Inflammation of the GALLBLADDER; generally caused by impairment of BILE flow, GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, infections, or other diseases.
Acute inflammation of the GALLBLADDER wall. It is characterized by the presence of ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and LEUKOCYTOSIS. Gallstone obstruction of the CYSTIC DUCT is present in approximately 90% of the cases.
Inflammation of the GALLBLADDER wall in the absence of GALLSTONES.
A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.
A variant of acute cholecystitis with inflammation of the GALLBLADDER that is characterized by the pockets of gas in the gallbladder wall. It is due to secondary infection caused by gas-forming organisms, and has a high risk of perforation.
Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.
Establishment of an opening into the gallbladder either for drainage or surgical communication with another part of the digestive tract, usually the duodenum or jejunum.
Excision of the gallbladder through an abdominal incision using a laparoscope.
Imino acids are organic compounds containing a nitrogen atom in their structure, classified as derivatives of amino acids, where the carbon atom adjacent to the carboxyl group is bonded to a nitrogen atom instead of a hydrogen atom, forming a characteristic imino functional group.
Radiography of the gallbladder after ingestion of a contrast medium.
Diseases of the GALLBLADDER. They generally involve the impairment of BILE flow, GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, infections, neoplasms, or other diseases.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tokyo" is not a medical term that has a specific definition in the field of medicine. Tokyo is actually the capital city of Japan and is not used as a term in medicine.
Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.
A radiopharmaceutical used extensively in cholescintigraphy for the evaluation of hepatobiliary diseases. (From Int Jrnl Rad Appl Inst 1992;43(9):1061-4)
Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).
A condition marked by the development of widespread xanthomas, yellow tumor-like structures filled with lipid deposits. Xanthomas can be found in a variety of tissues including the SKIN; TENDONS; joints of KNEES and ELBOWS. Xanthomatosis is associated with disturbance of LIPID METABOLISM and formation of FOAM CELLS.
Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the GALLBLADDER.
Solid crystalline precipitates in the BILIARY TRACT, usually formed in the GALLBLADDER, resulting in the condition of CHOLELITHIASIS. Gallstones, derived from the BILE, consist mainly of calcium, cholesterol, or bilirubin.
Death and putrefaction of tissue usually due to a loss of blood supply.
Inflammation of the biliary ductal system (BILE DUCTS); intrahepatic, extrahepatic, or both.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
The duct that is connected to the GALLBLADDER and allows the emptying of bile into the COMMON BILE DUCT.
Hemorrhage in or through the BILIARY TRACT due to trauma, inflammation, CHOLELITHIASIS, vascular disease, or neoplasms.
Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
A nontoxic radiopharmaceutical that is used in RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING for the clinical evaluation of hepatobiliary disorders in humans.
Changing an operative procedure from an endoscopic surgical procedure to an open approach during the INTRAOPERATIVE PERIOD.
Non-invasive diagnostic technique for visualizing the PANCREATIC DUCTS and BILE DUCTS without the use of injected CONTRAST MEDIA or x-ray. MRI scans provide excellent sensitivity for duct dilatation, biliary stricture, and intraductal abnormalities.
A motility disorder characterized by biliary COLIC, absence of GALLSTONES, and an abnormal GALLBLADDER ejection fraction. It is caused by gallbladder dyskinesia and/or SPHINCTER OF ODDI DYSFUNCTION.
Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the COMMON BILE DUCT.
A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.
Organic compounds that contain technetium as an integral part of the molecule. These compounds are often used as radionuclide imaging agents.
An imaging test of the BILIARY TRACT in which a contrast dye (RADIOPAQUE MEDIA) is injected into the BILE DUCT and x-ray pictures are taken.
Abnormal passage in any organ of the biliary tract or between biliary organs and other organs.
A process whereby bile is delivered from the gallbladder into the duodenum. The emptying is caused by both contraction of the gallbladder and relaxation of the sphincter mechanism at the choledochal terminus.
The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.
Fiberoptic endoscopy designed for duodenal observation and cannulation of VATER'S AMPULLA, in order to visualize the pancreatic and biliary duct system by retrograde injection of contrast media. Endoscopic (Vater) papillotomy (SPHINCTEROTOMY, ENDOSCOPIC) may be performed during this procedure.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A clinical syndrome with intermittent abdominal pain characterized by sudden onset and cessation that is commonly seen in infants. It is usually associated with obstruction of the INTESTINES; of the CYSTIC DUCT; or of the URINARY TRACT.
Tear or break of an organ, vessel or other soft part of the body, occurring in the absence of external force.
Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.
The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.
Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the liver as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the digestive tract.
A mass of histologically normal tissue present in an abnormal location.

