An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.
The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 1. All are CHOLERA-causing strains (serotypes). There are two biovars (biotypes): cholerae and eltor (El Tor).
A specific monosialoganglioside that accumulates abnormally within the nervous system due to a deficiency of GM1-b-galactosidase, resulting in GM1 gangliosidosis.
A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.
Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 139. This strain emerged in India in 1992 and caused a CHOLERA epidemic.
Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
The development and establishment of environmental conditions favorable to the health of the public.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.
An acute, highly contagious disease affecting swine of all ages and caused by the CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS. It has a sudden onset with high morbidity and mortality.
A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
An old term that is no longer used in the scientific literature. Cholera morbus refers to acute GASTROENTERITIS occurring in summer or autumn; characterized by severe cramps, diarrhea, and vomiting.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
A strain of the VIBRIO CHOLERAE bacteria belonging to serogroup non-O1, infecting humans and other PRIMATES. It is related to VIBRIO CHOLERAE O1, but causes a disease less severe than CHOLERA. Eating raw shellfish contaminated with the bacteria results in GASTROENTERITIS.
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and west of GUINEA. Its capital is Bissau.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria normally found in the flora of the mouth and respiratory tract of animals and birds. It causes shipping fever (see PASTEURELLOSIS, PNEUMONIC); HEMORRHAGIC BACTEREMIA; and intestinal disease in animals. In humans, disease usually arises from a wound infection following a bite or scratch from domesticated animals.
One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.
Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
A republic in central Africa, east of the REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, south of the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and north of ANGOLA and ZAMBIA. The capital is Kinshasa.
A species of the PESTIVIRUS genus causing exceedingly contagious and fatal hemorrhagic disease of swine.
Miscellaneous agents found useful in the symptomatic treatment of diarrhea. They have no effect on the agent(s) that cause diarrhea, but merely alleviate the condition.

Environmental signals modulate ToxT-dependent virulence factor expression in Vibrio cholerae. (1/1261)

The regulatory protein ToxT directly activates the transcription of virulence factors in Vibrio cholerae, including cholera toxin (CT) and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). Specific environmental signals stimulate virulence factor expression by inducing the transcription of toxT. We demonstrate that transcriptional activation by the ToxT protein is also modulated by environmental signals. ToxT expressed from an inducible promoter activated high-level expression of CT and TCP in V. cholerae at 30 degrees C, but expression of CT and TCP was significantly decreased or abolished by the addition of 0.4% bile to the medium and/or an increase of the temperature to 37 degrees C. Also, expression of six ToxT-dependent TnphoA fusions was modulated by temperature and bile. Measurement of ToxT-dependent transcription of genes encoding CT and TCP by ctxAp- and tcpAp-luciferase fusions confirmed that negative regulation by 37 degrees C or bile occurs at the transcriptional level in V. cholerae. Interestingly, ToxT-dependent transcription of these same promoters in Salmonella typhimurium was relatively insensitive to regulation by temperature or bile. These data are consistent with ToxT transcriptional activity being modulated by environmental signals in V. cholerae and demonstrate an additional level of complexity governing the expression of virulence factors in this pathogen. We propose that negative regulation of ToxT-dependent transcription by environmental signals prevents the incorrect temporal and spatial expression of virulence factors during cholera pathogenesis.  (+info)

Transmission of epidemic Vibrio cholerae O1 in rural western Kenya associated with drinking water from Lake Victoria: an environmental reservoir for cholera? (2/1261)

Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest reported cholera incidence and mortality rates in the world. In 1997, a cholera epidemic occurred in western Kenya. Between June 1997 and March 1998, 14,275 cholera admissions to hospitals in Nyanza Province in western Kenya were reported. There were 547 deaths (case fatality rate = 4%). Of 31 Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates tested, all but one were sensitive to tetracycline. We performed a case-control study among 61 cholera patients and age-, sex-, and clinic-matched controls. Multivariate analysis showed that risk factors for cholera were drinking water from Lake Victoria or from a stream, sharing food with a person with watery diarrhea, and attending funeral feasts. Compared with other diarrheal pathogens, cholera was more common among persons living in a village bordering Lake Victoria. Cholera has become an important public health concern in western Kenya, and may become an endemic pathogen in the region.  (+info)

Effects of changes in membrane sodium flux on virulence gene expression in Vibrio cholerae. (3/1261)

The expression of several virulence factors of Vibrio cholerae is coordinately regulated by the ToxT molecule and the membrane proteins TcpP/H and ToxR/S, which are required for toxT transcription. To identify proteins that negatively affect toxT transcription, we screened transposon mutants of V. cholerae carrying a chromosomally integrated toxT::lacZ reporter construct for darker blue colonies on media containing 5-bromo-4-chlor-3-indolyl beta-D galactoside (X-gal). Two mutants had transposon insertions in a region homologous to the nqr gene cluster of Vibrio alginolyticus, encoding a sodium-translocating NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (NQR). In V. alginolyticus, NQR is a respiration-linked Na+ extrusion pump generating a sodium motive force that can be used for solute import, ATP synthesis, and flagella rotation. Inhibition of NQR enzyme function in V. cholerae by the specific inhibitor 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide (HQNO) resulted in elevated toxT::lacZ activity. Increased toxT::lacZ expression in an nqr mutant strain compared with the parental strain was observed when the TcpP/H molecules alone were strongly expressed, suggesting that the negative effect of the NQR complex on toxT transcription is mediated through TcpP/H. However, the ability of the TcpP/H proteins to activate the toxT::lacZ reporter construct was greatly diminished in the presence of high NaCl concentrations in the growth medium. The flagellar motor of V. cholerae appears to be driven by a sodium motive force, and modulation of flagella rotation by inhibitory drugs, high media viscosity, or specific mutations resulted in increases of toxT::lacZ expression. Thus, the regulation of the main virulence factors of V. cholerae appears to be modulated by endogenous and exogenous sodium levels in a complex way.  (+info)

How intestinal bacteria cause disease. (4/1261)

An improved understanding of how intestinal bacteria cause disease has become increasingly important because of the emergence of new enteric pathogens, increasing threats of drug resistance, and a growing awareness of their importance in malnutrition and diarrhea. Reviewed here are the varied ways that intestinal bacteria cause disease, which provide fundamental lessons about microbial pathogenesis as well as cell signaling. Following colonization, enteric pathogens may adhere to or invade the epithelium or may produce secretory exotoxins or cytotoxins. In addition, by direct or indirect effects, they may trigger secondary mediator release of cytokines that attract inflammatory cells, which release further products, such as prostaglandins or platelet-activating factor, which can also trigger secretion. An improved understanding of pathogenesis not only opens new approaches to treatment and control but may also suggest improved simple means of diagnosis and even vaccine development.  (+info)

Expanded safety and immunogenicity of a bivalent, oral, attenuated cholera vaccine, CVD 103-HgR plus CVD 111, in United States military personnel stationed in Panama. (5/1261)

To provide optimum protection against classical and El Tor biotypes of Vibrio cholerae O1, a single-dose, oral cholera vaccine was developed by combining two live, attenuated vaccine strains, CVD 103-HgR (classical, Inaba) and CVD 111 (El Tor, Ogawa). The vaccines were formulated in a double-chamber sachet; one chamber contained lyophilized bacteria, and the other contained buffer. A total of 170 partially-immune American soldiers stationed in Panama received one of the following five formulations: (a) CVD 103-HgR at 10(8) CFU plus CVD 111 at 10(7) CFU, (b) CVD 103-HgR at 10(8) CFU plus CVD 111 at 10(6) CFU, (c) CVD 103-HgR alone at 10(8) CFU, (d) CVD 111 alone at 10(7) CFU, or (e) inactivated Escherichia coli placebo. Among those who received CVD 111 at the high or low dose either alone or in combination with CVD 103-HgR, 8 of 103 had diarrhea, defined as three or more liquid stools. None of the 32 volunteers who received CVD 103-HgR alone or the 35 placebo recipients had diarrhea. CVD 111 was detected in the stools of 46% of the 103 volunteers who received it. About 65% of all persons who received CVD 103-HgR either alone or in combination had a fourfold rise in Inaba vibriocidal titers. The postvaccination geometric mean titers were comparable among groups, ranging from 450 to 550. Ogawa vibriocidal titers were about twice as high in persons who received CVD 111 as in those who received CVD 103-HgR alone (600 versus 300). The addition of CVD 111 improved the overall seroconversion rate and doubled the serum Ogawa vibriocidal titers, suggesting that the combination of an El Tor and a classical cholera strain is desirable. While CVD 111 was previously found to be well tolerated in semiimmune Peruvians, the adverse effects observed in this study indicate that this strain requires further attenuation before it can be safely used in nonimmune populations.  (+info)

A reassessment of the cost-effectiveness of water and sanitation interventions in programmes for controlling childhood diarrhoea. (6/1261)

Cost-effectiveness analysis indicates that some water supply and sanitation (WSS) interventions are highly cost-effective for the control of diarrhoea among under-5-year-olds, on a par with oral rehydration therapy. These are relatively inexpensive "software-related" interventions such as hygiene education, social marketing of good hygiene practices, regulation of drinking-water, and monitoring of water quality. Such interventions are needed to ensure that the potentially positive health impacts of WSS infrastructure are fully realized in practice. The perception that WSS programmes are not a cost-effective use of health sector resources has arisen from three factors: an assumption that all WSS interventions involve construction of physical infrastructure, a misperception of the health sector's role in WSS programmes, and a misunderstanding of the scope of cost-effectiveness analysis. WSS infrastructure ("hardware") is generally built and operated by public works agencies and financed by construction grants, operational subsidies, user fees and property taxes. Health sector agencies should provide "software" such as project design, hygiene education, and water quality regulation. Cost-effectiveness analysis should measure the incremental health impacts attributable to health sector investments, using the actual call on health sector resources as the measure of cost. The cost-effectiveness of a set of hardware and software combinations is estimated, using US$ per case averted, US$ per death averted, and US$ per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) saved.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of a new ribotype of Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal associated with an outbreak of cholera in Bangladesh. (7/1261)

Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal initially appeared in the southern coastal region of Bangladesh and spread northward, causing explosive epidemics during 1992 and 1993. The resurgence of V. cholerae O139 during 1995 after its transient displacement by a new clone of El Tor vibrios demonstrated rapid changes in the epidemiology of cholera in Bangladesh. A recent outbreak of cholera in two north-central districts of Bangladesh caused by V. cholerae O139 led us to analyze strains collected from the outbreak and compare them with V. cholerae O139 strains isolated from other regions of Bangladesh and neighboring India to investigate their origins. Analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in genes for conserved rRNA (ribotype) revealed that the recently isolated V. cholerae O139 strains belonged to a new ribotype which was distinct from previously described ribotypes of toxigenic V. cholerae O139. All strains carried the genes for toxin-coregulated pili (tcpA and tcpI) and accessory colonization factor (acfB), the regulatory gene toxR, and multiple copies of the lysogenic phage genome encoding cholera toxin (CTXPhi) and belonged to a previously described ctxA genotype. Comparative analysis of the rfb gene cluster by PCR revealed the absence of a large region of the O1-specific rfb operon downstream of the rfaD gene and the presence of an O139-specific genomic region in all O139 strains. Southern hybridization analysis of the O139-specific genomic region also produced identical restriction patterns in strains belonging to the new ribotype and those of previously described ribotypes. These results suggested that the new ribotype of Bengal vibrios possibly originated from an existing strain of V. cholerae O139 by genetic changes in the rRNA operons. In contrast to previously isolated O139 strains which mostly had resistance to trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, and streptomycin encoded by a transposon (SXT element), 68.6% of the toxigenic strains analyzed in the present study, including all strains belonging to the new ribotype, were susceptible to these antibiotics. Molecular analysis of the SXT element revealed possible deletion of a 3.6-kb region of the SXT element in strains which were susceptible to the antibiotics. Thus, V. cholerae O139 strains in Bangladesh are also undergoing considerable reassortments in genetic elements encoding antimicrobial resistance.  (+info)

Cholera in the 1990s. (8/1261)

