Rehydration Solutions: Fluids restored to the body in order to maintain normal water-electrolyte balance.Cholera: An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.Vibrio cholerae: The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.Diarrhea, Infantile: DIARRHEA occurring in infants from newborn to 24-months old.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Fluid Therapy: Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.WashingtonExfoliatins: Protein exotoxins from Staphylococcus aureus, phage type II, which cause epidermal necrolysis. They are proteins with a molecular weight of 26,000 to 32,000. They cause a condition variously called scaled skin, Lyell or Ritter syndrome, epidermal exfoliative disease, toxic epidermal necrolysis, etc.Cholera Toxin: An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Posters as Topic: Single or multi-sheet notices made to attract attention to events, activities, causes, goods, or services. They are for display, usually in a public place and are chiefly pictorial.Love: Affection; in psychiatry commonly refers to pleasure, particularly as it applies to gratifying experiences between individuals.PostersCholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.Alkalies: Usually a hydroxide of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium or cesium, but also the carbonates of these metals, ammonia, and the amines. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Dehydration: The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Ureterostomy: Surgical formation of an opening in the ureter for external drainage of the urine; cutaneous route utilizes a ureteral orifice emerging through the skin.Cystostomy: Surgical creation of an opening (stoma) in the URINARY BLADDER for drainage.Haiti: A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)Vibrio cholerae O1: Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 1. All are CHOLERA-causing strains (serotypes). There are two biovars (biotypes): cholerae and eltor (El Tor).Earthquakes: Sudden slips on a fault, and the resulting ground shaking and radiated seismic energy caused by the slips, or by volcanic or magmatic activity, or other sudden stress changes in the earth. Faults are fractures along which the blocks of EARTH crust on either side have moved relative to one another parallel to the fracture.Superstitions: A belief or practice which lacks adequate basis for proof; an embodiment of fear of the unknown, magic, and ignorance.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Zimbabwe: A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.Pseudotsuga: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are coniferous evergreen trees with long, flat, spirally arranged needles that grow directly from the branch.Human Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.Douglas' Pouch: A sac or recess formed by a fold of the peritoneum.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.PakistanTravel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Maps as Topic: Representations, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on the surface of the earth, the heavens, or celestial bodies.YemenVaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Floods: Sudden onset water phenomena with different speed of occurrence. These include flash floods, seasonal river floods, and coastal floods, associated with CYCLONIC STORMS; TIDALWAVES; and storm surges.Digestive System Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)MassachusettsHospitals, General: Large hospitals with a resident medical staff which provides continuous care to maternity, surgical and medical patients.BostonHygiene: The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)

Environmental signals modulate ToxT-dependent virulence factor expression in Vibrio cholerae. (1/1261)

The regulatory protein ToxT directly activates the transcription of virulence factors in Vibrio cholerae, including cholera toxin (CT) and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). Specific environmental signals stimulate virulence factor expression by inducing the transcription of toxT. We demonstrate that transcriptional activation by the ToxT protein is also modulated by environmental signals. ToxT expressed from an inducible promoter activated high-level expression of CT and TCP in V. cholerae at 30 degrees C, but expression of CT and TCP was significantly decreased or abolished by the addition of 0.4% bile to the medium and/or an increase of the temperature to 37 degrees C. Also, expression of six ToxT-dependent TnphoA fusions was modulated by temperature and bile. Measurement of ToxT-dependent transcription of genes encoding CT and TCP by ctxAp- and tcpAp-luciferase fusions confirmed that negative regulation by 37 degrees C or bile occurs at the transcriptional level in V. cholerae. Interestingly, ToxT-dependent transcription of these same promoters in Salmonella typhimurium was relatively insensitive to regulation by temperature or bile. These data are consistent with ToxT transcriptional activity being modulated by environmental signals in V. cholerae and demonstrate an additional level of complexity governing the expression of virulence factors in this pathogen. We propose that negative regulation of ToxT-dependent transcription by environmental signals prevents the incorrect temporal and spatial expression of virulence factors during cholera pathogenesis.  (+info)

Transmission of epidemic Vibrio cholerae O1 in rural western Kenya associated with drinking water from Lake Victoria: an environmental reservoir for cholera? (2/1261)

Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest reported cholera incidence and mortality rates in the world. In 1997, a cholera epidemic occurred in western Kenya. Between June 1997 and March 1998, 14,275 cholera admissions to hospitals in Nyanza Province in western Kenya were reported. There were 547 deaths (case fatality rate = 4%). Of 31 Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates tested, all but one were sensitive to tetracycline. We performed a case-control study among 61 cholera patients and age-, sex-, and clinic-matched controls. Multivariate analysis showed that risk factors for cholera were drinking water from Lake Victoria or from a stream, sharing food with a person with watery diarrhea, and attending funeral feasts. Compared with other diarrheal pathogens, cholera was more common among persons living in a village bordering Lake Victoria. Cholera has become an important public health concern in western Kenya, and may become an endemic pathogen in the region.  (+info)

Effects of changes in membrane sodium flux on virulence gene expression in Vibrio cholerae. (3/1261)

The expression of several virulence factors of Vibrio cholerae is coordinately regulated by the ToxT molecule and the membrane proteins TcpP/H and ToxR/S, which are required for toxT transcription. To identify proteins that negatively affect toxT transcription, we screened transposon mutants of V. cholerae carrying a chromosomally integrated toxT::lacZ reporter construct for darker blue colonies on media containing 5-bromo-4-chlor-3-indolyl beta-D galactoside (X-gal). Two mutants had transposon insertions in a region homologous to the nqr gene cluster of Vibrio alginolyticus, encoding a sodium-translocating NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (NQR). In V. alginolyticus, NQR is a respiration-linked Na+ extrusion pump generating a sodium motive force that can be used for solute import, ATP synthesis, and flagella rotation. Inhibition of NQR enzyme function in V. cholerae by the specific inhibitor 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide (HQNO) resulted in elevated toxT::lacZ activity. Increased toxT::lacZ expression in an nqr mutant strain compared with the parental strain was observed when the TcpP/H molecules alone were strongly expressed, suggesting that the negative effect of the NQR complex on toxT transcription is mediated through TcpP/H. However, the ability of the TcpP/H proteins to activate the toxT::lacZ reporter construct was greatly diminished in the presence of high NaCl concentrations in the growth medium. The flagellar motor of V. cholerae appears to be driven by a sodium motive force, and modulation of flagella rotation by inhibitory drugs, high media viscosity, or specific mutations resulted in increases of toxT::lacZ expression. Thus, the regulation of the main virulence factors of V. cholerae appears to be modulated by endogenous and exogenous sodium levels in a complex way.  (+info)

How intestinal bacteria cause disease. (4/1261)

An improved understanding of how intestinal bacteria cause disease has become increasingly important because of the emergence of new enteric pathogens, increasing threats of drug resistance, and a growing awareness of their importance in malnutrition and diarrhea. Reviewed here are the varied ways that intestinal bacteria cause disease, which provide fundamental lessons about microbial pathogenesis as well as cell signaling. Following colonization, enteric pathogens may adhere to or invade the epithelium or may produce secretory exotoxins or cytotoxins. In addition, by direct or indirect effects, they may trigger secondary mediator release of cytokines that attract inflammatory cells, which release further products, such as prostaglandins or platelet-activating factor, which can also trigger secretion. An improved understanding of pathogenesis not only opens new approaches to treatment and control but may also suggest improved simple means of diagnosis and even vaccine development.  (+info)

Expanded safety and immunogenicity of a bivalent, oral, attenuated cholera vaccine, CVD 103-HgR plus CVD 111, in United States military personnel stationed in Panama. (5/1261)

To provide optimum protection against classical and El Tor biotypes of Vibrio cholerae O1, a single-dose, oral cholera vaccine was developed by combining two live, attenuated vaccine strains, CVD 103-HgR (classical, Inaba) and CVD 111 (El Tor, Ogawa). The vaccines were formulated in a double-chamber sachet; one chamber contained lyophilized bacteria, and the other contained buffer. A total of 170 partially-immune American soldiers stationed in Panama received one of the following five formulations: (a) CVD 103-HgR at 10(8) CFU plus CVD 111 at 10(7) CFU, (b) CVD 103-HgR at 10(8) CFU plus CVD 111 at 10(6) CFU, (c) CVD 103-HgR alone at 10(8) CFU, (d) CVD 111 alone at 10(7) CFU, or (e) inactivated Escherichia coli placebo. Among those who received CVD 111 at the high or low dose either alone or in combination with CVD 103-HgR, 8 of 103 had diarrhea, defined as three or more liquid stools. None of the 32 volunteers who received CVD 103-HgR alone or the 35 placebo recipients had diarrhea. CVD 111 was detected in the stools of 46% of the 103 volunteers who received it. About 65% of all persons who received CVD 103-HgR either alone or in combination had a fourfold rise in Inaba vibriocidal titers. The postvaccination geometric mean titers were comparable among groups, ranging from 450 to 550. Ogawa vibriocidal titers were about twice as high in persons who received CVD 111 as in those who received CVD 103-HgR alone (600 versus 300). The addition of CVD 111 improved the overall seroconversion rate and doubled the serum Ogawa vibriocidal titers, suggesting that the combination of an El Tor and a classical cholera strain is desirable. While CVD 111 was previously found to be well tolerated in semiimmune Peruvians, the adverse effects observed in this study indicate that this strain requires further attenuation before it can be safely used in nonimmune populations.  (+info)

A reassessment of the cost-effectiveness of water and sanitation interventions in programmes for controlling childhood diarrhoea. (6/1261)

Cost-effectiveness analysis indicates that some water supply and sanitation (WSS) interventions are highly cost-effective for the control of diarrhoea among under-5-year-olds, on a par with oral rehydration therapy. These are relatively inexpensive "software-related" interventions such as hygiene education, social marketing of good hygiene practices, regulation of drinking-water, and monitoring of water quality. Such interventions are needed to ensure that the potentially positive health impacts of WSS infrastructure are fully realized in practice. The perception that WSS programmes are not a cost-effective use of health sector resources has arisen from three factors: an assumption that all WSS interventions involve construction of physical infrastructure, a misperception of the health sector's role in WSS programmes, and a misunderstanding of the scope of cost-effectiveness analysis. WSS infrastructure ("hardware") is generally built and operated by public works agencies and financed by construction grants, operational subsidies, user fees and property taxes. Health sector agencies should provide "software" such as project design, hygiene education, and water quality regulation. Cost-effectiveness analysis should measure the incremental health impacts attributable to health sector investments, using the actual call on health sector resources as the measure of cost. The cost-effectiveness of a set of hardware and software combinations is estimated, using US$ per case averted, US$ per death averted, and US$ per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) saved.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of a new ribotype of Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal associated with an outbreak of cholera in Bangladesh. (7/1261)

Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal initially appeared in the southern coastal region of Bangladesh and spread northward, causing explosive epidemics during 1992 and 1993. The resurgence of V. cholerae O139 during 1995 after its transient displacement by a new clone of El Tor vibrios demonstrated rapid changes in the epidemiology of cholera in Bangladesh. A recent outbreak of cholera in two north-central districts of Bangladesh caused by V. cholerae O139 led us to analyze strains collected from the outbreak and compare them with V. cholerae O139 strains isolated from other regions of Bangladesh and neighboring India to investigate their origins. Analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in genes for conserved rRNA (ribotype) revealed that the recently isolated V. cholerae O139 strains belonged to a new ribotype which was distinct from previously described ribotypes of toxigenic V. cholerae O139. All strains carried the genes for toxin-coregulated pili (tcpA and tcpI) and accessory colonization factor (acfB), the regulatory gene toxR, and multiple copies of the lysogenic phage genome encoding cholera toxin (CTXPhi) and belonged to a previously described ctxA genotype. Comparative analysis of the rfb gene cluster by PCR revealed the absence of a large region of the O1-specific rfb operon downstream of the rfaD gene and the presence of an O139-specific genomic region in all O139 strains. Southern hybridization analysis of the O139-specific genomic region also produced identical restriction patterns in strains belonging to the new ribotype and those of previously described ribotypes. These results suggested that the new ribotype of Bengal vibrios possibly originated from an existing strain of V. cholerae O139 by genetic changes in the rRNA operons. In contrast to previously isolated O139 strains which mostly had resistance to trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, and streptomycin encoded by a transposon (SXT element), 68.6% of the toxigenic strains analyzed in the present study, including all strains belonging to the new ribotype, were susceptible to these antibiotics. Molecular analysis of the SXT element revealed possible deletion of a 3.6-kb region of the SXT element in strains which were susceptible to the antibiotics. Thus, V. cholerae O139 strains in Bangladesh are also undergoing considerable reassortments in genetic elements encoding antimicrobial resistance.  (+info)

Cholera in the 1990s. (8/1261)

Two strains of Vibrio cholerae are currently significant in cholera: a remnant from the sixth pandemic (1899-1923) still present in South Asia and the seventh pandemic strain which emerged in 1961. The 1990s were marked by spread of the seventh pandemic to South America in 1991 and appearance of an O139 form of the seventh pandemic strain in 1992 (or possibly 1991), which in 1993 predominated in some areas but then declined. Molecular analysis showed that the sixth and the seventh pandemic clones are related, but have a different TCP pathogenicity island and possibly different CTX phages, suggesting independent derivation from related environmental strains. Upsurges of the seventh pandemic were accompanied by increased genetic variation enabling the relationships between strains to be studied, but the basis for variation in pathogenicity is not known. There is clearly a risk of new forms arising and a strategy for speedy development of vaccines needs to be established.  (+info)

*Fowl cholera

... is also called avian cholera, avian pasteurellosis, avian hemorrhagic septicemia. [1] ... Epizootiology of Avian Cholera in Wildfowl. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. Chicken Cholera was Observed by Louis pasteur by luck ... Fowl cholera in the Merck Veterinary Manual. References[edit]. *^ K.R. Rhoades and R.B. Rimler, Avian pasteurellosis, in " ... Avian Cholera in Waterfowl: The role of Lesser Snow Geese and Ross's Geese Carriers in the Playa Lakes Region. Journal of ...

*Louis Pasteur

Chicken cholera. Pasteur's later work on diseases included work on chicken cholera. He received cultures from Jean Joseph Henri ... Toussaint isolated the bacteria that caused chicken cholera (later named Pasteurella in honour of Pasteur) in 1879 and gave ... The difference between smallpox vaccination and anthrax or chicken cholera vaccination was that the latter two disease ...

*User:Djd/sandbox/MedNav/Pathology templates

Cholera}}. Medicine. Cholera. Infectious disease templates. Footer. Default color.. Pathology. Pathogenic bacteria. {{Gram- ...

*CB military symbol

HO - cholera. *AB - bovine brucellosis. *US - porcine brucellosis. *NX - porcine brucellosis. *AM - caprine brucellosis ...

*Logan River

Cholerapg 23. Found at https://books.google.com.au/books?id=e4vSBwAAQBAJ&pg=PA23&lpg=PA23&dq=logan+river+cholera&source=bl&ots= ... cholera has been found in the Logan River from around 1977.[16][17][18][19] Community projects in the Logan catchment area aim ... Found at https://books.google.com.au/books?id=gEOEBwAAQBAJ&pg=PA195&lpg=PA195&dq=logan+river+cholera&source=bl&ots=d1kXCwi84o& ...

*Death of Edgar Allan Poe

Cholera has also been suggested.[35] Poe had passed through Philadelphia in early 1849 during a cholera epidemic. He got sick ... "Death Suspicion Cholera". Crimelibrary.com. Archived from the original on 2008-05-17. Retrieved 2008-05-09.. ... Theories as to what caused Poe's death include suicide, murder, cholera, hypoglycemia, rabies, syphilis, influenza, and that ... during his time in the city and wrote a letter to his aunt, Maria Clemm, saying that he may "have had the cholera, or spasms ...

*21st century Madagascar plague outbreaks

First cholera pandemic (1816-1826). *Second cholera pandemic (1829-1851). *Third cholera pandemic (1852-1860) ...

*cAMP-dependent pathway

cholera toxin - increases cAMP levels. *forskolin - a diterpene natural product that activates adenylyl cyclase ...

*Bacteriophage

Charles RC, Ryan ET (October 2011). "Cholera in the 21st century". Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases. 24 (5): 472-7. doi: ... which cause diphtheria or cholera, respectively.[35][36] Strategies to combat certain bacterial infections by targeting these ... "L'action bactericide des eaux de la Jumna et du Gange sur le vibrion du cholera". Annales de l'Institut Pasteur (in French). ... reported that something in the waters of the Ganges and Yamuna rivers in India had marked antibacterial action against cholera ...

*Valneva SE

"Dukoral, cholera vaccine (inactivated, oral)". European Medicines Agency (EMA). 2009-04-30. Retrieved 2017-04-25.. ... a vaccine against cholera (approved in Europe, America and Australia)[3] ...

*Gastroenteritis

Cholera morbus is a historical term that was used to refer to gastroenteritis rather than specifically cholera.[81] ... Charles E. Rosenberg (2009). The Cholera Years the United States in 1832, 1849, and 1866. Chicago: University of Chicago Press ... Charles, RC; Ryan, ET (October 2011). "Cholera in the 21st century". Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases. 24 (5): 472-7. doi ... The first usage of "gastroenteritis" was in 1825.[79] Before this time it was commonly known as typhoid fever or "cholera ...

*St. Mary's Medical Center (San Francisco)

1855 Asiatic Cholera epidemic hits the city. The Sisters of Mercy donate their services to the State Hospital and work "round ... who had joined the order at the age of 19 and nursed victims through Ireland's horrible cholera epidemic of 1849-an experience ... carrying the deadly Asiatic cholera that ravaged the city for six weeks. ...

*Sunderland - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Diary of an Epidemic (Cholera), BBC Radio 4, BBC - Radio 4 The Long View - Cholera outbreak in 19th Century Britain. ... Cholera[change , change source]. Local government was divided between the three churches (Holy Trinity, Sunderland, St. ... It was the first British town to be affected by 'Indian cholera' epidemic.[4] The first victim, William Sproat, died on 23 ... But in December of that year, cholera was in Gateshead and it spread across the country, killing about 32,000 people. ...

*Oregon Trail - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cholera[change , change source]. Cholera was the most common illness and cause of death on the Trail.[3] From 1849-1855, there ... Camping near rivers contaminated with cholera bacteria made cholera spread quickly among travelers ... could get cholera. Often, cholera's symptoms would be so bad that travelers would die within 12 hours of getting sick.[3] ... Up to 3% of all travelers during this time may have died from cholera. One of the causes of the epidemic was that there was no ...

*Vibrio cholerae bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

Cholera. Geneva: World Health Organization. *^ a b c Choopun N, Louis V, Huq A, Colwell RR. 2002. Simple procedure for rapid ... Vibrio cholerae and Cholera: Molecular to Global Perspectives. Washington DC: ASM Pr. ...

*Can't Remember to Forget You, wolna encyklopedia

Can't Remember to Forget You - singel Shakiry i Rihanny, promujący album artystki pt. Shakira wydany 21 marca 2014 roku. Utwór został wydany 13 stycznia 2014 roku o godz. 16:00 czasu polskiego na kanale Vevo artystki na YouTube[1]. Premiera teledysku nastąpiła 30 stycznia 2014.. ...

*AB5 toxin

For the cholera toxin, the principal glycolipid receptor for the cholera toxin is ganglioside GM1. After endocytosis to the ... Cholera toxin, pertussis toxin, and shiga toxin all have their targets in the cytosol of the cell. After their B subunit binds ... Cholera toxin, shiga toxin, and SubAB toxin all have B subunits that are made up of five identical protein components, meaning ... Cholera toxin's discovery is credited by many to Dr. Sambhu Nath De. He conducted his research in Calcutta (now Kolkata) making ...

*Chlorine

2007). The Strange Case of the Broad Street Pump: John Snow and the Mystery of Cholera. Los Angeles:University of California ... During the Paris cholera outbreak of 1832, large quantities of so-called chloride of lime were used to disinfect the capital. ... 2003). Cholera, Chloroform, and the Science of Medicine. New York:Oxford University. ... John Snow to disinfect water from the cholera-contaminated well that was feeding the Broad Street pump in 1854 London,[72] ...

*Slum

Cholera epidemic envelops coastal slums in West Africa, Africa Health[permanent dead link], page 10 (September 2012) ... Slum dwellers usually experience a high rate of disease.[182][130] Diseases that have been reported in slums include cholera,[ ... The first cholera epidemic of 1832 triggered a political debate, and Louis René Villermé study[28] of various arrondissements ... Studies focus on children's health in slums address that cholera and diarrhea are especially common among young children.[195][ ...

*Natural reservoir

For example, the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which causes cholera in humans, has natural reservoirs in copepods, zooplankton, ... Nelson, Eric J.; Harris, Jason B.; Morris, J. Glenn; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Camilli, Andrew (2009). "Cholera transmission: the ... which causes cholera, can both exist as free-living parasites in certain water sources as well as in invertebrate animal hosts ...

*The Ghost Map

The cholera outbreak from 1848-49 killed approximately 54,000-62,000 in London, and the outbreak from 1853-54 killed an ... Around the mid-1850s Snow figured out the source of cholera contamination to be the drinking water from the Broad Street pump. ... "Cholera." Black's Medical Dictionary, 42nd Edition. London: A&C Black, 2010. Kohn, George Childs (2008). Encyclopedia of Plague ... John Snow, who created a map of the cholera cases, and the Reverend Henry Whitehead, whose extensive knowledge of the local ...

*Bucket toilet

"Evaluating Spatial and Space-Time Clustering of Cholera in Ashanti-Region-Ghana". In Gowder, Shivakumar. Cholera. doi:10.5772/ ...

*Exogenous bacteria

Cholera is a waterborne infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio chloerae, and is transmitted via food or water that is ... "Cholera." Media Centre. World Health Organization, n.d. Web. 28 Apr 2012. "Campylobacter." National Center for Emerging and ... Pathogenic exogenous bacteria can enter a closed biological system and cause disease such as Cholera, which is induced by a ... bacterial flora Cholera waterborne diseases Shar, Anjail (2004). "Lowy: Lecture I: Bacterial Classification, Structure and ...

*Nirmal Kumar Dutta

Dutta N. K., Panse N. V., Kulkarni D. R. (1959). "Role of cholera a toxin in experimental cholera". J. Bacteriol. 78: 594-5. ... N. K. Dutta, N. B. Oza (1965). "A new approach to the treatment of cholera based on experimental evidence" (PDF). Br J Exp ... He was known for his contributions to the studies on cholera and was an elected fellow of the National Academy of Medical ... 252-. ISBN 978-81-317-3220-5. N. K. Dutta, N. B. Oza (1965). "A new approach to the treatment of cholera based on experimental ...