Perforation of the gallbladder: analysis of 19 cases. (1/422)

Perforation of the gallbladder occurred in 19 (3.8%) of 496 patients with acute cholecystitis treated at one hospital in an 8-year period. The average age of the 19 patients was 69 years and the female:male ratio was 3:2. Most had a history suggestive of gallbladder disease and most had coexisting cardiac, pulmonary, renal, nutritional or metabolic disease. The duration of the present illness was short, perforation occurring within 72 hours of the onset of symptoms in half the patients; the diagnosis was not suspected preoperatively in any. In the elderly patient with acute cholecystitis who has a long history of gallbladder disease, cholecystectomy should be performed early, before gangrene and perforation of the gallbladder can occur.  (+info)

Obstructive cholecystitis due to metastatic melanoma. (2/422)

A patient with isolated metastases from cutaneous melanoma to the gall-bladder is reported. The patient presented clinically with obstructive cholecystitis. The course of melanoma is unpredictable and the possibility that an apparently unassociated condition is due to metastases should always be considered. Isolated metastases may respond well to radical surgery and reward the surgeon's efforts.  (+info)

The efficacy of laparoscopy in acute cholecystitis. (3/422)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in acute cholecystitis and establish the outcomes of this treatment modality at North Oakland Medical Centers. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis over a three-year period (January 1, 1994 to December 31, 1996), performed at a University-affiliated urban teaching hospital, North Oakland Medical Centers, Pontiac, Michigan. Five hundred and fifty-seven patients underwent surgical treatment for gallbladder disease; 88 patients had acute cholecystitis, and 469 patients had chronic cholecystitis. Acute cholecystitis patients underwent surgery within 72 hours of the onset of symptoms; the patient's selection for laparoscopic cholecystectomy or open cholecystectomy depended on severity of disease, co-morbid factors and surgeon's preference. The parameters of age, gender, operating (OR) time, length of stay, complications, conversion rates from laparoscopic cholecystectomy to open cholecystectomy, and cost were compared in patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and/or open cholecystectomy. RESULTS: Patients chosen to undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis tended to be younger females. Patients treated with laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis had shorter OR times and LOS compared to patients treated with open cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis. Conversion rates (CR) were 22% in acute cholecystitis and 5.5% in chronic cholecystitis during the study period; CR diminished considerably between the first and third year. Complications were also lower in patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy vs. open cholecystectomy. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy appears to be a reliable, safe, and cost-effective treatment modality for acute cholecystitis; however, the surgical approach should be cautionary because of the spectrum of potential technical hazards. CR is improving as surgeons gain experience.  (+info)

Predicting conversion of laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis. (4/422)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be safely performed in patients with acute cholecystitis. However, the rate of conversion to open cholecystectomy remains higher when compared with patients with chronic cholecystitis. Preoperative clinical or laboratory parameters that could predict the need for conversion may assist the surgeon in preoperative or intraoperative decision making. This could have cost-saving implications. METHODS: A retrospective review of 46 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis was performed. Records were assessed for preoperative clinical, laboratory and radiographic parameters on admission. Temperature and laboratory parameters were also recorded prior to surgery after an initial period of hospitalization that included intravenous antibiotics. The effect of admission and preoperative parameters as well as the trend in these parameters prior to surgery upon the rate of conversion to open cholecystectomy was assessed. RESULTS: Ten patients (22%) required conversion to open cholecystectomy. Conversion was required more often in males (43%) when compared with females (4%) (p=0.003). Conversion rate was 30% in patients with increased wall thickness by ultrasound compared with 12% for patients without wall thickening (p=ns). No admission or preoperative laboratory values predicted conversion. The trend in the patient's temperature (p=0.0003) and serum LDH value (p=0.043) predicted the need for conversion to open surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative prediction of the need for open cholecystectomy remains elusive. Male patients and patients with rising temperature and LDH levels while on intravenous antibiotics require conversion at increased frequency. However, the benefits of laparoscopic cholecystectomy warrant an attempt at laparoscopic removal in most patients with acute cholecystitis.  (+info)

Small cell carcinoma of the gallbladder: report of two cases. (5/422)