Two strains of Vibrio cholerae are currently significant in cholera: a remnant from the sixth pandemic (1899-1923) still present in South Asia and the seventh pandemic strain which emerged in 1961. The 1990s were marked by spread of the seventh pandemic to South America in 1991 and appearance of an O139 form of the seventh pandemic strain in 1992 (or possibly 1991), which in 1993 predominated in some areas but then declined. Molecular analysis showed that the sixth and the seventh pandemic clones are related, but have a different TCP pathogenicity island and possibly different CTX phages, suggesting independent derivation from related environmental strains. Upsurges of the seventh pandemic were accompanied by increased genetic variation enabling the relationships between strains to be studied, but the basis for variation in pathogenicity is not known. There is clearly a risk of new forms arising and a strategy for speedy development of vaccines needs to be established.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of the vibriocidal antibody response in cholera due to Vibrio cholerae O139 bengal with the response in cholera due to Vibrio cholerae O1. AU - Qadri, F.. AU - Mohi, G.. AU - Hossain, J.. AU - Azim, T.. AU - Khan, A. M.. AU - Salam, M. A.. AU - Sack, R. B.. AU - Albert, M. J.. AU - Svennerholm, A. M.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Vibrio cholerae serogroup O139, now considered to be the second organism capable of causing epidemic severe dehydrating cholera, contains a capsular polysaccharide which makes it difficult for it to be used in the conventional vibriocidal antibody assay optimized for V. cholerae O1. After modification of the procedure, which involved tile use of specific bacterial strains, a lower bacterial inoculum, and increased amounts of complement, the vibriocidal antibody responses to V. cholerae O139 were measured in acute- and convalescent-phase sera from 33 V. choleras O139-infected and 18 V. cholerae O1-infected patients and in single serum samples ...
Cholera, asiatic cholera, asiatic cholera prevention, asiatic cholera pandemic, asiatic cholera cause, cholera treatment, homeopathy treatment, homeopathy effectiveness study from india
Outbreak of Vibrio cholerae Serogroup O1, Serotype Ogawa, Biotype El Tor Strain -- La Huasteca Region, Mexico, 2013. Díaz-Quiñonez, Alberto; Hernández-Monroy, Irma; Montes-Colima, Norma; Moreno-Pérez, Asunción; Galicia Nicolás, Adriana; Martínez-Rojano, Hugo; Carmona Ramos, Concepción; Sánchez-Mendoza, Miroslava; Cruz Rodríguez-Martínez, José; Suárez-Idueta, Lorena; Eugenia Jiménez-Corona, María; Ruiz-Matus, Cuitláhuac; Kuri-Morales, Pablo // MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report;6/27/2014, Vol. 63 Issue 25, p552 The article reports on the outbreak of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor strain in the La Huasteca region in Mexico in September 2013. Topics discussed include the identification of two cases of cholera in Mexico City by Mexicos National System of... ...
Here, we have shown that cross-sectional antibody profiles can be used to identify individuals recently infected with V. cholerae O1 with high sensitivity and specificity both in the hyperendemic Bangladeshi population used to train the model and in a separate population of cholera-naïve individuals from North America. We confirmed the importance of vibriocidal antibodies as a marker for recent infection and showed that the addition of other serologic markers provided greater resolution to reliably identify recent infections. These results provide a pathway for new approaches to assessing the burden of cholera across different populations, potentially overcoming many of the shortcomings of traditional clinic- and microbiology-based surveillance systems.. Measures of cholera incidence from serosurveys could help create more robust cholera surveillance systems, thereby improving our understanding of cholera epidemiology and providing new tools to track progress in the global fight against ...
The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has awarded Professor James J. Collins (BME, MSE, SE) a Grand Challenges Explorations grant to encourage his labs pursuit of a novel approach to cholera prevention.. In their proposed project, Collins and two postdoctoral fellows in his lab, Ewen Cameron and Peter Belenky, seek to use synthetic biology techniques to engineer a probiotic yogurt bacterium, Lactobacillus gasseri, to detect and kill the cholera bacterium, Vibrio cholerae, in the human intestine. The probiotic could be supplied as an inexpensive, freeze-dried powder to endemic populations to prevent cholera, an acute, food or water-borne diarrheal infection leading to more than 100,000 deaths each year.. We are delighted to be selected for the Gates Foundation program, said Collins. This funding will enable us to explore using innovative synthetic biology approaches to detect and treat cholera infections, a major health problem facing many poor communities in the world, including those in ...
Abstract. Multiple Vibrio cholerae infections within the same household are common. Household contacts of patients with cholera were observed with daily clinical assessments and collection of rectal swab cultures for nine days after presentation of the index case. During the follow-up period, 71 (24%) of 294 household contacts developed a positive V. cholerae rectal swab, signifying bacterial shedding. The average length of bacterial shedding was 2.0 days (95% confidence interval 1.7-2.4). However, 16 (5%) of 294 contacts shed V. cholerae for ≥ 4 days. In a multivariate analysis, malnutrition was predictive of long-term shedding (odds ratio = 1.4, 95% confidence interval = 1.3-13, P = 0.02). High rates of V. cholerae infection and bacterial shedding among household contacts of cholera patients represent an opportunity for intervention to reduce V. cholerae transmission.
http://en.rian.ru Topic: Cholera epidemic in Haiti Number of Haitian cholera cases reaches 7,000 20:39 06/11/2010 © REUTERS/ St-Felix Evens Related News Cholera epidemic hits Haitian capital Canada to provide Haiti $1 mln to help fight cholera outbreak Donor countries pledge billions in aid to Haiti IADB writes off $479 mln Haitian debt, opens new $200 mln…
CNN reports on recent uptick in cholera cases worldwide CNNs the chart blog page examines the rising number of cholera cases around the world. As well as the cholera outbreak in Haiti, [a]s of this month, four African nations - Nigeria, Cameroon, Niger and Chad - possess reported a lot more than 40,000 instances of cholera and more than 2,000 deaths. Although WHO estimates there are three to five 5 million reported cholera cases and 100,000 to 120,000 deaths each year, [g]lobally, the real number of cholera cases reported to WHO continues to go up. From 2004 to 2008, cases increased by 24 % compared with the period from 2000 to 2004, according to the organization. WHO points to unclean water sources as the main source of cholera outbreaks, but also mentioned the rise in cholera instances might be due to a fresh group of variant strains detected in a number of elements of Asia and Africa. Continue reading As well as the cholera outbreak in Haiti.. ...
Cholera interannual periodicity and the link between cholera dynamics and climate variability remain incompletely understood and generally focused only on endemic regions [7, 9, 14, 15]. Pascual et al. [5] and Rodo et al. [7] described a role of El Niño/Southern Oscillation in the dynamics of cholera in Bangladesh. In addition, the complex relationship between largescale climatic variability and spatiotemporal patterns under local environmental conditions and weather contributes to the dynamics of local pathogen populations in aquatic ecosystems [34], and/or disease transmission [35, 36]. In this context, using a comparative approach developed for macroecology applications [37], the relationship between cholera incidence in five different African countries and climate interannual variability was explored. Indeed, analyses of long-term monthly disease time series underline both the complex, nonstationary dynamics of cholera epidemics in West Africa, and a relationship with large-scale climate ...
CVD 103-HgR (Vaxchora, PaxVax) cholera vaccine was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in June 2016. ACIP has not yet published recommendations for Vaxchora. However, at their June 2016 meeting, ACIP voted to recommend vaccination for adults 18 through 64 years old traveling to areas of active cholera transmission. An area of active cholera transmission is defined as a province, state, or other administrative subdivision within a country with endemic or epidemic cholera caused by toxigenic V. cholerae O1 and includes areas with cholera activity within the last 1 year that are prone to recurrence of cholera epidemics; it does not include areas where rare sporadic cases have been reported. No country or territory currently requires vaccination against cholera as a condition for entry. ...
The bacterium Vibrio is caused by cholera, and it is a cholera infection of the small intestine. Vibrio cholera produces a toxin called enterotoxin which causes the symptoms of cholera disease.. A type of cholera bacteria called the El Tor biotype tends to cause milder disease than the classic biotype.. The disease is of mild or moderate severity in more than 90% of affected people and is difficult to detect clinically from other forms of diarrhea diseases.. Less than 10% of infected persons develop typical cholera with signs of medium or severe dehydration that sometimes lead to death.. The maternal mortality rate without treatment is between 25% and 50%. Cholera is endemic in India and Southeast Asia.. Cholera outbreaks can bad happen in any part of the world where water supplies, sanitation, food safety, and hygiene practices are poor.. ...
Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor biotype is the causative organism of the Rectal swabs, stool samples, or both (in Cary-Blair transport medium) current seventh cholera pandemic. In addition to O1 strains of the were plated on thiosulphate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose (TCBS) (Oxoid, El Tor biotype, strains of V. cholerae O139 and specific strains of Milan, Italy) agar and incubated at 37°C for 18-24 h. Part of each speci- V. cholerae O1 classical biotype are also responsible for cholera out- men was enriched in alkaline peptone water pH 8.5 (Oxoid, Milan, Italy) and then plated on TCBS agar. Well-isolated suspect colonies were picked Antimicrobial agents in the treatment of cholera cases are often to Kligler iron agar slants and tested for urease and oxidase production recommended for reduction of symptomatology and vibrio excretion (Oxoid, Milan, Italy). Isolates giving typical reactions were biochemic- in the environment. The antimicrobials traditionally used have ally characterized by the API 20E ...
Many mathematical models have been made from the cholera outbreak in Haiti, but our model is unique because it incorporated empirical data on the isolation of Vibrio cholerae O1 from surface waters in the Ouest Department of Haiti. We noticed that while the weekly reported cases seemed to be declining in the third and fourth years of the outbreak, the frequency of isolation of toxigenic V. cholerae in the environment was actually increasing. Under the current dogma of cholera transmission models, V. cholerae shed by humans into the environment only exists in a transient state governed by a constant rate of decay. The assumption is that although V. cholerae is an aquatic pathogen, it lacks the ability to replicate and survive for prolonged periods in surface waters. Given our understanding of V. cholerae biology, this is likely an oversimplification which precluded the possibility for an increase in environmental concentrations during a period where cholera incidence was infrequent or declining, ...
In January 1991, epidemic cholera appeared in Peru and quickly spread to many other Latin American countries. Because reporting of cholera cases was often delayed in some areas, the scope of the epidemic was unclear. An assessment of the conduct of surveillance for cholera in several countries identified some recurrent problems involving surveillance case definitions, laboratory surveillance, surveillance methods, national coordination, and data management. A key conclusion is that a simple, well-communicated cholera surveillance system in place during an epidemic will facilitate prevention and treatment efforts. We recommend the following measures: a) simplify case definitions for cholera; b) focus on laboratory surveillance of patients with diarrhea primarily in the initial stage of the epidemic; c) use predominantly the suspect case definition when the number of confirmed cases rises; d) transmit weekly the numbers of cases, hospitalized patients, and deaths to regional and central ...
Guidelines for Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Cholera Treatment Centres During an outbreak of cholera, most patients can be treated in existing health facilities. However, health officials may decide
What causes cholera?. Cholera is transmitted through poor hygiene and sanitation. It is no wonder that areas of natural disasters that result in disruption of water and sanitation systems are major outbreak areas of cholera. Other hotspots for cholera outbreaks are overcrowded refugee camps where displaced human populations are temporary accommodated and urban slums. These facilities, too, have inadequate clean water and sanitation system.. Strangely enough, it is not the infection itself that usually kills cholera victims but rather the dehydration resulting from severe diarrhea and vomiting.. The Haitian capital city Port-au-Prince is a classic example of an urban area where cholera can break out.. Pandemic cholera. Like the flu, cholera has also caused pandemics in the past. WHO gives the following historical background:. ...
The Department of Health has reported a cholera outbreak in the Mpumalanga region. From 26 April to 18 May, the cumulative number of suspected and confirmed cholera cases is 174 with 3 deaths (case fatality ratio 1.7%). The outbreak has included 27 areas bordering Swaziland and Mozambique, with Tonga being the most affected area.. A team from the Department of Health, joined by a medical officer from the WHO country office, has travelled to Mpumalanga to assess the situation and make recommendations to contain the outbreak.. This is the third province after Eastern Cape and Kwazulu-Natal to report a cholera outbreak this year. From 1 January to 28 March 2003, the cumulative number of reported cholera cases in South Africa is 2362.. ...
Thirty single-nucleotide polymorphisms were used to track the spread of the seventh pandemic caused by Vibrio cholerae. Isolates from the 1991 epidemic in Latin America shared a profile with 1970s isolates from Africa, suggesting a possible origin in Africa. Data also showed that the observed genotypes spread easily and widely.
Cholera, a devastating diarrheal disease, has swept through the world in recurrent pandemics since 1817. The seventh and ongoing pandemic began in 1961 when the El Tor biotype of Vibrio cholerae O1 emerged in Indonesia. This pandemic spread through Asia and Africa and finally reached Latin America early in 1991 (1). After explosive epidemics in coastal Peru, it spread rapidly and continues throughout Latin America (Figure). Because of underreporting, the more than 1,000,000 cholera cases and 10,000 deaths reported from Latin America through 1994 (Table 1) (2) represent only a small fraction of the actual number of infections. Molecular characterization of V. cholerae O1 strains from Peru has shown that they do not match strains from anywhere else in the world; therefore, the source of the Peruvian epidemic strains remains unknown (3). Moreover, other strains have since appeared in Latin America. At least one of these, a strain resistant to multiple antimicrobial drugs, was first identified in ...
The 49th U.S.-Japan Joint Conference on Cholera and Other Bacterial Enteric Infections consisted of three days of presentations and discussions on cholera, typhoid and other diseases that affects countries like Bangladesh and Democratic Republic of Congo. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation-funded conference kicked off on Wednesday morning with a keynote speech from the recently inaugurated University of Florida President William Fuchs. He spoke about the Emerging Pathogens Institute and importance of great minds coming together to talk about these diseases and potential solutions.. Just eight years ago the Florida legislature created EPI as Floridas go-to research institute for new and emerging diseases. The institute has moved very quickly since then to establish research initiatives in more than 30 countries, Fuchs said. Your arrival for this annual conference reenforces that progress. Your discussions will be meaningful not only to EPI and the university-at-large, but also to the ...
Clinicians should obtain a travel history from their patients. Cholera infection is most often asymptomatic or results in mild gastroenteritis. Severe cholera is characterized by acute, profuse watery diarrhea, described as rice-water stools and often vomiting leading to volume depletion. Cholera is confirmed through culture of a stool specimen or rectal swab. Cary-Blair medium is ideal for transport, and the selective thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts agar is ideal for isolation and identification. Rehydration is the best treatment. Oral rehydration salts are used and intravenous fluids are used when necessary. For more information, see CDC Health Information for International Travel 2012.. ...
Cholera cases are surging in Moroto despite Health Ministry and WHO efforts to curb the spread. Moroto, Uganda | THE INDEPENDENT | The number of cholera c
Fresh cholera outbreak has claimed no fewer than four lives and 38 others infected by the diseased in Toto Local Government Area of Nasarawa State.. A statement signed by public relations officer, state ministry of health, Musa Abdullahi and made available to The PUNCH in Lafia, said that cholera outbreak was experienced in Shege Ward in Toto LGA where 38 cases were confirmed and four died before reaching the primary healthcare facility.. According to him, some of the affected victims are currently stable and the patients are responding to treatment, stating that a team of health experts from the state ministry of health have donated drugs to the Shege community, while efforts are ongoing to contain the spread of the disease.. The state commissioner of health, Dr Daniel Iya, who was represented by state director of public health, Dr Ibrahim Adamu-Alhassan, donated the drug to the community, adding that the donation of the drug was part of the state governments intervention to avert further ...
Cholera epidemics caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 occur regularly in Bangladesh and India and sporadically in many parts of the world. In 1993, a total of 296,206 new cases of cholera were reported in South America after about a century, involving more than 15 countries. The outbreaks of cholera that have occurred during the past decade originated in coastal areas. From our previous work, V. cholerae attaches to plankton in the aquatic environment, providing the vehicle for dispersal. The organism attaches preferentially to zooplankton, particularly copepods, but it also attaches in lower numbers and without reproduction onto some species of phytoplankton. Phytoplankton provide the main food source for zooplankton so the two forms of plankton are tightly linked in space and time. Under adverse conditions of temperature and nutrients V. cholerae enters a dormant, non-culturable state which makes it difficult to detect. Although V. cholerae cannot be detected in any state by remote sensing ...
From the pandemics of the 19th century to the recent disaster in Goma, Zaire, cholera has left an indelible mark on human and medical history, and the eighth pandemic appears to have started. From the pandemics of the 19th century to the recent disaster in Goma, Zaire, cholera has left an indelible mark on human and medical history. Cholera pandemics in the 19th and 20th centuries drove the development of epidemiology as a serious science. Cholera has continued to press advances in the concepts of disease ecology, basic membrane biology, and transmembrane signaling and in the application of scientific information to treatment design. Furthermore, the lessons learned from the study of pandemic cholera are likely to provide insights into the best means of stopping other pandemics. In spite of tremendous scientific and clinical progress, however, the seventh pandemic has lasted 33 years, and the eighth pandemic appears to have started.
The world has experienced 7 cholera pandemics since 1817. The first six were caused by the classic biotype of the O1 serogroup of Vibrio cholerae. The 7th pandemic which began in 1961 and is still ongoing (with spread to Haiti and Mexico) is due to the less virulent El Tor biotype of O1 V.cholerae. In a project, my colleagues and I estimated global cholera costs as exceeding $3 billion annually. It was in 1849 during the 2nd pandemic that Dr. John Snow made his pathbreaking epidemiological discovery regarding the role of water in the spread of the cholera microbe--yet to be identified (see The Ghost Map and The Strange Case of the Broad Street Pump). During that pandemic, Dr. John Neill of Philadelphia preserved an intestine from a patient for further study.. The New England Journal of Medicine just published the results of a successful attempt to extract the cholera microbe from that over-a-century old specimen. The bacterium recovered was of the classical biotype (as predicted) and had a ...
The municipality of Plaine du Nord and Grison-Garde, La Bruyere and La Souffriere (the areas of the municipality of Acul du Nord) continue to send cholera patients to the CTC of Robillard. I do not see anything done yet to improve the situation of Robillard that is becoming chaotic. I do not want to have to experience such a stressful experience like the one of last Sunday. Cholera is an issue of public health. I do not understand the reason why the cholera patients of the CTC of Robillard are treated the way they are treated. Who has the financial means to help the cholera patients in Haiti? Can you help me know who received financial assistance to help them? Forgive my complaints, because I am tired to have to carry the burden of the cholera patients while the are people who have the responsibility to do that. I have to reapeat that the situation of Robilard is urgent. Those who have to improve that situation, what are they waiting for? Are they waiting for an human disaster to move quickly? I ...
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to all aspects of infectious diseases.
LAST month the United Nations Independent Expert on Human Rights in Haiti delivered his annual assessment (French version here) of the state of the poorest country in the Americas. Gustavo Gallon, a respected Colombian jurist, wrote of many troubling-and familiar--problems. They included prolonged pre-trial detention for 80% of all prisoners in Haitian jails; institutional brittleness on account of long-delayed elections to the Senate and local bodies; rising homicide rates; and a depressing predilection for public lynching, which indicates little confidence in the justice system. If the indictment of Haiti was unsurprising, less predictable was Mr Gallons position on the countrys cholera epidemic, which first broke out in 2010. More than 8,000 Haitians have since died from cholera, and nearly 700,000 more, or one out of every 16 people, infected. Medical evidence indicates the cholera strain was brought to Haiti by Nepalese UN peacekeepers, although the UN neither admits responsibility for ...
A new study has found that oral vaccines could prevent up to 60 percent of cholera cases in the first two years after vaccination.
A doctor tends to a woman at Lusakas Heroes Stadium, which was converted into a temporary hospital to house mounting patient as cholera swept through the city earlier this year. (Dawood Salim, AFP). Cholera is as familiar to most Zambians as the summer holidays. Its first major outbreak occurred in 1990 and lasted until 1993. Since then, the country has registered cholera cases almost every year. The number of people affected fluctuates from a few hundred cases to thousands admitted to hospital, according to the WHO.. Globally, no one knows exactly how many people contract cholera and die each year because most cases are never reported, a 2015 study published in the journal PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases shows. But researchers estimate the bacterium infects 2.86-million people annually of whom 95 000 will die - mostly in Sub-Saharan Africa.. Vaccines such as those being used in Zambia may be a standard part of controlling cholera outbreaks now but this wasnt the case just a few years ago. ...
Sennar and Blue Nile state witnessed a significant decline in cholera cases over the past weeks. Health authorities in both states attributed the decline to efforts to combat the disease.
