An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.
The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 1. All are CHOLERA-causing strains (serotypes). There are two biovars (biotypes): cholerae and eltor (El Tor).
A specific monosialoganglioside that accumulates abnormally within the nervous system due to a deficiency of GM1-b-galactosidase, resulting in GM1 gangliosidosis.
A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.
Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 139. This strain emerged in India in 1992 and caused a CHOLERA epidemic.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Bangladesh" is a country located in South Asia, not a medical term or concept. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition. It shares borders with India, Myanmar (Burma), and Bay of Bengal. The population is primarily Bengali, and the official language is Bangla (Bengali). The capital city is Dhaka. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, feel free to ask!
Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
The development and establishment of environmental conditions favorable to the health of the public.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.
An acute, highly contagious disease affecting swine of all ages and caused by the CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS. It has a sudden onset with high morbidity and mortality.
A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
An old term that is no longer used in the scientific literature. Cholera morbus refers to acute GASTROENTERITIS occurring in summer or autumn; characterized by severe cramps, diarrhea, and vomiting.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
A strain of the VIBRIO CHOLERAE bacteria belonging to serogroup non-O1, infecting humans and other PRIMATES. It is related to VIBRIO CHOLERAE O1, but causes a disease less severe than CHOLERA. Eating raw shellfish contaminated with the bacteria results in GASTROENTERITIS.
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and west of GUINEA. Its capital is Bissau.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria normally found in the flora of the mouth and respiratory tract of animals and birds. It causes shipping fever (see PASTEURELLOSIS, PNEUMONIC); HEMORRHAGIC BACTEREMIA; and intestinal disease in animals. In humans, disease usually arises from a wound infection following a bite or scratch from domesticated animals.
One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.
Nucleoside Diphosphate Sugars (NDPs) are biomolecules consisting of a nucleoside monophosphate sugar molecule, which is formed from the condensation of a nucleotide and a sugar molecule through a pyrophosphate bond.
Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Philippines" is not a medical term; it is the name of a country located in Southeast Asia. It seems there might be some misunderstanding in your question. If you have a medical query related to the Philippines or its people, I'd be happy to help clarify that for you.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
A republic in central Africa, east of the REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, south of the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and north of ANGOLA and ZAMBIA. The capital is Kinshasa.
A species of the PESTIVIRUS genus causing exceedingly contagious and fatal hemorrhagic disease of swine.
Miscellaneous agents found useful in the symptomatic treatment of diarrhea. They have no effect on the agent(s) that cause diarrhea, but merely alleviate the condition.

Environmental signals modulate ToxT-dependent virulence factor expression in Vibrio cholerae. (1/1261)

The regulatory protein ToxT directly activates the transcription of virulence factors in Vibrio cholerae, including cholera toxin (CT) and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). Specific environmental signals stimulate virulence factor expression by inducing the transcription of toxT. We demonstrate that transcriptional activation by the ToxT protein is also modulated by environmental signals. ToxT expressed from an inducible promoter activated high-level expression of CT and TCP in V. cholerae at 30 degrees C, but expression of CT and TCP was significantly decreased or abolished by the addition of 0.4% bile to the medium and/or an increase of the temperature to 37 degrees C. Also, expression of six ToxT-dependent TnphoA fusions was modulated by temperature and bile. Measurement of ToxT-dependent transcription of genes encoding CT and TCP by ctxAp- and tcpAp-luciferase fusions confirmed that negative regulation by 37 degrees C or bile occurs at the transcriptional level in V. cholerae. Interestingly, ToxT-dependent transcription of these same promoters in Salmonella typhimurium was relatively insensitive to regulation by temperature or bile. These data are consistent with ToxT transcriptional activity being modulated by environmental signals in V. cholerae and demonstrate an additional level of complexity governing the expression of virulence factors in this pathogen. We propose that negative regulation of ToxT-dependent transcription by environmental signals prevents the incorrect temporal and spatial expression of virulence factors during cholera pathogenesis.  (+info)

Transmission of epidemic Vibrio cholerae O1 in rural western Kenya associated with drinking water from Lake Victoria: an environmental reservoir for cholera? (2/1261)

Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest reported cholera incidence and mortality rates in the world. In 1997, a cholera epidemic occurred in western Kenya. Between June 1997 and March 1998, 14,275 cholera admissions to hospitals in Nyanza Province in western Kenya were reported. There were 547 deaths (case fatality rate = 4%). Of 31 Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates tested, all but one were sensitive to tetracycline. We performed a case-control study among 61 cholera patients and age-, sex-, and clinic-matched controls. Multivariate analysis showed that risk factors for cholera were drinking water from Lake Victoria or from a stream, sharing food with a person with watery diarrhea, and attending funeral feasts. Compared with other diarrheal pathogens, cholera was more common among persons living in a village bordering Lake Victoria. Cholera has become an important public health concern in western Kenya, and may become an endemic pathogen in the region.  (+info)

Effects of changes in membrane sodium flux on virulence gene expression in Vibrio cholerae. (3/1261)

The expression of several virulence factors of Vibrio cholerae is coordinately regulated by the ToxT molecule and the membrane proteins TcpP/H and ToxR/S, which are required for toxT transcription. To identify proteins that negatively affect toxT transcription, we screened transposon mutants of V. cholerae carrying a chromosomally integrated toxT::lacZ reporter construct for darker blue colonies on media containing 5-bromo-4-chlor-3-indolyl beta-D galactoside (X-gal). Two mutants had transposon insertions in a region homologous to the nqr gene cluster of Vibrio alginolyticus, encoding a sodium-translocating NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (NQR). In V. alginolyticus, NQR is a respiration-linked Na+ extrusion pump generating a sodium motive force that can be used for solute import, ATP synthesis, and flagella rotation. Inhibition of NQR enzyme function in V. cholerae by the specific inhibitor 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide (HQNO) resulted in elevated toxT::lacZ activity. Increased toxT::lacZ expression in an nqr mutant strain compared with the parental strain was observed when the TcpP/H molecules alone were strongly expressed, suggesting that the negative effect of the NQR complex on toxT transcription is mediated through TcpP/H. However, the ability of the TcpP/H proteins to activate the toxT::lacZ reporter construct was greatly diminished in the presence of high NaCl concentrations in the growth medium. The flagellar motor of V. cholerae appears to be driven by a sodium motive force, and modulation of flagella rotation by inhibitory drugs, high media viscosity, or specific mutations resulted in increases of toxT::lacZ expression. Thus, the regulation of the main virulence factors of V. cholerae appears to be modulated by endogenous and exogenous sodium levels in a complex way.  (+info)

How intestinal bacteria cause disease. (4/1261)

An improved understanding of how intestinal bacteria cause disease has become increasingly important because of the emergence of new enteric pathogens, increasing threats of drug resistance, and a growing awareness of their importance in malnutrition and diarrhea. Reviewed here are the varied ways that intestinal bacteria cause disease, which provide fundamental lessons about microbial pathogenesis as well as cell signaling. Following colonization, enteric pathogens may adhere to or invade the epithelium or may produce secretory exotoxins or cytotoxins. In addition, by direct or indirect effects, they may trigger secondary mediator release of cytokines that attract inflammatory cells, which release further products, such as prostaglandins or platelet-activating factor, which can also trigger secretion. An improved understanding of pathogenesis not only opens new approaches to treatment and control but may also suggest improved simple means of diagnosis and even vaccine development.  (+info)

Expanded safety and immunogenicity of a bivalent, oral, attenuated cholera vaccine, CVD 103-HgR plus CVD 111, in United States military personnel stationed in Panama. (5/1261)

To provide optimum protection against classical and El Tor biotypes of Vibrio cholerae O1, a single-dose, oral cholera vaccine was developed by combining two live, attenuated vaccine strains, CVD 103-HgR (classical, Inaba) and CVD 111 (El Tor, Ogawa). The vaccines were formulated in a double-chamber sachet; one chamber contained lyophilized bacteria, and the other contained buffer. A total of 170 partially-immune American soldiers stationed in Panama received one of the following five formulations: (a) CVD 103-HgR at 10(8) CFU plus CVD 111 at 10(7) CFU, (b) CVD 103-HgR at 10(8) CFU plus CVD 111 at 10(6) CFU, (c) CVD 103-HgR alone at 10(8) CFU, (d) CVD 111 alone at 10(7) CFU, or (e) inactivated Escherichia coli placebo. Among those who received CVD 111 at the high or low dose either alone or in combination with CVD 103-HgR, 8 of 103 had diarrhea, defined as three or more liquid stools. None of the 32 volunteers who received CVD 103-HgR alone or the 35 placebo recipients had diarrhea. CVD 111 was detected in the stools of 46% of the 103 volunteers who received it. About 65% of all persons who received CVD 103-HgR either alone or in combination had a fourfold rise in Inaba vibriocidal titers. The postvaccination geometric mean titers were comparable among groups, ranging from 450 to 550. Ogawa vibriocidal titers were about twice as high in persons who received CVD 111 as in those who received CVD 103-HgR alone (600 versus 300). The addition of CVD 111 improved the overall seroconversion rate and doubled the serum Ogawa vibriocidal titers, suggesting that the combination of an El Tor and a classical cholera strain is desirable. While CVD 111 was previously found to be well tolerated in semiimmune Peruvians, the adverse effects observed in this study indicate that this strain requires further attenuation before it can be safely used in nonimmune populations.  (+info)

A reassessment of the cost-effectiveness of water and sanitation interventions in programmes for controlling childhood diarrhoea. (6/1261)

Cost-effectiveness analysis indicates that some water supply and sanitation (WSS) interventions are highly cost-effective for the control of diarrhoea among under-5-year-olds, on a par with oral rehydration therapy. These are relatively inexpensive "software-related" interventions such as hygiene education, social marketing of good hygiene practices, regulation of drinking-water, and monitoring of water quality. Such interventions are needed to ensure that the potentially positive health impacts of WSS infrastructure are fully realized in practice. The perception that WSS programmes are not a cost-effective use of health sector resources has arisen from three factors: an assumption that all WSS interventions involve construction of physical infrastructure, a misperception of the health sector's role in WSS programmes, and a misunderstanding of the scope of cost-effectiveness analysis. WSS infrastructure ("hardware") is generally built and operated by public works agencies and financed by construction grants, operational subsidies, user fees and property taxes. Health sector agencies should provide "software" such as project design, hygiene education, and water quality regulation. Cost-effectiveness analysis should measure the incremental health impacts attributable to health sector investments, using the actual call on health sector resources as the measure of cost. The cost-effectiveness of a set of hardware and software combinations is estimated, using US$ per case averted, US$ per death averted, and US$ per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) saved.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of a new ribotype of Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal associated with an outbreak of cholera in Bangladesh. (7/1261)

Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal initially appeared in the southern coastal region of Bangladesh and spread northward, causing explosive epidemics during 1992 and 1993. The resurgence of V. cholerae O139 during 1995 after its transient displacement by a new clone of El Tor vibrios demonstrated rapid changes in the epidemiology of cholera in Bangladesh. A recent outbreak of cholera in two north-central districts of Bangladesh caused by V. cholerae O139 led us to analyze strains collected from the outbreak and compare them with V. cholerae O139 strains isolated from other regions of Bangladesh and neighboring India to investigate their origins. Analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in genes for conserved rRNA (ribotype) revealed that the recently isolated V. cholerae O139 strains belonged to a new ribotype which was distinct from previously described ribotypes of toxigenic V. cholerae O139. All strains carried the genes for toxin-coregulated pili (tcpA and tcpI) and accessory colonization factor (acfB), the regulatory gene toxR, and multiple copies of the lysogenic phage genome encoding cholera toxin (CTXPhi) and belonged to a previously described ctxA genotype. Comparative analysis of the rfb gene cluster by PCR revealed the absence of a large region of the O1-specific rfb operon downstream of the rfaD gene and the presence of an O139-specific genomic region in all O139 strains. Southern hybridization analysis of the O139-specific genomic region also produced identical restriction patterns in strains belonging to the new ribotype and those of previously described ribotypes. These results suggested that the new ribotype of Bengal vibrios possibly originated from an existing strain of V. cholerae O139 by genetic changes in the rRNA operons. In contrast to previously isolated O139 strains which mostly had resistance to trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, and streptomycin encoded by a transposon (SXT element), 68.6% of the toxigenic strains analyzed in the present study, including all strains belonging to the new ribotype, were susceptible to these antibiotics. Molecular analysis of the SXT element revealed possible deletion of a 3.6-kb region of the SXT element in strains which were susceptible to the antibiotics. Thus, V. cholerae O139 strains in Bangladesh are also undergoing considerable reassortments in genetic elements encoding antimicrobial resistance.  (+info)

Cholera in the 1990s. (8/1261)

Two strains of Vibrio cholerae are currently significant in cholera: a remnant from the sixth pandemic (1899-1923) still present in South Asia and the seventh pandemic strain which emerged in 1961. The 1990s were marked by spread of the seventh pandemic to South America in 1991 and appearance of an O139 form of the seventh pandemic strain in 1992 (or possibly 1991), which in 1993 predominated in some areas but then declined. Molecular analysis showed that the sixth and the seventh pandemic clones are related, but have a different TCP pathogenicity island and possibly different CTX phages, suggesting independent derivation from related environmental strains. Upsurges of the seventh pandemic were accompanied by increased genetic variation enabling the relationships between strains to be studied, but the basis for variation in pathogenicity is not known. There is clearly a risk of new forms arising and a strategy for speedy development of vaccines needs to be established.  (+info)

Cholera is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which is usually transmitted through contaminated food or water. The main symptoms of cholera are profuse watery diarrhea, vomiting, and dehydration, which can lead to electrolyte imbalances, shock, and even death if left untreated. Cholera remains a significant public health concern in many parts of the world, particularly in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene. The disease is preventable through proper food handling, safe water supplies, and improved sanitation, as well as vaccination for those at high risk.

Cholera toxin is a protein toxin produced by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which causes the infectious disease cholera. The toxin is composed of two subunits, A and B, and its primary mechanism of action is to alter the normal function of cells in the small intestine.

