An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.
The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 1. All are CHOLERA-causing strains (serotypes). There are two biovars (biotypes): cholerae and eltor (El Tor).
A specific monosialoganglioside that accumulates abnormally within the nervous system due to a deficiency of GM1-b-galactosidase, resulting in GM1 gangliosidosis.
A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.
Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 139. This strain emerged in India in 1992 and caused a CHOLERA epidemic.
Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
The development and establishment of environmental conditions favorable to the health of the public.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.
An acute, highly contagious disease affecting swine of all ages and caused by the CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS. It has a sudden onset with high morbidity and mortality.
A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
An old term that is no longer used in the scientific literature. Cholera morbus refers to acute GASTROENTERITIS occurring in summer or autumn; characterized by severe cramps, diarrhea, and vomiting.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
A strain of the VIBRIO CHOLERAE bacteria belonging to serogroup non-O1, infecting humans and other PRIMATES. It is related to VIBRIO CHOLERAE O1, but causes a disease less severe than CHOLERA. Eating raw shellfish contaminated with the bacteria results in GASTROENTERITIS.
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and west of GUINEA. Its capital is Bissau.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria normally found in the flora of the mouth and respiratory tract of animals and birds. It causes shipping fever (see PASTEURELLOSIS, PNEUMONIC); HEMORRHAGIC BACTEREMIA; and intestinal disease in animals. In humans, disease usually arises from a wound infection following a bite or scratch from domesticated animals.
One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.
Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
A republic in central Africa, east of the REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, south of the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and north of ANGOLA and ZAMBIA. The capital is Kinshasa.
A species of the PESTIVIRUS genus causing exceedingly contagious and fatal hemorrhagic disease of swine.
Miscellaneous agents found useful in the symptomatic treatment of diarrhea. They have no effect on the agent(s) that cause diarrhea, but merely alleviate the condition.

Environmental signals modulate ToxT-dependent virulence factor expression in Vibrio cholerae. (1/1261)

The regulatory protein ToxT directly activates the transcription of virulence factors in Vibrio cholerae, including cholera toxin (CT) and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). Specific environmental signals stimulate virulence factor expression by inducing the transcription of toxT. We demonstrate that transcriptional activation by the ToxT protein is also modulated by environmental signals. ToxT expressed from an inducible promoter activated high-level expression of CT and TCP in V. cholerae at 30 degrees C, but expression of CT and TCP was significantly decreased or abolished by the addition of 0.4% bile to the medium and/or an increase of the temperature to 37 degrees C. Also, expression of six ToxT-dependent TnphoA fusions was modulated by temperature and bile. Measurement of ToxT-dependent transcription of genes encoding CT and TCP by ctxAp- and tcpAp-luciferase fusions confirmed that negative regulation by 37 degrees C or bile occurs at the transcriptional level in V. cholerae. Interestingly, ToxT-dependent transcription of these same promoters in Salmonella typhimurium was relatively insensitive to regulation by temperature or bile. These data are consistent with ToxT transcriptional activity being modulated by environmental signals in V. cholerae and demonstrate an additional level of complexity governing the expression of virulence factors in this pathogen. We propose that negative regulation of ToxT-dependent transcription by environmental signals prevents the incorrect temporal and spatial expression of virulence factors during cholera pathogenesis.  (+info)

Transmission of epidemic Vibrio cholerae O1 in rural western Kenya associated with drinking water from Lake Victoria: an environmental reservoir for cholera? (2/1261)

Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest reported cholera incidence and mortality rates in the world. In 1997, a cholera epidemic occurred in western Kenya. Between June 1997 and March 1998, 14,275 cholera admissions to hospitals in Nyanza Province in western Kenya were reported. There were 547 deaths (case fatality rate = 4%). Of 31 Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates tested, all but one were sensitive to tetracycline. We performed a case-control study among 61 cholera patients and age-, sex-, and clinic-matched controls. Multivariate analysis showed that risk factors for cholera were drinking water from Lake Victoria or from a stream, sharing food with a person with watery diarrhea, and attending funeral feasts. Compared with other diarrheal pathogens, cholera was more common among persons living in a village bordering Lake Victoria. Cholera has become an important public health concern in western Kenya, and may become an endemic pathogen in the region.  (+info)

Effects of changes in membrane sodium flux on virulence gene expression in Vibrio cholerae. (3/1261)

The expression of several virulence factors of Vibrio cholerae is coordinately regulated by the ToxT molecule and the membrane proteins TcpP/H and ToxR/S, which are required for toxT transcription. To identify proteins that negatively affect toxT transcription, we screened transposon mutants of V. cholerae carrying a chromosomally integrated toxT::lacZ reporter construct for darker blue colonies on media containing 5-bromo-4-chlor-3-indolyl beta-D galactoside (X-gal). Two mutants had transposon insertions in a region homologous to the nqr gene cluster of Vibrio alginolyticus, encoding a sodium-translocating NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (NQR). In V. alginolyticus, NQR is a respiration-linked Na+ extrusion pump generating a sodium motive force that can be used for solute import, ATP synthesis, and flagella rotation. Inhibition of NQR enzyme function in V. cholerae by the specific inhibitor 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide (HQNO) resulted in elevated toxT::lacZ activity. Increased toxT::lacZ expression in an nqr mutant strain compared with the parental strain was observed when the TcpP/H molecules alone were strongly expressed, suggesting that the negative effect of the NQR complex on toxT transcription is mediated through TcpP/H. However, the ability of the TcpP/H proteins to activate the toxT::lacZ reporter construct was greatly diminished in the presence of high NaCl concentrations in the growth medium. The flagellar motor of V. cholerae appears to be driven by a sodium motive force, and modulation of flagella rotation by inhibitory drugs, high media viscosity, or specific mutations resulted in increases of toxT::lacZ expression. Thus, the regulation of the main virulence factors of V. cholerae appears to be modulated by endogenous and exogenous sodium levels in a complex way.  (+info)

How intestinal bacteria cause disease. (4/1261)

An improved understanding of how intestinal bacteria cause disease has become increasingly important because of the emergence of new enteric pathogens, increasing threats of drug resistance, and a growing awareness of their importance in malnutrition and diarrhea. Reviewed here are the varied ways that intestinal bacteria cause disease, which provide fundamental lessons about microbial pathogenesis as well as cell signaling. Following colonization, enteric pathogens may adhere to or invade the epithelium or may produce secretory exotoxins or cytotoxins. In addition, by direct or indirect effects, they may trigger secondary mediator release of cytokines that attract inflammatory cells, which release further products, such as prostaglandins or platelet-activating factor, which can also trigger secretion. An improved understanding of pathogenesis not only opens new approaches to treatment and control but may also suggest improved simple means of diagnosis and even vaccine development.  (+info)

Expanded safety and immunogenicity of a bivalent, oral, attenuated cholera vaccine, CVD 103-HgR plus CVD 111, in United States military personnel stationed in Panama. (5/1261)

To provide optimum protection against classical and El Tor biotypes of Vibrio cholerae O1, a single-dose, oral cholera vaccine was developed by combining two live, attenuated vaccine strains, CVD 103-HgR (classical, Inaba) and CVD 111 (El Tor, Ogawa). The vaccines were formulated in a double-chamber sachet; one chamber contained lyophilized bacteria, and the other contained buffer. A total of 170 partially-immune American soldiers stationed in Panama received one of the following five formulations: (a) CVD 103-HgR at 10(8) CFU plus CVD 111 at 10(7) CFU, (b) CVD 103-HgR at 10(8) CFU plus CVD 111 at 10(6) CFU, (c) CVD 103-HgR alone at 10(8) CFU, (d) CVD 111 alone at 10(7) CFU, or (e) inactivated Escherichia coli placebo. Among those who received CVD 111 at the high or low dose either alone or in combination with CVD 103-HgR, 8 of 103 had diarrhea, defined as three or more liquid stools. None of the 32 volunteers who received CVD 103-HgR alone or the 35 placebo recipients had diarrhea. CVD 111 was detected in the stools of 46% of the 103 volunteers who received it. About 65% of all persons who received CVD 103-HgR either alone or in combination had a fourfold rise in Inaba vibriocidal titers. The postvaccination geometric mean titers were comparable among groups, ranging from 450 to 550. Ogawa vibriocidal titers were about twice as high in persons who received CVD 111 as in those who received CVD 103-HgR alone (600 versus 300). The addition of CVD 111 improved the overall seroconversion rate and doubled the serum Ogawa vibriocidal titers, suggesting that the combination of an El Tor and a classical cholera strain is desirable. While CVD 111 was previously found to be well tolerated in semiimmune Peruvians, the adverse effects observed in this study indicate that this strain requires further attenuation before it can be safely used in nonimmune populations.  (+info)

A reassessment of the cost-effectiveness of water and sanitation interventions in programmes for controlling childhood diarrhoea. (6/1261)

Cost-effectiveness analysis indicates that some water supply and sanitation (WSS) interventions are highly cost-effective for the control of diarrhoea among under-5-year-olds, on a par with oral rehydration therapy. These are relatively inexpensive "software-related" interventions such as hygiene education, social marketing of good hygiene practices, regulation of drinking-water, and monitoring of water quality. Such interventions are needed to ensure that the potentially positive health impacts of WSS infrastructure are fully realized in practice. The perception that WSS programmes are not a cost-effective use of health sector resources has arisen from three factors: an assumption that all WSS interventions involve construction of physical infrastructure, a misperception of the health sector's role in WSS programmes, and a misunderstanding of the scope of cost-effectiveness analysis. WSS infrastructure ("hardware") is generally built and operated by public works agencies and financed by construction grants, operational subsidies, user fees and property taxes. Health sector agencies should provide "software" such as project design, hygiene education, and water quality regulation. Cost-effectiveness analysis should measure the incremental health impacts attributable to health sector investments, using the actual call on health sector resources as the measure of cost. The cost-effectiveness of a set of hardware and software combinations is estimated, using US$ per case averted, US$ per death averted, and US$ per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) saved.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of a new ribotype of Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal associated with an outbreak of cholera in Bangladesh. (7/1261)

Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal initially appeared in the southern coastal region of Bangladesh and spread northward, causing explosive epidemics during 1992 and 1993. The resurgence of V. cholerae O139 during 1995 after its transient displacement by a new clone of El Tor vibrios demonstrated rapid changes in the epidemiology of cholera in Bangladesh. A recent outbreak of cholera in two north-central districts of Bangladesh caused by V. cholerae O139 led us to analyze strains collected from the outbreak and compare them with V. cholerae O139 strains isolated from other regions of Bangladesh and neighboring India to investigate their origins. Analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in genes for conserved rRNA (ribotype) revealed that the recently isolated V. cholerae O139 strains belonged to a new ribotype which was distinct from previously described ribotypes of toxigenic V. cholerae O139. All strains carried the genes for toxin-coregulated pili (tcpA and tcpI) and accessory colonization factor (acfB), the regulatory gene toxR, and multiple copies of the lysogenic phage genome encoding cholera toxin (CTXPhi) and belonged to a previously described ctxA genotype. Comparative analysis of the rfb gene cluster by PCR revealed the absence of a large region of the O1-specific rfb operon downstream of the rfaD gene and the presence of an O139-specific genomic region in all O139 strains. Southern hybridization analysis of the O139-specific genomic region also produced identical restriction patterns in strains belonging to the new ribotype and those of previously described ribotypes. These results suggested that the new ribotype of Bengal vibrios possibly originated from an existing strain of V. cholerae O139 by genetic changes in the rRNA operons. In contrast to previously isolated O139 strains which mostly had resistance to trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, and streptomycin encoded by a transposon (SXT element), 68.6% of the toxigenic strains analyzed in the present study, including all strains belonging to the new ribotype, were susceptible to these antibiotics. Molecular analysis of the SXT element revealed possible deletion of a 3.6-kb region of the SXT element in strains which were susceptible to the antibiotics. Thus, V. cholerae O139 strains in Bangladesh are also undergoing considerable reassortments in genetic elements encoding antimicrobial resistance.  (+info)

Cholera in the 1990s. (8/1261)