BACKGROUND Cholera is an ancient disease that continues to cause epidemic and pandemic disease despite ongoing efforts to limit its spread. Mathematical models provide one means of assessing the utility of various proposed interventions. However, cholera models that have been developed to date have had limitations, suggesting that there are basic elements of cholera transmission that we still do not understand. METHODS AND FINDINGS Recent laboratory findings suggest that passage of Vibrio cholerae O1 Inaba El Tor through the gastrointestinal tract results in a short-lived, hyperinfectious state of the organism that decays in a matter of hours into a state of lower infectiousness. Incorporation of this hyperinfectious state into our disease model provides a much better fit with the observed epidemic pattern of cholera. These findings help to substantiate the clinical relevance of laboratory observations regarding the hyperinfectious state, and underscore the critical importance of human-to-human versus
ICD-9 code 001.0 for Cholera due to vibrio cholerae is a medical classification as listed by WHO under the range - INTESTINAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES (001
Download Cholera Infection Causes Symptoms Treatment & Help. In this app we have compiled complete information of causes symptoms treatment of cholera, which is a disease caused by bacteria that produce a watery diarrhea that can rapidly lead to dehydration.symptoms...
The recent rise of the West Nile virus in the U.S. was a profound indicator that global patterns of infectious disease are changing. Just what is driving the shifts is difficult to identify, although climate change has long been a suspect. Now two reports published online this week by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences further implicate climate variability in the dynamics of one infectious disease: cholera. Using monthly mortality data for the periods 1893 to 1940 and 1980 to 2001 in present-day Bangladesh, a team led by Xavier Rodo of the University of Barcelona compared cholera outbreaks to the occurrence of the climate phenomenon known as the El Nio Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In the more recent years, the scientists found a link between ENSO and the incidence of cholera, with ENSO accounting for more than 70 percent of the disease variation. In the historical data set, however, that link was weak or absent. What is new in this work is not showing that ENSO plays a role in ...
Scientists have figured out how to predict cholera outbreaks by looking at sea life. The idea pioneered at the University of Maryland is a rise in sea temperatures lead to the production of Phytoplankton, which are the root cause of cholera. As these phytoplankton get into the water supply, cholera pathogens are released and can lead to outbreaks. Obviously fore warned is fore armed, so this is will certainly help public health officials cope with these devastating outbreaks.. Via BBC News. ...
This 5.5 x 9 (13.97 x 13.97 cm), 64-page pamphlet written by Joel Roberts recounts the 1849 cholera epidemic in Sandusky. The last five pages of the diary list people who died in the epidemic. Cholera was a major threat in the 19th century. Due to poor sanitation and ignorance of the causes of disease, Sandusky suffered several cholera outbreaks in the 1840s and 1850s. The most devastating outbreak occurred in the summer of 1849, when 400 people died and many more fled the city in fear. The citys population before the outbreak was about 5,000; it is estimated that fewer than 1,000 remained in the city during the cholera. The 1882 History of Sandusky County reported that medical men [were] taxed to their utmost to stem the tide of disease and death. The devastation caused by cholera and other epidemics helped to inspire improvements in medical care, research, and sanitation practices such as water treatment ...
This register, kept by the staff of the Sandusky City Hospital during the 1849 cholera epidemic, records patients discharged and deceased. The register is twelve pages long and lists eighty-three names. It measures 4.6 x 7 (11.68 cm x 17.78 cm). Cholera was a major threat in the 19th century. Due to poor sanitation and ignorance of the causes of disease, Sandusky suffered several cholera outbreaks in the 1840s and 1850s. The most devastating outbreak occurred in the summer of 1849, when 400 people died and many more fled the city in fear. The citys population before the outbreak was about 5,000; it is estimated that fewer than 1,000 remained in the city during the cholera. The 1882 History of Sandusky County reported that medical men [were] taxed to their utmost to stem the tide of disease and death. The devastation caused by cholera and other epidemics helped to inspire improvements in medical care, research, and sanitation practices such as water treatment ...
Diarrhea is a leading cause of mortality in children under 5 years along with its long-term impact on growth and cognitive development. Despite advances in the understanding of diarrheal disorders and management strategies, globally nearly 750,000 children die annually as a consequence of diarrhea. We conducted a systematic review of the efficacy and effectiveness studies. We used a standardized abstraction and grading format and performed meta-analyses for all outcomes. The estimated effect of cholera, shigella, Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and rotavirus vaccines was determined by applying the standard Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG) rules. A total of 24 papers were selected and analyzed for all the four vaccines. Based on the evidence, we propose a 74% mortality reduction in rotavirus specific mortality, 52% reduction in cholera incidence due to their respective vaccines. We did not find sufficient evidence and a suitable outcome to project mortality reductions for cholera
Haiti should focus on stemming the cholera outbreak that has killed more than 7,000 people since 2010, rather than on levying blame against the source of the disease, UN special envoy to Haiti, Bill Clinton, said. While studies have suggested that the cholera came from a Nepalese soldier serving as a peacekeeper, Clinton pointed out…
Haiti should focus on stemming the cholera outbreak that has killed more than 7,000 people since 2010, rather than on levying blame against the source of the disease, UN special envoy to Haiti, Bill Clinton, said. While studies have suggested that the cholera came from a Nepalese soldier serving as a peacekeeper, Clinton pointed out…
The cholera strain causing the current outbreak in Haiti is most similar to cholera strains found in South Asia, according to lab reports from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.. Although these results indicate that the strain is non-Haitian, cholera strains may move between different areas due to global travel and trade, Haitis Minister of Health Dr. Alex Larsen said in a statement. Therefore, we will never know the exact origin of the strain that is causing the epidemic in Haiti. This strain was transmitted by contaminated food or water or an infected person.. Global travel and trade provide opportunities for infectious diseases such as cholera to spread from one country to another, according to the CDC. In most instances, cholera does not spread widely within countries where drinking water and sewage treatment are adequate. When water and sewage treatment is inadequate, as in post-earthquake Haiti, cholera can spread rapidly.. The lab findings are not unexpected, and provide ...
Haq added that that the finding calls for a significant new set of U.N. actions and that a new response will be presented publicly within the next two months.. The comments come in response to a report by U.N. special rapporteur and New York University law professor Philip Alston. According to the Washington Post, Alston argued to Secretary General Ban-ki Moon that the United Nations botch response in Haitis cholera crisis is morally unconscionable, legally indefensible and politically self-defeating.. The human rights and international law expert added that the U.N.s years-long refusal to admit its role in causing the cholera outbreak upholds a double standard according to which the U.N. insists that member states respect human rights, while rejecting any such responsibility for itself.. While the U.N.s latest statements dont go as far as to shoulder the entire blame, they represent a significant shift from the position maintained over the past six years. Statements by the U.N. as ...
Cholera is a major health burden in low- and middle-income countries. Globally, an estimated 1.3 billion people are at risk. South Asia constitutes the largest share of this at-risk population group, including at least 66 million in Bangladesh, where over 100,000 cases are reported annually. Cholera is an infectious disease characterised by severe watery diarrhoea and vomiting. Left untreated, the rapid dehydration it causes can be deadly. In the 1960s, researchers at icddr,b and its partners developed a simple solution to combat cholera - oral rehydration therapy (ORT) - a mixture of salt, sugar, and water, ingredients readily found in most homes. It has saved nearly 50 million lives from diarrhoeal diseases. However, cholera is often misdiagnosed until the patient is in an extreme condition, when ORT is not enough to prevent death by dehydration. Thus, early detection is critical in saving lives and preventing further spread of the disease. Diagnosis for cholera needs to be quick, easy, and ...
If you develop severe, watery diarrhea and vomiting - particularly after eating raw shellfish or traveling to a country where cholera is epidemic -seek medical help immediately. Cholera is highly treatable, but because dehydration can happen quickly, its important to get cholera treatment right away.. Hydration is the mainstay of treatment for cholera. Depending on how severe the diarrhea is, treatment will consist of oral or intravenous solutions to replace lost fluids. Antibiotics, which kill the bacteria, are not part of emergency treatment for mild cases. But they can reduce the duration of diarrhea by half and also reduce the excretion of the bacteria, thus helping to prevent the spread of the disease.. ...
MASS Design Group. The first permanent facility in Port-au-Prince, the CTC provides an aggressive model for cholera treatment, while creating a healing space that promotes a dignified patient experience. Both the CTCs layout and placement of amenities optimize staff and patient flow. The design tackles unique site conditions, including the lack of reliable piped water and lack of sewer system connection, by providing off-the-grid services. The roof collects rainwater, which is stored in cisterns, chlorinated, and then used for showers and sinks. The facility also decontaminates waste on-site and is designed to achieve 99.99% removal and inactivation of Cholera vibrio and other pathogenic organisms. The façade blends the use of the most advanced technology, using parametric modeling to optimize apertures for daylighting, ventilation, and privacy, with deploying analog techniques for local fabrication. The CTC will not only establish new standards for cholera treatment, but also new standards ...
Abstract An explosive epidemic of cholera due to Vibrio cholerae, biotype El Tor, serotype Inaba, was centered on the coral atoll of Tarawa, Gilbert Islands. This outbreak was a unique experience in the South and Central Pacific region. The principal mode of spread during the peak of the outbreak was probably through contamination of the main water supply. Tarawa lagoon water and shellfish were found to be contaminated with V. cholerae and ingestion of raw fish and shellfish from the lagoon also served as a source of transmission. This outbreak raises the concern of other outbreaks of cholera occurring on remote and poorly equipped Pacific islands where the environmental circumstances are conducive to cholera spread.
It has been some time since ICC reported on the cholera epidemic that began in Haiti in 2010. Until this point, there had never been a reported case of Cholera in Haiti. The strain, thought to have come from the United Nations camp 30 minutes from Port au Prince, is still infecting those utilizing the water source. Since the time of the outbreak, it is thought to have affected 700,000 people.
Author Summary Cholera outbreaks have had catastrophic impact on societies for centuries. Despite more than half a century of advocacy for safe water, sanitation and hygiene, approximately 100,000 cholera cases and 5,000 deaths were reported in Zimbabwe between August 2008 and by July 2009. Safe and effective oral cholera vaccines have been licensed and used by affluent tourists for more than a decade to prevent cholera. We asked whether oral cholera vaccines could be used to protect high risk populations at a time of cholera. We calculated how many cholera cases could have been prevented if mass cholera vaccinations would have been implemented in reaction to past cholera outbreaks. We estimate that determined, well organized mass vaccination campaigns could have prevented 34,900 (40%) cholera cases and 1,695 deaths (40%) in Zimbabwe. In the sites with endemic cholera, Kolkata and Zanzibar, a significant number of cases could have been prevented but the impact would have been less dramatic. The barriers
TY - JOUR. T1 - Herd immunity conferred by killed oral cholera vaccines in Bangladesh. T2 - A reanalysis. AU - Ali, Mohammad. AU - Emch, Michael. AU - Von Seidlein, Lorenz. AU - Yunus, Mohammad. AU - Sack, David Allen. AU - Rao, Malla. AU - Holmgren, Jan. AU - Clemens, John D.. PY - 2005/7/2. Y1 - 2005/7/2. N2 - Background: Decisions about the use of killed oral cholera vaccines, which confer moderate levels of direct protection to vaccinees, can depend on whether the vaccines also provide indirect (herd) protection when high levels of vaccine coverage are attained. We reanalysed data from a field trial in Bangladesh to ascertain whether there is evidence of indirect protection from killed oral cholera vaccines. Methods: We analysed the first year of surveillance data from a placebo-controlled trial of B subunit-killed whole-cell and killed whole-cell-only oral cholera vaccines in children and adult women in Bangladesh. We calculated whether there was an inverse, monotonic trend for the relation ...
I can give two: one where we responded to prevent cholera and another where oral cholera vaccine (OCV) was used to contain it. Firstly, in 2014 there was an influx of refugees from South Sudan into the Gambella region of Ethiopia. In Gambella at that time there had been no cholera reported for years, but we knew there was cholera in South Sudan. Together with MSF, WHO and the national health partner (ARRA) we were able to make a strong case for oral cholera vaccination of the refugee population and surrounding host communities. If cholera came it could be contained - we wanted to make sure we were ahead of the curve. Through some good joint advocacy with partners and donors, we were able to get it approved and the Minister of Health supported it. We implemented it, and no cholera cases were reported during that acute emergency. The second example is in Tanzania, where we had a cholera outbreak. This was an emergency in 2015 with refugees coming from Burundi, and we had a cholera outbreak around ...
In follow-up of its statement of 12 June 2017 on the outbreak of cholera epidemic in Sudan, the Darfur Relief and Documentation Centre (DRDC) once again rings the alarm bell about the growing health risks facing thousands of vulnerable communities in many parts of Sudan. The ongoing cholera epidemic dates back to August 2016, when hundreds of cases of infections with cholera bacterium Vibrio Cholerae were confirmed in the Blue Nile and Sennar States. Numerous sources including the US Embassy in Khartoum confirmed the outbreak of cholera epidemic in Sudan. According to the government records more than 18,000 cases of acute watery diarrhoea - which is the symptom of cholera - were confirmed in 16 out of Sudans 18 States, including the White Nile, Blue Nile, Khartoum, Sennar, North, South and West Kordofan, River Nile, Northern State, Gedarif, Kassala, Red Sea, Gezira and East, West, South and North Darfur States. Independent medical sources in Sudan estimate that at least 25,000 people have ...
Diversity, relatedness, and ecological interactions of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 populations in two distinctive habitats, the human intestine and the aquatic environment, were analyzed. Twenty environmental isolates and 42 clinical isolates were selected for study by matching serotype, geographic location of isolation in Bangladesh, and season of isolation. Genetic profiling was done by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence-PCR, optimized for profiling by using the fully sequenced V. cholerae El Tor N16961 genome. Five significant clonal clusters of haplotypes were found from 57 electrophoretic types. Isolates from different areas or habitats intermingled in two of the five significant clusters. Frequencies of haplotypes differed significantly only between the environmental populations (exact test; P , 0.05). Analysis of molecular variance yielded a population genetic structure reflecting the differentiating effects of geographic area, habitat, and sampling time. Although a ...
Cholera remains a substantial contributor to public health burden in many developing countries, particularly in sub-Sahara Africa. In 2014, 190,549 cases were reported to the World Health Organization (WHO), including 55% from Africa [1]. Of the 2,231 deaths reported worldwide, 1882 (84.4%) occurred in Africa. However, the true burden of cholera is poorly known and likely underestimated, because of limitations in current national surveillance systems including under-reporting, type of case-definitions used and lack of laboratory diagnostic capacities. An estimated 2.9 million cholera cases (1.3 m-4.0 m) and 95,000 cholera deaths (21,000-143,000) occur each year [2].. Targeting cholera prevention through increased access to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and oral cholera vaccines (OCV) requires accurate epidemiological data at the local level. Further, such data help international organizations to prioritize where to support the places most in need.. The African Cholera Surveillance Network ...
V. cholerae and many related Gram-negative bacteria have been shown to become nonculturable under specific experimental conditions, although the time required for these cells to become nonculturable is variable (8, 9, 19-21). In this study, V. cholerae O1 cells in all microcosms became nonculturable on TCBS agar within 10-15 days, as has been reported by other investigators (19-21). V. cholerae O1 in biofilms collected from MW and in the biofilm in clinical specimens, when suspended in autoclaved MW that had tested positive for V. cholerae O1 by both culture and DFA, became nonculturable within 15 days. Conversely, MW-RT and MW-4C microcosms inoculated with freshly grown V. cholerae O1 showed culturability on TTGA and LA for 40 and 68 days, respectively. Miller et al. (22) suggested that toxigenic V. cholerae O1 could remain culturable for longer periods at a salinity of 0.25-3.0%, a pH of 8.0, and 25°C. The temperature, pH, and salinity of MW used in the studies reported here were not very ...
Seasonal plankton blooms correlate with occurrence of cholera in Bangladesh, although the mechanism of how dormant Vibrio cholerae, enduring interepidemic period in biofilms and plankton, initiates seasonal cholera is not fully understood. In this study, laboratory microcosms prepared with estuarine Mathbaria water (MW) samples supported active growth of toxigenic V. cholerae O1 up to 7 weeks as opposed to 6 months when microcosms were supplemented with dehydrated shrimp chitin chips (CC) as the single source of nutrient. Bacterial counting and detection of wbe and ctxA genes were done employing culture, direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) assay, and multiplex-polymerase chain reaction methods. In MW microcosm, the aqueous phase became clear as the non-culturable cells settled, whereas the aqueous phase of the MW-CC microcosm became turbid from bacterial growth stimulated by chitin. Bacterial chitin degradation and biofilm formation proceeded from an initial steady state to a gradually declining ...
As Yemen faces its fourth year of war, the country also fights a looming health crisis. The cholera health crisis in Yemen affects 22 of 23 governorates and almost 299 of Yemens 333 districts. Recording over one million cholera cases in 2017, Yemens crisis is the worst cholera epidemic on record.. Driven by years of war, the country has experienced a significant collapse in access to food, safe drinking water and health care. With millions of Yemenis facing famine, malnourishment increases the risk of cholera infections becoming fatal.. Many organizations are on the ground in Yemen, treating as many cholera cases as possible. Organizations responding to the health crisis in Yemen include Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) or Doctors Without Borders, Save the Children, Islamic Relief Foundation and World Health Organization (WHO).. If left untreated, the mortality rate of cholera can be very high. With proper treatment, cholera is very easy to cure. The problem is that it is not easy for cholera ...
January 3, 2014. California-based vaccine manufacturer PaxVax has reportedly submitted an application to begin international trials of a novel oral cholera vaccine that contains live, genetically modified (GM) bacteria. VacTruth.com reports that the new vaccine is set to be tested on more than 1,000 individuals, many of whom are young children, in a three-part clinical trial series to take place throughout Australia.. In a recent application filing with the Australian Government, PaxVax makes plain its intent to administer the live, GM bacteria in both young and old and in every region of the country. Participants will be instructed to literally consume a cocktail of mercury-resistant, GM Shigella flexneri NR1 bacteria derived from the Vibrio cholera bacterial strain, which is recognized as the causative agent of the gastroenteritis disease known as cholera.. According to the filing, the GM cholera strain used in the vaccine has essentially been artificially neutralized to prevent the toxic ...
In addition to improved water supply and sanitation, the two-dose killed oral cholera vaccine (OCV) is an important tool for the prevention and control of cholera. We aimed to document the immunogenicity and protection (efficacy and effectiveness) conferred by a single OCV dose against cholera. The meta-analysis showed an estimated 73% and 77% of individuals seroconverted to the Ogawa and Inaba serotypes, respectively, after an OCV first dose. The estimates of single-dose vaccine protection from available studies are 87% at 2 months decreasing to 33% at 2 years. Current immunologic and clinical data suggest that protection conferred by a single dose of killed OCV may be sufficient to reduce short-term risk in outbreaks or other high-risk settings, which may be especially useful when vaccine supply is limited. However, until more data suggests otherwise, a second dose should be given as soon as circumstances allow to ensure robust protection.. ...
Cholera is still a major cause of disease epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). During the period January 2017-March 2018, 15 countries in the WHO African Region (AFR) reported cholera outbreaks of varying magnitudes. Zimbabwe has experienced cholera outbreaks dating as far back as 1971 with an unprecedented outbreak occurring in 2008/2009 when 60 of the 62 districts in the country were affected. The outbreak was declared over in May 2009 and by then, 98,592 cases and 4288 deaths had been reported. In Zimbabwe, outbreaks have occurred against a backdrop of a struggling economy and a weak health system. The role of a resilient health system in emergencies response is accentuated premised on experiences from the Ebola outbreak that largely affected three countries in West Africa. Amidst economic and persistent system wide challenges faced by Zimbabwe, preparedness and response capacity has been built over the years. This is evidenced by the rapid response and containment of the recent cholera outbreak.
Since mid-August 1986, 12 cases of cholera have been identified among residents of Louisiana. The cases occurred in nine families living in New Orleans and in other towns in six parishes (Jefferson, LaFourche, Assumption, St. Mary, Iberia, and Jefferson Davis) within a 200-mile radius to the south and west of New Orleans. None of the patients had traveled abroad within the past year. Onset of symptoms occurred between August 8 and October 1. Ten of the patients had severe diarrhea, seven required hospitalization, and four required treatment in an intensive care unit for hypotension. All patients recovered following intravenous fluid therapy. Seven patients had stool cultures yielding toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1, biotype El Tor, serotype Inaba. The remaining five patients did not have stool cultures performed but had vibriocidal antibody titers greater than or equal to 1280, suggesting recent infection with V. cholerae O1. Sewer system surveillance using Moore swabs has detected toxigenic V. ...