Two Taiwanese patients with gallbladder small cell carcinoma are reported. One is a 79 year-old male, the other, a 86 year-old female. They both presented with the symptom/signs of acute cholecystitis and underwent cholecystectomy. An intramural mass in the gallbladder neck region was found in the first patient, while the second patient had a transmural indurated tumor in the gallbladder body with extension to the neck region. Characteristic histological and immunohistochemical features of small cell carcinoma were present in both, and electron dense neurosecretory granules were identified in the second. To our knowledge, the second patient is the oldest ever reported. The first patient received chemotherapy directed toward the initial erroneous diagnosis of non-Hodgkin s lymphoma and developed liver metastasis in two months. The second patient did not receive chemotherapy due to her poor general condition and local recurrence occurred in six weeks. Both passed away three and five months after surgery, respectively.  (+info)

Chronic acalculous cholecystitis: changes in patient demographics and evaluation since the advent of laparoscopy. (6/422)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To analyze patients with chronic acalculous cholecystitis over ten years, during which laparotomy was replaced by laparoscopy as the dominant operation for cholecystectomy in regard to patient demographics, diagnostic evaluations, follow-up symptoms, and additional operations. METHODS: Of 7181 cholecystectomies from June 1985 to June 1995, 301 patients had chronic acalculous cholecystitis. All subsequent hospital admissions and emergency room visits were reviewed through May 1997. Office records were available for review in 158 cases. Two eras were defined, the open era from June 1985 through May 1990, and the laparoscopic era from June 1990 through June 1995. RESULTS: Twice as many patients with chronic acalculous disease underwent cholecystectomy after the advent of laparoscopy. Patients with chronic acalculous disease were significantly younger than patients with cholelithiasis in both open and laparoscopic cases. The percentage of white women increased from 64.7% in the open to 75.7% in the laparoscopic era (p<0.05). The numbers of preoperative diagnostic tests performed decreased from 4.7+/-2.4 in the open to 3.2+/-1.8 in the laparoscopic era (p<0.05). Twenty-two percent of patients had continued symptoms postoperatively, and 8 patients (2.7%) required other abdominal operations within one year of cholecystectomy. CONCLUSION: Chronic acalculous cholecystitis is a disease of white females, doubling in frequency over the decade of review. Of these, 78% of patients had resolution of their symptoms on long-term follow-up.  (+info)

Cholecystokinin cholescintigraphy: victim of its own success? (7/422)

Numerous publications have reported that a low gallbladder ejection fraction (GBEF) determined by cholecystokinin (CCK) cholescintigraphy has a high positive predictive value for the diagnosis of chronic acalculous cholecystitis (CAC). Clinicians and surgeons have found this test to be clinically useful as an objective method to confirm their clinical diagnosis. However, an abnormally low GBEF is not specific for CAC. For example, numerous other diseases have been associated with a low GBEF, and various therapeutic drugs can cause poor gallbladder contraction. Importantly, improper CCK infusion methodology can result in an erroneously low GBEF. More than one third of healthy subjects and patients who receive sincalide, 0.02 microg/kg infused over 1-3 min, will have an erroneously low GBEF but will have a normal GBEF with a slower infusion (30-60 min) of the same total dose. Because of enthusiastic acceptance of CCK cholescintigraphy by clinicians, the types of patients referred for this test have changed over time. Patients investigated in publications confirming the usefulness of CCK cholescintigraphy had a high pretest likelihood of disease. They underwent extensive workup to rule out other diseases and were followed up for months or years before CCK cholescintigraphy was performed, allowing other diseases to become manifest or symptoms to resolve. However, CCK cholescintigraphy is now being used by clinicians to shorten the workup and follow-up time based on the rationale that CCK cholescintigraphy can quickly confirm or exclude the diagnosis. This new group of referral patients has a lower likelihood of the disease. Many will ultimately be diagnosed with diseases other than CAC. The positive predictive value of this test will likely be lower and the false-positive rate will likely be higher. Nuclear medicine physicians must work to minimize false-positive studies to maintain the confidence of referring clinicians. First, we can educate referring physicians as to the proper use of this study. Next, we must perform CCK cholescintigraphy using optimal methodology that will result in the lowest possible false-positive rate. And finally, we must interpret CCK cholescintigraphy in light of the patient's history, prior workup and clinical setting.  (+info)

Emphysematous cholecystitis in a Siberian husky. (8/422)

A 6-year-old, intact male Siberian husky was evaluated for a 24-hour history of vomiting and lethargy. Diagnosis of emphysematous cholecystitis was achieved based on survey abdominal radiographs, a barium contrast gastrointestinal series, and abdominal ultrasound. Diagnosis and medical and surgical management of the condition are discussed.  (+info)

Cholecystitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the gallbladder, a small pear-shaped organ located under the liver that stores and concentrates bile produced by the liver. Bile is a digestive fluid that helps break down fats in the small intestine during digestion.