Two strains of Vibrio cholerae are currently significant in cholera: a remnant from the sixth pandemic (1899-1923) still present in South Asia and the seventh pandemic strain which emerged in 1961. The 1990s were marked by spread of the seventh pandemic to South America in 1991 and appearance of an O139 form of the seventh pandemic strain in 1992 (or possibly 1991), which in 1993 predominated in some areas but then declined. Molecular analysis showed that the sixth and the seventh pandemic clones are related, but have a different TCP pathogenicity island and possibly different CTX phages, suggesting independent derivation from related environmental strains. Upsurges of the seventh pandemic were accompanied by increased genetic variation enabling the relationships between strains to be studied, but the basis for variation in pathogenicity is not known. There is clearly a risk of new forms arising and a strategy for speedy development of vaccines needs to be established.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of the vibriocidal antibody response in cholera due to Vibrio cholerae O139 bengal with the response in cholera due to Vibrio cholerae O1. AU - Qadri, F.. AU - Mohi, G.. AU - Hossain, J.. AU - Azim, T.. AU - Khan, A. M.. AU - Salam, M. A.. AU - Sack, R. B.. AU - Albert, M. J.. AU - Svennerholm, A. M.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Vibrio cholerae serogroup O139, now considered to be the second organism capable of causing epidemic severe dehydrating cholera, contains a capsular polysaccharide which makes it difficult for it to be used in the conventional vibriocidal antibody assay optimized for V. cholerae O1. After modification of the procedure, which involved tile use of specific bacterial strains, a lower bacterial inoculum, and increased amounts of complement, the vibriocidal antibody responses to V. cholerae O139 were measured in acute- and convalescent-phase sera from 33 V. choleras O139-infected and 18 V. cholerae O1-infected patients and in single serum samples ...
Cholera, asiatic cholera, asiatic cholera prevention, asiatic cholera pandemic, asiatic cholera cause, cholera treatment, homeopathy treatment, homeopathy effectiveness study from india
Outbreak of Vibrio cholerae Serogroup O1, Serotype Ogawa, Biotype El Tor Strain -- La Huasteca Region, Mexico, 2013. Díaz-Quiñonez, Alberto; Hernández-Monroy, Irma; Montes-Colima, Norma; Moreno-Pérez, Asunción; Galicia Nicolás, Adriana; Martínez-Rojano, Hugo; Carmona Ramos, Concepción; Sánchez-Mendoza, Miroslava; Cruz Rodríguez-Martínez, José; Suárez-Idueta, Lorena; Eugenia Jiménez-Corona, María; Ruiz-Matus, Cuitláhuac; Kuri-Morales, Pablo // MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report;6/27/2014, Vol. 63 Issue 25, p552 The article reports on the outbreak of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor strain in the La Huasteca region in Mexico in September 2013. Topics discussed include the identification of two cases of cholera in Mexico City by Mexicos National System of... ...
The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has awarded Professor James J. Collins (BME, MSE, SE) a Grand Challenges Explorations grant to encourage his labs pursuit of a novel approach to cholera prevention.. In their proposed project, Collins and two postdoctoral fellows in his lab, Ewen Cameron and Peter Belenky, seek to use synthetic biology techniques to engineer a probiotic yogurt bacterium, Lactobacillus gasseri, to detect and kill the cholera bacterium, Vibrio cholerae, in the human intestine. The probiotic could be supplied as an inexpensive, freeze-dried powder to endemic populations to prevent cholera, an acute, food or water-borne diarrheal infection leading to more than 100,000 deaths each year.. We are delighted to be selected for the Gates Foundation program, said Collins. This funding will enable us to explore using innovative synthetic biology approaches to detect and treat cholera infections, a major health problem facing many poor communities in the world, including those in ...
Abstract. Multiple Vibrio cholerae infections within the same household are common. Household contacts of patients with cholera were observed with daily clinical assessments and collection of rectal swab cultures for nine days after presentation of the index case. During the follow-up period, 71 (24%) of 294 household contacts developed a positive V. cholerae rectal swab, signifying bacterial shedding. The average length of bacterial shedding was 2.0 days (95% confidence interval 1.7-2.4). However, 16 (5%) of 294 contacts shed V. cholerae for ≥ 4 days. In a multivariate analysis, malnutrition was predictive of long-term shedding (odds ratio = 1.4, 95% confidence interval = 1.3-13, P = 0.02). High rates of V. cholerae infection and bacterial shedding among household contacts of cholera patients represent an opportunity for intervention to reduce V. cholerae transmission.
http://en.rian.ru Topic: Cholera epidemic in Haiti Number of Haitian cholera cases reaches 7,000 20:39 06/11/2010 © REUTERS/ St-Felix Evens Related News Cholera epidemic hits Haitian capital Canada to provide Haiti $1 mln to help fight cholera outbreak Donor countries pledge billions in aid to Haiti IADB writes off $479 mln Haitian debt, opens new $200 mln…
CNN reports on recent uptick in cholera cases worldwide CNNs the chart blog page examines the rising number of cholera cases around the world. As well as the cholera outbreak in Haiti, [a]s of this month, four African nations - Nigeria, Cameroon, Niger and Chad - possess reported a lot more than 40,000 instances of cholera and more than 2,000 deaths. Although WHO estimates there are three to five 5 million reported cholera cases and 100,000 to 120,000 deaths each year, [g]lobally, the real number of cholera cases reported to WHO continues to go up. From 2004 to 2008, cases increased by 24 % compared with the period from 2000 to 2004, according to the organization. WHO points to unclean water sources as the main source of cholera outbreaks, but also mentioned the rise in cholera instances might be due to a fresh group of variant strains detected in a number of elements of Asia and Africa. Continue reading As well as the cholera outbreak in Haiti.. ...
Cholera interannual periodicity and the link between cholera dynamics and climate variability remain incompletely understood and generally focused only on endemic regions [7, 9, 14, 15]. Pascual et al. [5] and Rodo et al. [7] described a role of El Niño/Southern Oscillation in the dynamics of cholera in Bangladesh. In addition, the complex relationship between largescale climatic variability and spatiotemporal patterns under local environmental conditions and weather contributes to the dynamics of local pathogen populations in aquatic ecosystems [34], and/or disease transmission [35, 36]. In this context, using a comparative approach developed for macroecology applications [37], the relationship between cholera incidence in five different African countries and climate interannual variability was explored. Indeed, analyses of long-term monthly disease time series underline both the complex, nonstationary dynamics of cholera epidemics in West Africa, and a relationship with large-scale climate ...
CVD 103-HgR (Vaxchora, PaxVax) cholera vaccine was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in June 2016. ACIP has not yet published recommendations for Vaxchora. However, at their June 2016 meeting, ACIP voted to recommend vaccination for adults 18 through 64 years old traveling to areas of active cholera transmission. An area of active cholera transmission is defined as a province, state, or other administrative subdivision within a country with endemic or epidemic cholera caused by toxigenic V. cholerae O1 and includes areas with cholera activity within the last 1 year that are prone to recurrence of cholera epidemics; it does not include areas where rare sporadic cases have been reported. No country or territory currently requires vaccination against cholera as a condition for entry. ...
Many mathematical models have been made from the cholera outbreak in Haiti, but our model is unique because it incorporated empirical data on the isolation of Vibrio cholerae O1 from surface waters in the Ouest Department of Haiti. We noticed that while the weekly reported cases seemed to be declining in the third and fourth years of the outbreak, the frequency of isolation of toxigenic V. cholerae in the environment was actually increasing. Under the current dogma of cholera transmission models, V. cholerae shed by humans into the environment only exists in a transient state governed by a constant rate of decay. The assumption is that although V. cholerae is an aquatic pathogen, it lacks the ability to replicate and survive for prolonged periods in surface waters. Given our understanding of V. cholerae biology, this is likely an oversimplification which precluded the possibility for an increase in environmental concentrations during a period where cholera incidence was infrequent or declining, ...
In January 1991, epidemic cholera appeared in Peru and quickly spread to many other Latin American countries. Because reporting of cholera cases was often delayed in some areas, the scope of the epidemic was unclear. An assessment of the conduct of surveillance for cholera in several countries identified some recurrent problems involving surveillance case definitions, laboratory surveillance, surveillance methods, national coordination, and data management. A key conclusion is that a simple, well-communicated cholera surveillance system in place during an epidemic will facilitate prevention and treatment efforts. We recommend the following measures: a) simplify case definitions for cholera; b) focus on laboratory surveillance of patients with diarrhea primarily in the initial stage of the epidemic; c) use predominantly the suspect case definition when the number of confirmed cases rises; d) transmit weekly the numbers of cases, hospitalized patients, and deaths to regional and central ...
Guidelines for Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Cholera Treatment Centres During an outbreak of cholera, most patients can be treated in existing health facilities. However, health officials may decide
What causes cholera?. Cholera is transmitted through poor hygiene and sanitation. It is no wonder that areas of natural disasters that result in disruption of water and sanitation systems are major outbreak areas of cholera. Other hotspots for cholera outbreaks are overcrowded refugee camps where displaced human populations are temporary accommodated and urban slums. These facilities, too, have inadequate clean water and sanitation system.. Strangely enough, it is not the infection itself that usually kills cholera victims but rather the dehydration resulting from severe diarrhea and vomiting.. The Haitian capital city Port-au-Prince is a classic example of an urban area where cholera can break out.. Pandemic cholera. Like the flu, cholera has also caused pandemics in the past. WHO gives the following historical background:. ...
The Department of Health has reported a cholera outbreak in the Mpumalanga region. From 26 April to 18 May, the cumulative number of suspected and confirmed cholera cases is 174 with 3 deaths (case fatality ratio 1.7%). The outbreak has included 27 areas bordering Swaziland and Mozambique, with Tonga being the most affected area.. A team from the Department of Health, joined by a medical officer from the WHO country office, has travelled to Mpumalanga to assess the situation and make recommendations to contain the outbreak.. This is the third province after Eastern Cape and Kwazulu-Natal to report a cholera outbreak this year. From 1 January to 28 March 2003, the cumulative number of reported cholera cases in South Africa is 2362.. ...
Thirty single-nucleotide polymorphisms were used to track the spread of the seventh pandemic caused by Vibrio cholerae. Isolates from the 1991 epidemic in Latin America shared a profile with 1970s isolates from Africa, suggesting a possible origin in Africa. Data also showed that the observed genotypes spread easily and widely.
Cholera, a devastating diarrheal disease, has swept through the world in recurrent pandemics since 1817. The seventh and ongoing pandemic began in 1961 when the El Tor biotype of Vibrio cholerae O1 emerged in Indonesia. This pandemic spread through Asia and Africa and finally reached Latin America early in 1991 (1). After explosive epidemics in coastal Peru, it spread rapidly and continues throughout Latin America (Figure). Because of underreporting, the more than 1,000,000 cholera cases and 10,000 deaths reported from Latin America through 1994 (Table 1) (2) represent only a small fraction of the actual number of infections. Molecular characterization of V. cholerae O1 strains from Peru has shown that they do not match strains from anywhere else in the world; therefore, the source of the Peruvian epidemic strains remains unknown (3). Moreover, other strains have since appeared in Latin America. At least one of these, a strain resistant to multiple antimicrobial drugs, was first identified in ...
The 49th U.S.-Japan Joint Conference on Cholera and Other Bacterial Enteric Infections consisted of three days of presentations and discussions on cholera, typhoid and other diseases that affects countries like Bangladesh and Democratic Republic of Congo. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation-funded conference kicked off on Wednesday morning with a keynote speech from the recently inaugurated University of Florida President William Fuchs. He spoke about the Emerging Pathogens Institute and importance of great minds coming together to talk about these diseases and potential solutions.. Just eight years ago the Florida legislature created EPI as Floridas go-to research institute for new and emerging diseases. The institute has moved very quickly since then to establish research initiatives in more than 30 countries, Fuchs said. Your arrival for this annual conference reenforces that progress. Your discussions will be meaningful not only to EPI and the university-at-large, but also to the ...
Clinicians should obtain a travel history from their patients. Cholera infection is most often asymptomatic or results in mild gastroenteritis. Severe cholera is characterized by acute, profuse watery diarrhea, described as rice-water stools and often vomiting leading to volume depletion. Cholera is confirmed through culture of a stool specimen or rectal swab. Cary-Blair medium is ideal for transport, and the selective thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts agar is ideal for isolation and identification. Rehydration is the best treatment. Oral rehydration salts are used and intravenous fluids are used when necessary. For more information, see CDC Health Information for International Travel 2012.. ...
Cholera cases are surging in Moroto despite Health Ministry and WHO efforts to curb the spread. Moroto, Uganda | THE INDEPENDENT | The number of cholera c
Fresh cholera outbreak has claimed no fewer than four lives and 38 others infected by the diseased in Toto Local Government Area of Nasarawa State.. A statement signed by public relations officer, state ministry of health, Musa Abdullahi and made available to The PUNCH in Lafia, said that cholera outbreak was experienced in Shege Ward in Toto LGA where 38 cases were confirmed and four died before reaching the primary healthcare facility.. According to him, some of the affected victims are currently stable and the patients are responding to treatment, stating that a team of health experts from the state ministry of health have donated drugs to the Shege community, while efforts are ongoing to contain the spread of the disease.. The state commissioner of health, Dr Daniel Iya, who was represented by state director of public health, Dr Ibrahim Adamu-Alhassan, donated the drug to the community, adding that the donation of the drug was part of the state governments intervention to avert further ...