*Timeline of healthcare in Nigeria

Adagbada AO, Adesida SA, Nwaokorie FO, Niemogha MT, Coker AO (2012). "cholera". Pan Afr Med J. 12: 59. PMC 3428179 . PMID ...
Outbreak of Vibrio cholerae Serogroup O1, Serotype Ogawa, Biotype El Tor Strain -- La Huasteca Region, Mexico, 2013. Díaz-Quiñonez, Alberto; Hernández-Monroy, Irma; Montes-Colima, Norma; Moreno-Pérez, Asunción; Galicia Nicolás, Adriana; Martínez-Rojano, Hugo; Carmona Ramos, Concepción; Sánchez-Mendoza, Miroslava; Cruz Rodríguez-Martínez, José; Suárez-Idueta, Lorena; Eugenia Jiménez-Corona, María; Ruiz-Matus, Cuitláhuac; Kuri-Morales, Pablo // MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report;6/27/2014, Vol. 63 Issue 25, p552 The article reports on the outbreak of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor strain in the La Huasteca region in Mexico in September 2013. Topics discussed include the identification of two cases of cholera in Mexico City by Mexicos National System of... ...
The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has awarded Professor James J. Collins (BME, MSE, SE) a Grand Challenges Explorations grant to encourage his labs pursuit of a novel approach to cholera prevention.. In their proposed project, Collins and two postdoctoral fellows in his lab, Ewen Cameron and Peter Belenky, seek to use synthetic biology techniques to engineer a probiotic yogurt bacterium, Lactobacillus gasseri, to detect and kill the cholera bacterium, Vibrio cholerae, in the human intestine. The probiotic could be supplied as an inexpensive, freeze-dried powder to endemic populations to prevent cholera, an acute, food or water-borne diarrheal infection leading to more than 100,000 deaths each year.. "We are delighted to be selected for the Gates Foundation program," said Collins. "This funding will enable us to explore using innovative synthetic biology approaches to detect and treat cholera infections, a major health problem facing many poor communities in the world, including those in ...
Abstract. Multiple Vibrio cholerae infections within the same household are common. Household contacts of patients with cholera were observed with daily clinical assessments and collection of rectal swab cultures for nine days after presentation of the index case. During the follow-up period, 71 (24%) of 294 household contacts developed a positive V. cholerae rectal swab, signifying bacterial shedding. The average length of bacterial shedding was 2.0 days (95% confidence interval 1.7-2.4). However, 16 (5%) of 294 contacts shed V. cholerae for ≥ 4 days. In a multivariate analysis, malnutrition was predictive of long-term shedding (odds ratio = 1.4, 95% confidence interval = 1.3-13, P = 0.02). High rates of V. cholerae infection and bacterial shedding among household contacts of cholera patients represent an opportunity for intervention to reduce V. cholerae transmission.
http://en.rian.ru Topic: Cholera epidemic in Haiti Number of Haitian cholera cases reaches 7,000 20:39 06/11/2010 © REUTERS/ St-Felix Evens Related News Cholera epidemic hits Haitian capital Canada to provide Haiti $1 mln to help fight cholera outbreak Donor countries pledge billions in aid to Haiti IADB writes off $479 mln Haitian debt, opens new $200 mln…
CNN reports on recent uptick in cholera cases worldwide CNNs the chart blog page examines the rising number of cholera cases around the world. As well as the cholera outbreak in Haiti, [a]s of this month, four African nations - Nigeria, Cameroon, Niger and Chad - possess reported a lot more than 40,000 instances of cholera and more than 2,000 deaths. Although WHO estimates there are three to five 5 million reported cholera cases and 100,000 to 120,000 deaths each year, [g]lobally, the real number of cholera cases reported to WHO continues to go up. From 2004 to 2008, cases increased by 24 % compared with the period from 2000 to 2004, according to the organization. WHO points to unclean water sources as the main source of cholera outbreaks, but also mentioned the rise in cholera instances might be due to a fresh group of variant strains detected in a number of elements of Asia and Africa. Continue reading As well as the cholera outbreak in Haiti.. ...
Cholera interannual periodicity and the link between cholera dynamics and climate variability remain incompletely understood and generally focused only on endemic regions [7, 9, 14, 15]. Pascual et al. [5] and Rodo et al. [7] described a role of El Niño/Southern Oscillation in the dynamics of cholera in Bangladesh. In addition, the complex relationship between largescale climatic variability and spatiotemporal patterns under local environmental conditions and weather contributes to the dynamics of local pathogen populations in aquatic ecosystems [34], and/or disease transmission [35, 36]. In this context, using a comparative approach developed for macroecology applications [37], the relationship between cholera incidence in five different African countries and climate interannual variability was explored. Indeed, analyses of long-term monthly disease time series underline both the complex, nonstationary dynamics of cholera epidemics in West Africa, and a relationship with large-scale climate ...
CVD 103-HgR (Vaxchora, PaxVax) cholera vaccine was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in June 2016. ACIP has not yet published recommendations for Vaxchora. However, at their June 2016 meeting, ACIP voted to recommend vaccination for adults 18 through 64 years old traveling to areas of active cholera transmission. An area of active cholera transmission is defined as a province, state, or other administrative subdivision within a country with endemic or epidemic cholera caused by toxigenic V. cholerae O1 and includes areas with cholera activity within the last 1 year that are prone to recurrence of cholera epidemics; it does not include areas where rare sporadic cases have been reported. No country or territory currently requires vaccination against cholera as a condition for entry. ...
Many mathematical models have been made from the cholera outbreak in Haiti, but our model is unique because it incorporated empirical data on the isolation of Vibrio cholerae O1 from surface waters in the Ouest Department of Haiti. We noticed that while the weekly reported cases seemed to be declining in the third and fourth years of the outbreak, the frequency of isolation of toxigenic V. cholerae in the environment was actually increasing. Under the current dogma of cholera transmission models, V. cholerae shed by humans into the environment only exists in a transient state governed by a constant rate of decay. The assumption is that although V. cholerae is an aquatic pathogen, it lacks the ability to replicate and survive for prolonged periods in surface waters. Given our understanding of V. cholerae biology, this is likely an oversimplification which precluded the possibility for an increase in environmental concentrations during a period where cholera incidence was infrequent or declining, ...
In January 1991, epidemic cholera appeared in Peru and quickly spread to many other Latin American countries. Because reporting of cholera cases was often delayed in some areas, the scope of the epidemic was unclear. An assessment of the conduct of surveillance for cholera in several countries identified some recurrent problems involving surveillance case definitions, laboratory surveillance, surveillance methods, national coordination, and data management. A key conclusion is that a simple, well-communicated cholera surveillance system in place during an epidemic will facilitate prevention and treatment efforts. We recommend the following measures: a) simplify case definitions for cholera; b) focus on laboratory surveillance of patients with diarrhea primarily in the initial stage of the epidemic; c) use predominantly the "suspect" case definition when the number of "confirmed" cases rises; d) transmit weekly the numbers of cases, hospitalized patients, and deaths to regional and central ...
Guidelines for Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Cholera Treatment Centres During an outbreak of cholera, most patients can be treated in existing health facilities. However, health officials may decide
What causes cholera?. Cholera is transmitted through poor hygiene and sanitation. It is no wonder that areas of natural disasters that result in disruption of water and sanitation systems are major outbreak areas of cholera. Other hotspots for cholera outbreaks are overcrowded refugee camps where displaced human populations are temporary accommodated and urban slums. These facilities, too, have inadequate clean water and sanitation system.. Strangely enough, it is not the infection itself that usually kills cholera victims but rather the dehydration resulting from severe diarrhea and vomiting.. The Haitian capital city Port-au-Prince is a classic example of an urban area where cholera can break out.. Pandemic cholera. Like the flu, cholera has also caused pandemics in the past. WHO gives the following historical background:. ...
The Department of Health has reported a cholera outbreak in the Mpumalanga region. From 26 April to 18 May, the cumulative number of suspected and confirmed cholera cases is 174 with 3 deaths (case fatality ratio 1.7%). The outbreak has included 27 areas bordering Swaziland and Mozambique, with Tonga being the most affected area.. A team from the Department of Health, joined by a medical officer from the WHO country office, has travelled to Mpumalanga to assess the situation and make recommendations to contain the outbreak.. This is the third province after Eastern Cape and Kwazulu-Natal to report a cholera outbreak this year. From 1 January to 28 March 2003, the cumulative number of reported cholera cases in South Africa is 2362.. ...
Cholera, a devastating diarrheal disease, has swept through the world in recurrent pandemics since 1817. The seventh and ongoing pandemic began in 1961 when the El Tor biotype of Vibrio cholerae O1 emerged in Indonesia. This pandemic spread through Asia and Africa and finally reached Latin America early in 1991 (1). After explosive epidemics in coastal Peru, it spread rapidly and continues throughout Latin America (Figure). Because of underreporting, the more than 1,000,000 cholera cases and 10,000 deaths reported from Latin America through 1994 (Table 1) (2) represent only a small fraction of the actual number of infections. Molecular characterization of V. cholerae O1 strains from Peru has shown that they do not match strains from anywhere else in the world; therefore, the source of the Peruvian epidemic strains remains unknown (3). Moreover, other strains have since appeared in Latin America. At least one of these, a strain resistant to multiple antimicrobial drugs, was first identified in ...
The 49th U.S.-Japan Joint Conference on Cholera and Other Bacterial Enteric Infections consisted of three days of presentations and discussions on cholera, typhoid and other diseases that affects countries like Bangladesh and Democratic Republic of Congo. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation-funded conference kicked off on Wednesday morning with a keynote speech from the recently inaugurated University of Florida President William Fuchs. He spoke about the Emerging Pathogens Institute and importance of great minds coming together to talk about these diseases and potential solutions.. "Just eight years ago the Florida legislature created EPI as Floridas go-to research institute for new and emerging diseases. The institute has moved very quickly since then to establish research initiatives in more than 30 countries," Fuchs said. "Your arrival for this annual conference reenforces that progress. Your discussions will be meaningful not only to EPI and the university-at-large, but also to the ...
Clinicians should obtain a travel history from their patients. Cholera infection is most often asymptomatic or results in mild gastroenteritis. Severe cholera is characterized by acute, profuse watery diarrhea, described as "rice-water stools" and often vomiting leading to volume depletion. Cholera is confirmed through culture of a stool specimen or rectal swab. Cary-Blair medium is ideal for transport, and the selective thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts agar is ideal for isolation and identification. Rehydration is the best treatment. Oral rehydration salts are used and intravenous fluids are used when necessary. For more information, see CDC Health Information for International Travel 2012.. ...
Fresh cholera outbreak has claimed no fewer than four lives and 38 others infected by the diseased in Toto Local Government Area of Nasarawa State.. A statement signed by public relations officer, state ministry of health, Musa Abdullahi and made available to The PUNCH in Lafia, said that cholera outbreak was experienced in Shege Ward in Toto LGA where 38 cases were confirmed and four died before reaching the primary healthcare facility.. According to him, some of the affected victims are currently stable and the patients are responding to treatment, stating that a team of health experts from the state ministry of health have donated drugs to the Shege community, while efforts are ongoing to contain the spread of the disease.. The state commissioner of health, Dr Daniel Iya, who was represented by state director of public health, Dr Ibrahim Adamu-Alhassan, donated the drug to the community, adding that the donation of the drug was part of the state governments intervention to avert further ...
Cholera epidemics caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 occur regularly in Bangladesh and India and sporadically in many parts of the world. In 1993, a total of 296,206 new cases of cholera were reported in South America after about a century, involving more than 15 countries. The outbreaks of cholera that have occurred during the past decade originated in coastal areas. From our previous work, V. cholerae attaches to plankton in the aquatic environment, providing the vehicle for dispersal. The organism attaches preferentially to zooplankton, particularly copepods, but it also attaches in lower numbers and without reproduction onto some species of phytoplankton. Phytoplankton provide the main food source for zooplankton so the two forms of plankton are tightly linked in space and time. Under adverse conditions of temperature and nutrients V. cholerae enters a dormant, non-culturable state which makes it difficult to detect. Although V. cholerae cannot be detected in any state by remote sensing ...
