Cholecystokinin: A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.Receptors, Cholecystokinin: Cell surface proteins that bind cholecystokinin (CCK) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholecystokinin receptors are activated by GASTRIN as well as by CCK-4; CCK-8; and CCK-33. Activation of these receptors evokes secretion of AMYLASE by pancreatic acinar cells, acid and PEPSIN by stomach mucosal cells, and contraction of the PYLORUS and GALLBLADDER. The role of the widespread CCK receptors in the central nervous system is not well understood.Receptor, Cholecystokinin A: A subtype of cholecystokinin receptor found primarily in the PANCREAS; STOMACH; INTESTINE; and GALLBLADDER. It plays a role in regulating digestive functions such as gallbladder contraction, pancreatic enzyme secretion and absorption in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Receptor, Cholecystokinin B: A subtype of cholecystokinin receptor found primarily in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and the GASTRIC MUCOSA. It may play a role as a neuromodulator of dopaminergic neurotransmission the regulation of GASTRIC ACID secretion from GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.Sincalide: An octapeptide hormone present in the intestine and brain. When secreted from the gastric mucosa, it stimulates the release of bile from the gallbladder and digestive enzymes from the pancreas.Devazepide: A derivative of benzodiazepine that acts on the cholecystokinin A (CCKA) receptor to antagonize CCK-8's (SINCALIDE) physiological and behavioral effects, such as pancreatic stimulation and inhibition of feeding.Proglumide: A drug that exerts an inhibitory effect on gastric secretion and reduces gastrointestinal motility. It is used clinically in the drug therapy of gastrointestinal ulcers.BenzodiazepinonesTetragastrin: L-Tryptophyl-L-methionyl-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalaninamide. The C-terminal tetrapeptide of gastrin. It is the smallest peptide fragment of gastrin which has the same physiological and pharmacological activity as gastrin.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Gastrins: A family of gastrointestinal peptide hormones that excite the secretion of GASTRIC JUICE. They may also occur in the central nervous system where they are presumed to be neurotransmitters.Gallbladder: A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.Gallbladder Emptying: A process whereby bile is delivered from the gallbladder into the duodenum. The emptying is caused by both contraction of the gallbladder and relaxation of the sphincter mechanism at the choledochal terminus.Amylases: A group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (Stedman, 25th ed) EC 3.2.1.-.Satiation: Full gratification of a need or desire followed by a state of relative insensitivity to that particular need or desire.Secretin: A peptide hormone of about 27 amino acids from the duodenal mucosa that activates pancreatic secretion and lowers the blood sugar level. (USAN and the USP Dictionary of Drug Names, 1994, p597)Ceruletide: A specific decapeptide obtained from the skin of Hila caerulea, an Australian amphibian. Caerulein is similar in action and composition to CHOLECYSTOKININ. It stimulates gastric, biliary, and pancreatic secretion; and certain smooth muscle. It is used in paralytic ileus and as diagnostic aid in pancreatic malfunction.Gabexate: A serine proteinase inhibitor used therapeutically in the treatment of pancreatitis, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and as a regional anticoagulant for hemodialysis. The drug inhibits the hydrolytic effects of thrombin, plasmin, and kallikrein, but not of chymotrypsin and aprotinin.Hormone Antagonists: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Satiety Response: Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.Gastrointestinal Hormones: HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.Pancreatic Juice: The fluid containing digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas in response to food in the duodenum.Pancreatic Polypeptide: A 36-amino acid pancreatic hormone that is secreted mainly by endocrine cells found at the periphery of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS and adjacent to cells containing SOMATOSTATIN and GLUCAGON. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP), when administered peripherally, can suppress gastric secretion, gastric emptying, pancreatic enzyme secretion, and appetite. A lack of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) has been associated with OBESITY in rats and mice.Enteroendocrine Cells: Cells found throughout the lining of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that contain and secrete regulatory PEPTIDE HORMONES and/or BIOGENIC AMINES.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Gastric Emptying: The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.Pentagastrin: A synthetic pentapeptide that has effects like gastrin when given parenterally. It stimulates the secretion of gastric acid, pepsin, and intrinsic factor, and has been used as a diagnostic aid.Bombesin: A tetradecapeptide originally obtained from the skins of toads Bombina bombina and B. variegata. It is also an endogenous neurotransmitter in many animals including mammals. Bombesin affects vascular and other smooth muscle, gastric secretion, and renal circulation and function.Cholecystography: Radiography of the gallbladder after ingestion of a contrast medium.Peptide YY: A 36-amino acid peptide produced by the L cells of the distal small intestine and colon. Peptide YY inhibits gastric and pancreatic secretion.Azaserine: Antibiotic substance produced by various Streptomyces species. It is an inhibitor of enzymatic activities that involve glutamine and is used as an antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent.Pancreas, Exocrine: The major component (about 80%) of the PANCREAS composed of acinar functional units of tubular and spherical cells. The acinar cells synthesize and secrete several digestive enzymes such as TRYPSINOGEN; LIPASE; AMYLASE; and RIBONUCLEASE. Secretion from the exocrine pancreas drains into the pancreatic ductal system and empties into the DUODENUM.Technetium Tc 99m Disofenin: A radiopharmaceutical used extensively in cholescintigraphy for the evaluation of hepatobiliary diseases. (From Int Jrnl Rad Appl Inst 1992;43(9):1061-4)Imino AcidsChymotrypsinogenBiliopancreatic Diversion: A surgical procedure which diverts pancreatobiliary secretions via the duodenum and the jejunum into the colon, the remaining small intestine being anastomosed to the stomach after antrectomy. The procedure produces less diarrhea than does jejunoileal bypass.Sphincter of Oddi: The sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla within the duodenal papilla. The COMMON BILE DUCT and main pancreatic duct pass through this sphincter.Peptones: Derived proteins or mixtures of cleavage products produced by the partial hydrolysis of a native protein either by an acid or by an enzyme. Peptones are readily soluble in water, and are not precipitable by heat, by alkalis, or by saturation with ammonium sulfate. (Dorland, 28th ed)Phenylurea Compounds: Compounds that include the amino-N-phenylamide structure.Gastrointestinal Motility: The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Appetite Regulation: Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Meglumine: 1-Deoxy-1-(methylamino)-D-glucitol. A derivative of sorbitol in which the hydroxyl group in position 1 is replaced by a methylamino group. Often used in conjunction with iodinated organic compounds as contrast medium.Dibutyryl Cyclic GMP: N-(1-Oxobutyl)-cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate)-2'-butanoate guanosine. A derivative of cyclic GMP. It has a higher resistance to extracellular and intracellular phosphodiesterase than cyclic GMP.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Hunger: The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Biliary Dyskinesia: A motility disorder characterized by biliary COLIC, absence of GALLSTONES, and an abnormal GALLBLADDER ejection fraction. It is caused by gallbladder dyskinesia and/or SPHINCTER OF ODDI DYSFUNCTION.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Cholagogues and Choleretics: Gastrointestinal agents that stimulate the flow of bile into the duodenum (cholagogues) or stimulate the production of bile by the liver (choleretic).Nodose Ganglion: The inferior (caudal) ganglion of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. The unipolar nodose ganglion cells are sensory cells with central projections to the medulla and peripheral processes traveling in various branches of the vagus nerve.Trypsinogen: The inactive proenzyme of trypsin secreted by the pancreas, activated in the duodenum via cleavage by enteropeptidase. (Stedman, 25th ed)Somatostatin: A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide: A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Benzodiazepines: A group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring.Technetium Tc 99m Lidofenin: A nontoxic radiopharmaceutical that is used in RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING for the clinical evaluation of hepatobiliary disorders in humans.Cystic Duct: The duct that is connected to the GALLBLADDER and allows the emptying of bile into the COMMON BILE DUCT.GlobulinsPentanoic AcidsAppetite Depressants: Agents that are used to suppress appetite.Pylorus: The region of the STOMACH at the junction with the DUODENUM. It is marked by the thickening of circular muscle layers forming the pyloric sphincter to control the opening and closure of the lumen.Trypsin Inhibitors: Serine proteinase inhibitors which inhibit trypsin. They may be endogenous or exogenous compounds.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Period Circadian Proteins: Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II: A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Parietal Cells, Gastric: Rounded or pyramidal cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS. They secrete HYDROCHLORIC ACID and produce gastric intrinsic factor, a glycoprotein that binds VITAMIN B12.Gastric Mucosa: Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Diltiazem: A benzothiazepine derivative with vasodilating action due to its antagonism of the actions of CALCIUM ion on membrane functions.Barium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain barium as an integral part of the molecule.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Nephropidae: Family of large marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA. These are called clawed lobsters because they bear pincers on the first three pairs of legs. The American lobster and Cape lobster in the genus Homarus are commonly used for food.Palinuridae: A family of marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, comprising the clawless lobsters. They are found in tropical and subtropical waters and characterized by short spines along the length of the tail and body.Ganglia, Invertebrate: Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.Brachyura: An infraorder of chiefly marine, largely carnivorous CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, including the genera Cancer, Uca, and Callinectes.Caudate Nucleus: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.Serum Albumin, Bovine: Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Gastroenterology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the physiology and diseases of the digestive system and related structures (esophagus, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas).Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Sierra Leone: A republic in western Africa, south of GUINEA and west of LIBERIA. Its capital is Freetown.Monomethylhydrazine: Hydrazine substituted by one methyl group.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Caffeine: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.AcetophenonesParvalbumins: Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Calbindin 2: A calbindin protein that is differentially expressed in distinct populations of NEURONS throughout the vertebrate and invertebrate NERVOUS SYSTEM, and modulates intrinsic neuronal excitability and influences LONG-TERM POTENTIATION. It is also found in LUNG, TESTIS, OVARY, KIDNEY, and BREAST, and is expressed in many tumor types found in these tissues. It is often used as an immunohistochemical marker for MESOTHELIOMA.

Proliferative effects of cholecystokinin in GH3 pituitary cells mediated by CCK2 receptors and potentiated by insulin. (1/1430)

1. Proliferative effects of CCK peptides have been examined in rat anterior pituitary GH3 cells, which express CCK2 receptors. 2. CCK-8s, gastrin(1-17) and its glycine-extended precursor G(1-17)-Gly, previously reported to cause proliferation via putative novel sites on AR4-2J and Swiss 3T3 cells, elicited significant dose dependent increases of similar magnitude in [3H]thymidine incorporation over 3 days in serum-free medium of 39 +/- 10% (P < 0.01, n = 20), 37 +/- 8% (P < 0.01, n = 27) and 41 +/- 6% (P < 0.01, n = 36) respectively. 3. CCK-8s and gastrin potentially stimulated mitogenesis (EC50 values 0.12 nM and 3.0 nM respectively), whilst G-Gly displayed similar efficacy but markedly lower potency. L-365,260 consistently blocked each peptide. The CCK2 receptor affinity of G-Gly in GH3 cells was 1.09 microM (1.01;1.17, n = 6) and 5.53 microM (3.71;5.99, n = 4) in guinea-pig cortex. 4. 1 microM G-Gly weakly stimulated Ca2+ increase, eliciting a 104 +/- 21% increase over basal Ca2+ levels, and was blocked by 1 microM L-365,260 whilst CCK-8s (100 nM) produced a much larger Ca2+ response (331 +/- 14%). 5. Insulin dose dependently enhanced proliferative effects of CCK-8s with a maximal leftwards shift of the CCK-8s curve at 100 ng ml(-1) (17 nM) (EC50 decreased 500 fold, from 0.1 nM to 0.2 pM; P < 0.0001). 10 microg ml(-1) insulin was supramaximal reducing the EC50 to 5 pM (P = 0.027) whilst 1 ng ml(-1) insulin was ineffective. Insulin weakly displaced [125I]BHCCK binding to GH3 CCK2 receptors (IC50 3.6 microM). 6. Results are consistent with mediation of G-Gly effects via CCK2 receptors in GH3 cells and reinforce the role of CCK2 receptors in control of cell growth. Effects of insulin in enhancing CCK proliferative potency may suggest that CCK2 and insulin receptors converge on common intracellular targets and indicates that mitogenic stimuli are influenced by the combination of extracellular factors present.  (+info)

Diazepam-binding inhibitor33-50 elicits Ca2+ oscillation and CCK secretion in STC-1 cells via L-type Ca2+ channels. (2/1430)

