An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.
The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
A specific monosialoganglioside that accumulates abnormally within the nervous system due to a deficiency of GM1-b-galactosidase, resulting in GM1 gangliosidosis.
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
A potent mycotoxin produced in feedstuffs by several species of the genus FUSARIUM. It elicits a severe inflammatory reaction in animals and has teratogenic effects.
An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.
Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.
Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 1. All are CHOLERA-causing strains (serotypes). There are two biovars (biotypes): cholerae and eltor (El Tor).
Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.
Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.
One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
A class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS. They include SHIGA TOXIN which is produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE and a variety of shiga-like toxins that are produced by pathologic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It shares 50-60% homology with SHIGA TOXIN and SHIGA TOXIN 1.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 139. This strain emerged in India in 1992 and caused a CHOLERA epidemic.
A supergroup (some say phylum) of ameboid EUKARYOTES, comprising ARCHAMOEBAE; LOBOSEA; and MYCETOZOA.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It is closely related to SHIGA TOXIN produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASES
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47
A strain of the VIBRIO CHOLERAE bacteria belonging to serogroup non-O1, infecting humans and other PRIMATES. It is related to VIBRIO CHOLERAE O1, but causes a disease less severe than CHOLERA. Eating raw shellfish contaminated with the bacteria results in GASTROENTERITIS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.
Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of adenosine diphosphate.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+. The nucleotide is a potent stimulator of ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.
Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.
Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.
Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).
An enzyme that oxidizes galactose in the presence of molecular oxygen to D-galacto-hexodialdose. It is a copper protein. EC 1.1.3.9.

Role of DnaK in in vitro and in vivo expression of virulence factors of Vibrio cholerae. (1/2652)

The dnaK gene of Vibrio cholerae was cloned, sequenced, and used to construct a dnaK insertion mutant which was then used to examine the role of DnaK in expression of the major virulence factors of this important human pathogen. The central regulator of several virulence genes of V. cholerae is ToxR, a transmembrane DNA binding protein. The V. cholerae dnaK mutant grown in standard laboratory medium exhibited phenotypes characteristic of cells deficient in ToxR activity. Using Northern blot analysis and toxR transcriptional fusions, we demonstrated a reduction in expression of the toxR gene in the dnaK mutant strain together with a concomitant increase in expression of a htpG-like heat shock gene that is located immediately upstream and is divergently transcribed from toxR. This may be due to increased heat shock induction in the dnaK mutant. In vivo, however, although expression from heat shock promoters in the dnaK mutant was similar to that observed in vitro, expression of both toxR and htpG was comparable to that by the parental strain. In both strains, in vivo expression of toxR was significantly higher than that observed in vitro, but no reciprocal decrease in htpG expression was observed. These results suggest that the modulation of toxR expression in vivo may be different from that observed in vitro.  (+info)

Transcutaneous immunization with bacterial ADP-ribosylating exotoxins as antigens and adjuvants. (2/2652)

Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) is a new technique that uses the application of vaccine antigens in a solution on the skin to induce potent antibody responses without systemic or local toxicity. We have previously shown that cholera toxin (CT), a potent adjuvant for oral and nasal immunization, can induce both serum and mucosal immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA and protect against toxin-mediated mucosal disease when administered by the transcutaneous route. Additionally, CT acts as an adjuvant for coadministered antigens such as tetanus and diphtheria toxoids when applied to the skin. CT, a member of the bacterial ADP-ribosylating exotoxin (bARE) family, is most potent as an adjuvant when the A-B subunits are present and functional. We now show that TCI induces secondary antibody responses to coadministered antigens as well as to CT in response to boosting immunizations. IgG antibodies to coadministered antigens were also found in the stools and lung washes of immunized mice, suggesting that TCI may target mucosal pathogens. Mice immunized by the transcutaneous route with tetanus fragment C and CT developed anti-tetanus toxoid antibodies and were protected against systemic tetanus toxin challenge. We also show that bAREs, similarly organized as A-B subunits, as well as the B subunit of CT alone, induced antibody responses to themselves when given via TCI. Thus, TCI appears to induce potent, protective immune responses to both systemic and mucosal challenge and offers significant potential practical advantages for vaccine delivery.  (+info)

Zonula occludens toxin is a powerful mucosal adjuvant for intranasally delivered antigens. (3/2652)

Zonula occludens toxin (Zot) is produced by toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae and has the ability to reversibly alter intestinal epithelial tight junctions, allowing the passage of macromolecules through the mucosal barrier. In the present study, we investigated whether Zot could be exploited to deliver soluble antigens through the nasal mucosa for the induction of antigen-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses. Intranasal immunization of mice with ovalbumin (Ova) and recombinant Zot, either fused to the maltose-binding protein (MBP-Zot) or with a hexahistidine tag (His-Zot), induced anti-Ova serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers that were approximately 40-fold higher than those induced by immunization with antigen alone. Interestingly, Zot also stimulated high anti-Ova IgA titers in serum, as well as in vaginal and intestinal secretions. A comparison with Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) revealed that the adjuvant activity of Zot was only sevenfold lower than that of LT. Moreover, Zot and LT induced similar patterns of Ova-specific IgG subclasses. The subtypes IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b were all stimulated, with a predominance of IgG1 and IgG2b. In conclusion, our results highlight Zot as a novel potent mucosal adjuvant of microbial origin.  (+info)

Genetic characterization of a new type IV-A pilus gene cluster found in both classical and El Tor biotypes of Vibrio cholerae. (4/2652)

The Vibrio cholerae genome contains a 5.4-kb pil gene cluster that resembles the Aeromonas hydrophila tap gene cluster and other type IV-A pilus assembly operons. The region consists of five complete open reading frames designated pilABCD and yacE, based on the nomenclature of related genes from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli K-12. This cluster is present in both classical and El Tor biotypes, and the pilA and pilD genes are 100% conserved. The pilA gene encodes a putative type IV pilus subunit. However, deletion of pilA had no effect on either colonization of infant mice or adherence to HEp-2 cells, demonstrating that pilA does not encode the primary subunit of a pilus essential for these processes. The pilD gene product is similar to other type IV prepilin peptidases, proteins that process type IV signal sequences. Mutational analysis of the pilD gene showed that pilD is essential for secretion of cholera toxin and hemagglutinin-protease, mannose-sensitive hemagglutination (MSHA), production of toxin-coregulated pili, and colonization of infant mice. Defects in these functions are likely due to the lack of processing of N termini of four Eps secretion proteins, four proteins of the MSHA cluster, and TcpB, all of which contain type IV-A leader sequences. Some pilD mutants also showed reduced adherence to HEp-2 cells, but this defect could not be complemented in trans, indicating that the defect may not be directly due to a loss of pilD. Taken together, these data demonstrate the effectiveness of the V. cholerae genome project for rapid identification and characterization of potential virulence factors.  (+info)

Ribotypes of clinical Vibrio cholerae non-O1 non-O139 strains in relation to O-serotypes. (5/2652)