The B subunit of the toxin binds to ganglioside receptors on the surface of intestinal epithelial cells, allowing the A subunit to enter the cell. Once inside, the A subunit activates a signaling pathway that results in the excessive secretion of chloride ions and water into the intestinal lumen, leading to profuse, watery diarrhea, dehydration, and other symptoms associated with cholera.

Cholera toxin is also used as a research tool in molecular biology and immunology due to its ability to modulate cell signaling pathways. It has been used to study the mechanisms of signal transduction, protein trafficking, and immune responses.

Cholera vaccines are preventive measures used to protect against the infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. There are several types of cholera vaccines available, including:

1. Inactivated oral vaccine (ICCV): This vaccine contains killed whole-cell bacteria and is given in two doses, with each dose administered at least 14 days apart. It provides protection for up to six months and can be given to adults and children over the age of one year.
2. Live attenuated oral vaccine (LCV): This vaccine contains weakened live bacteria that are unable to cause disease but still stimulate an immune response. The most commonly used LCV is called CVD 103-HgR, which is given in a single dose and provides protection for up to three months. It can be given to adults and children over the age of six years.
3. Injectable cholera vaccine: This vaccine contains inactivated bacteria and is given as an injection. It is not widely available and its effectiveness is limited compared to oral vaccines.

Cholera vaccines are recommended for travelers visiting areas with known cholera outbreaks, particularly if they plan to eat food or drink water that may be contaminated. They can also be used in response to outbreaks to help control the spread of the disease. However, it is important to note that vaccination alone is not sufficient to prevent cholera infection and good hygiene practices, such as handwashing and safe food handling, should always be followed.

"Vibrio cholerae" is a species of gram-negative, comma-shaped bacteria that is the causative agent of cholera, a diarrheal disease. It can be found in aquatic environments, such as estuaries and coastal waters, and can sometimes be present in raw or undercooked seafood. The bacterium produces a toxin called cholera toxin, which causes the profuse, watery diarrhea that is characteristic of cholera. In severe cases, cholera can lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalances, which can be life-threatening if not promptly treated with oral rehydration therapy or intravenous fluids.

"Vibrio cholerae O1" is a specific serogroup of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae that is responsible for causing cholera, a diarrheal disease. The "O1" designation refers to the lipopolysaccharide (O) antigen present on the surface of the bacterial cell wall, which is used in the serological classification of Vibrio cholerae. This serogroup is further divided into two biotypes: classical and El Tor. The El Tor biotype has been responsible for the seventh pandemic of cholera that began in the late 1960s and continues to cause outbreaks in many parts of the world today.

The Vibrio cholerae O1 bacterium produces a potent enterotoxin called cholera toxin, which causes profuse watery diarrhea leading to rapid dehydration and electrolyte imbalance if left untreated. The infection is usually acquired through the ingestion of contaminated food or water. Preventive measures include improving access to safe drinking water, proper sanitation, and good hygiene practices.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Haiti" is not a medical term. It is a country located in the Caribbean, specifically on the island of Hispaniola. If you have any questions about medical conditions or terminology, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

Antitoxins are substances, typically antibodies, that neutralize toxins produced by bacteria or other harmful organisms. They work by binding to the toxin molecules and rendering them inactive, preventing them from causing harm to the body. Antitoxins can be produced naturally by the immune system during an infection, or they can be administered artificially through immunization or passive immunotherapy. In a medical context, antitoxins are often used as a treatment for certain types of bacterial infections, such as diphtheria and botulism, to help counteract the effects of the toxins produced by the bacteria.

Toxoids are inactivated bacterial toxins that have lost their toxicity but retain their antigenicity. They are often used in vaccines to stimulate an immune response and provide protection against certain diseases without causing the harmful effects associated with the active toxin. The process of converting a toxin into a toxoid is called detoxication, which is typically achieved through chemical or heat treatment.

One example of a toxoid-based vaccine is the diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DT) or diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis toxoids (DTaP or TdaP) vaccines. These vaccines contain inactivated forms of the diphtheria and tetanus toxins, as well as inactivated pertussis toxin in the case of DTaP or TdaP vaccines. By exposing the immune system to these toxoids, the body learns to recognize and mount a response against the actual toxins produced by the bacteria, thereby providing immunity and protection against the diseases they cause.

"Vibrio cholerae O139" is a specific serogroup of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which is responsible for causing cholera, a diarrheal disease. The "O139" designation refers to the lipopolysaccharide antigen structure on the surface of the bacterial cell. This serogroup was first identified in 1992 in southern Asia and has since caused several outbreaks of cholera, particularly in that region. It is important to note that "Vibrio cholerae O139" is distinct from the more common "Vibrio cholerae O1," which has historically been responsible for most cholera cases worldwide. Both serogroups can cause severe diarrhea and dehydration if left untreated, but "Vibrio cholerae O139" is typically associated with a milder illness compared to "Vibrio cholerae O1."

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Bangladesh" is a country located in South Asia, rather than a medical term or condition. It is bordered by India to the west, north, and east, and by Myanmar (Burma) to the southeast, with the Bay of Bengal to the south. The official name of the country is the People's Republic of Bangladesh.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help answer them for you!

Intestinal secretions refer to the fluids and electrolytes that are released by the cells lining the small intestine in response to various stimuli. These secretions play a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients from food. The major components of intestinal secretions include water, electrolytes (such as sodium, chloride, bicarbonate, and potassium), and enzymes that help break down carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

The small intestine secretes these substances in response to hormonal signals, neural stimulation, and the presence of food in the lumen of the intestine. The secretion of water and electrolytes helps maintain the proper hydration and pH of the intestinal contents, while the enzymes facilitate the breakdown of nutrients into smaller molecules that can be absorbed across the intestinal wall.

Abnormalities in intestinal secretions can lead to various gastrointestinal disorders, such as diarrhea, malabsorption, and inflammatory bowel disease.

Enterotoxins are types of toxic substances that are produced by certain microorganisms, such as bacteria. These toxins are specifically designed to target and affect the cells in the intestines, leading to symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps. One well-known example of an enterotoxin is the toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, which can cause food poisoning. Another example is the cholera toxin produced by Vibrio cholerae, which can cause severe diarrhea and dehydration. Enterotoxins work by interfering with the normal functioning of intestinal cells, leading to fluid accumulation in the intestines and subsequent symptoms.

A disease outbreak is defined as the occurrence of cases of a disease in excess of what would normally be expected in a given time and place. It may affect a small and localized group or a large number of people spread over a wide area, even internationally. An outbreak may be caused by a new agent, a change in the agent's virulence or host susceptibility, or an increase in the size or density of the host population.

Outbreaks can have significant public health and economic impacts, and require prompt investigation and control measures to prevent further spread of the disease. The investigation typically involves identifying the source of the outbreak, determining the mode of transmission, and implementing measures to interrupt the chain of infection. This may include vaccination, isolation or quarantine, and education of the public about the risks and prevention strategies.

Examples of disease outbreaks include foodborne illnesses linked to contaminated food or water, respiratory infections spread through coughing and sneezing, and mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika virus and West Nile virus. Outbreaks can also occur in healthcare settings, such as hospitals and nursing homes, where vulnerable populations may be at increased risk of infection.

Adenosine diphosphate ribose (ADPR) is a molecule that plays a role in various cellular processes, including the modification of proteins and the regulation of enzyme activity. It is formed by the attachment of a diphosphate group and a ribose sugar to the adenine base of a nucleotide. ADPR is involved in the transfer of chemical energy within cells and is also a precursor in the synthesis of other important molecules, such as NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide). It should be noted that ADPR is not a medication or a drug, but rather a naturally occurring biomolecule.

Biological toxins are poisonous substances that are produced by living organisms such as bacteria, plants, and animals. They can cause harm to humans, animals, or the environment. Biological toxins can be classified into different categories based on their mode of action, such as neurotoxins (affecting the nervous system), cytotoxins (damaging cells), and enterotoxins (causing intestinal damage).

Examples of biological toxins include botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum bacteria, tetanus toxin produced by Clostridium tetani bacteria, ricin toxin from the castor bean plant, and saxitoxin produced by certain types of marine algae.

Biological toxins can cause a range of symptoms depending on the type and amount of toxin ingested or exposed to, as well as the route of exposure (e.g., inhalation, ingestion, skin contact). They can cause illnesses ranging from mild to severe, and some can be fatal if not treated promptly and effectively.

Prevention and control measures for biological toxins include good hygiene practices, vaccination against certain toxin-producing bacteria, avoidance of contaminated food or water sources, and personal protective equipment (PPE) when handling or working with potential sources of toxins.

Sanitation is the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human feces and urine, and the cleaning of homes, workplaces, streets, and other spaces where people live and work. This includes the collection, transport, treatment, and disposal or reuse of human waste, as well as the maintenance of hygienic conditions in these areas to prevent the spread of diseases.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines sanitation as "the use of toilets or latrines that safely dispose of human waste, as well as the safe management of human waste at the household, community, and national levels." Sanitation is an essential component of public health and is critical for preventing the spread of infectious diseases such as cholera, typhoid, hepatitis A, and polio.

Poor sanitation can have serious consequences for individuals and communities, including increased risk of disease and death, decreased productivity, reduced economic growth, and negative impacts on social and mental well-being. Providing access to safe sanitation is a key target of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with a goal to ensure that everyone has access to adequate and equitable sanitation by 2030.

Adenylate cyclase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). It plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, including signal transduction and metabolism. Adenylate cyclase is activated by hormones and neurotransmitters that bind to G-protein-coupled receptors on the cell membrane, leading to the production of cAMP, which then acts as a second messenger to regulate various intracellular responses. There are several isoforms of adenylate cyclase, each with distinct regulatory properties and subcellular localization.

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a key secondary messenger in many biological processes, including the regulation of metabolism, gene expression, and cellular excitability. It is synthesized from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the enzyme adenylyl cyclase and is degraded by the enzyme phosphodiesterase.

In the body, cAMP plays a crucial role in mediating the effects of hormones and neurotransmitters on target cells. For example, when a hormone binds to its receptor on the surface of a cell, it can activate a G protein, which in turn activates adenylyl cyclase to produce cAMP. The increased levels of cAMP then activate various effector proteins, such as protein kinases, which go on to regulate various cellular processes.

Overall, the regulation of cAMP levels is critical for maintaining proper cellular function and homeostasis, and abnormalities in cAMP signaling have been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Diarrhea is a condition in which an individual experiences loose, watery stools frequently, often exceeding three times a day. It can be acute, lasting for several days, or chronic, persisting for weeks or even months. Diarrhea can result from various factors, including viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections, food intolerances, medications, and underlying medical conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome. Dehydration is a potential complication of diarrhea, particularly in severe cases or in vulnerable populations like young children and the elderly.

Bacterial toxins are poisonous substances produced and released by bacteria. They can cause damage to the host organism's cells and tissues, leading to illness or disease. Bacterial toxins can be classified into two main types: exotoxins and endotoxins.

Exotoxins are proteins secreted by bacterial cells that can cause harm to the host. They often target specific cellular components or pathways, leading to tissue damage and inflammation. Some examples of exotoxins include botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum, which causes botulism; diphtheria toxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which causes diphtheria; and tetanus toxin produced by Clostridium tetani, which causes tetanus.

Endotoxins, on the other hand, are components of the bacterial cell wall that are released when the bacteria die or divide. They consist of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and can cause a generalized inflammatory response in the host. Endotoxins can be found in gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Bacterial toxins can cause a wide range of symptoms depending on the type of toxin, the dose, and the site of infection. They can lead to serious illnesses or even death if left untreated. Vaccines and antibiotics are often used to prevent or treat bacterial infections and reduce the risk of severe complications from bacterial toxins.

Oral administration is a route of giving medications or other substances by mouth. This can be in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids, pastes, or other forms that can be swallowed. Once ingested, the substance is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and enters the bloodstream to reach its intended target site in the body. Oral administration is a common and convenient route of medication delivery, but it may not be appropriate for all substances or in certain situations, such as when rapid onset of action is required or when the patient has difficulty swallowing.

"Vibrio" is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, curved-rod bacteria that are commonly found in marine and freshwater environments. Some species of Vibrio can cause diseases in humans, the most notable being Vibrio cholerae, which is the causative agent of cholera, a severe diarrheal illness. Other pathogenic species include Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, which can cause gastrointestinal or wound infections. These bacteria are often transmitted through contaminated food or water and can lead to serious health complications, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune function of the human body. It is primarily found in external secretions, such as saliva, tears, breast milk, and sweat, as well as in mucous membranes lining the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. IgA exists in two forms: a monomeric form found in serum and a polymeric form found in secretions.

The primary function of IgA is to provide immune protection at mucosal surfaces, which are exposed to various environmental antigens, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and allergens. By doing so, it helps prevent the entry and colonization of pathogens into the body, reducing the risk of infections and inflammation.

IgA functions by binding to antigens present on the surface of pathogens or allergens, forming immune complexes that can neutralize their activity. These complexes are then transported across the epithelial cells lining mucosal surfaces and released into the lumen, where they prevent the adherence and invasion of pathogens.

In summary, Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a vital antibody that provides immune defense at mucosal surfaces by neutralizing and preventing the entry of harmful antigens into the body.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

An epidemic is the rapid spread of an infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time. It is typically used to describe situations where the occurrence of a disease is significantly higher than what is normally expected in a certain area or community. Epidemics can be caused by various factors, including pathogens, environmental changes, and human behavior. They can have serious consequences for public health, leading to increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. To control an epidemic, public health officials often implement measures such as vaccination, quarantine, and education campaigns to prevent further spread of the disease.

Classical Swine Fever (CSF), also known as Hog Cholera, is a highly contagious and often fatal viral disease in pigs that is caused by a Pestivirus. The virus can be spread through direct contact with infected pigs or their bodily fluids, as well as through contaminated feed, water, and objects.

Clinical signs of CSF include fever, loss of appetite, lethargy, reddening of the skin, vomiting, diarrhea, abortion in pregnant sows, and neurological symptoms such as tremors and weakness. The disease can cause significant economic losses in the swine industry due to high mortality rates, reduced growth rates, and trade restrictions.