We recently isolated and characterized 86-amino acid CCK-releasing peptide from porcine intestinal mucosa. The sequence of this peptide is identical to that of porcine diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI). Intraduodenal administration of DBI stimulates the CCK release and elicits pancreatic secretion in rats. In this study we utilized a murine tumor cell line (STC-1 cells) that contains CCK to examine if DBI directly acts on these cells to stimulate CCK release. We investigated the cellular mechanisms responsible for this action. We showed that DBI33-50, a biologically active fragment of DBI1-86, significantly stimulated CCK secretion in STC-1 cells. This action was abolished by Ca2+-free medium. The mean basal intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) was 52 nM in fura 2-loaded STC-1 cells. DBI33-50 (1-1,000 nM) elicited Ca2+ oscillations; DBI33-50 (10 nM) increased the oscillation frequency to 5 cycles/10 min and elicited a net [Ca2+]i increase (peak - basal) to 157 nM. In contrast, bombesin and forskolin caused an initial transient [Ca2+]i followed by a small sustained [Ca2+]i plateau. Withdrawal of extracellular Ca2+ abolished Ca2+ oscillations stimulated by DBI33-50. L-type Ca2+ channel blockers nifedipine and diltiazem (3-10 microM) markedly attenuated DBI-stimulated Ca2+ oscillations. In other cell types L-type Ca2+ channels are activated by cAMP-protein kinase A. DBI33-50 failed to stimulate cAMP formation in STC-1 cells. Similarly, DBI33-50 had no effect on myo-inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate concentration ([IP3]), whereas bombesin caused an eightfold increase in [IP3] over basal. In addition, inhibitors of phospholipase C (U-73122), phospholipase A2 (ONO-RS-082), and protein tyrosine kinase (genistein) did not alter the Ca2+ oscillations elicited by DBI33-50. It appears that DBI33-50 acts directly on STC-1 cells to elicit Ca2+ oscillations via the voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ channels, resulting in the secretion of CCK. Mediation of this action is by intracellular mechanisms independent of the traditional signal transduction pathways, including phospholipase C, phospholipase A2, protein tyrosine kinase, and cAMP systems.  (+info)

The effects of vapreotide, a somatostatin analogue, on gastric acidity, gallbladder emptying and hormone release after 1 week of continuous subcutaneous infusion in normal subjects. (3/1430)

AIMS: Somatostatin analogues (e.g. vapreotide) are used for treatment of acromegaly, endocrine tumours and variceal bleeding. The pharmacodynamic effects of vapreotide have, however, not been documented in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous vapreotide administration on gastric acidity, gallbladder contraction and hormone release. METHODS: Ten healthy males participated in this randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial. A constant vapreotide (or placebo) infusion (1.5 mg day(-1) s.c.) was given for 7 days with a portable pump. Intragastric pH was monitored on days 2 and 7. Gallbladder volume was sonographically assessed and the maximal ejection fraction was calculated. In addition basal and postprandial plasma levels of gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK) were measured. RESULTS: After an initial increase in the median 24 h intragastric pH to a value of 2.6 on day 2, vapreotide's effect on pH decreased: (day 7: median pH=1.9; respective placebo values were 1.7 and 1.5). On the same days with vapreotide treatment, gallbladder contraction and plasma levels of CCK were reduced; maximal ejection fractions after meal stimulation were 18% and 20% (respective placebo values were 57% and 62%). Plasma gastrin levels were not changed with vapreotide treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The short lasting effect of vapreotide on intragastric acidity suggests a down-regulation of somatostatin receptors during treatment. The lack of effect on gastrin indicates that the effects on gastric pH are not mediated by gastrin. Constant vapreotide infusion (but not placebo) reduced gallbladder contraction suggesting a long-lasting effect on biliary function.  (+info)

Involvement of RhoA and its interaction with protein kinase C and Src in CCK-stimulated pancreatic acini. (4/1430)

We evaluated intracellular pathways responsible for the activation of the small GTP-binding protein Rho p21 in rat pancreatic acini. Intact acini were incubated with or without CCK and carbachol, and Triton X-100-soluble and crude microsomes were used for Western immunoblotting. When a RhoA-specific antibody was used, a single band at the location of 21 kDa was detected. CCK (10 pM-10 nM) and carbachol (0.1-100 microM) dose dependently increased the amount of immunodetectable RhoA with a peak increase occurring at 3 min. High-affinity CCK-A-receptor agonists JMV-180 and CCK-OPE (1-1,000 nM) did not increase the intensities of the RhoA band, suggesting that stimulation of RhoA is mediated by the low-affinity CCK-A receptor. Although an increase in RhoA did not require the presence of extracellular Ca2+, the intracellular Ca2+ chelator 1, 2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-AM abolished the appearance of the RhoA band in response to CCK and carbachol. The Gq protein inhibitor G protein antagonist-2A (10 microM) and the phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U-73122 (10 microM) markedly reduced RhoA bands in response to CCK. The protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol ester (10-1,000 nM) dose dependently increased the intensities of the RhoA band, which were inhibited by the PKC inhibitor K-252a (1 microM). The pp60(c-src) inhibitor herbimycin A (6 microM) inhibited the RhoA band in response to CCK, whereas the calmodulin inhibitor W-7 (100 microM) and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin (6 microM) had no effect. RhoA was immunoprecipitated with Src, suggesting association of RhoA with Src. Increases in mass of this complex were observed with CCK stimulation. In permeabilized acini, the Rho inhibitor Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme dose dependently inhibited amylase secretion evoked by a Ca2+ concentration with an IC50 of C3 exoenzyme at 1 ng/ml. We concluded that the small GTP-binding protein RhoA p21 exists in pancreatic acini and appears to be involved in the mediation of pancreatic enzyme secretion evoked by CCK and carbachol. RhoA pathways are involved in the activation of PKC and Src cascades via Gq protein and PLC.  (+info)

Long-term CCK-leptin synergy suggests a role for CCK in the regulation of body weight. (5/1430)

The gut peptide CCK is a nutrient-related signal important to the control of food intake. In the present studies, we observed that a single intraperitoneal injection of CCK (1-2 microgram/kg) given 2-3 h after intracerebroventricular leptin (2-5 microgram) reduced body weight and chow intake over the ensuing 48 h more than did leptin alone. CCK alone had no effect on either 48-h chow intake or body weight but significantly reduced feeding during a 30-min sucrose test. However, reduction of 30-min sucrose intake by CCK was not enhanced by prior intracerebroventricular leptin. The present data suggest that CCK can contribute to the regulation of body weight when central leptin levels are elevated.  (+info)

Hormone-induced secretory and nuclear translocation of calmodulin: oscillations of calmodulin concentration with the nucleus as an integrator. (6/1430)

Many important enzyme activities are regulated by Ca2+-dependent interactions with calmodulin (CaM). Some of the most important targets for CaM action are in the nucleus, and Ca2+-dependent CaM translocation into this organelle has been reported. Hormone-evoked cytosolic Ca2+ signals occur physiologically as oscillations, but, so far, oscillations in CaM concentration have not been described. We loaded fluorescent-labeled CaM into pancreatic acinar cells and monitored the fluorescence in various regions by confocal microscopy. Sustained high concentrations of the hormone cholecystokinin or the neurotransmitter acetylcholine evoked a transient movement of cytosolic CaM from the basal nonnuclear area into the secretory granule region and, thereafter, a more substantial and prolonged translocation of CaM into the nucleoplasm. About 50% of the CaM that bound Ca2+ translocated. At a lower hormone concentration, evoking Ca2+ oscillations, regular spikes of increased CaM concentration were seen in the secretory granule region with mirror image spikes of decreased CaM concentration in the basal nonnuclear region. The nucleus was able to integrate the Ca2+ spike-evoked pulses of CaM translocation into a sustained elevation of the nucleoplasmic concentration of this protein.  (+info)

Supraspinal neurotensin-induced antianalgesia in mice is mediated by spinal cholecystokinin. (7/1430)

Intracerebral injection of neurotensin into specific brain loci in rats produces hyperalgesia due to the release of cholecystokinin (CCK) in the spinal cord. The present purpose was to show in another species that neurotensin can antagonize the antinociceptive action of morphine through the spinal CCK mechanism in mice. Neurotensin given intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) at doses higher than 100 ng produced antinociception in the tail flick test. However, at lower doses between 1 pg to 25 ng, neurotensin antagonized the antinociceptive action of morphine given intrathecally (i.t.), thus demonstrating the antianalgesic activity of neurotensin. The rightward shift in the morphine dose-response curve produced by i.c.v. neurotensin was eliminated by an i.t. pretreatment with CCK8 antibody (5 microl of antiserum solution diluted 1:1000). I.t. administration of lorglumide, a CCK(A)-receptor antagonist (10-1000 ng), and PD135,158, a CCK(B)-receptor antagonist (250-500 ng), also eliminated the antianalgesic action of neurotensin. Thus, the mechanism of the antianalgesic action of neurotensin given i.c.v. involved spinal CCK. This mode of action is similar to that for the antianalgesic action of supraspinal pentobarbital which also involves spinal CCK.  (+info)

Effects of alverine citrate on cat intestinal mechanoreceptor responses to chemical and mechanical stimuli. (8/1430)

BACKGROUND: Alverine citrate is commonly used in the treatment of painful affections of the colon. AIM: To determine whether alverine citrate acts on the vagal sensory endings. METHODS: Unitary recordings were performed at the level of the vagal fibres in the nodose ganglion of anaesthetized cats using extracellular glass microelectrodes, and the patterns of response to chemical and mechanical stimuli applied to identified vagal intestinal mechanoreceptors were studied. RESULTS: The intestinal mechanoreceptors located at the endings of type C vagal fibres responded mainly to mechanical stimuli (distension and contraction), but also responded to chemical substances (cholecystokinin and substance P). The most conspicuous effect of alverine (2 mg/kg) was that it significantly inhibited the pattern of vagal activity produced in response to either cholecystokinin (5-10 microg/kg), substance P (5-10 microg/kg) or phenylbiguanide (5-10 microg/kg), a 5-HT3 receptor agonist. On the other hand, the unitary vagal response to the mechanical distension was slightly enhanced by alverine, as was any spontaneous activity present. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the present data, alverine citrate can be said to decrease the sensitivity of the intestinal mechanoreceptors, which is consistent with its previously established anti-spasmodic effects.  (+info)

*Cholecystokinin

Media related to Cholecystokinin at Wikimedia Commons Cholecystokinin at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ... "Cholecystokinin activates orexin/hypocretin neurons through the cholecystokinin A receptor". The Journal of Neuroscience. 25 ( ... Cholecystokinin (CCK or CCK-PZ; from Greek chole, "bile"; cysto, "sac"; kinin, "move"; hence, move the bile-sac (gallbladder)) ... It is a member of the gastrin/cholecystokinin family of peptide hormones and is very similar in structure to gastrin, another ...

*Cholecystokinin antagonist

A cholecystokinin antagonist is a specific type of receptor antagonist which blocks the receptor sites for the peptide hormone ... Cholecystokinin". Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism. 18 (4): 569-86. doi:10.1016/j.beem.2004.07.002 ... cholecystokinin (CCK). There are two subtypes of this receptor known at present, defined as CCKA and CCKB (also called CCK-1 ...

*Cholecystokinin receptor

... s or CCK receptors are a group of G-protein coupled receptors which bind the peptide hormones ... Cholecystokinin Receptors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... Dufresne M, Seva C, Fourmy D (2006). "Cholecystokinin and gastrin receptors". Physiol. Rev. 86 (3): 805-47. doi:10.1152/physrev ... There are two different subtypes CCKA and CCKB which are ~50% homologous: Various cholecystokinin antagonists have been ...

*Cholecystokinin A receptor

Wang J, Si YM, Liu ZL, Yu L (Jun 2003). "Cholecystokinin, cholecystokinin-A receptor and cholecystokinin-B receptor gene ... It is required for interaction of the cholecystokinin A receptor with its corresponding hormonal ligand. Cholecystokinin ... CCKAR cholecystokinin A receptor". Pellegrini M, Mierke DF (Nov 1999). "Molecular complex of cholecystokinin-8 and N-terminus ... "Met-195 of the cholecystokinin-A receptor interacts with the sulfated tyrosine of cholecystokinin and is crucial for receptor ...

*Cholecystokinin B receptor

Wang J, Si YM, Liu ZL, Yu L (Jun 2003). "Cholecystokinin, cholecystokinin-A receptor and cholecystokinin-B receptor gene ... The cholecystokinin B receptor is stimulated by CCK and gastrin in the stomach during digestion. The cholecystokinin B receptor ... "Functional characterization of a human brain cholecystokinin-B receptor. A trophic effect of cholecystokinin and gastrin". The ... The cholecystokinin B receptor also known as CCKBR or CCK2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCKBR gene. This gene ...

*Secretin-cholecystokinin test

Cholecystokinin also stimulates the flow of bile and causes the gall bladder to contract and thus determine if the gall bladder ... Cholecystokinin, a hormone secreted by the APUD cells located in the proximal mucosa of the small intestine is administered ... The secretin-cholecystokinin test (aka Secretin-CCK test, Secretin-Pancreozymin test) is a combination of the secretin test and ... the cholecystokinin test and is used to assess the function of both the pancreas and gall bladder. ...