The emergence of Vibrio cholerae O139 in 1992 and reports of an increasing number of other non-O1 serogroups being associated with diarrhoea, stimulated us to characterize V. cholerae non-O1 non-O139 strains received at the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japan for serotyping. Ribotyping with the restriction enzyme BglI of 103 epidemiological unrelated mainly clinical strains representing 10 O-serotypes yielded 67 different typing patterns. Ribotype similarity within each serotype was compared by using the Dice coefficient (Sd) and different levels of homogeneity were observed (serotypes O5, O41 and O17, Sd between 82 and 90%: serotypes O13 and O141 Sd of 72; and O2, O6, O7, O11, O24 Sd of 62-66%). By cluster analysis, the strains were divided into several clusters of low similarity suggesting a high level of genetic diversity. A low degree of similarity between serotypes and ribotypes was found as strains within a specific serotypes often did not cluster but clustered with strains from other serotypes. However, epidemiological unrelated O5 strains showed identical or closely related ribotypes suggesting that these strains have undergone few genetic changes and may correspond to a clonal line. Surprisingly, 10 of 16 O141 strains studied contained a cholera toxin (CT) gene, including 7 strains recovered from stool and water samples in the United States. This is to our knowledge the first report of CT-positive clinical O141 strains. The closely related ribotypes shown by eight CT-positive strains is disturbing and suggest that these strains may be of a clonal origin and have the potential to cause cholera-like disease. Despite the low degree of correlation found between ribotypes and serotypes, both methods appears to be valuable techniques in studying the epidemiology of emerging serotypes of V. cholerae.  (+info)

Environmental signals modulate ToxT-dependent virulence factor expression in Vibrio cholerae. (6/2652)

The regulatory protein ToxT directly activates the transcription of virulence factors in Vibrio cholerae, including cholera toxin (CT) and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). Specific environmental signals stimulate virulence factor expression by inducing the transcription of toxT. We demonstrate that transcriptional activation by the ToxT protein is also modulated by environmental signals. ToxT expressed from an inducible promoter activated high-level expression of CT and TCP in V. cholerae at 30 degrees C, but expression of CT and TCP was significantly decreased or abolished by the addition of 0.4% bile to the medium and/or an increase of the temperature to 37 degrees C. Also, expression of six ToxT-dependent TnphoA fusions was modulated by temperature and bile. Measurement of ToxT-dependent transcription of genes encoding CT and TCP by ctxAp- and tcpAp-luciferase fusions confirmed that negative regulation by 37 degrees C or bile occurs at the transcriptional level in V. cholerae. Interestingly, ToxT-dependent transcription of these same promoters in Salmonella typhimurium was relatively insensitive to regulation by temperature or bile. These data are consistent with ToxT transcriptional activity being modulated by environmental signals in V. cholerae and demonstrate an additional level of complexity governing the expression of virulence factors in this pathogen. We propose that negative regulation of ToxT-dependent transcription by environmental signals prevents the incorrect temporal and spatial expression of virulence factors during cholera pathogenesis.  (+info)

G protein activation by human dopamine D3 receptors in high-expressing Chinese hamster ovary cells: A guanosine-5'-O-(3-[35S]thio)- triphosphate binding and antibody study. (7/2652)

Despite extensive study, the G protein coupling of dopamine D3 receptors is poorly understood. In this study, we used guanosine-5'-O-(3-[35S]thio)-triphosphate ([35S]-GTPgammaS) binding to investigate the activation of G proteins coupled to human (h) D3 receptors stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Although the receptor expression level was high (15 pmol/mg), dopamine only stimulated G protein activation by 1.6-fold. This was despite the presence of marked receptor reserve for dopamine, as revealed by Furchgott analysis after irreversible hD3 receptor inactivation with the alkylating agent, EEDQ (N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline). Thus, half-maximal stimulation of [35S]-GTPgammaS binding required only 11.8% receptor occupation of hD3 sites. In contrast, although the hD2(short) receptor expression level in another CHO cell line was 11-fold lower, stimulation by dopamine was higher (2.5-fold). G protein activation was increased at hD3 and, less potently, at hD2 receptors by the preferential D3 agonists, PD 128,907 [(+)-(4aR,10bR)-3,4,4a, 10b-tetrahydro-4-propyl-2H,5H- [1]benzopyrano[4,3-b]-1, 4-oxazin-9-ol] and (+)-7-OH-DPAT (7-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin). Furthermore, the selective D3 antagonists, S 14297 ((+)-[7-(N, N-dipropylamino)-5,6,7, 8-tetrahydro-naphtho(2,3b)dihydro-2,3-furane]) and GR 218,231 (2(R, S)-(dipropylamino)-6-(4-methoxyphenylsulfonylmethyl)-1,2,3,4- tetrahydronaphtalene), blocked dopamine-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding more potently at hD3 than at hD2 sites. Antibodies against Galphai/alphao reduced dopamine-induced G protein activation at both CHO-hD3 and -hD2 membranes, whereas GalphaS antibodies had no effect at either site. In contrast, incubation with anti-Galphaq/alpha11 antibodies, which did not affect dopamine-induced G protein activation at hD2 receptors, attenuated hD3-induced G protein activation. These data suggest that hD3 receptors may couple to Galphaq/alpha11 and would be consistent with the observation that pertussis toxin pretreatment, which inactivates only Gi/o proteins, only submaximally (80%) blocked dopamine-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding in CHO-hD3 cells. Taken together, the present data indicate that 1) hD3 receptors functionally couple to G protein activation in CHO cells, 2) hD3 receptors activate G proteins less effectively than hD2 receptors, and 3) hD3 receptors may couple to different G protein subtypes than hD2 receptors, including nonpertussis sensitive Gq/11 proteins.  (+info)

Dopamine receptor subtypes modulate olfactory bulb gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors. (8/2652)

The gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor is the predominant Cl- channel protein mediating inhibition in the olfactory bulb and elsewhere in the mammalian brain. The olfactory bulb is rich in neurons containing both GABA and dopamine. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptors are also highly expressed in this brain region with a distinct and complementary distribution pattern. This distribution suggests that dopamine may control the GABAergic inhibitory processing of odor signals, possibly via different signal-transduction mechanisms. We have observed that GABAA receptors in the rat olfactory bulb are differentially modulated by dopamine in a cell-specific manner. Dopamine reduced the currents through GABA-gated Cl- channels in the interneurons, presumably granule cells. This action was mediated via D1 receptors and involved phosphorylation of GABAA receptors by protein kinase A. Enhancement of GABA responses via activation of D2 dopamine receptors and phosphorylation of GABAA receptors by protein kinase C was observed in mitral/tufted cells. Decreasing or increasing the binding affinity for GABA appears to underlie the modulatory effects of dopamine via distinct receptor subtypes. This dual action of dopamine on inhibitory GABAA receptor function in the rat olfactory bulb could be instrumental in odor detection and discrimination, olfactory learning, and ultimately odotopic memory formation.  (+info)

The symptoms of cholera include:

1. Diarrhea: Cholera causes profuse, watery diarrhea that can last for several days.
2. Dehydration: The loss of fluids and electrolytes due to diarrhea can lead to severe dehydration, which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.
3. Nausea and vomiting: Cholera patients may experience nausea and vomiting, especially in the early stages of the disease.
4. Abdominal cramps: The abdomen may become tender and painful due to the inflammation caused by the bacteria.
5. Low-grade fever: Some patients with cholera may experience a mild fever, typically less than 102°F (39°C).

Cholera is spread through the fecal-oral route, which means that it is transmitted when someone ingests food or water contaminated with the bacteria. The disease can also be spread by direct contact with infected fecal matter, such as through poor hygiene practices or inadequate waste disposal.