Cholera epidemics caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 occur regularly in Bangladesh and India and sporadically in many parts of the world. In 1993, a total of 296,206 new cases of cholera were reported in South America after about a century, involving more than 15 countries. The outbreaks of cholera that have occurred during the past decade originated in coastal areas. From our previous work, V. cholerae attaches to plankton in the aquatic environment, providing the vehicle for dispersal. The organism attaches preferentially to zooplankton, particularly copepods, but it also attaches in lower numbers and without reproduction onto some species of phytoplankton. Phytoplankton provide the main food source for zooplankton so the two forms of plankton are tightly linked in space and time. Under adverse conditions of temperature and nutrients V. cholerae enters a dormant, non-culturable state which makes it difficult to detect. Although V. cholerae cannot be detected in any state by remote sensing ...
The world has experienced 7 cholera pandemics since 1817. The first six were caused by the classic biotype of the O1 serogroup of Vibrio cholerae. The 7th pandemic which began in 1961 and is still ongoing (with spread to Haiti and Mexico) is due to the less virulent El Tor biotype of O1 V.cholerae. In a project, my colleagues and I estimated global cholera costs as exceeding $3 billion annually. It was in 1849 during the 2nd pandemic that Dr. John Snow made his pathbreaking epidemiological discovery regarding the role of water in the spread of the cholera microbe--yet to be identified (see The Ghost Map and The Strange Case of the Broad Street Pump). During that pandemic, Dr. John Neill of Philadelphia preserved an intestine from a patient for further study.. The New England Journal of Medicine just published the results of a successful attempt to extract the cholera microbe from that over-a-century old specimen. The bacterium recovered was of the classical biotype (as predicted) and had a ...
The municipality of Plaine du Nord and Grison-Garde, La Bruyere and La Souffriere (the areas of the municipality of Acul du Nord) continue to send cholera patients to the CTC of Robillard. I do not see anything done yet to improve the situation of Robillard that is becoming chaotic. I do not want to have to experience such a stressful experience like the one of last Sunday. Cholera is an issue of public health. I do not understand the reason why the cholera patients of the CTC of Robillard are treated the way they are treated. Who has the financial means to help the cholera patients in Haiti? Can you help me know who received financial assistance to help them? Forgive my complaints, because I am tired to have to carry the burden of the cholera patients while the are people who have the responsibility to do that. I have to reapeat that the situation of Robilard is urgent. Those who have to improve that situation, what are they waiting for? Are they waiting for an human disaster to move quickly? I ...
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to all aspects of infectious diseases.
LAST month the United Nations Independent Expert on Human Rights in Haiti delivered his annual assessment (French version here) of the state of the poorest country in the Americas. Gustavo Gallon, a respected Colombian jurist, wrote of many troubling-and familiar--problems. They included prolonged pre-trial detention for 80% of all prisoners in Haitian jails; institutional brittleness on account of long-delayed elections to the Senate and local bodies; rising homicide rates; and a depressing predilection for public lynching, which indicates little confidence in the justice system. If the indictment of Haiti was unsurprising, less predictable was Mr Gallons position on the countrys cholera epidemic, which first broke out in 2010. More than 8,000 Haitians have since died from cholera, and nearly 700,000 more, or one out of every 16 people, infected. Medical evidence indicates the cholera strain was brought to Haiti by Nepalese UN peacekeepers, although the UN neither admits responsibility for ...
A new study has found that oral vaccines could prevent up to 60 percent of cholera cases in the first two years after vaccination.
A doctor tends to a woman at Lusakas Heroes Stadium, which was converted into a temporary hospital to house mounting patient as cholera swept through the city earlier this year. (Dawood Salim, AFP). Cholera is as familiar to most Zambians as the summer holidays. Its first major outbreak occurred in 1990 and lasted until 1993. Since then, the country has registered cholera cases almost every year. The number of people affected fluctuates from a few hundred cases to thousands admitted to hospital, according to the WHO.. Globally, no one knows exactly how many people contract cholera and die each year because most cases are never reported, a 2015 study published in the journal PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases shows. But researchers estimate the bacterium infects 2.86-million people annually of whom 95 000 will die - mostly in Sub-Saharan Africa.. Vaccines such as those being used in Zambia may be a standard part of controlling cholera outbreaks now but this wasnt the case just a few years ago. ...
Sennar and Blue Nile state witnessed a significant decline in cholera cases over the past weeks. Health authorities in both states attributed the decline to efforts to combat the disease.
BACKGROUND Cholera is an ancient disease that continues to cause epidemic and pandemic disease despite ongoing efforts to limit its spread. Mathematical models provide one means of assessing the utility of various proposed interventions. However, cholera models that have been developed to date have had limitations, suggesting that there are basic elements of cholera transmission that we still do not understand. METHODS AND FINDINGS Recent laboratory findings suggest that passage of Vibrio cholerae O1 Inaba El Tor through the gastrointestinal tract results in a short-lived, hyperinfectious state of the organism that decays in a matter of hours into a state of lower infectiousness. Incorporation of this hyperinfectious state into our disease model provides a much better fit with the observed epidemic pattern of cholera. These findings help to substantiate the clinical relevance of laboratory observations regarding the hyperinfectious state, and underscore the critical importance of human-to-human versus
ICD-9 code 001.0 for Cholera due to vibrio cholerae is a medical classification as listed by WHO under the range - INTESTINAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES (001
Download Cholera Infection Causes Symptoms Treatment & Help. In this app we have compiled complete information of causes symptoms treatment of cholera, which is a disease caused by bacteria that produce a watery diarrhea that can rapidly lead to dehydration.symptoms...
The recent rise of the West Nile virus in the U.S. was a profound indicator that global patterns of infectious disease are changing. Just what is driving the shifts is difficult to identify, although climate change has long been a suspect. Now two reports published online this week by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences further implicate climate variability in the dynamics of one infectious disease: cholera. Using monthly mortality data for the periods 1893 to 1940 and 1980 to 2001 in present-day Bangladesh, a team led by Xavier Rodo of the University of Barcelona compared cholera outbreaks to the occurrence of the climate phenomenon known as the El Nio Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In the more recent years, the scientists found a link between ENSO and the incidence of cholera, with ENSO accounting for more than 70 percent of the disease variation. In the historical data set, however, that link was weak or absent. What is new in this work is not showing that ENSO plays a role in ...
Scientists have figured out how to predict cholera outbreaks by looking at sea life. The idea pioneered at the University of Maryland is a rise in sea temperatures lead to the production of Phytoplankton, which are the root cause of cholera. As these phytoplankton get into the water supply, cholera pathogens are released and can lead to outbreaks. Obviously fore warned is fore armed, so this is will certainly help public health officials cope with these devastating outbreaks.. Via BBC News. ...
This 5.5 x 9 (13.97 x 13.97 cm), 64-page pamphlet written by Joel Roberts recounts the 1849 cholera epidemic in Sandusky. The last five pages of the diary list people who died in the epidemic. Cholera was a major threat in the 19th century. Due to poor sanitation and ignorance of the causes of disease, Sandusky suffered several cholera outbreaks in the 1840s and 1850s. The most devastating outbreak occurred in the summer of 1849, when 400 people died and many more fled the city in fear. The citys population before the outbreak was about 5,000; it is estimated that fewer than 1,000 remained in the city during the cholera. The 1882 History of Sandusky County reported that medical men [were] taxed to their utmost to stem the tide of disease and death. The devastation caused by cholera and other epidemics helped to inspire improvements in medical care, research, and sanitation practices such as water treatment ...
This register, kept by the staff of the Sandusky City Hospital during the 1849 cholera epidemic, records patients discharged and deceased. The register is twelve pages long and lists eighty-three names. It measures 4.6 x 7 (11.68 cm x 17.78 cm). Cholera was a major threat in the 19th century. Due to poor sanitation and ignorance of the causes of disease, Sandusky suffered several cholera outbreaks in the 1840s and 1850s. The most devastating outbreak occurred in the summer of 1849, when 400 people died and many more fled the city in fear. The citys population before the outbreak was about 5,000; it is estimated that fewer than 1,000 remained in the city during the cholera. The 1882 History of Sandusky County reported that medical men [were] taxed to their utmost to stem the tide of disease and death. The devastation caused by cholera and other epidemics helped to inspire improvements in medical care, research, and sanitation practices such as water treatment ...
Diarrhea is a leading cause of mortality in children under 5 years along with its long-term impact on growth and cognitive development. Despite advances in the understanding of diarrheal disorders and management strategies, globally nearly 750,000 children die annually as a consequence of diarrhea. We conducted a systematic review of the efficacy and effectiveness studies. We used a standardized abstraction and grading format and performed meta-analyses for all outcomes. The estimated effect of cholera, shigella, Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and rotavirus vaccines was determined by applying the standard Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG) rules. A total of 24 papers were selected and analyzed for all the four vaccines. Based on the evidence, we propose a 74% mortality reduction in rotavirus specific mortality, 52% reduction in cholera incidence due to their respective vaccines. We did not find sufficient evidence and a suitable outcome to project mortality reductions for cholera
Haiti should focus on stemming the cholera outbreak that has killed more than 7,000 people since 2010, rather than on levying blame against the source of the disease, UN special envoy to Haiti, Bill Clinton, said. While studies have suggested that the cholera came from a Nepalese soldier serving as a peacekeeper, Clinton pointed out…
Haiti should focus on stemming the cholera outbreak that has killed more than 7,000 people since 2010, rather than on levying blame against the source of the disease, UN special envoy to Haiti, Bill Clinton, said. While studies have suggested that the cholera came from a Nepalese soldier serving as a peacekeeper, Clinton pointed out…
Haq added that that the finding calls for a significant new set of U.N. actions and that a new response will be presented publicly within the next two months.. The comments come in response to a report by U.N. special rapporteur and New York University law professor Philip Alston. According to the Washington Post, Alston argued to Secretary General Ban-ki Moon that the United Nations botch response in Haitis cholera crisis is morally unconscionable, legally indefensible and politically self-defeating.. The human rights and international law expert added that the U.N.s years-long refusal to admit its role in causing the cholera outbreak upholds a double standard according to which the U.N. insists that member states respect human rights, while rejecting any such responsibility for itself.. While the U.N.s latest statements dont go as far as to shoulder the entire blame, they represent a significant shift from the position maintained over the past six years. Statements by the U.N. as ...
Cholera is a major health burden in low- and middle-income countries. Globally, an estimated 1.3 billion people are at risk. South Asia constitutes the largest share of this at-risk population group, including at least 66 million in Bangladesh, where over 100,000 cases are reported annually. Cholera is an infectious disease characterised by severe watery diarrhoea and vomiting. Left untreated, the rapid dehydration it causes can be deadly. In the 1960s, researchers at icddr,b and its partners developed a simple solution to combat cholera - oral rehydration therapy (ORT) - a mixture of salt, sugar, and water, ingredients readily found in most homes. It has saved nearly 50 million lives from diarrhoeal diseases. However, cholera is often misdiagnosed until the patient is in an extreme condition, when ORT is not enough to prevent death by dehydration. Thus, early detection is critical in saving lives and preventing further spread of the disease. Diagnosis for cholera needs to be quick, easy, and ...
If you develop severe, watery diarrhea and vomiting - particularly after eating raw shellfish or traveling to a country where cholera is epidemic -seek medical help immediately. Cholera is highly treatable, but because dehydration can happen quickly, its important to get cholera treatment right away.. Hydration is the mainstay of treatment for cholera. Depending on how severe the diarrhea is, treatment will consist of oral or intravenous solutions to replace lost fluids. Antibiotics, which kill the bacteria, are not part of emergency treatment for mild cases. But they can reduce the duration of diarrhea by half and also reduce the excretion of the bacteria, thus helping to prevent the spread of the disease.. ...
MASS Design Group. The first permanent facility in Port-au-Prince, the CTC provides an aggressive model for cholera treatment, while creating a healing space that promotes a dignified patient experience. Both the CTCs layout and placement of amenities optimize staff and patient flow. The design tackles unique site conditions, including the lack of reliable piped water and lack of sewer system connection, by providing off-the-grid services. The roof collects rainwater, which is stored in cisterns, chlorinated, and then used for showers and sinks. The facility also decontaminates waste on-site and is designed to achieve 99.99% removal and inactivation of Cholera vibrio and other pathogenic organisms. The façade blends the use of the most advanced technology, using parametric modeling to optimize apertures for daylighting, ventilation, and privacy, with deploying analog techniques for local fabrication. The CTC will not only establish new standards for cholera treatment, but also new standards ...
Abstract An explosive epidemic of cholera due to Vibrio cholerae, biotype El Tor, serotype Inaba, was centered on the coral atoll of Tarawa, Gilbert Islands. This outbreak was a unique experience in the South and Central Pacific region. The principal mode of spread during the peak of the outbreak was probably through contamination of the main water supply. Tarawa lagoon water and shellfish were found to be contaminated with V. cholerae and ingestion of raw fish and shellfish from the lagoon also served as a source of transmission. This outbreak raises the concern of other outbreaks of cholera occurring on remote and poorly equipped Pacific islands where the environmental circumstances are conducive to cholera spread.