*Parasympathetic nervous system

Takai, N; Shida, T; Uchihashi, K; Ueda, Y; Yoshida, Y (Apr 15, 1998). "Cholecystokinin as neurotransmitter and neuromodulator ... ISBN 978-0-7817-5940-3. Wank, SA (Nov 1995). "Cholecystokinin receptors". The American Journal of Physiology. 269 (5 Pt 1): ... such as cholecystokinin) can be used. The ACh acts on two types of receptors, the muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic ...

*Satiation

See also Cholecystokinin-mediated satiety. Economic satiation, where increasing the amount of a good reduces the worth of each ...

*Erik Jorpes

ISBN 978-981-31446-3-7. Jorpes, Johan Erik; Mutt, Viktor (1973). Secretin, Cholecystokinin, Pancreozymin and Gastrin. Berlin: ...

*Gastrin family

... of proteins is defined by the peptide hormones gastrin and cholecystokinin. Gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK) are structurally ... Watson S, Arkinstall S (1994). "Cholecystokinin (CCK) and gastrin": 89-95. This article incorporates text from the public ... The gastrin family (also known as the gastrin/cholecystokinin family) ... a chicken gastrin/cholecystokinin-like peptide and cionin, a neuropeptide from the protochordate Ciona intestinalis. Gastrin ...

*Lorglumide

Berna, M. J.; Tapia, J. A.; Sancho, V; Jensen, R. T. (2007). "Progress in developing cholecystokinin (CCK)/gastrin receptor ... De Tullio, P; Delarge, J; Pirotte, B (1999). "Recent advances in the chemistry of cholecystokinin receptor ligands (agonists ... Herranz, R (2003). "Cholecystokinin antagonists: Pharmacological and therapeutic potential". Medicinal Research Reviews. 23 (5 ... De Tullio, P; Delarge, J; Pirotte, B (2000). "Therapeutic and chemical developments of cholecystokinin receptor ligands". ...

*CCK-4

Cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4, Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH2) is a peptide fragment derived from the larger peptide hormone ... Bradwejn J. (July 1993). "Neurobiological investigations into the role of cholecystokinin in panic disorder". Journal of ... Koulischer D, Moroder L, Deschodt-Lanckman M (August 1982). "Degradation of cholecystokinin octapeptide, related fragments and ... 2005). "Panic Induction with Cholecystokinin-Tetrapeptide (CCK-4) Increases Plasma Concentrations of the Neuroactive Steroid 3α ...

*Devazepide

Benzodiazepine Cholecystokinin antagonist US Patent 4820834 Hill, DR; Woodruff, GN (Sep 1990). "Differentiation of central ... Cooper, SJ; Dourish, CT (Dec 1990). "Multiple cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors and CCK-monoamine interactions are instrumental ... "Methods for drug discovery: development of potent, selective, orally effective cholecystokinin antagonists". Journal of ... cholecystokinin receptor binding sites using the non-peptide antagonists MK-329 and L-365,260". Brain Research. 526 (2): 276-83 ...

*Gastrocolic reflex

ISBN 978-0-495-39184-5. Sjölund K, Ekman R, Lindgren S, Rehfeld J (1996): Disturbed motilin and cholecystokinin release in the ... These include serotonin, neurotensin, cholecystokinin (CCK), and gastrin. Clinically, the gastrocolic reflex has been ...

*Antianalgesia

... is the ability of some endogenous chemicals (notably cholecystokinin and neuropeptide Y) to counter the effects ... Wiertelak, EP; Maier, SF; Watkins, LR (8 May 1992). "Cholecystokinin antianalgesia: safety cues abolish morphine analgesia" ( ...

*Gastric acid

... cholecystokinin, and secretin all inhibit production. The production of gastric acid in the stomach is tightly regulated by ...

*Ceruletide

... is similar in action and composition to cholecystokinin. It stimulates gastric, biliary, and pancreatic secretion; ...

*Enterogastrone

Examples include: Secretin Cholecystokinin You C, Chey W (1987). "Secretin is an enterogastrone in humans". Dig Dis Sci. 32 (5 ... Lloyd K, Maxwell V, Chuang C, Wong H, Soll A, Walsh J (1994). "Somatostatin is released in response to cholecystokinin by ...

*Tripeptidyl peptidase II

2. Generation of the first novel lead inhibitor of cholecystokinin-8-inactivating peptidase: a strategy for the design of ... 1996). "Characterization and inhibition of a cholecystokinin-inactivating serine peptidase". Nature. 380 (6573): 403-9. doi: ...

*Proglumide

It acts as a cholecystokinin antagonist, which blocks both the CCKA and CCKB subtypes. It was used mainly in the treatment of ... McCleane, GJ (1998). "The cholecystokinin antagonist proglumide enhances the analgesic efficacy of morphine in humans with ... McCleane, GJ (2003). "The cholecystokinin antagonist proglumide enhances the analgesic effect of dihydrocodeine". The Clinical ... "Further studies on the specificity of proglumide as a selective cholecystokinin antagonist in the central nervous system". ...

*The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry

In this study, cholecystokinin-tetrapeptide (CCK-4) and placebo were administered to 11 panic disorder patients. CCK-4 (but not ... Bradwejn, J; Koszycki, D; Meterissian, G (1990). "Cholecystokinin-tetrapeptide induces panic attacks in patients with panic ...

*RB-101

Noble F, Smadja C, Roques BP (December 1994). "Role of endogenous cholecystokinin in the facilitation of mu-mediated ... This causes RB-101 to be strongly synergistic with cholecystokinin antagonists. Unlike the more commonly used enkephalinase ... Valverde O, Maldonado R, Fournie-Zaluski MC, Roques BP (July 1994). "Cholecystokinin B antagonists strongly potentiate ... are enhanced by a cholecystokinin type B receptor antagonist, as revealed by noxiously evoked spinal c-Fos expression in rats ...

*Orexin

"Cholecystokinin activates orexin/hypocretin neurons through the cholecystokinin A receptor". The Journal of Neuroscience. 25 ( ... cholecystokinin A receptors, and catecholamines, as well as to ghrelin, leptin, and glucose. Orexinergic neurons themselves ...

*CI-988

The cholecystokinin-B receptor antagonist CI-988 failed to affect CCK-4 induced symptoms in panic disorder patients. ... CI-988 (PD-134,308) is a drug which acts as a cholecystokinin antagonist, selective for the CCKB subtype. In animal studies it ... Cholecystokinin modulates the aversive component of morphine withdrawal syndrome in rats. Neuroscience Letters. 1998 Mar 6;244( ... PMID 9578139 Bradwejn J, Koszycki D, Paradis M, Reece P, Hinton J, Sedman A. Effect of CI-988 on cholecystokinin tetrapeptide- ...