There are several ways to diagnose cholera, including:

1. Stool test: A stool sample can be tested for the presence of Vibrio cholerae using a microscope or a rapid diagnostic test (RDT).
2. Blood test: A blood test can detect the presence of antibodies against Vibrio cholerae, which can indicate that the patient has been infected with the bacteria.
3. Physical examination: A healthcare provider may perform a physical examination to look for signs of dehydration and other symptoms of cholera.

Treatment of cholera typically involves replacing lost fluids and electrolytes through oral rehydration therapy (ORT) or intravenous fluids. Antibiotics may also be given to shorten the duration of diarrhea and reduce the risk of complications. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide more intensive treatment.

Prevention of cholera involves maintaining good hygiene practices, such as washing hands with soap and water, and avoiding consumption of contaminated food and water. Vaccines are also available to protect against cholera, particularly for people living in areas where the disease is common.

In conclusion, cholera is a highly infectious disease that can cause severe dehydration and even death if left untreated. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical to preventing complications and reducing the risk of transmission. Prevention measures such as vaccination and good hygiene practices can also help control the spread of the disease.

There are several types of diarrhea, including:

1. Acute diarrhea: This type of diarrhea is short-term and usually resolves on its own within a few days. It can be caused by a viral or bacterial infection, food poisoning, or medication side effects.
2. Chronic diarrhea: This type of diarrhea persists for more than 4 weeks and can be caused by a variety of conditions, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), or celiac disease.
3. Diarrhea-predominant IBS: This type of diarrhea is characterized by frequent, loose stools and abdominal pain or discomfort. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including stress, hormonal changes, and certain foods.
4. Infectious diarrhea: This type of diarrhea is caused by a bacterial, viral, or parasitic infection and can be spread through contaminated food and water, close contact with an infected person, or by consuming contaminated food.

Symptoms of diarrhea may include:

* Frequent, loose, and watery stools
* Abdominal cramps and pain
* Bloating and gas
* Nausea and vomiting
* Fever and chills
* Headache
* Fatigue and weakness

Diagnosis of diarrhea is typically made through a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests to rule out other potential causes of the symptoms. Treatment for diarrhea depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, anti-diarrheal medications, fluid replacement, and dietary changes. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat any complications.

Prevention of diarrhea includes:

* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and thoroughly, especially after using the bathroom or before preparing food
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Properly storing and cooking food to prevent contamination
* Drinking safe water and avoiding contaminated water sources
* Avoiding raw or undercooked meat, poultry, and seafood
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can cause diarrhea

Complications of diarrhea can include:

* Dehydration: Diarrhea can lead to a loss of fluids and electrolytes, which can cause dehydration. Severe dehydration can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention.
* Electrolyte imbalance: Diarrhea can also cause an imbalance of electrolytes in the body, which can lead to serious complications.
* Inflammation of the intestines: Prolonged diarrhea can cause inflammation of the intestines, which can lead to abdominal pain and other complications.
* Infections: Diarrhea can be a symptom of an infection, such as a bacterial or viral infection. If left untreated, these infections can lead to serious complications.
* Malnutrition: Prolonged diarrhea can lead to malnutrition and weight loss, which can have long-term effects on health and development.

Treatment of diarrhea will depend on the underlying cause, but may include:

* Fluid replacement: Drinking plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration and replace lost electrolytes.
* Anti-diarrheal medications: Over-the-counter or prescription medications to slow down bowel movements and reduce diarrhea.
* Antibiotics: If the diarrhea is caused by a bacterial infection, antibiotics may be prescribed to treat the infection.
* Rest: Getting plenty of rest to allow the body to recover from the illness.
* Dietary changes: Avoiding certain foods or making dietary changes to help manage symptoms and prevent future episodes of diarrhea.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any of the following:

* Severe diarrhea that lasts for more than 3 days
* Diarrhea that is accompanied by fever, blood in the stool, or abdominal pain
* Diarrhea that is severe enough to cause dehydration or electrolyte imbalances
* Diarrhea that is not responding to treatment

Prevention of diarrhea includes:

* Good hand hygiene: Washing your hands frequently, especially after using the bathroom or before preparing food.
* Safe food handling: Cooking and storing food properly to prevent contamination.
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can cause diarrhea, such as rotavirus.

Overall, while diarrhea can be uncomfortable and disruptive, it is usually a minor illness that can be treated at home with over-the-counter medications and plenty of fluids. However, if you experience severe or persistent diarrhea, it is important to seek medical attention to rule out any underlying conditions that may require more formal treatment.