Prevention and control measures include vaccination, biosecurity measures, quarantine, and stamping out infected herds. CSF is not considered a public health threat as it does not infect humans. However, it can have significant impacts on the swine industry and food security in affected regions.

Virulence factors in Bordetella pertussis, the bacterium that causes whooping cough, refer to the characteristics or components of the organism that contribute to its ability to cause disease. These virulence factors include:

1. Pertussis Toxin (PT): A protein exotoxin that inhibits the immune response and affects the nervous system, leading to the characteristic paroxysmal cough of whooping cough.
2. Adenylate Cyclase Toxin (ACT): A toxin that increases the levels of cAMP in host cells, disrupting their function and contributing to the pathogenesis of the disease.
3. Filamentous Hemagglutinin (FHA): A surface protein that allows the bacterium to adhere to host cells and evade the immune response.
4. Fimbriae: Hair-like appendages on the surface of the bacterium that facilitate adherence to host cells.
5. Pertactin (PRN): A surface protein that also contributes to adherence and is a common component of acellular pertussis vaccines.
6. Dermonecrotic Toxin: A toxin that causes localized tissue damage and necrosis, contributing to the inflammation and symptoms of whooping cough.
7. Tracheal Cytotoxin: A toxin that damages ciliated epithelial cells in the respiratory tract, impairing mucociliary clearance and increasing susceptibility to infection.

These virulence factors work together to enable Bordetella pertussis to colonize the respiratory tract, evade the host immune response, and cause the symptoms of whooping cough.

Gangliosides are a type of complex lipid molecule known as sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids. They are predominantly found in the outer leaflet of the cell membrane, particularly in the nervous system. Gangliosides play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, signal transduction, and cell adhesion. They are especially abundant in the ganglia (nerve cell clusters) of the peripheral and central nervous systems, hence their name.

Gangliosides consist of a hydrophobic ceramide portion and a hydrophilic oligosaccharide chain that contains one or more sialic acid residues. The composition and structure of these oligosaccharide chains can vary significantly among different gangliosides, leading to the classification of various subtypes, such as GM1, GD1a, GD1b, GT1b, and GQ1b.

Abnormalities in ganglioside metabolism or expression have been implicated in several neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and various lysosomal storage diseases like Tay-Sachs and Gaucher's diseases. Additionally, certain bacterial toxins, such as botulinum neurotoxin and tetanus toxin, target gangliosides to gain entry into neuronal cells, causing their toxic effects.

The ileum is the third and final segment of the small intestine, located between the jejunum and the cecum (the beginning of the large intestine). It plays a crucial role in nutrient absorption, particularly for vitamin B12 and bile salts. The ileum is characterized by its thin, lined walls and the presence of Peyer's patches, which are part of the immune system and help surveil for pathogens.

Pertussis toxin is an exotoxin produced by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis, which is responsible for causing whooping cough in humans. This toxin has several effects on the host organism, including:

1. Adenylyl cyclase activation: Pertussis toxin enters the host cell and modifies a specific G protein (Gαi), leading to the continuous activation of adenylyl cyclase. This results in increased levels of intracellular cAMP, which disrupts various cellular processes.
2. Inhibition of immune response: Pertussis toxin impairs the host's immune response by inhibiting the migration and function of immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages. It also interferes with antigen presentation and T-cell activation, making it difficult for the body to clear the infection.
3. Increased inflammation: The continuous activation of adenylyl cyclase by pertussis toxin leads to increased production of proinflammatory cytokines, contributing to the severe coughing fits and other symptoms associated with whooping cough.

Pertussis toxin is an essential virulence factor for Bordetella pertussis, and its effects contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of whooping cough. Vaccination against pertussis includes inactivated or genetically detoxified forms of pertussis toxin, which provide immunity without causing disease symptoms.

GTP-binding proteins, also known as G proteins, are a family of molecular switches present in many organisms, including humans. They play a crucial role in signal transduction pathways, particularly those involved in cellular responses to external stimuli such as hormones, neurotransmitters, and sensory signals like light and odorants.

G proteins are composed of three subunits: α, β, and γ. The α-subunit binds GTP (guanosine triphosphate) and acts as the active component of the complex. When a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) is activated by an external signal, it triggers a conformational change in the associated G protein, allowing the α-subunit to exchange GDP (guanosine diphosphate) for GTP. This activation leads to dissociation of the G protein complex into the GTP-bound α-subunit and the βγ-subunit pair. Both the α-GTP and βγ subunits can then interact with downstream effectors, such as enzymes or ion channels, to propagate and amplify the signal within the cell.

The intrinsic GTPase activity of the α-subunit eventually hydrolyzes the bound GTP to GDP, which leads to re-association of the α and βγ subunits and termination of the signal. This cycle of activation and inactivation makes G proteins versatile signaling elements that can respond quickly and precisely to changing environmental conditions.

Defects in G protein-mediated signaling pathways have been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of GTP-binding proteins is essential for developing targeted therapeutic strategies.

Intranasal administration refers to the delivery of medication or other substances through the nasal passages and into the nasal cavity. This route of administration can be used for systemic absorption of drugs or for localized effects in the nasal area.

When a medication is administered intranasally, it is typically sprayed or dropped into the nostril, where it is absorbed by the mucous membranes lining the nasal cavity. The medication can then pass into the bloodstream and be distributed throughout the body for systemic effects. Intranasal administration can also result in direct absorption of the medication into the local tissues of the nasal cavity, which can be useful for treating conditions such as allergies, migraines, or pain in the nasal area.

Intranasal administration has several advantages over other routes of administration. It is non-invasive and does not require needles or injections, making it a more comfortable option for many people. Additionally, intranasal administration can result in faster onset of action than oral administration, as the medication bypasses the digestive system and is absorbed directly into the bloodstream. However, there are also some limitations to this route of administration, including potential issues with dosing accuracy and patient tolerance.

Immunization is defined medically as the process where an individual is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, typically through the administration of a vaccine. The vaccine stimulates the body's own immune system to recognize and fight off the specific disease-causing organism, thereby preventing or reducing the severity of future infections with that organism.

Immunization can be achieved actively, where the person is given a vaccine to trigger an immune response, or passively, where antibodies are transferred to the person through immunoglobulin therapy. Immunizations are an important part of preventive healthcare and have been successful in controlling and eliminating many infectious diseases worldwide.

Water microbiology is not a formal medical term, but rather a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms found in water. It involves the identification, enumeration, and characterization of bacteria, viruses, parasites, and other microscopic organisms present in water sources such as lakes, rivers, oceans, groundwater, drinking water, and wastewater.

In a medical context, water microbiology is relevant to public health because it helps to assess the safety of water supplies for human consumption and recreational activities. It also plays a critical role in understanding and preventing waterborne diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms that can lead to illnesses such as diarrhea, skin infections, and respiratory problems.

Water microbiologists use various techniques to study water microorganisms, including culturing, microscopy, genetic analysis, and biochemical tests. They also investigate the ecology of these organisms, their interactions with other species, and their response to environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and nutrient availability.

Overall, water microbiology is a vital field that helps ensure the safety of our water resources and protects public health.

"Cholera morbus" is an outdated and somewhat ambiguous term that was historically used to describe a variety of acute gastrointestinal illnesses, including actual cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae bacterium. However, the term is now rarely used in modern medical practice due to its lack of specificity and confusion with the distinct disease entity of cholera.

Cholera is a severe and potentially life-threatening infection that causes profuse watery diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, and other systemic symptoms. It is typically transmitted through contaminated food or water and is endemic in certain parts of the world with poor sanitation and hygiene.

Modern medical terminology prefers to use more specific terms to describe gastrointestinal illnesses, such as "acute gastroenteritis" or "diarrheal disease," which encompass a range of causes and symptoms. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment of any gastrointestinal symptoms.

The intestinal mucosa is the innermost layer of the intestines, which comes into direct contact with digested food and microbes. It is a specialized epithelial tissue that plays crucial roles in nutrient absorption, barrier function, and immune defense. The intestinal mucosa is composed of several cell types, including absorptive enterocytes, mucus-secreting goblet cells, hormone-producing enteroendocrine cells, and immune cells such as lymphocytes and macrophages.

The surface of the intestinal mucosa is covered by a single layer of epithelial cells, which are joined together by tight junctions to form a protective barrier against harmful substances and microorganisms. This barrier also allows for the selective absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream. The intestinal mucosa also contains numerous lymphoid follicles, known as Peyer's patches, which are involved in immune surveillance and defense against pathogens.

In addition to its role in absorption and immunity, the intestinal mucosa is also capable of producing hormones that regulate digestion and metabolism. Dysfunction of the intestinal mucosa can lead to various gastrointestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and food allergies.

"Vibrio cholerae non-O1" refers to a group of bacteria that are related to the classic cholera-causing strain, "Vibrio cholerae O1," but do not possess the same virulence factors and are not typically associated with large outbreaks of severe diarrheal disease. These non-O1 strains can still cause mild to moderate gastrointestinal illness, including watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, and vomiting, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying health conditions. They are often found in aquatic environments and can be transmitted to humans through the consumption of contaminated food or water. It's important to note that "Vibrio cholerae non-O1" is not a medical diagnosis, but rather a classification of a specific group of bacteria.

Mucosal immunity refers to the immune system's defense mechanisms that are specifically adapted to protect the mucous membranes, which line various body openings such as the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tracts. These membranes are constantly exposed to foreign substances, including potential pathogens, and therefore require a specialized immune response to maintain homeostasis and prevent infection.

Mucosal immunity is primarily mediated by secretory IgA (SIgA) antibodies, which are produced by B cells in the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). These antibodies can neutralize pathogens and prevent them from adhering to and invading the epithelial cells that line the mucous membranes.

In addition to SIgA, other components of the mucosal immune system include innate immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils, which can recognize and respond to pathogens through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). T cells also play a role in mucosal immunity, particularly in the induction of cell-mediated immunity against viruses and other intracellular pathogens.

Overall, mucosal immunity is an essential component of the body's defense system, providing protection against a wide range of potential pathogens while maintaining tolerance to harmless antigens present in the environment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Guinea-Bissau" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in West Africa, bordered by Senegal to the north and Guinea to the south and east. The capital city of Guinea-Bissau is Bissau. If you have any questions about geographical terms or anything else, please let me know!

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

The jejunum is the middle section of the small intestine, located between the duodenum and the ileum. It is responsible for the majority of nutrient absorption that occurs in the small intestine, particularly carbohydrates, proteins, and some fats. The jejunum is characterized by its smooth muscle structure, which allows it to contract and mix food with digestive enzymes and absorb nutrients through its extensive network of finger-like projections called villi.

The jejunum is also lined with microvilli, which further increase the surface area available for absorption. Additionally, the jejunum contains numerous lymphatic vessels called lacteals, which help to absorb fats and fat-soluble vitamins into the bloodstream. Overall, the jejunum plays a critical role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients from food.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

Vaccination is a simple, safe, and effective way to protect people against harmful diseases, before they come into contact with them. It uses your body's natural defenses to build protection to specific infections and makes your immune system stronger.

A vaccination usually contains a small, harmless piece of a virus or bacteria (or toxins produced by these germs) that has been made inactive or weakened so it won't cause the disease itself. This piece of the germ is known as an antigen. When the vaccine is introduced into the body, the immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign and produces antibodies to fight it.

If a person then comes into contact with the actual disease-causing germ, their immune system will recognize it and immediately produce antibodies to destroy it. The person is therefore protected against that disease. This is known as active immunity.

Vaccinations are important for both individual and public health. They prevent the spread of contagious diseases and protect vulnerable members of the population, such as young children, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems who cannot be vaccinated or for whom vaccination is not effective.

"History, 19th Century" is not a medical term or concept. It refers to the historical events, developments, and figures related to the 1800s in various fields, including politics, culture, science, and technology. However, if you are looking for medical advancements during the 19th century, here's a brief overview:

The 19th century was a period of significant progress in medicine, with numerous discoveries and innovations that shaped modern medical practices. Some notable developments include:

1. Edward Jenner's smallpox vaccine (1796): Although not strictly within the 19th century, Jenner's discovery laid the foundation for vaccination as a preventive measure against infectious diseases.
2. Germ theory of disease: The work of Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch, and others established that many diseases were caused by microorganisms, leading to the development of antiseptic practices and vaccines.
3. Anesthesia: In 1842, Crawford Long first used ether as an anesthetic during surgery, followed by the introduction of chloroform in 1847 by James Simpson.
4. Antisepsis and asepsis: Joseph Lister introduced antiseptic practices in surgery, significantly reducing postoperative infections. Later, the concept of asepsis (sterilization) was developed to prevent contamination during surgical procedures.
5. Microbiology: The development of techniques for culturing and staining bacteria allowed for better understanding and identification of pathogens.
6. Physiology: Claude Bernard's work on the regulation of internal body functions, or homeostasis, contributed significantly to our understanding of human physiology.
7. Neurology: Jean-Martin Charcot made significant contributions to the study of neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease.
8. Psychiatry: Sigmund Freud developed psychoanalysis, a new approach to understanding mental illnesses.
9. Public health: The 19th century saw the establishment of public health organizations and initiatives aimed at improving sanitation, water quality, and vaccination programs.
10. Medical education reforms: The Flexner Report in 1910 led to significant improvements in medical education standards and practices.

"Pasteurella multocida" is a gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, coccobacillus bacterium that is part of the normal flora in the respiratory tract of many animals, including birds, dogs, and cats. It can cause a variety of infections in humans, such as respiratory infections, skin and soft tissue infections, and bloodstream infections, particularly in individuals who have close contact with animals or animal bites or scratches. The bacterium is named after Louis Pasteur, who developed a vaccine against it in the late 19th century.

Adenylate cyclase toxin is a type of exotoxin produced by certain bacteria, including Bordetella pertussis (the causative agent of whooping cough) and Vibrio cholerae. This toxin functions by entering host cells and catalyzing the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), leading to increased intracellular cAMP levels.