Background Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 has two major serotypes, Ogawa and Inaba, which may alternate among cholera epidemics. The rfbTgene is responsible for the conversion between the two...
Diarrhoea is a major health problem throughout the world, and responsible for high morbidity and mortality in Nepal. The crosssectional prospective study was carried out to screen ESBL producer from MDR Vibrio Cholerae, Salmonella and Shigella from 268 diarrhoeal stools from Nepalgunj Cholera outbreak and different hospitals of Nepal during April 2010 to January 2011. The specimens were processed by standard microbiological methods and confirmed with serology. Altogether 14.18% of bacteria were isolated with 8.21% V. cholerae O1 El Tor Ogawa, 2.24% Shigella flexneri B and 3.73% Salmonella spp. Highest bacterial culture (47.36%) were isolated in Kathmandu while highest V. cholerae (77.27%) were isolated in Nepalgunj. The highest number of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were isolated from Kanti Childrens Hospital. Highest bacteria isolation (47.36%) and highest V. cholerae isolation (81.81%) were observed in the August. The bacteria isolation was significantly associated with places and months ...
BMC Infectious Diseases http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcinfectdis/content (Accessed 6 January 2018) Research article Delivery cost analysis of a reactive mass cholera vaccination campaign: a case study of Shanchol™ vaccine use in Lake Chilwa, Malawi Cholera is a diarrheal disease that produces rapid dehydration. The infection is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity. Oral cholera vaccine (OCV) has…
A CDC collaborative study including Dr. Isaac Fung (formerly of the CDC), assistant professor of epidemiology at Georgia Southern University Jiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health, examines preventive interventions through modeling the effect of water, sanitation and hygiene, and oral cholera vaccine implementation in Haiti. In 2010, toxigenic Vibrio cholerae was newly introduced to Haiti. Because resources are limited, decision-makers need to understand the effect of different preventive interventions. The team built a static model to estimate the potential number of cholera cases averted through improvements in coverage in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) (i.e., latrines, point-of-use chlorination, and piped water), oral cholera vaccine (OCV), or a combination of both. The authors allowed indirect effects and non-linear relationships between effect and population coverage. Because there are limited incidence data for endemic cholera in Haiti, the authors estimated the incidence of cholera over 20
Abstract Cholera is a secretory diarrhoeal disease caused by infection with Vibrio cholerae, primarily the V. cholerae O1 El Tor biotype. There are approximately 2.9 million cases in 69 endemic countries annually, resulting in 95 000 deaths. Cholera is associated with poor infrastructure and lack of access to sanitation and clean drinking water. The current cholera epidemic in Yemen, linked to spread of V. cholerae O1 (Ogawa serotype), is associated with the ongoing war. This has devastated infrastructure and health services. The World Health Organization had estimated that 172 286 suspected cases arose between 27th April and 19th June 2017, including 1170 deaths. While there are three oral cholera vaccines prequalified by the World Health Organization, there are issues surrounding vaccination campaigns in conflict situations, exacerbated by external factors such as a global vaccine shortage. Major movements of people complicates surveillance and administration of double doses of vaccines. ...
Surveillance was conducted during February and March 1991 in the pediatric emergency department of Cayetano Heredia Hospital, Lima, Peru, to contrast the characteristics of children with epidemic cholera with those of children with non-cholera-associated diarrhea. Among 626 patients 14 years of age or younger, Vibrio cholerae O1 was isolated...
DNA microarray technology is revolutionizing the field of bacterial pathogenesis by allowing researchers to monitor the expression of thousands of genes during the course of an in vitro or in vivo experiment. In this report, we have applied this technology to conduct a genome-wide search for V. cholerae genes belonging to the ToxR regulon, the key group of genes responsible for the virulence properties of this organism in humans. We also used microarrays to analyze the transcriptional state of vibrios shed from cholera patients.. We first compared the gene expression profiles of V. cholerae toxRS, tcpPH, and toxT mutants that were grown under in vitro conditions that are optimal for the expression of CT by El Tor O1 and O139 strains of V. cholerae. The transcriptional profile of the toxT mutant revealed the presence of few new ToxT-regulated genes. Newly identified genes include VC1091 (oligopeptide periplasmic binding protein), VC1835 (pal); VC2766 (atpA); VCA0059 (lpp); VCA0732 (conserved ...
By Makini Brice | LES CAYES, Haiti LES CAYES, Haiti Haiti has launched a massive cholera vaccination campaign to battle a flare-up after Hurricane Matthew, but concerns remain about the capacity for longer-term improvements to water and sanitation infrastructure needed to eradicate the disease. The cholera campaign, launched on Tuesday in two southern areas hammered by the storm, is aiming to be the worlds largest, targeting 820,000 people, said Ernsly Jackson, an immunization specialist for UNICEF Haiti. Haiti has battled a cholera outbreak that has sickened more than 800,000 people and killed about 9,000 since 2010, when the bacteria was imported into the country by a contingent of United Nations peacekeepers. Although it had proved stubborn to eradicate, cases had declined sharply from a peak in 2010-11. But Hurricane Matthew struck the island in early October, killing up to 1,000 people, leaving about 1.4 million in need of humanitarian assistance and damaging many health facilities.
The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) welcomes the release of the WHO Technical Working Group on oral cholera vaccine (OCV) stockpile.
Via Awoko.org: Western Area sees reduction in cholera cases and… UNICEF & WHO say it is too early to scale back response. Excerpt: Latest figures show a downward trend of the number of cholera patients in Sierra Leone, particularly in...
PubMed journal article: Vaccination strategies to combat an infectious globe: oral cholera vaccines. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
As the world faced a dearth of oral cholera vaccines, the United Nations health agency announced that the supply of medication will double up to six million doses this year after it added another producer to its list of approved suppliers so that they can put up a fight against a disease that kills as many as 142,000 people every year
In research done over the past seven years, Pascual and colleagues have found evidence that a phenomenon known as the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), a major source of climate variability from year to year, influences cycles of cholera in Bangladesh. They also showed that the coupling between climate variability and cholera cycles has become stronger in recent decades.. Now, Pascual is examining the feasibility of using a model developed during that work as an early warning system. The question we asked was whether, using data from 1966 to 2000, we could have predicted cholera outbreaks over the past five years, said Pascual, an associate professor of ecology and evolutionary biology. We also wanted to know whether incorporating ENSO into the model would improve the accuracy of our predictions. The challenge for the model was particularly interesting because the past five years were atypical, with fewer cholera cases than usual and no strong climate anomalies. However, the model ...
An outbreak of cholera in Hidalgo State and the neighboring Federal District of Mexico City has caused 79 cases of disease, including one fatality. The source of the outbreak is still unclear.. The strain of cholera currently affecting Mexico is Vibrio cholerae O:1 Ogawa toxigenic. Prior to this outbreak, cholera has not been seen in Mexico in just over ten years. PAHO and the WHO included Mexico in its latest Epidemiological Alert.. Cholera is an acute, diarrheal illness caused by infection of the intestine with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. This bacterium is usually found in contaminated water or food sources, but it can also be found in the environment, in rivers and coastal waters. An estimated 3 - 5 million cases and over 100,000 deaths occur globally each year. However, if treated properly with prompt rehydration, fewer than 1 percent of cholera patients die.. Individuals can avoid infection with cholera by drinking only bottled, boiled, or treated water, and by washing hands often with ...
Sharing results of the clinical study, Dr. Ajit Pal Singh- Vice President Clinical R&Dat Hilleman Labsstated, HillcholTM was tested in 840 subjects that included adults, adolescents as well as small children. We were able to demonstrate safety and tolerability of HillcholTM in our Phase I/II trials. Our vaccine consists of a novel Hikojima strain that expresses both the Ogawa and Inaba serotypes. When compared against Shanchol, the Cholera vaccine pre-qualified by WHO, we could achieve non-inferiority in terms of seroconversion as well as Geometric Mean Titre for both the Ogawa and Inaba serotypes. These results are very encouraging and warrant further development of our Cholera vaccine.. Dr. Tarun Sharma, Director R&D at Hilleman Labsstated, The HillcholTM Phase I/II clinical trial results support our Hikojima vaccine design and mirror the impressive results we have been able to achieve in Preclinical studies. This encourages us to conduct further clinical studies as well as undertake ...
The rapidly spreading cholera outbreak in Yemen has exceeded 200,000 suspected cases, increasing at an average of 5,000 a day. We are now facing the worst cholera outbreak in the world.. In just two months, cholera has spread to almost every governorate of this war-torn country. Already more than 1,300 people have died - one quarter of them children - and the death toll is expected to rise. More. ...
A cholera outbreak in war-ravaged Yemen has killed 242 people, and left nearly 23,500 others sick in the past three weeks alone, the World Health Organization said Friday. The UN health agency said that in the past day alone, 20 cholera deaths and 3,460 suspected cases had been registered in the country, where two-thirds of the population is on the brink of famine. The speed of the resurgence of this cholera epidemic is unprecedented, WHO representative for Yemen Nevio Zagaria told reporters in Geneva by phone from Yemen, warning that a quarter of a million people could become sick by the end of the year. Cholera is a highly contagious bacterial infection spread through contaminated food or water. Reining in the disease is particularly complicated in Yemen, where two years of devastating war between the Huthis and government forces backed by a Saudi-led Arab military coalition has left more than half the country`s medical facilities out of service. Zagaria pointed out that humanitarian workers ...
With 1,000 people already dead from cholera in Angola, the United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF) is appealing for $1 million to fight the most severe outbreak of the disease there since 1988.. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the ongoing rainy season has made it likely that the epidemic will spread further despite efforts by UNICEF, WHO, the Angolan Government and other partners to get care and medication to the sick.. Cholera, an acute intestinal disease caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, causes copious, painless, watery diarrhoea that can quickly lead to severe dehydration and death if treatment, including rehydration, is not given promptly. Vomiting also occurs in most patients.. Apart from significant human suffering, the disease disrupts social and economic structures and puts tremendous strain on already precarious national health systems. Seasonal factors, such as the rainy season, contribute to the diseases ...
Time is ticking as aid organizations wait to launch a vaccination campaign against cholera in Haiti. The heavy seasonal rains have already begun to fall, and threaten to bring flooding, contaminated water, and increased cholera incidence with them. But Haitian officials have not yet approved the plans of nongovernmental organizations Partners in Health (PIH) and GHESKIO to vaccinate 100,000 people against cholera. Here, we chronicle the major events that led to this standoff.. Cholera Arrives in 2010. After the January 2010 earthquake, Haiti was the focus of much international attention and relief assistance. Less than a year later, a massive cholera outbreak hit the country, centered around the Artibonite River Valley and likely imported by UN staff from Nepal. In the year and a half since, there have been an estimated 530,000 cases and 7,000 deaths.. At the time of the initial outbreak, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) stated that a cholera vaccination campaign was not an ...
The rainy season has arrived in Yemen, but has not yet brought an uptick of cholera cases with it, according to a top in-country official with the United Nations Childrens Fund. Still, UNICEF and other aid agencies remain concerned that there could be another serious outbreak in the coming months, as the rainy season progresses and health, water, and sanitation systems continue to deteriorate… (Lieberman, 5/7).. Xinhua News: Anti-cholera campaign kicks off in Yemen amid fears of new ...
Each day there are more than 5,000 new cases of the waterborne disease, which causes acute diarrhea and dehydration, in the country where the health system has collapsed after more than two years of war, it said.. The total number of suspected cholera cases in Yemen this year hit the half a million mark on Sunday, and nearly 2,000 people have died since the outbreak began to spread rapidly at the end of April, the WHO said in a statement.. The spread of cholera has slowed significantly in some areas compared to peak levels, but the disease is still spreading fast in more recently affected districts, which are recording large numbers of cases, it said, reporting a total of 503,484 cases.. The disease, spread by ingestion of food or water tainted with human faeces, can kill within hours if untreated. It has been largely eradicated in developed countries equipped with sanitation systems and water treatment. But Yemens devastating civil war, pitting a Saudi-led military coalition against the ...
A high number of cholera cases have been found in the small city of Wasu in the first known cholera outbreak in Papua New Guinea in 50 years. Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) is assisting health authorities by treating people affected by the already deadly outbreak at the local Angau hospital.
The United Nations has apologized for its response to the cholera outbreak in Haiti that claimed more than 9,000 lives and has pledged to provide both immediate and long-term support for those affected.. Over the last six years, cholera has afflicted nearly 800,000 people on the Caribbean island.. Daniel Dickinson has more details. Speaking at the UN on Thursday, the Secretary-General, Ban Ki-moon apologized for the loss of life and suffering caused by the cholera outbreak in Haiti.. On behalf of the United Nations, I want to say very clearly: we apologize to the Haitian people. We simply did not do enough with regard to the cholera outbreak and its spread in Haiti. We are profoundly sorry for our role.. He added that the outbreak had cast a shadow on the relationship between the United Nations and the people of Haiti.. It is a blemish on the reputation of UN peacekeeping and the Organization world-wide. For the sake of the Haitian people, but also for the sake of the United Nations itself, ...
Vibrio cholerae is the etiological agent of the acute intestinal disorder cholera. The source of cholera infection is typically fecal contamination of potable water sources. V. cholerae is able to colonize the host intestine and trigger the onset of cholera symptoms due to the expression of two primary virulence factors: cholera toxin (CT) and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). TCP is a type IVb pilus encoded by the tcp operon. While many components encoded within the tcp operon have been well characterized, there remain two that we know little about: TcpB and TcpS. In this work, we take a genetic approach to initiate the characterization of each of these pilus components. We have found the large putative pilin, TcpB is not requisite for formation of a pilus structure, but remains essential for all TCP functions. The formation of TCP by a tcpB null mutant represents a surprising finding that has led to a new research emphasis with respect to TCP functions. Additionally, we have characterized the ...
Vibrio cholerae is the etiological agent of the acute intestinal disorder cholera. The source of cholera infection is typically fecal contamination of potable water sources. V. cholerae is able to colonize the host intestine and trigger the onset of cholera symptoms due to the expression of two primary virulence factors: cholera toxin (CT) and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). TCP is a type IVb pilus encoded by the tcp operon. While many components encoded within the tcp operon have been well characterized, there remain two that we know little about: TcpB and TcpS. In this work, we take a genetic approach to initiate the characterization of each of these pilus components. We have found the large putative pilin, TcpB is not requisite for formation of a pilus structure, but remains essential for all TCP functions. The formation of TCP by a tcpB null mutant represents a surprising finding that has led to a new research emphasis with respect to TCP functions. Additionally, we have characterized the ...
A total of 23 people died in March following a cholera outbreak that hit Yemens southwestern province of Taiz.. Abdul Rahim Samai, director of the Public Health and Population Department in Taiz province, said that nearly 5,488 suspected cholera cases have been registered since early January.. The health authorities recorded 335 cases of confirmed cholera, 23 of which have resulted in the death of the patients, he said.. Source: http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2019-03/29/c_137934328.htm. ...
Via the DR Ministry of Public Health and Social Assistance: Salud Pública informa casos sospechosos de Cólera disminuyen en Moca. [Public Health reports suspected cholera cases are diminishing in Moca] Excerpt, with my translation: El Ministerio de Salud Pública informó...
February 20, 2017 (BOR) - Suspected Cholera cases have continued to rise in South Sudans Jonglei state, while spreading widely across communities (...)
Cholera. Cholera is rare in the United States, but its still common in some other countries. Every year, more than 100,000 people around the world die from cholera. The good news is the cholera vaccine can lower the risk that people traveling to countries with cholera will get the disease. The cholera vaccine is an oral (swallowed ...
Health,The cholera epidemic has swept through Angola covering the provinces o...On Sunday WHO representative Angola Fatoumata Diallo handed over 7...The National Laboratory of Public Health has isolated the bacteria V...192 new cases with one death have been reported in the last 24 hours...The WHO along with the Angolan Ministry of health has implemented se...,Death,Toll,due,to,Cholera,Rises,to,48,in,Angola,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Flow cytofluorometric DNA analysis was applied to determine of the relative contents of proliferative (more then 2C DNA per cell) and apoptotic (less then 2C DNA per cell) leukocytes in blood of adult rabbits, challenged with 10,000 times the 50 % effective dose of Vibrio cholerae virulent strain by the RITARD technique. It has been shown that irreversible increase the percentage of cells carrying DNA in the degradation stage brings to disbalance between the genetically controlled cell proliferation and apoptosis that leads to animal death from the cholera infection. Such fatal changes were not observed in challenging of immunized animals that were not died. Thus received data show that the flow cytofluorometric measurements may be used for detection of transgressions in homeostasis during acute infection diseases, for outlet prognosis of the cholera infection ...
... is also called avian cholera, avian pasteurellosis, avian hemorrhagic septicemia. [1] ... Epizootiology of Avian Cholera in Wildfowl. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. Chicken Cholera was Observed by Louis pasteur by luck ... Fowl cholera in the Merck Veterinary Manual. References[edit]. *^ K.R. Rhoades and R.B. Rimler, Avian pasteurellosis, in " ... Avian Cholera in Waterfowl: The role of Lesser Snow Geese and Ross's Geese Carriers in the Playa Lakes Region. Journal of ...
Chicken cholera. Pasteur's later work on diseases included work on chicken cholera. He received cultures from Jean Joseph Henri ... Toussaint isolated the bacteria that caused chicken cholera (later named Pasteurella in honour of Pasteur) in 1879 and gave ... The difference between smallpox vaccination and anthrax or chicken cholera vaccination was that the latter two disease ...
"The incubation period of cholera: A systematic review". Journal of Infection. 66 (5): 432-8. doi:10.1016/j.jinf.2012.11.013 ...
Cholera prevention PaxVax Rare pediatric Exondys 51 Duchenne muscular dystrophy Sarepta Therapeutics ...
Cholera}}. Medicine. Cholera. Infectious disease templates. Footer. Default color.. Pathology. Pathogenic bacteria. {{Gram- ...
Cholera[edit]. Koch (on the microscope) and his colleague Richard Friedrich Johannes Pfeiffer (standing) investigating cholera ... He soon found that the river Ganges was the source of cholera. He performed autopsies of almost 100 bodies, and found in each ... As the discoverer of the specific causative agents of deadly infectious diseases including tuberculosis, cholera, and anthrax, ... In August 1883, the German government sent a medical team led by Koch to Alexandria, Egypt, to investigate cholera epidemic ...
HO - cholera. *AB - bovine brucellosis. *US - porcine brucellosis. *NX - porcine brucellosis. *AM - caprine brucellosis ...
First cholera pandemic (1816-1826). *Second cholera pandemic (1829-1851). *Third cholera pandemic (1852-1860) ...
... acute fowl cholera, infectious laryngotracheitis, and infectious bursal disease still affect poultry populations. When HPAI ...
Cholerapg 23. Found at https://books.google.com.au/books?id=e4vSBwAAQBAJ&pg=PA23&lpg=PA23&dq=logan+river+cholera&source=bl&ots= ... cholera has been found in the Logan River from around 1977.[16][17][18][19] Community projects in the Logan catchment area aim ... Found at https://books.google.com.au/books?id=gEOEBwAAQBAJ&pg=PA195&lpg=PA195&dq=logan+river+cholera&source=bl&ots=d1kXCwi84o& ...
First cholera pandemic (1816-1826). *Second cholera pandemic (1829-1851). *Third cholera pandemic (1852-1860) ...
Cholera has also been suggested.[35] Poe had passed through Philadelphia in early 1849 during a cholera epidemic. He got sick ... "Death Suspicion Cholera". Crimelibrary.com. Archived from the original on 2008-05-17. Retrieved 2008-05-09.. ... Theories as to what caused Poe's death include suicide, murder, cholera, hypoglycemia, rabies, syphilis, influenza, and that ... during his time in the city and wrote a letter to his aunt, Maria Clemm, saying that he may "have had the cholera, or spasms ...
First cholera pandemic (1816-1826). *Second cholera pandemic (1829-1851). *Third cholera pandemic (1852-1860) ...
cholera toxin - increases cAMP levels. *forskolin - a diterpene natural product that activates adenylyl cyclase ...
Charles RC, Ryan ET (October 2011). "Cholera in the 21st century". Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases. 24 (5): 472-7. doi: ... which cause diphtheria or cholera, respectively.[35][36] Strategies to combat certain bacterial infections by targeting these ... "L'action bactericide des eaux de la Jumna et du Gange sur le vibrion du cholera". Annales de l'Institut Pasteur (in French). ... reported that something in the waters of the Ganges and Yamuna rivers in India had marked antibacterial action against cholera ...
"Dukoral, cholera vaccine (inactivated, oral)". European Medicines Agency (EMA). 2009-04-30. Retrieved 2017-04-25.. ... a vaccine against cholera (approved in Europe, America and Australia)[3] ...
Cholera morbus is a historical term that was used to refer to gastroenteritis rather than specifically cholera.[81] ... Charles E. Rosenberg (2009). The Cholera Years the United States in 1832, 1849, and 1866. Chicago: University of Chicago Press ... Charles, RC; Ryan, ET (October 2011). "Cholera in the 21st century". Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases. 24 (5): 472-7. doi ... The first usage of "gastroenteritis" was in 1825.[79] Before this time it was commonly known as typhoid fever or "cholera ...
