Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the COMMON BILE DUCT.
Solid crystalline precipitates in the BILIARY TRACT, usually formed in the GALLBLADDER, resulting in the condition of CHOLELITHIASIS. Gallstones, derived from the BILE, consist mainly of calcium, cholesterol, or bilirubin.
Fiberoptic endoscopy designed for duodenal observation and cannulation of VATER'S AMPULLA, in order to visualize the pancreatic and biliary duct system by retrograde injection of contrast media. Endoscopic (Vater) papillotomy (SPHINCTEROTOMY, ENDOSCOPIC) may be performed during this procedure.
Incision of Oddi's sphincter or Vater's ampulla performed by inserting a sphincterotome through an endoscope (DUODENOSCOPE) often following retrograde cholangiography (CHOLANGIOPANCREATOGRAPHY, ENDOSCOPIC RETROGRADE). Endoscopic treatment by sphincterotomy is the preferred method of treatment for patients with retained or recurrent bile duct stones post-cholecystectomy, and for poor-surgical-risk patients that have the gallbladder still present.
The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.
Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the GALLBLADDER.
An imaging test of the BILIARY TRACT in which a contrast dye (RADIOPAQUE MEDIA) is injected into the BILE DUCT and x-ray pictures are taken.
Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.
Non-invasive diagnostic technique for visualizing the PANCREATIC DUCTS and BILE DUCTS without the use of injected CONTRAST MEDIA or x-ray. MRI scans provide excellent sensitivity for duct dilatation, biliary stricture, and intraductal abnormalities.
Inflammation of the biliary ductal system (BILE DUCTS); intrahepatic, extrahepatic, or both.
Excision of the gallbladder through an abdominal incision using a laparoscope.
Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).
Surgical formation of an opening (stoma) into the COMMON BILE DUCT for drainage or for direct communication with a site in the small intestine, primarily the DUODENUM or JEJUNUM.
Surgery of the smooth muscle sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla to relieve blocked biliary or pancreatic ducts.
Inflammation of the GALLBLADDER; generally caused by impairment of BILE flow, GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, infections, or other diseases.
Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
Diseases of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.
A dilation of the duodenal papilla that is the opening of the juncture of the COMMON BILE DUCT and the MAIN PANCREATIC DUCT, also known as the hepatopancreatic ampulla.
Acute inflammation of the GALLBLADDER wall. It is characterized by the presence of ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and LEUKOCYTOSIS. Gallstone obstruction of the CYSTIC DUCT is present in approximately 90% of the cases.
Ultrasonography of internal organs using an ultrasound transducer sometimes mounted on a fiberoptic endoscope. In endosonography the transducer converts electronic signals into acoustic pulses or continuous waves and acts also as a receiver to detect reflected pulses from within the organ. An audiovisual-electronic interface converts the detected or processed echo signals, which pass through the electronics of the instrument, into a form that the technologist can evaluate. The procedure should not be confused with ENDOSCOPY which employs a special instrument called an endoscope. The "endo-" of endosonography refers to the examination of tissue within hollow organs, with reference to the usual ultrasonography procedure which is performed externally or transcutaneously.
A pouch or sac developed from a tubular or saccular organ, such as the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Impairment of bile flow in the large BILE DUCTS by mechanical obstruction or stricture due to benign or malignant processes.
INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.
Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).
Pathological conditions in the DUODENUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).
Diseases in any part of the ductal system of the BILIARY TRACT from the smallest BILE CANALICULI to the largest COMMON BILE DUCT.
Organic or functional motility disorder involving the SPHINCTER OF ODDI and associated with biliary COLIC. Pathological changes are most often seen in the COMMON BILE DUCT sphincter, and less commonly the PANCREATIC DUCT sphincter.
The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.
The condition of an anatomical structure's being dilated beyond normal dimensions.
The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.
Jaundice, the condition with yellowish staining of the skin and mucous membranes, that is due to impaired BILE flow in the BILIARY TRACT, such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS, or EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS.
The period during a surgical operation.
Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.
The period before a surgical operation.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function.
The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.

Promoter methylation of INK4a/ARF as detected in bile-significance for the differential diagnosis in biliary disease. (1/137)

PURPOSE: There is a need to enhance endobiliary cytotechniques by molecular marker lesions. This is of special significance for patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis, a disease predisposing for the development of cholangiocarcinoma. The INK4a/ADP ribosylation factor (ARF) locus encodes two tumor suppressor genes: p16INK4a and p14ARF. p16INK4a has been shown to be of major significance in cholangiocarcinoma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In an effort to evaluate the potential diagnostic role of p16INK4a and p14ARF promoter methylation in biliary disease, endoscopical obtained bile specimens of 71 patients were analyzed (26 choledocholithiasis, 6 with normal results, 23 bile duct carcinoma, 5 gall bladder carcinoma). Eleven patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis were enrolled. RESULTS: Merely 6% of specimens (2 of 32) obtained from patients without evidence for malignant biliary disease but 53.5% of malignancies (15 of 28) showed p16 promoter methylation (p14: 3 and 46.2%, respectively). The concordance of methylation rates detected in either bile or tissue specimens was high. In primary sclerosing cholangitis, a similar prevalence of methylation was detected as in malignant disease. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates: (a) a high frequency and specificity of INK4a/ARF methylation in malignant biliary disease compared with mere cholangitis; and (b) the capability to detect these alterations reliably in endoscopically obtained bile. Thus, INK4a/ARF's promoter methylation status represents a candidate marker for the endoscopic diagnosis of biliary disease.  (+info)

Cholecysto-choledochostomy plus construction of subcutaneous cholecystic tunnel in treatment of choledocholith. (2/137)

OBJECTIVE: To avoid the pitfalls of choledochotomy with T-tube drainage in the treatment of choledocholith. METHODS: A novel operation was designed as cholecysto-choledochostomy plus construction of subcutaneous cholecystic tunnel. After the common bile duct was cut open and stones were removed, the gallbladder was appropriately dissociated and the cholecystic ampulla was incised. Then, the incision of the cholecystic ampulla was anastomosed to the opened common bile duct, and the cholecystic fundus was fixed out of the abdominal muscular stratum. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients with choledocholith underwent this operation successfully and recovered well without postoperative complications. One of them was diagnosed as having recurrent stones in 2 years and 3 months after operation. Consequently, the subcutaneous cholecystic tunnel was opened under local anesthesia to remove successfully the stones with choledochoscope. CONCLUSION: This operation provides a convenient way to remove postoperative recurrent stones with choledochoscope and avoid receliotomy.  (+info)