The elevated cAMP levels can disrupt various cellular processes, such as signal transduction and ion transport, resulting in a range of physiological effects that contribute to the pathogenesis of the bacterial infection. For example, in the case of Bordetella pertussis, adenylate cyclase toxin impairs the function of immune cells, allowing the bacteria to evade host defenses and establish a successful infection.

In summary, adenylate cyclase toxin is a virulence factor produced by certain pathogenic bacteria that increases intracellular cAMP levels in host cells, leading to disrupted cellular processes and contributing to bacterial pathogenesis.

Nucleoside diphosphate sugars (NDP-sugars) are essential activated sugars that play a crucial role in the biosynthesis of complex carbohydrates, such as glycoproteins and glycolipids. They consist of a sugar molecule linked to a nucleoside diphosphate, which is formed from a nucleotide by removal of one phosphate group.

NDP-sugars are created through the action of enzymes called nucleoside diphosphate sugars synthases or transferases, which transfer a sugar molecule from a donor to a nucleoside diphosphate, forming an NDP-sugar. The resulting NDP-sugar can then be used as a substrate for various glycosyltransferases that catalyze the addition of sugars to other molecules, such as proteins or lipids.

NDP-sugars are involved in many important biological processes, including cell signaling, protein targeting, and immune response. They also play a critical role in maintaining the structural integrity of cells and tissues.

Fluid therapy, in a medical context, refers to the administration of fluids into a patient's circulatory system for various therapeutic purposes. This can be done intravenously (through a vein), intraosseously (through a bone), or subcutaneously (under the skin). The goal of fluid therapy is to correct or prevent imbalances in the body's fluids and electrolytes, maintain or restore blood volume, and support organ function.

The types of fluids used in fluid therapy can include crystalloids (which contain electrolytes and water) and colloids (which contain larger molecules like proteins). The choice of fluid depends on the patient's specific needs and condition. Fluid therapy is commonly used in the treatment of dehydration, shock, sepsis, trauma, surgery, and other medical conditions that can affect the body's fluid balance.

Proper administration of fluid therapy requires careful monitoring of the patient's vital signs, urine output, electrolyte levels, and overall clinical status to ensure that the therapy is effective and safe.

Colforsin is a drug that belongs to a class of medications called phosphodiesterase inhibitors. It works by increasing the levels of a chemical called cyclic AMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate) in the body, which helps to relax and widen blood vessels.

Colforsin is not approved for use in humans in many countries, including the United States. However, it has been used in research settings to study its potential effects on heart function and other physiological processes. In animals, colforsin has been shown to have positive inotropic (contractility-enhancing) and lusitropic (relaxation-enhancing) effects on the heart, making it a potential therapeutic option for heart failure and other cardiovascular conditions.

It is important to note that while colforsin has shown promise in preclinical studies, more research is needed to establish its safety and efficacy in humans. Therefore, it should only be used under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional and in the context of a clinical trial or research study.

Immunoglobulin A (IgA), Secretory is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune function of mucous membranes. These membranes line various body openings, such as the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, and serve to protect the body from potential pathogens by producing mucus.

Secretory IgA (SIgA) is the primary immunoglobulin found in secretions of the mucous membranes, and it is produced by a special type of immune cell called plasma cells located in the lamina propria, a layer of tissue beneath the epithelial cells that line the mucosal surfaces.

SIgA exists as a dimer, consisting of two IgA molecules linked together by a protein called the J chain. This complex is then transported across the epithelial cell layer to the luminal surface, where it becomes associated with another protein called the secretory component (SC). The SC protects the SIgA from degradation by enzymes and helps it maintain its function in the harsh environment of the mucosal surfaces.

SIgA functions by preventing the attachment and entry of pathogens into the body, thereby neutralizing their infectivity. It can also agglutinate (clump together) microorganisms, making them more susceptible to removal by mucociliary clearance or peristalsis. Furthermore, SIgA can modulate immune responses and contribute to the development of oral tolerance, which is important for maintaining immune homeostasis in the gut.

I apologize for the confusion, but "Bucladesine" is not a recognized medical term or a medication in current use in medicine. It's possible that there may be some mistake or typo in the spelling. If you have any more context about where you encountered this term, I might be able to provide a more accurate and helpful response.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Philippines" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in Southeast Asia, comprised of over 7,000 islands. If you have any questions about medical conditions or terms, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

Inactivated vaccines, also known as killed or non-live vaccines, are created by using a version of the virus or bacteria that has been grown in a laboratory and then killed or inactivated with chemicals, heat, or radiation. This process renders the organism unable to cause disease, but still capable of stimulating an immune response when introduced into the body.

Inactivated vaccines are generally considered safer than live attenuated vaccines since they cannot revert back to a virulent form and cause illness. However, they may require multiple doses or booster shots to maintain immunity because the immune response generated by inactivated vaccines is not as robust as that produced by live vaccines. Examples of inactivated vaccines include those for hepatitis A, rabies, and influenza (inactivated flu vaccine).

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "water supply" is not a medical term per se. It is a general term used to describe the system or arrangement providing water for consumption or use, such as a public water supply system or a private well. However, in a medical context, it could refer to the source of water used in a healthcare facility for drinking, cooking, cleaning, and patient care, which must meet certain quality standards to prevent infection and ensure safety.

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is a country located in Central Africa. It is named after the Congo River, which flows through the country. The DRC is the second-largest country in Africa by area and the eleventh-largest in the world. It is home to a diverse population of more than 80 million people, making it one of the most populous countries on the continent.

The DRC is a democratic republic, which means that it is a form of government in which the people have the power to choose their leaders through free and fair elections. The country has a presidential system of government, in which the president serves as both the head of state and the head of government. The current president of the DRC is Félix Tshisekedi, who took office in January 2019.

The DRC is a federal republic, meaning that it is divided into several provinces, each with its own elected government. The country has a total of 26 provinces, which are further divided into districts and sectors.

The DRC is a member of various international organizations, including the United Nations, the African Union, and the Southern African Development Community. It is also a party to several international treaties and agreements, such as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) and the Paris Agreement on climate change.

The DRC has a mixed economy, with both private and public sectors playing important roles. The country is rich in natural resources, including minerals such as copper, diamonds, gold, and tin. It also has large areas of fertile land that are suitable for agriculture. However, the DRC faces significant challenges, including poverty, corruption, and conflict. Despite these challenges, the country has made progress in recent years in terms of economic growth and development.

Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae. It is the causative agent of Classical Swine Fever (CSF), also known as hog cholera, which is a highly contagious and severe disease in pigs. The virus is primarily transmitted through direct contact with infected animals or their body fluids, but it can also be spread through contaminated feed, water, and fomites.

CSFV infects pigs of all ages, causing a range of clinical signs that may include fever, loss of appetite, lethargy, weakness, diarrhea, vomiting, and respiratory distress. In severe cases, the virus can cause hemorrhages in various organs, leading to high mortality rates. CSF is a significant disease of economic importance in the swine industry, as it can result in substantial production losses and trade restrictions.

Prevention and control measures for CSF include vaccination, biosecurity practices, and stamping-out policies. Vaccines against CSF are available but may not provide complete protection or prevent the virus from shedding, making it essential to maintain strict biosecurity measures in pig farms. In some countries, stamping-out policies involve the rapid detection and elimination of infected herds to prevent the spread of the disease.

Antidiarrheals are a class of medications that are used to treat diarrhea. They work by either slowing down the movement of the gut or increasing the absorption of water and electrolytes in the intestines, which helps to thicken the stool and reduce the frequency of bowel movements.

Some common examples of antidiarrheal medications include loperamide (Imodium), diphenoxylate/atropine (Lomotil), and bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol). These medications can be effective in managing acute diarrhea, but it's important to use them only as directed and for a limited period of time. Prolonged use or overuse of antidiarrheals can lead to serious side effects, such as constipation, dehydration, and dependence.

It's also worth noting that while antidiarrheals can help manage the symptoms of diarrhea, they do not address the underlying cause of the condition. If you have chronic or severe diarrhea, it's important to speak with a healthcare provider to determine the root cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

