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The GM1 gangliosides are exposed on the luminal surface of intestinal epithelial cells and are believed to bind to the B pentamer (magenta) with the toxin facing the membrane surface. (davidson.edu)
  • The importance of receptor binding by the B subunits in triggering both toxin action on epithelial cells and in modulating immune cell function has been established by the use of mutant B subunits that do not bind GM1, namely EtxB(G33D) and CtxB(G33E). (pnas.org)
  • The toxin enters intestinal epithelial cells after binding to specific carbohydrates on the cell surface. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • and, hemolysin, which causes necrosis of intestinal epithelial cells, growth of mildly acidic vacuoles, and hemolysis depending upon the cell type and toxin concentration ( 21 - 27 ). (rupress.org)
  • Moreover, pharmacological chaperones can be used to increase basal and cholera toxin-inhibited NHE3 activity and fluid absorption by intestinal epithelial cells. (biologists.org)
  • Enterotoxins, including ST and LT toxins ( 17 , 18 , 33 ), disrupt host fluid homeostasis and cause fluid and electrolyte hypersecretion through activation of adenyl cyclase (by LT) or guanylate cyclase (by STa) in small intestinal epithelial cells ( 19 , 23 ). (asm.org)
  • We uncovered a mechanism by which cholera toxin disrupts junctions that normally zip intestinal epithelial cells together into a tight sheet, which acts as a barrier between the body and intestinal content,' said Ethan Bier, a professor of biology at UC San Diego who headed one of the two teams. (esciencenews.com)
  • The study built on research published decades ago, when scientists discovered that cholera toxin caused the overproduction of small chemical messenger molecule, cyclic adenosine monophosphate, or 'cAMP,' in epithelial cells lining the intestine. (esciencenews.com)
  • epithelial cells]] in the intestine by interfering with the cells signalling pathway, the toxin causes overactivation of the signalling pathway that controls the activity of chloride channel proteins. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Navolotskaya EV,Vladimir BS, Lipkin MV,Zav'yalov VP (2017) IInteraction of Cholera Toxin B Subunit with Intestinal Epithelial Cells. (symbiosisonlinepublishing.com)
  • We have prepared 125 I-labeled cholera toxin B subunit ( 125 I-labeled CT-B, a specific activity of 98 Ci/mmol), and found that its binding to rat IEC-6 intestinal epithelial cells was high-affinity (K d 3.7 nm). (symbiosisonlinepublishing.com)
  • While the monosialoganglioside GM1 is widely accepted to be the sole receptor for CT, intestinal epithelial cell lines also utilize fucosylated glycan epitopes on glycoproteins to facilitate cell surface binding and endocytic uptake of the toxin. (chalmers.se)
  • The resulting GM1-polymer hybrid nanoparticles were shown to function as toxin decoys by selectively and stably binding cholera toxin, and neutralizing its actions on epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. (cdc.gov)
  • Furthermore, the GM1-coated nanoparticle decoys attenuated epithelial 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate production and fluid responses to infection with live Vibrio cholera in cell culture and a murine infection model. (cdc.gov)
  • Multianalyte microphysiometry, a real-time instrument for simultaneous measurement of metabolic analytes in a microfluidic environment, was used to explore the effects of cholera toxin (CTx). (mdpi.com)
  • Furthermore, inhibition of Mek activity with UO126 mimicked the effects of cholera toxin. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The main objective of our project is to develop new dual-site ligands for cholera toxin inhibition featuring 2 pharmacophoric fragments, a GM1 mimic and a blood group mimic, connected across a linker able to span the two binding sites of enterotoxins. (europa.eu)
  • bacterial t's toxins produced by bacteria, including exotoxins , endotoxins , enterotoxins , neurotoxins , and toxic enzymes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cholera toxin (CT) and the type II heat-labile enterotoxins (LT-IIa and LT-IIb) are potent immunological adjuvants which are hypothesized to enhance the production of antibody (Ab)-secreting cells, although their mechanisms of action are not fully understood. (asm.org)
  • The cholera toxin family includes in addition to cholera toxin itself the E. coli heat-labile enterotoxins LT and LT-II. (washington.edu)
  • The pathogenesis of several of the most prevalent infections, including cholera and enteroxigenic Escherichia coli, is dominated by enterotoxins produced by lumen-dwelling pathogens before clearance by intestinal defenses. (cdc.gov)