The world has experienced 7 cholera pandemics since 1817. The first six were caused by the classic biotype of the O1 serogroup of Vibrio cholerae. The 7th pandemic which began in 1961 and is still ongoing (with spread to Haiti and Mexico) is due to the less virulent El Tor biotype of O1 V.cholerae. In a project, my colleagues and I estimated global cholera costs as exceeding $3 billion annually. It was in 1849 during the 2nd pandemic that Dr. John Snow made his pathbreaking epidemiological discovery regarding the role of water in the spread of the cholera microbe--yet to be identified (see The Ghost Map and The Strange Case of the Broad Street Pump). During that pandemic, Dr. John Neill of Philadelphia preserved an intestine from a patient for further study.. The New England Journal of Medicine just published the results of a successful attempt to extract the cholera microbe from that over-a-century old specimen. The bacterium recovered was of the classical biotype (as predicted) and had a ...
The municipality of Plaine du Nord and Grison-Garde, La Bruyere and La Souffriere (the areas of the municipality of Acul du Nord) continue to send cholera patients to the CTC of Robillard. I do not see anything done yet to improve the situation of Robillard that is becoming chaotic. I do not want to have to experience such a stressful experience like the one of last Sunday. Cholera is an issue of public health. I do not understand the reason why the cholera patients of the CTC of Robillard are treated the way they are treated. Who has the financial means to help the cholera patients in Haiti? Can you help me know who received financial assistance to help them? Forgive my complaints, because I am tired to have to carry the burden of the cholera patients while the are people who have the responsibility to do that. I have to reapeat that the situation of Robilard is urgent. Those who have to improve that situation, what are they waiting for? Are they waiting for an human disaster to move quickly? I ...
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to all aspects of infectious diseases.
A new study has found that oral vaccines could prevent up to 60 percent of cholera cases in the first two years after vaccination.
BACKGROUND Cholera is an ancient disease that continues to cause epidemic and pandemic disease despite ongoing efforts to limit its spread. Mathematical models provide one means of assessing the utility of various proposed interventions. However, cholera models that have been developed to date have had limitations, suggesting that there are basic elements of cholera transmission that we still do not understand. METHODS AND FINDINGS Recent laboratory findings suggest that passage of Vibrio cholerae O1 Inaba El Tor through the gastrointestinal tract results in a short-lived, hyperinfectious state of the organism that decays in a matter of hours into a state of lower infectiousness. Incorporation of this hyperinfectious state into our disease model provides a much better fit with the observed epidemic pattern of cholera. These findings help to substantiate the clinical relevance of laboratory observations regarding the hyperinfectious state, and underscore the critical importance of human-to-human versus
Download Cholera Infection Causes Symptoms Treatment & Help. In this app we have compiled complete information of causes symptoms treatment of cholera, which is a disease caused by bacteria that produce a watery diarrhea that can rapidly lead to dehydration.symptoms...
The recent rise of the West Nile virus in the U.S. was a profound indicator that global patterns of infectious disease are changing. Just what is driving the shifts is difficult to identify, although climate change has long been a suspect. Now two reports published online this week by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences further implicate climate variability in the dynamics of one infectious disease: cholera. Using monthly mortality data for the periods 1893 to 1940 and 1980 to 2001 in present-day Bangladesh, a team led by Xavier Rodo of the University of Barcelona compared cholera outbreaks to the occurrence of the climate phenomenon known as the El Nio Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In the more recent years, the scientists found a link between ENSO and the incidence of cholera, with ENSO accounting for more than 70 percent of the disease variation. In the historical data set, however, that link was weak or absent. "What is new in this work is not showing that ENSO plays a role in ...
Scientists have figured out how to predict cholera outbreaks by looking at sea life. The idea pioneered at the University of Maryland is a rise in sea temperatures lead to the production of Phytoplankton, which are the root cause of cholera. As these phytoplankton get into the water supply, cholera pathogens are released and can lead to outbreaks. Obviously fore warned is fore armed, so this is will certainly help public health officials cope with these devastating outbreaks.. Via BBC News. ...
This 5.5" x 9" (13.97 x 13.97 cm), 64-page pamphlet written by Joel Roberts recounts the 1849 cholera epidemic in Sandusky. The last five pages of the diary list people who died in the epidemic. Cholera was a major threat in the 19th century. Due to poor sanitation and ignorance of the causes of disease, Sandusky suffered several cholera outbreaks in the 1840s and 1850s. The most devastating outbreak occurred in the summer of 1849, when 400 people died and many more fled the city in fear. The citys population before the outbreak was about 5,000; it is estimated that fewer than 1,000 remained in the city during the cholera. The 1882 History of Sandusky County reported that "medical men [were] taxed to their utmost to stem the tide of disease and death." The devastation caused by cholera and other epidemics helped to inspire improvements in medical care, research, and sanitation practices such as water treatment ...
This register, kept by the staff of the Sandusky City Hospital during the 1849 cholera epidemic, records patients discharged and deceased. The register is twelve pages long and lists eighty-three names. It measures 4.6" x 7" (11.68 cm x 17.78 cm). Cholera was a major threat in the 19th century. Due to poor sanitation and ignorance of the causes of disease, Sandusky suffered several cholera outbreaks in the 1840s and 1850s. The most devastating outbreak occurred in the summer of 1849, when 400 people died and many more fled the city in fear. The citys population before the outbreak was about 5,000; it is estimated that fewer than 1,000 remained in the city during the cholera. The 1882 History of Sandusky County reported that "medical men [were] taxed to their utmost to stem the tide of disease and death." The devastation caused by cholera and other epidemics helped to inspire improvements in medical care, research, and sanitation practices such as water treatment ...
Haiti should focus on stemming the cholera outbreak that has killed more than 7,000 people since 2010, rather than on levying blame against the source of the disease, UN special envoy to Haiti, Bill Clinton, said. While studies have suggested that the cholera came from a Nepalese soldier serving as a peacekeeper, Clinton pointed out…
Haiti should focus on stemming the cholera outbreak that has killed more than 7,000 people since 2010, rather than on levying blame against the source of the disease, UN special envoy to Haiti, Bill Clinton, said. While studies have suggested that the cholera came from a Nepalese soldier serving as a peacekeeper, Clinton pointed out…
Haq added that that the finding calls for a "significant new set of U.N. actions" and that a "new response will be presented publicly within the next two months.". The comments come in response to a report by U.N. special rapporteur and New York University law professor Philip Alston. According to the Washington Post, Alston argued to Secretary General Ban-ki Moon that the United Nations botch response in Haitis cholera crisis is "morally unconscionable, legally indefensible and politically self-defeating.". The human rights and international law expert added that the U.N.s years-long refusal to admit its role in causing the cholera outbreak "upholds a double standard according to which the U.N. insists that member states respect human rights, while rejecting any such responsibility for itself.". While the U.N.s latest statements dont go as far as to shoulder the entire blame, they represent a significant shift from the position maintained over the past six years. Statements by the U.N. as ...
If you develop severe, watery diarrhea and vomiting - particularly after eating raw shellfish or traveling to a country where cholera is epidemic -seek medical help immediately. Cholera is highly treatable, but because dehydration can happen quickly, its important to get cholera treatment right away.. Hydration is the mainstay of treatment for cholera. Depending on how severe the diarrhea is, treatment will consist of oral or intravenous solutions to replace lost fluids. Antibiotics, which kill the bacteria, are not part of emergency treatment for mild cases. But they can reduce the duration of diarrhea by half and also reduce the excretion of the bacteria, thus helping to prevent the spread of the disease.. ...
Abstract An explosive epidemic of cholera due to Vibrio cholerae, biotype El Tor, serotype Inaba, was centered on the coral atoll of Tarawa, Gilbert Islands. This outbreak was a unique experience in the South and Central Pacific region. The principal mode of spread during the peak of the outbreak was probably through contamination of the main water supply. Tarawa lagoon water and shellfish were found to be contaminated with V. cholerae and ingestion of raw fish and shellfish from the lagoon also served as a source of transmission. This outbreak raises the concern of other outbreaks of cholera occurring on remote and poorly equipped Pacific islands where the environmental circumstances are conducive to cholera spread.
The death toll from a cholera outbreak in Haiti has risen to more than 150 confirmed deaths, according to health officials with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and the U.S. Agency for International Development.
As death toll from Hurricane Matthew reaches 1,000 with almost 800 people missing, aid agencies warn that Haiti may be struck by fresh cholera outbreak
While the United Nations warned that protests were hampering efforts to save lives in the Haiti cholera outbreak, a leading non-profit group lashed out at organizations for what it called an inadequate response.
Haitian officals confirm that a cholera outbreak has killed 194 people and sickened thousands more in the countrys deadliest health problem since its devastating earthquake earlier this year.
MR. SMITH: Im Steven Smith from the U.S. Embassy. Im the health sector coordinator here in Haiti, and its a real pleasure to welcome you here, Madam Secretary Clinton, Your Honor. And I have very good news for you. The cholera situation here in Haiti is improving. Its been a very rough few months, but…
The United Nations failure to take responsibility for causing the Haitian cholera epidemic has led to a lawsuit, Delama Georges v United Nations. AMA Journal of Ethics is a monthly bioethics journal published by the American Medical Association.
Over 500 people in the Democratic Republic of Congo have been killed by a cholera outbreak since the beginning of the year, while aid agencies are stepping up efforts in other parts of the continent.
The preparedness of the health cluster to respond to cholera outbreak; effective partner coordination, and swift activation of the emergency operation centre, efficient case management and surveillance were the strong points that helped disrupt transmission and reduce mortality by about one per cent," he said. ...
African Health Ministers have pledged to implement key strategies for ending cholera outbreaks in the African region by 2030. Forty-seven African countries
A Nigerian health official has confirmed that at least 71 people have died following the latest cholera outbreak in the Kano state.
In Zambia, a cholera outbreak has led to calls for Government action to help students recover lost learning time following the delayed opening of schools.
Zambia is close to containing a cholera outbreak that has killed 78 of the more than 3,600 people who have fallen sick since October, the government said on Tuesday.
Cholera is an infectious disease that can cause severe watery diarrhea, dehydration, and death. Read about symptoms, treatment, prevention, vaccines, and outbreaks throughout history.
Our challenge in this locality is the absence of potable water and proper sewage system.. "Cholera may spread faster in this terrain because of our traditional occupation, feeding habit, and defecation.. "In the riverside area, we defecate in the river, fish in the same river, eat of the various sea foods from the same water body", she said.. Nte explained that contaminated faeces eaten by sea foods and consumed by humans would further hasten the spread of cholera in the area.. She said potable water had been provided to some communities in Andoni Local Government Area following the first outbreak of the disease that claimed 20 lives early this year.. Nte urged the government to speedily replicate such project in Ikuru town and other riverside communities to contain further spread and possible deaths from the disease.. She advised residents of the area to boil their water before drinking.. She urged the people to wash their hands regularly with soap and water and maintain high sanitary habit to ...
Alternative names: dysentery (though dysentery is actually a different condition, the two are often confused). Type of infection: bacterial. Incubation period: 12 hours to 5 days. Mortality rate: up to 50% when untreated. Vector: contaminated water. History The earliest reports of cholera-like symptoms are from India, about 1000 years ago, but there have been notable outbreaks around the world right up into current times. During an outbreak in England in 1854, contaminated water was discovered to be the root of the epidemic. That discovery led to the decline of the disease as citys began to improve their drinking water systems with more sanitary conditions. Catching Cholera Drinking unclean water that has been contaminated with cholera bacteria is the typical usual route for getting sick, though eating food that has been exposed to dirty water will also do it. It is not transferred from person to person in any way. Signs and Symptoms Severe diarrhea and vomiting are the main symptoms of ...
The World Health Organization (WHO) warns heavy rains and flooding in the Democratic Republic of Congo may exacerbate the countrys ongoing cholera epidemic. Rains last week triggered flooding and...
One was an 87 year old man who had a blood pressure of 60/40 and no palpable pulse when he was admitted the other day. But he looked good and acted good in the admission area even though he was quite ill with cholera.. The fact that he was 87 scared me though.. We struggled with him for four days and nights. Was his fast breathing from too much IV fluid or too little IV fluid?. His daughter took good care of him night and day on his green cot. He continued to have vomiting and diarrhea. We would speed up his fluids and then slow them down.. However, even though he was a little deaf, he was alert and answered all questions well.. One night I moved him from the tent back into the buidling when he got cold and weaker.. However, during the last couple of days his breathing pattern changed and he started breathing quickly all the time.. He had good eye contact with me last night and today. But he couldnt keep up the "work of breathing" and so he slowed down and stopped.. I was admitting patients ...