"Cholera". "Global Task Force on Cholera Control". Ending Cholera a Global Roadmap to 2030 (PDF) (Report). Global ... Cholera hospital in Dhaka, showing typical "cholera beds". Surveillance and prompt reporting allow for containing cholera ... Prevention and control of cholera outbreaks: WHO policy and recommendations Cholera-World Health Organization Cholera - Vibrio ... Society and Politics in the Cholera Years, 1830-1910. London 1987 "Cholera - Vibrio cholerae infection , Cholera , CDC". www. ...
A cholera vaccine is a vaccine that is effective at preventing cholera. For the first six months after vaccination it provides ... The cholera vaccine is widely used by backpackers and persons visiting locations where there is a high risk of cholera ... "Cholera". CDC Yellow Book 2020: Health Information for International Travel. New York: Oxford University Press. 2017. Cholera ... "Vaxchora- cholera vaccine, live, oral kit". DailyMed. 24 October 2018. Retrieved 30 July 2020. "Vaxchora- cholera vaccine, live ...
Epizootiology of Avian Cholera in Wildfowl. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. Chicken Cholera was Observed by Louis Pasteur by luck ... Fowl cholera is also called avian cholera, avian pasteurellosis and avian hemorrhagic septicemia. It is the most common ... 1880 Fowl cholera in the Merck Veterinary Manual Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fowl cholera. (CS1 errors: generic ... Avian Cholera in Waterfowl: The role of Lesser Snow Geese and Ross's Geese Carriers in the Playa Lakes Region. Journal of ...
The "Cholera Monster" strikes again and murders "Puma" Zehra (the madame of a brothel) on Salih's watch. Reiss takes advantage ... A woman Tina arrives at Cholera street where she takes up residence and works as a prostitute. Deniz is a gangster who gives ... While Tina runs away from an angry Salih, she is attacked by the "Cholera Monster" but Salih manages save her and subdue him. ... Cholera Street (Original Turkish title: Ağır Roman, literally meaning "Heavy Romani") is a 1997 Turkish film directed by ...
... are civil disturbances associated with an outbreak or epidemic of cholera. Cholera riots (Холерные бунты in ... On August 29, 1909 The New York Times reported more cholera riots in Russia. Asiatic cholera reached Britain in 1831 from ... "CHOLERA RIOT IN HAMBURG; SANITARY OFFICERS AGAIN ATTACKED BY A MOB. One of Them Knocked Down and Kicked and Trampled to Death ... The widespread cholera rioting in Liverpool was thus as much related to local anatomical issues as it was to the national ...
250 died of cholera in 1832 and 130 in 1849. Kilmaurs (NS 41430 40763) - St Maurs-Glencairn church has a cholera pit dating ... Glasnevin - a cholera pit and memorial are located in the churchyard. Bully's Acre, Kilmainham - one of the main Cholera pit's ... Video footage of Cholera Pits in Stevenston, Dalry, etc. YouTube video on Ayrshire Cholera Pits Wikimedia Commons has media ... Long term risks It is considered that the cholera risk posed through disturbance of cholera pits from the 19th century is non- ...
4. Cholera Morbus, The New York Times, June 30, 1854, pg. 4. The Fifth Ward and the Cholera, The New York Times, July 15, 1854 ... The Physician of Cholera Hospital published daily reports of the number of cholera cases received at the Franklin Street ... 2. Cholera Reports made Public, The New York Times, July 19, 1854, pg. 4. History and Observations of Asiatic Cholera in ... Gull, who treated New York City cholera patients at this time, reported that cholera was only contagious when persons came in ...
... "cholera belts". In 1849 an anonymous author published the pamphlet "What has Cholera done in London?" advising "readers to wear ... "The flannel cholera belt, whose powers of cholera prevention were of course mythical ... has fortunately gone out of fashion". ... "cholera belt" was not mentioned. Renbourn writes that although the phrase "cholera belt" was not being specifically mentioned ... fear spread leading to reports in the Cholera Gazette that soldiers should wear flannel to prevent cholera, possibly ...
... acts by the following mechanism: First, the B subunit ring of the cholera toxin binds to GM1 gangliosides on the ... How cholera toxin triggers these endocytosis pathways is not fully understood, but the fact that cholera toxin triggers these ... Cholera toxin was discovered in 1959 by Indian microbiologist Sambhu Nath De. The complete toxin is a hexamer made up of a ... Using cholera toxin β as a marker, we can get a better understanding of the properties and functions of lipid rafts. ...
In 1893, Johannes Michelsson, a sailor from Nagu who had come to the herring market died of cholera on his ship. Later it was ... The Cholera basin (Finnish: Kolera-allas, Swedish: Kolerabassängen) is the established name for the western harbour basin in ... After the incident, the colloquial name of the basin was established as Kolerabassängen - the Cholera basin. In the 19th ... organizes an event where a chosen Jaakko throws a cold stone into the Cholera basin. Since 1995, various objects have been ...
"Gommer Cholera". Joh. Siegen: Brot im Lötschental. In: Schweizer Volkskunde 46 (1956), S. 65-71, hier S. 67; Rudolf ... In the Valais region of Switzerland, a cholera is a savoury pastry filled with potatoes, vegetables, fruits and cheese. ... A folk etymological explanation purports that during an epidemic of the disease cholera in 1836, people in the region ... Begleittexte zu den Tonaufnahmen für den Sprachatlas der deutschen Schweiz, Heft 2. Francke, Bern 1976, S. 9. Cholera, a ...
Cholera's seven pandemics Archived 2008-05-13 at the Wayback Machine,, December 2, 2008. "Cholera - Cholera through ... But, as cholera was not present in the city, there were no cholera-related deaths. As a result of the pollution, the city made ... Cholera, Cholera pandemics, Gastroenterology, Intestinal infectious diseases, Cholera outbreaks). ... The third cholera pandemic deeply affected Russia, with over one million deaths. Over 15,000 people died of cholera in Mecca in ...
... , '(Cholera in Prague)' is a 1914 Austro-Hungarian comedy film directed by Alois Jalovec. Antonín Michl as ... retrieved 2023-03-04 Cholera v Praze at IMDb v t e v t e (CS1 Czech-language sources (cs), Culture articles needing translation ... Cobbler Katy Kaclová-Valisová as Cobbler's Daughter Frantisek Fort as Suitor Rudolf Innemann Miroslav Innemann Cholera v Praze ...
The seventh cholera pandemic (also called by some the 1961-1975 cholera pandemic) is the seventh major outbreak of cholera and ... "Cholera's seven pandemics". Retrieved 2015-11-24. "Global epidemics and impact of cholera". Archived ... "Cholera". Retrieved 2020-05-26. Shultz D (18 November 2016). "How today's cholera pandemic was born". Science. ... A study in Haiti has shown lasting protection from a two-dose cholera vaccine. During the 2010-2017 cholera outbreak in Haiti, ...
The 1832 Sligo cholera outbreak was a severe outbreak of cholera in the port town of Sligo in northwestern Ireland. The ... "Cholera". History. Retrieved 18 April 2019. Fenning, Hugh (2003). "The Cholera Epidemic in Ireland, 1832-3: Priests, Ministers ... Cholera killed those infected within hours, usually less than three, and almost certainly less than twelve. Victims skin often ... The approach of the cholera epidemic was well documented at the time, but how it was spread was a mystery. In the first ...
53 die in Zimbabwe after cholera outbreak Number of Zimbabwe cholera deaths nears 500 Cholera situation in Zimbabwe - UN OCHA ... The 2008 Zimbabwean cholera outbreak was an epidemic of cholera affecting much of Zimbabwe from August 2008 until June 2009. ... Cholera spread to the Zimbabwean migrant worker community in Limpopo and Mpumalanga provinces of South Africa and cholera ... "Zim Cholera 'Is Beyond Control'". Sky News (UK). 9 December 2008. Retrieved 10 December 2008. "Zimbabwe blames cholera on ...
Cholera claimed 90,000 lives in Russia in 1866. The epidemic of cholera that spread with the Austro-Prussian War (1866) is ... Cholera outbreaks and pandemics Sum of death counts from all sources mentioned in the article "Cholera's seven pandemics". CBC ... The fourth cholera pandemic of the 19th century began in the Ganges Delta of the Bengal region and traveled with Muslim ... Cholera spread throughout the Middle East and was carried to the Russian Empire, Europe, Africa, and North America, in each ...
History of cholera Frerichs, Ralph R. "Asiatic Cholera Pandemics During the Life of John Snow : Asiatic Cholera Pandemic of ... The third cholera pandemic (1846-1860) was the third major outbreak of cholera originating in India in the 19th century that ... After the 1854 Broad Street cholera outbreak he had mapped the cases of cholera in the Soho area in London, and noted a cluster ... Between 100,000 and 200,000 people died of cholera in Tokyo in an outbreak in 1858-60. In 1854, an outbreak of cholera in ...
A cholera outbreak started in Buhera District, Manicaland, Zimbabwe. The Ministry of Health and Child Care reported that there ... "Measures to contain Buhera cholera outbreak bear fruit". The Herald. Archived from the original on 2023-09-27. Retrieved 2023- ... Chingono, Nyasha (2023-10-12). "Zimbabwe bans large gatherings as threat of cholera outbreak grows". The Guardian. ISSN 0261- ... Mutsaka, Farai (2023-10-05). "Zimbabwe announces 100 suspected cholera deaths and imposes restrictions on gatherings". AP News ...
The fifth cholera pandemic (1881-1896) was the fifth major international outbreak of cholera in the 19th century. It spread ... Cholera outbreaks and pandemics "Cholera's seven pandemics". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. May 9, 2008. Retrieved 14 May ... "CHOLERA RIOT IN HAMBURG; SANITARY OFFICERS AGAIN ATTACKED BY A MOB. One of Them Knocked Down and Kicked and Trampled to Death ... Cholera claimed 200,000 lives in Russia between 1893 and 1894; and 90,000 in Japan between 1887 and 1889. Quarantine measures ...
The second cholera pandemic (1826-1837), also known as the Asiatic cholera pandemic, was a cholera pandemic that reached from ... Cholera's seven pandemics Archived 2008-05-13 at the Wayback Machine,, December 2, 2008. "Cholera - Cholera through ... Cholera was also reported in China in 1826 and 1835, and in Japan in 1831. In 1829, Iran was apparently infected with cholera ... In The Indian Cholera (Den indiske Cholera, 1835), he set his play in Colonial India, lambasting the poor response to the ...
The sixth cholera pandemic (1899-1923) was a major outbreak of cholera beginning in India, where it killed more than 800,000 ... Cholera outbreaks and pandemics "Cholera's seven pandemics". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. December 2, 2008. Retrieved ... were harboring cholera microbes. "Cholera Kills Boy. All Other Suspected Cases Now in Quarantine and Show No Alarming Symptoms ... The last cholera outbreak in the United States was in 1910-1911 when the steamship Moltke brought infected people to New York ...
The 1853 Stockholm cholera outbreak was a severe outbreak of cholera which occurred in Stockholm, Sweden in 1853 as part of the ... It was the second cholera epidemic in Stockholm, and the first one since the 1834 Stockholm cholera outbreak, which had been ... The 1853 Stockholm cholera outbreak was not the last cholera outbreak in Stockholm. On the contrary: from 1853 onward, it ... The epidemics of 1834 and 1853 were also the biggest cholera outbreaks in Stockholm, as both of them resulted in about 3.000 ...
The 1853 Copenhagen cholera outbreak was a severe outbreak of cholera which occurred in Copenhagen, Denmark in 1853 as part of ... The cholera outbreak also contributed to the city's decision to build a new cattle market, the so-called Brown Meat District, ... The cholera outbreak was a key factor in the decision to decommission Copenhagen's fortifications, although the step was long ... Cholera outbreaks, 19th century in Copenhagen, Disease outbreaks in Denmark, 19th-century epidemics, 1853 disasters in Denmark) ...
The climax of cholera incidence in Haiti was in 2011 with 352,000 new cases following the introduction of cholera in Haiti in ... The 2010s Haiti cholera outbreak was the first modern large-scale outbreak of cholera-a disease once considered beaten back ... "Cholera". World Health Organization. Retrieved 29 October 2018. Roos R (9 January 2013). "Cholera has struck more than 6% of ... In late June 2012, Cuba confirmed three deaths and 53 cases of cholera in Manzanillo; in 2013 there were 51 cases of cholera ...
"U.N. reports cholera outbreak in northern Iraq". CNN. 30 August 2007. Retrieved 30 August 2007. "Cholera in Iraq". WHO. 10 ... Cholera is a disease caused by unclean drinking water that only actually affects roughly 5% of those who are exposed. Those who ... Cholera was first detected in Kirkuk, in Northern Iraq, on 14 August 2007. By September, the outbreak had reached Baghdad and ... By 2007, a lack of clean drinking water in Iraq led to an outbreak of cholera. A total of approximately 7,000 people were ...
The first cholera pandemic (1817-1824), also known as the first Asiatic cholera pandemic or Asiatic cholera, began near the ... By 1823, cholera had disappeared from most of the world, except around the Bay of Bengal. Selwyn, S (May 1977). "Cholera old ... The name cholera had been used in previous centuries to describe illnesses involving nausea and vomiting. Today, cholera ... Hamlin, Christopher (2009). Cholera: The Biography. Oxford University Press. "Anti-Asian Racism in the 1817 Cholera Pandemic". ...
"Continued cholera epidemic in Yemen". The Global Alliance Against Cholera (G.A.A.C). Archived from the original on 15 February ... "WHO EMRO - Cholera cases in Yemen - Cholera - Epidemic and pandemic diseases". WHO EMRO. Archived from the original on 1 ... Prevention methods against cholera include improved sanitation and access to clean water. Cholera vaccines that are given by ... "WHO EMRO - Cholera update in Yemen, 23 October 2016 - Cholera - Epidemic and pandemic diseases". WHO EMRO. Archived from the ...
The 1913 Romanian Army cholera outbreak was a cholera outbreak the Romanian Army suffered during the Second Balkan War of 1913 ... Thanks to all this, the last case of cholera occurred in November and the disease could be mostly stopped before the Romanian ... A few years later, Romania itself suffered numerous cases of cholera as a result of its participation in the First World War. ... 1899-1923 cholera pandemic Giurcă, Ion (2013). "Epidemia de holeră din Bulgaria din anul 1913 - consecințe asupra armatei ...
Snow's analysis of cholera and cholera outbreaks extended past the closure of the Broad Street pump. He concluded that cholera ... The Broad Street cholera outbreak (or Golden Square outbreak) was a severe outbreak of cholera that occurred in 1854 near Broad ... Snow also argued that cholera was not a product of Miasma. "There was nothing in the air to account for the spread of cholera ... "Broad Street Cholera Pump". Atlas Obscura. Retrieved 5 March 2017. Snow, John (1855). On the Mode of Communication of Cholera ( ...
Prevention of cholera is dependent on access to safe water, adequate sanitation, and basic hygiene needs. ... CDC at Work: Choleraplus icon *CDC Works With Global Partners to End Cholera ... Laboratory Testing for Choleraplus icon *Crystal® VC Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) Procedure ... Prevention of cholera is dependent on access to safe water, adequate sanitation, and basic hygiene needs. The following ...
"Cholera". "Global Task Force on Cholera Control". Ending Cholera a Global Roadmap to 2030 (PDF) (Report). Global ... Cholera hospital in Dhaka, showing typical "cholera beds". Surveillance and prompt reporting allow for containing cholera ... Prevention and control of cholera outbreaks: WHO policy and recommendations Cholera-World Health Organization Cholera - Vibrio ... Society and Politics in the Cholera Years, 1830-1910. London 1987 "Cholera - Vibrio cholerae infection , Cholera , CDC". www. ...
Cholera is an intestinal infection caused by Vibrio cholerae (see the images below). The hallmark of the disease is profuse ... This patient with cholera is drinking oral rehydration solution (ORS) in order to counteract the cholera-induced dehydration. ... Since 1817, 7 cholera pandemics have occurred. The pandemics originated from choleras endemic reservoir in the Indian ... Individuals living in the United States most often acquire cholera through travel to cholera-endemic areas or through ...
Severe cholera (cholera gravis) occurs in ≈10% of cholera episodes and is characterized by profuse watery diarrhea, described ... CDC provides a list of countries for which cholera vaccine can be considered for travelers (see "Who is at risk?"). Cholera ... Travelers to areas where cholera is endemic or where an active epidemic is occurring are at risk for cholera infection. Health ... It includes areas that are prone to recurrence of cholera epidemics that have had cholera activity within the past year. ...
The Independent has new details on the cholera outbreak in Zimbabwe: One of the countrys health officials tells the paper that ...
... What is cholera?. How does a person get cholera?. What is the risk for cholera in the United States?. What ... How does a person get cholera?. A person may get cholera by drinking water or eating food contaminated with the cholera ... or Asia where epidemic cholera is occurring. U.S. travelers to areas with epidemic cholera may be exposed to the cholera ... Can cholera be treated?. How long will the current epidemic last?. What is the U.S. government doing to combat cholera?. Where ...