Diary of an Epidemic (Cholera), BBC Radio 4, BBC - Radio 4 The Long View - Cholera outbreak in 19th Century Britain. ... Cholera[change , change source]. Local government was divided between the three churches (Holy Trinity, Sunderland, St. ... It was the first British town to be affected by 'Indian cholera' epidemic.[4] The first victim, William Sproat, died on 23 ... But in December of that year, cholera was in Gateshead and it spread across the country, killing about 32,000 people. ...
Cholera[change , change source]. Cholera was the most common illness and cause of death on the Trail.[3] From 1849-1855, there ... Camping near rivers contaminated with cholera bacteria made cholera spread quickly among travelers ... could get cholera. Often, cholera's symptoms would be so bad that travelers would die within 12 hours of getting sick.[3] ... Up to 3% of all travelers during this time may have died from cholera. One of the causes of the epidemic was that there was no ...
Cholera vaccine[note 81]. *Dengue vaccine[note 81]. *Hepatitis A vaccine[note 81] ...
1855 Asiatic Cholera epidemic hits the city. The Sisters of Mercy donate their services to the State Hospital and work "round ... who had joined the order at the age of 19 and nursed victims through Ireland's horrible cholera epidemic of 1849-an experience ... carrying the deadly Asiatic cholera that ravaged the city for six weeks. ...
Cholera. *Filippo Pacini - objaviteľ. Zdroj: „https://sk.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vibrio_cholerae&oldid=7173113" ...
Cholera. Geneva: World Health Organization. *^ a b c Choopun N, Louis V, Huq A, Colwell RR. 2002. Simple procedure for rapid ... Vibrio cholerae and Cholera: Molecular to Global Perspectives. Washington DC: ASM Pr. ...
Can't Remember to Forget You - singel Shakiry i Rihanny, promujący album artystki pt. Shakira wydany 21 marca 2014 roku. Utwór został wydany 13 stycznia 2014 roku o godz. 16:00 czasu polskiego na kanale Vevo artystki na YouTube[1]. Premiera teledysku nastąpiła 30 stycznia 2014.. ...
Chicken cholera. Pasteur's first work on vaccine development was on chicken cholera. He received the bacteria samples (later ... "History of the Cholera Vaccine , Passport Health". www.passporthealthusa.com. Retrieved 25 December 2020.. ... Toussaint isolated the bacteria that caused chicken cholera (later named Pasteurella in honour of Pasteur) in 1879 and gave ... The difference between smallpox vaccination and anthrax or chicken cholera vaccination was that the latter two disease ...
Cholera epidemicEdit. A severe cholera epidemic has begun in Yemen during the civil war. In July 2017, the United Nations ... it was already described as the worst cholera outbreak in recorded history, with over 800,000 cases.[73] ... "Yemen's cholera outbreak now the worst in history as millionth case looms". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 23 ...
There were repeated outbreaks of cholera and typhus. Rudolf Virchow promoted sewage works, called Rieselfelder, after the ... cholera epidemic of 1868. In 1871 a smallpox epidemic killed 6478 people. Virchow estimated that 5% of the Berlin population ...
For the cholera toxin, the principal glycolipid receptor for the cholera toxin is ganglioside GM1. After endocytosis to the ... Cholera toxin, pertussis toxin, and shiga toxin all have their targets in the cytosol of the cell. After their B subunit binds ... Cholera toxin, shiga toxin, and SubAB toxin all have B subunits that are made up of five identical protein components, meaning ... Cholera toxin's discovery is credited by many to Dr. Sambhu Nath De. He conducted his research in Calcutta (now Kolkata) making ...
2007). The Strange Case of the Broad Street Pump: John Snow and the Mystery of Cholera. Los Angeles:University of California ... During the Paris cholera outbreak of 1832, large quantities of so-called chloride of lime were used to disinfect the capital. ... 2003). Cholera, Chloroform, and the Science of Medicine. New York:Oxford University. ... John Snow to disinfect water from the cholera-contaminated well that was feeding the Broad Street pump in 1854 London,[72] ...
Cholera epidemic envelops coastal slums in West Africa, Africa Health[permanent dead link], page 10 (September 2012) ... Slum dwellers usually experience a high rate of disease.[182][130] Diseases that have been reported in slums include cholera,[ ... The first cholera epidemic of 1832 triggered a political debate, and Louis René Villermé study[28] of various arrondissements ... Studies focus on children's health in slums address that cholera and diarrhea are especially common among young children.[195][ ...
Cholera is an acute, diarrheal illness caused by infection of the intestine with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and is spread by ... Cholera patients do not typically become carriers of the cholera bacteria after they recover, but they get sick if exposed ... CDC at Work: Choleraplus icon *CDC Works With Global Partners to End Cholera ... Cholera is an acute diarrheal illness caused by infection of the intestine with Vibrio cholerae bacteria. People can get sick ...
... two oral cholera vaccines are available: Dukoral® (manufactured by SBL Vaccines) and ShanChol® (manufactured by Shantha Biotec ... New Cholera Vaccine for Adult Travelersexternal icon. CDC expert Dr. Karen Wong discusses the risk for cholera in travelers, ... CDC at Work: Choleraplus icon *CDC Works With Global Partners to End Cholera ... For more information on cholera vaccines visit WHO Cholera Vaccines.external icon ...
Vaccines against cholera have been around for over a century, oral vaccines for over two decades.. Anything that can reduce the ... Cholera is one of the biggest killers of people. One of the Horseman of the Apocalypse (pestilence). It causes extreme diarrhea ... That will reduce the incidence of many viral and bacterial infections, including dysentery, cholera and typhoid.. A good way to ... Apparantly there is a more effective (90%+ within 10 days of injection) cholera vaccine that was approved by the FDA in 2016, ...
"Choleras seven pandemics". CBC. 9 May 2008. Retrieved 15 July 2018.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ... Cholera - Vibrio cholerae infection-Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. *‹See Tfd›. "Cholera" . Encyclopædia Britannica ... Cholera: A Worldwide History (McFarland, 2014). excerpt. *Kudlick, Catherine Jean. Cholera in post-revolutionary Paris: a ... The word cholera is from Greek: χολέρα kholera from χολή kholē "bile". Cholera likely has its origins in the Indian ...
Cholera. Vaccine. A vaccine consisting of killed whole-cell V. cholerae O1 in combination with a recombinant B-subunit of ... In studies of travellers to countries or areas reporting cholera outbreaks, WC/rBS was found also to induce approximately 50% ... Following primary immunization, protection against cholera may be expected after about 1 week. Booster doses are recommended ... Two closely related bivalent oral cholera vaccines are available in India and Viet Nam. These killed whole-cell vaccines are ...
... What Is Cholera?. Cholera is a bacterial infection of the intestines. The good news is, cholera is easy to treat if ... Can Cholera Be Prevented?. In some areas cholera vaccines are given to help protect people against cholera for a short while. ... How Is Cholera Diagnosed?. To confirm a diagnosis of cholera, doctors may take a stool sample or vomit sample to check for ... How Is Cholera Treated?. Cholera needs immediate treatment because severe dehydration can happen within hours. Fortunately, ...
Find out more about cholera in this article for teens. ... Cholera is an intestinal infection that mostly affects people ... What Is Cholera?. Cholera is a bacterial infection of the intestines. The good news is, cholera is easy to treat if its caught ... Can Cholera Be Prevented?. In some areas cholera vaccines are given to help protect people against cholera for a short while. ... How Is Cholera Diagnosed?. To confirm a diagnosis of cholera, doctors may take a stool sample or vomit sample to examine for ...
Fowl cholera is also called avian cholera, avian pasteurellosis, avian hemorrhagic septicemia. [1] ... Epizootiology of Avian Cholera in Wildfowl. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. Chicken Cholera was Observed by Louis pasteur by luck ... Fowl cholera in the Merck Veterinary Manual. References[edit]. *^ K.R. Rhoades and R.B. Rimler, Avian pasteurellosis, in " ... Avian Cholera in Waterfowl: The role of Lesser Snow Geese and Rosss Geese Carriers in the Playa Lakes Region. Journal of ...
From 14 August 2017 through 11 February 2018, 1799 cases and one death (case fatality rate = 0.06%) of cholera were reported ... the Ministry of Health in Mozambique notified WHO of an outbreak of cholera. ... Cholera outbreaks have occurred in Mozambique every year for the past five years. The most recent outbreak prior to the current ... In addition, the cholera case definition should be strictly applied to all suspected cases to decrease underreporting and to ...
Latest Cholera News. Zimbabwe copes with diarrhea outbreak which has killed 9. Jun. 26, 2020 5:16 AM EDT ... LONDON (AP) - The coronavirus pandemic is interrupting immunization against diseases including measles, polio and cholera that ...
Cholera is a bacterial infection that causes diarrhea caused by bacteria usually found in contaminated water. Learn about ... Cholera Fact Sheet (World Health Organization) Also in Spanish * Cholera Illness and Symptoms (Centers for Disease Control and ... Cholera Prevention and Control (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) * Cholera Treatment (Centers for Disease Control ... The cholera bacterium is usually found in water or food that has been contaminated by feces (poop). Cholera is rare in the US. ...
... or Asiatic cholera, acute infectious disease caused by strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae that have been infected by ... cholera. cholera kŏl´ərə [key] or Asiatic cholera, acute infectious disease caused by strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae ... affords those carriers partial protection against cholera. See C. E. Rosenberg, The Cholera Years (1962). ... Cholera has a short incubation period (two or three days) and runs a quick course. In untreated cases the death rate is high, ...
An outbreak of cholera in 19th century London drove British doctor John Snow to investigate the source, giving rise to modern ... An outbreak of cholera in 19th century London drove British doctor John Snow to investigate the source, giving rise to modern ...
Though cholera has been around for many centuries, the disease came to prominence in the 19th century, when a lethal outbreak ... What Is Cholera? Cholera is an infectious disease caused by a bacterium called Vibrio cholerae. The bacteria typically live in ... The First Cholera Pandemic The first cholera pandemic emerged out of the Ganges Delta with an outbreak in Jessore, India, in ... Cholera. World Health Organization.. What Is Cholera? Everyday Health.. Boucher et al. (2015). "The out-of-the-delta hypothesis ...
Cholera is a diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholera, a short, curved, gram-negative bacillus. Humans acquire the disease by ... Cholera. Cholera is a disease caused by the bacteria Vibrio cholera. The disease first emerged in the 1800s from Calcutta, ... Since then, 7 cholera pandemics have swept through the world. 16 strains of Vibrio cholera have been discovered with the ... Cholera bacteria ride on the backs of copepods and colonize in their intestines. Dr. Colwell also noted that cholera can enter ...
English: Cholera (also called Asiatic cholera) is a disease of the intestinal tract caused by the Vibrio cholerae bacterium. ... A public notice anno 6th august 1833 from the staff of the swedish king, who shall introduce restrictions because of cholera ... A public notice anno 6th august 1833 from the staff of the swedish king, who shall introduce restrictions because of cholera ... Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cholera&oldid=250089469" ...
Cholera (Vibrio cholerae O1/O139) , 1996 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/cholera/case-definition/1996/) ... Cholera (Vibrio cholerae O1/O139) , 1995 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/cholera/case-definition/1995/) ... Cholera (Vibrio cholerae O1/O139) , 1990 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/cholera/case-definition/1990/) ...
Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
Health Information on Cholera: MedlinePlus Multiple Languages Collection ... Cholera: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Cólera: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) ... Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) -- Cholera Vaccine: What You Need to Know - English PDF Vaccine Information Statement (VIS ... URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/cholera.html Other topics A-Z. ...
This volume presents current knowledge in historical perspective to enable the practitioner to treat cholera ... Research on cholera has contributed both to knowledge of the epidemic in particular, and to a broader understanding of the ... Research on cholera has contributed both to knowledge of the epidemic in particular, and to a broader understanding of the ... This volume presents current knowledge in historical perspective to enable the practitioner to treat cholera in a more ...
Cholera has often risen to epidemic proportions in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, particularly in India and ... Cholera, an acute infection of the small intestine caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and characterized by extreme ... Zimbabwe cholera outbreak of 2008-09. Zimbabwe, located in southern Africa, experienced a severe epidemic of cholera from 2008 ... Cholera through history. The recorded history of cholera is relatively short and remarkable. Although the ancient Greek ...
Learn about cholera and how to prevent it. ... While cholera isnt common in the U.S., it can be a health ... What Is Cholera?. Cholera is a bacterial infection of the intestines. The good news is, cholera is easy to treat if its caught ... Can Cholera Be Prevented?. In some areas cholera vaccines are given to help protect people against cholera for a short while. ... How Is Cholera Diagnosed?. To confirm a diagnosis of cholera, doctors may take a stool sample or vomit sample to check for ...
Holiday cholera.. Br Med J 1970; 3 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.3.5723.601-a (Published 12 September 1970) Cite this as: Br ...
Epidemic cholera.. Br Med J 1965; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.5466.832 (Published 09 October 1965) Cite this as: Br ...
Cholera. Cholera is rare in the United States, but its still common in some other countries. Every year, more than 100,000 ... General Information , Cholera , CDC. www.cdc.gov/cholera/general/index.html#:~:text=A%20person%20can%20get%20cholera%20by% ... A person can get cholera by drinking water or eating food contaminated with the cholera bacterium. In an epidemic, the source ... Cholera causes severe diarrhea and dehydration. Left untreated, cholera can be fatal within hours, even in previously healthy ...
Cholera causes severe diarrhea and dehydration. Left untreated, cholera can be fatal within hours, even in previously healthy ... A bacterium called Vibrio cholerae causes cholera infection. The deadly effects of the disease are the result of a toxin the ... Cholera requires immediate treatment because the disease can cause death within hours. ... Cholera is a bacterial disease usually spread through contaminated water. ...
Children and the elderly are at particular risk of rapidly developing and succumbing to the dehydration caused by cholera. ... Cholera is an acute infection of the small intestine that is a particular problem in developing countries where access to clean ... Over the last century, the number of cholera cases and deaths due to cholera have steadily declined, mainly due to improvements ... www.cdc.gov/cholera/pdf/five-basic-cholera-prevention-messages.pdf. *http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/cholera/Documents/ ...
CHOLERA SURVEILLANCE : Appearance of Classical Biotype of Vibrio cholerae = SURVEILLANCE DU CHOLERA : Apparition du biotype ... CHOLERA SURVEILLANCE : Multiply Antibiotic-Resistant 0-Group 1 Vibrio cholerae = SURVEILLANCE DU CHOLÉRA : Apparition d une ... Cholera - Monitoring of Vibrio cholerae O139 = Choléra - Surveillance de Vibrio cholerae O139  ... 1926)‎. Cholera = Choléra. Weekly Epidemiological Record = Relevé épidémiologique hebdomadaire, 01 (‎05)‎, 1. https://apps.who. ...
The death toll from the cholera outbreak has risen from 18 to 30 over the past two weeks according to government reports. A ...
... but a deadly cholera outbreak there is only getting worse. ... The cholera epidemic has been left to fester as the Zimbabwean ... MSF believes cholera may be just the beginning of a nightmare health crisis in the southern African country. ... Doctors without Borders report says cholera crisis shows no signs of slowing. * Aid agencies say it could be lead to other ... Cholera cases have now been reported in all of the countrys provinces, the MSF report said. ...
  • Snow carefully reviewed records of all fatal cases of cholera in the area at the General Register's office and conducted interviews of family members of the victims. (globalsecurity.org)
  • Even people with severe cases of cholera recover fully in a week or so if they get medical care. (kidshealth.org)
  • Illnesses caused by strains of V. cholerae other than toxigenic V. cholerae O1 or O139 should not be reported as cases of cholera. (cdc.gov)
  • In England for example, no cases of cholera have originated in the country since 1893 and those that have been reported have been caught abroad. (news-medical.net)
  • Most symptomatic cases of cholera cause mild or moderate diarrhea that's often hard to distinguish from diarrhea caused by other problems.Only about 1 in 10 infected people develops more-serious signs and symptoms of cholera , usually within a few. (yahoo.com)
  • Snow carefully mapped the cases of cholera in the Soho area in London and traced the source to a water pump. (cbc.ca)
  • Severe cases of cholera require intravenous fluid replacement. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • There were 2,616 new cases of cholera in the plague stricken districts yesterday, and 1,039 deaths from the disease for the same time. (nytimes.com)
  • Around 2,752 suspected cases of cholera have been detected in Yemen since late April, according to the WHO. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • The PAHO said that while no cases of cholera have been reported in the neighbouring Dominican Republican, the outbreak has prompted the Haitian government "to mobilise a contingency plan in the border area, while the border remains open. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Most cases of cholera are simple to treat, and treatment is highly effective if patients receive it promptly. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • Mild and moderate cases of cholera are treated by having patients drink large amounts of oral rehydration solution-a mixture of sugars and salts in water. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • All confirmed cases of cholera must be reported to local health officials. (rchsd.org)
  • More than 400,000 cases of cholera are suspected, and nearly 1,900 people have died from associated cases in the last three months alone. (ipsnews.net)
  • WHO spokeswoman Fadela Chaib said last week that a few cases of cholera have been confirmed in Somalia and the diarrhea is also on the rise. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Severe cases of cholera (10-20%) can cause life-threatening dehydration. (theatlantic.com)
  • Dominican authorities announced they have three confirmed cases of cholera - including a three-month-old girl - and are looking into whether an additional 13 people have come down with the disease. (foxnews.com)
  • There have since been more than one million suspected cases of cholera in Yemen, and 2,275 recorded deaths, the WHO says. (timesofmalta.com)
  • Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cholera toxin (also known as choleragen and sometimes abbreviated to CTX , Ctx or CT ) is AB5 multimeric protein complex secreted by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae . (wikipedia.org)
  • The cholera bacterium is usually found in water or food that has been contaminated by feces (poop). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cholera (also called Asiatic cholera ) is a disease of the intestinal tract caused by the Vibrio cholerae bacterium. (wikimedia.org)
  • Cholera , an acute infection of the small intestine caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and characterized by extreme diarrhea with rapid and severe depletion of body fluids and salts. (britannica.com)
  • A bacterium called Vibrio cholerae causes cholera infection. (yahoo.com)
  • The disease is contracted 'by drinking water or eating food contaminated with the cholera bacterium,' the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) said on its Web site. (cnn.com)
  • THE toxin that makes cholera lethal belongs not to the cholera bacterium itself, but to a threadlike virus which hijacks it to hitch a ride into cells. (newscientist.com)
  • We've seen it so far moving between two strains of Vibrio cholerae [the cholera bacterium] but there is no reason why it should not move from, say, V. cholerae to Shigella," says Mekalanos. (newscientist.com)
  • Their suspicions were roused when they found that the sequence of genes which encodes the cholera toxin in disease-causing strains is capable of jumping from one bacterium to another. (newscientist.com)
  • Cholera is an acute infectious disease caused by a bacterium, Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae), which usually results in a painless, watery diarrhea in humans. (yahoo.com)
  • A person can get cholera by drinking water or eating food contaminated with the cholera bacterium. (yahoo.com)
  • Most people exposed to the cholera bacterium (Vibrio cholerae) don't become ill and never know they've been infected. (yahoo.com)
  • Cholera is most frequently transmitted by water sources contaminated with the causative bacterium Vibrio cholerae , although contaminated foods, especially raw shellfish, may also transmit the cholera-causing bacteria. (medicinenet.com)
  • It is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholera (V. cholera) . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • He found a bacterium in the intestines of those who had died of cholera but could neither isolate the organism nor infect animals with it. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • 1. Cholera is caused by ingestion of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae . (pbs.org)
  • Cholera is an epidemic disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae which (depending on the virulence of the infecting strain) causes mild to severe diarrhea , leg and stomach cramps, nausea , and vomit ing. (everything2.com)
  • Late last month, the UN's first cholera envoy, Pedro Medrano, said that falling mortality rates do not signify the end of the "silent emergency" because a cholera epidemic can ebb and wane and come back stronger as the bacterium mutates. (economist.com)
  • V. cholera is a Gram-negative bacterium that lives in coastal and brackish waters. (pnas.org)
  • Cholera is an acute, infectious disease caused by the consumption of water or food contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. (massgeneral.org)
  • The cholera bacterium may also live in the environment in brackish rivers and coastal waters. (cdc.gov)
  • U.S. travelers to areas with epidemic cholera may be exposed to the cholera bacterium. (cdc.gov)
  • Cholera is an acute diarrheal illness caused by infection of the intestine with Vibrio cholerae bacteria. (cdc.gov)
  • People can get sick when they swallow food or water contaminated with cholera bacteria. (cdc.gov)
  • Cholera patients do not typically become carriers of the cholera bacteria after they recover, but they get sick if exposed again. (cdc.gov)
  • Cholera is a disease caused by the bacteria Vibrio cholera . (globalsecurity.org)
  • 16 strains of Vibrio cholera have been discovered with the deadliest being the 01 and 0139 strains of the bacteria. (globalsecurity.org)
  • When someone is infected with the cholera bacteria, symptoms can appear in a few hours or as late as 5 days later. (kidshealth.org)
  • To confirm a diagnosis of cholera, doctors may take a stool sample or vomit sample to check for signs of the bacteria. (kidshealth.org)
  • But, he warns, it doesn't bode well for experimental cholera vaccines based on live, weakened bacteria whose toxin genes have been removed. (newscientist.com)
  • Cholera is usually spread by eating food or drinking water that is contaminated with the bacteria that cause cholera (Vibrio cholerae). (yahoo.com)
  • Yet because they shed cholera bacteria in their stool for seven to 14 days, they can still infect others through contaminated water. (yahoo.com)
  • The discovery of a new species of the cholera bacteria (O139) in Bangladesh in 1992, which has since been detected in 11 countries, has raised the possibility and fear of an eighth pandemic. (cbc.ca)