... acts by the following mechanism: First, the B subunit ring of the cholera toxin binds to GM1 gangliosides on the ... and the cholera toxin utilizes both pathways. Cholera toxin has been shown to enter cells via endocytosis in multiple pathways ... How cholera toxin triggers these endocytosis pathways is not fully understood, but the fact that cholera toxin triggers these ... Cholera toxin was discovered in 1959 by Indian microbiologist Sambhu Nath De. The complete toxin is a hexamer made up of a ...
Cholera toxin. Within the epidermis keratinocytes are associated with other cell types such as melanocytes and Langerhans cells ...
Treatment with cholera toxin. This has been shown in vitro. This particular treatment may bypass the STAT3-Ser stage and act ... Androutsellis-Theotokis A, Walbridge S, Park DM, Lonser RR, McKay RD (2010). "Cholera toxin regulates a signaling pathway ...
Cholera toxin may increase the secretion or decrease the intake of water and electrolytes, leading to possibly severe ... Joaquín Sánchez, Jan Holmgren (February 2011). "Cholera toxin - A foe & a friend" (PDF). Indian Journal of Medical Research. ...
AB5 Toxins Biochemistry Cholera toxin Pertussis toxin Shiga toxin Subtilase Le Nours, J.; Paton, A. W.; Byres, E.; Troy, S.; ... Cholera toxin, pertussis toxin, and shiga toxin all have their targets in the cytosol of the cell. After their B subunit binds ... Cholera toxin, shiga toxin, and SubAB toxin all have B subunits that are made up of five identical protein components, meaning ... The toxin shares its mechanism with cholera toxin. ArtAB toxin of Salmonella enterica has components similar to those found in ...
"Cholera Toxins: Immunogenicity of the Rabbit Ileal Loop Toxin and Related Antigens" (PDF). American Society for Microbiology. ... Dutta N. K., Panse N. V., Kulkarni D. R. (1959). "Role of cholera a toxin in experimental cholera". J. Bacteriol. 78 (4): 594-5 ... N. K. Dutta, N. B. Oza (1965). "A new approach to the treatment of cholera based on experimental evidence". Br J Exp Pathol. 46 ... He was known for his contributions to the studies on cholera and was an elected fellow of the National Academy of Medical ...
Cholera toxin is an AB toxin that has five B subints and one A subunit. The toxin acts by the following mechanism: First, the B ... subunit ring of the cholera toxin binds to GM1 gangliosides on the surface of target cells. If a cell lacks GM1 the toxin most ... doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1006862 Fucosylated Molecules Competitively Interfere with Cholera Toxin Binding to Host Cells; ... "Fucosylation and protein glycosylation create functional receptors for cholera toxin". eLife. Vol. 4. doi:10.7554/eLife.09545. ...
It is created by combining norcocaine with inactivated cholera toxin. It works in much the same way as a regular vaccine. A ...
The cholera toxin is carried by the CTXφ bacteriophage and may be isolated from plasmids. The E. coli LT (elt) is similarly ... "The Discovery of Cholera-Toxin as a Powerful Neuroanatomical Tool". Retrieved 2011-03-23. Wagner B, Hufnagl K, Radauer C, et al ... In addition to its effects on chloride secretion, which involve the same steps as the effects of cholera toxin, Elt binds ... and cholera toxin (Ctx) secreted by Vibrio cholerae. lt is so named because it is inactivated at high temperatures. The A ...
It is created by combining norcocaine with inactivated cholera toxin. Indigenous peoples of South America have chewed the ...
McConnell E, Lass A, Wójcik C (2007). "Ufd1-Npl4 is a negative regulator of cholera toxin retrotranslocation". Biochem. Biophys ...
Cholera toxin Thompson FL, Gevers D, Thompson CC, et al. (2005). "Phylogeny and Molecular Identification of Vibrios on the ... Another method is cholera vaccines. Examples of cholera vaccines include Dukoral and Vaxchora. Prevention of vibriosis is ... V. cholerae is the most common pathogen that causes cholera. The gold standard for detecting cholera is through cultures of ... A common sign of Vibrio infection is cholera. Cholera primarily presents with rapid water loss by watery diarrhea. Other ...
It is created by combining norcocaine with inactivated cholera toxin. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is being studied ...
"Repeatability of ellipsometric data in cholera toxin GM1-ELISA structures". Surface Science. 601 (8): 1795. Bibcode:2007SurSc. ...
It is created by combining norcocaine with inactivated cholera toxin. TA-NIC is a proprietary vaccine in development similar to ...
McConnell E, Lass A, Wójcik C (2007). "Ufd1-Npl4 is a negative regulator of cholera toxin retrotranslocation". Biochem. Biophys ...
Miller, V. L.; Mekalanos, J. J. (1984-06-01). "Synthesis of cholera toxin is positively regulated at the transcriptional level ... Her early research examined the synthesis of the cholera toxin by Vibrio cholerae and identified environmental signals that ... Miller, Virginia L.; Taylor, Ronald K.; Mekalanos, John J. (1987-01-30). "Cholera toxin transcriptional activator ToxR is a ... Miller, Virginia L.; Taylor, Ronald K.; Mekalanos, John J. (1987). "Cholera toxin transcriptional activator ToxR is a ...
2011 German E. coli outbreak Cholera toxin Enterotoxin Pertussis toxin Friedman D; Court D (2001). "Bacteriophage lambda: alive ... 2017), "Chapter 3: Structure of Shiga toxins and other AB5 toxins", Shiga toxins: A Review of Structure, Mechanism, and ... "versions of the same toxin" rather than "different toxins".: 2-3 The toxin requires highly specific receptors on the cells' ... Shiga toxin type 1 and type 2 (Stx-1 and 2) are the Shiga toxins produced by some E. coli strains. Stx-1 is identical to Stx of ...
De Haan L, Hirst TR (2004). "Cholera toxin: a paradigm for multi-functional engagement of cellular mechanisms (Review)". Mol. ... Examples of the "A" component of an AB toxin include C. perfringens iota toxin Ia, C. botulinum C2 toxin CI, and Clostridium ... The AB5 toxins are usually considered a type of AB toxin, characterized by B pentamers. Less commonly, the term "AB toxin" is ... The Diphtheria toxin also is an AB toxin. It inhibits protein synthesis in the host cell through phosphorylation of the ...
Indian medical scientist Sambhu Nath De discovered the cholera toxin, the animal model of cholera, and successfully ... "Cholera". Global Task Force on Cholera Control Ending Cholera a Global Roadmap to 2030 (PDF) (Report). Global Task Force on ... Cholera hospital in Dhaka, showing typical "cholera beds". Surveillance and prompt reporting allow for containing cholera ... Prevention and control of cholera outbreaks: WHO policy and recommendations Cholera-World Health Organization Cholera - Vibrio ...
The bacteria Vibrio cholerae produces a multimeric toxin called the cholera toxin. The secreted toxin attaches to the surface ... Besides its function in the physiology of the brain, GM1 acts as the site of binding for both cholera toxin and E. coli heat- ... When the cholera patient is given a solution containing water, sodium and glucose, the SGLT1 receptor will reabsorb sodium and ... The A1 subunit of this toxin will gain entry to intestinal epithelial cells with the assistance of the B subunit via the GM1 ...
In 1959, Indian scientist Sambhu Nath De discovered this poison, the cholera toxin. Koch reported his discovery to the German ... He soon found that the river Ganges was the source of cholera. He performed autopsies of almost 100 bodies, and found in each ... Koch soon found that the intestinal mucosa of people who died of cholera always had bacterial infection, yet could not confirm ... In August 1883, the German government sent a medical team led by Koch to Alexandria, Egypt, to investigate a cholera epidemic ...
He continued his work on cholera toxin as a post-doc at the Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics at Harvard ... "Synthesis of cholera toxin is positively regulated at the transcriptional level by toxR". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 81 (11): ... a gene that affects the expression of the cholera toxin operon ctxAB, the discovery that the Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin ... strains with altered toxin production ability) which led to the genetic mapping of the toxin-regulatory mutants in this ...