Prospective evaluation of magnetic resonance cholangiography in patients with suspected common bile duct stones before laparoscopic cholecystectomy. (3/137)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the predictive value of magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) in selected patients before laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). METHODS: Patients with risk factors for common bile duct (CBD) stones scheduled for elective LC from March 1999 to May 2001, underwent MRC followed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) to detect the stones and the accuracy of MRC. Selection of suspected patients was based on clinical, ultrasonographic, and laboratory criteria. RESULTS: During a 26-month period, a total of 267 patients were studied. Seventy-eight MRC identified patients were found to have CBD stones by ERC or laparoscopic cholangiography in the study. Seven of 78 patients were misdiagnosed as having CBD stones by MRC. In this study, MRC had a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 96.3%, a positive predictive value of 91.8%, and a negative predictive value of 100% for the detection of common bile duct stones. CONCLUSIONS: With the use of LC, ERC is frequently performed before LC to detect CBD stones; but it is invasive with a well-documented complication rate. MRC is a simple non-invasive method for preoperative screening for CBD stones in at-risk patients. In this study if ERC had been limited to patients with a positive MRC, it would have reduced the need for ERC by 68.2%, and the complications of preoperative examination would be minimized significantly.  (+info)

Platelet activation and the protective effect of aprotinin in hepatolithiasis patients. (4/137)

OBJECTIVE: To explore platelet activation and the protective effect of aprotinin in patients with hepatolithiasis. METHODS: The count of platelets and levels of CD62P and CD63 were measured by flow cytometry in 38 patients with hepatolithiasis. Several measurements were carried out after treatment with aprotinin. RESULTS: The levels of CD62P, CD63 in patients with hepatolithiasis were higher than those in patients with cholecystolithiasis (P<0.05), but the count of platelets was lower (P<0.05). After operation, the levels of CD62P, CD63 were significantly increased in patients with hepatolithiasis, but the count of platelets was lower (P<0.05). Postoperative levels of CD62P, CD63 were significantly lower in patients treated with aprotinin than in normal controls (P<0.05); but there was no significant change in the count of platelets in the two groups. CONCLUSION: Platelet activation occurs in patients with hepatolithiasis, and may be inhibited by aprotinin.  (+info)

Management of choledocholithiasis: comparison between laparoscopic common bile duct exploration and intraoperative endoscopic sphincterotomy. (5/137)

AIM: Choledocholithiasis is present in 5 to 10 percent of patients who have cholelithiasis. In the area of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC), laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE) and intraoperative endoscopic sphincterotomy (IOES) have been used to treat choledocholithiasis. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes and hospital costs of LCBDE with IOES. METHODS: Between November 1999 and October 2002, patients with choledocholithiasis undergoing LC plus LCBDE (Group A, n=45) were retrospectively compared to those undergoing LC plus IOES (Group B, n=57) at a single institution. RESULTS: Ductal stone clearance rates were equivalent for the two groups (88% versus 89%, P=0.436). The conversion rate was higher for Group B (8.8% versus 4.4%, P=0.381), as was the morbidity (12.3% versus 6.7%, P=0.336). There were no other significant differences between the two groups. The complications were mainly related to endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES), and the hospital costs were significantly increased in this subset of Group B (median, 23,910 versus 14,955 RMB yuan, P=0.03). Although hospital stay was longer in Group A (median, 7 versus 6 days, P=0.041), the patients in Group A had a significantly decreased cost of hospitalization compared with those in Group B (median, 11,362 versus 15,466 RMB yuan, P=0.000). CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate equivalent ductal stone clearance rates for the two groups. LCBDE management appears safer, and is associated with a significantly decreased hospital cost. The findings suggest LCBDE for choledocholithiasis is a better option.  (+info)

Rapid detection of K-ras mutations in bile by peptide nucleic acid-mediated PCR clamping and melting curve analysis: comparison with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. (6/137)

BACKGROUND: Current methods for detection of K-ras gene mutations are time-consuming. We aimed to develop a one-step PCR technique using fluorescent hybridization probes and competing peptide nucleic acid oligomers to detect K-ras mutations in bile and to compare the efficacy with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. METHODS: Bile samples were obtained from 116 patients with biliary obstruction, including gallstones (n = 64), benign biliary strictures (n = 6), pancreatic cancer (n = 20), and cholangiocarcinoma (n = 26). The DNA was extracted and subjected to K-ras mutation analysis by real-time PCR and RFLP analysis. Mutations were confirmed by direct sequencing. The sensitivity and specificity were calculated according to the clinical results. RESULTS: The analysis time for real-time PCR was <1 h, whereas RFLP analysis took more than 2 days. With the sensor probe designed for the GAT (G12D) mutant in codon 12 of the K-ras gene, the real-time PCR method also detected the GTT (G12V) mutant. In contrast, a specific sensor probe for the TGT (G12C) mutant detected GAT (G12D), AGT (G12S), and GTT (G12V) mutants in addition to the TGT mutant. The real-time PCR assay allowed the detection of mutation in a 3000-fold excess of wild-type bile DNA. In bile, K-ras codon 12 mutations were detected in 16 of 46 malignant cases by real-time PCR with the TGT probe and 15 by RFLP analysis. All benign cases were wild type. CONCLUSION: Real-time PCR with a cysteine-specific (TGT) sensor probe can rapidly detect K-ras gene mutations in bile and diagnose malignant biliary obstruction with high specificity.  (+info)

NIH state-of-the-science statement on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for diagnosis and therapy. (7/137)