It has been some time since ICC reported on the cholera epidemic that began in Haiti in 2010. Until this point, there had never been a reported case of Cholera in Haiti. The strain, thought to have come from the United Nations camp 30 minutes from Port au Prince, is still infecting those utilizing the water source. Since the time of the outbreak, it is thought to have affected 700,000 people.
The death toll from a cholera outbreak in Haiti has risen to more than 150 confirmed deaths, according to health officials with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and the U.S. Agency for International Development.
As death toll from Hurricane Matthew reaches 1,000 with almost 800 people missing, aid agencies warn that Haiti may be struck by fresh cholera outbreak
While the United Nations warned that protests were hampering efforts to save lives in the Haiti cholera outbreak, a leading non-profit group lashed out at organizations for what it called an inadequate response.
Haitian officals confirm that a cholera outbreak has killed 194 people and sickened thousands more in the countrys deadliest health problem since its devastating earthquake earlier this year.
MR. SMITH: Im Steven Smith from the U.S. Embassy. Im the health sector coordinator here in Haiti, and its a real pleasure to welcome you here, Madam Secretary Clinton, Your Honor. And I have very good news for you. The cholera situation here in Haiti is improving. Its been a very rough few months, but…
Author Summary Cholera outbreaks have had catastrophic impact on societies for centuries. Despite more than half a century of advocacy for safe water, sanitation and hygiene, approximately 100,000 cholera cases and 5,000 deaths were reported in Zimbabwe between August 2008 and by July 2009. Safe and effective oral cholera vaccines have been licensed and used by affluent tourists for more than a decade to prevent cholera. We asked whether oral cholera vaccines could be used to protect high risk populations at a time of cholera. We calculated how many cholera cases could have been prevented if mass cholera vaccinations would have been implemented in reaction to past cholera outbreaks. We estimate that determined, well organized mass vaccination campaigns could have prevented 34,900 (40%) cholera cases and 1,695 deaths (40%) in Zimbabwe. In the sites with endemic cholera, Kolkata and Zanzibar, a significant number of cases could have been prevented but the impact would have been less dramatic. The barriers
TY - JOUR. T1 - Herd immunity conferred by killed oral cholera vaccines in Bangladesh. T2 - A reanalysis. AU - Ali, Mohammad. AU - Emch, Michael. AU - Von Seidlein, Lorenz. AU - Yunus, Mohammad. AU - Sack, David Allen. AU - Rao, Malla. AU - Holmgren, Jan. AU - Clemens, John D.. PY - 2005/7/2. Y1 - 2005/7/2. N2 - Background: Decisions about the use of killed oral cholera vaccines, which confer moderate levels of direct protection to vaccinees, can depend on whether the vaccines also provide indirect (herd) protection when high levels of vaccine coverage are attained. We reanalysed data from a field trial in Bangladesh to ascertain whether there is evidence of indirect protection from killed oral cholera vaccines. Methods: We analysed the first year of surveillance data from a placebo-controlled trial of B subunit-killed whole-cell and killed whole-cell-only oral cholera vaccines in children and adult women in Bangladesh. We calculated whether there was an inverse, monotonic trend for the relation ...
I can give two: one where we responded to prevent cholera and another where oral cholera vaccine (OCV) was used to contain it. Firstly, in 2014 there was an influx of refugees from South Sudan into the Gambella region of Ethiopia. In Gambella at that time there had been no cholera reported for years, but we knew there was cholera in South Sudan. Together with MSF, WHO and the national health partner (ARRA) we were able to make a strong case for oral cholera vaccination of the refugee population and surrounding host communities. If cholera came it could be contained - we wanted to make sure we were ahead of the curve. Through some good joint advocacy with partners and donors, we were able to get it approved and the Minister of Health supported it. We implemented it, and no cholera cases were reported during that acute emergency. The second example is in Tanzania, where we had a cholera outbreak. This was an emergency in 2015 with refugees coming from Burundi, and we had a cholera outbreak around ...
In follow-up of its statement of 12 June 2017 on the outbreak of cholera epidemic in Sudan, the Darfur Relief and Documentation Centre (DRDC) once again rings the alarm bell about the growing health risks facing thousands of vulnerable communities in many parts of Sudan. The ongoing cholera epidemic dates back to August 2016, when hundreds of cases of infections with cholera bacterium Vibrio Cholerae were confirmed in the Blue Nile and Sennar States. Numerous sources including the US Embassy in Khartoum confirmed the outbreak of cholera epidemic in Sudan. According to the government records more than 18,000 cases of acute watery diarrhoea - which is the symptom of cholera - were confirmed in 16 out of Sudans 18 States, including the White Nile, Blue Nile, Khartoum, Sennar, North, South and West Kordofan, River Nile, Northern State, Gedarif, Kassala, Red Sea, Gezira and East, West, South and North Darfur States. Independent medical sources in Sudan estimate that at least 25,000 people have ...
Diversity, relatedness, and ecological interactions of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 populations in two distinctive habitats, the human intestine and the aquatic environment, were analyzed. Twenty environmental isolates and 42 clinical isolates were selected for study by matching serotype, geographic location of isolation in Bangladesh, and season of isolation. Genetic profiling was done by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence-PCR, optimized for profiling by using the fully sequenced V. cholerae El Tor N16961 genome. Five significant clonal clusters of haplotypes were found from 57 electrophoretic types. Isolates from different areas or habitats intermingled in two of the five significant clusters. Frequencies of haplotypes differed significantly only between the environmental populations (exact test; P , 0.05). Analysis of molecular variance yielded a population genetic structure reflecting the differentiating effects of geographic area, habitat, and sampling time. Although a ...
Cholera remains a substantial contributor to public health burden in many developing countries, particularly in sub-Sahara Africa. In 2014, 190,549 cases were reported to the World Health Organization (WHO), including 55% from Africa [1]. Of the 2,231 deaths reported worldwide, 1882 (84.4%) occurred in Africa. However, the true burden of cholera is poorly known and likely underestimated, because of limitations in current national surveillance systems including under-reporting, type of case-definitions used and lack of laboratory diagnostic capacities. An estimated 2.9 million cholera cases (1.3 m-4.0 m) and 95,000 cholera deaths (21,000-143,000) occur each year [2].. Targeting cholera prevention through increased access to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and oral cholera vaccines (OCV) requires accurate epidemiological data at the local level. Further, such data help international organizations to prioritize where to support the places most in need.. The African Cholera Surveillance Network ...
V. cholerae and many related Gram-negative bacteria have been shown to become nonculturable under specific experimental conditions, although the time required for these cells to become nonculturable is variable (8, 9, 19-21). In this study, V. cholerae O1 cells in all microcosms became nonculturable on TCBS agar within 10-15 days, as has been reported by other investigators (19-21). V. cholerae O1 in biofilms collected from MW and in the biofilm in clinical specimens, when suspended in autoclaved MW that had tested positive for V. cholerae O1 by both culture and DFA, became nonculturable within 15 days. Conversely, MW-RT and MW-4C microcosms inoculated with freshly grown V. cholerae O1 showed culturability on TTGA and LA for 40 and 68 days, respectively. Miller et al. (22) suggested that toxigenic V. cholerae O1 could remain culturable for longer periods at a salinity of 0.25-3.0%, a pH of 8.0, and 25°C. The temperature, pH, and salinity of MW used in the studies reported here were not very ...
Seasonal plankton blooms correlate with occurrence of cholera in Bangladesh, although the mechanism of how dormant Vibrio cholerae, enduring interepidemic period in biofilms and plankton, initiates seasonal cholera is not fully understood. In this study, laboratory microcosms prepared with estuarine Mathbaria water (MW) samples supported active growth of toxigenic V. cholerae O1 up to 7 weeks as opposed to 6 months when microcosms were supplemented with dehydrated shrimp chitin chips (CC) as the single source of nutrient. Bacterial counting and detection of wbe and ctxA genes were done employing culture, direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) assay, and multiplex-polymerase chain reaction methods. In MW microcosm, the aqueous phase became clear as the non-culturable cells settled, whereas the aqueous phase of the MW-CC microcosm became turbid from bacterial growth stimulated by chitin. Bacterial chitin degradation and biofilm formation proceeded from an initial steady state to a gradually declining ...
As Yemen faces its fourth year of war, the country also fights a looming health crisis. The cholera health crisis in Yemen affects 22 of 23 governorates and almost 299 of Yemens 333 districts. Recording over one million cholera cases in 2017, Yemens crisis is the worst cholera epidemic on record.. Driven by years of war, the country has experienced a significant collapse in access to food, safe drinking water and health care. With millions of Yemenis facing famine, malnourishment increases the risk of cholera infections becoming fatal.. Many organizations are on the ground in Yemen, treating as many cholera cases as possible. Organizations responding to the health crisis in Yemen include Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) or Doctors Without Borders, Save the Children, Islamic Relief Foundation and World Health Organization (WHO).. If left untreated, the mortality rate of cholera can be very high. With proper treatment, cholera is very easy to cure. The problem is that it is not easy for cholera ...
January 3, 2014. California-based vaccine manufacturer PaxVax has reportedly submitted an application to begin international trials of a novel oral cholera vaccine that contains live, genetically modified (GM) bacteria. VacTruth.com reports that the new vaccine is set to be tested on more than 1,000 individuals, many of whom are young children, in a three-part clinical trial series to take place throughout Australia.. In a recent application filing with the Australian Government, PaxVax makes plain its intent to administer the live, GM bacteria in both young and old and in every region of the country. Participants will be instructed to literally consume a cocktail of mercury-resistant, GM Shigella flexneri NR1 bacteria derived from the Vibrio cholera bacterial strain, which is recognized as the causative agent of the gastroenteritis disease known as cholera.. According to the filing, the GM cholera strain used in the vaccine has essentially been artificially neutralized to prevent the toxic ...
In addition to improved water supply and sanitation, the two-dose killed oral cholera vaccine (OCV) is an important tool for the prevention and control of cholera. We aimed to document the immunogenicity and protection (efficacy and effectiveness) conferred by a single OCV dose against cholera. The meta-analysis showed an estimated 73% and 77% of individuals seroconverted to the Ogawa and Inaba serotypes, respectively, after an OCV first dose. The estimates of single-dose vaccine protection from available studies are 87% at 2 months decreasing to 33% at 2 years. Current immunologic and clinical data suggest that protection conferred by a single dose of killed OCV may be sufficient to reduce short-term risk in outbreaks or other high-risk settings, which may be especially useful when vaccine supply is limited. However, until more data suggests otherwise, a second dose should be given as soon as circumstances allow to ensure robust protection.. ...
Cholera is still a major cause of disease epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). During the period January 2017-March 2018, 15 countries in the WHO African Region (AFR) reported cholera outbreaks of varying magnitudes. Zimbabwe has experienced cholera outbreaks dating as far back as 1971 with an unprecedented outbreak occurring in 2008/2009 when 60 of the 62 districts in the country were affected. The outbreak was declared over in May 2009 and by then, 98,592 cases and 4288 deaths had been reported. In Zimbabwe, outbreaks have occurred against a backdrop of a struggling economy and a weak health system. The role of a resilient health system in emergencies response is accentuated premised on experiences from the Ebola outbreak that largely affected three countries in West Africa. Amidst economic and persistent system wide challenges faced by Zimbabwe, preparedness and response capacity has been built over the years. This is evidenced by the rapid response and containment of the recent cholera outbreak.
Since mid-August 1986, 12 cases of cholera have been identified among residents of Louisiana. The cases occurred in nine families living in New Orleans and in other towns in six parishes (Jefferson, LaFourche, Assumption, St. Mary, Iberia, and Jefferson Davis) within a 200-mile radius to the south and west of New Orleans. None of the patients had traveled abroad within the past year. Onset of symptoms occurred between August 8 and October 1. Ten of the patients had severe diarrhea, seven required hospitalization, and four required treatment in an intensive care unit for hypotension. All patients recovered following intravenous fluid therapy. Seven patients had stool cultures yielding toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1, biotype El Tor, serotype Inaba. The remaining five patients did not have stool cultures performed but had vibriocidal antibody titers greater than or equal to 1280, suggesting recent infection with V. cholerae O1. Sewer system surveillance using Moore swabs has detected toxigenic V. ...
Background Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 has two major serotypes, Ogawa and Inaba, which may alternate among cholera epidemics. The rfbTgene is responsible for the conversion between the two...
BMC Infectious Diseases http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcinfectdis/content (Accessed 6 January 2018) Research article Delivery cost analysis of a reactive mass cholera vaccination campaign: a case study of Shanchol™ vaccine use in Lake Chilwa, Malawi Cholera is a diarrheal disease that produces rapid dehydration. The infection is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity. Oral cholera vaccine (OCV) has…
A CDC collaborative study including Dr. Isaac Fung (formerly of the CDC), assistant professor of epidemiology at Georgia Southern University Jiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health, examines preventive interventions through modeling the effect of water, sanitation and hygiene, and oral cholera vaccine implementation in Haiti. In 2010, toxigenic Vibrio cholerae was newly introduced to Haiti. Because resources are limited, decision-makers need to understand the effect of different preventive interventions. The team built a static model to estimate the potential number of cholera cases averted through improvements in coverage in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) (i.e., latrines, point-of-use chlorination, and piped water), oral cholera vaccine (OCV), or a combination of both. The authors allowed indirect effects and non-linear relationships between effect and population coverage. Because there are limited incidence data for endemic cholera in Haiti, the authors estimated the incidence of cholera over 20