*Parabrachial nuclei

Other neurons in the superior lateral parabrachial nucleus that contain cholecystokinin have been found to prevent hypoglycemia ... "A parabrachial-hypothalamic cholecystokinin neurocircuit controls counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia". Cell Metabolism ...
Secretory and electrophysiological properties of STC-1 cells, a cholecystokinin-secreting cell line, were examined with a radioimmunoassay and patch-clamp recording techniques. Stimulation of cholecystokinin secretion was seen after exposure to agents anticipated to increase the level of intracellular calcium, including thapsigargin (8 muM), bombesin (50 nM), potassium-induced depolarization (50 mM), or after blockade of potassium channels with barium chloride (2 mM). The secretory effects of these agents were blocked by pretreatment with the calcium channel blocker diltiazem (1 muM).
TY - JOUR. T1 - Leptin resistance in vagal afferent neurons inhibits cholecystokinin signaling and satiation in diet induced obese rats. AU - de Lartigue, Guillaume. AU - Barbier de la Serre, Claire. AU - Espero, Elvis. AU - Lee, Jennifer. AU - Raybould, Helen E. PY - 2012/3/7. Y1 - 2012/3/7. N2 - Background and Aims: The gastrointestinal hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) plays an important role in regulating meal size and duration by activating CCK1 receptors on vagal afferent neurons (VAN). Leptin enhances CCK signaling in VAN via an early growth response 1 (EGR1) dependent pathway thereby increasing their sensitivity to CCK. In response to a chronic ingestion of a high fat diet, VAN develop leptin resistance and the satiating effects of CCK are reduced. We tested the hypothesis that leptin resistance in VAN is responsible for reducing CCK signaling and satiation. Results: Lean Zucker rats sensitive to leptin signaling, significantly reduced their food intake following administration of CCK8S ...
Sex hormones including estrogens affect brain areas involved in mood and cognition in addition to directly controlling reproduction and reproductive behavior. We studied the effect of pregnancy and puerperium on the concentrations of cholecystokinin (CCK), neuropeptide Y (NPY), substance P (SP) and galanin in tissue extracts from the rat striatum, frontal cortex and the hippocampal formation by means of radioimmunoassay. The most profound effects were found in the frontal cortex. Thus, cholecystokinin-like immunoreactivity (CCK-LI) was increased by 40 % during late pregnancy (p , 0.01) compared to estrous whereas SP-LI and galanin-LI decreased 25 % and 10 %, respectively. Postpartum, CCKLI decreased by 26% compared to pregnancy (p , 0.05) whereas SP-LI and galanin-LI were increased to a level above estrous (SP, P , 0.01; galanin, P , 0.05). No significant effect was observed in NPY-LI in this area. In the striatum during late pregnancy the concentrations of cholecystokinin-LI increased by 29 % ...
Definition of cholecystokinin in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is cholecystokinin? Meaning of cholecystokinin as a finance term. What does cholecystokinin mean in finance?
1. A scheme of synthesis was developped for cholecystokinin (CCK 26-33, using solid-phase methodology and successfully applied to the synthesis of its C- and N-terminal fragments. 2. Using CCK 30-33 as model, it was found that deprotection of the ?-phenacyl ester, with a 1 M solution of sodium thiophenoxide in DMF, leads to the formation of an aminosuccylnyl peptide, prior to ammonolysis. 3. Selenophenol reagent successfully removes the ?-phenacyl ester on protected CCK 32-33 and on protected CCK 30-33 polymer prior to ammonolytic cleavage of peptides from the resin. 4. Treatment of Boc-Asp(?-OPac)-Tyr(0-2,4-Dnp)-Met-Gly-Trp(Nin-For)-Met-Asp(?-OPac)-Phe-polymer with a 1 M solution of selenophenol in DMF, leads to irreversible rearrangement of the 0-2,4-dinitrophenyl ether. 5. Undesirable side-reactions can be avoided by sequential deprotections and cleavage. The 0-2,4-dinitrophenyl ether is removed by thiolysis following by selenolysis of the ?-phenacyl esters. Cleavage of the peptide from the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Innervation of different peptide-containing neurons in the hippocampus by gabaergic septal afferents. AU - Gulyás, A. I.. AU - Görcs, T.. AU - Freund, T.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - The termination pattern of septohippocampal axons visualized by anterograde transport of Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin was studied in the hippocampal formation in the rat, with special reference to the innervation of neurons immunoreactive for the neuroactive peptides cholecystokinin, somatostatin or vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. The type I, GABAergic, septohippocampal afferents were shown to terminate on neurons immunoreactive for each of the three peptides. The cholecystokinin-like immunoreactive neurons in all regions, and the somatostatin-immunoreactive cells in stratum oriens of CA1 region were the most preferred targets. Cholecystokinin-immunoreactive cells, especially those in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus, were often seen to be contacted by type II (presumed ...
Cholecystokinin A Receptor: A subtype of cholecystokinin receptor found primarily in the PANCREAS; STOMACH; INTESTINE; and GALLBLADDER. It plays a role in regulating digestive functions such as gallbladder contraction, pancreatic enzyme secretion and absorption in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Cholecystokinin: A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.
Patients with severe obsessive compulsive disorder, depression or bulimia patients were all found to have abnormally low serotonin levels.[14] Neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine are secreted by the intestines and central nervous system during digestion.[15] Researchers have also found low cholecystokinin levels in bulimics. Cholecystokinin is a hormone that causes one to feel full and decreases eating. Low levels of this hormone are likely to cause a lack of satiative feedback when eating, which can lead to overeating. Another explanation researchers found for overeating is abnormalities in the neuromodulator peptides, neuropeptide Y and peptide YY. Both of these peptides increase eating and work with another peptide called leptin. Leptin is released by fat cells and is known to decrease eating. Research found the majority of people who overate produced normal amounts of leptin but they might have complications with the blood-brain barrier preventing an optimal ...
In the course of our study on cholecystokinin (CCK) a series of Boc-CCK-7 was synthesized. Their carboxyterminal part was modified by phenylalanine derivatives containing 2 or 4 and 2,6 or 2,4,6 methylated aromatic side-chain. During the synthesis, the racemic phenylalanine derivatives were used and peptides containing either L- or D- methylated phenylalanine were separated using a preparative HPLC. Gall bladder contraction, anorectic, sedative and analgetic bioassays of these analogues revealed that all of them behaved as CCK-8 agonists. While the analogues containing L-form of the methylated phenylalanines had almost the same potency (80% - 130%) in comparison to CCK-8, the presence of the D-form decreased the biological activity of corresponding analogues to 8 - 62% of the CCK-8 potency. These results are in agreement with the suggestion that phenylalanine residue in C-terminus takes part in biological activity transduction only.. ...
Pérez de la Mora, M., Hernández-Gómez, A. M., Arizmendi-García, Y., Jacobsen, K. X., Lara-García, D., Flores-Gracia, C., Crespo-Ramírez, M., Gallegos-Cari, A., Nuche-Bricaire, A. and Fuxe, K. (2007), Role of the amygdaloid cholecystokinin (CCK)/gastrin-2 receptors and terminal networks in the modulation of anxiety in the rat. Effects of CCK-4 and CCK-8S on anxiety-like behaviour and [3H]GABA release. European Journal of Neuroscience, 26: 3614-3630. doi: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2007.05963.x ...
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C-Terminal cholecystokinin (CCK)-peptides of increasing chain lengths were all linked at their N-termini to the single surface-exposed cysteine residue 107 of yeast iso-I-cytochrome c by the maleimide/thiol reaction. The resulting CCK/cytochrome I: I conjugates with the haptenic peptides in the identical protein environment were used to immunize outbred guinea pigs in order to assess the critical size of CCK peptides required for the expression of a CCKspecific epitope and the induction of antibodies not crossreacting with the homologous gastrin sequence. By using standard ELISA techniques with polystyrene-adsorbed antigen to evaluate the specificity of the antisera, none of the conjugates were found to induce anti-CCK antisera not crossreacting with gastrin. However, when the biotinyl-CCK-antigen was immobilized by polystyrene-adsorbed avidin, i.e. via a procedure which assures maximum accessibility of the bound antigen, we were able to demonstrate that with CCK-12 and particularly CCK-B, ...
The in vivo release of cholecystokinin (CCK)-like material (CCKLM) was measured in the frontal cortex of freely moving rats using the microdialysis technique combined with a sensitive radioimmunoassay. Local perfusion of K+ (100 mM)-enriched artificial CSF resulted in a 10-fold increase in CCKLM outflow, as compared with that occurring under basal resting (K+ = 3.0 mM) conditions, and this effect could be completely prevented by removal of Ca2+ in the perfusing fluid. Chromatographic analyses demonstrated that CCK-8S contributed to 70% of CCKLM. Stressful stimuli such as a 2-min exposure to diethyl ether and a 30-min restraint produced a marked but transient increase in cortical CCKLM release. In addition, anxiety-like behavior induced by the systemic administration of yohimbine (5 mg/kg i.p.) was associated with a long-lasting enhancement in the peptide outflow. Pretreatment with the potent anxiolytic drug diazepam (5 mg/kg i.p., 5 min before each condition), which exerted no effect on its own,
Since the neuropeptide cholecystokinin (CCK) plays a role in the modulation of opiate-induced analgesia, the morphine-mediated release of CCK in the spinal cord of rats was compared with in vivo microdialysis in normals and different pain models ...
Principal Investigator:KONO Akira, Project Period (FY):1998 - 1999, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Gastroenterology
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RHP BearingsRHP Bearings List Page. Part Number, Old Bearings Number, Brand, Bearing Type, Size(ID*OD*Width) 23132CCK/W33 Bearings · 23132CC/W33 Bearings · 23130CCK/W33+H3130 Bearings · 23130CCK/W33 Bearings. ...
Looking for online definition of cholecystokinin test in the Medical Dictionary? cholecystokinin test explanation free. What is cholecystokinin test? Meaning of cholecystokinin test medical term. What does cholecystokinin test mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Multiple kinases phosphorylate the pancreatic cholecystokinin receptor in an agonist-dependent manner. AU - Gates, L. K.. AU - Ulrich, C. D.. AU - Miller, L. J.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - The cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor on the rat pancreatic acinar cell is a guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor, which was recently demonstrated to be phosphorylated in response to agonist stimulation (Klueppelberg et al., J. Biol. Chem. 266: 17744-17746, 1991). In this work, we establish that this receptor is phosphorylated in response to a variety of homologous and heterologous secretagogues and that these phosphorylation events represent action by more than one protein kinase. One subgroup of kinases includes one or more isotype of protein kinase C (PKC), and is capable of playing a role in homologous and heterologous desensitization. A second subgroup of kinases that acts on the CCK receptor was defined by its resistance to 10 μM staurosporine, which was ...
Intraduodenal infusion of ricinoleic acid and iv bolus injection of the C-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin produce markedly similar alterations in the digestive contractile patterns of the GI tract of the unanesthetized dog. The brief, initial stimulation of contractile activity in the proximal small intestine following both procedures is mediated through a cholinergic mechanism. The stimulatory response is followed by an inhibition of digestive contractile activity of unknown origin. These observations suggest that possibility that the GI hormone, cholecystokinin, may mediate the intestinal motor response evoked by infusion of ricinoleic acid directly into the proximal small intestine.
The cat caudate nucleus has been reported to possess a rich and fairly even distribution of nerve endings, containing both dopamine- and cholecystokinin-like peptides. In this study, the effect of cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK-8) on basal and electrically evoked tritium outflow from slices of cat caudate nucleus previously labeled with [3H]dopamine was examined. Evoked tritium outflow from slices of cat caudate nucleus was Ca2+ dependent and abolished by tetrodotoxin, suggesting that it reflects action potential-induced [3H]dopamine release. In the presence of bovine serum albumin and bacitracin, the sulfated but not the unsulfated form of CCK-8 inhibited both basal and electrically evoked tritium outflow from slices of cat caudate nucleus at very low concentrations. CCK-8 sulfate was efficient in causing this effect in concentrations down to 10(-14) M, and the maximum effect was obtained with 10(-11) M. In contrast, without bovine serum albumin and bacitracin, no inhibitory effect of CCK-8 ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Cholecystokinin secretagogue-induced gastroprotection. T2 - Role of nitric oxide and blood flow. AU - West, Sonlee D.. AU - Helmer, Kenneth S.. AU - Chang, Lily K.. AU - Cui, Yan. AU - Greeley, George H.. AU - Mercer, David W.. PY - 2003/3/1. Y1 - 2003/3/1. N2 - This study was done to examine the role of CCK in gastric mucosal defense and to assess the gastroprotective roles of nitric oxide and blood flow. In rats, the CCK secretagogues oleate and soybean trypsin inhibitor augmented gastric mucosal blood flow and prevented gastric injury from luminal irritants. Type A CCK receptor blockade negated CCK secretagogue-induced gastroprotection and exacerbated gastric injury from bile and ethanol but did not block adaptive cytoprotection. CCK secretagogue-induced gastroprotection and hyperemia were negated by nonselective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition (nG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) but not by selective inducible NOS inhibition (aminoguanidine). Gastric mucosal ...
Cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4, also PTK7) is a peptide fragment derived from the larger peptide hormone cholecystokinin. CCK-4 acts primarily in the brain as an anxiogenic, although it does retain some GI effects, but not as much as CCK-8 or the full length polypeptide CCK-58.
SIGNIFICANCE OF OCTAPEPTIDE CHOLECYSTOKININ IN DEVELOPMENT OF ODDIS SPHINCTER DYSFUNCTION OF INORGANIC ETIOLOGY AFTER CHOLECYSTECTOMY IN PATIENTS OPERATED FOR CALCULOUS CHOLECYSTITIS
AequoScreen® Double Transfected Cell Lines: Cholecystokinin, CCKA subtype. Human Recombinant, in 1321N1 host cell. Two vials of cryopreserved cells are shipped per order. A detailed technical dossier includes sequence, culture conditions and pharmacological properties of the recombinant receptor. All cell lines are tested for the absence of mycoplasma. Terms and conditions apply. Some products are not available in some countries. Please inquire at your local sales office for more information.. Features:. ...
HF in east cancer patients for up to 3 months post treatment (Hervik and.In line with international guidelines post menopausal women switch to an.reduction of HF and establishment of better sleep patterns after acupuncture dizziness palpitations and nausea leave women feeling less confident. Cholecystokinin And Secretin Uk Clinics log VVG 9192 1461 massage NN 9193 1460 liaison NN 9194 1460 utal JJ. Grand Final two interstate teams played for the first time: In an article titled Our misery is. Mood modulation with changing hormone levels.. Studies have linked hormone replacement therapy and the PAH in female mice but not in male hypoxic mice.3536. Menopause the change( of life). cModel 3 was adjusted as full model 2 + menopause.. Profasi is given after treatment with other medicines to ing about ovulation (the assisted conception techniques is higher than normal but much the same as. bladder autoaugmentation using autologous uterine flap in the rat to try and improve the the complications ...
This work unlined the importance of fat in generating dyspeptic symptoms by demonstrating how duodenal infusions of fat could sensitise the stomach to distension and to motion sickness. These effects could be treated by drugs that acted on cholecystokinin, opiate and serotonin receptors ...
Context: Cholecystokinin A receptor (polymorphism is stabilized and it is more consistently connected with schizophrenia within an Eastern Indian sub-population. at 95% =1.04C2.20). Bottom line: polymorphism from the gene is normally a well balanced polymorphism inside our research people. Furthermore, the C allele is normally significantly more loaded in schizophrenia sufferers imparting them a larger risk of advancement of problems like auditory hallucination. receptor (and which serves as a mediator of DA activity and escalates the discharge of DA even though performs a converse actions. Any hyper or alteration activity of results in the boosts in DA along with a consequent predisposition for schizophrenia.[10] The protein is one of the seven transmembrane receptor superfamily associated with G-protein coupled sign transduction pathway. The human gene contains five extends and exons over 21.8 kb across the 4p15 chromosome region.[11] The top features of the promoter region add a transcription ...
See also agnosia cialis professional. Situations are animals, birds, insects, heights, the icd-11 criteria for the fundamental defects in a mental state, are evidence of gut hormone cholecystokinin (cck) whereas acid in 1942 by harvard university researchers call it. Tolerance is rare. The prolonged the time of adnexectomy is worthy of specific comment, it joins the femoral bruit. This large thyroidal pool of candidate statements about an hour without a known case, the same intensity which is perpendicular to the right, and one pair of cranial nerves involved and their likelihood ratios quoted in the american hemorrhage: Prospective, modern academy of allergy, particularly of the child-bearing age excessive vaginal bleeding. Clobazam is claimed to achieve hemostatic control, as in equivalent therapeutic doses (8-30 mg orally), amphetamine produces weakness, fatiguability, twitching and mental experience. Sleep: 5-ht controls sleep-wakefulness cycle; depletion of catecholamines and 8-ht which ...
L-365260 is a selective cholecystokinin receptor 2 (CCK2) antagonist (IC50 values are 2 and 280 nM at CCK2 and CCK1 receptors respectively).
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Expression of Two Different Cholecystokinin Receptors in Xenopus Oocytes Injected with mRNA from Rabbit Pancreas and Rat Hippocampus (1996 ...
Secretin stimulates the secretion of bicarbonate by the pancreas and inhibits the gastrin and acid production in the stomach. It also potentiates the release of digestive enzymes from the pancreas triggered by cholecystokinin.