Cholera is a treatable — yet potentially fatal — bacterial disease that causes diarrhea and dehydration. Learn how ... Cholera vaccine. People traveling from the United States to areas affected by cholera can get a cholera vaccine called Vaxchora ... Risk factors for cholera include:. *Poor sanitary conditions. Cholera is more likely to flourish in situations where a sanitary ... But cholera still exists in Africa, Southeast Asia and Haiti. The risk of a cholera epidemic is highest when poverty, war or ...
ICMR-National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata 700010, India. Interests: Vibrio cholerae; cholera; cholera ... ICMR-National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata 700010, India. Interests: cholera; infectious diseases; ... Expression of Cholera Toxin (CT) and the Toxin Co-Regulated Pilus (TCP) by Variants of ToxT in Vibrio cholerae Strains by ... The Functions of Cholera Toxin Subunit B as a Modulator of Silica Nanoparticle Endocytosis by Eva Susnik ...
Red Cross programs have reached nearly 3.2 million people through cholera prevention and outbreak response services. ... Doctors are making great strides in combating cholera in Haiti ... Red Cross Continues to Fight Cholera in Haiti. * Share via ... 19 million that the Red Cross has spent fighting cholera in Haiti-initially focused on dispatching cholera treatment units and ... In the long-term, access to clean water and sanitation is a key factor in the fight against cholera. So with a Red Cross water ...
Public Health Agency of Canada: Canadian Immunization Guide, Cholera Vaccine. *World Health Organization: International Travel ... Cholera and Other Vibrios. In: McGill, A; Ryan, E; Hill, D; Solomon, T, eds. Hunters Tropical Medicine and Emerging Infectious ... Cholera is an acute gastrointestinal infection caused by Vibrio cholerae bacteria. It is primarily associated with contaminated ... An inactivated oral vaccine is available in Canada and countries where Cholera may be endemic. This vaccine is also licensed in ...
Agence France-Presse: WHO launches anti-cholera drive in conflict-torn S. Sudan ... Media sources report on the WHOs launch of a cholera vaccination program in South Sudan. ... WHO: 140,000 people to get cholera vaccine in South Sudan. "WHO is working with the South Sudan Government and partners to ... Agence France-Presse: WHO launches anti-cholera drive in conflict-torn S. Sudan. "The World Health Organization began a ...
The southern African nation has been battling its worst cholera outbreak on record ... Home page,WORLD,Africa,Cholera kills over 1,200.... HEALTH. Cholera kills over 1,200 in Malawi: WHO. The southern African ... The deadliest cholera outbreak in Malawis history has killed at least 1,210 people, while vaccines remain scarce, the World ... Late last month, the UN health agency also warned that the risk from the global cholera outbreak was very high due to ongoing ...
We know cholera occurred in countries not reporting.. *Most cholera outbreaks are not detected. Thus, even countries reporting ... Here is one example - reported cases of cholera worldwide. Cholera is perhaps the most widespread and serious water-related ... Some major countries, known to have extensive and severe cholera outbreaks, typically report zero instances of cholera because ... as a claim about all outbreaks of cholera or the WHO reporting of cholera. And in that context, Gleicks criticisms are ...
Famine-hit Somalia faces a cholera epidemic as dirty water and poor sanitation are leading to an increase in outbreaks of the ... Africa famine: UN warns Somalia facing cholera epidemic as crisis deepens. Famine-hit Somalia faces a cholera epidemic as dirty ... Cases of acute diarrhoea - an important indicator of the risk of cholera - are now at 4,272 in Somalia - an 11 per cent rise on ... Mercado said on Friday that tens of thousands of children have died and countless more are particularly at risk of cholera and ...
Cholera answers are found in the 5-Minute Clinical Consult powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, ... Synonym(s): Asiatic cholera; epidemic cholera; rice-water diarrhea; cholera gravis. Pregnancy Considerations. Cholera in 3rd ... Cholera. (2020). In Domino, F. J., Baldor, R. A., Golding, J., & Stephens, M. B. (Eds.), 5-Minute Clinical Consult (27th ed.). ... Seven cholera epidemics have occurred in the past 200 years (1).. Prevalence. An estimated 100,000 deaths and 3 million cases ...
... the 200th anniversary of the birth of the epidemiologist John Snow by looking at the historic and modern fight against Cholera ... 31:13 - Fighting Cholera Today. We ask Matt Waldon how we tackle Cholera in the modern world and find out how the disease could ... Now, she suffered cholera, she died of cholera. Nobody else in Hampstead at that time suffered from the disease, so clearly, ... So, what is most traumatic about cholera is the rapidity with which it can kill its victims. Cholera is caused by a bacterium, ...
Who should be responsible for the outbreak of cholera in Haiti? ... Who should be responsible for the outbreak of cholera in Haiti? ... hd.jpgWho should be responsible for the outbreak of cholera in Haiti?. Who should be responsible for the outbreak of cholera in ... User Clip: UN Haiti Cholera and Nepal. 212 Views Program ID:. 421753-1. Category:. Senate Committee. Format:. Senate Committee ... User Clip: UN Haiti Cholera and Nepal. 2017-01-18T12:41:27-05:00 ...
Love In The Time of Cholera by Gabriel Garcia Marquez , Literature & Fiction , This book has not been rated. ISBN: 0394561619 ...
The Empowerment of Having a Lab of Ones Own: Continued Research on Cholera, Climate, and Human Health GEN Staff Writer - ... Cholera: How Some Gut Bacteria Stand Their Ground Against It Anjali A. Sarkar, PhD - ... Virus-Like Particles Used to Generate Potentially Longer-Lasting Cholera Vaccine Sophia Ktori - ...
Buy Love in the Time of Cholera tickets and view showtimes at a theater near you. Earn double rewards when you purchase a ... Love in the Time of Cholera. Liev Schreiber as Lotario and Unax Ugalde as young Florentino in "Love in the Time of Cholera." ... Love in the Time of Cholera. John Leguizamo as Lorenzo and Giovanna Mezzogiorno as Fermina in "Love in the Time of Cholera." ... Love in the Time of Cholera. Javier Bardem and Giovanna Mezzogiorno in "Love in the Time of Cholera." ...
Find WebMDs comprehensive coverage of cholera, including medical reference, news, pictures, videos, and more. ... Cholera Directory. Cholera is a severe infection in the small intestine that is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. It is ... Cholera is a major cause of death worldwide. Follow the links below to find WebMDs comprehensive coverage about how cholera is ... The danger of cholera is rapid dehydration, which can lead to death. The primary treatment is oral rehydration therapy to ...
... waterborne disease cholera has been confirmed in Pakistans flood-ravaged nor ... Cholera case confirmed in Pakistan after floods. By ASSOCIATED PRESS Published: AUGUST 14, 2010 09:42 * ... One case of cholera had been fully confirmed in Mingora, the main town in the northwests Swat Valley, UN spokesman Maurizio ... ISLAMABAD- A case of the deadly, waterborne disease cholera has been confirmed in Pakistans flood-ravaged northwest, and aid ...
U.S. Environment N Age Cholera. For decades, Haiti was plagued by every human-made and natural disaster imaginable. But for ... Did The U.N. Herald a New Age of Cholera?. By Benny Avni On 10/31/13 at 11:07 AM EDT ... Once merely whispered in the halls of the U.N., the question is increasingly being asked out loud: Will Haitis cholera ... There is a major difference between Annans Oil for Food scandal and Bans cholera scandal. Annan was one of the main ...
Cholera bacteria grab genes from other cells by spearing them with a kind of poison-tipped spike. ... Cholera might be spearing neighboring cells, killing them and exacerbating the problems it causes. (Cholera wont pick up human ... Not every kind of cell can contribute DNA to cholera, as there has to be some similarity between the cholera cell and its ... Cholera is usually found in water, and it feeds on chitin, the stuff that makes up crustaceans shells. In the new study, the ...
Buy Love in the Time of Cholera tickets and view showtimes at a theater near you. Earn double rewards when you purchase a ... Love in the Time of Cholera. Liev Schreiber as Lotario and Unax Ugalde as young Florentino in "Love in the Time of Cholera." ... Love in the Time of Cholera. John Leguizamo as Lorenzo and Giovanna Mezzogiorno as Fermina in "Love in the Time of Cholera." ... Love in the Time of Cholera. Javier Bardem and Giovanna Mezzogiorno in "Love in the Time of Cholera." ...
Cholera Comes to Cameroon…"A cholera epidemic has hit northern Cameroon, killing more than 200 people in less than a month. The ...
Cholera is a bacterial infection of the small intestine that causes a large amount of watery diarrhea. ... There is a cholera vaccine available for adults ages 18 to 64 who are traveling to an area with an active cholera outbreak. The ... Cholera - Vibrio cholerae infection. Updated April 13, 2022. Accessed June 6, 2022. ... Cholera is caused by the bacteria Vibrio cholerae. These bacteria release a toxin that causes an increased amount of water to ...
  • In 2017 the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a single-dose, live, oral cholera vaccine called Vaxchora for adults aged 18-64 who are travelling to an area of active cholera transmission. (
  • Is a vaccine available to prevent cholera? (
  • An inactivated oral vaccine is available in Canada and countries where Cholera may be endemic. (
  • Since the outbreak began, Malawi has carried out two large vaccination campaigns, but due to limited supplies, has offered just one of the usually recommended two oral cholera vaccine doses. (
  • The FDA-approved vaccine is for adults 18 to 64 years traveling to an area of active cholera transmission. (
  • There is a cholera vaccine available for adults ages 18 to 64 who are traveling to an area with an active cholera outbreak. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention does not recommend the cholera vaccine for most travelers because most people do not travel to areas where cholera is present. (
  • NIAID efforts to develop a preventive cholera vaccine have targeted two distinct but overlapping approaches: live and "killed" vaccines. (
  • An important re-analysis of a large study involving a vaccine containing inactivated cholera found that the incidence of cholera among the placebo recipients varied inversely with the level of vaccination in the community. (
  • In the case of cholera, one epidemiological model in Bangladesh showed that because of community immunity, a vaccine containing inactivated cholera conferring relatively short-lived immunity could eliminate cholera entirely if 70 percent of the population was vaccinated. (
  • The development of a vaccine containing live cholera involves reducing the bacteria's virulence and ability to cause diarrhea while preserving its ability to induce an immune response. (
  • The technology used to create Dukoral was later transferred to Vietnam and India, where a modified killed cholera vaccine is being produced as OCV-Vax in Vietnam and as Shanchol in India. (
  • Vaxchora ( Cholera Vaccine , Live, Oral) is a vaccine indicated for active immunization against disease caused by Vibrio cholera serogroup O1. (
  • Our Vaxchora (Cholera Vaccine, Live, Oral) Side Effects Drug Center provides a comprehensive view of available drug information on the potential side effects when taking this medication. (
  • VAXCHORA ( Cholera Vaccine, Live, Oral) is a live, attenuated bacterial vaccine suspension for oral administration containing the V. cholerae strain CVD 103-HgR. (
  • VAXCHORA is a vaccine indicated for active immunization against disease caused by Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 in persons 2 through 64 years of age traveling to cholera-affected areas. (
  • The effectiveness of VAXCHORA has not been established in persons who have pre-existing immunity due to previous exposure to V. cholerae or receipt of a cholera vaccine. (
  • The vaccine scheduler table summarizes the current vaccination schedule for young children, adolescents, and adults for Cholera. (
  • Cholera can be prevented by heeding food and water precautions and receiving cholera vaccine before travel. (
  • Review CDC resources on the epidemiology of cholera vaccine to use in clinical decision making about offering vaccine to patients. (
  • Discuss cholera vaccine recommendations and CDC resources for cholera vaccine. (
  • Effects of undernutrition on infection with Vibrio cholerae O1 and on response to oral cholera vaccine. (
  • Throughout history, populations all over the world have sporadically been affected by devastating outbreaks of cholera. (
  • Roadmap to 2030,2 large-scale outbreaks of cholera continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality among vulnerable populations in both emergency and endemic settings. (
  • The World Health Organization began a campaign on Saturday to prevent outbreaks of cholera in temporary camps in South Sudan housing thousands of people who have fled the country's brutal two-month-old conflict…" (2/22). (
  • When outbreaks of cholera occur, efforts should be made to establish clean water, food, and sanitation. (
  • [7] Japan suffered at least seven major outbreaks of cholera between 1858 and 1902. (
  • But for more than a century it hasn't recorded an outbreak of cholera, a disease that thrives in an environment where sanitation infrastructure is almost nonexistent and personal hygiene is poor. (
  • 2017-01-18T12:41:27-05:00 Who should be responsible for the outbreak of cholera in Haiti? (
  • Who should be responsible for the outbreak of cholera in Haiti? (
  • The third cholera pandemic (1846-1860) was the third major outbreak of cholera originating in India in the 19th century that reached far beyond its borders, which researchers at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) believe may have started as early as 1837 and lasted until 1863. (
  • Orissa Chief Minister Naveen Patnaik flew to the State's Rayagada and Kalahandi Districts today to review the steps being taken to counter the outbreak of cholera where more than 100 people have lost their lives over the past one month. (
  • The Ministry of health has confirmed that there is an outbreak of cholera in Mpulungu in Northern Province and as at yesterday a total of 10 cases were recorded. (
  • Cholera (/ˈkɒlərə/) is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. (
  • Cholera is an intestinal infection caused by Vibrio cholerae (see the images below). (
  • Cholera is an acute bacterial intestinal infection caused by toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O-group 1 (O1) or O-group 139 (O139). (
  • Travelers to areas where cholera is endemic or where an active epidemic is occurring are at risk for cholera infection. (
  • Cholera is an acute, diarrheal illness caused by infection of the intestine with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. (
  • Others develop more-serious signs and symptoms of cholera, usually within a few days of infection. (
  • A bacterium called Vibrio cholerae causes cholera infection. (
  • Contaminated water supplies are the main source of cholera infection. (
  • Raw, unpeeled fruits and vegetables are a frequent source of cholera infection in areas where there's cholera. (
  • Cholera is an acute gastrointestinal infection caused by Vibrio cholerae bacteria. (
  • Cholera is a severe infection in the small intestine that is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. (
  • Cholera is a bacterial infection of the small intestine that causes a large amount of watery diarrhea. (
  • People develop the infection from eating or drinking food or water that contains the cholera germ. (
  • A bacterial infection, cholera causes severe diarrhoea and vomiting and dangerous dehydration. (
  • In settings like Zimbabwe's Cholera Treatment Centers, hand sanitizer is vital for health care workers and their patients to reduce the risk of infection. (
  • Cholera is an infection of the small intestine caused by ingesting food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae , which can be deadly. (
  • Avian cholera (Pasteurella multocida infection) was responsible for a localized die-off of cedar waxwings (Bombycilla cedrorum) at Steubenville, Ohio in late June, 1968. (
  • Cholera is an infection of the small intestine and is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. (
  • Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. (
  • NIAID supports university-based and pharmaceutical and biotechnology researchers who are working to develop new cholera treatments and vaccines to prevent infection. (
  • The conclusion drawn was that vaccination reduced the amount of cholera in the environment, and therefore, the risk of infection to everyone in the community. (
  • People are treated for suspected cholera infection at a hospital in Sanaa, Yemen, Monday, May. (
  • Cholera is an acute infection of the small bowel by the gram-negative bacterium Vibrio cholerae , which secretes a toxin that causes copious watery diarrhea, leading to dehydration, oliguria, and circulatory collapse. (
  • Cholera is spread by ingestion of water, shellfish, or other foods contaminated by the excrement of people with symptomatic or asymptomatic infection. (
  • Household contacts of patients with cholera are at high risk of infection, which probably occurs through shared sources of contaminated food and water. (