  • Cholera is a disease caused by bacteria that produce a watery diarrhea that can rapidly lead to dehydration . (medicinenet.com)
  • A person is no longer contagious for cholera when they have no cholera symptoms and no detectable Vibrio bacteria in their stools. (medicinenet.com)
  • Although a person may be no longer contagious for cholera, the infection does not provide enough immunity to prevent the person from coming down with cholera again if reexposed to the bacteria. (medicinenet.com)
  • Cholera is caused by bacteria, and spread through contaminated food or water. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The cause of cholera is infection by the V. cholera bacteria. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • V. cholera bacteria live in shallow, salty water on microscopic crustaceans. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • They can also exist as colonies of biofilms that coat the surface of the water, plants, stones, shells, and similar items, and they can live among the eggs of midges, which serve as a reservoir for cholera bacteria. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Toxic strains of cholera bacteria produce a poison that triggers violent diarrhea in humans. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Cholera bacteria enter the body through the mouth, often in food or water that has been contaminated with human waste, due to poor sanitation and hygiene. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • When a person consumes infected food or water, cholera bacteria attach themselves to the small intestine and begin multiplying. (pbs.org)
  • Surprisingly, most people infected with cholera don't experience symptoms, although the bacteria is present in their system for 7 to 14 days. (pbs.org)
  • Cholera, an infectious disease that affects people through drinking water contaminated with cholera bacteria, can kill people within 24 hours by inducing vomiting and diarrhea. (voanews.com)
  • My question is what is the risk of being infected by the Cholera Bacteria especially in schools who use the water to wash with but not to drink? (medindia.net)
  • Less commonly, the bacteria that cause cholera are found in brackish rivers and coastal waters. (rchsd.org)
  • Cell dish experiments showed that L. lactis had an antibacterial effect when grown on a layer of cholera bacteria. (genengnews.com)
  • The vaccine consists of harmless, lab-designed bacteria don't cause cholera. (genengnews.com)
  • Cholera bacteria conserve energy and stored nutrients while passing through the highly acidic environment of the stomach which, thanks to Cholera's sensitivity to acid, is successful in killing a majority of bacteria, but children, older adults, and people who take antacids have lower levels of stomach acid, so they lack this first line of defense. (prezi.com)
  • Although signs and symptoms of severe cholera can be unmistakable in areas where it's common, the only way to confirm a diagnosis is to identify the bacteria in a stool sample. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Cholera bacteria spread from one person to another in places where sanitation is poor and there is limited access to safe drinking water. (cdc.gov)
  • You can get sick with cholera by drinking water or eating food contaminated with cholera bacteria. (cdc.gov)
  • It prevents severe diarrhea caused by the most common types of cholera-causing bacteria. (cdc.gov)
  • Your child can get cholera if you eat food or drink water that is contaminated with the bacteria. (massgeneral.org)
  • The acids in your stomach and digestive tract can kill small amounts of the cholera bacteria. (massgeneral.org)
  • The cholera bacteria are often found in water supplies made unclean because of the unsanitary disposal of stool. (massgeneral.org)
  • The cholera bacteria are usually found in unclean water supplies because of the unsanitary disposal of stool. (massgeneral.org)
  • Cholera is an acute gastrointestinal infection caused by Vibrio cholerae bacteria. (iamat.org)
  • Gunshots, throwing bottles, barricades of burning tires will not help us eradicate cholera bacteria. (csmonitor.com)
  • Cholera bacteria have been found in shellfish and plankton. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prevention methods against cholera include improved sanitation and access to clean water . (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] [11] Cholera occurs as both outbreaks and chronically in certain areas . (wikipedia.org)
  • In studies of travellers to countries or areas reporting cholera outbreaks, WC/rBS was found also to induce approximately 50% short-term protection against diarrhoea caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC).Two closely related bivalent oral cholera vaccines are available in India and Viet Nam. (who.int)
  • They are reported to be safe and efficacious, providing 66-67% protection for at least 2 years against clinically significant cholera in countries or areas reporting outbreaks. (who.int)
  • Cholera outbreaks have occurred in Mozambique every year for the past five years. (who.int)
  • In these regions, cholera is not a regular occurrence but may sometimes occur as outbreaks, especially during the summer season, natural disasters, wars or civil disorders. (news-medical.net)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) has maps of current and past areas with cholera outbreaks (see WHO reference). (medicinenet.com)
  • Outbreaks of cholera in 2015-2016 include South Sudan, United Republic of Tanzania, and Kenya, with over 216 deaths and most recently, 121 people diagnosed with cholera in Iraq, their first outbreak since 2012 and in Cuba, the first outbreak in over 130 years. (medicinenet.com)
  • Poor sanitation (e.g., untreated water, cooks not washing their hands) is the main cause of cholera outbreaks. (everything2.com)
  • If you're in an area known for cholera outbreaks, the best way to avoid the disease is to wash your hands religiously and to avoid eating any raw foods, including salad s and fruit. (everything2.com)
  • Researchers have developed a system for predicting cholera outbreaks using satellite monitoring of marine environments. (bbc.co.uk)
  • They show cholera outbreaks follow seasonal increases in sea temperature. (bbc.co.uk)
  • They found cholera outbreaks in Kolkata (Calcutta) in India and Matlab in Bangladesh occurred soon after seasonal rises in sea temperature which in turn lead to increases in phytoplankton densities. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Professor Rita Colwell, from the Institute for Advanced Computer Studies at the University of Maryland has been studying cholera outbreaks for over 30 years. (bbc.co.uk)
  • The researchers hope to soon be able to predict cholera outbreaks weeks or even months before they occur by using satellite monitoring, looking at what is happening further out to sea, examining the timings of ocean currents and associated growths in plankton numbers. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Oral vaccines are another powerful tool being used more and more to help prevent cholera and to contain outbreaks. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • GENEVA (AP) - World Health Organization officials said Friday that famine-hit Somalia faces a cholera epidemic as dirty water and poor sanitation are leading to an increase in outbreaks of the disease. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Quick confirmation helps to decrease death rates at the start of cholera outbreaks and leads to earlier public health interventions for outbreak control. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Major cholera outbreaks occur in two dominant forms: (a) epidemic, characterized by a sudden and sporadic occurrence of a large number of cholera cases and (b) endemic, in which human cholera cases occur on annual scales with distinct and characteristic seasonality. (nasa.gov)
  • Travellers living and working in areas with cholera outbreaks, including refugee camps, are at increased risk - particularly those a weakened immune system, persons who have had surgery for duodenal or gastric ulcers or taking antacid therapy, and cannabis users (smoking marijuana reduces stomach acid secretion). (iamat.org)
  • While there are more than 200 different serogroups only the O1 and the O139 strains have been known to cause epidemic and pandemic outbreaks of disease, using a toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) and cholera toxin (CT), which other strains lack. (redorbit.com)
  • The surge underscores how Yemen, which has endured multiple outbreaks of cholera amid four years of civil war, still isn't able to stop its spread. (yahoo.com)
  • In the late twentieth century, oral cholera vaccines started to be used on a massive scale, with millions of vaccinations taking place, as a tool to control cholera outbreaks in addition to the traditional interventions of improving safe water supplies, sanitation, handwashing and other means of improving hygiene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends both preventive and reactive use of the vaccine, making the following key statements: WHO recommends that current available cholera vaccines be used as complements to traditional control and preventive measures in areas where the disease is endemic and should be considered in areas at risk for outbreaks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccination should not disrupt the provision of other high priority health interventions to control or prevent cholera outbreaks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reactive vaccination might be considered in view of limiting the extent of large prolonged outbreaks, provided the local infrastructure allows it, and an in-depth analysis of past cholera data and identification of a defined target area have been performed. (wikipedia.org)
  • A vaccine consisting of killed whole-cell V. cholerae O1 in combination with a recombinant B-subunit of cholera toxin (WC/rBS) has been marketed since the early 1990s. (who.int)
  • Cholera toxin B pentamer, Vibrio cholerae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cholera toxin is an oligomeric complex made up of six protein subunits: a single copy of the A subunit (part A, enzymatic, P01555 ), and five copies of the B subunit (part B, receptor binding, P01556 ), denoted as AB 5 . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cholera toxin acts by the following mechanism: First, the B subunit ring of the cholera toxin binds to GM1 gangliosides on the surface of target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene encoding the cholera toxin is introduced into V. cholerae by horizontal gene transfer . (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment of cultured rodent neural stem cells with cholera toxin induces changes in the localization of the transcription factor Hes3 and increases their numbers. (wikipedia.org)
  • EDLB (specifically the Epidemic Investigations Laboratory) requests that state public health labs immediately forward all suspect V. cholerae isolates for serogrouping and cholera toxin testing as well as biotype and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. (cdc.gov)
  • Pathogenic O1 and O139 V. cholerae have the ability to produce cholera toxin, a type of enterotoxin that affects intestinal cells. (britannica.com)
  • It gets attached to the microvilli of the epithelial cells of the intestinal tract where it multiplies and produce a potent enterotoxin known as cholera toxin. (medindia.net)
  • Cholera toxin is responsible for increased secretion of water and electrolytes in stools from the intestinal cells leading to dehydration, shock, acidosis and death. (medindia.net)
  • Licensed newer generation vaccines are given orally and consist either of killed cholera Vibrio whole cells, with or without a nonpathogenic fragment of cholera toxin, or of live genetically attenuated organisms ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • The case for introducing oral cholera vaccines as routine public health tools has also been strengthened by an apparent increase in the magnitude, severity, and duration of recently reported epidemics, such as those observed in Angola, Zimbabwe, Vietnam, and Haiti, perhaps related to the widespread emergence of the modified genetic forms of V. cholerae 01 El Tor biotype that produce classical biotype cholera toxin ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Interestingly, immune responses to the toxin do not protect against cholera, but previous research led by investigator Edward Ryan, MD, director of Global Infectious Diseases at MGH, has shown antibodies that bind V. cholerae's sugar coating-called O-specific polysaccharide (OSP)-do offer protection. (massgeneral.org)
  • Scientists at the University of California-San Diego say they have uncovered a biochemical mechanism that helps make cholera toxin (CT) so deadly. (genengnews.com)
  • Studying fruit flies, mice, and cultured human intestinal cells, researchers looked at cholera toxin, which is produced by Vibrio cholerae . (genengnews.com)
  • The study built on research published decades ago, when scientists discovered that cholera toxin caused the overproduction of small chemical messenger molecule cyclic adenosine monophosphate, or "cAMP," in epithelial cells lining the intestine. (genengnews.com)
  • The molecular mechanism by which this massive flux of sodium and water into the gut occurs as a result of the cholera toxin remained a mystery until Annabel Guichard, Ph.D., a research scientist working in Dr. Bier's laboratory and the lead author of the paper, began conducting experiments that spearheaded the two groups' collaboration. (genengnews.com)
  • The UC San Diego researchers found that cholera toxin acts by two entirely distinct but cooperating mechanisms to produce diarrhea. (genengnews.com)
  • The scientists showed that many of the effects of the cholera toxin on the gut could be reversed by genetic manipulations that bolster the delivery of proteins to these junctions. (genengnews.com)
  • The differences are 203 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, the absence of three genomic islands, and an increased number of tandem cholera toxin prophage (CTX) arrays. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The Dukoral monovalent vaccine from Sweden, which combines formalin, heat-killed whole cells of Vibrio cholerae O1 and a recombinant cholera toxin B subunit, was licensed in 1991, mainly for travellers. (wikipedia.org)
  • WC-rBS (marketed as "Dukoral") is a monovalent inactivated vaccine containing killed whole cells of V. cholerae O1 plus additional recombinant cholera toxin B subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • With support from UNICEF, national and local health authorities have provided logistical support to set up and supply cholera treatment centers with consumable, medication, and infection prevention and control supplies. (who.int)
  • [1] [2] CTX is responsible for the massive, watery diarrhea characteristic of cholera infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cholera is a bacterial infection that causes diarrhea . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cholera is a bacterial infection of the intestines. (kidshealth.org)
  • People who travel from countries where the infection is more common can bring cholera into the U.S. Some people in the U.S. have become sick from eating raw and undercooked shellfish from the Gulf of Mexico. (kidshealth.org)
  • Cholera is an acute infection of the small intestine that is a particular problem in developing countries where access to clean drinking water and hygiene measures are poor. (news-medical.net)
  • Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal infection caused by contaminated food or water and in severe cases can kill within just a few hours. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Cholera Vibrios are ingested in drink or food and in natural infections, the small dose is enough to cause an infection. (medindia.net)
  • Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O-group 1 or O-group 139. (world66.com)
  • Cholera is a bacterial infection that causes cells lining the intestine to produce large amounts of fluid. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • Cholera symptoms typically appear within 2-3 days of infection and vary widely, from mild to severe. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • Cholera is an infection of the intestines. (rchsd.org)
  • Cholera is a serious and sometimes life-threatening infection that mainly affects people in developing countries, where clean water and other sanitation measures are hard to come by. (rchsd.org)
  • Cholera is an intestinal infection. (theatlantic.com)
  • The MIT team's new probiotic mix could be consumed regularly as a preventative measure in regions where cholera is common, or used to treat people soon after infection occurs, said James Collins, Ph.D., a professor of biomedical engineering and the senior author of one of the new STM articles. (genengnews.com)
  • How common is cholera infection among travelers going to this area? (cdc.gov)
  • FILE - In this Thursday, March 28, 2019 file photo, an elderly woman is treated for suspected cholera infection at a hospital in Sanaa, Yemen. (yahoo.com)
  • The cholera vaccine is widely used by backpackers and persons visiting locations where there is a high risk of cholera infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • People with severe cholera can develop severe dehydration, which can lead to kidney failure. (cdc.gov)
  • A person with severe dehydration due to cholera causing sunken eyes and wrinkled hands and skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The combined effects result in rapid fluid loss from the intestine, up to 2 liters per hour, leading to severe dehydration and other factors associated with cholera, including a rice-water stool. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cholera needs immediate treatment because severe dehydration can happen within hours. (kidshealth.org)
  • Cholera causes severe diarrhea and dehydration. (yahoo.com)
  • Children and the elderly are at particular risk of rapidly developing and succumbing to the dehydration caused by cholera. (news-medical.net)
  • Since August, at least 3,623 people have died and 76,127 people have been infected by cholera, a preventable water-borne bacterial illness that causes severe diarrhea, vomiting and dehydration and can lead to death in a matter of days if not treated. (cnn.com)
  • www.medicinenet.com/ cholera /article.htm#:~:text=Cholera is an acute infectious disease caused by,dehydration so severe it can lead to death. (yahoo.com)
  • Cholera is highly treatable , but because dehydration can happen quickly, it's important to get cholera treatment right away. (yahoo.com)
  • Cholera symptoms and signs include a rapid onset of copious, smelly diarrhea that resembles rice water and may lead to signs of dehydration (for example, vomiting , wrinkled skin, low blood pressure , dry mouth , rapid heart rate). (medicinenet.com)
  • A person with cholera can quickly lose fluids, up to 20 liters a day, so severe dehydration and shock can occur. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A doctor may suspect cholera if a patient has severe watery diarrhea, vomiting, and rapid dehydration, especially if they have recently traveled to a place that has a recent history of cholera, or poor sanitation, or if they have recently consumed shellfish. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It is normally dehydration that leads to death from cholera, so the most important treatment is to give oral hydration solution (ORS), also known as oral rehydration therapy (ORT). (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • People with cholera are primarilly treated for dehydration. (everything2.com)
  • these drugs will shorten the course of the disease, but cholera generally runs its course and the patient will recover on his or her own if the dehydration is taken care of. (everything2.com)
  • BOSTON - Findings from a team led by investigators at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), reported in the online journal mBio , may help scientists develop a more effective vaccine for cholera, a bacterial disease that causes severe diarrhea and dehydration and is usually spread through contaminated water. (massgeneral.org)
  • Cholera itself causes diarrhoea and vomiting, leading to severe dehydration. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Since severe dehydration and death can occur within hours, cholera needs to be treated immediately. (rchsd.org)
  • In most developing countries, you can buy powdered packets of oral rehydration salts (ORS) originally developed by the World Health Organization to treat diarrhea and dehydration in infants with cholera. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Antibiotics can shorten the length of illness and help prevent fluid loss (dehydration) in people with severe cholera. (cdc.gov)
  • If left untreated, diarrhea from cholera can cause severe dehydration. (massgeneral.org)
  • Severe cholera can lead to profuse diarrhea and vomiting, causing dehydration. (foxnews.com)
  • Cholera epidemics can also sometimes happen after a disaster (like an earthquake or flood) if people are living in tent cities or other places without running water or proper sanitation systems. (kidshealth.org)
  • In the past two centuries, seven pandemics (global epidemics) of cholera have carried the disease to countries around the world. (britannica.com)
  • The purpose of this lesson is to explore sources which reveal something about the contemporary medical understanding of the disease, public attitudes and the role of the General Board of Health over a time frame of series of cholera epidemics in Victorian England. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
  • This could provide an early warning system for India and Bangladesh where cholera epidemics occur regularly. (bbc.co.uk)
  • She says the satellite monitoring holds the key to preventing cholera epidemics. (bbc.co.uk)
  • We can use the current data taken from the satellites to predict when the onset of cholera epidemics will occur, it allows public health authorities to pinpoint exactly when to allocate resources or implement warnings about drinking the water," she said. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Interest in using oral vaccines for the control of cholera has increased in recent years, as reflected in a recently strengthened recommendation by the World Health Organization (WHO) for the preemptive use of oral cholera vaccines to control endemic cholera and for consideration of reactive use of these vaccines in cholera epidemics ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • Nevertheless, the use of oral cholera vaccines continues to fuel vigorous debates in the public health community, especially regarding reactive use of the vaccines for control of reported epidemics. (pnas.org)
  • It is against the background of this controversy that two articles in PNAS, each reporting on the results of models projecting the hypothetical impact of using killed oral cholera vaccines in recent massive cholera epidemics, add important information ( 11 , 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • At MSF we started responding to cholera epidemics in the 1980s, and are gradually working to improve the effectiveness of our response. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • It seems, however, to have been prevalent in America as well, and the cholera epidemics of the last century bring the thing into focus. (americanheritage.com)
  • Current vaccines against cholera can take weeks to induce immunity, which limits the effectiveness of vaccination campaigns during cholera epidemics that often explode within several days. (genengnews.com)
  • On 27 October 2017, the Ministry of Health in Mozambique notified WHO of an outbreak of cholera. (who.int)
  • An outbreak of cholera in 19th century London drove British doctor John Snow to investigate the source, giving rise to modern epidemiology. (history.com)
  • During the 1853-4 outbreak of cholera in London (Third Cholera Pandemic), John Snow was able to test his theory. (globalsecurity.org)
  • In October 2010, at least 250 people in Haiti died in an outbreak of cholera, almost 10 months after a major earthquake devastated the country, killing more than 200,000 people. (cbc.ca)
  • The last major outbreak of cholera in the United States occurred in 1910 1911 Effective sanitation practices, if instituted and adhered to in time, are usually sufficient to stop an epidemic. (crystalinks.com)
  • If you follow the news, you may have heard a reporter talk about an "outbreak of cholera" somewhere in the world. (rchsd.org)
  • Just months after a devastating earthquake hit Haiti in 2010, an outbreak of Cholera followed, claiming the lives of thousands. (msnbc.com)
  • Sierra Leone's worst recorded outbreak of cholera risks sparking a wider health crisis unless its causes can be tackled more aggressively, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) said on Thursday," the news service writes, adding, "The death toll in Sierra Leone is likely to rise further in coming weeks towards the late-September peak of the rainy season" (Akam, 8/23). (kff.org)
  • to treat cholera. (kidshealth.org)