  • Dederen P, Gribnau A, Curfs M (1994) Retrograde neuronal tracing with cholera toxin b subunit: comparison of three different visualization methods. (springermedizin.de)
  • Cholera toxin acts by the following mechanism: First, the B subunit ring of the cholera toxin binds to GM1 gangliosides on the surface of target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The toxin then most likely binds to other types of glycans, such as Lewis Y and Lewis X, attached to proteins instead of lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The beta subunit of cholera toxin binds to a GM1-ganglioside receptor which is widely accepted to initiate toxin action by triggering uptake and delivery of the toxin alpha subunit into cells. (fishersci.com)
  • When the magnetic nanoparticles are added to water, blood, or other fluids to be tested, the cholera toxin binds to the nanoparticles in a way that can be easily detected by instruments. (freethesaurus.com)
  • Just visible protruding from the membrane surface under the toxin which has landed are five copies of the saccharide moitie of ganglioside GM1, to which the toxin binds. (washington.edu)
  • Genetically-engineered modifications of the subunits result in products that retain immunogenicity, yet are reduced in, or are essentially free of, enzymatic activity associated with toxin reactogenicity. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Notice that the cholera toxin is composed of three distinct subunits. (davidson.edu)
  • The five B subunits of these toxins, which bind predominantly to GM1 ganglioside [Gal(β1-3)GalNAc(β1-4){NeuAc(α2-3)}Gal(β1-4)Glc(β1-1)ceramide] receptors found on the surface of mammalian cells, are widely thought of as delivery vehicles for the A subunit ( 3 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • What is not yet clear is how the binding of the B subunits to receptors such as GM1 can trigger signal transduction or induce toxin internalization. (pnas.org)
  • Cholera-toxin is actually composed of two molecular subunits: A and B. Subunit A is responsible for the toxic effect, whereas the non-toxic subunit B is responsible for the internalization and transport of the toxin in axons and cell bodies. (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • Similarly, experimental anti-toxin vaccines using toxin antigens, mainly LT toxoids or LT B subunits, could not provide effective protection either. (asm.org)
  • The cholera holotoxin consists of a pentameric ring of Beta subunits whose central pore is occupied by the Alpha subunit. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • We report that a single oral administration of minute amounts of particulate or soluble antigen coupled to the B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB) can markedly suppress systemic immune responses in naive and in systemically immune animals. (pnas.org)
  • Induction of cell signaling events by the cholera toxin B subunit in antigen-presenting cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In mast cells of the rat basophilic leukemia cell line (RBL-2H3), cholera toxin (CT) potentiates antigen-driven uptake of 45 Ca 2+ through cAMP-independent means. (rupress.org)
  • Cholera toxin dramatically amplified (two- to fourfold) the Ca 2+ release-activated Ca 2+ current (I CRAC ) elicited by suboptimal concentrations of antigen, without itself inducing I CRAC , and this enhancement was not mimicked by cAMP elevation. (rupress.org)
  • Because Gs and the A subunit of cholera toxin bind to ADP ribosylation factor (ARF) and could modulate its activity, we tested the sensitivity of antigen-evoked I CRAC to brefeldin A, an inhibitor of ARF-dependent functions, including vesicle transport. (rupress.org)
  • That CT enhances antigen-evoked 45 Ca 2+ uptake into RBL-2H3 cells might suggest a role for the toxin substrate, Gs, in regulation of store-operated Ca 2+ influx. (rupress.org)
  • Antigen: Purified beta subunit of cholera toxin. (qedbio.com)
  • Evidence indicated that LT antigen-based experimental vaccines provided protection against only LT-producing ETEC strains but not against ETEC strains that produce STa toxin ( 13 , 14 ). (asm.org)
  • however, only Ogawa expresses cholera antigen B and only Inaba expresses cholera antigen C. There also exist multiple strains of Inaba and Ogawa serotypes. (britannica.com)
  • The alpha subunit (and cholera toxin) activates the adenylate cyclase enzyme in cells of the intestinal mucosa leading to increased levels of intracellular cAMP. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • The PA1-73190 antibody reacts with Cholera toxin beta subunit. (fishersci.com)
  • This antibody reacts with cholera toxin. (abnova.com)