  • The association between undernutrition and the risk of colonization and disease with Vibrio cholerae O1 , concentrations of salivary IgA and the serologic response to infection and to orally administered cholera B subunit were examined prospectively in a family study in Bangladesh . (
  • Prevention of cholera is dependent on access to safe water, adequate sanitation, and basic hygiene needs. (
  • Prevention methods against cholera include improved sanitation and access to clean water. (
  • In the United States and other developed countries, because of advanced water and sanitation systems, cholera is not a major threat. (
  • When in countries affected by cholera, travelers who consistently observe recommendations regarding safe drinking water, food preparation and consumption, handwashing, and sanitation have virtually no risk of acquiring the disease. (
  • The risk of a cholera epidemic is highest when poverty, war or natural disasters force people to live in crowded conditions without adequate sanitation. (
  • In the long-term, access to clean water and sanitation is a key factor in the fight against cholera. (
  • So with a Red Cross water and sanitation team by its side, H.O.P.E has been able to make improvements to sanitation infrastructure in Borgne-constructing latrines, along with treating cholera patients and delivering life-saving messages about healthy sanitation practices. (
  • Cholera is perhaps the most widespread and serious water-related disease, directly associated with the failure to provide safe drinking water and adequate sanitation. (
  • Famine-hit Somalia faces a cholera epidemic as dirty water and poor sanitation are leading to an increase in outbreaks of the disease, World Health Organisation officials warned on Friday. (
  • So lack of recovery on water and sanitation infrastructure destroyed during that time have created good conditions for cholera to thrive. (
  • Save Kumwenda, an environmental health expert, says alongside the water, sanitation and hygiene issues, there is also evidence of temperature and precipitation being influential in cholera outbreaks - with temperature driving epidemics and rainfall acting as a dispersal mechanism. (
  • With few medical resources and dismal sanitation, there is almost no protection against cholera, which is spread by unsanitary water. (
  • Cholera outbreaks are a result of inadequate water supplies, sanitation, food safety and hygiene practices," Tchibindat says. (
  • In 2016, after the UN acknowledged its part in spreading cholera in Haiti, it promised financial assistance for improved water and sanitation infrastructure and assistance for families affected by cholera. (
  • In 2016, when the UN finally acknowledged their role in the cholera epidemic, the organization promised $200 million towards cholera elimination and improved water and sanitation infrastructure, in addition to $200 million towards material assistance for cholera-affected families. (
  • Effective and proven prevention and control measure for cholera are dependent on provision of adequate environmental health services, such as safe drinking-water, improved access to safe sanitation and health hygiene measure. (
  • The availability of oral cholera vaccines is offering hope for cholera prevention and control, particularly in situations where other conventional public health measures, such as improving the access to safe water and sanitation, cannot be scaled up rapidly due to conflict or other environmental factors. (
  • If used on a broader scale, the vaccines could reduce global cholera rates, especially if antimicrobial and oral rehydration therapies are also available, and sanitation programs are supported by community education. (
  • Rural districts, where sanitation is poor and health services are poorer, have a higher risk of facing cholera outbreaks, but those living in cities are not immune either, as urban areas become more crowded and residents face rising competition for safe drinking water. (
  • When people are outside their homes, water and sanitation systems are disrupted," Tarik Jasarevic, a spokesman for the World Health Organization (WHO), said, pointing out that cholera is spread through contaminated water. (
  • Cholera is often predictable, preventable and can ultimately be eliminated where access to clean water and sanitation facilities, and satisfactory hygiene conditions are ensured and sustained for the whole population. (
  • Cholera, which causes diarrhoea and vomiting, is contracted from a bacterium that is generally transmitted through contaminated food or water. (
  • Cases of acute diarrhoea - an important indicator of the risk of cholera - are now at 4,272 in Somalia - an 11 per cent rise on last week's WHO reported figure of 3,839. (
  • Cholera, which brings on diarrhoea that can fast lead to severe dehydration and death, is preventable and treatable under normal circumstances. (
  • A massive health awareness drive was launched in Guwahati after laboratory tests on patients suffering from diarrhoea found strains of cholera. (
  • It is nearly impossible to accurately determine whether the suspected cases are cholera or simple diarrhoea," a statement by the spokesperson for the coalition said. (
  • The B subunit portion of cholera toxin (CTB) is a safe and effective oral immunizing agent in humans, affording protection against both cholera and diarrhoea caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli producing heat-labile toxin (LT) (Clemens et al. (
  • Cholera is an extremely virulent disease that can cause severe acute watery diarrhoea with severe dehydration. (
  • There is no agreed-upon standard definition for determining if a case of extreme or acute watery diarrhea is "cholera" or a different illness that presents the same way. (
  • Some major countries, known to have extensive and severe cholera outbreaks, typically report zero instances of cholera because they either fear the stigma associated with the failing to provide adequate water systems or they hide cholera cases by labeling them as something else (such as acute watery diarrhea). (
  • Other cases were suspected, and aid workers are now responding to all those exhibiting acute watery diarrhea as if it is cholera, Giuliano said. (
  • In acute fowl cholera, finding a large number of dead birds without previous signs is usually the first indication of disease. (
  • Cholera vaccines that are given by mouth provide reasonable protection for about six months, and confer the added benefit of protecting against another type of diarrhea caused by E. coli. (
  • WHO is working with the South Sudan Government and partners to provide vaccines to protect nearly 140,000 people living in temporary camps in South Sudan against cholera…" (2/22). (
  • The deadliest cholera outbreak in Malawi's history has killed at least 1,210 people, while vaccines remain scarce, the World Health Organization said Thursday. (
  • But the UN health agency pointed out that the crisis in Malawi is occurring against a backdrop of surging cholera outbreaks worldwide, which have 'constrained the availability of vaccines, tests and treatments. (
  • Vaccines are usually evaluated in field studies by comparing the incidence of disease (in this case, cholera) in a vaccinated population to an unvaccinated placebo control population. (
  • Killed" or inactivated vaccines are those that contain cholera bacteria that have been made harmless so as not to infect the vaccinated recipient. (
  • Currently, two of these types of cholera vaccines are available and both are administered orally as opposed to injection. (
  • The good antitoxin response to B subunit among undernourished children is of particular importance in considering the use of future oral cholera vaccines in areas where such undernutrition is common. (
  • By mid-March 2023, I had participated in 10 community engagement sessions, reaching over 50,000 people with accurate information about cholera. (
  • Many other serogroups of V. cholerae , with or without the cholera toxin gene (including the nontoxigenic strains of the O1 and O139 serogroups), can cause a cholera-like illness. (
  • Cholera toxin (CT) has been considered an important protein in several medical research and technology advancements. (
  • The cholera toxin is a protein complex secreted by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. (
  • Cholera toxin was discovered rather recently, in 1959, by the Indian microbiologist Sambhu Nath De (Figure 2). (
  • Lastly, but most important, is De's discovery of cholera toxin in 1959 in the cell-free culture filtrate of V. cholerae that stimulates a specific cellular response. (
  • CVD 103-HgR was constructed from the serogroup O1 classical Inaba strain 569B by deleting the catalytic domain sequence of both copies of the ctxA gene, which prevents the synthesis of active cholera toxin ( CT ). (
  • The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. (
  • After penetrating the mucus layer, these organisms colonize the epithelial lining of the gut and secrete cholera toxin. (
  • strains O1 and O139, which do not produce cholera toxin. (
  • Although efforts were underway to eliminate cholera from Hispaniola, in October 2022, the Pan American Health Organization reported a resurgence of the disease in Haiti. (
  • Before 2022, the last confirmed case of cholera in Haiti was in 2019, and in the Dominican Republic in 2018. (
  • The southern African nation has been battling its worst cholera outbreak on record, with nearly 37,000 cases reported since March 2022. (
  • BLANTYRE, Jan 09 (IPS) - On March 3, 2022, Malawi declared a cholera outbreak after a district hospital in the southern region reported a case. (
  • This was the first case in the 2021 to 2022 cholera season. (
  • What concerns Dr. Bartels is that the UN will be able to declare Haiti cholera-free if there are no new cases of cholera transmission in three years - and the three-year period was reached at end of January 2022. (
  • Unax Ugalde in "Love in the Time of Cholera. (
  • Benjamin Bratt in "Love in the Time of Cholera. (
  • Giovanna Mezzogiorno as Fermina and Benjamin Bratt as Dr. Juvenal Urbino in "Love in the Time of Cholera. (
  • John Leguizamo as Lorenzo and Giovanna Mezzogiorno as Fermina in "Love in the Time of Cholera. (
  • Liev Schreiber as Lotario and Unax Ugalde as young Florentino in "Love in the Time of Cholera. (
  • Severe cholera is characterized by large amounts of watery diarrhea, often described as "rice-water stool" because it can have a pale, milky appearance. (
  • The following materials cover the basics of cholera and other diarrheal disease prevention. (
  • The partners also raised awareness about cholera prevention, by promoting things like proper hand-washing. (
  • Throughout Haiti, Red Cross programs have reached nearly 3.2 million people through cholera prevention and outbreak response services. (
  • As a health champion under the AWHC initiative, I was tasked with amplifying messages on the pressing need for cholera control and prevention in the country, ultimately contributing to reduction in mortality rates. (
  • My day-to-day tasks include working alongside community health workers and volunteers to empower communities in addressing rumours and promoting the adoption of cholera prevention measures. (
  • List recommendations for prevention strategies for cholera. (
  • Only toxigenic strains of serogroups O1 and O139 have caused widespread epidemics and are reportable to the World Health Organization (WHO) as "cholera. (
  • Changes in the CTB sequences play an important role in the global epidemics of cholera. (
  • Seven cholera epidemics have occurred in the past 200 years ( 1 ). (
  • Severe cholera, without treatment, kills about half of affected individuals. (
  • Although the disease may be asymptomatic or mild, severe cholera can cause dehydration and death within hours of onset. (
  • Malawi is currently facing its most severe cholera outbreak to date. (
  • Yemen is in the grip of a severe cholera epidemic of an unprecedented scale," the UN humanitarian office said in a report published on Wednesday. (
  • If you develop severe diarrhea after visiting an area with active cholera, see your doctor. (
  • Cholera can be endemic, epidemic, or pandemic. (
  • Cholera is endemic to ≈50 countries, primarily in South and Southeast Asia and Africa. (
  • The full extent of the burden of cholera in the Region is difficult to estimate due to weak surveillance systems in some endemic countries, in addition to underreporting of cases, although it is estimated that the number of cases may be around 188 000 per annum. (
  • A second candidate, CVD-103HgR, was licensed in Europe, but is not currently in production or slated for use in cholera-endemic regions. (
  • In the 1990s, researchers discovered that the bacteria Vibrio cholerae, which causes cholera, was endemic to the country. (
  • Cholera is endemic in portions of Asia, the Middle East, Africa, South and Central America, and the Gulf Coast of the US. (
  • WHO chief Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus told reporters Wednesday that there were currently 23 countries in the world experiencing cholera outbreaks, with a further 20 countries that share land borders with them at risk. (
  • U.S. travelers to areas with epidemic cholera may be exposed to the cholera bacterium. (
  • Most people exposed to the cholera bacterium (Vibrio cholerae) don't become ill and don't know they've been infected. (
  • Cholera is caused by a number of types of Vibrio cholerae, with some types producing more severe disease than others. (
  • Although not the first description, the discovery of the cholera organism is credited to German bacteriologist Robert Koch, who independently identified V cholerae in 1883 during an outbreak in Egypt. (
  • A new strain of cholera, V cholerae serogroup O139 (Bengal) emerged in the fall of 1992 and caused outbreaks in Bangladesh and India in 1993. (
  • Although more than 200 serogroups of V cholerae have been identified, V cholerae O1 and V cholerae O139 are the principal ones associated with epidemic cholera. (
  • Cholera infections are acquired most often from untreated drinking water in which toxigenic V. cholerae naturally occurs or has been introduced from the feces of an infected person. (
  • But researchers at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland, found that cholera (formally called Vibrio cholerae ) have a unique way of doing so. (
  • Cholera is caused by the bacteria Vibrio cholerae . (
  • Cholera is a disease spread by drinking water or eating food contaminated with toxigenic Vibrio cholerae bacteria. (
  • Children ages 1 to 8 years who were family contacts of patients hospitalized with culture-confirmed cholera were visited within 24 hours of the hospitalization and daily for 10 days, queried for the presence of diarrhea and cultured for V. cholerae O1. (
  • There are no cholera vaccination requirements for entry or exit in any Latin American country or the United States. (
  • Note that the World Health Organization announced in 1991 that Cholera vaccination certificates are no longer required for entry by any country or territory. (
  • Media sources report on the WHO's launch of a cholera vaccination program in South Sudan. (
  • Vaccination is an important way to protect vulnerable populations from cholera. (
  • Sporadic cases in the United States associated with travel to or from cholera-affected countries in Asia and Africa continue to occur. (
  • However, as a result of improved transportation, more persons from the United States travel to parts of Latin America, Africa, or Asia where epidemic cholera is occurring. (
  • But cholera still exists in Africa, Southeast Asia and Haiti. (
  • UNICEF spokeswoman Marixie Mercado said on Friday that tens of thousands of children have died and countless more are particularly at risk of cholera and other diseases because of drought and violence in East Africa. (
  • The second cholera pandemic spread from India, surging outward to all of Europe and northern Africa, then crossing the Atlantic to Canada and the United States, spreading to Mexico and the Caribbean. (
  • Sporadic cholera outbreaks have occurred in recent years throughout countries in East Africa, including Kenya. (
  • Charities have warned that the cholera outbreak has already spread to neighbouring South Africa. (
  • Health authorities in northern South Africa said the Limpopo River, a major waterway and border with Zimbabwe, had tested positive for cholera this week. (
  • Globally, cholera incidence has increased steadily since the beginning of the millenium with cholera outbreaks persisting in Sub-Saharan Africa. (
  • The organization's Southern Africa director Tiseke Kasambala said the conditions that allowed cholera to flourish in 2008 were still persisting in Harare thus placing the lives of many at risk of water-borne diseases. (
  • One case of cholera had been fully confirmed in Mingora, the main town in the northwest's Swat Valley, UN spokesman Maurizio Giuliano said Saturday. (
  • Living in or traveling to areas where cholera is present raises the risk of getting it. (
  • Oral rehydration therapy (ORT), or the administration of an oral solution containing glucose and electrolytes, is currently the predominant treatment for cholera worldwide. (
  • The primary symptoms of cholera are profuse diarrhea and vomiting of clear fluid. (
  • An untreated person with cholera may produce 10 to 20 litres (3 to 5 US gal) of diarrhea a day. (
  • Cholera can be simply and successfully treated by immediate replacement of the fluid and salts lost through diarrhea. (