Scientists at the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health are working with health officials in South America to develop new ways to combat a deadly cholera epidemic.Dr. David A. Sack, an
AFRICAN NEWS AGENCY. The only independent news agency dedicated exclusively to Africa. S o Tom asks for help to stop cholera epidemic
The cholera epidemic which swept Europe between 1831 and 1833 was only the second pandemic of this disease to spread from India in modern times.... ...
Cholera epidemic spreads in DRC; Efforts to fight disease remain underfunded, U.N.N. Information Centre reports, adding, Over the past six months, the U.N.
Cholera cases have risen in Haiti, but the number dying from the disease is down, according to researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Severe diarrhea has killed at least 135 in Haiti and while doctors await test results, cholera remains at the top of the list of suspects.
Via IRIN Africa: GUINEA: New cholera strain poses prevention challenges. The cholera that struck more than 7,000 people in Guinea this year was caused by a new generation of cholera strains - atypical variants of vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor,...
A year after cholera burst upon earthquake-weary Haiti, plans are afoot to begin vaccinating people against the highly contagious disease. Nearly half a
As the cholera epidemic in Haiti rages on, the local population struggles not only to gain access to clean water, but also to learn about how to prevent a
The publication Guidelines for Cholera Control, available through WHOs Distribution and Sales Unit, states the following:. Vibrio cholerae 01 can survive on a variety of foodstuffs for up to five days at ambient temperature and up to 10 days at 5-10 degrees Celsius. The organism can also survive freezing. Low temperatures, however, limit proliferation of the organism and thus may prevent the level of contamination from reaching an infective dose.. The cholera vibrio is sensitive to acidity and drying, and commercially prepared acidic (ph 4.5 or less) or dried foods are therefore without risk. Gamma irradiation and temperatures above 70 degrees Celsius also destroy the vibrio and foods processed by these methods, according to the standards of the Codex Alimentarius, and The foods that cause greatest concern to importing countries are seafood and vegetables that may be consumed raw. However, only rare cases of cholera have occurred as a result of eating food, usually seafood, transported ...
The cholera epidemic in Haiti is spreading faster than public health agencies originally estimated, the senior United Nations official said on Tuesday.. In a few short weeks since the outbreak began, 1,344 people have lost their lives to the disease, which has rocked an already struggling, earthquaked-ravaged Haiti, trying to rebuild.. UN humanitarian coordinator Nigel Fisher said the number of deaths linked to the outbreak may be closer to 2,000 because remote and rural areas are likely underreporting illnesses. He said that the number of cases, currently estimated to be 50,000, is likely in the 60,000-70,000 range. In the briefing with reporters Tuesday Fisher said that public health officials are reworking their estimates.. "They are now revising that to 200,000 in closer to a three-month period. So this epidemic is moving faster," he said, adding that it was now present in all 10 of Haitis provinces. "Its going to spread.. "The medical specialists all say that this cholera epidemic will ...
Background: Cholera is an acute enteric infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholera of serogroup 01 or 0139. It is water borne disease of public health im...
When epidemic cholera appeared in Haiti in October 2010, the medical community there had virtually no experience with the disease and needed rapid training as the epidemic spread throughout the country. We developed a set of training materials specific to Haiti and launched a cascading training effort. Through a training-of-trainers course in November 14-15, 2010, and department-level training conducted in French and Creole over the following 3 weeks, 521 persons were trained and equipped to further train staff at the institutions where they worked. After the training, the hospitalized cholera patients case-fatality rate dropped from 4% to <2% by mid-December and was <1% by January 2011. Continuing in-service training, monitoring and evaluation, and integration of cholera management into regular clinical training will help sustain this success.
A cholera epidemic which ran from August 2008 into the first half of 2009 claimed more than 4,000 lives before the government announced
On behalf of the Japanese Panel of Cholera and Other Bacterial Enteric Infections, I welcome you to the United States-Japan Cooperative Medical Science Program (UJCMSP) 49th Annual Joint Panel Meeting. The meeting will be held from January 14 through January 16, 2015 in Gainesville, Florida, USA. The US-Japan Joint meeting has generally been held in the US and Japan in turns. However, a revolutionary and wonderful change of the tradition has been made by the US Cholera Panel recently, having the joint meeting held, in the years that it was the US turn for the meeting, in non-US and non-Japanese Asian countries where diarrhea is prevalent. It is actually the Japanese turn to host this coming meeting. However, my old friend, Professor Glenn Morris of University of Florida ...
On behalf of the Japanese Panel of Cholera and Other Bacterial Enteric Infections, I welcome you to the United States-Japan Cooperative Medical Science Program (UJCMSP) 49th Annual Joint Panel Meeting. The meeting will be held from January 14 through January 16, 2015 in Gainesville, Florida, USA. The US-Japan Joint meeting has generally been held in the US and Japan in turns. However, a revolutionary and wonderful change of the tradition has been made by the US Cholera Panel recently, having the joint meeting held, in the years that it was the US turn for the meeting, in non-US and non-Japanese Asian countries where diarrhea is prevalent. It is actually the Japanese turn to host this coming meeting. However, my old friend, Professor Glenn Morris of University of Florida ...
We would be a very bad watchdog if we failed to acknowledge the impressive response that President Edgar Lungu has given the cholera outbreak in Lusaka and selected parts of the country. Others may choose to condemn him over the failure by his government to put in place preventive measures against the annual epidemic - they have the right to do so. However, it is also our responsibility as critics to give credit where a leader shows determination to achieve positive results; even if they were correcting a mistake.. It is our considered view that if President Lungu did not invoke military intervention in the cholera outbreak, we would be talking about thousands of deaths today. If soldiers, especially in Lusaka, did not seize the central business district to close all shops, remove all vendors and embark on a cleaning exercise, millions of people would have been infected by now.. Of course, the normal thing to do would have been to make a public announcement that a joint team of defence personnel ...
Cholera, an infectious disease that affects people through drinking water contaminated with cholera bacteria, can kill people within 24
NEW YORK, USA, 25 October 2010 - Concern is growing in Haiti as the number of cases of acute diarrhoea caused by cholera continues to rise, and fear of a wider outbreak grows. Since the first cases were confirmed last week, a total of some 3,000 cholera cases and more than 250 deaths from the waterborne illness have been reported.
Cholera was one of the most feared infectious diseases of the Industrial age. Indeed, it is still a major killer in the Third World and in areas where sanitation is poor. Cholera first struck England in 1831, killing some 30,000 people in an outbreak lasting the best part of a year. The vast majority of these deaths were of people living in overcrowded slums with poor housing and little, if any, provision of clean water. The rate of death prompted several enquiries into the cause of the disease, including John Snows breakthrough in the 1850s. Known as King Cholera due to the way in which the disease mastered, controlled and decided the fate the people it struck on several further occasions in the 19th century. Pasteurs germ theory and the subsequent identification of the cholera germ provided the scientific evidence required to force through change, and by the turn of the century, Cholera was no longer king. Things to think about:. ...
Cholera is inherently linked to water supply and is spread when people consume contaminated food or water. "Cholera is a disease of inequity. The poverty map of the world is the same as the cholera map," says Dominique Legros, a cholera expert at WHO. Typical at-risk areas are peri-urban slums, with precarious basic infrastructures, as well as internally displaced or refugee camps, where minimum requirements of clean water and sanitation are often not met.. ...
Interesting facts about cholera disease - What sort of disease is cholera? Bacterial infection. Cholera is caused by a bacterium, vibrio cholerae. Infections results in severe profuse watery diarrhea and may cause death from dehydration. The bacterium is usually transmiited through water or food.
Over the last 120 years or so there have been seven cholera pandemics. Vaccines from killed bacteria do not give lasting immunity and therefore present research is concentrated on live vaccines. A new discovery at Harvard (Matthew K Waldor and John J Mekalanos, Science 1996;272:1910-4) has important implications for vaccine development as well as for bacterial science (Nigel Williams, Science1996;272:1869-70). Most cholera bacteria are benign but virulent strains can transmit the capacity for toxin production horizontally to other strains. and Waldor and Mekalanos have shown that this transmission is accomplished by a filamentous bacteriophage. A section of DNA within the bacterial chromosome, known as the CTX element, contains at least six genes including the toxin gene and it is this CTX segment which is transmitted by the phage. Toxin production and the formation of bacterial cell surface pili, which are responsible for gut wall adherence, are both regulated by a single bacterial gene, toxR. ...
The cases in Chikhwawa were mainly recorded around the Boma because that is where the problem of water shortage hit hard and so far no death has been reported. The other case has been recorded in Blantyre ...
I received the following email from Partners in Health a short while ago. The numbers are shocking. With hurricane season in full swing, the cholera epidemic is more dire than ever. From Partners in Health (PIH) As you may be aware, a second wave of cholera is battering Haiti. What you may not know is…
Background: A Cholera outbreak was reported in Lusaka District between February and May 2016, with 1,079 cases and 20 deaths recorded in the per-urban areas. Bauleni catchment area alone reported 441 (40.9%) case patients with case fatality rate of 4 (0.9%). Bauleni clinic was one of the three established cholera treatment centres (CTC) and other two being Kanyama and Matero Health Centres. Ministry of Health engaged partners that conducted a multi-intervention response to the outbreak ...
Schoolnik elucidated how global climate change, deforestation and agricultural intensification have impacted cholera outbreaks. Seasonally cholera is associated with monsoons in India. It is suspected that global climate change is increasing the severity of monsoons, which in conjunction with deforestation, is leading to increased runoff in the Ganges watershed. In this runoff are increasing levels of fertilizers because of agricultural intensification and increasing levels of human wastes due to surging human population numbers. The nutrient and waste laden runoff is causing greater algal blooms and higher copepod densities leading to increased incidence of cholera in the drinking water and larger cholera outbreaks. Luckily the situation is can be partially remedied by providing clean drinking water, which can be as simple as filtering river water thru a sari. The whole story epitomized for me the fragile web of interactions that we disturb at our own peril ...
Princeton University researchers have discovered that the bacteria behind the life-threatening disease cholera initiates infection by coordinating a wave of mass shapeshifting that allows them to more effectively penetrate their victims intestines. The researchers also identified the protein that allows Vibrio cholerae to morph, and found that its activated through quorum sensing. The findings could lead to new treatments for cholera that target the bacterias ability to change shape or penetrate the gut.
The first pandemic of cholera occurred in the 1810s and was believed to have originated in the India/Bangladesh area where pools of still rice water facilitated its spread (5). Cholera itself can range in severity in its host, from a mild diarrhea to a level of fluid loss bordering on hemorrhage. Patients with cholera can…
This practical field guide brings together lessons learned from Oxfams past interventions in the prevention and control of cholera, and other related guidance. The aim is to provide a quick, step-by-step guide to inform cholera outbreak interventions and ensure public health programmes that are rapid, community-based, well-tailored, and gender and diversity aware. Published in August, 2012 ...
Reference: Pustovalova L.M., Amino acid composition of cholera and cholera-like Vibrio, Voprosy meditsinskoi khimii, 1961, vol: 7(3), 265-270 ...
Doctors in Haitis hard-hit southwestern region say they are starting to see cholera cases again, leading to worries that cases of the water-borne disease that can kill in hours could spike. The disease killed 9,000 people and sickened more than 700,000 in the last six years, with the outbreak eventually traced to U.N. peacekeepers.
Cholera cases are on the rise in Haiti following the onset of the rainy season, and the country is not adequately prepared to combat the deadly disease.
The investigators randomized 205,513 subjects to receive Shanchol or placebo. All cases of cholera were due to serogroup O1. Overall incidence rates of initial cholera episodes were 0.22 (95 percent confidence interval [CI] 0.18 to 0.27) per 100,000 person-days in vaccine recipients versus 0.36 (CI 0.31 to 0.42) per 100,000 person-days in placebo recipients (adjusted efficacy 39 percent, 95 percent CI 23 to 52). The overall incidence of severe cholera was 0.09 (CI 0.07 to 0.12) per 100,000 person-days versus 0.19 (CI 0.15 to 0.23; adjusted efficacy 50 percent, CI 29 to 65). The vaccine did not protect children younger than 5 years. Adjusted efficacy against all cholera was 52 percent for 5- to 15-year-olds and 59 percent for those 15 years or older ...