OBJECTIVE: To provide health care providers, patients, and the general public with a responsible assessment of currently available data regarding the use of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for diagnosis and therapy. PARTICIPANTS: A non-Federal, non-advocate, 13-member panel representing the fields of gastroenterology, hepatology, clinical epidemiology, oncology, biostatistics, surgery, health services research, radiology, internal medicine, and the public. In addition, experts in these same fields presented data to the panel and to a conference audience of approximately 300. EVIDENCE: Presentations by experts; a systematic review of the medical literature provided by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; and an extensive bibliography of ERCP research papers, prepared by the National Library of Medicine. Scientific evidence was given precedence over clinical anecdotal experience. CONFERENCE PROCESS: Answering predefined questions, the panel drafted a statement based on the scientific evidence presented in open forum and the scientific literature. The draft statement was read in its entirety on the final day of the conference and circulated to the experts and the audience for comment. The panel then met in executive session to consider these comments and released a revised statement at the end of the conference. The statement was made available on the World Wide Web at http://consensus.nih.gov immediately after the conference. This statement is an independent report of the panel and is not a policy statement of the NIH or the Federal Government. CONCLUSIONS: In the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), and ERCP have comparable sensitivity and specificity. Patients undergoing cholecystectomy do not require ERCP preoperatively if there is low probability of having choledocholithiasis. Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration and postoperative ERCP are both safe and reliable in clearing common bile duct stones. ERCP with endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) and stone removal is a valuable therapeutic modality in choledocholithiasis with jaundice, dilated common bile duct, acute pancreatitis, or cholangitis. In patients with pancreatic or biliary cancer, the principal advantage of ERCP is palliation of biliary obstruction when surgery is not elected. In patients who have pancreatic or biliary cancer and who are surgical candidates, there is no established role for preoperative biliary drainage by ERCP. Tissue sampling for patients with pancreatic or biliary cancer not undergoing surgery may be achieved by ERCP, but this is not always diagnostic. ERCP is the best means to diagnose ampullary cancers. ERCP has no role in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis except when biliary pancreatitis is suspected. In patients with severe biliary pancreatitis, early intervention with ERCP reduces morbidity and mortality compared with delayed ERCP. ERCP with appropriate therapy is beneficial in selected patients who have either recurrent pancreatitis or pancreatic pseudocysts. Patients with type I sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) respond to endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES). Patients with type II SOD should not undergo diagnostic ERCP alone. If sphincter of Oddi manometer pressures are >40 mmHg, ES is beneficial in some patients. Avoidance of unnecessary ERCP is the best way to reduce the number of complications. ERCP should be avoided if there is a low likelihood of biliary stone or stricture, especially in women with recurrent pain, a normal bilirubin, and no other objective sign of biliary disease. Endoscopists performing ERCP should have appropriate training and expertise before performing advanced procedures. With newer diagnostic imaging technologies emerging, ERCP is evolving into a predominantly therapeutic procedure.  (+info)

Acute cholecystitis and severe ischemic cardiac disease: is laparoscopy indicated? (8/137)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Laparoscopy in patients with poor cardiac function has been the subject of controversy and is considered by many surgeons a relative contraindication. METHODS: We report the case of a patient who presented with acute cholecystitis and choledocholithiasis concurrent with unstable angina. Our experience in laparoscopic management of patients with calculous biliary disease and severe coronary artery disease is examined. RESULTS: The patient was managed by coronary angioplasty and stenting immediately followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy and common bile duct exploration under close invasive hemodynamic monitoring and low-pressure pneumoperitoneum. Between 1996 and 2001, 39 patients with coronary artery disease and an ASA class of III or IV underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Eight of these patients (20.5%) had common bile duct stones necessitating laparoscopic common bile duct exploration. No conversions were necessary, and no major morbidity or mortalities occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and common bile duct exploration can be safely performed in patients with severe ischemic cardiac disease under close hemodynamic monitoring and a low-pressure pneumoperitoneum (10 to 12 mm Hg).  (+info)

The term choledocholithiasis is derived from the Greek words "chole" meaning bile, "dochos" meaning duct, and "-iasis" meaning condition or disease. It is used to describe a specific type of gallstone that forms within the common bile duct, rather than in the gallbladder or liver.

Choledocholithiasis can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic predisposition, inflammation of the bile ducts (cholangitis), and blockages within the ducts. Treatment options for choledocholithiasis include endoscopic therapy, surgery, and medications to dissolve the gallstones.

In summary, choledocholithiasis is a condition characterized by the presence of gallstones in the common bile duct, which can cause a range of symptoms and may require medical intervention to treat.

Gallstones can be made of cholesterol, bilirubin, or other substances found in bile. They can cause a variety of symptoms, including:

* Abdominal pain (often in the upper right abdomen)
* Nausea and vomiting
* Fever
* Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
* Tea-colored urine
* Pale or clay-colored stools

Gallstones can be classified into several types based on their composition, size, and location. The most common types are:

* Cholesterol gallstones: These are the most common type of gallstone and are usually yellow or green in color. They are made of cholesterol and other substances found in bile.
* Pigment gallstones: These stones are made of bilirubin, a yellow pigment found in bile. They are often smaller than cholesterol gallstones and may be more difficult to detect.
* Mixed gallstones: These stones are a combination of cholesterol and pigment gallstones.

Gallstones can cause a variety of complications, including:

* Gallbladder inflammation (cholecystitis)
* Infection of the bile ducts (choledochalitis)
* Pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas)
* Blockage of the common bile duct, which can cause jaundice and infection.

Treatment for gallstones usually involves surgery to remove the gallbladder, although in some cases, medications may be used to dissolve small stones. In severe cases, emergency surgery may be necessary to treat complications such as inflammation or infection.

There are several types of cholecystolithiasis:

* Pigmented stones (made from bilirubin)
* Cholesterol stones (made from cholesterol and other substances in the bile)
* Mixed stones (a combination of pigmented and cholesterol stones)

Symptoms:

* Abdominal pain (especially after meals)
* Nausea and vomiting
* Diarrhea
* Fever
* Yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice)

Causes:

* Genetics
* Obesity
* Rapid weight loss
* High cholesterol levels
* Low HDL (good) cholesterol levels
* High triglycerides
* Diabetes

Diagnosis is made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT or MRI scans. Treatment options include medication to dissolve small stones, surgery to remove the gallbladder (cholecystectomy) or laparoscopic cholecystectomy (removal of the gallbladder through small incisions).

Prevention includes maintaining a healthy weight, eating a balanced diet, and managing underlying medical conditions such as diabetes and high cholesterol. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Types of Cholangitis:
There are two types of cholangitis:

1. Acute cholangitis: This type of cholangitis occurs suddenly and is usually caused by a blockage in the bile ducts, such as a gallstone or a tumor.
2. Chronic cholangitis: This type of cholangitis develops gradually over time and can be caused by recurring inflammation or scarring of the bile ducts.

Causes and Risk Factors:
The most common cause of cholangitis is a blockage in the bile ducts, which allows bacteria to grow and multiply, leading to infection. Other causes include:

* Gallstones
* Tumors
* Pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas)
* Trauma to the abdomen
* Inflammatory bowel disease
* HIV/AIDS
* Cancer

Symptoms:
The symptoms of cholangitis can vary depending on the severity of the infection, but may include:

* Fever
* Chills
* Abdominal pain
* Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
* Dark urine
* Pale stools
* Nausea and vomiting

Diagnosis:
Cholangitis is diagnosed through a combination of imaging tests, such as CT scans or endoscopic ultrasound, and laboratory tests to determine the presence of infection. A liver biopsy may also be performed to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment:
The treatment of cholangitis depends on the cause and severity of the infection, but may include:

* Antibiotics to treat bacterial or fungal infections
* Supportive care, such as fluids and nutrition, to manage symptoms
* Surgical drainage of the bile ducts to relieve blockages
* Endoscopic therapy, such as stent placement or laser lithotripsy, to remove gallstones or other obstructions
* Liver transplantation in severe cases

Prognosis:
The prognosis for cholangitis depends on the severity of the infection and the underlying cause. If treated promptly and effectively, the prognosis is generally good. However, if left untreated or if there are complications, the prognosis can be poor.