Abstract Cholera is a secretory diarrhoeal disease caused by infection with Vibrio cholerae, primarily the V. cholerae O1 El Tor biotype. There are approximately 2.9 million cases in 69 endemic countries annually, resulting in 95 000 deaths. Cholera is associated with poor infrastructure and lack of access to sanitation and clean drinking water. The current cholera epidemic in Yemen, linked to spread of V. cholerae O1 (Ogawa serotype), is associated with the ongoing war. This has devastated infrastructure and health services. The World Health Organization had estimated that 172 286 suspected cases arose between 27th April and 19th June 2017, including 1170 deaths. While there are three oral cholera vaccines prequalified by the World Health Organization, there are issues surrounding vaccination campaigns in conflict situations, exacerbated by external factors such as a global vaccine shortage. Major movements of people complicates surveillance and administration of double doses of vaccines. ...
Surveillance was conducted during February and March 1991 in the pediatric emergency department of Cayetano Heredia Hospital, Lima, Peru, to contrast the characteristics of children with epidemic cholera with those of children with non-cholera-associated diarrhea. Among 626 patients 14 years of age or younger, Vibrio cholerae O1 was isolated...
DNA microarray technology is revolutionizing the field of bacterial pathogenesis by allowing researchers to monitor the expression of thousands of genes during the course of an in vitro or in vivo experiment. In this report, we have applied this technology to conduct a genome-wide search for V. cholerae genes belonging to the ToxR regulon, the key group of genes responsible for the virulence properties of this organism in humans. We also used microarrays to analyze the transcriptional state of vibrios shed from cholera patients.. We first compared the gene expression profiles of V. cholerae toxRS, tcpPH, and toxT mutants that were grown under in vitro conditions that are optimal for the expression of CT by El Tor O1 and O139 strains of V. cholerae. The transcriptional profile of the toxT mutant revealed the presence of few new ToxT-regulated genes. Newly identified genes include VC1091 (oligopeptide periplasmic binding protein), VC1835 (pal); VC2766 (atpA); VCA0059 (lpp); VCA0732 (conserved ...
By Makini Brice | LES CAYES, Haiti LES CAYES, Haiti Haiti has launched a massive cholera vaccination campaign to battle a flare-up after Hurricane Matthew, but concerns remain about the capacity for longer-term improvements to water and sanitation infrastructure needed to eradicate the disease. The cholera campaign, launched on Tuesday in two southern areas hammered by the storm, is aiming to be the worlds largest, targeting 820,000 people, said Ernsly Jackson, an immunization specialist for UNICEF Haiti. Haiti has battled a cholera outbreak that has sickened more than 800,000 people and killed about 9,000 since 2010, when the bacteria was imported into the country by a contingent of United Nations peacekeepers. Although it had proved stubborn to eradicate, cases had declined sharply from a peak in 2010-11. But Hurricane Matthew struck the island in early October, killing up to 1,000 people, leaving about 1.4 million in need of humanitarian assistance and damaging many health facilities.
The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) welcomes the release of the WHO Technical Working Group on oral cholera vaccine (OCV) stockpile.
Via Awoko.org: Western Area sees reduction in cholera cases and… UNICEF & WHO say it is too early to scale back response. Excerpt: Latest figures show a downward trend of the number of cholera patients in Sierra Leone, particularly in...
PubMed journal article: Vaccination strategies to combat an infectious globe: oral cholera vaccines. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
As the world faced a dearth of oral cholera vaccines, the United Nations health agency announced that the supply of medication will double up to six million doses this year after it added another producer to its list of approved suppliers so that they can put up a fight against a disease that kills as many as 142,000 people every year
In research done over the past seven years, Pascual and colleagues have found evidence that a phenomenon known as the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), a major source of climate variability from year to year, influences cycles of cholera in Bangladesh. They also showed that the coupling between climate variability and cholera cycles has become stronger in recent decades.. Now, Pascual is examining the feasibility of using a model developed during that work as an early warning system. The question we asked was whether, using data from 1966 to 2000, we could have predicted cholera outbreaks over the past five years, said Pascual, an associate professor of ecology and evolutionary biology. We also wanted to know whether incorporating ENSO into the model would improve the accuracy of our predictions. The challenge for the model was particularly interesting because the past five years were atypical, with fewer cholera cases than usual and no strong climate anomalies. However, the model ...
An outbreak of cholera in Hidalgo State and the neighboring Federal District of Mexico City has caused 79 cases of disease, including one fatality. The source of the outbreak is still unclear.. The strain of cholera currently affecting Mexico is Vibrio cholerae O:1 Ogawa toxigenic. Prior to this outbreak, cholera has not been seen in Mexico in just over ten years. PAHO and the WHO included Mexico in its latest Epidemiological Alert.. Cholera is an acute, diarrheal illness caused by infection of the intestine with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. This bacterium is usually found in contaminated water or food sources, but it can also be found in the environment, in rivers and coastal waters. An estimated 3 - 5 million cases and over 100,000 deaths occur globally each year. However, if treated properly with prompt rehydration, fewer than 1 percent of cholera patients die.. Individuals can avoid infection with cholera by drinking only bottled, boiled, or treated water, and by washing hands often with ...
Sharing results of the clinical study, Dr. Ajit Pal Singh- Vice President Clinical R&Dat Hilleman Labsstated, HillcholTM was tested in 840 subjects that included adults, adolescents as well as small children. We were able to demonstrate safety and tolerability of HillcholTM in our Phase I/II trials. Our vaccine consists of a novel Hikojima strain that expresses both the Ogawa and Inaba serotypes. When compared against Shanchol, the Cholera vaccine pre-qualified by WHO, we could achieve non-inferiority in terms of seroconversion as well as Geometric Mean Titre for both the Ogawa and Inaba serotypes. These results are very encouraging and warrant further development of our Cholera vaccine.. Dr. Tarun Sharma, Director R&D at Hilleman Labsstated, The HillcholTM Phase I/II clinical trial results support our Hikojima vaccine design and mirror the impressive results we have been able to achieve in Preclinical studies. This encourages us to conduct further clinical studies as well as undertake ...
The rapidly spreading cholera outbreak in Yemen has exceeded 200,000 suspected cases, increasing at an average of 5,000 a day. We are now facing the worst cholera outbreak in the world.. In just two months, cholera has spread to almost every governorate of this war-torn country. Already more than 1,300 people have died - one quarter of them children - and the death toll is expected to rise. More. ...
A cholera outbreak in war-ravaged Yemen has killed 242 people, and left nearly 23,500 others sick in the past three weeks alone, the World Health Organization said Friday. The UN health agency said that in the past day alone, 20 cholera deaths and 3,460 suspected cases had been registered in the country, where two-thirds of the population is on the brink of famine. The speed of the resurgence of this cholera epidemic is unprecedented, WHO representative for Yemen Nevio Zagaria told reporters in Geneva by phone from Yemen, warning that a quarter of a million people could become sick by the end of the year. Cholera is a highly contagious bacterial infection spread through contaminated food or water. Reining in the disease is particularly complicated in Yemen, where two years of devastating war between the Huthis and government forces backed by a Saudi-led Arab military coalition has left more than half the country`s medical facilities out of service. Zagaria pointed out that humanitarian workers ...
With 1,000 people already dead from cholera in Angola, the United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF) is appealing for $1 million to fight the most severe outbreak of the disease there since 1988.. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the ongoing rainy season has made it likely that the epidemic will spread further despite efforts by UNICEF, WHO, the Angolan Government and other partners to get care and medication to the sick.. Cholera, an acute intestinal disease caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, causes copious, painless, watery diarrhoea that can quickly lead to severe dehydration and death if treatment, including rehydration, is not given promptly. Vomiting also occurs in most patients.. Apart from significant human suffering, the disease disrupts social and economic structures and puts tremendous strain on already precarious national health systems. Seasonal factors, such as the rainy season, contribute to the diseases ...
Time is ticking as aid organizations wait to launch a vaccination campaign against cholera in Haiti. The heavy seasonal rains have already begun to fall, and threaten to bring flooding, contaminated water, and increased cholera incidence with them. But Haitian officials have not yet approved the plans of nongovernmental organizations Partners in Health (PIH) and GHESKIO to vaccinate 100,000 people against cholera. Here, we chronicle the major events that led to this standoff.. Cholera Arrives in 2010. After the January 2010 earthquake, Haiti was the focus of much international attention and relief assistance. Less than a year later, a massive cholera outbreak hit the country, centered around the Artibonite River Valley and likely imported by UN staff from Nepal. In the year and a half since, there have been an estimated 530,000 cases and 7,000 deaths.. At the time of the initial outbreak, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) stated that a cholera vaccination campaign was not an ...
The rainy season has arrived in Yemen, but has not yet brought an uptick of cholera cases with it, according to a top in-country official with the United Nations Childrens Fund. Still, UNICEF and other aid agencies remain concerned that there could be another serious outbreak in the coming months, as the rainy season progresses and health, water, and sanitation systems continue to deteriorate… (Lieberman, 5/7).. Xinhua News: Anti-cholera campaign kicks off in Yemen amid fears of new ...
Each day there are more than 5,000 new cases of the waterborne disease, which causes acute diarrhea and dehydration, in the country where the health system has collapsed after more than two years of war, it said.. The total number of suspected cholera cases in Yemen this year hit the half a million mark on Sunday, and nearly 2,000 people have died since the outbreak began to spread rapidly at the end of April, the WHO said in a statement.. The spread of cholera has slowed significantly in some areas compared to peak levels, but the disease is still spreading fast in more recently affected districts, which are recording large numbers of cases, it said, reporting a total of 503,484 cases.. The disease, spread by ingestion of food or water tainted with human faeces, can kill within hours if untreated. It has been largely eradicated in developed countries equipped with sanitation systems and water treatment. But Yemens devastating civil war, pitting a Saudi-led military coalition against the ...
A high number of cholera cases have been found in the small city of Wasu in the first known cholera outbreak in Papua New Guinea in 50 years. Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) is assisting health authorities by treating people affected by the already deadly outbreak at the local Angau hospital.
The United Nations has apologized for its response to the cholera outbreak in Haiti that claimed more than 9,000 lives and has pledged to provide both immediate and long-term support for those affected.. Over the last six years, cholera has afflicted nearly 800,000 people on the Caribbean island.. Daniel Dickinson has more details. Speaking at the UN on Thursday, the Secretary-General, Ban Ki-moon apologized for the loss of life and suffering caused by the cholera outbreak in Haiti.. On behalf of the United Nations, I want to say very clearly: we apologize to the Haitian people. We simply did not do enough with regard to the cholera outbreak and its spread in Haiti. We are profoundly sorry for our role.. He added that the outbreak had cast a shadow on the relationship between the United Nations and the people of Haiti.. It is a blemish on the reputation of UN peacekeeping and the Organization world-wide. For the sake of the Haitian people, but also for the sake of the United Nations itself, ...
Vibrio cholerae is the etiological agent of the acute intestinal disorder cholera. The source of cholera infection is typically fecal contamination of potable water sources. V. cholerae is able to colonize the host intestine and trigger the onset of cholera symptoms due to the expression of two primary virulence factors: cholera toxin (CT) and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). TCP is a type IVb pilus encoded by the tcp operon. While many components encoded within the tcp operon have been well characterized, there remain two that we know little about: TcpB and TcpS. In this work, we take a genetic approach to initiate the characterization of each of these pilus components. We have found the large putative pilin, TcpB is not requisite for formation of a pilus structure, but remains essential for all TCP functions. The formation of TCP by a tcpB null mutant represents a surprising finding that has led to a new research emphasis with respect to TCP functions. Additionally, we have characterized the ...
Vibrio cholerae is the etiological agent of the acute intestinal disorder cholera. The source of cholera infection is typically fecal contamination of potable water sources. V. cholerae is able to colonize the host intestine and trigger the onset of cholera symptoms due to the expression of two primary virulence factors: cholera toxin (CT) and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). TCP is a type IVb pilus encoded by the tcp operon. While many components encoded within the tcp operon have been well characterized, there remain two that we know little about: TcpB and TcpS. In this work, we take a genetic approach to initiate the characterization of each of these pilus components. We have found the large putative pilin, TcpB is not requisite for formation of a pilus structure, but remains essential for all TCP functions. The formation of TCP by a tcpB null mutant represents a surprising finding that has led to a new research emphasis with respect to TCP functions. Additionally, we have characterized the ...