Since the beginning of 2017, Kenya is experiencing an upsurge of cholera cases. The first cholera outbreak reported in 2017 was in Tana River County. The outbreak started on 10 October 2016 and was controlled by April 2017. Source:: WHO-Disease. ...
Some people infected with cholera bacteria have no symptoms, although these people are still a potential source of infection because the bacteria pass out of the body in their feces. When symptoms do occur they may appear anywhere between six hours and five days after the initial infection with the bacteria. The most common symptom of cholera is mild diarrhoea, and in about 10 % cases the symptoms are severe, with profuse watery diarrhea and vomiting. In such cases fluid loss may be substantial, as much as quart, of fluid per hour, which can lead to rapid dehydration. The dehydration itself causes additional symptoms and signs, including a dry mouth and mucus membrane, thirst, lethargy, rapid heart rate, and leg cramps. If not treated, severe dehydration can be fatal within hours ...
The seventh pandemic was different from the six previous ones, in that authorities claimed that it originated in Indonesiaand that the cause was V. cholerae 01 El Tor. After its appearancein Indonesia in 1961, the disease spread to East Pakistan (Bangladesh)in 1963, India in 1964, the former U.S.S.R. in 1965 to 1966, andAfrica in 1970 to 1971. But, the greatest surprise was in 1991when the seventh pandemic struck South America, first in Peruin the port city of Chancay, 60 km north of Lima. The next dayan outbreak was reported from Chimbote, a seaport 400 km northof Chancay. Spread of the outbreak was rapid, and by 7 February1991, confirmed cases were reported along the Peruvian coast fromthe Chilean to the Ecuadorean border, 2000 km distant (39).The near simultaneous appearance of cholera along such a greatdistance of coastline cannot easily or logically be explainedby ballast discharge from a single ship in Lima. More likely,the plankton blooms that occurred were triggered by a climaticevent, ...
UN officials have not processed claims of wrongdoing in Haiti, nor have they done so in any of the nations in which theyve launched peacekeeping missions.
A cholera outbreak in Haiti has killed more than 500 people as relief agencies struggle to cope with the impact of Hurricane Tomas, the World Health Organization says.
Robert Bazell (NBC Nightly News) reports on the fight to hold back Haitis growing cholera epidemic as torrential rainfall is expected in a place where millions are without shelter.. ...
The vibriolytic plaque-forming cell (PFC) assay was used to study the kinetics of the primary and secondary immune responses of mice and rabbits immunized with heat-killed cholera vibrios. Immunocytes releasing IgG antibody could be detected as readily as those immunocytes secreting IgM antibody in spleens of BALB/c mice and New Zealand White rabbits after a single injection of vaccine. Peak numbers of indirect (IgG) PFC were detected 3 to 4 days after the peak direct (IgM) PFC response (12 to 14 days). In contrast, only direct vibriolytic PFC were detected in spleens of NIH Albino mice during the primary response to cholera antigens. After a second injection of vaccine, IgM, IgG, and IgA PFC were detected in both mouse strains with peak responses for each immunocyte class occurring within the first week after booster injection. Heat-killed vibrios or a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extract, but not cholera exotoxin or E. coli LPS, inhibited the vibriolytic response. Furthermore, viable cholera ...
<p>The popular theory is that UN soldiers brought the disease into the country from Nepal, but unexpected climatic conditions may be to blame.</p>
The massive outbreak of cholera in 2008 that affected over 100 000 people and killed 4 000 and the measles outbreak of 2009 and early 2010 which affected over 10,544 with over 520 deaths, were testimony to the status of the social service system and a wake up call for everyone.. Urgent and important steps needed to be taken to reverse the tide. The Government, with the support of donors, launched several initiatives to address the underlying causes of cholera. These included the Emergency Rehabilitation and Risk Reduction programme, the Bulawayo Water and Sewerage Response programme, and Zim-Fund. These initiatives have contributed to the recovery of the water and sanitation sector and to reductions in cholera cases and other related deaths.. Transition funds were set up in health, education, and child protection which brought partners together to plan and coordinate national scale interventions at sectoral level under the leadership of the ministries of Health and Child Care, Primary and ...
Two more people have been quarantined at Beitbridge District Hospital after they were diagnosed with cholera last Thursday. This brings to 10 the total number of cholera cases recorded in country after similar cases were reported in Mudzi and Chiredzi. Chairperson of the Beitbridge civil protection committee Mr Simon Muleya, who is also the district administrator, yesterday said the two new cases were from Tshidixwa 10km along the Beitbridge Masvingo road. The two have been admitted at the cholera isolation centre at the district hospital along with the two children from Donsa area.. ...
PSR member John Lamperti reviews The Ghost Map: The Story of Londons Most Terrifying Epidemic--and How It Changed Science, Cities, and the Modern World.
The humanitarian organisation, Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF), on Sunday, said no fewer than seven persons died of cholera outbreak in Maiduguri in the past three weeks.
Back to the young men of Duffys Cut. Considering their deplorable living conditions, and with a pandemic of cholera already hitting the Philadelphia area, its no wonder that by mid-August, a few of the workers came down with the disease. The rest of the workmen left the shanty, seeking food and shelter at houses up on the hills. Reports said they were all turned away and they returned to the ravine, where it was said that they all contracted and died from the disease. Most were buried in a mass grave. The niggling loophole in this story is that cholera never kills 100% of its victims. Like any pandemic, some people have better immunity than others ...
Cholera is an infectious disease caused by bacteria. You can get cholera if you eat food or drink water that is contaminated with the bacteria.
Delhi is facing the worst episode of cholera in last 16 years. MCD has reported as many as 548 cases of cholera in the city up to May 15. In the earlier years
THE toxin that makes cholera lethal belongs not to the cholera bacterium itself, but to a threadlike virus which hijacks it to hitch a ride into cells. Thi
Author Summary Cholera outbreaks have had catastrophic impact on societies for centuries. Despite more than half a century of advocacy for safe water, sanitation and hygiene, approximately 100,000 cholera cases and 5,000 deaths were reported in Zimbabwe between August 2008 and by July 2009. Safe and effective oral cholera vaccines have been licensed and used by affluent tourists for more than a decade to prevent cholera. We asked whether oral cholera vaccines could be used to protect high risk populations at a time of cholera. We calculated how many cholera cases could have been prevented if mass cholera vaccinations would have been implemented in reaction to past cholera outbreaks. We estimate that determined, well organized mass vaccination campaigns could have prevented 34,900 (40%) cholera cases and 1,695 deaths (40%) in Zimbabwe. In the sites with endemic cholera, Kolkata and Zanzibar, a significant number of cases could have been prevented but the impact would have been less dramatic. The barriers
Vibrio cholera, causing acute watery diarrhea known as cholera disease, affects all ages and both genders. Cholera infection outbreaks in Iraq have been reported for several years. The recent cholera outbreak, emerged throughout 2015, was investigated using bacteriological laboratory tests, singleplex and multiplex PCR technique for the detection of V. cholera from stool samples. Furthermore the toxigenic potential coupled with the antibiotic susceptibility test for cholera and other bacteria were also investigated. The stool samples were collected from 5698 patients admitted to Al-Yarmouk Teaching hospital and health care centers in Baghdad/Al-Karkh, Iraq, from the 1st of August to the 30th of December 2015. The V. cholera was isolated from 194 cases (3.4% of the cases age between 21 - 50 years). In addition, other enteric infections: Salmonellosis and Shigellosis 7 and 21 respectively, protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica 2 and 43 cases respectively were also reported. High
Three freshwater lakes, Lisi Lake, Kumisi Lake and Tbilisi Sea, near Tbilisi, Georgia, were studied from January 2006 to December 2007 to determine the presence of Vibrio cholerae employing both bacteriological culture method and direct detection methods, namely PCR and direct fluorescent antibody (DFA). For PCR, DNA extracted from water samples was tested for presence of V. cholerae and genes coding for selected virulence factors. Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 was routinely isolated by culture from all three lakes; whereas V. cholerae O1 and O139 were not. Water samples collected during the summer months from Lisi Lake and Kumisi Lake were positive for both V. cholerae and V. cholerae ctxA, tcpA, zot, ompU and toxR by PCR. Water samples collected during the same period from both Lisi and Kumisi Lake were also positive for V. cholerae serogroup O1 by DFA. All of the samples were negative for V. cholerae serotype O139. The results of this study provide evidence for an environmental presence of ...
The August 2008 outbreak of cholera in Zimbabwe rapidly spread to the neighbouring countries of Mozambique, South Africa and Botswana and later also affected Angola, Malawi, Namibia, Swaziland, Zambia and the DRC. The situation was aggravated by the influx of illegal immigrants into South Africa, coupled with inadequate water and sanitation facilities and poor hygiene at temporary processing centres for asylum seekers (UNICEF, 2009). Equally concerning is that some countries which had previously been free of the disease, such as Botswana and Namibia, have also started reporting cases (see Table 1).. Results of qualitative participatory engagement. Although much is known about the medical and biological dimensions of cholera in the SADC region, the social, political, and cultural dimensions of cholera outbreaks are less well documented. Given this reality, a multi-stakeholder workshop and other methods of participatory engagement were pursued to solicit inputs on these dimensions. A number of key ...
Background: Human genetic factors such as blood group antigens may affect the severity of infectious diseases. Presence of specific ABO and Lewis blood group antigens has been shown previously to be associated with the risk of different enteric infections. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of the Lewis blood group antigens with susceptibility to cholera, as well as severity of disease and immune responses to infection. Methodology: We determined Lewis and ABO blood groups of a cohort of patients infected by Vibrio cholerae O1, their household contacts, and healthy controls, and analyzed the risk of symptomatic infection, severity of disease if infected and immune response following infection. Principal Findings: We found that more individuals with cholera expressed the Le(a+b−) phenotype than the asymptomatic household contacts (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.03-3.56) or healthy controls (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.13-3.21), as has been seen previously for the risk of symptomatic ETEC ...
ABSTRACT: In a double blind trial a glycine fortified oral glucose electrolyte solution was evaluated in a group of infants and small children (n = 25) with moderate to severe dehydration due to acute diarrhoea, and was compared with a matched control group (n = 26) receiving only glucose based oral rehydration solution. It is seen that the diarrhoea stool output, duration of diarrhoea, and volume of oral rehydration fluid required to achieve and maintain hydration are significantly lower in the group receiving glycine fortified glucose electrolyte solution. The possibility of developing an oral rehydration solution which could also act as an absorption promoting drug is discussed. ...
World Health Organisation (WHO) has warned on Thursday that cholera has spread the border from Iraq to Iran. Cholera, which is continuing to spread within Iraq, can be carried by refugees and pilgrims, and through normal trade, even closing borders wont stop the germ. Iraq shares borders with Iran, Turkey, Syria, Jordan, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. Some 60,000 Iraqis flee their homes each month and 2.2 million Iraqis have crossed into neighboring countries, mainly Syria and Jordan, according to the United Nations. It highlighted the need for Iraqs neighboring countries to boost their defences against the deadly disease.Countries affected should stock up on intravenous fluids and oral rehydration salts to combat dehydration in victims.The UN agency said it did not recommend any travel or trade restrictions on Iraq.. Cholera has struck at least 3,315 people in Iraq since mid-August, killing at least 15. According to WHO global cholera coordinator Claire-Lise Chaignat, up to 10 cases have also been ...
A Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast expression vector, pACTBVP1, containing the fusion of the foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) VP1 gene and the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) gene was constructe
Jingdong Yumei Integrative of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Western Medicine Treatment Kidney Disease Hospital is a sole proprietorship hospital set up by Zhongmei Group. And it is the only-one first-class level of kidney disease specialty hospital in China. The building area is about 40,000 m2 and the available patient beds are about 360. There are enough treatment equipments for all kinds of kidney disease. And the patients who have received our treatment are from all parts of the country. The patients outside the area account for more than 92%. Also, we can receive the patients from foreign countries, such as Nepal, Italia. Jingdong Yumei Integration of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Western Medicine Kidney Disease Hospital is the current largest kidney disease hospital in China ...