Prevention:
Preventing cholangitis involves managing any underlying conditions that may increase the risk of infection, such as gallstones or liver disease. Other preventive measures include:

* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly
* Avoiding sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can cause cholangitis
* Managing any underlying medical conditions, such as diabetes or liver disease

Complications:
Cholangitis can lead to several complications, including:

* Bile duct damage, which can lead to bile leaking into the abdomen and causing an infection called peritonitis
* Spread of the infection to other parts of the body, such as the bloodstream or lungs
* Sepsis, a severe and life-threatening reaction to the infection
* Organ failure, particularly liver and kidney failure
* Death

It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you experience any symptoms of cholangitis, as early treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.

Cholelithiasis is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide. It can occur at any age but is more common in adults over 40 years old. Women are more likely to develop cholelithiasis than men, especially during pregnancy or after childbirth.

The symptoms of cholelithiasis can vary depending on the size and location of the gallstones. Some people may not experience any symptoms at all, while others may have:

* Abdominal pain, especially in the upper right side of the abdomen
* Nausea and vomiting
* Fever
* Shaking or chills
* Loss of appetite
* Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)

If left untreated, cholelithiasis can lead to complications such as inflammation of the gallbladder (cholangitis), infection of the bile ducts (biliary sepsis), or blockage of the common bile duct. These complications can be life-threatening and require immediate medical attention.

The diagnosis of cholelithiasis is usually made through a combination of imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and blood tests to check for signs of inflammation and liver function. Treatment options for cholelithiasis include:

* Watchful waiting: If the gallstones are small and not causing any symptoms, doctors may recommend monitoring the condition without immediate treatment.
* Medications: Oral medications such as bile salts or ursodiol can dissolve small gallstones and relieve symptoms.
* Laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A minimally invasive surgical procedure to remove the gallbladder through small incisions.
* Open cholecystectomy: An open surgery to remove the gallbladder, usually performed when the gallstones are large or there are other complications.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of cholelithiasis, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.

Cholecystitis can be acute or chronic. Acute cholecystitis occurs when the gallbladder becomes inflamed suddenly, usually due to a blockage in the bile ducts. This can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever. Chronic cholecystitis is a long-standing inflammation of the gallbladder that can lead to scarring and thickening of the gallbladder wall.

The causes of cholecystitis include:

1. Gallstones: The most common cause of cholecystitis is the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder. These stones can block the bile ducts and cause inflammation.
2. Infection: Bacterial infection can spread to the gallbladder from other parts of the body, causing cholecystitis.
3. Pancreatitis: Inflammation of the pancreas can spread to the gallbladder and cause cholecystitis.
4. Incomplete emptying of the gallbladder: If the gallbladder does not empty properly, bile can become stagnant and cause inflammation.
5. Genetic factors: Some people may be more susceptible to developing cholecystitis due to genetic factors.

Symptoms of cholecystitis may include:

1. Abdominal pain, especially in the upper right side of the abdomen
2. Nausea and vomiting
3. Fever
4. Loss of appetite
5. Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes)
6. Tea-colored urine
7. Pale or clay-colored stools

If you suspect that you or someone else may have cholecystitis, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. A healthcare provider can diagnose cholecystitis based on a physical examination, medical history, and results of diagnostic tests such as an ultrasound or CT scan. Treatment for cholecystitis usually involves antibiotics to clear up any infection, and in severe cases, surgery to remove the gallbladder may be necessary.

There are several types of biliary tract diseases, including:

1. Gallstones: Small, pebble-like deposits that form in the gallbladder and can cause pain and blockages.
2. Cholangitis: An infection of the bile ducts that can cause fever, chills, and abdominal pain.
3. Biliary cirrhosis: Scarring of the liver and bile ducts that can lead to liver failure.
4. Pancreatitis: Inflammation of the pancreas that can cause abdominal pain and digestive problems.
5. Cancer of the biliary tract: Cancer that affects the liver, gallbladder, or bile ducts.

Biliary tract diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, obesity, alcohol consumption, and certain medications. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging tests, such as CT scans and endoscopic ultrasound, and laboratory tests, such as blood tests and liver function tests.

Treatment for biliary tract diseases depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, treatment may involve medications to dissolve gallstones or treat infections. In more severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the gallbladder or repair damaged bile ducts.

Prevention is key in avoiding biliary tract diseases, and this includes maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle, managing risk factors such as obesity and alcohol consumption, and getting regular medical check-ups. Early detection and treatment of biliary tract diseases can help to improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications.

Examples:

1. Gallstones: Small, pebble-like deposits that form in the gallbladder or bile ducts and can cause blockages and inflammation.
2. Cholangitis: An infection of the bile ducts that can cause fever, chills, and abdominal pain.
3. Bile duct cancer: A type of cancer that affects the cells lining the bile ducts.
4. Stricture: A narrowing of the bile duct that can cause obstruction and block the flow of bile.
5. Cysts: Fluid-filled sacs that can form in the bile ducts and cause symptoms such as abdominal pain and jaundice.

Inflammation of the gallbladder that develops rapidly and usually as a result of obstruction of the cystic duct by a gallstone or rarely by tumors, parasites, or external pressure. Symptoms include right upper quadrant abdominal pain, fever, nausea, vomiting, and Murphy's sign (tenderness over the gallbladder). Treatment is with antibiotics, analgesics, and supportive care; surgical intervention may be required in severe cases or if there are complications. See: biliary colic; cholelithiasis; cholangitis.

Examples of 'Diverticulum' in sentence:

1. The patient was diagnosed with a diverticulum in her colon, which was causing abdominal pain and changes in bowel habits.
2. The doctor recommended that the patient avoid fatty foods and drink plenty of fluids to help manage her diverticulum.
3. The diverticulum was successfully treated with antibiotics, but the patient had to make some lifestyle changes to prevent future complications.

The term "extrahepatic" refers to the fact that the obstruction occurs outside of the liver, as opposed to intrahepatic cholestasis, which occurs within the liver. Extrahepatic cholestasis can be caused by a variety of factors, including gallstones, pancreatitis, and cancer.