A total of 23 people died in March following a cholera outbreak that hit Yemens southwestern province of Taiz.. Abdul Rahim Samai, director of the Public Health and Population Department in Taiz province, said that nearly 5,488 suspected cholera cases have been registered since early January.. The health authorities recorded 335 cases of confirmed cholera, 23 of which have resulted in the death of the patients, he said.. Source: http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2019-03/29/c_137934328.htm. ...
Via the DR Ministry of Public Health and Social Assistance: Salud Pública informa casos sospechosos de Cólera disminuyen en Moca. [Public Health reports suspected cholera cases are diminishing in Moca] Excerpt, with my translation: El Ministerio de Salud Pública informó...
February 20, 2017 (BOR) - Suspected Cholera cases have continued to rise in South Sudans Jonglei state, while spreading widely across communities (...)
Cholera. Cholera is rare in the United States, but its still common in some other countries. Every year, more than 100,000 people around the world die from cholera. The good news is the cholera vaccine can lower the risk that people traveling to countries with cholera will get the disease. The cholera vaccine is an oral (swallowed ...
Health,The cholera epidemic has swept through Angola covering the provinces o...On Sunday WHO representative Angola Fatoumata Diallo handed over 7...The National Laboratory of Public Health has isolated the bacteria V...192 new cases with one death have been reported in the last 24 hours...The WHO along with the Angolan Ministry of health has implemented se...,Death,Toll,due,to,Cholera,Rises,to,48,in,Angola,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Flow cytofluorometric DNA analysis was applied to determine of the relative contents of proliferative (more then 2C DNA per cell) and apoptotic (less then 2C DNA per cell) leukocytes in blood of adult rabbits, challenged with 10,000 times the 50 % effective dose of Vibrio cholerae virulent strain by the RITARD technique. It has been shown that irreversible increase the percentage of cells carrying DNA in the degradation stage brings to disbalance between the genetically controlled cell proliferation and apoptosis that leads to animal death from the cholera infection. Such fatal changes were not observed in challenging of immunized animals that were not died. Thus received data show that the flow cytofluorometric measurements may be used for detection of transgressions in homeostasis during acute infection diseases, for outlet prognosis of the cholera infection ...
New clinical strains of cholera appear to have evolved a distinctly different mechanism to cause the same disease according to research published in the current issue of the online journal mBioà ®.. Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent for the diarrheal disease cholera. While there are more than 200 different serogroups only the O1 and the O139 strains have been known to cause epidemic and pandemic outbreaks of disease, using a toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) and cholera toxin (CT), which other strains lack.. While non-O1, non-O139 strains have caused sporadic disease globally, the virulence mechanisms are not fully understood, since most of these strains lack TCP and CT, say the researchers from Harvard Medical School and the International Center for Diarrhoeal Research in Dhaka, Bangladesh.. The researchers studied a newly identified non-O1, non-O139 strain of the bacteria called AM-19226. Using comparative genomics, they investigated how this new strain causes diarrhea.. Many pathogenic ...
Cholera is a waterborne infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, and is transmitted via food or water that is ... "Cholera." Media Centre. World Health Organization, n.d. Web. 28 Apr 2012. "Campylobacter." National Center for Emerging and ... Pathogenic exogenous bacteria can enter a closed biological system and cause disease such as Cholera, which is induced by a ... Bacterial flora Cholera Waterborne diseases Willey, Sherwood & Woolverton 2011, pp. 673-737. Willey, Sherwood & Woolverton 2011 ...
Cholera epidemic.[citation needed] 1872 - Benjamín Vicuña Mackenna becomes mayor. 1873 - Parque Cousiño inaugurated. 1875 ...
... and cholera. F. Gibbone, La vita del Santo Abate Antonino, 1885 Saints of February 14: Antoninus of Sorrento (in Italian) Sant ...
via Lexis Nexis (subscription required) Vivian Sequera (August 9, 1993). "Rains Over, Fear of Mudslides Remains; Cholera, ...
1892 - Cholera epidemic. 1893 Electric power plant built. Electrification of Budapest finished.[citation needed] 1894 March: ...
1830 - Cholera outbreak. 1860 - Tehran-Tabriz telegraph begins operating. 1868 - Constitution House of Tabriz built. 1881 ...
He died of cholera. Swami Saradananda (1865-1927), whose original name was Sarat Chandra Chakravarty, first came in touch with ...
Subsequently many contracted cholera. The 900 mile march failed in its objective, and fourteen participants died. Smith ... The expedition was disbanded on July 25, 1834, during a cholera epidemic, and a majority of survivors returned to Ohio. ...
No More Cholera". Inwent.org. Archived from the original on 2011-06-15. Retrieved 2011-03-18. Coordinates: 3°10′S 37°10′E /  ...
The Asiatic cholera pandemic of 1846-63 was the time period when Pacini made his discovery of the cholera bacillus. Cholera ... Also in 1854, the Catalan Joaquim Balcells i Pascual discovered the cholera bacterium. When Koch, a much more widely respected ... In 1965, the international committee on nomenclature adopted the formal name Vibrio cholera pacini Pacini 1854 to honor his ... Filippo Pacini (25 May 1812 - 9 July 1883) was an Italian anatomist, posthumously famous for isolating the cholera bacterium ...
In 1892, the cholera scare caused New York officials to quarantine vessels arriving with steerage passengers. The Wyoming was ... Harper's Weekly (17 September 1892). Cholera in New York Bay. Ljungstrom, Henrik. "Parthia (I)/Victoria". Original. The Great ... one of the ships detained and a crewman on the ship died of cholera. Immigration regulation was taken over by the Federal ...
Texas was in the throes of a cholera epidemic, and Miller, a physician, felt it his duty to stay and tend the sick. Austin then ... The cholera epidemic reached Mexico City within days of Austin's arrival, prompting Congress to adjourn before Austin could ... Veramendi died in the cholera epidemic. quoted in Davis (2006), p. 117. Manchaca (2001), pp. 164, 187. Ericson (2000), p. 33. ...
... that are used during the outbreak of illnesses such as cholera and rotavirus. Similar products include Lytren, NormaLyte, ... Cholera stalks Harare - Blogger News Network". Blogger News Network. Retrieved 19 February 2012. https://www.prnewswire.com/ ...
Cholera outbreaks due to sewage contamination). Early monitoring focused on chemical indicators, then bacteria, and finally ...
Her husband died in 1849 from cholera. Anna returned to the United States, to live in Connecticut. Her daughter remained in ...
1853 Cholera epidemic kills 1,500 in Newcastle. 1903 Smallpox epidemic hits Newcastle. 1936 Two hundred men march from Jarrow ...
... died of the cholera. "Johan Peter Strömberg". Norsk biografisk leksikon. Retrieved 1 January 2020. ...
In October 2010, following a fatal cholera outbreak (the first in generations) in the Haitian headwaters of the river, locals ... The Australian Staff (October 29, 2010). "UN base focus of Haiti cholera epidemic". News Limited. Retrieved October 28, 2010. " ...
Cholera has been a persistent problem in Iran. In the 2005 epidemic which involved loss of lives, state television warned ...
14 August - Nearly 2000 people have died since the cholera outbreak began to spread rapidly at the end of April. 4 December - ... Jr, Donald G. Mcneil (2017-08-14). "More Than 500,000 Infected With Cholera in Yemen". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. ... 25 June - The World Health Organization estimates that Yemen has more than 200,000 cases of Cholera. 14 August - The WHO ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Cholera cases in Yemen now more than 200,000". CBC News. 25 June 2017. Retrieved 27 ...
For example, the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which causes cholera in humans, has natural reservoirs in copepods, zooplankton, ... Nelson, Eric J.; Harris, Jason B.; Morris, J. Glenn; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Camilli, Andrew (2009). "Cholera transmission: the ... which causes cholera, can both exist as free-living parasites in certain water sources as well as in invertebrate animal hosts ...
He died of cholera on 17 August 1832. Napoleon III awarded his wife a pension and the position of superintendent of the ... Baron Daumesnil died of cholera in Vincennes on 17 August 1832. The Chamber of Peers granted a pension to his widow. Ryan, ...
Cash began his international career over 40 years ago when he was assigned by NIAID of the NIH to the Pakistan-SEATO Cholera ... Some highlights include: Oral maintenance therapy for cholera in adults. Nalin DR, Cash RA, Islam R, Molla M, Phillips RA. ... Oral or nasogastric maintenance therapy in pediatric cholera patients. Nalin DR, Cash RA. J Pediatr. 1971 Feb;78(2):355-8. This ... For demonstrating how inexpensive and simple-to-use oral rehydration therapy (ORT) could treat cholera and other diarrheal ...
Camps were established in the countryside as well as near the towns, which had consequences when epidemics of cholera or typhus ... Diseases such as typhus or cholera appeared very quickly. The close confinement of the accommodations and the number of ...
The death was officially pronounced as related to cholera. She was buried at the Alexander Nevsky Lavra. Her daughter, Maria ( ...
He died from cholera during the 1833 great epidemic. He was the model of Stendhal's elegant Bishop of Agde in The Red and the ...
P. multocida strains that cause fowl cholera in poultry typically belong to the serovars 1, 3, and 4. In the wild, fowl cholera ... The P. multocida serotype-1 is most associated with avian cholera in North America, but the bacterium does not linger in ... Pasteurella multocida was first found in 1878 in cholera-infected birds. However, it was not isolated until 1880, by Louis ... In birds, P. multocida causes avian or fowl cholera disease; a significant disease present in commercial and domestic poultry ...
There was a cholera epidemic happening at the time and James cared for the sick. Soon James became infected with cholera ...
He died in Saint Petersburg, of cholera, in 1848. His post-Dawe work consisted largely of genre paintings, still-lifes and ...
... is also called avian cholera, avian pasteurellosis, avian hemorrhagic septicemia. [1] ... Epizootiology of Avian Cholera in Wildfowl. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. Chicken Cholera was Observed by Louis pasteur by luck ... Fowl cholera in the Merck Veterinary Manual. References[edit]. *^ K.R. Rhoades and R.B. Rimler, Avian pasteurellosis, in " ... Avian Cholera in Waterfowl: The role of Lesser Snow Geese and Ross's Geese Carriers in the Playa Lakes Region. Journal of ...
Cholera is an infectious disease that can cause severe watery diarrhea, dehydration, and death. Read about symptoms, treatment ... What causes cholera, and how is cholera transmitted?. *What are risk factors for cholera, and where do cholera outbreaks occur? ... What causes cholera, and how is cholera transmitted?. *What are risk factors for cholera, and where do cholera outbreaks occur? ... How Long Is Cholera Contagious?. A person is no longer contagious for cholera when they have no cholera symptoms and no ...
... an infectious disease that affects people through drinking water contaminated with cholera bacteria, can kill people within 24 ... Cholera, an infectious disease that affects people through drinking water contaminated with cholera bacteria, can kill people ... Hundreds of people die of cholera every year during the rainy season in Nigeria. Poor people who cannot afford basic health ... Health officials in the northeastern Nigerian state of Borno have confirmed the death of at least 80 people in a cholera ...
Late last month, the UNs first cholera envoy, Pedro Medrano, said that falling mortality rates do not signify the end of the " ... Mr Medrano says the best chance for cholera eradication lies with a $2.27 billion UN fund-raising campaign that would help fund ... More than 8,000 Haitians have since died from cholera, and nearly 700,000 more, or one out of every 16 people, infected. ... Medical evidence indicates the cholera strain was brought to Haiti by Nepalese UN peacekeepers, although the UN neither admits ...
"What is new in this work is not showing that ENSO plays a role in the variability of cholera, but that the role of ENSO has ... In related work, Rita Colwell of the University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute and her colleagues studied the cholera ... Human Hosts Help Cholera Bacterium Become More Infectious. June 6, 2002 - Rachael Moeller ... cholera. Using monthly mortality data for the periods 1893 to 1940 and 1980 to 2001 in present-day Bangladesh, a team led by ...
... cholera remains at the top of the list of suspects. ... At least 135 dead from suspected cholera outbreak in Haiti *. * ... The president of the Haitian Medical Association, Claude Surena, said the cause appeared to be cholera, but added that had not ... Cholera is a waterborne bacterial infection spread through contaminated water. It causes severe diarrhea and vomiting that can ... Severe diarrhea has killed at least 135 in Haiti and while doctors await test results, cholera remains at the top of the list ...
Cholera patients should be evaluated and treated quickly with Rehydration therapy, Antibiotic treatment, and Zinc treatment. ... However, the cholera-related information might still be relevant for cholera treatment or dealing with cholera outbreaks. ... CDC at Work: Choleraplus icon *CDC Works With Global Partners to End Cholera ... Cholera Treatment Videos. See the following videos for more information: Defeating Cholera and Managing Dehydration ...
Cholera is an acute, diarrheal illness caused by infection of the intestine with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and is spread by ... Cholera patients do not typically become carriers of the cholera bacteria after they recover, but they get sick if exposed ... CDC at Work: Choleraplus icon *CDC Works With Global Partners to End Cholera ... Cholera is an acute diarrheal illness caused by infection of the intestine with Vibrio cholerae bacteria. People can get sick ...
Vaccines against cholera have been around for over a century, oral vaccines for over two decades.. Anything that can reduce the ... Cholera is one of the biggest killers of people. One of the Horseman of the Apocalypse (pestilence). It causes extreme diarrhea ... That will reduce the incidence of many viral and bacterial infections, including dysentery, cholera and typhoid.. A good way to ... Apparantly there is a more effective (90%+ within 10 days of injection) cholera vaccine that was approved by the FDA in 2016, ...
"Choleras seven pandemics". CBC. 9 May 2008. Retrieved 15 July 2018.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ... Cholera - Vibrio cholerae infection-Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. *. "Cholera". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ... The word cholera is from Greek: χολέρα kholera from χολή kholē "bile". Cholera likely has its origins in the Indian ... Main article: Cholera vaccine. A number of safe and effective oral vaccines for cholera are available.[43] The World Health ...
Cholera. Vaccine. A vaccine consisting of killed whole-cell V. cholerae O1 in combination with a recombinant B-subunit of ... In studies of travellers to countries or areas reporting cholera outbreaks, WC/rBS was found also to induce approximately 50% ... Following primary immunization, protection against cholera may be expected after about 1 week. Booster doses are recommended ... Two closely related bivalent oral cholera vaccines are available in India and Viet Nam. These killed whole-cell vaccines are ...