Cholesterol absorption plays a key role in cholesterol homeostasis and understanding the lumenal events that play key roles in absorption remain poorly understood. The aims of the present study are fourfold: 1) To determine whether previously observed effects on cholesterol absorption during bile acid feeding are related to changes in pool size and intestinal transit or meal stimulated gall bladder emptying or plasma cholecystokinin levels. 2) To determine the effect of dietary sphingomyelin on cholesterol absorption, micellar solubilization and synthesis in normal adults and to assess the effects of intralumenal cholesterol solubilization, absorption and synthesis in adults with heterozygous mdr 3 deficiency (a defect leading to low biliary phospholipid content). 3) To determine the mechanism of action of a non-ionic detergent, Pluronic F-68, by evaluating its effect on cholesterol solubilization and distribution between micelles and vesicles, on cholesterol absorption and synthesis. 4) To ...
Cholesterol absorption plays a key role in cholesterol homeostasis and understanding the lumenal events that play key roles in absorption remain poorly understood. The aims of the present study are fourfold: 1) To determine whether previously observed effects on cholesterol absorption during bile acid feeding are related to changes in pool size and intestinal transit or meal stimulated gall bladder emptying or plasma cholecystokinin levels. 2) To determine the effect of dietary sphingomyelin on cholesterol absorption, micellar solubilization and synthesis in normal adults and to assess the effects of intralumenal cholesterol solubilization, absorption and synthesis in adults with heterozygous mdr 3 deficiency (a defect leading to low biliary phospholipid content). 3) To determine the mechanism of action of a non-ionic detergent, Pluronic F-68, by evaluating its effect on cholesterol solubilization and distribution between micelles and vesicles, on cholesterol absorption and synthesis. 4) To ...
CCK receptors significantly influence neurotransmission in the brain, regulating anxiety, feeding, and locomotion. CCK-B expression may correlate parallel to anxiety and depression phenotypes in humans. CCK-B receptors possess a complex regulation of dopamine activity in the brain. CCK-B activation appears to possess a general inhibitory action on dopamine activity in the brain, opposing the dopamine-enhancing effects of CCK-A. However, the effects of CCK-B on dopamine activity vary depending on location.[11] CCK-B antagonism enhances dopamine release in rat striatum.[12] Activation enhances GABA release in rat anterior nucleus accumbens.[13] CCK-B receptors modulate dopamine release, and influence the development of tolerance to opioids.[14] CCK-B activation decreases amphetamine-induced DA release, and contributes to individual variability in response to amphetamine.[15] In rats, CCK-B antagonism prevents the stress-induced reactivation of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference, and ...
This work extends a recent observation that Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, which have been established as an animal model of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, show no expression of the cholecystokinin (CCK)-A receptor gene in the pancreas. The CCK-A receptor is known to be in...
To investigate the electrophysiological properties, synaptic connections, and anatomy of individual parvalbumin-immunoreactive (PV-IR) and cholecystokinin-immunoreactive (CCK-IR) interneurones in CA1, dual intracellular recordings using biocytin-filled microelectrodes in slices of adult rat hippocampus were combined with fluorescence labelling of PV- and CCK-containing cells. Of 36 PV-IR cells, 29 were basket cells, with most of their axonal arbours in the stratum pyramidale (SP). Six were bistratified cells with axons ramifying throughout stratum oriens (SO) and stratum radiatum (SR). One was a putative axo-axonic cell with an axonal arbour confined to half of the SP and a narrow adjacent region of the SO. Of 27 CCK-IR neurones, 13 were basket cells, with most of their axonal arbours in the SP, and included basket cells with somata in the SP (6), SO (3), and SR (2) and at the border between the stratum lacunosum-moleculare (SLM) and the SR (2). In addition, several dendrite-targeting cell ...
We investigated a possible role of endogenous secretin and cholecystokinin (CCK) in inhibition of gastric acid secretion induced by intraduodenal administration of oleic acid in rats. Intraduodenal ad
In the hippocampal CA1 area, a relatively homogenous population of pyramidal cells is accompanied by a diversity of GABAergic interneurons. Previously, we found that parvalbumin-expressing basket, axo-axonic, bistratified, and oriens-lacunosum moleculare cells, innervating different domains of pyramidal cells, have distinct firing patterns during network oscillations in vivo. A second family of interneurons, expressing cholecystokinin but not parvalbumin, is known to target the same domains of pyramidal cells as do the parvalbumin cells. To test the temporal activity of these independent and parallel GABAergic inputs, we recorded the precise spike timing of identified cholecystokinin interneurons during hippocampal network oscillations in anesthetized rats and determined their molecular expression profiles and synaptic targets. The cells were cannabinoid receptor type 1 immunopositive. Contrary to the stereotyped firing of parvalbumin interneurons, cholecystokinin-expressing basket and dendrite
high-fiber and gas-producing bile from the gallbladder. Gall bladder surgical interventional endoscopist. It can be detected gallbladder foods with protein using gallbladder means that they will suggests that could be that has characteristic symptom of gallbladder is an internal organs. Gallbladder attack is connected to a natural treatment of Gallbladder means that patients usually join together within a few people. Even in appalling circumstances to ask for the digestive tract, which may also wish to try. The primary function of the hormone cholecystokinin causes the gallbladder stones. Yes and treatment option, its a reminder the liver cells. Trim health benefits of liver the fat contact some complicated gallbladder, gall bladder infection signs can be seen on taking deep breaths. The side effectively removes gallbladder pain after surgery zoloft gallstones may develops with duct or if you are scheduled to accept their gallbladder problems. If the cancer of the best way to ensure that the ...
1. Adler G: Regulation of human pancreatic secretion. Digestion 58 Suppl 1:39-41,1997. 2. Berg JM, Tymoczko JL, Stryer L: Many enzymes are activated by specific proteolytic cleavage. Biochemistry. 5th edition. New York: W H Freeman, Section 10.5,2002. 3. Bourassa J, Laine J, Kruse ML, Gagnon MC, Calvo E, Morisset J: Ontogeny and species differences in the pancreatic expression and localization of the CCK(A) receptors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 260:820-828,1999. 4. Chandra R, Liddle RA: Neural and hormonal regulation of pancreatic secretion. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 25:441-446,2009. 5. Dufresne M, Seva C, Fourmy D: Cholecystokinin and gastrin receptors. Physiol Rev 86:805-847,2006. 6. Folsch UR, Winckler K, Wormsley KG: Influence of repeated administration of cholecystokinin and secretin on the pancreas of the rat. Scand J Gastroenterol 13:663-671,1978. 7. Geron E, Schejter ED, Shilo BZ: Assessing the secretory capacity of pancreatic acinar cells. J Vis Exp,2014. 8. Goke B, Printz H, Koop I, ...
Antianalgesia is the ability of some endogenous chemicals (notably cholecystokinin and neuropeptide Y) to counter the effects of exogenous analgesics (such as morphine) or endogenous pain inhibiting neurotransmitters/modulators, such as the endogenous opioids. A learned form can be established using methods similar to the learning principle of conditioned inhibition, and has been demonstrated in rats. Wiertelak, EP; Maier, SF; Watkins, LR (8 May 1992). "Cholecystokinin antianalgesia: safety cues abolish morphine analgesia" (abstract). Science. 256 (5058): 830-833. doi:10.1126/science.1589765. PMID 1589765. Retrieved 2007-02-12 ...
The accompanying paper (Bignon et al., 1999) on SR146131 describes the compounds effects as a potent and selective agonist at both human and rodent CCK1 receptors in vitro. The present paper evaluated the drugs effects in vivo, and shows clearly that SR146131 can mimic, in a variety of test systems and in several species, a wide range of the effects of sulfated cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK8S), which have previously been attributed to the stimulation of CCK1 receptors but not those related to the stimulation of CCK2 receptors.. SR146131 inhibited gastric emptying in mice, and also decreased gallbladder volume in this species after administration of low oral doses. SR146131 also reduced food intake in two rodent and one primate species. The compound reduced food intake in fasted rats, and in nonfasted rats in which food intake had been highly stimulated by the administration of NPY(1-36). Food intake was also reduced by oral administration of SR146131 in fasted gerbils, and in marmosets ...
The Rationalle the ShapeMedUSA Diet program is as follows:. 1. Eggs. Skip the bagel this morning. Eggs, which are full of protein, will help you feel fuller longer-a lot longer. A multicenter study of 30 overweight or obese women found that those who ate two scrambled eggs (with two slices of toast and a reduced-calorie fruit spread) consumed less for the next 36 hours than women who had a bagel breakfast of equal calories. Other research has shown that protein may also prevent spikes in blood sugar, which can lead to food cravings.. 2. Beans. Youve probably never heard of cholecystokinin, but its one of your best weight-loss pals. This digestive hormone is a natural appetite suppressant. So how do you get more cholecystokinin? One way, report researchers at the University of California at Davis, is by eating beans: A study of eight men found that their levels of the hormone (which may work by keeping food in your stomach longer) were twice as high after a meal containing beans than after a ...
Steve Bloom (London, U.K.) discussed satiety signals, noting that obesity is "key to the [insulin resistance] syndrome" and that it ultimately is caused by overeating. Childhood obesity is on the rise, with 40% of children expected to be overweight by 2010. He asked, what explains the reduction in hunger after a meal? Bulk in the stomach and nutrients in the circulation appear not to be the cause. There must be specific signals from the gut to the brain, neural and/or hormonal. It appears that, when stimulated, a small area in the proximal gastric fundus, near the esophagus, sends vagal signals mediating satiety. Studies have attempted to replicate gut hormonal signals by infusion, with cholecystokinin (CCK) decreasing food intake but causing pancreatitis and acting as a growth factor for pancreatic acinar cells, which could cause increased pancreatic cancer risk. Ghrelin decreases after meals and may be a negative satiety signal, as its direct effect is to stimulate food intake. Pancreatic ...
Satiety and other core physiological functions are modulated by sensory signals arising from the surface of the gut. Luminal nutrients and bacteria stimulate epithelial biosensors called enteroendocrine cells. Despite being electrically excitable, enteroendocrine cells are generally thought to communicate indirectly with nerves through hormone secretion and not through direct cell-nerve contact. However, we recently uncovered in intestinal enteroendocrine cells a cytoplasmic process that we named neuropod. Here, we determined that neuropods provide a direct connection between enteroendocrine cells and neurons innervating the small intestine and colon. Using cell-specific transgenic mice to study neural circuits, we found that enteroendocrine cells have the necessary elements for neurotransmission, including expression of genes that encode pre-, post-, and transsynaptic proteins. This neuroepithelial circuit was reconstituted in vitro by coculturing single enteroendocrine cells with sensory ...
We employed dual probe microdialysis in the nucleus accumbens and ipsilateral ventral pallidum of the halothane anaesthetized rat to investigate the effect of intra-accumbens perfusion with the sulphated octapeptide cholecystokinin (CCK-8S, 10-1000 nM, 60 min) alone and in the presence of the selective CCK1 and CCK2 receptor antagonists L-364,718 (10 and 100 nM) and PD134308 (10 nM), tetrodotoxin (TTX, 1000 nM) and the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline (1000 nM), on dialysate GABA levels in the ventral pallidum ...
OBJECTIVE: To compare the difference in the gastrointestinal hormone levels of the patients with the history of diabetes and concurrent nephropathy and inv
As previously mentioned, the sphincter of Oddi is tonically closed when there is no intake of food. As soon as the upper gastro intestinal tract begins digestion and especially when fat and amino acids reach the duodenum 30 minutes after a meal, cholecystokinin enters the blood stream from the duodenal mucosa. This would then stimulate the gallbladder to empty its contents, bile, through rhythmical contractions of its wall. The same hormone would also stimulate increased secretions of digestive enzymes from the pancreas. However, effective emptying would not be completed without CCK decreasing the resistance of the sphincter of Oddi and simultaneously releasing bile and digestive enzymes into the duodenum.. ...
3H]-(+/-)-L-364,718 a new, potent and selective nonpeptide peripheral cholecystokinin (CCK) antagonist bound saturably and reversibly to rat pancreatic membranes. The radioligand recognized a single class of binding sites with a high affinity (Kd = 0.23 nM). The binding of [3H]-(+/-)-L-364,718 was stereospecific in that the more biologically active (-)-enantiomer demonstrated greater potency than the (+)-enantiomer. The rank order of potency of various CCK agonists and antagonists in displacing [3H]-(+/-)-L-364,718 correlated with their ability to displace [125I]CCK-8 and their known pharmacological activities in peripheral tissues. However, the absolute potencies of agonists were greater in displacing [125I]CCK-8 than [3H]-(+/-)-L-364,718. As described for other physiologically relevant receptor systems, the potency for displacement of [3H]-(+/-)-L-364,718 binding by CCK agonists, but not antagonists, was reduced by guanosine 5-(beta, gamma-imido)triphosphate and NaCl and enhanced by MgCl2. ...
Complete information for CCKBR gene (Protein Coding), Cholecystokinin B Receptor, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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SR 27897 | CCK1 antagonist | Lintitript | SR27897 | CAS [136381-85-6] | Axon 1245 | Axon Ligand™ with >99% purity available from supplier Axon Medchem, prime source of life science reagents for your research
Gastrin is a peptide hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid by the parietal cells of the stomach. Gastrin binds to a G-protein coupled receptor encoded by the CCKBR gene that also binds cholecystokinin (CCK), a brain regulatory peptide. The receptor is therefore known as the gastrin/cholecystokinin type B receptor. It is also known as cholecystokinin B receptor, cholecystokinin-2 receptor, CCK-B, CCKB-R, CCKRB, CCK2R, and GASR. The gastrin/cholecystokinin receptor is expressed mostly in central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. A misspliced transcript variant of the CCKBR gene that includes an intron has been associated with colorectal and pancreatic tumors.. ...
BioAssay record AID 52736 submitted by ChEMBL: The compound was evaluated for the pKB, single dose pA2 against Cholecystokinin type A receptor in guinea pig gallbladder.
Thylakoids are chlorophyll-containing membranes in chloroplasts that have been isolated from green leaves. It has been previously shown that thylakoids supplemented with a high-fat meal can affect cholecystokinin (CCK), ghrelin, insulin and blood lipids in humans, and can act to suppress food intake and prevent body weight gain in rodents. This study investigates the addition of thylakoids to a high carbohydrate meal and its effects upon hunger motivation and fullness, and the levels of glucose, insulin, CCK, ghrelin and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in overweight women. Twenty moderately overweight female subjects received test meals on three different occasions; two thylakoid enriched and one control, separated by 1 week. The test meals consisted of a high carbohydrate Swedish breakfast, with or without addition of thylakoids. Blood samples and VAS-questionnaires were evaluated over a 4-h period. Addition of thylakoids suppressed hunger motivation and increased secretion of CCK from 180 ...
2. Activation of ERK pathway in Pancreatic Acinar Cells (Figure 1). ERK activation is usually monitored by following the dual phosphorylation of the Thr and Tyr residues in the Thr-Glu-Tyr activation sequence brought about by MEK as there are a number of good phosphospecific antibodies directed at this epitope. It can also be shown by phosphorylation of myelin basic protein either in a test tube or by an in gel technique following gel electrophoresis and renaturization. Both Western blots and the in gel kinase procedure reveal the two forms of ERK at approximately 44 and 42 kDa; in fact, the molecules were originally referred to as p42 and p44 MAPK with p42 being what is now referred to as ERK2 and p44 now being ERK1. Using isolated rat or mouse pancreatic acini in vitro, ERK1/2 is activated by CCK, bombesin, substance P, and carbachol, all of which activate G protein coupled receptors coupled to Gq and calcium mobilization but not by secretin or VIP which activate receptors coupled to Gs and ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. desulfated cholecystokinin-8 ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
Coronal (200 μm) brain stem slices were obtained from adult (,8 weeks) transgenic mice of either sex after halothane anesthesia and dissection in ice-cold low Na+ solution containing (in mmol/L): 200 sucrose, 2.5 KCl, 28 NaHCO3, 1.25 NaH2PO4, 3 pyruvate, 7 MgCl2, 0.5 CaCl2, and 7 glucose (pH 7.4). After recovery at 34°C for 30 min in a solution containing (in mmol/L) 118 NaCl, 3 KCl, 25 NaHCO3, 1.2 NaH2PO4, 7 MgCl2, 0.5 CaCl2, and 2.5 glucose (pH 7.4), slices were kept at 34°C in artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) of the following composition (in mmol/L): 118 NaCl, 3 KCl, 25 NaHCO3, 1 MgCl2, 2 CaCl2, and 10 glucose (pH 7.4). Patch pipettes were pulled from thin-walled borosilicate capillaries (3-6 MΩ; Clark Electromedical Instruments, Pangbourne, U.K.) with a horizontal puller (Zeitz, Germany). Electrodes were filled with (in mmol/L) 120 potassium gluconate, 5 HEPES, 5 BAPTA, 1 NaCl, 1 MgCl2, 1 CaCl2, and 2 K2ATP (pH 7.2). For perforated-patch whole-cell recording, solubilized ...
The gut not only represents the largest endocrine organ of the human body but is also profoundly involved in the control of metabolism through peptide hormones. Therefore, gastrointestinal hormones ...
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Protein digestion: physiology, biochemistry. Gastric and duodenal stages. Hormones: gastrin, secretin, cholecystokinin. Digestive enzymes: pepsin, trypsin.
Cholecystokinin-tetrapeptide: lt;p|> |||Cholecystokinin tetrapeptide| (|CCK-4|, ||Trp|-|Met|-|Asp|-|Phe|-NH|2||; also |PTK7|) i... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled.
Dr A Breck McKay, in a letter to the British Medical Journal, said " long term use of PPIs cause gastroparesis, delayed total gut dysmotility and bloating" Patients suffer acute, explosive, exacerbation of their gastritis and reflux, on attempted cessation of the PPIs. While the PPI drugs block acid production, these drugs actually stimulate hormones like gastrin, cholecystokinin, and glucagon which in turn stimulate growth of acid producing cells to massively increase and thus, are able to produce large quantities of acid, suddenly, when inhibition from the acid blocker PPI drug stops ...
The ability of a specially prepared water propolis extract (PWE) to preserve the functional activity of the intestinal mucosa after radiation exposure was studied. PWE was given orally (650mg/kg) to rats five days prior to irradiation by 6Gy and continued for further two days. Rats were sacrificed 24h later, intestinal segments were examined histologically and homogenates were used to assess relevant biochemical parameters reflecting intestinal injury. Irradiation led to a rise in the histological damage score, a rise in tissue TNF-α and TBARS, and a decrease in sucrase, alkaline phosphatase, GSH and cholecystokinin as well as a decrease in plasma citrulline ...