  • Cholera causes severe diarrhea and dehydration. (
  • Most cases of cholera that cause symptoms cause mild or moderate diarrhea that's often hard to tell apart from diarrhea caused by other problems. (
  • Cholera-related diarrhea comes on suddenly and can quickly cause dangerous fluid loss - as much as a quart (about 1 liter) an hour. (
  • Diarrhea due to cholera often has a pale, milky appearance that resembles water in which rice has been rinsed. (
  • If you have diarrhea, especially severe diarrhea, and think you might have been exposed to cholera, seek treatment right away. (
  • AmeriCares also delivered antibiotics and medicines used to treat cholera symptoms such as diarrhea, cramping and severe pain. (
  • his was an independent discovery for studying cholera in a rabbit model demonstrating the association of some strains of E. coli with diarrhea. (
  • Cholera can be subclinical, a mild and uncomplicated episode of diarrhea, or a fulminant, potentially lethal disease. (
  • Enterotoxins, generated by some bacteria (ie, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholera ) act directly on secretory mechanisms and produce a typical, copious watery (rice water) diarrhea. (
  • The report said the situation increased the risk of cholera and other communicable diseases. (
  • In March, UN agencies had warned that the chronic shortage of drinking water would lead to an outbreak of waterborne diseases such as cholera in the summer months. (
  • He made significant contributions to the understanding of cholera and related diarrheal diseases. (
  • So far, the WHO, which is monitoring for diseases in cooperation with Nepal's Ministry of Health, has not received any reports of cholera or other intestinal illnesses in Nepal, Jasarevic said. (
  • Vaxchora is approved for use in adults 18 through 64 years of age traveling to cholera-affected areas. (
  • In January 1991, epidemic cholera appeared in South America and quickly spread to several countries. (
  • The risk for cholera is very low for U.S. travelers visiting areas with epidemic cholera. (
  • The plan aligns with the Global Task Force on Cholera Control's country-led strategy to reduce cholera deaths by 90%, and to eliminate cholera in as many as 20 countries by 2030. (
  • The bacteria that cause cholera grab genes from other organisms in a particularly predatory way, new research finds. (
  • PŪR is a powder that when mixed with even the filthiest water, removes pollutants, viruses and bacteria - including bacteria that cause cholera. (
  • When a massive earthquake struck in 2010 and Haiti experienced a cholera outbreak nine months later, Dr. Voltaire and H.O.P.E. faced another seemingly insurmountable challenge. (
  • Cholera is a potentially fatal intestinal illness that spreads through contaminated water and food. (
  • In the end, the cholera victims may benefit from nothing more than assistance that does not substantially differ from regular development projects: such as construction of irrigation systems and local medical centers. (
  • Most recent cases of cholera in the United States have been traced to seafood from the Gulf of Mexico. (
  • Cholera is a bacterial disease usually spread through contaminated water. (
  • Fowl cholera is a contagious, bacterial disease of birds caused by Pasteurella multocida . (
  • Fowl cholera is a contagious, bacterial disease that affects domestic and wild birds worldwide. (
  • More than half (70/117, ≈60%) of US cases during 2007-2017 were linked to travel to Haiti, the Dominican Republic, or Cuba, the 3 Caribbean countries affected by a large cholera epidemic that began in Haiti in October 2010. (
  • In 2018 and 2019, the most recent years for which data are available, no cholera cases in the United States were associated with travel to Haiti or the Dominican Republic, and those 2 countries reported far fewer cholera cases to WHO during these 2 years than in previous years. (
  • The partnership-part of $19 million that the Red Cross has spent fighting cholera in Haiti-initially focused on dispatching cholera treatment units and oral rehydration points to help people survive the disease. (
  • U.N. sources describe intense internal deliberations about what the official response should be to the allegations, which started appearing shortly after the outbreak first appeared in Haiti in October 2010 and accused Nepali members of the U.N. Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) of bringing a cholera strain from Nepal to the impoverished Caribbean country, before, through negligence, contaminating a river near their military camp. (
  • A new article in The Lancet Regional Health - Americas , co-authored by Queen's global health researcher Susan Bartels (Emergency Medicine) and Sandra Wisner, senior staff attorney with the Institute for Justice & Democracy in Haiti, raises awareness of the cholera epidemic in Haiti caused by United Nations peacekeepers. (
  • Due to the pandemic, cholera testing decreased in Haiti as health care providers pivoted to focus on COVID-19. (
  • This has raised doubts about whether there is truly no cholera transmission in Haiti or whether it is just not being detected with the decreased testing. (
  • For Dr. Bartels, this work initially began as research into sexual exploitation and abuse perpetrated by UN peacekeepers in Haiti , and quickly expanded to include a focus on cholera. (
  • Dr. Bartels began researching cholera in Haiti in 2017, conducting mixed qualitative and quantitative research. (
  • Studies have shown that cholera has had significant socio-economic impacts in Haiti, with a relationship between cholera and household food insecurity. (
  • Published Date : Oct 2013 Series : AJTMH and PAHO : Commemorating the 3rd Anniversary of the Cholera Outbreak in Haiti : Invited Papers Source : Am J Trop Med Hyg. (
  • She traveled to Haiti to do research for her Master's thesis in International Human Rights Law on the cholera epidemic in that country and the compatibility of the UN's response with international human rights legal standards for reparation. (
  • I decided to write about a topic related to the UN's responsibility in peacekeeping operations, and was intrigued by a statement in July 2014 made by the Secretary-General at the time, Ban Ki-moon, referencing the United Nations' moral responsibility towards the Haitian people with regards to the cholera epidemic that erupted in Haiti in 2010. (
  • In December 2016, the Secretary-General issued a public apology to the Haitian population, spoke of the Organization's "role" in the initial cholera outbreak, and presented a " New Approach to cholera in Haiti " , that intends to intensify general support, and provide targeted support to cholera victims. (
  • In Europe, cholera was a term initially used to describe any kind of gastroenteritis, and was not used for this disease until the early 19th century. (
  • The 19th century English physician John Snow provided the first demonstration that the transmission of cholera was significantly reduced when uncontaminated water was provided to the population. (
  • Pavel Fedotov 's painting shows a death from cholera in the mid-19th century. (
  • That single case was a warning for what would become Malawi's worst cholera outbreak in decades. (
  • Zimbabwe is slowly recovering from Africa's worst cholera outbreak in 15 years. (
  • 2020. (
  • Cholera continues to affect an estimated 3-5 million people worldwide and causes 28,800-130,000 deaths a year. (
  • A more detailed statistical analysis recently suggested that overall there are around 2.8 million cases of cholera every year (with an uncertainty range of 1.2 to 4.3 million) and about 91,000 deaths (with an uncertainty range of 28,000 to 140,000). (
  • Stone Town ‒ It was the deaths of his two children from cholera that spurred Ali Hassan Mambo, a resident and community leader of Urowa, a suburb of Zanzibar in the United Republic of Tanzania, to commit to do everything possible to curb the deadly disease. (
  • Zanzibar has experienced 17 cholera outbreaks since 1978, recording more than 14 000 cases and over 200 deaths. (
  • Early detection, confirmation of cases, and a timely and effective response are critical because cholera outbreaks can spread rapidly, causing many deaths. (
  • Cholera broke out in October last year in Lusaka, with 3,444 cases recorded so far and over 70 deaths. (
  • The current outbreak has already resulted in more than 200 deaths out of the 1,500 cholera cases reported here since June. (
  • In 2010, a cholera outbreak spread to eight of Cameroon's 10 regions, resulting in 657 deaths - 87 percent of which where were from the Far North Region. (
  • Every year there are an estimated 3 to 5 million cholera cases and 100 000 to 120 000 deaths due to cholera. (
  • To date, 101,820 suspected cholera cases and 789 deaths have been reported in 19 governorates," WHO spokesman Tarik Jasarevic told Reuters. (
  • Researchers have estimated that every year, there are 1.3 to 4.0 million cases, and 21 000 to 143 000 deaths worldwide due to cholera. (
  • Cholera is an extremely virulent disease. (
  • But because they shed cholera bacteria in their stool for seven to 14 days, they can still infect others through contaminated water. (
  • A person may get cholera by drinking water or eating food contaminated with the cholera bacterium. (
  • The cholera bacterium may also live in the environment in brackish rivers and coastal waters. (
  • Once the membranes are dissolved, the target cell bursts, releasing its DNA, and the cholera bacterium absorbs the freed genetic material. (
  • Blokesch added that the spearing mechanism might be one more reason the cholera bacterium is so virulent in the human gut . (
  • Dehydration can develop within hours after cholera symptoms start and range from mild to severe. (
  • Signs and symptoms of cholera dehydration include irritability, fatigue, sunken eyes, a dry mouth, extreme thirst, dry and shriveled skin that's slow to bounce back when pinched into a fold, little or no urinating, low blood pressure, and an irregular heartbeat. (
  • Cholera in 3rd trimester of pregnancy is associated with greater dehydration and may lead to stillbirth. (
  • The danger of cholera is rapid dehydration, which can lead to death. (
  • After the 2016 outbreak, between 2017 and 2019, more than 155 health workers were trained to input cholera symptoms into the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response system for quick verification and action. (
  • 2 Ending cholera: a global roadmap to 2030 (, accessed 21 May 2018). (
  • With support from WHO, the government also developed the Zanzibar Comprehensive Cholera Elimination Plan, a multisectoral strategy to sustain the elimination of local transmission of cholera for a 10-year period, from 2018 to 2027. (
  • What should travelers do to avoid getting cholera? (
  • Health care and response workers in cholera-affected areas (e.g., during an outbreak, after a disaster) also might be at increased risk for cholera. (
  • What is the risk for cholera in the United States? (
  • Children are at high risk for cholera, and, sadly, it is often most deadly for them. (
  • Shellfish eaten raw have been a source of cholera, and a few persons in the United States have contracted cholera after eating raw or undercooked shellfish from the Gulf of Mexico. (
  • WHO said Thursday that 96.8 percent of the population 'residing in communities with high risk and burden of cholera' had been reached. (
  • Meanwhile, Regional Medical Research Laboratory investigation has found 31 out of 40 samples positive for cholera. (
  • Since returning to his home town of Borgne, Dr. Thony Voltaire has overseen its transformation from a place whose hospital was in ruins to a forerunner in the fight against cholera. (
  • We celebrate the 200th anniversary of the birth of the epidemiologist John Snow by looking at the historic and modern fight against Cholera. (
  • Apart from the donation from the government, the Chinese embassy also donated a further 50,000 Zambian Kwacha (about 5,000 U.S. dollars) towards the fight against cholera, while Chinese enterprises have so far provided over one million Kwacha (about 100,000 U.S. dollars) in cash donation, Yang added. (
  • Definitive diagnosis is not a prerequisite for the treatment of patients with cholera. (
  • Cholera bacteria might not cause illness in all people who are exposed to them, but they still pass the bacteria in their stool, which can contaminate food and water supplies. (
  • From 2010 through 2014, 91 cases of cholera were confirmed in the United States among people who had traveled internationally in the week before illness onset. (
  • People who survive an episode of cholera have long-lasting immunity for at least 3 years (the period tested. (
  • CT plays an important role in the induction of protective immunity against cholera. (
  • compared to older El Tor strains, this newer variant appears to be more virulent, causing a greater proportion of severe episodes of cholera with the potential for higher death rates. (
  • The World Health Organization has reported that in 2011 (the last year for which comprehensive data are available) 58 countries reported 589,854 cases of cholera . (
  • The number of suspected cholera cases in war-torn Yemen has risen to more than 100,000 since an outbreak began on April 27, the World Health Organization said on Thursday. (
  • Cholera is an ancient disease. (
  • The Independent has new details on the cholera outbreak in Zimbabwe: One of the country's health officials tells the paper that 3,000 have died of the disease in the last two weeks, not 300 as has been officially reported. (
  • ISLAMABAD- A case of the deadly, waterborne disease cholera has been confirmed in Pakistan's flood-ravaged northwest, and aid workers expect it is not isolated, the UN said Saturday. (
  • As part of this campaign, I shared stories of cholera survivors to foster trust within communities, encouraging them to act upon WHO's information, advice and guidance regarding the disease. (
  • Heinrich Hermann Robert Koch (1843-1910), German physician and microbiologist, founder of modern bacteriology, identified the specific causative agents of TB, cholera, and anthrax and gave experimental support for the concept of infectious disease basing such discoveries on animal and human experimentation (Figure 1). (
  • Subspecies multocida is the most common cause of disease, but septica and gallicida may also cause cholera-like disease. (
  • Clinical findings from fowl cholera vary greatly depending on the course of disease. (
  • Cholera is an infectious disease caused by bacteria that affects human's intestine. (
  • Aid charity Oxfam called for a "cholera ceasefire" to allow health workers to halt the spread of the disease, adding that the published numbers were probably an underestimate. (
  • Undernutrition, defined in a child as weight less than 70% of the Harvard reference weight-for-age, was not associated with colonization, disease or the duration or severity of cholera. (
  • Most cholera cases in developed countries are a result of transmission by food, while in developing countries it is more often water. (
  • Globally, most cholera cases are caused by O1 El Tor organisms. (
  • Still, cases of cholera occur throughout the world. (
  • Here is one example - reported cases of cholera worldwide. (
  • First, it is entirely possible that this number is exactly the sum (i.e., it is precise) of the number of cases of cholera reported to WHO by the 58 reporting countries. (
  • The officially reported estimates of cholera cases are neither precise (despite six significant figures), nor accurate. (
  • For nearly a year now, cholera has gripped the country, with cases reported in all 29 districts and rising. (
  • In an unprecedented occurrence, the cases rose sharply even through the summer months when cholera is least expected and the country least prepared for it. (
  • The rainstorm affected 16 districts, including Machinga, where the first cholera case was reported in March, and Nsanje, a flood-prone district and one of the first areas to report cholera cases in this outbreak. (
  • After the 1854 Broad Street cholera outbreak he had mapped the cases of cholera in the Soho area in London, and noted a cluster of cases near a water pump in one neighborhood. (
  • To test his theory, he convinced officials to remove the pump handle, and the number of cholera cases in the area immediately declined. (
  • The statement comes in response to the several cases of contagion by cholera, from food served in an activity in a private residence. (
  • But the Zambian minister expressed optimism that the battle will soon be won as the country has recorded drastic reduction in new cholera cases. (
  • The protracted droughts in Far North Region have triggered a sharp increase in cholera cases. (
  • Neighbouring Nigeria has reported 24,683 cholera cases since January and the first week of July. (
  • During the last decade, at least 14 out of 22 countries in the Region have reported cholera cases, often in epidemic proportions. (
  • MENAFN - Jordan Times) DUBAI - The Saudi-led coalition fighting in Yemen said on Friday an announcement by the International Committee of the Red Cross that cholera cases in the country had reached one million suspected cases was exaggerated. (
  • The study of cholera in England by John Snow between 1849 and 1854 led to significant advances in the field of epidemiology because of his insights about transmission via contaminated water, and a map of the same was the first recorded incidence of epidemiological tracking. (