... What Is Cholera?. Cholera is a bacterial infection of the intestines. The good news is, cholera is easy to treat if ... Can Cholera Be Prevented?. In some areas cholera vaccines are given to help protect people against cholera for a short while. ... How Is Cholera Diagnosed?. To confirm a diagnosis of cholera, doctors may take a stool sample or vomit sample to check for ... How Is Cholera Treated?. Cholera needs immediate treatment because severe dehydration can happen within hours. Fortunately, ...
Find out more about cholera in this article for teens. ... Cholera is an intestinal infection that mostly affects people ... What Is Cholera?. Cholera is a bacterial infection of the intestines. The good news is, cholera is easy to treat if its caught ... Can Cholera Be Prevented?. In some areas cholera vaccines are given to help protect people against cholera for a short while. ... How Is Cholera Diagnosed?. To confirm a diagnosis of cholera, doctors may take a stool sample or vomit sample to examine for ...
Fowl cholera is also called avian cholera, avian pasteurellosis, avian hemorrhagic septicemia. [1] ... Epizootiology of Avian Cholera in Wildfowl. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. Chicken Cholera was Observed by Louis pasteur by luck ... Fowl cholera in the Merck Veterinary Manual. References[edit]. *^ K.R. Rhoades and R.B. Rimler, Avian pasteurellosis, in " ... Avian Cholera in Waterfowl: The role of Lesser Snow Geese and Rosss Geese Carriers in the Playa Lakes Region. Journal of ...
From 14 August 2017 through 11 February 2018, 1799 cases and one death (case fatality rate = 0.06%) of cholera were reported ... the Ministry of Health in Mozambique notified WHO of an outbreak of cholera. ... Cholera outbreaks have occurred in Mozambique every year for the past five years. The most recent outbreak prior to the current ... In addition, the cholera case definition should be strictly applied to all suspected cases to decrease underreporting and to ...
Latest Cholera News. Zimbabwe copes with diarrhea outbreak which has killed 9. Jun. 26, 2020 5:16 AM EDT ... LONDON (AP) - The coronavirus pandemic is interrupting immunization against diseases including measles, polio and cholera that ...
Cholera is a bacterial infection that causes diarrhea caused by bacteria usually found in contaminated water. Learn about ... Cholera Fact Sheet (World Health Organization) Also in Spanish * Cholera Illness and Symptoms (Centers for Disease Control and ... Cholera Prevention and Control (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) * Cholera Treatment (Centers for Disease Control ... The cholera bacterium is usually found in water or food that has been contaminated by feces (poop). Cholera is rare in the US. ...
... or Asiatic cholera, acute infectious disease caused by strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae that have been infected by ... cholera. cholera kŏl´ərə [key] or Asiatic cholera, acute infectious disease caused by strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae ... affords those carriers partial protection against cholera. See C. E. Rosenberg, The Cholera Years (1962). ... Cholera has a short incubation period (two or three days) and runs a quick course. In untreated cases the death rate is high, ...
An outbreak of cholera in 19th century London drove British doctor John Snow to investigate the source, giving rise to modern ... An outbreak of cholera in 19th century London drove British doctor John Snow to investigate the source, giving rise to modern ...
Cholera is a diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholera, a short, curved, gram-negative bacillus. Humans acquire the disease by ... Cholera. Cholera is a disease caused by the bacteria Vibrio cholera. The disease first emerged in the 1800s from Calcutta, ... Since then, 7 cholera pandemics have swept through the world. 16 strains of Vibrio cholera have been discovered with the ... Cholera bacteria ride on the backs of copepods and colonize in their intestines. Dr. Colwell also noted that cholera can enter ...
English: Cholera (also called Asiatic cholera) is a disease of the intestinal tract caused by the Vibrio cholerae bacterium. ... A public notice anno 6th august 1833 from the staff of the swedish king, who shall introduce restrictions because of cholera ... A public notice anno 6th august 1833 from the staff of the swedish king, who shall introduce restrictions because of cholera ... Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cholera&oldid=250089469" ...
Cholera (Vibrio cholerae O1/O139) , 1996 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/cholera/case-definition/1996/) ... Cholera (Vibrio cholerae O1/O139) , 1995 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/cholera/case-definition/1995/) ... Cholera (Vibrio cholerae O1/O139) , 1990 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/cholera/case-definition/1990/) ...
Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
Health Information on Cholera: MedlinePlus Multiple Languages Collection ... Cholera: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Cólera: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) ... Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) -- Cholera Vaccine: What You Need to Know - English PDF Vaccine Information Statement (VIS ... URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/cholera.html Other topics A-Z. ...
This volume presents current knowledge in historical perspective to enable the practitioner to treat cholera ... Research on cholera has contributed both to knowledge of the epidemic in particular, and to a broader understanding of the ... Research on cholera has contributed both to knowledge of the epidemic in particular, and to a broader understanding of the ... This volume presents current knowledge in historical perspective to enable the practitioner to treat cholera in a more ...
Cholera has often risen to epidemic proportions in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, particularly in India and ... Cholera, an acute infection of the small intestine caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and characterized by extreme ... Zimbabwe cholera outbreak of 2008-09. Zimbabwe, located in southern Africa, experienced a severe epidemic of cholera from 2008 ... Cholera through history. The recorded history of cholera is relatively short and remarkable. Although the ancient Greek ...
Holiday cholera.. Br Med J 1970; 3 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.3.5723.601-a (Published 12 September 1970) Cite this as: Br ...
Epidemic cholera.. Br Med J 1965; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.5466.832 (Published 09 October 1965) Cite this as: Br ...
Cholera. Cholera is rare in the United States, but its still common in some other countries. Every year, more than 100,000 ... General Information , Cholera , CDC. www.cdc.gov/cholera/general/index.html#:~:text=A%20person%20can%20get%20cholera%20by% ... A person can get cholera by drinking water or eating food contaminated with the cholera bacterium. In an epidemic, the source ... Cholera causes severe diarrhea and dehydration. Left untreated, cholera can be fatal within hours, even in previously healthy ...
Cholera causes severe diarrhea and dehydration. Left untreated, cholera can be fatal within hours, even in previously healthy ... A bacterium called Vibrio cholerae causes cholera infection. The deadly effects of the disease are the result of a toxin the ... Cholera requires immediate treatment because the disease can cause death within hours. ... Cholera is a bacterial disease usually spread through contaminated water. ...
Children and the elderly are at particular risk of rapidly developing and succumbing to the dehydration caused by cholera. ... Cholera is an acute infection of the small intestine that is a particular problem in developing countries where access to clean ... WHO and partners respond to upsurge of cholera cases in Yemen. *Haiti to receive $40.5 million from the UN to combat cholera ... Over the last century, the number of cholera cases and deaths due to cholera have steadily declined, mainly due to improvements ...
CHOLERA SURVEILLANCE : Appearance of Classical Biotype of Vibrio cholerae = SURVEILLANCE DU CHOLERA : Apparition du biotype ... CHOLERA SURVEILLANCE : Multiply Antibiotic-Resistant 0-Group 1 Vibrio cholerae = SURVEILLANCE DU CHOLÉRA : Apparition d une ... Cholera - Monitoring of Vibrio cholerae O139 = Choléra - Surveillance de Vibrio cholerae O139  ... 1926)‎. Cholera = Choléra. Weekly Epidemiological Record = Relevé épidémiologique hebdomadaire, 01 (‎05)‎, 1. https://apps.who. ...
... but a deadly cholera outbreak there is only getting worse. ... The cholera epidemic has been left to fester as the Zimbabwean ... MSF believes cholera may be just the beginning of a nightmare health crisis in the southern African country. ... Doctors without Borders report says cholera crisis shows no signs of slowing. * Aid agencies say it could be lead to other ... Cholera cases have now been reported in all of the countrys provinces, the MSF report said. ...
THE toxin that makes cholera lethal belongs not to the cholera bacterium itself, but to a threadlike virus which hijacks it to ... THE toxin that makes cholera lethal belongs not to the cholera bacterium. itself, but to a threadlike virus which hijacks it to ... cholera. toxin in disease-causing strains is capable of jumping from one bacterium to. another. They also found particles ... experimental cholera vaccines based on live, weakened bacteria whose toxin genes. have been removed. The virus could ferry the ...
... seven cholera pandemics have killed millions across the globe. The seventh is still going on, but advancements in medical ... Choleras seven pandemics. In the past 200 hundred years, seven cholera pandemics have killed millions across the globe. The ... 21, 2010, during a cholera outbreak.. ((Dieu Nalio Chery/Associated Press))In the past 200 hundred years, seven cholera ... Cholera claimed 200,000 lives in Russia between 1893 and 1894; and 90,000 in Japan between 1887 and 1889. Quarantine measures ...
  • If the indictment of Haiti was unsurprising, less predictable was Mr Gallon's position on the country's cholera epidemic, which first broke out in 2010. (economist.com)
  • Late last month, the UN's first cholera envoy, Pedro Medrano, said that falling mortality rates do not signify the end of the "silent emergency" because a cholera epidemic can ebb and wane and come back stronger as the bacterium mutates. (economist.com)
  • It is now generally settled truth that UN peacekeepers from Nepal introduced a ravaging cholera epidemic to the island in 2010. (bostonglobe.com)
  • The conflict in Mali could turn a cholera outbreak that has already killed 60 people in the Sahel this year into a serious regional epidemic, the UN children's agency said Tuesday. (medicalxpress.com)
  • While the semi-arid belt running across Africa, separating Sahara from savannah, is regularly hit by cholera outbreaks, this year's epidemic has concentrated mostly around Mali and Niger, UNICEF said in a statement. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The United Nations has admitted for the first time that its peacekeepers in Haiti played a role in the outbreak of the cholera epidemic in the aftermath of the devastating 2010 earthquake that sent the poverty-stricken Caribbean nation into a tailspin. (veteranstoday.com)
  • The cholera epidemic first struck Haiti in October 2010, less than one year after the disastrous earthquake that worsened longstanding poverty and instability and has left the country reeling years to this day. (veteranstoday.com)
  • On the 3 December 1831 a Dr W B O'Shaughnessy delivered a lecture to the Westminster Medical Society on the "Blue epidemic cholera", as it was then known. (bmj.com)
  • In this Historical Paper of Dr. Samuel Hahnemann, he discusses about the Asiatic Cholera epidemic, its signs and symptoms and the role of Camphora in it. (homeorizon.com)
  • A cholera epidemic which ran from August 2008 into the first half of 2009 claimed more than 4,000 lives before the government announced in July that it had ended. (voazimbabwe.com)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) has maps of current and past areas with cholera outbreaks (see WHO reference). (medicinenet.com)
  • Outbreaks of cholera in 2015-2016 include South Sudan, United Republic of Tanzania, and Kenya, with over 216 deaths and most recently, 121 people diagnosed with cholera in Iraq, their first outbreak since 2012 and in Cuba, the first outbreak in over 130 years. (medicinenet.com)
  • Using monthly mortality data for the periods 1893 to 1940 and 1980 to 2001 in present-day Bangladesh, a team led by Xavier Rodo of the University of Barcelona compared cholera outbreaks to the occurrence of the climate phenomenon known as the El Nio Southern Oscillation (ENSO). (scientificamerican.com)
  • The outbreaks of cholera that have occurred during the past decade originated in coastal areas. (nasa.gov)
  • This proposal seeks to establish a model driven by satellite remote sensing that will be useful in tracking the spatial and temporal development of such plumes as they impinge on coastal areas, related to outbreaks of cholera. (nasa.gov)
  • Overflowing of latrines and contamination of wells and surface water, seasonal modification of water sources for consumption and human behavior may play a role in the occurrence of cholera outbreaks. (omicsonline.org)
  • Failure to control local outbreaks and prevention of betweenregion transmission could result in spread of cholera outbreaks to neighboring regions or countries. (omicsonline.org)
  • Results: In 2016, 52 villages in Bunyala sub-county and 1 village in Samia Sub-County reported cholera outbreaks with a total of 107 cases including 6 deaths. (omicsonline.org)
  • Therefore there is need for a harmonized, Co-ordinated approach to cholera outbreaks through effective surveillance and response with emphasis on training and motivating frontline HealthCare workers towards timely detection and response as well as proper documentation. (omicsonline.org)
  • Nigeria has seen regular cholera outbreaks since Boko Haram took up arms against the government in 2009. (ewn.co.za)
  • African Health Ministers have pledged to implement key strategies for ending cholera outbreaks in the African region by 2030. (africanmanager.com)
  • We have the know-how and today countries have shown that they have the will to do whatever it takes to end cholera outbreaks by 2030. (africanmanager.com)
  • This year, there has been a spike in cholera cases across Africa, with eight countries currently battling outbreaks. (africanmanager.com)
  • Cracking down on street vendors such as Moyo, imposing curfews and even enacting quarantine zones don't work to control cholera, says the World Health Organisation (WHO) website , because they don't eradicate the source of outbreaks or stem transmission. (mg.co.za)
  • Cholera is most frequently transmitted by water sources contaminated with the causative bacterium Vibrio cholerae , although contaminated foods, especially raw shellfish, may also transmit the cholera-causing bacteria. (medicinenet.com)
  • A person is no longer contagious for cholera when they have no cholera symptoms and no detectable Vibrio bacteria in their stools. (medicinenet.com)
  • Cholera is an acute infectious disease caused by a bacterium, Vibrio cholerae ( V. cholerae ), which usually results in a painless, watery diarrhea in humans. (medicinenet.com)
  • In related work, Rita Colwell of the University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute and her colleagues studied the cholera bacterium, Vibrio cholerae, to investigate the effects of environmental changes on the disease-causing organism itself. (scientificamerican.com)
  • In their proposed project, Collins and two postdoctoral fellows in his lab, Ewen Cameron and Peter Belenky, seek to use synthetic biology techniques to engineer a probiotic yogurt bacterium, Lactobacillus gasseri, to detect and kill the cholera bacterium, Vibrio cholerae, in the human intestine. (bu.edu)