  • Cholera and the related Escherichia coli-associated diarrheal disease are important problems confronting Third World nations and any area where water supplies can become contaminated. (asm.org)
  • This antibody may be used for detection of cholera toxin in ELISA. (qedbio.com)
  • The levels of cholera toxin and ovalbumin IgG antibodies secreted in serum and ileal and reproductive tract secretions were determined by ELISA. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • Now for fast and sensitive diagnosis of toxins is the most used and reliable systems are based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using antibodies against toxins [The EFSA Journal. (russianpatents.com)
  • To determine toxins MCAT standard used in the competitive and sandwich options ELISA. (russianpatents.com)
  • Concentration is the Oia test toxin is determined by the calibration curve, obtained in a competitive ELISA with a toxin known concentration. (russianpatents.com)
  • The sensitivity of the determination of XT in the competitive ELISA is 26 ng/ml [Rucker V.C., Havenstrite K.L., A.E. Herr Antibody microarray for native toxin detection // Anal. (russianpatents.com)
  • The structure and function of a previously unknown toxin in the cholera bacteria Vibrio cholera has been discovered by scientists at Umeå University, Sweden. (healthcanal.com)
  • Pretreatment with pertussis toxin, which catalyses ADP-ribosylation of Gi but not of Gs, did not down-regulate either Gi or Gs, demonstrating that covalent modification by ADP-ribosylation is alone not a signal for removal of G-proteins from the plasma membrane. (portlandpress.com)
  • This effect of LPA was also prevented by pretreatment of the cells with pertussis toxin but not cholera toxin. (biochemj.org)
  • The results presented herein demonstrate conclusively that the pertussis toxin-sensitive effects of LPA in Rat 1 fibroblasts and a clone of these cells expressing the alpha 2C10 adrenoceptor are produced directly by the activation of Gi. (biochemj.org)
  • Vaccines against O1 and O139 cholera ideally should stimulate antibody subclasses that are likely to offer protection. (asm.org)
  • It is believed that vaccines inducing anti-adhesin immunity to inhibit bacterial adherence and anti-toxin immunity to eliminate toxin activity would provide broad-spectrum protection against ETEC. (asm.org)
  • Data from this study demonstrated that K88ac fimbriae expressing LT and STa epitope antigens elicited neutralizing anti-toxin antibodies and anti-adhesin antibodies and suggested that E. coli fimbriae could serve as a platform for the development of broad-spectrum vaccines against ETEC. (asm.org)
  • The presence of five separate binding sites in one molecule of toxin suggests that cholera toxin is highly efficient in recognition of target cells. (davidson.edu)
  • The objective of this study was to measure the immune response of female possums to ovalbumin coadministered either with cholera toxin orally and intraileally or with Incomplete Freund's Adjuvant into the Peyer's patches. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • One of the adjuvant approaches exploits the enzymatically active A1 subunit of cholera toxin (CTA1), which can be expressed from DNA, RNA, and viral vectors. (freethesaurus.com)
  • In this study, we examined an adjuvant capacity of recombinant cholera toxin B subunit (rCTB), which is non-toxic subunit of cholera toxin, on maturation of murine splenic DC. (mysciencework.com)
  • Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against Cholera toxin (Beta-subunit). (abnova.com)
  • SUBSTANCE: there is produced a new CT-F5/H3 hybrid cell clone producing monoclonal cholera toxin antibody (MCAB) in the environment of cell culture and abdominal cavity of syngeneic animals. (russianpatents.com)
  • We have determined the release of prostaglandin E2 into the lumen of closed ileal loops in the rat and have measured the capacity of the mucosa to synthesise and degrade prostaglandin E2 both in control animals and after exposure to cholera toxin or bisacodyl. (bmj.com)
  • Exposure to cholera toxin caused no change in any of these measurements whereas bisacodyl caused an increase in the luminal PGE2 content. (bmj.com)
  • However animal studies have shown 5-hydroxytryptamine may be released after exposure to cholera toxin, and thereby contribute to the secretory state. (bmj.com)
  • After exposure to cholera toxin median urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid was 5.7 (4.1 to 6.3), which was similar to controls 4.9 (4.1 to 6.3), which was similar to controls 4.9 (4.1 to 6.2). (bmj.com)
  • The five sugar mono-sialo ganglioside GM1 is the cell surface receptor for cholera toxin B-subunit. (ku.dk)