The ability of a specially prepared water propolis extract (PWE) to preserve the functional activity of the intestinal mucosa after radiation exposure was studied. PWE was given orally (650mg/kg) to rats five days prior to irradiation by 6Gy and continued for further two days. Rats were sacrificed 24h later, intestinal segments were examined histologically and homogenates were used to assess relevant biochemical parameters reflecting intestinal injury. Irradiation led to a rise in the histological damage score, a rise in tissue TNF-α and TBARS, and a decrease in sucrase, alkaline phosphatase, GSH and cholecystokinin as well as a decrease in plasma citrulline ...
Free, official coding info for 2018 ICD-10-CM E34.1 - includes detailed rules, notes, synonyms, ICD-9-CM conversion, index and annotation crosswalks, DRG grouping and more.
日消外会誌 24(9)i2414~ 2418,1991年 選択的動脈内secretin注入試験と術中secretin負荷試験により 根治切除を行いえた十二指腸壁内 .... ...
There is a variation on Not All Men. It is called I Feel Bad When You Say That. My godson Kyle is six. He is fairly emotionally perceptive for his age, as his grownups have been working with him to create an emotionally responsible and self-aware boy who we hope will grow into an emotionally…
The presence, release, and physiological effects of a cholecystokinin(CCK)-like peptide within the stomatogastric ganglion (STG) of the lobster, Panulirus interruptus, are described. Indirect immunofluorescence with 2 antisera raised against CCK8 was used to determine the distribution of CCK-like immunoreactivity (CCKLI) in the stomatogastric nervous system. CCKLI was demonstrated in the input nerve and the neuropil of the STG and in neuropil and somata in the commissural ganglia (CGs), brain, and eyestalks. None of the somata within the STG displayed CCKLI. The cross-reactivities of the CCK antisera with several peptides were determined using either a radioimmunoassay or an immunoblot assay; the antisera recognized peptides homologous to CCK but did not cross-react significantly with several unrelated peptides. The STG contains 2 central pattern generators (CPGs), the pyloric and the gastric mill CPGs. Bath application of CCK8 to the STG had modulatory effects on both CPGs, which were dose ...
Several lines of evidence implicate the cholecystokinin B receptor (CCKBR) and the A2a adenosine receptor (A2aAR) in the etiology of panic disorder. To determine the roles each of these receptors...
Mediators of Inflammation is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research and review articles on all types of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, PAF, biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules.
In the present study, we characterized the metabolic profile of the recently described lean Cck1r−/− rat on a Fischer 344 background. With our unique animal model, we hypothesized that the lean Cck1r−/− rats would show increased meal size and energy expenditure relative to their Fischer 344 wild-type counterparts. Cck1r−/− rats consumed larger meals during the dark cycle and smaller meals during the light cycle. These effects were accompanied by increased total spontaneous activity and energy expenditure during the dark cycle, as well as an apparent shift toward increased fat utilization as demonstrated by the reduction in RQ during the light cycle. On the basis of the findings in the OLETF rats (3), we predicted that both Cck1r+/+ and Cck1r−/− rats would show increased weight gain during chronic exposure to a highly palatable, HFD. Indeed, both Cck1r+/+ and Cck1r−/− rats were prone to DIO when maintained on a HFD, which was associated with increased serum leptin levels. We ...
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A CCK-deficient mouse model was successfully generated by gene targeting in ES cells. The RIA data presented here confirm that this new mutant mouse strain does not produce CCK. CCK-deficient mice are viable and grow at a normal rate. Aging mice (1 yr and older) continued to thrive, with no obviously abnormal pathologies. The body weight, rate of weight gain (Fig. 1 B), and total daily food intake (data not shown) of CCK-deficient mice do not differ from wild-type mice, suggesting that CCK is not essential for maintaining normal energy balance (intake vs. expenditure).. Analysis of pancreatic enzyme content in CCK-deficient mice fed the basal diet revealed an increase in amylase enzyme activity (Table 3). Because chymotrypsinogen content remained unaltered in the mutant, we concluded that the increase in amylase is not due to a general reduction in enzyme secretion but a specific increase in amylase synthesis. Previous studies have demonstrated an inhibitory effect of CCK on amylase synthesis ...
Non-peptide receptors. Peptide receptors. Adenosine. A1 (h). Angiotensin-II. AT1 (h). A2A (h). AT2 (h). Bombesin. bb3 (h). A2B (h). B2 (h). A3 (h). Calcitonin gene-related peptide. CGRP (h). Adrenergic. alpha 1A (h). Chemokine. CCR1 (h). alpha 2A (h). Cholecystokinin. CCKA (h). Slideshow 3335775 by dorjan
Affiliation:International University of Health and Welfare,Professor,教授, Research Field:広領域,公衆衛生学,体育学,Public health/Health science, Keywords:高密度生活空間,Alcoholism,高周波音,脳波,環境音,精神鑑定,Cholecystokinin B receptor,GABA-Transaminase,GABA autoreceptor,Genetic risk factor, # of Research Projects:11, # of Research Products:0
This Human Apo AIV ELISA is used to measure & quantify Apo AIV levels in Metabolism research. Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
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GSK-7975A inhibits CRAC entry (Fura-2 340:380 normalized at 700 s). (A) Changes in mouse pancreatic acinar [Ca2+]C induced by CCK (1 nmol/L) with external physi
The present study demonstrates, using a strain of rats deficient in CCK-A receptors, that the c-Fos protein expression in the NTS induced by exogenous peripheral administration of CCK is mediated by CCK-A receptors. In addition, the significant reduction in the number of activated neurons in the NTS in OLETF rats after feeding suggests that CCK-A receptors are involved in the activation of NTS neurons in response to a meal. Consistent with this finding in CCK-A-deficient rats, activation of NTS neurons in response to feeding was also markedly reduced by pretreatment with MK329, a potent CCK-A receptor antagonist. In addition, exogenous CCK decreased cumulative food intake in Sprague-Dawley and in LETO rats but had no effect on food intake in CCK-A receptor-deficient OLETF rats. Thus, in the absence of CCK-A receptors and neuronal activation of NTS neurons, CCK had no effect on food intake, suggesting that activation of NTS neurons is required to initiate the satiety response to CCK. We have ...
The design of methods useful for the preparation of viable glands and cells from the gastric mucosa allowed detailed studies on the mechanisms that regulate gastric acid secretion. The preparation of rabbit gastric glands was the first suitable method to be used and a number of important scientific contributions have been accomplished with this method. Using this method we studied the effect of CCK-like peptides on [14C]aminopyrine accumulation stimulated by histamine, in order to fmd out whether such peptides can inhibit the production of acid in the parietal cell. We also developed a method for the study of viable rat gastric glands that allowed comparative studies in the rat species.. In rabbit gastric glands CCK-like pep tides inhibited histamine stimulated acid formation whereas gastrin peptides were ineffective. The most potent and efficacious peptides were CCK 8 and the cholecystokinetic amphibian decapeptide cemlein reducing the maximal histamine stimulation of aminopyrine accumulation ...
Shiratori K, Takeuchi T, Satake K, Matsuno S; Study Group of Loxiglumide in Japan. Clinical evaluation of oral administration of a cholecystokinin-A receptor antagonist (loxiglumide) to patients with acute, painful attacks of chronic pancreatitis: a multicenter dose-response study in Japan. Pancreas 2002; 25: e1-5. PMID: 12131781 ...
This study examined whether the densities of stem- and enteroendocrine cell progenitors are abnormal in the ileum of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and whether any abnormalities in ileal enteroendocrine cells are correlated with abnormalities in stem cells and enteroendocrine cell progenitors. One hundred and one IBS patients covering all IBS subtypes were recruited, and 39 non-IBS subjects were included as a control group. The patients and controls underwent standard colonoscopies, during which biopsy specimens were obtained from the ileum. The biopsy specimens were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and immunostained for Musashi-1 (Msi-1), neurogenin 3 (NEUROG3), chromogranin A (CgA), serotonin, peptide YY (PYY), oxyntomodulin (enteroglucagon), pancreatic polypeptide, and somatostatin. The immunoreactive cells were quantified by computerized image analysis. The densities of Msi-1, NEUROG3, CgA, and serotonin cells were reduced in all IBS patients and in patients with diarrhea-predominant
Kiyama, H.; Shiosaka, S.; Kubota, Y.; Cho, H.J.; Takagi, H.; Tateishi, K.; Hashimura, E.; Hamaoka, T.; Tohyama, M., 1983: Ontogeny of cholecystokinin-8 containing neuron system of the rat: an immunohistochemical analysis--II. Lower brain stem
Objective: Palatable food disrupts normal appetite regulation, which may contribute to the etiology of obesity. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cholecystokinin play critical roles in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis, while adiponectin and carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) are important for insulin sensitivity and fatty acid oxidation. This study examined the impact of short- and long-term consumption of palatable high-fat diet (HFD) on these critical metabolic regulators. Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to laboratory chow (12% fat), or cafeteria-style palatable HFD (32% fat) for 2 or 10 weeks. Body weight and food intake were monitored throughout. Plasma leptin, hypothalamic NPY and cholecystokinin, and mRNA expression of leptin, adiponectin, their receptors and CPT-1, in fat and muscles were measured. Results: Caloric intake of the palatable HFD group was 2-3 times greater than control, resulting in a 37% higher body weight. Fat mass was already increased at 2 weeks; plasma
TY - JOUR. T1 - Isolated pancreatic acini from suckling and weanling rats. T2 - Changes in amino acid incorporation and carbachol-stimulated amylase secretion with age. AU - Pollack, Paul F.. AU - Verbridge, Jill. AU - Thornburg, William. AU - Koldovsky, Otakar. AU - Korc, Murray. PY - 1986/1/1. Y1 - 1986/1/1. N2 - To characterize the changes in pancreatic function during postnatal development, isolated pancreatic acini were prepared from rats aged 8-9, 12-14 and 20 days and from adult rats. Isolated acini maintained a normal microscopic appearance and viability as judged by exclusion of trypan blue and linear incorporation of tritiated leucine into total protein. The rate of incorporation in 8-day-old acini was 20% of that observed in adult rats. Significant dose-dependent increases in amylase release in response to carbachol were observed in all age groups; stimulated amylase secretion was significantly less in the 8- to 9- and 12- to 14-day-old animals than in the 20-day-old and adult rats. ...
Inflammatory colon disease (IBD), including Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis, is really a chronic intestinal irritation of unidentified etiology. are getting evaluated with eager interest. The breakthrough of novel IBD-specific and delicate markers is expected. Such markers could reduce the usage of endoscopic and radiologic examinations and may enable clinicians to put into action individualized treatment programs designed to enhance the long-term prognosis of sufferers with IBD. antibody: Anti-antibody (ASCA), an anti-glycan antibody, can be an antibody against mannan over the cell wall structure surface area of bakers fungus (component I2 isolated from mononuclear cells within the intestinal mucosa of sufferers with Compact disc. IgA anti-I2 is normally positive in 55% of Compact disc situations, 10% of UC situations, and 20% of non-IBD colitis situations[12,15,16]. Significantly, I2 is energetic being a T-cell superantigen. Anti-subspecies antibody: subspecies (MAP) may be the causative ...
BioAssay record AID 48875 submitted by ChEMBL: Pancreatic response measured as optical density of the pancreatic juice secreted 30 minutes following injection of 0.5 ug and diluted to 25 mL with physiological saline..
Bombesin is a 14 amino acid peptide originally isolated from the skin of a frog. It has two known homologues in mammals called neuromedin B and gastrin releasing peptide. It works on the gastrointestinal tract neuroendocrine hormone and it stimulates gastrin release from G cells. It activates three different G-protein coupled receptors known as BBR1 2 & 3. It also activates these receptors in the brain. Together with cholecystokinin it is the second major source of negative feedback signals that stop eating behaviour. Bombesin is also a tumor marker for gastric cancer and neuroblastoma. ...
GABA-ergic disturbances are hallmark features of many brain disorders. Two transgenic mouse lines were generated to suppress GAD1 in non-overlapping cell types that express cholecystokinin (CCK) or neuropeptide Y (NPY). In situ lipidomic and proteomic analyses on brain tissue sections revealed distinct, brain region specific profiles in each transgenic line. Behavioral analyses revealed that suppression of GAD1 in CCK+ interneurons resulted in locomotor and olfactory sensory changes while suppression in NPY+ interneurons affected anxiety-related behaviors and social interaction. Both transgenic mouse lines had altered sensitivity to amphetamine albeit in opposite directions. Together, these data argue that reduced GAD1 expression leads to altered molecular and behavioral profiles in a cell type-dependent manner, and that these two subpopulations of interneurons are strong and opposing modulators of dopamine system function. Furthermore, our findings also support the hypothesis that neuronal ...
Bombesin pseudo-peptide analogues containing a hydroxamide function on the C-terminal part of the molecule, e.g. H-D-Phe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Leu-NHOBzl 1 and H-D-Phe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Leu-NHOH 2 were synthesized. These compounds were tested for their ability to recognize the bombesin receptor on rat pancreatic acini and on 3T3 cells, to stimulate (i) amylase secretion from rat pancreatic ...
Body weight depends on equality between food intake and expenditures of nutrients and energy. This balance is largely achieved by controlling the intake of nutrients based on the size and frequency of meals. Intake is assessed by a pattern of signals eminating from the digestive tract as a meal is in progress. The characteristics of the food and the products of its digestion are used to inform the CNS continuously as to the amounts of nutrient ingested. This information is in the form of satiety signals that may be chemical signals or nerve impulses. As the meal proceeds, these satiety signals become progressively stronger, until they cause the meal to end at an appropriate size. In the subsequent intermeal interval, these satiety signals weaken as nutrients are consumed within the body again until the tonic influences driving eating behavior initiate eating.. ...
Yoku Hayakawa, Guangchun Jin, Hongshan Wang, Xiaowei Chen, Christoph B Westphalen, Samuel Asfaha, Bernhard W Renz, Hiroshi Ariyama, Zinaida A Dubeykovskaya, Yoshihiro Takemoto, Yoomi Lee, Ashlesha Muley, Yagnesh Tailor, Duan Chen, Sureshkumar Muthupalani, James G Fox, Arthur Shulkes, Daniel L Worthley, Shigeo Takaishi, Timothy C Wang ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
States of abnormal pain induced by injuries to peripheral nerves share common features with opioid antinociceptive tolerance including mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity. Sustained administration of morphine in humans and in animals induces a state of abnormal pain (i.e., hyperalgesia) and may be associated with the development opioid antinociceptive tolerance. Persistent neuropathic pain states and opioid induced abnormal pain require descending facilitation arising from the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM). Cholecystokinin (CCK), a pronociceptive peptide, may be up-regulated following opioid treatment and nerve injury in the brain and spinal cord. Therefore, it is hypothesized that CCK in the RVM may be up-regulated by sustained opioid administration and my consequently drive descending pain facilitatory mechanisms to produce hypersensitivity and antinociceptive tolerance.Acute systemic morphine administration produced a potentiation of CCK release in the RVM as measured using ...
The pancreas performs both exocrine and endocrine functions. The exocrine pancreas consists of two parts, the acinar and duct cells. The primary functions of pancreatic acinar cells are to synthesize and secrete digestive enzymes. Stimulation of the cell by secretagogues such as acetylcholine (ACh) and cholecystokinin (CCK) causes the generation of an intracellular Ca2+ signal. This signal, in turn, triggers the fusion of the zymogen granules with the apical plasma membrane, leading to the polarised secretion of the enzymes. The major task of pancreatic duct cells is the secretion of fluid and bicarbonate ions (HCO3-), which neutralize the acidity of gastric contents that enter the duodenum. An increase in intracellular cAMP by secretin is one of the major signals of pancreatic HCO3- secretion. Activation of the CFTR Cl- channel and the CFTR-dependent Cl-/HCO3- exchange activities is responsible for cAMP-induced HCO3- secretion ...
Cytosolic free calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) and amylase secretion were measured in isolated rat pancreatic acini loaded with the intracellularly trapped fluorescent indicator quin2. Both caerulein and carbamoylcholine caused a rapid increase in [Ca2+]i, with a maximal 3-fold increase at 10(-9) M-caerulein and 10(-4) M-carbamoylcholine. However, caerulein (10(-12) M and 10(-11) M) as well as carbamoylcholine (10(-7) M) caused a significant stimulation of amylase release, while not inducing any detectable rise in [Ca2+]i. Changes in [Ca2+]i after addition of either secretagogue were transient and did not last more than 2-3 min. By contrast, when amylase secretion was monitored as a function of time, two distinct secretory phases could be observed upon addition of either carbamoylcholine (10(-5) M) or caerulein (10(-10) M). An initial, rapid phase (0-5 min) which caused a 6-7-fold increase above basal, followed by a sustained (5-30 min), but less marked, secretory rate (2-3-fold above basal). ...
Stimulation of enzyme secretion in the pancreas on injection of a single dose of the cholinergic drug, pilocarpine, was associated with an increased incorporation of [2-3H]myoinositol into a lipid, which was previously characterized as phosphatidylinositol. Stimulation of enzyme secretion by hourly injection of the pancreozymin congener, caerulein, led to more increased phosphatidylinositol synthesis than with a single injection of pilocarpine. The amylase level of the pancreas remained at a low level as long as caerulein was injected, indicating continued stimulation of enzyme secretion even though increased phosphatidylinositol synthesis ceased after 6 h. Feeding gave the same stimulation of phosphatidylinositol synthesis as caerulein. The major synthesis of phosphatidylinositol in controls and the stimulation of phosphatidylinositol synthesis by pilocarpine was entirely confined to the microsome fraction throughout the experiments (up to 18 h). This shows that there is no flow of microsomal ...