Yemen: 23,500 cholera cases, 242 deaths in three weeks: WHO »Yemen: 23,500 cholera cases, 242 deaths in three weeks: WHO »

Yemen: 23,500 cholera cases, 242 deaths in three weeks: WHO A cholera outbreak in war-ravaged Yemen has killed 242 people, and ... Cholera is a highly contagious bacterial infection spread through contaminated food or water. Reining in the disease is ... The UN health agency said that in the past day alone, 20 cholera deaths and 3,460 suspected cases had been registered in the ... "The speed of the resurgence of this cholera epidemic is unprecedented," WHO representative for Yemen Nevio Zagaria told ...
more infohttp://www.truhealthonline.com/yemen-23500-cholera-cases-242-deaths-three-weeks/

Aid group says Yemen cholera outbreak has infected 1 million - Life VoyageursAid group says Yemen cholera outbreak has infected 1 million - Life Voyageurs

Aid group says Yemen cholera outbreak has infected 1 million. SANAA, Yemen - The International Committee of the Red Cross says ... The fighting has killed more than 10,000 people, displaced 3 million and damaged critical infrastructure, fueling the cholera ... around 1 million people in war-ravaged Yemen are believed to have been infected in a cholera outbreak that began last year. ...
more infohttp://lifevoyageurs.com/story/aid-group-says-yemen-cholera-outbreak-has-infected-1-million/0092137/

186 dead in Yemen Cholera outbreak in addition to 14,000 infected: WHO | NoLimit zone186 dead in Yemen Cholera outbreak in addition to 14,000 infected: WHO | NoLimit zone

The cholera outbreak in Yemen has so far infected 14,000 people, with at least 186 related deaths since April 27, according to ... Home World News 186 dead in Yemen Cholera outbreak in addition to 14,000 infected: WHO ... The first wave of cholera outbreak in Yemen was announced on Oct. 6, 2016 by Yemens Ministry of Public Health and Population. ... 186 dead in Yemen Cholera outbreak in addition to 14,000 infected: WHO. May 17, 2017. 90 ...
more infohttps://www.nolimitszone.com/186-dead-in-yemen-cholera-outbreak-in-addition-to-14000-infected-who

Treatment | Cholera | CDCTreatment | Cholera | CDC

Cholera patients should be evaluated and treated quickly with Rehydration therapy, Antibiotic treatment, and Zinc treatment. ... However, the cholera-related information might still be relevant for cholera treatment or dealing with cholera outbreaks. ... Please consult the current CDC Cholera page for current cholera treatment recommendations. ... Cholera Treatments. * Rehydration therapy, meaning prompt restoration of lost fluids and salts through rehydration therapy is ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/cholera/treatment/index.html

Cholera - Vibrio cholerae infection  | Cholera | CDCCholera - Vibrio cholerae infection | Cholera | CDC

However, globally, cholera cases have increased steadily since 2005 and the disease still occurs in many places including ... Cholera, caused by the bacteria Vibrio cholerae, is rare in the United States and other industrialized nations. ... Cholera can be life-threatening but it is easily prevented and treated. Travelers, public health and medical professionals and ... Cholera, caused by the bacteria Vibrio cholerae, is rare in the United States and other industrialized nations. However, ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/cholera/index.html

Cholera Vaccines Being Tried Out | Physics ForumsCholera Vaccines Being Tried Out | Physics Forums

Vaccines against cholera have been around for over a century, oral vaccines for over two decades.. Anything that can reduce the ... Cholera is one of the biggest killers of people. One of the Horseman of the Apocalypse (pestilence). It causes extreme diarrhea ... That will reduce the incidence of many viral and bacterial infections, including dysentery, cholera and typhoid.. A good way to ... Apparantly there is a more effective (90%+ within 10 days of injection) cholera vaccine that was approved by the FDA in 2016, ...
more infohttps://www.physicsforums.com/threads/cholera-vaccines-being-tried-out.939350/

Cholera - WikipediaCholera - Wikipedia

"Choleras seven pandemics". CBC. 9 May 2008. Retrieved 15 July 2018.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ... Cholera - Vibrio cholerae infection-Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. *. "Cholera". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ... The word cholera is from Greek: χολέρα kholera from χολή kholē "bile". Cholera likely has its origins in the Indian ... Main article: Cholera vaccine. A number of safe and effective oral vaccines for cholera are available.[43] The World Health ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cholera

WHO | CholeraWHO | Cholera

Cholera. Vaccine. A vaccine consisting of killed whole-cell V. cholerae O1 in combination with a recombinant B-subunit of ... In studies of travellers to countries or areas reporting cholera outbreaks, WC/rBS was found also to induce approximately 50% ... Following primary immunization, protection against cholera may be expected after about 1 week. Booster doses are recommended ... Two closely related bivalent oral cholera vaccines are available in India and Viet Nam. These killed whole-cell vaccines are ...
more infohttp://www.who.int/ith/vaccines/cholera/en/

CholeraCholera

... What Is Cholera?. Cholera is a bacterial infection of the intestines. The good news is, cholera is easy to treat if ... Can Cholera Be Prevented?. In some areas cholera vaccines are given to help protect people against cholera for a short while. ... How Is Cholera Diagnosed?. To confirm a diagnosis of cholera, doctors may take a stool sample or vomit sample to check for ... How Is Cholera Treated?. Cholera needs immediate treatment because severe dehydration can happen within hours. Fortunately, ...
more infohttps://kidshealth.org/en/parents/cholera.html?view=ptr&WT.ac=p-ptr

CholeraCholera

Find out more about cholera in this article for teens. ... Cholera is an intestinal infection that mostly affects people ... What Is Cholera?. Cholera is a bacterial infection of the intestines. The good news is, cholera is easy to treat if its caught ... Can Cholera Be Prevented?. In some areas cholera vaccines are given to help protect people against cholera for a short while. ... How Is Cholera Diagnosed?. To confirm a diagnosis of cholera, doctors may take a stool sample or vomit sample to examine for ...
more infohttp://kidshealth.org/WillisKnighton/en/teens/cholera.html

Cholera toxin - WikipediaCholera toxin - Wikipedia

Cholera toxin acts by the following mechanism: First, the B subunit ring of the cholera toxin binds to GM1 gangliosides on the ... Cholera toxin (also known as choleragen and sometimes abbreviated to CTX, Ctx or CT) is AB5 multimeric protein complex secreted ... The cholera toxin is an oligomeric complex made up of six protein subunits: a single copy of the A subunit (part A, enzymatic, ... The gene encoding the cholera toxin is introduced into V. cholerae by horizontal gene transfer. Virulent strains of V. cholerae ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cholera_toxin

cholera | Infopleasecholera | Infoplease

... or Asiatic cholera, acute infectious disease caused by strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae that have been infected by ... cholera. cholera kŏl´ərə [key] or Asiatic cholera, acute infectious disease caused by strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae ... affords those carriers partial protection against cholera. See C. E. Rosenberg, The Cholera Years (1962). ... Cholera has a short incubation period (two or three days) and runs a quick course. In untreated cases the death rate is high, ...
more infohttps://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/medicine/diseases-and-conditions/pathology/cholera

WHO | Cholera - MozambiqueWHO | Cholera - Mozambique

From 14 August 2017 through 11 February 2018, 1799 cases and one death (case fatality rate = 0.06%) of cholera were reported ... the Ministry of Health in Mozambique notified WHO of an outbreak of cholera. ... Cholera outbreaks have occurred in Mozambique every year for the past five years. The most recent outbreak prior to the current ... In addition, the cholera case definition should be strictly applied to all suspected cases to decrease underreporting and to ...
more infohttp://www.who.int/csr/don/19-february-2018-cholera-mozambique/en/

Cholera: MedlinePlusCholera: MedlinePlus

Cholera is a bacterial infection that causes diarrhea caused by bacteria usually found in contaminated water. Learn about ... Cholera Fact Sheet (World Health Organization) Also in Spanish * Cholera Illness and Symptoms (Centers for Disease Control and ... Cholera Prevention and Control (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) * Cholera Treatment (Centers for Disease Control ... The cholera bacterium is usually found in water or food that has been contaminated by feces (poop). Cholera is rare in the US. ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/cholera.html

Cholera - Wikimedia CommonsCholera - Wikimedia Commons

English: Cholera (also called Asiatic cholera) is a disease of the intestinal tract caused by the Vibrio cholerae bacterium. ... A public notice anno 6th august 1833 from the staff of the swedish king, who shall introduce restrictions because of cholera ... A public notice anno 6th august 1833 from the staff of the swedish king, who shall introduce restrictions because of cholera ... Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cholera&oldid=250089469" ...
more infohttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Cholera

Cholera EpidemiologyCholera Epidemiology

Children and the elderly are at particular risk of rapidly developing and succumbing to the dehydration caused by cholera. ... Cholera is an acute infection of the small intestine that is a particular problem in developing countries where access to clean ... WHO and partners respond to upsurge of cholera cases in Yemen. *Haiti to receive $40.5 million from the UN to combat cholera ... Over the last century, the number of cholera cases and deaths due to cholera have steadily declined, mainly due to improvements ...
more infohttps://www.news-medical.net/health/Cholera-Epidemiology.aspx

WHO | Cholera in UgandaWHO | Cholera in Uganda

Cholera in Uganda. Disease Outbreaks Reported 19 May 2003 As of 30 April 2003, the Ugandan Ministry of Public Health has ...
more infohttp://who.int/csr/don/2003_05_19/en/