Treatment for extrahepatic cholestasis typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the obstruction. In some cases, this may involve surgery to remove the blockage or other procedures such as stent placement or biliary bypass surgery. Medications such as bile salts and ursodeoxycholic acid may also be used to help improve liver function and reduce symptoms.

In summary, extrahepatic cholestasis is a type of bile duct obstruction that occurs outside of the liver, leading to bile buildup in the bloodstream and potentially causing a range of symptoms. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the obstruction.

There are several causes of pancreatitis, including:

1. Gallstones: These can block the pancreatic duct, causing inflammation.
2. Alcohol consumption: Heavy alcohol use can damage the pancreas and lead to inflammation.
3. High triglycerides: Elevated levels of triglycerides in the blood can cause pancreatitis.
4. Infections: Viral or bacterial infections can infect the pancreas and cause inflammation.
5. Genetic factors: Some people may be more susceptible to pancreatitis due to inherited genetic mutations.
6. Pancreatic trauma: Physical injury to the pancreas can cause inflammation.
7. Certain medications: Some medications, such as certain antibiotics and chemotherapy drugs, can cause pancreatitis as a side effect.

Symptoms of pancreatitis may include:

1. Abdominal pain
2. Nausea and vomiting
3. Fever
4. Diarrhea or bloating
5. Weight loss
6. Loss of appetite

Treatment for pancreatitis depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage symptoms and address any complications. Treatment options may include:

1. Pain management: Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or opioids may be used to manage abdominal pain.
2. Fluid replacement: Intravenous fluids may be given to replace lost fluids and electrolytes.
3. Antibiotics: If the pancreatitis is caused by an infection, antibiotics may be prescribed to treat the infection.
4. Nutritional support: Patients with pancreatitis may require nutritional support to ensure they are getting enough calories and nutrients.
5. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy: In some cases, pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy may be necessary to help the body digest food.
6. Surgery: In severe cases of pancreatitis, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged tissue or repair damaged blood vessels.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience persistent abdominal pain or other symptoms of pancreatitis, as early treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.

There are several types of cholestasis, including:

1. Obstructive cholestasis: This occurs when there is a blockage in the bile ducts, preventing bile from flowing freely from the liver.
2. Metabolic cholestasis: This is caused by a problem with the metabolism of bile acids in the liver.
3. Inflammatory cholestasis: This occurs when there is inflammation in the liver, which can cause scarring and impair bile flow.
4. Idiopathic cholestasis: This type of cholestasis has no identifiable cause.

Treatment for cholestasis depends on the underlying cause, but may include medications to improve bile flow, dissolve gallstones, or reduce inflammation. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary. Early diagnosis and treatment can help to manage symptoms and prevent complications of cholestasis.

Some common examples of duodenal diseases include:

1. Peptic ulcers: These are open sores that develop in the lining of the duodenum and can be caused by infection with Helicobacter pylori bacteria or the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
2. Duodenal cancer: This is a rare type of cancer that develops in the lining of the duodenum. It can be treated with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.
3. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): This is a chronic condition that causes inflammation in the digestive tract, including the duodenum. Symptoms of IBD include abdominal pain, diarrhea, and weight loss.
4. Duodenal webs or rings: These are congenital abnormalities that can cause blockages or narrowing in the duodenum.
5. Pancreatitis: This is inflammation of the pancreas, which can spread to the duodenum and cause damage to the lining of the duodenum.
6. Gastrointestinal hormone deficiency: This is a condition where the body does not produce enough gastrointestinal hormones, which can lead to symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weight loss.
7. Duodenal polyps: These are growths that develop in the lining of the duodenum and can be benign or cancerous.
8. Duodenal obstruction: This is a blockage that develops in the duodenum and can be caused by a variety of factors, including tumors, adhesions, and inflammation.

Duodenal diseases can be diagnosed through a range of tests, including:

1. Endoscopy: This is a procedure where a flexible tube with a camera and light on the end is inserted into the duodenum to visualize the inside of the duodenum and collect tissue samples.
2. Biopsy: This is a procedure where a small sample of tissue is removed from the duodenum and examined under a microscope for signs of disease.
3. CT scan or MRI: These are imaging tests that use X-rays or magnetic fields to produce detailed images of the duodenum and surrounding tissues.
4. Blood tests: These can be used to check for signs of infection, inflammation, or other conditions affecting the duodenum.
5. Stool tests: These can be used to check for signs of infection or inflammation in the duodenum.

Treatment for duodenal diseases will depend on the specific condition and its cause, but may include:

1. Medications: Such as antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, and acid-suppressing medications to manage symptoms and reduce inflammation.
2. Lifestyle changes: Such as avoiding trigger foods, eating smaller meals, and managing stress.
3. Endoscopy: To remove any blockages or abnormal growths in the duodenum.
4. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged tissue or remove affected tissue.
5. Nutritional support: To ensure that the patient is getting enough nutrients and electrolytes.

It's important to note that a proper diagnosis from a medical professional is essential for effective treatment of duodenal diseases.

Examples of bile duct diseases include:

1. Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC): An inflammatory condition that damages the bile ducts, leading to scarring and narrowing of the ducts.
2. Cholangiocarcinoma: A type of cancer that originates in the bile ducts.
3. Gallstones: Small, pebble-like deposits that form in the gallbladder or bile ducts and can cause blockages and inflammation.
4. Bile duct injuries: Damage to the bile ducts during surgery or other medical procedures.
5. Biliary atresia: A congenital condition where the bile ducts are blocked or absent, leading to jaundice and other symptoms in infants.

Treatment for bile duct diseases depends on the underlying cause and can include medications, endoscopic procedures, surgery, and in some cases, liver transplantation.

The sphincter of Oddi is a ring-like muscle that controls the opening and closing of the common bile duct into the small intestine. Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction refers to problems with the functioning of this muscle, which can lead to a range of symptoms including abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes).

There are several possible causes of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, including:

1. Gallstones: Gallstones can block the common bile duct and cause inflammation and scarring of the sphincter, leading to dysfunction.
2. Inflammatory conditions: Conditions such as pancreatitis and cholangitis can cause inflammation and damage to the sphincter muscle.
3. Cancer: Bile duct cancer or pancreatic cancer can infiltrate and damage the sphincter muscle, leading to dysfunction.
4. Injury: Trauma to the abdomen or surgical damage to the bile ducts can cause dysfunction of the sphincter.
5. Neurological disorders: Certain neurological conditions such as Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and peripheral neuropathy can affect the nerves that control the sphincter muscle, leading to dysfunction.