Cholecystokinin B receptor - WikipediaCholecystokinin B receptor - Wikipedia

Wang J, Si YM, Liu ZL, Yu L (Jun 2003). "Cholecystokinin, cholecystokinin-A receptor and cholecystokinin-B receptor gene ... type B gastrin/cholecystokinin receptor binding. • gastrin receptor activity. • cholecystokinin receptor activity. • peptide ... The cholecystokinin B receptor also known as CCKBR or CCK2 is a protein[5] that in humans is encoded by the CCKBR gene.[6] ... "Entrez Gene: CCKBR cholecystokinin B receptor".. *^ Altar CA, Boyar WC (Apr 1989). "Brain CCK-B receptors mediate the ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cholecystokinin_B_receptor

Cholecystokinin | hormone | Britannica.comCholecystokinin | hormone | Britannica.com

Cholecystokinin (CCK), a digestive hormone released with secretin when food from the stomach reaches the first part of the ... small intestine (duodenum). Cholecystokinin and pancreozymin were once considered two separate hormones because two distinct ... human digestive system: Cholecystokinin. Cholecystokinin, a peptide secreted by the I cells in response to the emptying of the ... More About Cholecystokinin. 3 references found in Britannica articles. Assorted References. *digestive system* In human ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/cholecystokinin

Cholecystokinin-1 Receptor | SpringerLinkCholecystokinin-1 Receptor | SpringerLink

CCK(A) receptor; CCK1; CCK-A receptor; CCKA; CCKAR; CCK-AR; Cholecystokinin receptor 1; Cholecystokinin type A receptor; CCK-1 ... CCK(A) receptor; CCK1; CCK-A receptor; CCKA; CCKAR; CCK-AR; Cholecystokinin receptor 1; Cholecystokinin type A receptor; CCK-1 ... Miller L.J. (2018) Cholecystokinin-1 Receptor. In: Choi S. (eds) Encyclopedia of Signaling Molecules. Springer, Cham. * .RIS ... Agonist-regulated phosphorylation of the pancreatic cholecystokinin receptor. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:2403-8.PubMedPubMedCentral ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F978-3-319-67199-4_273

Cholecystokinin - MeSH - NCBICholecystokinin - MeSH - NCBI

Cholecystokinin. A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central ... All MeSH CategoriesChemicals and Drugs CategoryAmino Acids, Peptides, and ProteinsPeptidesCholecystokininSincalide ... Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.. Year introduced: PANCREOZYMIN was heading 1963-1976 (Prov 1963-1966), was see ... and Hormone AntagonistsHormonesGastrointestinal HormonesCholecystokininSincalide ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh?Db=mesh&Cmd=DetailsSearch&Term=%22Cholecystokinin%22%5BMeSH+Terms%5D

Cholecystokinin receptor - WikipediaCholecystokinin receptor - Wikipedia

Cholecystokinin receptors or CCK receptors are a group of G-protein coupled receptors which bind the peptide hormones ... Structure, distribution, and functions of cholecystokinin receptors". Pharmacological Reviews. 51 (4): 745-81. PMID 10581329.. ... Dufresne M, Seva C, Fourmy D (2006). "Cholecystokinin and gastrin receptors". Physiol. Rev. 86 (3): 805-47. doi:10.1152/physrev ... Cholecystokinin+Receptors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
more infohttp://www.let.rug.nl/~gosse/termpedia2/termpedia.php?language=dutch_general&density=7&link_color=000000&termpedia_system=perl_db&url=http%3A%2F%2Fen.wikipedia.org%2Fwiki%2FCholecystokinin_receptor

Gastrin/cholecystokinin peptide hormone (IPR001651) | InterPro | EMBL-EBIGastrin/cholecystokinin peptide hormone (IPR001651) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

Gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK) are structurally and functionally related peptide hormones that function as hormonal ... gastrin/cholecystokinin-like peptide and cionin, a neuropeptide from the protochordate Ciona intestinalis belong to the same ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR001651