  • Cholera epidemics caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 occur regularly in Bangladesh and India and sporadically in many parts of the world. (nasa.gov)
  • Background: Cholera is an acute enteric infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholera of serogroup 01 or 0139. (omicsonline.org)
  • The serogroups O1 and O139 of the bacteria Vibrio cholera are to blame for cholera pandemics and endemics. (defeatdd.org)
  • Medical evidence indicates the cholera strain was brought to Haiti by Nepalese UN peacekeepers, although the UN neither admits responsibility for the outbreak nor agrees to make reparations. (economist.com)
  • Severe diarrhea has killed at least 135 in Haiti and while doctors await test results, cholera remains at the top of the list of suspects. (csmonitor.com)
  • This funding will enable us to explore using innovative synthetic biology approaches to detect and treat cholera infections, a major health problem facing many poor communities in the world, including those in Haiti that were devastated by the 2010 earthquake. (bu.edu)
  • A boy in Haiti received the second dose of the cholera vaccine on Sept.17, 2014. (bostonglobe.com)
  • Alston was correct when he reported, in the bluntest possible language, that the UN's policy on cholera in Haiti "is morally unconscionable, legally indefensible, and politically self-defeating. (bostonglobe.com)
  • In Haiti we say viktwa se pou pep la - victory is for the people," said Mario Joseph, managing attorney of the Bureau des Avocats Internationaux, which has led a campaign for justice and reparations for victims of cholera since 2011. (bostonglobe.com)
  • Cholera cases have risen in Haiti, but the number dying from the disease is down, according to researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cnn.com)
  • Tauxe says these improvements lowered the mortality rate from cholera in Haiti from 4% to below 1%, where it's been since December. (cnn.com)
  • In a new CDC report, researchers lay out the lessons learned since cholera emerged in Haiti and what needs to be done to sustain the progress that has been made to treat the disease and prevent deaths. (cnn.com)
  • Through our PEPFAR program [U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief] and NGO partners we have trained hundreds of health workers all around Haiti which has resulted in locals have quick access to cholera treatment centers now matter where they live," said Dr. Jordan W. Tappero, director for the CDC's Health Systems Reconstruction Office in Haiti. (cnn.com)
  • More than 400,000 have been sickened from cholera since the disease emerged in Haiti in October of last year. (cnn.com)
  • Well, here we have an example that really takes the biscuit - an deadly Cholera outbreak in Haiti caused by UN troops using the river as a toilet. (veteranstoday.com)
  • According to U.N. figures, a total of 13,859 suspected cholera cases were recorded in between Jan. 1 to April 2, 2016 in Haiti. (veteranstoday.com)
  • The U.N. has been advocating rapid response mobile health teams to tackle cholera in Haiti. (veteranstoday.com)
  • some protection can be obtained from oral vaccines while avoiding areas where cholera commonly occurs or has had a recent outbreak. (medicinenet.com)
  • The estimated effect of cholera, shigella, Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and rotavirus vaccines was determined by applying the standard Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG) rules. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Based on the evidence, we propose a 74% mortality reduction in rotavirus specific mortality, 52% reduction in cholera incidence due to their respective vaccines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Vaccines for rotavirus and cholera have the potential to reduce diarrhea morbidity and mortality burden. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Older generation injectable cholera vaccines have been abandoned since the 1970s owing to their limited efficacy and local side effects. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Oral Cholera Vaccines (OCV) are good candidates for the control of cholera particularly in endemic areas. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cholera is caused by a bacterium transmitted through contaminated food or drinking water. (ewn.co.za)
  • Cholera is a disease caused by bacteria that produce a watery diarrhea that can rapidly lead to dehydration . (medicinenet.com)
  • Although a person may be no longer contagious for cholera, the infection does not provide enough immunity to prevent the person from coming down with cholera again if reexposed to the bacteria. (medicinenet.com)
  • Cholera, an infectious disease that affects people through drinking water contaminated with cholera bacteria, can kill people within 24 hours by inducing vomiting and diarrhea. (voanews.com)
  • Cholera is contracted by consuming food or water contaminated with fecal bacteria. (cnn.com)
  • Five people have died of cholera in Zimbabwe since the beginning of September out of 116 cases, according to the World Health Organization, signaling that as anticipated the disease has broken out again with the onset of seasonal rains which spread bacteria. (voazimbabwe.com)
  • The probiotic could be supplied as an inexpensive, freeze-dried powder to endemic populations to prevent cholera, an acute, food or water-borne diarrheal infection leading to more than 100,000 deaths each year. (bu.edu)
  • The number of cholera cases reported to World Health Organization (WHO) annually has remained relatively constant since 1995, varying from 100,000 to 300,000 cases per year [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cholera is a waterborne bacterial infection spread through contaminated water. (csmonitor.com)
  • The model will, therefore, be used to provide an early warning system for cholera in coastal areas and enable more effective deployment of resources to counteract, if not prevent, massive epidemics of cholera. (nasa.gov)
  • To counter this deficiency, scientists at icddr,b , in collaboration with Incepta Pharmaceuticals, have developed a cholera RDT - CholKit - which is based on the O1 serogroup only, as there have been no epidemics reported due to the O139 serogroup in the past decade. (defeatdd.org)
  • The temporal variability of cholera incidence exhibits an interannual component, and a significant synchrony in cholera epidemics is highlighted at the end of the 1980's. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Results of this study suggest that large and regional scale climate variability influence both the temporal dynamics and the spatial synchrony of cholera epidemics in human populations in the Gulf of Guinea, as has been described for two other tropical regions of the world, western South America and Bangladesh. (biomedcentral.com)
  • According to the Washington Post, Alston argued to Secretary General Ban-ki Moon that the United Nations botch response in Haiti's cholera crisis is "morally unconscionable, legally indefensible and politically self-defeating. (veteranstoday.com)
  • Cholera is an infectious disease characterised by severe watery diarrhoea and vomiting. (defeatdd.org)
  • Although easily treated, cholera can lead to severe diarrhoea, vomiting and dehydration in those who contract it, usually through water contaminated by infected faeces , the United States nonprofit the Mayo Clinic says on its website. (mg.co.za)
  • Nte explained that contaminated faeces eaten by sea foods and consumed by humans would further hasten the spread of cholera in the area. (ghanamma.com)
  • Now two reports published online this week by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences further implicate climate variability in the dynamics of one infectious disease: cholera. (scientificamerican.com)
  • In the more recent years, the scientists found a link between ENSO and the incidence of cholera, with ENSO accounting for more than 70 percent of the disease variation. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Health workers suspected the disease is cholera, but were awaiting tests. (csmonitor.com)
  • Cholera is a bacterial disease that has been linked to the aquatic environment and can survive in brackish, coastal, and fresh water environments for significant periods of time [ 1 - 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This study applies social network and spatial analytical methods simultaneously to model the transmission of cholera, which is a disease that may spread through social contact but also exists in environmental reservoirs. (hindawi.com)
  • Cholera is a major global public health problem, but the burden and impact of the waterborne disease is greatest in sub-Saharan Africa. (africanmanager.com)
  • Cholera was a much feared disease as it spread across Europe in 1829-1830. (bmj.com)
  • The question of what interannual climate variability triggers the disease dynamics patterns in non-endemic cholera regions in Africa, however, remains unanswered. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Malnutrition, displacement , and now rains in some parts of the Sahel create the ideal breeding ground for cholera, which hits young children hardest," said Manuel Fontaine, UNICEF acting regional director for West and Central Africa. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The UNICEF statement said that overall in 2012, some 700 people in West and Central Africa had died from cholera and more than 29,000 cases were reported. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Forty-seven African countries adopted the Regional Framework for the Implementation of the Global Strategy for Cholera Prevention and Control today (28 August) at the 68th session of the World Health Organization's Regional Committee for Africa, which is taking place in Dakar, Senegal. (africanmanager.com)
  • Cholera is a symbol of inequity," said Dr Matshidiso Moeti, the WHO Regional Director for Africa. (africanmanager.com)
  • In 2017, more than 150 000 cholera cases, including more than 3 000 deaths, were reported in 17 countries Africa. (africanmanager.com)
  • The relationship between cholera and climate was explored in Africa, the continent with the most reported cases, by analyzing monthly 20-year cholera time series for five coastal adjoining West African countries: Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, Benin and Nigeria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CDC officials say they're confident that when people learn how to treat cholera, deaths from other diarrheal diseases will go down as well. (cnn.com)
  • Cholera symptoms and signs include a rapid onset of copious, smelly diarrhea that resembles rice water and may lead to signs of dehydration (for example, vomiting , wrinkled skin, low blood pressure , dry mouth , rapid heart rate). (medicinenet.com)
  • While it can cause severe dehydration from rapid loss of body fluids, cholera is one of the easiest diseases to treat with oral rehydration salts. (cnn.com)
  • However, cholera is often misdiagnosed until the patient is in an extreme condition, when ORT is not enough to prevent death by dehydration. (defeatdd.org)
  • Only about one in 10 people infected with cholera develop the typical signs and symptoms. (medicinenet.com)
  • Health officials said an outbreak of severe diarrhea has killed at least 54 people and sickened hundreds more while patients have been lying on blankets outside the crowded hospital and doctors are testing for cholera, typhoid and other illnesses that could have caused the outbreak. (csmonitor.com)
  • The main treatment for cholera is fluid and electrolyte replacement, both oral and IV. (medicinenet.com)
  • A member of the MSF vaccination team provides a single dose of the oral cholera vaccine to a boy in Self Help Center in Lusaka. (ei-ie.org)
  • In the 1960s, researchers at icddr,b and its partners developed a simple solution to combat cholera - oral rehydration therapy (ORT) - a mixture of salt, sugar, and water, ingredients readily found in most homes. (defeatdd.org)
  • The organization reports that there have been more some 10,000 cholera-related deaths since the outbreak in 2010, though Doctors Without Borders have argued that the actual death toll is likely higher. (veteranstoday.com)
  • Humanitarian crises, climate change, rapid urbanization and population growth are also increasing the risk of cholera spreading. (africanmanager.com)
  • A cholera outbreak in Zambia since September 2017 has delayed the re-opening of closed schools, leading to concern about lost learning time for students. (ei-ie.org)
  • The latest Cholera outbreak in Bunyala -Busia County is dated from 21st February to 11th March 2016 through on the 1st January 2017 there were five confirmed cases reported in Uganda (Lumino village) who sought treatment at our County Referral hospital Busia being at the border and then later transferred back to Uganda for further management. (omicsonline.org)
  • Zambia's cholera outbreak began in late September 2017. (mg.co.za)
  • If more land is not urgently provided for camp decongestion and construction of health and sanitation facilities, Nigeria is steering towards yet another cholera outbreak in 2019. (ewn.co.za)
  • Haitians deserve a sweeping apology, compensation for families who have suffered, and robust investment in water and sanitation infrastructure to eliminate cholera. (bostonglobe.com)
  • Zambian traders and vendors gesture and chant slogans as they take part in a January 2018 protest in Lusaka following a ban on street trading amid the country's latest deadly cholera outbreak. (mg.co.za)
  • In 1993, a total of 296,206 new cases of cholera were reported in South America after about a century, involving more than 15 countries. (nasa.gov)
  • This study uses social network and spatial analytical methods simultaneously to understand cholera transmission in rural Bangladesh. (hindawi.com)
  • It is the first and only cholera RDT to be developed in Bangladesh. (defeatdd.org)
  • It was performed first at icddr,b's Dhaka hospital and then expanded to 22 sentinel cholera surveillance sites across Bangladesh. (defeatdd.org)
  • The innovation itself, the first of its kind to test V. cholerae O1, was designed to be replicated in other resource-poor countries similar to Bangladesh where there are persistent threats of a cholera outbreak. (defeatdd.org)
  • Evidence for influence of climate on cholera dynamics in Asia (Bangladesh) [ 5 - 7 , 9 , 10 ] and South America (Peru) [ 6 , 11 ] has been published. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In his report, Alston has argued that the United Nations should offer reparations to families of victims of the cholera outbreak as part of accepting responsibility. (veteranstoday.com)
  • Rapid treatment with fluid and electrolytes result in better outcomes while people with other health problems beside cholera or those who are not rapidly replenished with fluid treatments tend to have a poorer prognosis. (medicinenet.com)
  • Health officials in the northeastern Nigerian state of Borno have confirmed the death of at least 80 people in a cholera outbreak. (voanews.com)
  • Cases had shot up in the Sahel since mid-June, especially near the Niger River where that country's health ministry reported nearly three times as many cholera patients compared to the same period last year. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Cholera is one of three diseases requiring notification to WHO under the International Health Regulations Objective: The objective of the study is to describe cholera outbreak by time, person and place. (omicsonline.org)
  • By 1832 O'Shaughnessy's work had resulted in a "Report on the chemical pathology of malignant cholera", which was published by the Central Board of Health. (bmj.com)
  • Cholera is a major health burden in low- and middle-income countries. (defeatdd.org)
  • The president of the Haitian Medical Association , Claude Surena , said the cause appeared to be cholera, but added that had not been confirmed by the government. (csmonitor.com)