The symptoms of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction can vary depending on the underlying cause and the severity of the dysfunction. They may include:

* Abdominal pain, often in the right upper quadrant or middle of the abdomen
* Nausea and vomiting
* Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes)
* Fatigue
* Loss of appetite
* Weight loss
* Pale or clay-colored stools
* Dark urine

If you are experiencing any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare professional can perform a series of tests to diagnose the underlying cause of the dysfunction and develop an appropriate treatment plan. These tests may include:

1. Endoscopy: A thin, flexible tube with a camera and light on the end is inserted through the mouth and into the bile ducts to visualize the sphincter and surrounding tissues.
2. Imaging tests: Such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans to evaluate the structure of the bile ducts and liver.
3. Blood tests: To check for signs of liver damage or pancreas inflammation.
4. ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography): A procedure in which a flexible tube with a camera and a special tool is inserted through the mouth and into the bile ducts to diagnose and treat problems.
5. Sphincterotomy: A procedure in which the surgeon makes a small incision in the sphincter muscle to relieve pressure and allow normal flow of bile.
6. Stent placement: A small tube is placed inside the bile duct to keep it open and improve flow.
7. Biliary bypass surgery: A procedure in which the surgeon reroutes the bile flow around the blocked bile duct.
8. Liver transplantation: In severe cases of bile duct injuries, a liver transplant may be necessary.

It is important to note that the treatment plan will depend on the underlying cause of the dysfunction and the severity of the condition. A healthcare professional will be able to determine the best course of treatment based on individual circumstances.

There are many different causes of pathological dilatation, including:

1. Infection: Infections like tuberculosis or abscesses can cause inflammation and swelling in affected tissues, leading to dilatation.
2. Inflammation: Inflammatory conditions like rheumatoid arthritis or Crohn's disease can cause dilatation of blood vessels and organs.
3. Heart disease: Conditions like heart failure or coronary artery disease can lead to dilatation of the heart chambers or vessels.
4. Liver or spleen disease: Dilatation of the liver or spleen can occur due to conditions like cirrhosis or splenomegaly.
5. Neoplasms: Tumors can cause dilatation of affected structures, such as blood vessels or organs.

Pathological dilatation can lead to a range of symptoms depending on the location and severity of the condition. These may include:

1. Swelling or distension of the affected structure
2. Pain or discomfort in the affected area
3. Difficulty breathing or swallowing (in the case of dilatation in the throat or airways)
4. Fatigue or weakness
5. Pale or clammy skin
6. Rapid heart rate or palpitations
7. Shortness of breath (dyspnea)

Diagnosis of pathological dilatation typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging studies like X-rays or CT scans, and laboratory tests to identify the underlying cause. Treatment depends on the specific condition and may include medications, surgery, or other interventions to address the underlying cause and relieve symptoms.

Recurrence can also refer to the re-emergence of symptoms in a previously treated condition, such as a chronic pain condition that returns after a period of remission.

In medical research, recurrence is often studied to understand the underlying causes of disease progression and to develop new treatments and interventions to prevent or delay its return.

1. Infection: Bacterial or viral infections can develop after surgery, potentially leading to sepsis or organ failure.
2. Adhesions: Scar tissue can form during the healing process, which can cause bowel obstruction, chronic pain, or other complications.
3. Wound complications: Incisional hernias, wound dehiscence (separation of the wound edges), and wound infections can occur.
4. Respiratory problems: Pneumonia, respiratory failure, and atelectasis (collapsed lung) can develop after surgery, particularly in older adults or those with pre-existing respiratory conditions.
5. Cardiovascular complications: Myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiac failure can occur after surgery, especially in high-risk patients.
6. Renal (kidney) problems: Acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease can develop postoperatively, particularly in patients with pre-existing renal impairment.
7. Neurological complications: Stroke, seizures, and neuropraxia (nerve damage) can occur after surgery, especially in patients with pre-existing neurological conditions.
8. Pulmonary embolism: Blood clots can form in the legs or lungs after surgery, potentially causing pulmonary embolism.
9. Anesthesia-related complications: Respiratory and cardiac complications can occur during anesthesia, including respiratory and cardiac arrest.
10. delayed healing: Wound healing may be delayed or impaired after surgery, particularly in patients with pre-existing medical conditions.

It is important for patients to be aware of these potential complications and to discuss any concerns with their surgeon and healthcare team before undergoing surgery.