Acute cholecystitis is a sudden inflammation of the gallbladder, often caused by the presence of gallstones that block the cystic duct, the tube that carries bile from the gallbladder to the common bile duct. This blockage can cause bile to build up in the gallbladder, leading to inflammation, swelling, and pain.

Chronic cholecystitis is a long-term inflammation of the gallbladder, often caused by repeated attacks of acute cholecystitis or the presence of gallstones that cause ongoing irritation and damage to the gallbladder wall. Over time, chronic cholecystitis can lead to thickening and scarring of the gallbladder wall, which can reduce its ability to function properly.

Symptoms of cholecystitis may include sudden and severe abdominal pain, often in the upper right or center of the abdomen, that may worsen after eating fatty foods; fever; nausea and vomiting; bloating and gas; and clay-colored stools. Treatment for cholecystitis typically involves antibiotics to treat any infection present, pain relief, and surgery to remove the gallbladder (cholecystectomy). In some cases, a nonsurgical procedure called endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) may be used to remove gallstones from the bile duct.

Acute cholecystitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis) that develops suddenly (acute). The gallbladder is a small pear-shaped organ located in the upper right part of the abdomen, beneath the liver. It stores bile, a digestive juice produced by the liver, which helps break down fats in the food we eat.

Acute cholecystitis occurs when the gallbladder becomes inflamed and irritated, often due to the presence of gallstones that block the cystic duct, the tube that carries bile from the gallbladder into the small intestine. When the cystic duct is obstructed, bile builds up in the gallbladder, causing it to become swollen, inflamed, and infected.

Symptoms of acute cholecystitis may include sudden and severe abdominal pain, often located in the upper right or middle part of the abdomen, that may radiate to the back or shoulder blade area. Other symptoms may include fever, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and abdominal tenderness or swelling.

Acute cholecystitis is typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scan. Treatment may involve hospitalization, antibiotics to treat infection, pain relief medications, and surgery to remove the gallbladder (cholecystectomy). In some cases, nonsurgical treatments such as endoscopic sphincterotomy or percutaneous cholecystostomy may be used to relieve obstruction and inflammation.

Acalculous cholecystitis is a form of inflammation of the gallbladder that occurs in the absence of gallstones, which are commonly associated with gallbladder inflammation. It mainly affects critically ill or debilitated patients and can be caused by various factors such as bacterial or viral infection, reduced blood flow to the gallbladder, and injury to the bile ducts.

The symptoms of acalculous cholecystitis may include abdominal pain, fever, nausea, vomiting, and jaundice. The diagnosis is often made through imaging tests such as ultrasound or CT scan, which may show gallbladder wall thickening, fluid accumulation around the gallbladder, and other signs of inflammation.

Treatment typically involves antibiotics to manage infection, intravenous fluids, and pain management. In severe cases, cholecystectomy (surgical removal of the gallbladder) may be necessary. If left untreated, acalculous cholecystitis can lead to serious complications such as gangrene, perforation of the gallbladder, and sepsis.

The gallbladder is a small, pear-shaped organ located just under the liver in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. Its primary function is to store and concentrate bile, a digestive enzyme produced by the liver, which helps in the breakdown of fats during the digestion process. When food, particularly fatty foods, enter the stomach and small intestine, the gallbladder contracts and releases bile through the common bile duct into the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine, to aid in fat digestion.

The gallbladder is made up of three main parts: the fundus, body, and neck. It has a muscular wall that allows it to contract and release bile. Gallstones, an inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), or other gallbladder diseases can cause pain, discomfort, and potentially serious health complications if left untreated.

Emphysematous cholecystitis is a type of acute inflammation of the gallbladder, characterized by the presence of gas within the wall and/or lumen of the gallbladder. It is a severe and potentially life-threatening condition, which typically occurs in patients with diabetes or other underlying medical conditions that compromise their immune system.

The gas that accumulates in the gallbladder in emphysematous cholecystitis can come from several sources, including gas-forming bacteria such as Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli. These bacteria produce gas as a byproduct of their metabolism, which can lead to the formation of gas bubbles within the gallbladder.