With the discovery that cholera toxin requires normal host CFTR proteins to function properly, it was hypothesized that ... "Cystic fibrosis heterozygote resistance to cholera toxin in the cystic fibrosis mouse model". Science. 266 (5182): 107-9. ... Over time, this can lead to scarring and nodularity (cirrhosis). The liver fails to rid the blood of toxins and does not make ... In both cases, the low level of cystic fibrosis outside of Europe, in places where both cholera and typhoid fever are endemic, ...
... the bacterium that causes cholera. It carries the genes for cholera toxin (CTX), which makes cholera especially virulent. It ... The second non-CT toxin encoded within the CTXφ genome is zonula occludens toxin (Zot). Zot, though absolutely essential for ... Recent research suggests that at least two toxins other than CT are produced from genes of the CTXφ genome. The first of these ... The first is the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP), which also aids the bacterium in adhering to the intestinal cell wall. The TCP ...
S. N. Dey and cholera toxin Willmer, Pat (2009). Environmental Physiology of Animals. Wiley-Blackwell. Symporters at the US ...
V. mimicus was isolated from cultures of stool specimens, and genes encoding cholera toxin were identified by polymerase chain ... V. mimicus, when carrying genes that encode cholera toxin, can cause severe watery diarrhea. Consumers and physicians should be ... and cholera toxin genes were not detected using PCR. D. MacEachern; J. McCullough; J. Duchin; M. Tran; K. MacDonald; A. Marfin ...
Other agents investigated (pre-clinically) to encourage MET include cholera toxin (CTx) and forskolin (Fsk). Sell, Stewart. ( ...
Schleifer, LS; Kahn, RA; Hanski, E; Northup, JK; Sternweis, PC; Gilman, AG (1982). "Requirements for cholera toxin-dependent ... Bokoch, GM; Gilman, AG (1984). "Inhibition of receptor-mediated release of arachidonic acid by pertussis toxin". Cell. 39 (2 Pt ...
"Affinity capillary electrophoresis for the assessment of binding affinity of carbohydrate-based cholera toxin inhibitors". ...
Exposure to environmental toxins, like ambient particulate matter (or air pollution), has been linked to the development of ... Contaminated water enables the spread of various waterborne-pathogens, including bacteria (E. coli, cholera), viruses ( ... In addition to finances, environmental toxins, including lead and stress and lack of nutritious food can diminish cognitive ...
Luppi PH, Fort P, Jouvet M (November 1990). "Iontophoretic application of unconjugated cholera toxin B subunit (CTb) combined ...
... and toxins-such as ricin and botulinum toxin.[page needed] Although little specific information remains available about the ... Deaths from cholera occurred in both areas. A number of writers have accused the Rhodesian Government of intentionally ... Among the biological agents, the Rhodesians selected for use included Vibrio cholerae (causative agent of cholera) and possibly ...
She also admitted conducting research into cholera, salmonella, foot and mouth disease, and camel pox, a disease that uses the ... By January 1991, a team of 100 scientists and support staff had filled 157 bombs and 16 missile warheads with botulin toxin, ... Taha received her Ph.D in plant toxins from the University of East Anglia's School of Biological Sciences in Norwich, which she ... Taha admitted to the inspectors that her biological weapons agency had grown 19,000 litres of botulism toxin; 8,000 litres of ...
The anti-toxin intestinal antibodies prevent the cholera toxin from binding to the intestinal mucosal surface, thereby ... Oral cholera vaccines were first introduced in the 1990s. The cost to immunize against cholera is between US$0.10 and US$4.00 ... The cholera vaccine is widely used by backpackers and persons visiting locations where there is a high risk of cholera ... Cholera vaccines are vaccines that are effective at preventing cholera. For the first six months after vaccination they provide ...
May 2020). "Early Response to the Plant Toxin Stenodactylin in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells Involves Inflammatory and Apoptotic ... cholera, anemia, bronchitis, sexually transmitted diseases, menorrhagia, and mental illness. It is used both as an ... "amongst the most potent toxins of plant origin". The fruit of A. digitata has been used in Africa to commit homicide and ...
"Tchaikovsky's Death: Cholera, Suicide or Murder? , Dr. Gabe Mirkin on Health". Retrieved 2020-03-27. "The story behind "Barney ... but the coroner was unable to determine what the toxin was. It was suspected they had been murdered (possibly by Chandler's ...
1992). Handbook of Natural Toxins: Food Poisoning. New York, New York: Dekker. p. 217. ISBN 0-8247-8652-1. Awata S, Nakayama K ... Laboratory experiments have shown that mice that ingested A. sphaerobulbosa mushroom extracts developed cholera-like symptoms. ... Kawaji A, Yamauchi K, Fujii S, Natsuki R, Takabatake E, Yamaura Y (1992). "Effects of mushroom toxins on glycogenolysis - ... "Biochemical effects of poisonous mushroom suspected of causing cholera-like symptoms in mice". Journal of the Food Hygienic ...
Formaldehyde is used in very small concentrations to inactivate viruses and bacterial toxins used in vaccines. Very small ... Because disease follows soldiers, they had to receive vaccines preventing cholera, influenza, measles, meningococcemia, Bubonic ...
... in most cases due to cholera. Japanese researchers performed tests on prisoners with bubonic plague, cholera, smallpox, ... In addition to chemical agents, the properties of many different toxins were also investigated by the Unit. To name a few, ... The resulting cholera, anthrax, and plague were estimated to have killed at least 400,000 Chinese civilians. Tularemia was also ... cholera, anthrax, typhoid, and tuberculosis using live human subjects; for this purpose, a prison was constructed to contain ...
Cholera: ADP-ribosylation caused by cholera toxin results in increased production of cyclic AMP which in turn opens the CFTR ... and mice carrying a single copy of mutant CFTR are resistant to diarrhea caused by cholera toxin. The most common mutations ... Kavic SM, Frehm EJ, Segal AS (1999). "Case studies in cholera: lessons in medical history and science". The Yale Journal of ... "Re: Is there a connection between cystic fibrosis and cholera?". Pier GB, Grout M, Zaidi T, Meluleni G, Mueschenborn SS, ...
These fleas, infected with cholera and the bubonic plague, were airdropped over the area of Ningbo on October 27, 1940. Rats ... Unit 731 also studied the effects of various toxins. Specific experiments conducted included testing poison gas on prisoners, ... Unit 1644 focused mainly on carrying out experiments with cholera, typhus, and bubonic plague.[citation needed] The unit also ... experiments with infectious diseases in which researchers subjected Chinese captives and captured insurgents to cholera, ...
A study with two retrograde cholera toxin tracers". Anat. Embryol. 185 (1): 1-16. doi:10.1007/bf00213596. PMID 1736680. S2CID ...
Toxins are secreted by bacteria, whereas toxoids are altered form of toxins; toxoids are not secreted by bacteria. Thus, when ... Germanier, R; Fürer, E; Varallyay, S; Inderbitzin, TM (June 1976). "Preparation of a purified antigenic cholera toxoid". ... It consists of inactivated subunits of anthrax toxin and elicits an antibody response that neutralises anthrax toxin. Kossaczka ... Toxoids are used as vaccines because they induce an immune response to the original toxin or increase the response to another ...
They have been used for abortive classification schemes of the vibrio, particularly to type various kinds of cholera, against ... Like other bacteriocins, vibriocins are protein toxins. They can kill bacteria beyond the genus Vibrio, including other ...
It was based upon opening the paths of elimination so that toxins could be removed via physiological processes. This was not ... some account of the cholera, and its treatment on the Thomsonian plan : with an engraved frontispiece (1833) Curtis, Alva. ...
Acceptor Possible applications that are currently investigated include the binding and inactivation of cholera toxin and the ...