"Choledocholithiasis: Causes, Symptoms, and Diagnosis". Healthline. 15 December 2017. Retrieved 2020-04-22. Pappas T, Voss M. " ... and choledocholithiasis, the presence of gallstones. Obstruction can occur when gallstones may be too large to pass through the ...
Severe jaundice suggests another cause of symptoms such as choledocholithiasis. People who are old, have diabetes, chronic ... Cholecystitis and Choledocholithiasis. Clinical Guideline 188": 101. PMID 25473723. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires , ... peptic ulcer Acute pancreatitis Liver abscess Pneumonia Myocardial ischemia Hiatal hernia Biliary colic Choledocholithiasis ...
Choledocholithiasis is frequently associated with obstruction of the bile ducts, which can lead to cholangitis, from the Greek ... and choledocholithiasis refers to the presence of migrated gallstones within bile ducts. Most people with gallstones (about 80 ... The presence of gallstones in the common bile duct is called choledocholithiasis, from the Greek chol- (bile) + docho- (duct ... Cholecystitis and Choledocholithiasis. Clinical Guideline 188": 101. PMID 25473723. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires , ...
Cholecystitis and Choledocholithiasis". NICE.org: 21. PMID 25473723. Clinical Guideline 188. Retrieved 24 June 2018. Ansaloni, ... Further signs on ultrasound may suggest cholecystitis or choledocholithiasis. Computed Tomography (CT) is not indicated when ...
There are several strategies to manage choledocholithiasis but the optimal method as well as the timing of treatment is still ... developed choledocholithiasis (one or more stones stuck in the common bile duct), 27% had tube dislodgment, and 23% developed ... Cholecystitis and Choledocholithiasis. Clinical Guideline 188". PMID 25473723. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires ,journal ... single-stage treatment with intraoperative ERCP for patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis with possible choledocholithiasis ...
With conditions such as cholecystitis and choledocholithiasis, fever may be present. During the physical examination, the ... In regards to a suspected choledocholithiasis, a endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is used in both the ... If gallstones are blocking other biliary tract areas causing pancreatic gallstones or choledocholithiasis, elevated liver panel ... diagnosis and treatment as it can remove the stones that are blocking the bile ducts causing choledocholithiasis. In patients ...
If obstructed by a gallstone, a condition called choledocholithiasis can result. In this obstructed state, the duct is ...
This is better known as choledocholithiasis where gallstones become stuck in the common bile duct. Drugs may induce cholestasis ... Localization of pain to the upper right quadrant can be indicative of cholecystitis or choledocholithiasis, which can progress ... Patients can also request an elective cholecystectomy to prevent future cases of choledocholithiasis. In case of narrowing of ... Brady P (May 2016). "Commentary on "Prospective Evaluation of the Clinical Features of Choledocholithiasis: Focus on Abdominal ...
"Single-operator duodenoscope-assisted cholangioscopy is an effective alternative in the management of choledocholithiasis not ... Endoscopic Management of Fractured Dormia Basket During Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography for Choledocholithiasis ...
Typically, it is positive in cholecystitis, but negative in choledocholithiasis, pyelonephritis, and ascending cholangitis. ...
The diagnosis of choledocholithiasis is suggested when the liver function blood test shows an elevation in bilirubin and serum ... Choledocholithiasis (stones in common bile duct) is one of the complications of cholelithiasis (gallstones), so the initial ... Common bile duct stone, also known as choledocholithiasis, is the presence of gallstones in the common bile duct (CBD) (thus ... Jaundice and/or clay-colored stool may raise suspicion of choledocholithiasis or even gallstone pancreatitis. If the above ...
This is a list of conditions that can cause posthepatic jaundice: Choledocholithiasis (common bile duct gallstones). It is the ...
... choledocholithiasis, and cholangiocarcinoma. These morbid conditions often prompt the diagnosis. Portal hypertension may be ...
... resonance cholangiopancreatography and ultrasound compared with direct cholangiography in the detection of choledocholithiasis ...
Extraction of choledocholithiasis and/or intrahepatic stones: choledocholithiasis is the presence of gallstones within the ... choledocholithiasis), biliary or papillary strictures, sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, bile leaks, and others. In addition, it ...
... a condition called choledocholithiasis. Obstruction can also be due to duodenal inflammation in Crohn's disease. A gallstone ...
Crigler-Najjar syndrome Dubin-Johnson syndrome Choledocholithiasis (chronic or acute). Cirrhosis may cause normal, moderately ...
Obstruction of the bile ducts by gallstones (choledocholithiasis), primary sclerosing cholangitis, liver damage (intrahepatic ...
In patients with cholecysto-choledocholithiasis one-stage laparoscopic common bile duct exploration and cholecystectomy has ...
One possible complication of choledocholithiasis is an infection of the bile ducts between the liver and the gallstone lodged ... this condition is known as choledocholithiasis and is another indication for cholecystectomy. The common bile duct, commonly ...
... hepatolithiasis and choledocholithiasis may predispose to malignant change. Further, industrial exposure to asbestos and ...
... choledocholithiasis, perforated peptic ulcer, bowel infarction, small bowel obstruction, hepatitis, and mesenteric ischemia. ...
... choledocholithiasis, docholithiasis, and sialolithiasis, and acute inflammation caused by crystals in joints causes gout and ...
Detection of Choledocholithiasis with MR Cholangiography: Comparison of Three-Dimensional Fast SE, Single-Slice Half-Fourier ...
... it was suggested that it can result from insult to the biliary tree by obstructive cholangitis secondary to choledocholithiasis ...
... choledocholithiasis).: 977-978 Gallstones are a common cause of inflammation of the gallbladder, called cholecystitis. ...
Can progress to choledocholithiasis (gallstones in the bile duct) and gallstone pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas) ...
... choledocholithiasis), jaundice and in ruling out post-operative injury to the pancreas; provided that the diastase level is ...
... obstructive choledocholithiasis, carcinoma of the bile duct, cholestasis (also see drug-induced pruritus), and chronic ...
... choledocholithiasis MeSH C06.130.120.250.280 - common bile duct neoplasms MeSH C06.130.320.120 - bile duct neoplasms MeSH ... choledocholithiasis MeSH C06.130.564.263 - cholecystitis MeSH C06.130.564.263.249 - acalculous cholecystitis MeSH C06.130. ...
Choledocholithiasis is the presence of at least one gallstone in the common bile duct. The stone may be made up of bile ... Choledocholithiasis is the presence of at least one gallstone in the common bile duct. The stone may be made up of bile ... Li S, Zenlea T. Choledocholithiasis. In: Ferri FF, ed. Ferris Clinical Advisor 2022. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2022:368-369. ... However, choledocholithiasis can occur in people who have had their gallbladder removed. ...
Our requirements are stated in our rapid response terms and conditions and must be read. These include ensuring that: i) you do not include any illustrative content including tables and graphs, ii) you do not include any information that includes specifics about any patients,iii) you do not include any original data, unless it has already been published in a peer reviewed journal and you have included a reference, iv) your response is lawful, not defamatory, original and accurate, v) you declare any competing interests, vi) you understand that your name and other personal details set out in our rapid response terms and conditions will be published with any responses we publish and vii) you understand that once a response is published, we may continue to publish your response and/or edit or remove it in the future ...
Predictor factors for choledocholithiasis. Overview of attention for article published in ABCD. Arquivos Brasileiros de ... Patients with choledocholithiasis had transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transferase and higher bilirubin with ... patients without choledocholithiasis intraoperatively and cases group (47 patients), that enrolled the patients with ... ultrasound was fairly accurate for cholelithiasis and choledocholithiasis (p,0.001). Changes in canalicular and transaminase ...