The symptoms of emphysematous cholecystitis are similar to those of other forms of acute cholecystitis and may include abdominal pain, fever, nausea, vomiting, and decreased appetite. However, the presence of gas within the gallbladder can be detected on imaging studies such as X-rays or computed tomography (CT) scans, which can help to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment of emphysematous cholecystitis typically involves surgical removal of the gallbladder (cholecystectomy), often through a laparoscopic approach. Antibiotic therapy is also administered to treat any underlying bacterial infection. In severe cases, where the patient's condition is too unstable for surgery, percutaneous drainage of the gallbladder may be performed as a temporary measure to help reduce the risk of complications such as gangrene or perforation.

Cholecystectomy is a medical procedure to remove the gallbladder, a small pear-shaped organ located on the right side of the abdomen, just beneath the liver. The primary function of the gallbladder is to store and concentrate bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver. During a cholecystectomy, the surgeon removes the gallbladder, usually due to the presence of gallstones or inflammation that can cause pain, infection, or other complications.

There are two primary methods for performing a cholecystectomy:

1. Open Cholecystectomy: In this traditional surgical approach, the surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen to access and remove the gallbladder. This method is typically used when there are complications or unique circumstances that make laparoscopic surgery difficult or risky.
2. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: This is a minimally invasive surgical procedure where the surgeon makes several small incisions in the abdomen, through which a thin tube with a camera (laparoscope) and specialized surgical instruments are inserted. The surgeon then guides these tools to remove the gallbladder while viewing the internal structures on a video monitor.

After the gallbladder is removed, bile flows directly from the liver into the small intestine through the common bile duct, and the body continues to function normally without any significant issues.

Cholecystostomy is a medical procedure that involves the creation of an opening or fistula between the gallbladder and the stomach or the skin surface to drain bile from the gallbladder. This procedure is typically performed when there is an obstruction in the cystic duct or common bile duct, leading to inflammation or infection of the gallbladder (cholecystitis).

There are two types of cholecystostomy: percutaneous and open. Percutaneous cholecystostomy is a minimally invasive procedure that involves inserting a small tube through the skin and into the gallbladder under the guidance of imaging techniques such as ultrasound or CT scan. Open cholecystostomy, on the other hand, requires an open surgical incision to access the gallbladder and create the fistula.

Cholecystostomy is usually a temporary measure to manage acute cholecystitis in high-risk patients who are not suitable candidates for surgery or until they become stable enough to undergo a more definitive treatment, such as cholecystectomy (surgical removal of the gallbladder).

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a surgical procedure to remove the gallbladder using a laparoscope, a thin tube with a camera, which allows the surgeon to view the internal structures on a video monitor. The surgery is performed through several small incisions in the abdomen, rather than a single large incision used in open cholecystectomy. This approach results in less postoperative pain, fewer complications, and shorter recovery time compared to open cholecystectomy.

The procedure is typically indicated for symptomatic gallstones or chronic inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), which can cause severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the standard of care for gallbladder removal due to its minimally invasive nature and excellent outcomes.

Imino acids are organic compounds that contain a nitrogen atom as part of an amide-like structure. They are structurally similar to amino acids, which contain a carboxyl group and an amino group, but instead of the amino group, imino acids have a structural unit known as an imine or Schiff base, which is a carbon-nitrogen double bond with a hydrogen atom attached to the nitrogen atom.

One example of an imino acid is proline, which is a cyclic imino acid that plays important roles in protein structure and function. Proline is unique among the 20 standard amino acids because its side chain is linked to the nitrogen atom of the backbone, forming a ring-like structure. This structural feature gives proline unique properties, such as restricted rotation around the bond between the nitrogen and alpha carbon atoms, which can affect protein folding and stability.

Other imino acids may be formed through chemical reactions or enzymatic processes, and they can play important roles in various biological pathways, including the biosynthesis of amino acids, nucleotides, and other biomolecules. However, imino acids are not typically considered to be part of the standard set of 20 amino acids that make up proteins.

Cholecystography is a medical procedure that involves the use of X-rays to examine the gallbladder and bile ducts. It is also known as an oral cholecystogram (OCG).

The procedure involves administering a contrast agent, typically a iodine-based dye, which is absorbed by the liver and excreted into the bile ducts and gallbladder. The dye makes the bile ducts and gallbladder visible on X-ray images, allowing doctors to diagnose conditions such as gallstones, tumors, or inflammation of the gallbladder.

Cholecystography is not commonly used today due to the development of more advanced imaging techniques, such as ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) scans, which are non-invasive and do not require the use of contrast agents. However, it may still be used in certain cases where other imaging tests are inconclusive or unavailable.