He returned to the United Kingdom around 1832, just in time to aid in combating a wave of cholera that was sweeping across the ... looking at the issue of accumulation of toxins in molluscs. At this time the mussel beds of the Firth of Forth were dangerously ... Around 1829 he travelled to India to treat and study cholera in the city of Calcutta. ...
... offs in the fish and avian populations and the contamination promoted the outbreak and spread of diseases such as avian cholera ... California Natural Resources Agency requested proposals to increase waterflow to the sea to reduce dust and dust-borne toxins. ...
... a family of approximately 20-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that activate cholera toxin". Mol. Cell. Biochem. 138 (1-2 ... ARF genes encode small guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that stimulate the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of cholera toxin ...
Gregory Shwartzman found that just the toxins of bacteria could cause a similar reaction and since the reactions are similar, ... Emile Roux and Ilya Metchnikoff at Paris on cholera. He became a professor of pathology at Siena in 1889. In 1896 he moved to ...
In Zhejiang Province cholera, dysentery, and typhoid were employed. Harbin also suffered Japanese biological attacks. Other ... and containers of mustard gas and other toxins left over from the Second World War. Japan's biological warfare experts and ... Unit 731 used plague-infected fleas and flies covered with cholera to infect the population in China. The Japanese military ...
... difficile toxins A and B). A yet-unidentified 120 kDa protein also inhibits changes in cAMP levels induced by cholera toxin. S ... Both S. boulardii and ordinary S. cerevisiae produce proteins that inhibit pathogenic bacteria and their toxins, specifically ... natives of Southeast Asia chewing on the skin of lychee and mangosteen in an attempt to control the symptoms of cholera. In ...
... and the multifunctional autoprocessing repeats-in-toxins (MARTX) toxin. While the VvhA and MARTX toxin are factors in the ... the causative agent of cholera. At least one strain of V. vulnificus is bioluminescent. Infection with V. vulnificus leads to ... The second way that V. vulnificus has been most harmful is with some of the toxins that it creates. These toxins are not part ... When unable to move normally, the bacteria is no longer able to spread toxins through the body, thus decreasing the effect that ...
Pathogenic viruses and bacteria occur in such waters, such as Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae the cause of cholera, hepatitis ... as well as harbouring pathogens and toxins affecting all forms of marine life. The protist dinoflagellates may at certain times ...
Additionally, he investigated cholera, chicken-cholera, rabies, and tuberculosis. Roux is regarded as a founder of the field of ... He studied its toxin and its properties, and began in 1891 to develop an effective serum to treat the disease, following the ... The development of a diphtheria anti-toxin serum was a race between researchers Emil Behring in Berlin, and Émile Roux in Paris ... Roux had been nominated in 1888 for the isolation of the diphtheria toxin, but didn't win the prize in 1901 because his ...
Plague Time Ewald, P. W. (1991). "Transmission modes and the evolution of virulence : With special reference to cholera, ... However, when the concordance rate is lower, this indicates environmental factors like infectious microbes or toxin exposure ... or toxins. Huntington's disease, for example, has a concordance rate of 100%, indicating a predominately genetic etiology. ... again indicates that environmental factors like infectious microbes or toxins are likely playing large causal roles in breast ...
Lettuce and tobacco chloroplast transgenic lines expressing the cholera toxin B subunit-human proinsulin (CTB-Pins) fusion ... Expression of Cholera Toxin B-Proinsulin Fusion Protein in Lettuce and Tobacco Chloroplasts - Oral Administration Protects ... Ruhlman, T., Ahangari, R., Devine, A., Samsam, M., & Daniell, H. (2007). Expression of Cholera Toxin B-Proinsulin Fusion ... Lettuce and tobacco chloroplast transgenic lines expressing the cholera toxin B subunit-human proinsulin (CTB-Pins) fusion ...
19F-NMR-based fragment screening for 14 completely different biologically lively RNAs and 10 DNA and protein counter-screens We report right here on the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) 19 F screening of 14… Read more ». ...
Cholera and related diarrheas : molecular aspects of a global health problem, 43rd Nobel Symposium, Stockholm, August 6-11, ... by Nobel Symposium on Cholera and Related Diarrheas (43rd: 1978 : Stockholm, Sweden) , Ouchterlony, Oerjan , Holmgren, Jan , ... Special issue on S. N. De and cholera enterotoxin / editor, S. Ramaseshan. by Ramaseshan, S. ...
Herein, we developed vaccine candidates by inserting MSH type VI pili B (MshB) from A. veronii as an antigen and cholera toxin ... Immunological effects of recombinant Lactobacillus casei expressing pilin MshB fused with cholera toxin B subunit adjuvant as ...
D1 receptor cholera toxin transgenic model. The D1CT-7 transgenic mouse (produced using a transgene made by fusing the promoter ... 1991) Pituitary hyperplasia and gigantism in mice caused by a cholera toxin transgene. Nature 350:74-77. ... region for the human D1 receptor with the intracellular A1 subunit of cholera toxin) clinically demonstrates compulsive ...
Structure of the cholera toxin secretion channel in its closed state In: Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol., vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 1226- ... By combining our results with structures of the cholera toxin and T2SS pseudopilus tip, we provide a structural basis for a ... By combining our results with structures of the cholera toxin and T2SS pseudopilus tip, we provide a structural basis for a ... The binding of cholera toxin to the periplasmic vestibule of the type II secretion channel ...
Lipid Sorting by Ceramide Structure from Plasma Membrane to ER for the Cholera Toxin Receptor Ganglioside GM1. ...
CtxB, cholera toxin subunit B; LPS, lipopolysaccharide.. Main Article. 1These first authors contributed equally to this article ... Population-Based Serologic Survey of Vibrio cholerae Antibody Titers before Cholera Outbreak, Haiti, 2022 Christy H. Clutter1. ... Vibrio cholerae-specific and functional antibodies among participants in a serologic study conducted before a cholera outbreak ... Population-Based Serologic Survey of Vibrio cholerae Antibody Titers before Cholera Outbreak, Haiti, 2022. ...
Sunlight-induced propagation of the lysogenic phage encoding cholera toxin. In: Infection and immunity. 2000 ; Vol. 68, No. 8. ... Sunlight-induced propagation of the lysogenic phage encoding cholera toxin. Infection and immunity. 2000;68(8):4795-4801. doi: ... Sunlight-induced propagation of the lysogenic phage encoding cholera toxin. Shah M. Faruque, Asadulghani, M. Mostafizur Rahman ... Dive into the research topics of Sunlight-induced propagation of the lysogenic phage encoding cholera toxin. Together they ...
CHOLERA TOXIN B-PENTAMER WITH DECAVALENT LIGAND BMSC-0013 ... CHOLERA TOXIN B SUBUNIT: ABCDE. SMTL:PDB. SMTL Chain Id:. PDB ... CHOLERA TOXIN B-PENTAMER WITH DECAVALENT LIGAND BMSC-0013 Coordinates. PDB Format Method. X-RAY DIFFRACTION 1.45 Å. Oligo State ... Solution and crystallographic studies of branched multivalent ligands that inhibit the receptor-binding of cholera toxin. J.Am. ...
... test activity were blocked by monospecific rabbit antisera against cholera toxin and against the B fragment of cholera toxin. ... test activity were blocked by monospecific rabbit antisera against cholera toxin and against the B fragment of cholera toxin.", ... test activity were blocked by monospecific rabbit antisera against cholera toxin and against the B fragment of cholera toxin. ... test activity were blocked by monospecific rabbit antisera against cholera toxin and against the B fragment of cholera toxin. ...
... response and protects against cholera diarrhea in volunteer challenge studies … ... Immunogenicity endpoints included SVA and anti-cholera toxin (CT) antibody levels on days 1, 11, 29, 91 and 181 and ... Cholera, the Current Status of Cholera Vaccines and Recommendations for Travellers. Gabutti G, Rossanese A, Tomasi A, Giuffrida ... PaxVax CVD 103-HgR single-dose live oral cholera vaccine. Levine MM, Chen WH, Kaper JB, Lock M, Danzig L, Gurwith M. Levine MM ...