  • This volume presents current knowledge in historical perspective to enable the practitioner to treat cholera in a more effective manner, and to provide a comprehensive review for the researcher. (springer.com)
  • Sometimes doctors prescribe antibiotics to treat cholera. (kidshealth.org)
  • Despite being easy to treat, cholera is estimated to affect between 3 and 5 million people each year, and it causes over 100,000 deaths worldwide. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • We cannot continue to treat cholera in this structure where we are also seeing other kinds of patients," Louissaint said. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Our goal was to use synthetic biology to develop an inexpensive means to detect and diagnose as well as suppress or treat cholera infections," said Dr. Collins. (genengnews.com)
  • Doctors Without Borders has plans to set up a field hospital in Saint-Marc in order to treat cholera patients and Oxfam said it sent five emergency specialists to Artibonite to "set up water, sanitation and hygiene programs for an estimated 100,000 people. (taipeitimes.com)
  • Simply put, other actors need to get more involved because the needs are far too great to be covered solely by the organizations currently working to prevent and treat cholera," Stefano Zannini , the Doctors Without Borders Haiti Head of Mission, said in a statement. (csmonitor.com)
  • But cholera is still present in Africa, Southeast Asia and Haiti. (yahoo.com)
  • People are treated at the St. Nicholas hospital in Saint Marc, Haiti, on Oct. 21, 2010, during a cholera outbreak. (cbc.ca)
  • The United Nations' overall appeal to respond to the [Haiti cholera] epidemic, for $175 million, is 48 percent financed. (kff.org)
  • The cholera outbreak that has killed 3,600 people in Haiti since October 2010 has not been suppressed - despite billions of dollars in promised aid, according to a report by Haitian and US researchers. (bbc.co.uk)
  • An epidemic of cholera that hit Haiti and killed 220 people has reached the country's densely populated capital, according to UN health officials. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • The sudden cholera epidemic, mainly in northern Haiti, has sent officials scrambling to contain a wider outbreak 10 months after an earthquake devastated the Caribbean nation. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Around 3,000 people have been admitted to hospitals and health centres near the northern city of Saint Marc which is struggling to cope with the overwhelming rush of sick patients as Haiti grapples with its first cholera outbreak in over a century. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • The recent epidemic of cholera in Haiti provides a good example ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Haiti reeled from a spike in cholera deaths as authorities planned mass evacuations from squalid tent cities ahead of a major storm set to lash the Americas' poorest nation beginning Thursday. (commondreams.org)
  • The World Health Organization has warned the outbreak is far from over and Haiti should prepare for the "worst-case scenario" -- cholera in the capital. (commondreams.org)
  • More recently one of our larger responses was in Haiti , where a cholera epidemic that began shortly after the devastating 2010 earthquake has so far caused over 800,000 cases and nearly 10,000 deaths. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • By January 2020, a total of 820,497 suspected cholera cases and 9,582 associated deaths had been recorded by the Ministry of Public Health and Population of Haiti (MOH). (cdc.gov)
  • Mr Andrus said that while it is impossible to predict the development of the epidemic in Haiti, for planning purposes Paho has extrapolated from the 1991 cholera outbreak in Peru, which spread to 16 Latin American countries over six years. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Comparing the population figures of Peru and Haiti and factoring in the number of cholera cases in Peru during the outbreak in the 1990s, the organisation thinks that 270,000 people in Haiti could fall ill. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Mr Andrus warned there could be an "upsurge" in cholera cases in Haiti in the coming days as a result of water and sanitation problems caused by Hurricane Tomas at the end of last week. (bbc.co.uk)
  • If the indictment of Haiti was unsurprising, less predictable was Mr Gallon's position on the country's cholera epidemic, which first broke out in 2010. (economist.com)
  • Medical evidence indicates the cholera strain was brought to Haiti by Nepalese UN peacekeepers, although the UN neither admits responsibility for the outbreak nor agrees to make reparations. (economist.com)
  • That man's diagnosis triggered alarm in the country, which shares the island of Hispaniola with Haiti - which is reeling from the disease that has killed over 1,100 and sickened close to 18,000.The Dominican president, Leonel Fernández, met with top government officials this week then set in place a series of stringent measures to prevent the spread of cholera. (foxnews.com)
  • Cholera arrived in Haiti in October 2010, soon after the arrival of a new contingent of United Nations peacekeepers from a cholera-infected region. (ohchr.org)
  • The Special Rapporteur presented this thematic report on UN responsibility for the cholera outbreak in Haiti and its relation to extreme poverty to the GA at its 71st session in August 2016. (ohchr.org)
  • Despite the development of effective rehydration therapies and oral vaccines, cholera still runs rampant in many areas of the developing world such as Haiti and Yemen due to a lack of infrastructure and water sanitation. (genengnews.com)
  • More than a dozen people have died of cholera in central Haiti, adding to concerns that the outbreak is edging closer to the densely populated capital, officials said on Saturday. (taipeitimes.com)
  • The sudden cholera epidemic has in recent days killed 220 people, mainly in northern Haiti, and sent officials scrambling to contain a wider outbreak, 10 months after a January earthquake devastated the Caribbean nation. (taipeitimes.com)
  • and Mexico City - Protests throughout Haiti , directed at United Nations workers suspected of introducing cholera here, are undermining treatment efforts by aid workers and threatening to delay the looming national election. (csmonitor.com)
  • The death toll from cholera has surpassed 1,000, the government said Tuesday, and a suspicion - not proven - that the disease could have come from Nepalese workers for the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) has fanned long-held resentment of the presence of the 12,000-person peacekeeping force in the country, there since 2004. (csmonitor.com)
  • The primary symptoms of cholera are profuse diarrhea and vomiting of clear fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Cholera? (kidshealth.org)
  • If you develop symptoms of cholera, especially after visiting an area where the disease is common, call your doctor or get medical help right away. (kidshealth.org)
  • Anti-diarrheal medicines can actually make the symptoms of cholera worse, so people who think they may have cholera should avoid taking them. (kidshealth.org)
  • If your child develops symptoms of cholera, especially after visiting an area where the disease is common, call your doctor or get medical help right away. (kidshealth.org)
  • Anti-diarrheal medicines can actually make the symptoms of cholera worse, so if your child has cholera (or you think your child has it), do not offer them. (rchsd.org)
  • Protests in various cities have forced many aid organizations to temporarily stop providing help to those suffering from the symptoms of cholera. (csmonitor.com)
  • An area of active cholera transmission is defined as a province, state, or other administrative subdivision within a country where cholera infections may be reported regularly (endemic) or where a cholera outbreak is occurring (epidemic), and includes areas with cholera activity within the past year . (cdc.gov)
  • It says aid agencies have failed to address the real causes of the cholera outbreak - including widespread poverty and unemployment that was endemic before last January's earthquake. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Cholera in developing countries is often described as occurring in two epidemiological forms: epidemic and endemic ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Endemic cholera occurs recurrently in a predictable pattern in time and space, and this recurrent pattern confers natural immunity to cholera in affected populations. (pnas.org)
  • Many populations in the Ganges Delta experience endemic cholera ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Nevertheless, oral vaccines have been little used for the control of endemic and epidemic cholera, and they have been deployed mostly as vaccines for travelers. (pnas.org)
  • Cholera, which is endemic in Somalia, is an acute diarrhoeal disease that can kill within hours if left untreated. (reuters.com)
  • An inactivated oral vaccine is available in Canada and countries where Cholera may be endemic. (iamat.org)
  • As of 2010[update], Vietnam continued to incorporate oral cholera vaccination in its public health programme, administering the vaccination through targeted mass vaccination of school-aged children in cholera endemic regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the cholera case definition should be strictly applied to all suspected cases to decrease underreporting and to improve case detection in this outbreak. (who.int)
  • Daily suspected cases (both hospitalized and nonhospitalized), as well as daily suspected cholera deaths in health facilities and the community, were anonymously transmitted to 1 of the 10 department health directorates through formatted text message ( 2 ) or telephone call. (cdc.gov)
  • A key aim of the investigation will be to determine whether the numbers are accurate and whether the spike in suspected cases is, in fact, caused by cholera or another diarrhoeal disease like rotavirus," Jasarevic said. (reuters.com)
  • Save the Children, a charity running cholera treatment centres, said last Friday that suspected cases in Hodeidah governorate had jumped by 40 percent in three weeks amid heavy rains and a heatwave, and in some districts weekly caseloads were double their previous peaks. (reuters.com)
  • SANAA, Yemen (AP) - Cholera is surging once again in Yemen, with the U.N. reporting that the number of suspected cases has doubled in March over previous months and doctors in overwhelmed health facilities fearing it could rival a 2017 outbreak that spiraled into the world's worst flare-up. (yahoo.com)
  • A health worker attends to a child suffering from cholera symptoms at a local hospital in Harare, Tuesday, Sept, 11, 2018. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • Patients await treatment at a makeshift cholera clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe, September 11, 2018. (yahoo.com)
  • Cholera affects an estimated 3-5 million people worldwide and causes 28,800-130,000 deaths a year. (wikipedia.org)
  • A local brewery that had its own water supply and allocated to its employees a free allowance of beer suffered no cholera deaths among its 70 workmen. (globalsecurity.org)
  • Over the last century, the number of cholera cases and deaths due to cholera have steadily declined, mainly due to improvements in sanitation and water hygiene. (news-medical.net)
  • T he WHO reported 25 deaths from cholera on May 8 but the number had spiked to 51 by May 11 and experts fear the outbreak could spread and become increasingly deadly if it is not contained. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • The point here is that cholera deaths are preventable, and we are doing everything we can to assist the Haitian authorities to prevent further deaths," Bragg said. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Cholera, an acute watery diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae 01 and, less commonly, by V. cholerae 0139, is a major global public health problem in developing countries, causing an estimated 100,000 deaths per year and resulting in major microeconomic and macroeconomic losses. (pnas.org)
  • Cholera is preventable and easily treated, yet it infects millions of people each year and causes up to 143,000 deaths worldwide. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • Since October 2010, cholera treatment facilities (between 136 and 262 cholera treatment centers, cholera treatment units, and acute diarrhea treatment centers, depending on the period) routinely recorded and notified cholera-associated illnesses and deaths. (cdc.gov)
  • Sierra Leone's health ministry said Thursday that deaths from a cholera outbreak had reached 220, affecting over 12,000 people in the west African nation, which is struggling to curb the disease," Agence France-Presse reports. (kff.org)
  • With more than 1,000 deaths from cholera, Haitians are directing anger at UN peacekeeping forces whom many suspect of having introduced the disease. (csmonitor.com)
  • Cholera is surging once more in Yemen, with more than 76,000 suspected new cases and 195 deaths in March, double the number in the previous two months, according to U.N. figures. (yahoo.com)
  • But it's very cool science -- and in the case of cholera, it just might help science deal with a pathogen that, while mostly controlled, still causes thousands of deaths a year. (medpagetoday.com)
  • No country or territory currently requires vaccination against cholera as a condition for entry. (cdc.gov)
  • Vaccination can reduce the risk of getting sick from cholera. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some people have following cholera vaccination. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The risk of cholera to U.S. travelers is so low that vaccination is of questionable benefit. (world66.com)
  • Local authorities, however, may continue to require documentation of vaccination against cholera. (world66.com)
  • But vaccination alone cannot end cholera--improvements in sanitation and hygiene systems are also essential. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • Note that the World Health Organization announced in 1991 that Cholera vaccination certificates are no longer required for entry by any country or territory. (iamat.org)
  • There are no cholera vaccination requirements for entry or exit in any Latin American country or the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • The three provinces which have reported cholera cases in this outbreak have been severely affected by the flooding which has resulted in the displacement of people and damage to the infrastructure, including health facilities. (who.int)
  • The profuse diarrhea produced by cholera patients contains large amounts of the infectious Vibrio cholerae germ that can infect others if swallowed. (cdc.gov)
  • Cholera is caused by a number of types of Vibrio cholerae , with some types producing more severe disease than others. (wikipedia.org)
  • The etiologic agent of a case of cholera should be reported as either V. cholerae O1 or V. cholerae O139. (cdc.gov)
  • however, only two serogroups of V. cholerae -O1 and O139 (sometimes called the Bengal serogroup)-are known to cause cholera. (britannica.com)
  • Mekalanos and Waldor believe that the CTX virus must have infiltrated a once-harmless strain of V. cholerae to create the strain responsible for the first great cholera pandemic of 1817. (newscientist.com)
  • However, an effective antibiotic can reduce the volume of diarrhea in patients with severe cholera and shorten the period during which Vibrio cholerae O1 is excreted. (medscape.com)
  • Cholera je nebezpečná hnačková infekčná choroba, ktorej pôvodcom je gramnegatívna baktéria Vibrio cholerae , najčastejšie biotypy Vibrio cholerae a Vibrio El Tor . (wikipedia.org)
  • In this article, "A Live Vaccine Rapidly Protects against Cholera in an Infant Rabbit Model," Dr. Waldor and colleagues began with the DNA sequence of the current version of the virulent V. cholerae . (genengnews.com)
  • We demonstrate that administration of HaitiV 24 hours before lethal challenge with wild-type V. cholerae reduced intestinal colonization by the wild-type strain, slowed disease progression, and reduced mortality in an infant rabbit model of cholera," wrote the article's authors. (genengnews.com)
  • Presence and abundance of Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, are related to modalities of the environment and regional weather as well as the climate systems. (nasa.gov)
  • Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent for the diarrheal disease cholera. (redorbit.com)
  • CDC expert Dr. Karen Wong discusses the risk for cholera in travelers, how it can be prevented, and use of the new vaccine. (cdc.gov)
  • The vaccine is not regularly recommended for most travelers from the United States, as most travelers do not visit areas with active cholera transmission. (cdc.gov)
  • Most travelers do not need cholera vaccine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Travelers to cholera-affected regions should receive a cholera vaccine. (medscape.com)
  • Travelers to cholera-affected areas should be advised to avoid eating high-risk foods, especially fish and shellfish. (world66.com)
  • Most international travelers do not get cholera because they do not visit areas with active cholera transmission and usually have good access to safe food and water. (cdc.gov)
  • Most U.S. travelers don't get vaccinated because very few visit areas with active cholera. (cdc.gov)
  • What should travelers do to avoid getting cholera? (cdc.gov)
  • The risk for cholera is very low for U.S. travelers visiting areas with epidemic cholera. (cdc.gov)
  • Federal health officials have approved the first cholera vaccine intended to protect U.S. travelers from the potentially life-threatening disease. (foxnews.com)
  • The mainstays of control of cholera consist of provision of clean water and adequate sanitation, appropriate rehydration therapy of cholera patients, and antibiotics for severely affected patients. (pnas.org)
  • Cholera can be successfully treated with oral rehydration solution. (reuters.com)
  • Without rehydration, approximately half the people with cholera die. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Most people with cholera can be helped by oral rehydration alone, but severely dehydrated people might also need intravenous fluids. (mayoclinic.org)
  • For diarrhea and vomiting that may be cholera-related, use an oral rehydration solution. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The most important step in treating cholera is to replace lost body fluids (rehydration). (cdc.gov)
  • The First Asiatic Cholera Pandemic, suspected to have begun at the Kumbh festival on the upper Ganges River, lasted from 1817 to 1823. (globalsecurity.org)
  • the one commonly called Asiatic cholera . (everything2.com)
  • Asiatic cholera , a malignant and rapidly fatal disease, originating in Asia and frequently epidemic in the more filthy sections of other lands, to which the germ or specific poison may have been carried. (everything2.com)
  • Also called Asiatic cholera . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Asiatic cholera has been treated and carefully observed by a number of homoeopathic physicians. (chestofbooks.com)
  • Extracts from letters from Vienna, concerning the character of the Asiatic cholera, and its homoeopathic treatment. (chestofbooks.com)
  • Homoeopathic treatment of the Asiatic cholera. (chestofbooks.com)
  • Please note: In December 2020, the maker of this cholera vaccine will temporarily stop making and selling it. (cdc.gov)
  • Cholera can cause watery diarrhea and vomiting, making people who have it get dehydrated quickly. (kidshealth.org)
  • Officials say cases of acute watery diarrhea _ an important indicator of the risk of cholera _ are now at 4,272 in Somalia _ an 11 percent rise on last week's WHO reported figure of 3,839. (washingtontimes.com)
  • People with severe cholera have large amounts of watery diarrhea. (cdc.gov)
  • Ethiopian health officials, who say the disease is not cholera, are describing the outbreak as acute watery diarrhea, but they have not shared any of the test results that they have carried out. (cbc.ca)
  • [2] Cholera can be diagnosed by a stool test . (wikipedia.org)
  • Doctors diagnose cholera with a stool sample or rectal swab. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A stool sample will be sent to a laboratory for testing, but if cholera is suspected, the patient must begin treatment even before the results come back. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • 2010-June 2021, a total of 24,610 stool specimens, mostly sampled using rectal swab specimens in Carry-Blair transport medium, have been included in the national microbiologic cholera surveillance system. (cdc.gov)
  • Often described as "rice-water stool," cholera diarrhea can have a pale, milky appearance. (cdc.gov)
  • People infected with cholera often have diarrhea, and disease transmission may occur if this highly liquid stool, colloquially referred to as "rice-water", contaminates water used by others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathogenic strains of V. cholera are the causative agents for cholera, the acute diarrheal disease that can kill within 12 h of the first symptoms ( 10 , 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Diarrheal diseases such as cholera continue to be a public health threat. (nasa.gov)
  • Prediction of an outbreak of diarrheal disease, specifically cholera, following a natural disaster remains a challenge, especially in regions lacking basic safe civil infrastructure [water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH)]. The underlying mechanism of a cholera outbreak is associated with disruption in the human access to safe WASH infrastructure that results in the population using unsafe water containing pathogenic vibrios. (nasa.gov)
  • The source of the contamination is typically other cholera sufferers when their untreated diarrheal discharge is allowed to get into waterways, groundwater or drinking water supplies. (wikipedia.org)
  • People caring for cholera patients must wash their hands thoroughly after touching anything that might be contaminated with patients' feces (poop). (cdc.gov)
  • Cholera is one of the biggest killers of people. (physicsforums.com)
  • One of them is available for adults in the U.S. Very few Americans need it, because most people do not visit areas that have an active cholera outbreak. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some people with cholera have no signs or symptoms, but some cases are severe and can be life-threatening. (kidshealth.org)
  • People get cholera from eating or drinking food or water that's been contaminated with the feces (poop) of someone who has cholera. (kidshealth.org)
  • But for people living in places without good sanitation, cholera is more of a risk. (kidshealth.org)
  • In some areas cholera vaccines are given to help protect people against cholera for a short while. (kidshealth.org)
  • Left untreated, cholera can be fatal within hours, even in previously healthy people. (yahoo.com)
  • Left untreated, cholera can be fatal in a matter of hours, even in previously healthy people.Modern sewage and water treatment have virtually eliminated cholera in industrialized countries. (yahoo.com)
  • In 1991, 100 years after cholera was vanquished from South America, there was an outbreak in Peru that spread across the continent, killing 10,000 people. (cbc.ca)
  • Rapid treatment with fluid and electrolytes result in better outcomes while people with other health problems beside cholera or those who are not rapidly replenished with fluid treatments tend to have a poorer prognosis. (medicinenet.com)
  • Only about one in 10 people infected with cholera develop the typical signs and symptoms. (medicinenet.com)
  • About 100,000-130,000 people are thought to die from cholera each year, almost all of them in countries where the disease is common. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you are an adult 18 through 64 years old traveling to an area where people are getting infected with cholera, your health care provider might recommend the vaccine for you. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When traveling to Asia, Africa and some parts of Latin America, however, people need to protect themselves against cholera by having the appropriate vaccinations beforehand, drinking only water that is boiled or from a sealed bottle and following good handwashing practices. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Only around 1 in 20 cholera infections are severe, and a high percentage of infected people show no symptoms. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Zimbabwe declared a cholera outbreak in the capital Harare after 20 people died from the disease and more than 2000 were infected by drinking contaminated water, new Health Minister Obadiah Moyo said. (smh.com.au)
  • A cholera emergency has been declared in Zimbabwe's capital after 20 people died. (smh.com.au)
  • Zimbabwe suffered its biggest cholera outbreak in 2008 at the height of an economic crisis when more than 4000 people died and another 40,000 were treated after being infected. (smh.com.au)