Gallbladder diseases refer to a range of conditions that affect the function and structure of the gallbladder, a small pear-shaped organ located beneath the liver. The primary role of the gallbladder is to store, concentrate, and release bile into the small intestine to aid in digesting fats. Gallbladder diseases can be chronic or acute and may cause various symptoms, discomfort, or complications if left untreated. Here are some common gallbladder diseases with brief definitions:

1. Cholelithiasis: The presence of gallstones within the gallbladder. Gallstones are small, hard deposits made of cholesterol, bilirubin, or a combination of both, which can vary in size from tiny grains to several centimeters.
2. Cholecystitis: Inflammation of the gallbladder, often caused by obstruction of the cystic duct (the tube connecting the gallbladder and the common bile duct) due to a gallstone. This condition can be acute or chronic and may cause abdominal pain, fever, and tenderness in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen.
3. Choledocholithiasis: The presence of gallstones within the common bile duct, which can lead to obstruction, jaundice, and potential infection of the biliary system (cholangitis).
4. Acalculous gallbladder disease: Gallbladder dysfunction or inflammation without the presence of gallstones. This condition is often seen in critically ill patients and can lead to similar symptoms as cholecystitis.
5. Gallbladder polyps: Small growths attached to the inner wall of the gallbladder. While most polyps are benign, some may have malignant potential, especially if they are larger than 1 cm in size or associated with certain risk factors.
6. Gallbladder cancer: A rare form of cancer that originates in the gallbladder tissue. It is often asymptomatic in its early stages and can be challenging to diagnose. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, jaundice, or a palpable mass in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen.

It is essential to consult with a healthcare professional if experiencing symptoms related to gallbladder disease for proper diagnosis and treatment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tokyo" is not a medical term. It is the capital city of Japan and the country's largest metropolitan area. If you have any questions about medical terms or topics, I would be happy to help with those!

Gallbladder neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the tissue of the gallbladder, which can be benign or malignant. Benign neoplasms are non-cancerous and typically do not spread to other parts of the body. Malignant neoplasms, also known as gallbladder cancer, can invade nearby tissues and organs and may metastasize (spread) to distant parts of the body. Gallbladder neoplasms can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, jaundice, and nausea, but they are often asymptomatic until they have advanced to an advanced stage. The exact causes of gallbladder neoplasms are not fully understood, but risk factors include gallstones, chronic inflammation of the gallbladder, and certain inherited genetic conditions.

Technetium Tc 99m Disofenin is not a medical condition, but rather a radiopharmaceutical used in diagnostic imaging. It is a radioactive tracer used in nuclear medicine scans, specifically for liver and biliary system imaging. The compound consists of the radioisotope Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) bonded to the pharmaceutical Disofenin.

The Tc-99m is a gamma emitter with a half-life of 6 hours, making it ideal for diagnostic imaging. When administered to the patient, the compound is taken up by the liver and excreted into the bile ducts and gallbladder, allowing medical professionals to visualize these structures using a gamma camera. This can help detect various conditions such as tumors, gallstones, or obstructions in the biliary system.

It's important to note that Technetium Tc 99m Disofenin is used diagnostically and not for therapeutic purposes. The radiation exposure from this compound is generally low and considered safe for diagnostic use. However, as with any medical procedure involving radiation, the benefits and risks should be carefully weighed and discussed with a healthcare professional.

Cholelithiasis is a medical term that refers to the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder. The gallbladder is a small pear-shaped organ located beneath the liver that stores bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver. Gallstones are hardened deposits that can form in the gallbladder when substances in the bile, such as cholesterol or bilirubin, crystallize.

Gallstones can vary in size and may be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball. Some people with gallstones may not experience any symptoms, while others may have severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes) if the gallstones block the bile ducts.

Cholelithiasis is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide, particularly women over the age of 40 and those with certain medical conditions such as obesity, diabetes, and rapid weight loss. If left untreated, gallstones can lead to serious complications such as inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), infection, or pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas). Treatment options for cholelithiasis include medication, shock wave lithotripsy (breaking up the gallstones with sound waves), and surgery to remove the gallbladder (cholecystectomy).

Xanthomatosis is a medical term that refers to the condition characterized by the presence of xanthomas, which are yellowish, fat-laden deposits that form under the skin or in other tissues. These deposits consist of lipids, such as cholesterol and triglycerides, and immune cells called macrophages, which have engulfed the lipids.

Xanthomas can occur in various parts of the body, including the eyelids, tendons, joints, and other areas with connective tissue. They may appear as small papules or larger nodules, and their size and number can vary depending on the severity of the underlying disorder.