Cholera = CholéraCholera = Choléra

CHOLERA SURVEILLANCE : Appearance of Classical Biotype of Vibrio cholerae = SURVEILLANCE DU CHOLERA : Apparition du biotype ... CHOLERA SURVEILLANCE : Multiply Antibiotic-Resistant 0-Group 1 Vibrio cholerae = SURVEILLANCE DU CHOLÉRA : Apparition d une ... Cholera - Monitoring of Vibrio cholerae O139 = Choléra - Surveillance de Vibrio cholerae O139  ... 1926)‎. Cholera = Choléra. Weekly Epidemiological Record = Relevé épidémiologique hebdomadaire, 01 (‎05)‎, 1. https://apps.who. ...
more infohttps://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/232238

Cholera | Summary | NNDSSCholera | Summary | NNDSS

Cholera (Vibrio cholerae O1/O139) , 1996 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/cholera/case-definition/1996/) ... Cholera (Vibrio cholerae O1/O139) , 1995 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/cholera/case-definition/1995/) ... Cholera (Vibrio cholerae O1/O139) , 1990 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/cholera/case-definition/1990/) ...
more infohttps://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/cholera/

Cholera | Summary | NNDSSCholera | Summary | NNDSS

Cholera (Vibrio cholerae O1/O139) , 1996 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/cholera/case-definition/1996/) ... Cholera (Vibrio cholerae O1/O139) , 1995 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/cholera/case-definition/1995/) ... Cholera (Vibrio cholerae O1/O139) , 1990 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/cholera/case-definition/1990/) ...
more infohttp://wwwn.cdc.gov/NNDSS/script/conditionsummary.aspx?CondID=36

Cholera | pathology | Britannica.comCholera | pathology | Britannica.com

Cholera has often risen to epidemic proportions in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, particularly in India and ... Cholera, an acute infection of the small intestine caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and characterized by extreme ... Zimbabwe cholera outbreak of 2008-09. Zimbabwe, located in southern Africa, experienced a severe epidemic of cholera from 2008 ... Cholera through history. The recorded history of cholera is relatively short and remarkable. Although the ancient Greek ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/cholera

Cholera Threatens | Science NewsCholera Threatens | Science News

Science News was founded in 1921 as an independent, nonprofit source of accurate information on the latest news of science, medicine and technology. Today, our mission remains the same: to empower people to evaluate the news and the world around them. It is published by Society for Science & the Public, a nonprofit 501(c)(3) membership organization dedicated to public engagement in scientific research and education.. ...
more infohttps://www.sciencenews.org/archive/cholera-threatens

Cholera - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlusCholera - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

Health Information on Cholera: MedlinePlus Multiple Languages Collection ... Cholera: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Cólera: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) ... Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) -- Cholera Vaccine: What You Need to Know - English PDF Vaccine Information Statement (VIS ... URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/cholera.html Other topics A-Z. ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/languages/cholera.html

Cholera - King CountyCholera - King County

Cholera is an often severe and potentially fatal diarrheal disease caused by toxin-producing strains of the bacteria Vibrio ... Cholera facts, CDC. Resources for health care professionals. *Cholera is a reportable condition in King County: See disease ... Cholera is an often severe and potentially fatal diarrheal disease caused by toxin-producing strains of the bacteria Vibrio ... The last reported case of toxigenic cholera in King County occurred in 2003 in an international traveler. Only three cases of ...
more infohttp://www.kingcounty.gov/depts/health/communicable-diseases/disease-control/cholera.aspx

Cholera - WikipédiaCholera - Wikipédia

A00.0: Cholera zapríčinená Vibrio cholerae 01, biovar cholerae (klasická cholera). *A00.1: Cholera zapríčinená Vibrio cholerae ... Cholera v Uhorsku[upraviť , upraviť zdroj]. V Uhorsku bola posledná veľká epidémia cholery v lete a na jeseň roku 1892. ... Cholera v histórii[upraviť , upraviť zdroj]. Prvá dokázateľná epidémia cholery je známa z Indie (6. storočie pred Kr.). ... PARSI, Vida K. Cholera. Primary Care Update for OB/GYNS, máj 2001, roč. 8, čís. 3, s. 106-109. DOI: 10.1016/S1068-607X(00)00086 ...
more infohttps://sk.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cholera
  • This declaration came after the cholera epidemic spread across the capital's districts and neighborhoods," said Yemen's health ministry, calling for international organizations to help Yemeni hospitals cope with the "unprecedented humanitarian disaster. (nolimitszone.com)
  • The fresh statistics come 24 hours following the public health emergency state declared by Yemen's Ministry of Public Health and Population in its capital Sanaa, after the death of 115 cholera victims and the numbers of suspected cases reached 2,567, according to Yemen's state news agency Saba. (nolimitszone.com)
  • Please consult the current CDC Cholera page for current cholera treatment recommendations. (cdc.gov)
  • The current food shortages make us fear of further malnutrition among the most vulnerable, starting with the under (age) five children, where any kind of infectious epidemic can start at any moment after this current cholera epidemic,' Fournier explained. (cnn.com)
  • A vaccine consisting of killed whole-cell V. cholerae O1 in combination with a recombinant B-subunit of cholera toxin (WC/rBS) has been marketed since the early 1990s. (who.int)
  • Because cholera isn't a problem in the United States, the vaccine is not offered here. (kidshealth.org)
  • In 1892, Waldemar Haffkine, a Ukrainian bacteriologist who worked mostly in India, developed a human vaccine for cholera. (cbc.ca)
  • GENEVA (Reuters) - A third producer of oral cholera vaccine has been approved that is expected to provide 3 million doses in 2016, the World Health Organization said on Friday, doubling the world's stockpile against a disease that can kill within hours. (reuters.com)
  • A single dose vaccine is available for those traveling to an area were cholera is common. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2010 in some countries an injectable cholera vaccine was available. (wikipedia.org)
  • WC-rBS (marketed as "Dukoral") is a monovalent inactivated vaccine containing killed whole cells of V. cholerae O1 plus additional recombinant cholera toxin B subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, only two serogroups of V. cholerae -O1 and O139 (sometimes called the Bengal serogroup)-are known to cause cholera. (britannica.com)
  • On 27 October 2017, the Ministry of Health in Mozambique notified WHO of an outbreak of cholera. (who.int)
  • In October 2010, at least 250 people in Haiti died in an outbreak of cholera, almost 10 months after a major earthquake devastated the country, killing more than 200,000 people. (cbc.ca)
  • The classical biotype was responsible for most, if not all, of the six great cholera pandemics that swept through the world in the 19th and early 20th centuries. (britannica.com)
  • Mekalanos and Waldor believe that the CTX virus must have infiltrated a once-harmless strain of V. cholerae to create the strain responsible for the first great cholera pandemic of 1817. (newscientist.com)
  • Cholera was first seen to spread as a pandemic to different parts of the world from the Indian subcontinent in 1817. (news-medical.net)
  • Cholera epidemics can also sometimes happen after a disaster (like an earthquake or flood) if people are living in tent cities or other places without running water or proper sanitation systems. (kidshealth.org)
  • In the past two centuries, seven pandemics (global epidemics) of cholera have carried the disease to countries around the world. (britannica.com)
  • In England for example, no cases of cholera have originated in the country since 1893 and those that have been reported have been caught abroad. (news-medical.net)
  • Doctors diagnose cholera with a stool sample or rectal swab. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cholera is not contagious, and rarely spreads through direct contact with another person. (kidshealth.org)
  • Cholera is not contagious , so you can't catch it from direct contact with another person. (kidshealth.org)
  • How Long Is Cholera Contagious? (medicinenet.com)
  • Red Cross volunteers receive cholera vaccinations before heading up to Banda Aceh, Indonesia, to take part in tsunami relief efforts in January 2005. (cbc.ca)
  • In 1991, 100 years after cholera was vanquished from South America, there was an outbreak in Peru that spread across the continent, killing 10,000 people. (cbc.ca)
  • Cholera infections are often mild. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Seriously ill patients are highly effective transmitters of cholera, but persons with mild or no symptoms are more likely to travel, thereby also playing a crucial role in the spread of the disease. (britannica.com)
  • 1991. Epizootiology of Avian Cholera in Wildfowl. (wikipedia.org)
  • People get cholera from eating or drinking food or water that's been contaminated with the feces (poop) of someone who has cholera. (kidshealth.org)
  • The study of cholera in England by John Snow between 1849 and 1854 led to significant advances in the field of epidemiology . (wikipedia.org)
  • The three provinces which have reported cholera cases in this outbreak have been severely affected by the flooding which has resulted in the displacement of people and damage to the infrastructure, including health facilities. (who.int)
  • MSF believes cholera may be just the beginning of a nightmare health crisis in the southern African country. (cnn.com)
  • Rapid treatment with fluid and electrolytes result in better outcomes while people with other health problems beside cholera or those who are not rapidly replenished with fluid treatments tend to have a poorer prognosis. (medicinenet.com)
  • Health workers offer food to a father and son suffering from cholera symptoms at a local hospital in Harare on Tuesday. (smh.com.au)
  • A health worker attends to a child suffering from cholera symptoms in Harare. (smh.com.au)
  • Quarantine measures based on the findings of John Snow kept cholera out of Britain and the United States. (cbc.ca)
  • Priorities at this stage are to strengthen the surveillance system, and harmonizing cholera data collection and line listing of the cases, as well as putting in place a mechanism for active case finding at the community level. (who.int)
  • In addition, modern-day sewage and water treatment systems have largely eliminated cholera from developed countries. (cbc.ca)
  • The main treatment for cholera is fluid and electrolyte replacement, both oral and IV. (medicinenet.com)
  • Partners are already there and are establishing a cholera treatment centre. (smh.com.au)
  • Cholera has been found in two animal populations: shellfish and plankton. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sometimes doctors prescribe antibiotics to treat cholera. (kidshealth.org)
  • According to a report released Tuesday by Medecins Sans Frontieres (Doctors Without Borders), new cholera patients were being registered at a rate of one every minute at the beginning of February in Zimbabwe. (cnn.com)
  • One of them is available for adults in the U.S. Very few Americans need it, because most people do not visit areas that have an active cholera outbreak. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cholera is one of the biggest killers of people. (physicsforums.com)
  • But for people living in places without good sanitation, cholera is more of a risk. (kidshealth.org)
  • People are treated at the St. Nicholas hospital in Saint Marc, Haiti, on Oct. 21, 2010, during a cholera outbreak. (cbc.ca)
  • Only about one in 10 people infected with cholera develop the typical signs and symptoms. (medicinenet.com)
  • A cholera emergency has been declared in Zimbabwe's capital after 20 people died. (smh.com.au)
  • Zimbabwe suffered its biggest cholera outbreak in 2008 at the height of an economic crisis when more than 4000 people died and another 40,000 were treated after being infected. (smh.com.au)
  • The reasons for the (cholera) outbreak are clear: lack of access to clean water, burst and blocked sewage systems, and uncollected refuse overflowing in the streets, all clear symptoms of the breakdown in infrastructure resulting from Zimbabwe's political and economic meltdown,' the MSF report said. (cnn.com)
  • Risk factors contributing to the propagation of cholera to other provinces and districts in this outbreak include a shortage of potable water and contamination of household drinking water, which emphasize the need to improve access to clean water, adequate hygiene, and sanitation. (who.int)
  • Lack of sanitation and clean water make cholera spread. (cnn.com)
  • The latest cholera outbreak happened after burst sewers in Budiriro and Glenview suburbs contaminated water in boreholes and open wells, which are used by residents, said Moyo. (smh.com.au)
  • Descriptions of cholera are found as early as the 5th century BC in Sanskrit . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cholera is mostly found in the tropics - in particular Asia, Africa, Latin America, India, and the Middle East. (kidshealth.org)