Mucosal adjuvant activity of cholera toxin requires Th17 cells and protects against inhalation anthrax. Datta SK, Sabet M, ...
Cholera toxin binds to LewisX and fucosylated glycoproteins play a functional role in human intestinal cell intoxication ... Cholera toxin binds to LewisX and fucosylated glycoproteins play a functional role in human intestinal cell intoxication ...
Immunogenicity of a West Nile Virus DIII-Cholera Toxin A2/B Chimera after Intranasal Delivery. Toxins 2014, 6, 1397-1418. [ ... EDIII fused with cholera toxin. Mice: ↑IgG, IgM and IgA titers. Complement-mediated killing of serum from immunized mice. ND. ... Formulations using the NS1 protein associated with a derivative of the heat labile toxin (LTG33D) or Freund adjuvants were ... Protective immunity to DENV2 after immunization with a recombinant NS1 protein using a genetically detoxified heat-labile toxin ...
Toxins may also include some medicines that are helpful in small doses, but poisonous in large amounts. ... Toxins are substances created by plants and animals that are poisonous (toxic) to humans. ... For example, the symptoms of cholera are caused by a toxin made by cholera bacteria. ... Toxins are substances created by plants and animals that are poisonous (toxic) to humans. Toxins may also include some ...
Cholera Toxin Subunit B CF® Dye Conjugates From: $226 Sizes: 100 ugCatalog #: 00068, 00070, 00071, 00072, 00073, 00074, 00075, ...
Categories: Cholera Toxin Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 98 ...
Cholera -- Western Hemisphere, and Recommendations for Treatment of Cholera ... Cholera is caused by V. cholerae serogroup O1 strains that produce cholera toxin. The Latin American epidemic strain is biotype ... Importation of cholera from Peru. MMWR 1991;40:258-9. *CDC. Cholera--New Jersey and Florida. MMWR 1991;40:287-9. *CDC. Cholera ... Current Trends Update: Cholera -- Western Hemisphere, and Recommendations for Treatment of Cholera MMWR 40(32);562-565 ...
Cholera toxin. Th1/Th2. N/A. MPLd. Th1/Th2. TLR-4. ...
MeSH Terms: Cholera Toxin/analysis*; Gold/chemistry; Optical Devices; Optics and Photonics/instrumentation; Optics and ... which exhibit high bulk refractive index sensitivities and are capable of discriminating trace levels of cholera toxin on a ... custom prisms by stereolithography that enable Kretschmann-configured plasmonic sensing of bacterial toxins. Simple benchtop ...
Hemophilus influenzae has a capsule; meningicoccus, tetanus, diphthera, cholera have toxins. What was the specific added enzyme ... Feeley and I developed standards for cholera vaccine.. The high fatality of cholera is due to very rapid loss of fluid. The ... like diphtheria or cholera toxin, that caused the harmful effects and the prolonged immunity of whooping cough. I was supposed ... It is a toxin. And that was the first thing Dr. Robbins mentioned when he gave a summary of the Symposium. Then I published ...
Mechanisms of cholera toxin-induced diarrhea.. Beubler E; Schuligoi R. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2000; 915():339-46. PubMed ID: ...
Moss and collaborators discovered that the bacterial toxin, cholera toxin, exerted its effects on mammalian cells by ADP- ... In cholera, the toxin-generated level of intestinal cyclic AMP system activation is significantly greater than normally ... Moss and his colleagues showed that in mice lacking the opposing ARH, ARH1, the effects of cholera toxin were demonstrably ... activity of cholera toxin. Subsequently, in trying to determine why the ADP-ribosyltransferase activities of mammalian cells ...
They also showed that these synthetic mucins could effectively neutralize the bacterial toxin that causes cholera. ...
Swabb, E. A., Tai, Y. H., and Jordan, L. Reversal of cholera toxin-induced secretion in rat ileum by luminal berberine. Am J ... Khin, Maung U., Myo, Khin, Nyunt, Nyunt Wai, and Tin, U. Clinical trial of high-dose berberine and tetracycline in cholera. J ... Usefulness of berberine (an alkaloid from Berberis aristata) in the treatment of cholera (experimental). Indian J Med Res 1962; ... Berberine and chloramphenicol in the treatment of cholera and severe diarrhoea. Journal of the Indian Medical Association 1967; ...
Mucosal adjuvants and anti-infection and anti-immunopathology vaccines based on cholera toxin, cholera toxin B subunit and CpG ... Cholera toxin induces expression of ion channels and carriers in rat small intestinal mucosa. ... Cholera toxin induces a transient depletion of CD8+ intraepithelial lymphocytes in the rat small intestine as detected by ... B lymphocytes promote expansion of regulatory T cells in oral tolerance: powerful induction by antigen coupled to cholera toxin ...
  • Lettuce and tobacco chloroplast transgenic lines expressing the cholera toxin B subunit-human proinsulin (CTB-Pins) fusion protein were generated. (upenn.edu)
  • Immunological effects of recombinant Lactobacillus casei expressing pilin MshB fused with cholera toxin B subunit adjuvant as an oral vaccine against Aeromonas veronii infection in crucian carp. (bvsalud.org)
  • Herein, we developed vaccine candidates by inserting MSH type VI pili B (MshB) from A. veronii as an antigen and cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) as a molecular adjuvant into Lactobacillus casei and evaluated their immunological effect as vaccines in a crucian carp ( Carassius auratus ) model. (bvsalud.org)
  • The catalytic subunit of cholera toxin. (nih.gov)
  • Attenuated recombinant Vibrio cholerae O1 vaccine strain CVD 103-HgR elicits a rapid serum vibriocidal antibody (SVA) response and protects against cholera diarrhea in volunteer challenge studies but has not been studied in older adults. (nih.gov)
  • NIAID efforts to develop a preventive cholera vaccine have targeted two distinct but overlapping approaches: live and "killed" vaccines. (nih.gov)
  • An important re-analysis of a large study involving a vaccine containing inactivated cholera found that the incidence of cholera among the placebo recipients varied inversely with the level of vaccination in the community. (nih.gov)
  • In the case of cholera, one epidemiological model in Bangladesh showed that because of community immunity, a vaccine containing inactivated cholera conferring relatively short-lived immunity could eliminate cholera entirely if 70 percent of the population was vaccinated. (nih.gov)
  • The development of a vaccine containing live cholera involves reducing the bacteria's virulence and ability to cause diarrhea while preserving its ability to induce an immune response. (nih.gov)
  • The technology used to create Dukoral was later transferred to Vietnam and India, where a modified killed cholera vaccine is being produced as OCV-Vax in Vietnam and as Shanchol in India. (nih.gov)
  • Early in his career, Dr. Moss and collaborators discovered that the bacterial toxin, cholera toxin, exerted its effects on mammalian cells by ADP-ribosylation, the transfer of an ADP-ribose group from NAD to an acceptor molecule. (nih.gov)
  • They also showed that these synthetic mucins could effectively neutralize the bacterial toxin that causes cholera. (nih.gov)
  • Other serogroups of V. cholerae, and nontoxigenic V. cholerae O1, may be isolated from stools of patients with diarrhea, but these bacteria are not associated with epidemic cholera. (cdc.gov)
  • Most toxins that cause problems in humans come from germs such as bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • For example, the symptoms of cholera are caused by a toxin made by cholera bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • Killed" or inactivated vaccines are those that contain cholera bacteria that have been made harmless so as not to infect the vaccinated recipient. (nih.gov)
  • Some bacteria, such as those that cause cholera, use a special system to inject toxins into the cells of host organisms and other bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • So far, researchers have found that there are at least 6 different ways that bacteria can transport proteins (like toxins) through the 2 membranes and into neighboring cells. (nih.gov)