Xanthomatosis is often associated with genetic disorders that affect lipid metabolism, such as familial hypercholesterolemia, or with acquired conditions that cause high levels of lipids in the blood, such as diabetes, hypothyroidism, and certain liver diseases. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying disorder and controlling lipid levels through dietary changes, medications, or a combination of both.

Cholecystolithiasis is the medical term for the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder. The gallbladder is a small pear-shaped organ located under the liver that stores and concentrates bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver. Gallstones are hardened deposits that can form in the gallbladder when substances in the bile, such as cholesterol or bilirubin, become concentrated and crystallize.

Gallstones can vary in size, from tiny grains of sand to large stones several centimeters in diameter. Some people may have a single gallstone, while others may have many. Gallstones may cause no symptoms at all, but if they block the flow of bile out of the gallbladder, they can cause pain, inflammation, and infection.

Symptoms of cholecystolithiasis may include abdominal pain, often in the upper right or center of the abdomen, that may be sharp or crampy and may occur after eating fatty foods. Other symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, fever, and chills. If gallstones are left untreated, they can lead to serious complications such as cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder), pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas), or cholangitis (infection of the bile ducts). Treatment for cholecystolithiasis may include medication to dissolve the gallstones, shock wave lithotripsy to break up the stones, or surgery to remove the gallbladder.

Gallstones are small, hard deposits that form in the gallbladder, a small organ located under the liver. They can range in size from as small as a grain of sand to as large as a golf ball. Gallstones can be made of cholesterol, bile pigments, or calcium salts, or a combination of these substances.

There are two main types of gallstones: cholesterol stones and pigment stones. Cholesterol stones are the most common type and are usually yellow-green in color. They form when there is too much cholesterol in the bile, which causes it to become saturated and form crystals that eventually grow into stones. Pigment stones are smaller and darker in color, ranging from brown to black. They form when there is an excess of bilirubin, a waste product produced by the breakdown of red blood cells, in the bile.

Gallstones can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and bloating, especially after eating fatty foods. In some cases, gallstones can lead to serious complications, such as inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), infection, or blockage of the bile ducts, which can cause jaundice, a yellowing of the skin and eyes.

The exact cause of gallstones is not fully understood, but risk factors include being female, older age, obesity, a family history of gallstones, rapid weight loss, diabetes, and certain medical conditions such as cirrhosis or sickle cell anemia. Treatment for gallstones may involve medication to dissolve the stones, shock wave therapy to break them up, or surgery to remove the gallbladder.

Gangrene is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when there is a loss of blood flow to a specific area of the body, resulting in tissue death. It can be caused by various factors such as bacterial infections, trauma, diabetes, vascular diseases, and smoking. The affected tissues may become discolored, swollen, and emit a foul odor due to the accumulation of bacteria and toxins.

Gangrene can be classified into two main types: dry gangrene and wet (or moist) gangrene. Dry gangrene develops slowly and is often associated with peripheral arterial disease, which reduces blood flow to the extremities. The affected area turns black and shriveled as it dries out. Wet gangrene, on the other hand, progresses rapidly due to bacterial infections that cause tissue breakdown and pus formation. This type of gangrene can spread quickly throughout the body, leading to severe complications such as sepsis and organ failure if left untreated.

Treatment for gangrene typically involves surgical removal of the dead tissue (debridement), antibiotics to control infections, and sometimes revascularization procedures to restore blood flow to the affected area. In severe cases where the infection has spread or the damage is irreversible, amputation of the affected limb may be necessary to prevent further complications and save the patient's life.

Cholangitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the bile ducts, which are the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the small intestine. Bile is a digestive juice produced by the liver that helps break down fats in food.

There are two types of cholangitis: acute and chronic. Acute cholangitis is a sudden and severe infection that can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, fever, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), and dark urine. It is usually caused by a bacterial infection that enters the bile ducts through a blockage or obstruction.

Chronic cholangitis, on the other hand, is a long-term inflammation of the bile ducts that can lead to scarring and narrowing of the ducts. This can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, itching, and jaundice. Chronic cholangitis can be caused by various factors, including primary sclerosing cholangitis (an autoimmune disease), bile duct stones, or tumors in the bile ducts.

Treatment for cholangitis depends on the underlying cause of the condition. Antibiotics may be used to treat bacterial infections, and surgery may be necessary to remove blockages or obstructions in the bile ducts. In some cases, medications may be prescribed to manage symptoms and prevent further complications.