Effect of Frailty on the Management of Suspected Choledocholithiasis. Effect of Frailty on the Management of Suspected ... guidelines for managing choledocholithiasis (CDL) omit patient-specific factors like frailty. We evaluated how frail patients ... Choledocholithiasis. Bergus, Katherine C; Gelbard, Rondi B; Scarlet, Sara; Srinivas, Shruthi; Tracy, Brett M. AfiliaciĆ³n * ...
Choledocholithiasis - gallstones in the common bile duct. Usually secondary to cholelithiasis, but can be a primary stone in ... 7 thoughts on "Gallbladder Disease (cholelithiasis, biliary colic, cholecystitis, choledocholithiasis, cholangitis)" * skc on ... Gallbladder Disease (cholelithiasis, biliary colic, cholecystitis, choledocholithiasis, cholangitis). Posted on May 2, 2012. by ...
Inpatient Choledocholithiasis Requiring ERCP and Cholecystectomy: Outcomes of a Combined Single Inpatient Procedure Versus ...
Liver profile - To rule out hepatitis, acute cholecystitis, and choledocholithiasis. * Complete blood cell (CBC) count - To ...
Common bile duct stone (choledocholithiasis). The sensitivity of transabdominal ultrasonography for choledocholithiasis is ... Choledocholithiasis with obstruction of the common bile duct produces cutaneous and scleral icterus that evolves over hours to ... Endoscopic management of choledocholithiasis and cholelithiasis in patients with cirrhosis. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. ... Prospective evaluation of early endoscopic ultrasonography for triage in suspected choledocholithiasis: results from a large ...
One of these patients also had cholecystitis and choledocholithiasis. One other patient with healthcare-associated bacteremia ...
Choledocholithiasis. Gallstones which have passed into the bile ducts.. Cholelithiasis. Gallstones in the gallbladder. ...
Ultrasound in choledocholithiasis.. Khandelwal N; Suri S; Malik M; Katariya S; Das KM; Garg K; Duggal R. J Indian Med Assoc; ...
Cianci P, Restini E. Management of cholelithiasis with choledocholithiasis: Endoscopic and surgical approaches. World J ...
Choledocholithiasis and Cholelithiasis (Gallstones) *Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC) *Pancreatitis. *Indeterminate ...
PREDICTION OF CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS. Gastroenterology. 104:A19-A19. 1993 * THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT COFFEES ON ESOPHAGEAL ACID ...
Computed tomography of choledocholithiasis. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1983;140:1179-83. (Prospective, 21 patients) ... Detection of choledocholithiasis: comparison of unenhanced helical CT and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. ...
Determine if cholelithiasis or choledocholithiasis is present, particularly in patients with a history of prior therapy with ...
Choledocholithiasis Preferred Term Term UI T009143. Date05/03/1979. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID UNK (19XX). ... Choledocholithiasis Preferred Concept UI. M0333984. Scope Note. Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the COMMON BILE DUCT.. ... Choledocholithiasis. Tree Number(s). C06.130.120.250.174. C06.130.409.267. Unique ID. D042883. RDF Unique Identifier. http://id ...
Choledochoduodenal fistula secondary to duodenal ulcer disease and choledocholithiasis: Report of 2 cases. Journal of Armed ...
Bile viscosities did not differ between patient groups with either choledocholithiasis, sludge, cholangitis, biliary ...
She had undergone an ERCP four weeks previously for primary choledocholithiasis during which time a sphincterotomy and ... She had undergone an ERCP four weeks previously for primary choledocholithiasis during which time a sphincterotomy and ... She had undergone an ERCP four weeks previously for primary choledocholithiasis during which time a sphincterotomy and ...
Secondary causes of sclerosing cholangitis include prior biliary surgery, choledocholithiasis, carcinoma, or infection. ...
Recurrent gallstones in the gallbladder (cholelithiasis) or bile duct (choledocholithiasis). *Chronic gallbladder inflammation ...
... has brought about a significant change in the management of choledocholithiasis. With continual... ...
... cholecystitis and choledocholithiasis, Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), functional abdominal pain and other functional ...
... choledocholithiasis, choledochotomy, Cigna, clinical factors, clinical parameters, closure, common duct, common hepatic duct, ...
Choledocholithiasis - Preferred Concept UI. M0333984. Scope note. Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the COMMON BILE DUCT. ...
Choledocholithiasis Preferred Term Term UI T009143. Date05/03/1979. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID UNK (19XX). ... Choledocholithiasis Preferred Concept UI. M0333984. Scope Note. Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the COMMON BILE DUCT.. ... Choledocholithiasis. Tree Number(s). C06.130.120.250.174. C06.130.409.267. Unique ID. D042883. RDF Unique Identifier. http://id ...
  • Choledocholithiasis - gallstones in the common bile duct . (sketchymedicine.com)
  • In this article, we will discuss the different types of gallstones, their pathogenesis, epidemiology, risk factors, and the difference between cholelithiasis and choledocholithiasis. (glamyohealth.in)
  • Cbd Stone Medical Abbreviation - matchflatwareho.co Cbd Stone Medical Abbreviation, cbd rio convention, jkuat cbd courses, dr buddi cbd oil 500mg Common bile duct stone - Wikipedia Common bile duct stone, also known as choledocholithiasis, is the presence of gallstones in the common bile duct (CBD) (thus choledocho-+ lithiasis). (web.app)
  • One of these patients also had cholecystitis and choledocholithiasis. (cdc.gov)
  • Each year choledocholithiasis results in biliary obstruction, cholangitis, and pancreatitis in a significant number of patients. (bvsalud.org)
  • Biliary stricture was the most common indication for ERCP in the liver transplant group, whereas choledocholithiasis was the main reason for ERCP in the general adult population. (bvsalud.org)
  • Inpatient Choledocholithiasis Requiring ERCP and Cholecystectomy: Outc" by M. Passi, S. Inamdar et al. (hofstra.edu)
  • She had undergone an ERCP four weeks previously for primary choledocholithiasis during which time a sphincterotomy and sphincteroplasty were performed, and stents were placed in the common bile duct. (hindawi.com)
  • She had undergone an ERCP four weeks previously for primary choledocholithiasis during which time a sphincterotomy and sphincteroplasty were performed, and a 10 Fr stent with internal and external flaps and a 7 Fr stent with internal and external pigtails were placed in the common bile duct. (hindawi.com)
  • Choledocholithiasis is the presence of at least one gallstone in the common bile duct. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The preoperative diagnosis guides the interventional treatment on the bile duct To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the laboratory markers and imaging studies for choledocholithiasis preoperatively. (altmetric.com)
  • The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy and The Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (ASGE-SAGES) guidelines for managing choledocholithiasis (CDL) omit patient -specific factors like frailty . (bvsalud.org)
  • Cianci P, Restini E. Management of cholelithiasis with choledocholithiasis: Endoscopic and surgical approaches. (wjgnet.com)
  • However, choledocholithiasis can occur in people who have had their gallbladder removed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 12. Ultrasound in choledocholithiasis. (nih.gov)
  • Choledochoduodenal fistula secondary to duodenal ulcer disease and choledocholithiasis: Report of 2 cases. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The study comprised 254 patients divided into two groups: the control group (207 patients), patients without choledocholithiasis intraoperatively and cases group (47 patients), that enrolled the patients with choledocholithiasis intra-operatively. (altmetric.com)
  • Effect of Frailty on the Management of Suspected Choledocholithiasis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Management of a patient with choledocholithiasis include: Low-fat diet. (web.app)