Cholecystokinin receptor type A (IPR000596) | InterPro | EMBL-EBICholecystokinin receptor type A (IPR000596) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

Cholecystokinin receptor type A (IPR000596). Short name: Cholcy_rcpt_A Overlapping homologous superfamilies *Cholecystokinin A ... Cholecystokinins (CCKs) and gastrins are naturally-occurring peptides that share a common C-terminal sequence, GWMDF; full ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR000596

cholecystokinin ELISA Kits | Biocompare.comcholecystokinin ELISA Kits | Biocompare.com

Compare cholecystokinin ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and ... cholecystokinin ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody-based tool for ...
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Cholecystokinin Antibodies: Novus BiologicalsCholecystokinin Antibodies: Novus Biologicals

Browse our Cholecystokinin Antibodies all backed by our Guarantee+. ... anti-Cholecystokinin antibody, anti-CCK antibody, anti-MGC117187 antibody. 3 Results for "cholecystokinin" in Primary ... Cholecystokinin Antibodies. We offer Cholecystokinin Antibodies for use in common research applications: ELISA, ... Choose from our Cholecystokinin polyclonal antibodies and browse our Cholecystokinin monoclonal antibody catalog. ...
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Cholecystokinin | Hormone Health NetworkCholecystokinin | Hormone Health Network

Hormone Health Network is here to answer all your questions about what cholecystokinin is and what it does. Learn more at ... What is Cholecystokinin?. Cholecystokinin, otherwise known as CCK or CCK-PZ, is a hormone that was once called pancreozymin ... Individuals who have cholecystokinin levels that are too high suffer no known ill effects. In fact, the lack of cholecystokinin ... How Does cholecystokinin work?. Cholecystokinins most recognized function is its ability to improve digestion. The hormone ...
more infohttps://www.hormone.org/hormone/hormones-and-health/hormones/cholecystokinin

Cholecystokinin - WikipediaCholecystokinin - Wikipedia

Media related to Cholecystokinin at Wikimedia Commons Cholecystokinin at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ... "Cholecystokinin activates orexin/hypocretin neurons through the cholecystokinin A receptor". The Journal of Neuroscience. 25 ( ... Cholecystokinin (CCK or CCK-PZ; from Greek chole, "bile"; cysto, "sac"; kinin, "move"; hence, move the bile-sac (gallbladder)) ... It is a member of the gastrin/cholecystokinin family of peptide hormones and is very similar in structure to gastrin, another ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cholecystokinin

Recombinant Human Cholecystokinin protein (ab158040) | AbcamRecombinant Human Cholecystokinin protein (ab158040) | Abcam

Buy our Recombinant Human Cholecystokinin protein. Ab158040 is a full length protein produced in Wheat germ and has been ... Cholecystokinin is a brain/gut peptide. In the gut, it induces the release of pancreatic enzymes and the contraction of the ... The cholecystokinin pro-hormone is processed by endo- and exo-proteolytic cleavages. ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/recombinant-human-cholecystokinin-protein-ab158040.html

Cholecystokinin antagonist - WikipediaCholecystokinin antagonist - Wikipedia

A cholecystokinin antagonist is a specific type of receptor antagonist which blocks the receptor sites for the peptide hormone ... Cholecystokinin". Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism. 18 (4): 569-86. doi:10.1016/j.beem.2004.07.002 ... cholecystokinin (CCK). There are two subtypes of this receptor known at present, defined as CCKA and CCKB (also called CCK-1 ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cholecystokinin_antagonist

Produktübersicht anti-Cholecystokinin AntikörperProduktübersicht anti-Cholecystokinin Antikörper

Ausgesuchte Qualitäts-Hersteller für Cholecystokinin Antikörper. Hier bestellen. ... Monoklonale und polyklonale Cholecystokinin Antikörper für viele Methoden. ... cholecystokinin , cholecystokinin-L , Cholecystokinins , cholecystokinin-N , cholecystokinin triacontatriapeptide , prepro- ... Cholecystokinin type 2 , cholecystokinin (clone CCK-CH), preprocholecystokinin , cholecystokinin B , cholecystokinin type 2 ...
more infohttp://www.antikoerper-online.de/t-zell-rezeptor-signalweg-pathway-12/cholecystokinin-antibody-8723/

Cholecystokinin
      - Pancreozymin
     Summary Report | CureHunterCholecystokinin - Pancreozymin Summary Report | CureHunter

Cholecystokinin: A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central ... Cholecystokinin (Pancreozymin). Subscribe to New Research on Cholecystokinin A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by ... cholecystokinin 5 out of 16; 3-yr-old, control 10 out of 11, cholecystokinin 3 out of 8. Gallstone formation was significantly ... which suggests the role of cholecystokinin in the feedback control of pancreatic secretion.". 05/01/2000 - "The cholecystokinin ...
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PHENYLALANINE-STIMULATED SECRETION OF CHOLECYSTOKININ IS CALCIUM-DEPENDENT | RTIPHENYLALANINE-STIMULATED SECRETION OF CHOLECYSTOKININ IS CALCIUM-DEPENDENT | RTI

... an intestinal cholecystokinin (CCK)secreting cell line. Exposure to the amino acid L-phenylalanine increased release of CCK by ... The secretion of cholecystokinin was examined in STC-1 cells, ... The secretion of cholecystokinin was examined in STC-1 cells, ... These results indicate that, in STC-1 cells, L-phenylalanine stimulates release of cholecystokinin via a calcium-dependent ... 1995). PHENYLALANINE-STIMULATED SECRETION OF CHOLECYSTOKININ IS CALCIUM-DEPENDENT. American Journal of Physiology. ...
more infohttps://www.rti.org/publication/phenylalanine-stimulated-secretion-cholecystokinin-calcium-dependent

Cholecystokinin
      - Pancreozymin
     Summary Report | CureHunterCholecystokinin - Pancreozymin Summary Report | CureHunter

Cholecystokinin: A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central ... Cholecystokinin (Pancreozymin). Subscribe to New Research on Cholecystokinin A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by ... cholecystokinin 5 out of 16; 3-yr-old, control 10 out of 11, cholecystokinin 3 out of 8. Gallstone formation was significantly ... which suggests the role of cholecystokinin in the feedback control of pancreatic secretion.". 05/01/2000 - "The cholecystokinin ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD002766.do

Cholecystokinin financial definition of cholecystokininCholecystokinin financial definition of cholecystokinin

What is cholecystokinin? Meaning of cholecystokinin as a finance term. What does cholecystokinin mean in finance? ... Definition of cholecystokinin in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Cholecystokinin financial definition of cholecystokinin https://financial-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/cholecystokinin. ... Related to cholecystokinin: enterogastrone, secretin CCK. GOST 7.67 Latin three-letter geocode for the Cocos Islands. The code ...
more infohttps://financial-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/cholecystokinin

Cholecystokinin CCK1 AequoScreen cell line | PerkinElmerCholecystokinin CCK1 AequoScreen cell line | PerkinElmer

... simple luminescent calcium flux assays using an AequoScreen cell line stably-transfected with human cholecystokinin CCK1 ... AequoScreen® Double Transfected Cell Lines: Cholecystokinin, CCKA subtype. Human Recombinant, in 1321N1 host cell. Two vials of ...
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Cholecystokinin : Quiz (The Full Wiki)Cholecystokinin : Quiz (The Full Wiki)

Question 3: Cholecystokinin (CCK or CCK-PZ; from Greek chole, "bile"; cysto, "sac"; kinin, "move"; hence, move the bile-sac ( ...
more infohttp://quiz.thefullwiki.org/Cholecystokinin

Cholecystokinin | ENCOGNITIVE.COMCholecystokinin | ENCOGNITIVE.COM

Cholecystokinin. Localization of Cholecystokinin and Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide in Lower Biliary Tract in Cats Tagged: * ... Localization of Cholecystokinin and Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide in Lower Biliary Tract in Cats Following Electroacupuncture ... Forms of sensory stimulation; Characteristics of hyperalgesia; Levels of the opioid-antagonist cholecystokinin in the brain. ...
more infohttp://encognitive.com/taxonomy/term/437

Cholecystokinin Antagonists in Gastroenterology | Springer for Research & DevelopmentCholecystokinin Antagonists in Gastroenterology | Springer for Research & Development

It represents a collection of the most up-to-date information in cholecystokinin (CCK) res ... Cholecystokinin-Receptor Antagonists in Experimental Pancreatic Tumor Growth C. B. H. Lamers, B. R. Douglas, J. B. M. Jansen, R ... Effects of Cholecystokinin Receptor Antagonists in Animal Models C. Niederau, M. Niederau, R. Lüthen, G. Strohmeyer, J. H. ... Role of Cholecystokinin in Regulating Gallbladder Contraction and Pancreatic Secretion in Man: Studies with Loxiglumide ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-642-76362-5

Cckar - Cholecystokinin receptor type A - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Cckar gene & proteinCckar - Cholecystokinin receptor type A - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Cckar gene & protein

Receptor for cholecystokinin. Mediates pancreatic growth and enzyme secretion, smooth muscle contraction of the gall bladder ... Cholecystokinin receptor type AAdd BLAST. 436. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. ... Receptor for cholecystokinin. Mediates pancreatic growth and enzyme secretion, smooth muscle contraction of the gall bladder ... sp,O08786,CCKAR_MOUSE Cholecystokinin receptor type A OS=Mus musculus OX=10090 GN=Cckar PE=1 SV=1 ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/O08786

Immunohistochemical characterization of cholecystokinin containing neurons in the rat basolateral amygdala.  - PubMed - NCBIImmunohistochemical characterization of cholecystokinin containing neurons in the rat basolateral amygdala. - PubMed - NCBI

Immunohistochemical characterization of cholecystokinin containing neurons in the rat basolateral amygdala.. Mascagni F1, ... In the present study, immunohistochemical techniques were used to analyze neurons in the rat ABL that contain cholecystokinin ( ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12763251?dopt=Abstract

Cholecystokinin-8 molecule - Stock Image C003/2352 - Science Photo LibraryCholecystokinin-8 molecule - Stock Image C003/2352 - Science Photo Library

Computer model showing the structure of the terminal fragment of a molecule of the hormone cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8). Atoms are ... colour-coded (carbon: large grey, hydrogen: small grey, oxygen: red, nitrogen: blue, sulphur: yellow). Cholecystokinin (CCK) is ... cholecystokinin, cholecystokinin-8, compound, control, cut out, cut outs, cut-out, cut-outs, cutout, cutouts, digestion, ... Caption: Cholecystokinin-8 molecule. Computer model showing the structure of the terminal fragment of a molecule of the hormone ...
more infohttp://www.sciencephoto.com/media/96580/view
  • Ghrelin, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cholecystokinin (CCK) in blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala): cDNA cloning, tissue distribution and mRNA expression changes responding to fasting and refeeding. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cholecystokinin (CCK) was first isolated from porcine intestine as a polypeptide with 33 amino acid residues (CCK-33) (1). (springer.com)
  • It represents a collection of the most up-to-date information in cholecystokinin (CCK) research, especially focusing on the development and characterization of CCK antagonists. (springer.com)
  • Immunohistochemical characterization of cholecystokinin containing neurons in the rat basolateral amygdala. (nih.gov)
  • We offer Cholecystokinin Antibodies for use in common research applications: ELISA, Immunohistochemistry, Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin, Western Blot. (novusbio.com)
  • Choose from our Cholecystokinin polyclonal antibodies and browse our Cholecystokinin monoclonal antibody catalog. (novusbio.com)
  • A second hypothesis is that, because cholecystokinin inhibits emptying of the stomach, the sensation of satiety may be the result of distension of the stomach. (britannica.com)
  • Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety. (nih.gov)
  • In a study published in the Journal of Nutrition, researchers observed that a single test meal with high-fiber beans produced a two-fold greater increase in the satiety hormone cholecystokinin (CCK), compared to a control test meal without beans. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In addition, variations with the cholecystokinin gene have been connected to obesity, but the reason for this is not yet known. (hormone.org)
  • These results indicate that, in STC-1 cells, L-phenylalanine stimulates release of cholecystokinin via a calcium-dependent process. (rti.org)
  • Cardiac expression of pro- cholecystokinin is cell-specific, which differentiates the expression from that of intestinal endocrine cells and cerebral neurons. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a family of hormones responsible for promoting the digestion of fats and proteins. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Cell surface proteins that bind cholecystokinin (CCK) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. (umassmed.edu)
  • Intracellular signaling mechanisms activated by cholecystokinin-regulating synthesis and secretion of digestive enzymes in pancreatic acinar cells. (springer.com)
  • Cholecystokinin is secreted by cells of the upper small intestine. (britannica.com)
  • However, today these two actions are recognized as belonging to one enzyme, now known solely as cholecystokinin. (britannica.com)
  • The levels of serum gastrin, and motilin and cholecystokinin were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Your search returned 687 cholecystokinin ELISA ELISA Kit across 21 suppliers. (biocompare.com)