  • The key host receptor for cholera toxin, monosialotetrahexosylganglioside (GM1), was coated onto the surface of polymeric nanoparticles. (cdc.gov)
  • With immunohistochemistry, the brain slices are washed with a solution that contains antibodies to cholera-toxin. (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • Nine of ten possums that received different doses of oral cholera toxin produced antibodies to cholera toxin in serum. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • Rabbit anti cholera toxin beta antibody recognizes the beta subunit of cholera toxin. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • RABBIT ANTI CHOLERA TOXIN HRP antibody storage GENTAUR recommends for long therm storage to freeze at -24 C. For short time storage up to 30 days we suggest fridge storage at 1 to 10 C. Prevent multiple freeze taw cycles of RABBIT ANTI CHOLERA TOXIN HRP. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Mouse anti Cholera Toxin alpha antibody, clone 2/166 recognizes the alpha subunit of Cholera toxin. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Anti-Cholera Toxin B Subunit (Goat) (703) is an anti-choleragenoid from goat, suitable for use in either toxin neutralization or binding assays. (quadratech.co.uk)
  • Over recent years, considerable effort has been invested in developing inhibitors of toxin adhesion that mimic the carbohydrate ligand, with particular emphasis on exploiting the multivalency of the toxin to enhance activity. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • In this review we introduce the structural features of the toxin that have guided the design of diverse inhibitors and summarise recent developments in the field. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • We used intestinal organoids to quantitatively study the potency of multivalent cholera toxin inhibitors. (uu.nl)
  • Addition of simple carbohydrates and milk to the incubation medium showed that a combination of lactose and non-fat dry milk was potent inhibitors of toxin- and mucin binding. (ku.dk)
  • It provides both a better understanding of the attachment of the toxin to the cell (see figure at top of page) and a starting point for the structure-based design of receptor binding inhibitors. (washington.edu)
  • The cytopathic effect of cholera holotoxin (CT) on Vero cells was neutralized by serum from mice immunized with transgenic potato tissues. (nih.gov)
  • Similarly, the toxin-neutralizing activity of CTB and LTB in serum of orally immunized mice was associated with elevated levels of both IgG and IgA. (springeropen.com)
  • The clone is produced by the fusion of mouse myeloma SP-2/0 cells with popliteal lymph node cells of BALB/c mice immunised with a commercial preparation of cholera toxin (SIGMA) in posterior pads. (russianpatents.com)
  • One of the best characterized recognition pairs is formed by ganglioside GM1 and the cholera toxin (CT). (europa.eu)
  • Transgenic potatoes were engineered to synthesize a cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) pentamer with affinity for GMI-ganglioside. (nih.gov)
  • Cholera toxin B subunit is used for tract-tracing in neurological research, targeting GM1 ganglioside binding and retrograde transport. (biotium.com)
  • The ability of Fuc-GM1 ganglioside to mimic the receptor function of GM1 for cholera toxin (CT) has been investigated. (elsevier.com)
  • We suggested that this receptor could be the cholera toxin receptor, as is known, is a GM1-ganglioside [9,12]. (symbiosisonlinepublishing.com)
  • Sensitization of spinal cord nociceptive neurons with a conjugate of substance P and cholera toxin. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In giant plasma membrane vesicles and giant unilamellar vesicles, specific binding of Cholera Toxin (CTxB) to GM1 glycolipids is a commonly used strategy to label raft domains or Lo membrane environments. (helsinki.fi)
  • Three types of cholera toxin B subunit gene (ctxB) were identified. (asm.org)
  • We report the engineering and crystallographic structure of a mutant cholera toxin, with a His to Ala substitution in the B subunit at position 57. (pnas.org)
  • All base changes correspond to an amino acid substitution in the B subunit of the cholera toxin. (asm.org)
  • This project is connected to the activities of the COST D34/001/05 WG, working on cholera toxin inhibition and sensing. (europa.eu)
  • This includes enzyme inhibition, oncology and the detection of lectins (carbohydrate binding proteins) or toxins related to disease. (rsc.org)
  • Here, we use competition binding assays with l-fucose analogs to decipher the molecular determinants for l-fucose inhibition of cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) binding. (chalmers.se)