  • People with depressed immune system s and reduced stomach acidity are at the highest risk of contracting cholera after exposure. (everything2.com)
  • Most of the 200-odd cholera cases reported in the United States from 1973 to 1991 are thought to have been caused by people eating underdone shellfish (thus, if you're in Louisiana , you might want to pass on the raw oyster s). (everything2.com)
  • There is also an oral cholera vaccine for people like Peace Corps volunteers who regularly work in cholera-stricken areas. (everything2.com)
  • Zimbabwe's health minister says a cholera outbreak has killed at least 425 people in his country since August. (voanews.com)
  • The head of a Zimbabwean doctors' association, Zimbabwe Doctors for Human Rights chairman Douglas Gwatidzo, estimates that cholera has killed more than 800 people in the country. (voanews.com)
  • Health officials in the northeastern Nigerian state of Borno have confirmed the death of at least 80 people in a cholera outbreak. (voanews.com)
  • Hundreds of people die of cholera every year during the rainy season in Nigeria. (voanews.com)
  • In one camp for displaced people in the Carrefour district of Port au Prince, people without access to a toilet throw their faeces, wrapped in plastic bags, on top of a rubbish pile which is next to a recently-created cholera treatment centre. (bbc.co.uk)
  • A round 7.6 million people are living in areas where cholera is a high risk, the WHO said. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • A cholera epidemic meanwhile is spreading in unsanitary camps for people still homeless after the massive earthquake that struck the impoverished nation in January. (commondreams.org)
  • There namely are not enough ambulances to bring people to hospital during the cholera outbreak, which is threatening some 25,000 new mothers and their babies in and around the capital, according to international aid group Save the Children. (commondreams.org)
  • Amid ongoing full-scale war that caused the country's infrastructure and health care system to collapse, over 2 million people in Yemen have suffered from cholera since the outbreak's start in 2016. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • GENEVA (Reuters) - More than 25,000 people in famine-threatened Somalia have been struck by cholera or acute watery diarrhoea and the deadly epidemic should double by this summer, the World Health Organisation (WHO) said on Thursday. (reuters.com)
  • The causes of the cholera epidemic of 1832 were wholly incomprehensible to the people of the time. (americanheritage.com)
  • It's yucky to think about, but people get cholera from eating or drinking food or water that's been contaminated with the feces (poop) of someone who has cholera . (rchsd.org)
  • Some countries have cholera vaccines that can help protect people against cholera for a short while. (rchsd.org)
  • As a result, people with cholera can become dehydrated very quickly. (rchsd.org)
  • WHO public health adviser Dr. Michel Yao told reporters in Geneva on Friday that the number of cholera cases has also risen sharply this year, with officials confirming 18 cases in the 30 lab samples taken in recent days from people living in the capital, Mogadishu. (washingtontimes.com)
  • GENEVA (Reuters) - Yemen's cholera outbreak has infected 612,703 people and killed 2,048 since it began in April, and some districts are still reporting sharp rises in new cases, data from the World Health Organization and Yemen's health ministry showed on Tuesday. (reuters.com)
  • The country's national laboratory is waiting on results of tests to determine whether an additional 13 to 14 people will test positive for cholera. (foxnews.com)
  • The cholera had broken out in its most fatal form and people were dying like flies. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • While not a necessary part of cholera treatment, some antibiotics can reduce cholera-related diarrhea and shorten how long it lasts in severely ill people. (mayoclinic.org)
  • HARARE, Zimbabwe (AP) - A cholera emergency has been declared in Zimbabwe's capital after 20 people have died, the health minister said Tuesday. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • More than 680 people in Ethiopia have died in a suspected cholera outbreak that has also affected neighbouring countries, officials said Wednesday. (cbc.ca)
  • Neighbouring Somalia and Kenya have also been hit, and more than 1,000 people have been infected with what is suspected to be cholera in Uganda's capital since October. (cbc.ca)
  • Doctors Without Borders says that since Oct. 22, they have treated 16,500 people for suspected cholera, with the highest number treated in the Artibonite region, where the first cases originated. (csmonitor.com)
  • The cholera epidemic in Zimbabwe is a serious biological, chemical war force, a genocidal onslaught, on the people of Zimbabwe by the British,' he said. (france24.com)
  • and then the campaign will move towards all the areas at risk in the country, covering at least four million people," Lorenzo Pizzoli, WHO cholera expert, said in a tweet posted on Sunday. (timesofmalta.com)
  • A cholera outbreak in Nigeria 's northeast has killed nearly 100 people over the past two weeks and infected thousands more, the United Nations said. (news24.com)
  • On Wednesday, the UN reported more than 500 people have died from cholera in the Lake Chad region since the start of the year, representing the worst outbreak to hit the area in four years. (news24.com)
  • HARARE (Reuters) - Zimbabwe's police on Wednesday issued a ban on all public gatherings and illegal food vending to control the spread of cholera, which has killed 21 people in the capital Harare. (yahoo.com)
  • More than 3,000 people had been infected by cholera and the disease had now spread outside the capital, Health Minister Obadiah Moyo told a meeting of government departments. (yahoo.com)
  • This is the biggest cholera outbreak since 2008 when 4,000 people died and more than 40,000 were treated for this disease, according to ministry of health data. (yahoo.com)
  • The FDA recently approved external icon a single-dose live oral cholera vaccine called Vaxchora ® (lyophilized CVD 103-HgR) in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • GENEVA (Reuters) - A third producer of oral cholera vaccine has been approved that is expected to provide 3 million doses in 2016, the World Health Organization said on Friday, doubling the world's stockpile against a disease that can kill within hours. (reuters.com)
  • Moreover, the global supply of killed oral cholera vaccine is quite limited, currently at about 2 million doses, and it has been questioned what impact this small number of doses would have. (pnas.org)
  • From 2012 onward, the MOH and its partners have organized several oral cholera vaccine (OCV) campaigns using 2-dose killed whole-cell OCVs: Shanchol (Shantha Biotechnics, https://www.sanofi.in), then Euvichol (Eubiologics, http://eubiologics.com). (cdc.gov)
  • My theme is 'Halloween in the Time of Cholera,'" collector Steven Martin told Wired.com in an e-mail interview. (neatorama.com)
  • The cholera vaccine Vaxchora is the only one approved by the FDA for cholera prevention. (medscape.com)
  • The only other existing cholera-prevention vaccines require 2 doses, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (medscape.com)
  • Although cholera may be life-threatening, prevention of the disease is normally straightforward if proper sanitation practices are followed. (crystalinks.com)
  • In January 1991, epidemic cholera appeared in South America and quickly spread to several countries. (cdc.gov)
  • Which activities may put me at risk for cholera? (cdc.gov)
  • What is the risk for cholera in the United States? (cdc.gov)
  • Scientists have found that some strains of cholera are naturally growing in the temperate Gulf Coast waters of the U.S. (everything2.com)
  • In 1892, Waldemar Haffkine, a Ukrainian bacteriologist who worked mostly in India, developed a human vaccine for cholera. (cbc.ca)
  • The epidemic of cholera, a highly contagious disease, is no longer a simple emergency, it's now a matter of national security," the director of Haiti's health ministry, Gabriel Thimote, told a news conference. (bbc.co.uk)
  • The current food shortages make us fear of further malnutrition among the most vulnerable, starting with the under (age) five children, where any kind of infectious epidemic can start at any moment after this current cholera epidemic,' Fournier explained. (cnn.com)
  • Cholera is an acute epidemic infectious disease. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Although the two STM articles present early results, they could lead to new strategies for curbing the spread and severity of cholera, one of the world's most common and devastating infectious diseases. (genengnews.com)
  • For severe diarrhea or vomiting, call a doctor immediately, even if you're pretty sure it's not cholera. (kidshealth.org)
  • Cholera is a disease that can cause severe diarrhea and vomiting. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cholera causes severe diarrhea and vomiting, but is easily prevented by washing hands, cleaning foods and keeping drinking water away from sewage. (voanews.com)
  • 2. Either of two unrelated diseases of domestic animals, fowl cholera or classical swine fever (hog cholera), that are often marked by severe diarrhea. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Seek immediate medical care if you develop severe diarrhea or vomiting and are in or have very recently returned from a country where cholera occurs. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Cholera can cause severe diarrhea. (massgeneral.org)
  • These cholera vaccines are World Health Organization (WHO) prequalified, but are not available in the U.S. (cdc.gov)
  • LONDON (AP) - The coronavirus pandemic is interrupting immunization against diseases including measles, polio and cholera that could put the lives of nearly 80 million children under the age of 1 at risk, according to a new analysis from the World Health Organization and partners. (ap.org)
  • UNITED NATIONS, Jul 27 2017 (IPS) - The directors of the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF), World Food Programme (WFP) and World Health Organization (WHO) released a joint statement today shedding light on a deadly cholera epidemic engulfing war-torn Yemen. (ipsnews.net)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the use of cholera vaccines in combination with other measures among those at high risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immigrants brought the deadly pandemic to Canada and the United States in 1832, and cholera spread down to Mexico and Cuba. (globalsecurity.org)
  • It was the most deadly of the cholera pandemics. (globalsecurity.org)
  • JOHANNESBURG, South Africa (CNN) -- The political crisis that has gripped Zimbabwe for nearly a year may be drawing to an end, but a deadly cholera outbreak there is only getting worse. (cnn.com)
  • The cholera is the most deadly and dangerous kind of outbreak. (mcall.com)
  • A senior Zimbabwean official has blamed Britain for causing a deadly cholera epidemic in his country as international pressure for President Robert Mugabe's resignation mounts following the latest crisis in the embattled African nation. (france24.com)
  • That will reduce the incidence of many viral and bacterial infections, including dysentery, cholera and typhoid. (physicsforums.com)
  • Cholera infections are often mild. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cholera was one of the earliest infections to be studied by epidemiological methods. (crystalinks.com)
  • Other examples of misplaced microbes that become dangerous or even lethal include Clostridium difficile infections in the gut, Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in cystic fibrosis airways, and Vibrio cholera , the aquatic microbe that sometimes finds its way into a human host, and the subject of the present study by Drescher et al. (pnas.org)
  • Cholera is not contagious , so you can't catch it from direct contact with another person. (kidshealth.org)
  • Cholera is not contagious, and rarely spreads through direct contact with another person. (kidshealth.org)
  • How Long Is Cholera Contagious? (medicinenet.com)
  • Cholera is a highly contagious disease that occurs in settings without clean water and proper sanitation-from poor, remote villages to overcrowded cities, refugee camps and conflict zones. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • Cholera is mostly found in the tropics - in particular Asia, Africa, Latin America, India, and the Middle East. (kidshealth.org)
  • Cholera has often risen to epidemic proportions in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, particularly in India and Bangladesh . (britannica.com)
  • Cholera cases also have been reported in neighboring Botswana and South Africa, prompting U.N. officials to warn the outbreak is taking on a dangerous regional dimension. (voanews.com)
  • UNICEF spokeswoman Marixie Mercado said Friday that tens of thousands of children have died and countless more are particularly at risk of cholera and other diseases because of drought and violence in East Africa. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Cholera is mainly found in Africa, south Asia, and Latin America. (massgeneral.org)
  • However, as a result of improved transportation, more persons from the United States travel to parts of Latin America, Africa, or Asia where epidemic cholera is occurring. (cdc.gov)
  • The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) voted to approve the vaccine for adults 18 - 64 years old who are traveling to an area of active cholera transmission. (cdc.gov)
  • This will enable us to contain cholera, typhoid and whatever is going on. (smh.com.au)
  • Cholera vaccines are available, but the surest method to prevent the bacteria's spread is through basic sanitation. (pbs.org)
  • [14] Severe cholera, without treatment, kills about half of affected individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cholera treatment centers have been set up in each of the affected districts. (who.int)
  • The goal of cholera treatment is to replace all the fluids and electrolytes (salts) lost through diarrhea and vomiting. (kidshealth.org)
  • Cholera requires immediate treatment because the disease can cause death within hours. (yahoo.com)
  • Hydration is the mainstay of treatment for cholera. (yahoo.com)
  • In addition, modern-day sewage and water treatment systems have largely eliminated cholera from developed countries. (cbc.ca)
  • The main treatment for cholera is fluid and electrolyte replacement, both oral and IV. (medicinenet.com)
  • Partners are already there and are establishing a cholera treatment centre. (smh.com.au)
  • What do these documents reveal about treatment and attitudes towards cholera in the nineteenth century? (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
  • Students design their own advice leaflet for treatment of cholera from the perspective of the General Board of Health in Victorian times. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
  • Zeinab, 3, infected with cholera cries at a cholera treatment centre at al-Sabeen hospital in Sanaa, Yemen March 28, 2019. (reuters.com)
  • Women sit at a cholera treatment centre at al-Sabeen hospital in Sanaa, March 28. (reuters.com)
  • A girl lies on a bed as she receives medical care at a cholera treatment center in Sanaa, March 10. (reuters.com)
  • An elderly woman infected with cholera sleeps at a cholera treatment centre at al-Sabeen hospital in Sanaa, March 28. (reuters.com)
  • Relatives of an elderly woman infected with cholera hold her at a cholera treatment centre at al-Sabeen hospital in Sanaa, March 28. (reuters.com)
  • Fatimah Saleh, 80, infected with cholera sits at a cholera treatment centre at al-Sabeen hospital in Sanaa, March 28. (reuters.com)
  • A woman looks from outside a tent where patients receive medical care at a cholera treatment center in Sanaa, March 10. (reuters.com)
  • A woman suffering from cholera lies on the ground in a tent as she waits for medical care at a cholera treatment center in Sanaa, March 10. (reuters.com)
  • A nurse attends to a woman suffering from cholera at a cholera treatment center in Sanaa, March 10. (reuters.com)
  • No other drugs besides antibiotics should be used in the treatment of cholera. (medscape.com)
  • Commune records noted the treatment facility of cholera patients, not their place of residence. (cdc.gov)
  • For this purpose, rapid response teams were encouraged to obtain lists of cholera cases on a daily basis from department health directorates and treatment centers ( 8 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In developed countries, due to nearly universal advanced water treatment and sanitation practices, cholera is no longer a major health threat. (crystalinks.com)
  • A woman holds her son who is suspected of being infected with cholera at a cholera treatment center in Sanaa, Yemen, May 15, 2017. (reuters.com)
  • Thanks to water treatment and sanitation practices, Cholera is no longer a major health threat in developed countries, but it has been known to spread through seafood, and it is still very much an issue in other countries. (prezi.com)
  • Zinc treatment has also been shown to help improve cholera symptoms in children. (cdc.gov)
  • In the United States, cholera was prevalent in the 1800s but has been virtually eliminated by modern sewage and water treatment systems. (cdc.gov)
  • From the observations of those physicians we have been enabled to deduce definite rules for the treatment of cholera, and to indicate the remedies which have proved specifics in that epidemic. (chestofbooks.com)
  • Treatment of cholera. (chestofbooks.com)
  • Treatment of cholera, with additions concerning the diet which ought to be observed while using the pellets. (chestofbooks.com)
  • Treatment and extirpation of the cholera, with the rules of homoeopathic diet. (chestofbooks.com)
  • Address relative to the treatment of cholera, and the best means of guarding against the cholera-contagium at the bedside of patients. (chestofbooks.com)
  • Treatment of cholera, and the means to prevent it. (chestofbooks.com)
  • Homoeopathic treatment of the cholera at Raab, in Hungary. (chestofbooks.com)
  • 1832. (Homoeopathic treatment of cholera, with notes. (chestofbooks.com)
  • The homoeopathic treatment of cholera. (chestofbooks.com)
  • Curative and prophylactic treatment of cholera. (chestofbooks.com)
  • Gazette likewise contains a number of interesting data relative to the treatment of cholera. (chestofbooks.com)
  • But the most immediate concern is the treatment of thousands who have fallen ill since cholera emerged in late October. (csmonitor.com)
  • The outbreak this year is much worse and the situation is very dangerous," said Adel al-Alamni, head of the cholera treatment center at al-Sabeen. (yahoo.com)
  • Cholera spreads in sewage-tainted drinking water and can kill without prompt treatment. (newscientist.com)
  • Retrieved on July 31, 2021 from https://www.news-medical.net/health/Cholera-Epidemiology.aspx. (news-medical.net)
  • In 1849, Snow published an essay titled "On the Mode of Communication of Cholera" arguing that "cholera poison" spread through contaminated food or water. (globalsecurity.org)
  • Cholera is a bacterial disease usually spread through contaminated water. (yahoo.com)
  • A single dose vaccine is available for those traveling to an area where cholera is common. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cholera is a disease that can incite populations to panic. (britannica.com)
  • Seriously ill patients are highly effective transmitters of cholera, but persons with mild or no symptoms are more likely to travel, thereby also playing a crucial role in the spread of the disease. (britannica.com)
  • Cholera is an intestinal disease that is the archetype of waterborne illnesses. (britannica.com)
  • Is cholera a disease? (yahoo.com)
  • How can cholera disease be spread? (yahoo.com)
  • Again, it is interesting to consider why many of these ideas persisted after the breakthrough provided by Dr John Snow in 1854 that linked the presence of contaminated water to the spread of cholera at a time when the authorities and medical profession believed that the disease was spread by miasma, or bad air caused by pollution. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
  • Drinking and using safe water, using clean latrines or toilets, washing hands with soap, and ensuring good food hygiene are all ways to avoid the disease-but are often difficult or impossible for individuals in settings where cholera occurs. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • Understanding this novel mechanism of cholera action could also have important implications for other disorders of intestinal barrier function such as Crohn's disease, colitis, and celiac disease, according to the researchers. (genengnews.com)
  • This new approach could reduce disease symptoms in cholera and other chronic gut disorders. (genengnews.com)
  • The higher degrees of cholera and the malignant form of that epidemic make their appearance among all classes, external circumstances having no influence on the character, course, and symptoms of the disease. (chestofbooks.com)
  • However, since it does not provide 100 percent immunity from the disease, food hygiene precautions are also recommended when visiting an area where there is a high risk of becoming infected with cholera. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3. Records of the illness probably date back to the time of the classical physicians Hippocrates and Galen who described afflictions with symptoms similar to cholera. (pbs.org)
  • Be sure to say that you suspect your illness may be cholera. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Risk factors contributing to the propagation of cholera to other provinces and districts in this outbreak include a shortage of potable water and contamination of household drinking water, which emphasize the need to improve access to clean water, adequate hygiene, and sanitation. (who.int)
  • A lady who moved away from the Soho area to Hampstead, where there was no epidemic, but still drank from the Broad Street pump because she enjoyed the taste of its water, also contracted cholera and died. (globalsecurity.org)
  • He stayed only 20 minutes, but drank water from the Broad Street pump, and was attacked with cholera the next day and died. (globalsecurity.org)
  • Lack of sanitation and clean water make cholera spread. (cnn.com)
  • The reasons for the (cholera) outbreak are clear: lack of access to clean water, burst and blocked sewage systems, and uncollected refuse overflowing in the streets, all clear symptoms of the breakdown in infrastructure resulting from Zimbabwe's political and economic meltdown,' the MSF report said. (cnn.com)
  • This causes the body to secrete enormous amounts of water, leading to diarrhea and a rapid loss of fluids and salts (electrolytes).Contaminated water supplies are the main source of cholera infectio. (yahoo.com)
  • Cholera is more likely to flourish in situations where a sanitary environment - including a safe water supply - is difficult to maintain. (yahoo.com)
  • The latest cholera outbreak happened after burst sewers in Budiriro and Glenview suburbs contaminated water in boreholes and open wells, which are used by residents, said Moyo. (smh.com.au)
  • Children play in a water at a sewage pool amid an increase of cholera patients in Sanaa, March 17. (reuters.com)
  • Tiny animals which increase in number with sea temperature rise bring the cholera pathogen into the drinking water supply. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Mr Medrano says the best chance for cholera eradication lies with a $2.27 billion UN fund-raising campaign that would help fund a proper water and sanitation infrastructure, among other things. (economist.com)
  • Cholera is caused by ingestion of contaminated food or water and can kill within hours if untreated. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • For example, under normal circumstances, the likelihood of a cholera outbreak is low, since the human population adapts to its specific behavioral pattern of water use. (nasa.gov)
  • Forecasting a cholera risk is challenging because of the lack of data on pathogen abundance in local water systems, weather and climate patterns and existing WASH infrastructure. (nasa.gov)
  • Cholera is transmitted through contaminated water and is linked to poor hygiene, overcrowding and bad sanitation. (cbc.ca)
  • Hospitals have no drugs, no equipment and no staff left to treat the cholera epidemic, which has spread as sewage and water lines have broken down, contaminating the drinking supply. (france24.com)
  • Cholera is spread primarily by water and food tainted with feces. (yahoo.com)
  • Most cholera cases in developed countries are a result of transmission by food, while in developing countries it is more often water. (wikipedia.org)
  • The health ministry in Port-au-Prince has confirmed that the country's cholera outbreak has reached the Haitian capital. (bbc.co.uk)
  • The new cases come three days after the Dominican Republic confirmed its first cholera case, a 32-year-old Haitian man who works in the construction industry in Punta Cana. (foxnews.com)