  • Type VI secretion, the most recent type of transport to be discovered, is common to many types of bacteria, including Vibrio cholerae , a waterborne pathogen that infects millions worldwide and causes cholera. (nih.gov)
  • Epidemic cholera appeared in Peru in January 1991 and subsequently spread to Ecuador, Colombia, Chile, Brazil, Mexico, and Guatemala (Table 1) (1-3). (cdc.gov)
  • Clinical suspicion should be increased for persons returning from areas known to have epidemic cholera or for persons with a recent history of ingestion of raw or undercooked shellfish. (cdc.gov)
  • It is also antigenically distinct from the V. cholerae O1 and O139 strains, which cause epidemic cholera in many countries. (who.int)
  • The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. (nih.gov)
  • In collaboration with Wim Hol (UW) we studied the structure of the vibrio cholera toxin secretion channel. (ucla.edu)
  • The T2SS is responsible for the secretion of virulence factors such as cholera toxin (CT) and heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) from Vibrio cholerae and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, respectively. (ucla.edu)
  • Vibrio cholerae -specific and functional antibodies among participants in a serologic study conducted before a cholera outbreak in Haiti, 2022. (cdc.gov)
  • In toxigenic Vibrio cholerae, the cholera enterotoxin (CT) is encoded by CTXΦ, a lysogenic bacteriophage. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Vibrio cholerae species can be divided into 2 major groups: cholera-causing strains of the serogroups O1 and O139, and non-O1 V. cholerae (NOVC) [1]. (who.int)
  • Special issue on S. N. De and cholera enterotoxin / editor, S. Ramaseshan. (who.int)
  • The T2SS secretes folded proteins including cholera toxin and heat-labile enterotoxin. (ucla.edu)
  • At present, World Health Organization ORS packets (WHO-ORS,* Jianas Brothers, St. Louis), RicelyteTM (Mead Johnson), and RehydralyteR (Ross Laboratories) are the only oral solutions available in the United States that contain the proper balance of electrolytes for treating cholera. (cdc.gov)
  • Oral rehydration therapy (ORT), or the administration of an oral solution containing glucose and electrolytes, is currently the predominant treatment for cholera worldwide. (nih.gov)
  • Mucosal adjuvant activity of cholera toxin requires Th17 cells and protects against inhalation anthrax. (nih.gov)
  • Cholera is caused by V. cholerae serogroup O1 strains that produce cholera toxin. (cdc.gov)
  • An unknown number of summer acute diarrhoeas may actually be caused by various strains of cholera, yet no systematic bacteriological surveillance has been initiated to this day in the country. (who.int)
  • Cholera and related diarrheas : molecular aspects of a global health problem, 43rd Nobel Symposium, Stockholm, August 6-11, 1978 / editors, Oerjan Ouchterlony and Jan Holmgren. (who.int)
  • We report here the presence of G-proteins in Y-organs and control (neural) tissue as determined by (1) ADP-ribosylation catalyzed by bacterial toxins and (2) western blot analysis using antibodies raised against mammalian G-proteins. (sicb.org)
  • As many as 20 different proteins make up the type VI transport machinery, but how these proteins work together to send proteins and toxins out of the bacterial cell has, until now, remained a mystery. (nih.gov)
  • He later discovered that mammalian cells contain endogenous enzymes with activities that mimic the ADP-ribosyltransferase (ART) activity of cholera toxin. (nih.gov)
  • Cholera is diagnosed by isolation of toxigenic V. cholerae serotype O1 from feces. (cdc.gov)
  • Non-O1 V. cholerae (NOVC) typically does not elaborate cholera toxin. (who.int)
  • NIAID supports university-based and pharmaceutical and biotechnology researchers who are working to develop new cholera treatments and vaccines to prevent infection. (nih.gov)
  • In cholera, the toxin-generated level of intestinal cyclic AMP system activation is significantly greater than normally observed. (nih.gov)
  • Vaccines are usually evaluated in field studies by comparing the incidence of disease (in this case, cholera) in a vaccinated population to an unvaccinated placebo control population. (nih.gov)
  • With clinical awareness of signs and symptoms of cholera, and knowledge of appropriate treatment, cholera should not pose a major risk to health in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Results of search for 'su:{Cholera toxin. (who.int)
  • Currently, two of these types of cholera vaccines are available and both are administered orally as opposed to injection. (nih.gov)
  • If used on a broader scale, the vaccines could reduce global cholera rates, especially if antimicrobial and oral rehydration therapies are also available, and sanitation programs are supported by community education. (nih.gov)
  • Cholera should be suspected in a patient with severe watery diarrhea, vomiting, and dehydration. (cdc.gov)
  • Dunn Sandefur, P & Peterson, JW 1977, ' Neutralization of Salmonella toxin induced elongation of Chinese hamster ovary cells by cholera antitoxin ', Infection and immunity , vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 988-992. (utmb.edu)
  • The conclusion drawn was that vaccination reduced the amount of cholera in the environment, and therefore, the risk of infection to everyone in the community. (nih.gov)
  • Immunogenicity endpoints included SVA and anti-cholera toxin (CT) antibody levels on days 1, 11, 29, 91 and 181 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and CT-specific IgA and IgG memory B cells on days 1, 91 and 181. (nih.gov)
  • This report provides an update on cholera in the Western Hemisphere and provides recommendations on the clinical diagnosis and treatment of cholera in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • However, cholera may still have limited niches of low endemicity, especially in Northern Lebanon, where sub-clinical cases may occur. (who.int)
  • Dr. Moss and his colleagues showed that in mice lacking the opposing ARH, ARH1, the effects of cholera toxin were demonstrably amplified. (nih.gov)
  • Patients suspected of having cholera should be treated aggressively while awaiting culture results. (cdc.gov)
  • The elongation effect and the skin test activity were blocked by monospecific rabbit antisera against cholera toxin and against the B fragment of cholera toxin. (utmb.edu)
  • Simple benchtop polishing procedures render a smooth surface that supports propagation of surface plasmon polaritons with a deposited gold layer, which exhibit high bulk refractive index sensitivities and are capable of discriminating trace levels of cholera toxin on a supported lipid membrane interface. (nih.gov)
  • Effects of combined cholera toxin and cyclosporine therapy on renal allograft survival in the rat. (nih.gov)
  • Toxins may also include some medicines that are helpful in small doses, but poisonous in large amounts. (nih.gov)
  • The cell membrane binding component of cholera toxin. (nih.gov)
  • Proper treatment of sewage and drinking water in the United States should prevent transmission of cholera by these routes within the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • article{pmid20852644, title = {Structure of the cholera toxin secretion channel in its closed state}, author = {Steve L Reichow and Konstantin V Korotkov and Wim G J Hol and Tamir Gonen}, url = {https://cryoem.ucla.edu/wp-content/uploads/reichow_2010.pdf, Main text}, doi = {10.1038/nsmb.1910}, year = {2010}, date = {2010-09-19}, journal = {Nat. (ucla.edu)
  • We report here 3D printing of high-quality, custom prisms by stereolithography that enable Kretschmann-configured plasmonic sensing of bacterial toxins. (nih.gov)
  • Detoxified aggregate of cholera toxin formed by heat treatment of purified cholera toxin. (nih.gov)
  • Here we extend these studies by characterizing the binding of the cholera toxin B-pentamer to VcGspD using electron microscopy of negatively stained preparations. (ucla.edu)
  • Solution and crystallographic studies of branched multivalent ligands that inhibit the receptor-binding of cholera toxin. (expasy.org)
  • A second candidate, CVD-103HgR, was licensed in Europe, but is not currently in production or slated for use in cholera-endemic regions. (nih.gov)