  • In the assembled CT (Fig. 1a) the toxic-active A-subunit (CTA, Fig. 1b) is embedded in the circular B-subunit homopentamer (CTB pentamer, Fig. 1c) responsible for toxin binding to cells. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • KDEL) at the carboxy-terminal of CTA2 protrude from the associated toxin and are not engaged in interactions with the pentamer. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • As with many other bacterial toxins the catalytic activity resides in the `A' fragment, in this case a separate subunit, while receptor binding and delivery of the toxin to the target cell is mediated by a separate `B' fragment, in this case a pentamer. (washington.edu)
  • The structure of the cholera toxin B-pentamer complexed with the complete GM1 pentasaccharide [1994a, 1997d, 1998d] gives us a view of the toxin:receptor binding mode at atomic resolution. (washington.edu)
  • Treatment of cultured rodent neural stem cells with cholera toxin induces changes in the localization of the transcription factor Hes3 and increases their numbers. (wikipedia.org)
  • An earlier study of cholera vaccinees and patients ( 17 ) has shown that cholera toxin (CT) induces responses of the four IgG subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) and the IgA1 subclass in serum. (asm.org)
  • An epitope from the B subunit of LT toxin (LTP1, 8 LCSEYRNTQIYTIN 21 ) and an STa toxoid epitope ( 5 CCELCCNPQCAGCY 18 ) were embedded in the FaeG major subunit of E. coli K88ac fimbriae. (asm.org)
  • Moreover, induced antibodies not only inhibited adherence of K88ac fimbrial E. coli to porcine small intestinal enterocytes but also neutralized cholera toxin and STa toxin. (asm.org)
  • The closely-related shiga toxin family comprises a number of toxins from Shigella dysenteriae and the `shiga-like' toxins (also known as verotoxins) from E. coli . (washington.edu)
  • Hybridoma synthesises MCAB specifically interacting with cholera toxin and not interacting with thermolabile E.coli toxin. (russianpatents.com)
  • Antigenic similarity between representatives cholerophobia group of toxins, primarily this refers to the similarity between XT and thermo-labile toxin of E. coli (LT), dictates the feasibility of using MCAT with strict specificity to XT. (russianpatents.com)
  • 2. The modified cholera toxin of claim 1, which is capable of eliciting a cholera toxin-neutralizing immune response. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The B chain derivatives of these toxins can also weakly enhance immune response, especially if covalently associated with Ag and used for nasophyrangeal immunization. (begellhouse.com)
  • Importantly, these toxins or their B chain derivatives can alter the normal immune regulation that produces oral tolerance. (begellhouse.com)
  • And the cholera toxin is being tested in the prevention of arthritis and other auto-immune diseases. (freethesaurus.com)
  • Kirkeby, S & Pedersen, AML 2018, ' Modifications of cholera toxin subunit B binding to human large intestinal epithelium: an immunohistochemical study ', Microbial Pathogenesis , bind 124, s. 332-336. (ku.dk)
  • Toxins can cause antitoxins to form in the body, thus providing a means for establishing immunity to certain diseases. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In this study, an ETEC fimbrial adhesin was used as a platform to express LT and STa for adhesin-toxin fusion antigens to induce anti-toxin and anti-adhesin immunity. (asm.org)
  • Anti-toxin immunity and anti-adhesin immunity can be simultaneously induced by adhesin-toxin chimeric antigens. (asm.org)
  • However, no adhesin-toxin chimeric antigens have been constructed for stimulation of both anti-LT and anti-STa anti-toxin immunity. (asm.org)
  • Recombinant cholera toxin B subunit activates dendritic cells and enhances antitumor immunity. (mysciencework.com)
  • Constructed K88ac-toxin chimeric fimbriae were harvested and used for rabbit immunization. (asm.org)
  • There are currently no images for Cholera Toxin Beta Antibody (NB100-64675G). (novusbio.com)
  • We have produced silver glyconanoparticles for the sensitive (56 ng mL −1 ), low volume and rapid detection of cholera toxin B-subunit (CTB) in synthetic freshwater (simulating the ion compositions of natural waters in which CTB could be found). (rsc.org)
  • They discovered the toxin exerts some of its devastating effects by reducing the delivery of proteins to molecular junctions that normally act like Velcro to hold intestinal cells together in the outer lining of the gut. (esciencenews.com)
  • Part of the toxin then enters the intestinal cells. (britannica.com)
  • The current model of intoxication proposes only one molecule of cytosolic toxin is required to affect host cells, making therapeutic treatment nearly impossible. (ucf.edu)