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

The cystic duct is a short tube that connects the gallbladder to the common bile duct, which carries bile from the liver and gallbladder into the small intestine. The cystic duct allows bile to flow from the gallbladder into the common bile duct when it is needed for digestion. It is a part of the biliary system and plays an important role in the digestive process.

Hemobilia is a medical condition that refers to the presence of blood in the bile ducts, which can lead to the passage of blood in the stool or vomiting of blood (hematemesis). This condition usually results from a traumatic injury, rupture of a blood vessel, or a complication from a medical procedure involving the liver, gallbladder, or bile ducts. In some cases, hemobilia may also be caused by tumors or abnormal blood vessels in the liver. Symptoms of hemobilia can include abdominal pain, jaundice, and gastrointestinal bleeding. Diagnosis typically involves imaging tests such as CT scans or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) to visualize the bile ducts and identify the source of bleeding. Treatment may involve endovascular procedures, surgery, or other interventions to stop the bleeding and manage any underlying conditions.

Biliary tract diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the biliary system, which includes the gallbladder, bile ducts, and liver. Bile is a digestive juice produced by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and released into the small intestine through the bile ducts to help digest fats.

Biliary tract diseases can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, jaundice, fever, nausea, vomiting, and changes in stool color. Some of the common biliary tract diseases include:

1. Gallstones: Small, hard deposits that form in the gallbladder or bile ducts made up of cholesterol or bilirubin.
2. Cholecystitis: Inflammation of the gallbladder, often caused by gallstones.
3. Cholangitis: Infection or inflammation of the bile ducts.
4. Biliary dyskinesia: A motility disorder that affects the contraction and relaxation of the muscles in the biliary system.
5. Primary sclerosing cholangitis: A chronic autoimmune disease that causes scarring and narrowing of the bile ducts.
6. Biliary tract cancer: Rare cancers that affect the gallbladder, bile ducts, or liver.

Treatment for biliary tract diseases varies depending on the specific condition and severity but may include medications, surgery, or a combination of both.

Technetium Tc 99m Lidofenin is a radiopharmaceutical used in nuclear medicine imaging procedures, specifically for hepatobiliary scintigraphy. It is a technetium-labeled compound, where the radioisotope technetium-99m (^99m^Tc) is bound to lidofenin, a liver-imaging agent.

The compound is used to assess the function and anatomy of the liver, gallbladder, and biliary system. After intravenous administration, Technetium Tc 99m Lidofenin is taken up by hepatocytes (liver cells) and excreted into the bile ducts and ultimately into the small intestine. The distribution and excretion of this radiopharmaceutical can be monitored using a gamma camera, providing functional information about the liver and biliary system.

It is essential to note that the use of Technetium Tc 99m Lidofenin should be under the guidance and supervision of healthcare professionals trained in nuclear medicine, as its administration and handling require specific expertise and safety measures due to the radioactive nature of the compound.

"Conversion to open surgery" is a medical term that refers to the situation when a surgical procedure, which was initially being performed using minimally invasive techniques (such as laparoscopy or thoracoscopy), needs to be changed to an open approach during the operation. This conversion may be necessary due to various reasons such as unforeseen technical difficulties, excessive bleeding, or discovery of unexpected surgical findings that cannot be safely managed using the minimally invasive approach. The decision to convert to an open surgery is typically made by the operating surgeon in order to ensure the safety and well-being of the patient.

Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is a non-invasive medical imaging technique that uses magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize the bile ducts and pancreatic duct. This diagnostic test does not use radiation like other imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) scans or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).

During an MRCP, the patient lies on a table that slides into the MRI machine. Contrast agents may be used to enhance the visibility of the ducts. The MRI machine uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to produce detailed images of the internal structures, allowing radiologists to assess any abnormalities or blockages in the bile and pancreatic ducts.

MRCP is often used to diagnose conditions such as gallstones, tumors, inflammation, or strictures in the bile or pancreatic ducts. It can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatments for these conditions. However, it does not allow for therapeutic interventions like ERCP, which can remove stones or place stents.

Biliary dyskinesia is a medical condition characterized by abnormal or impaired motility of the biliary system, which includes the gallbladder and the bile ducts. This can lead to symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, and vomiting, particularly after eating fatty foods.

In biliary dyskinesia, the gallbladder may not contract properly or may contract too much, leading to a backup of bile in the liver or bile ducts. This can cause inflammation and irritation of the biliary system and surrounding tissues.

The condition is often diagnosed through imaging tests such as ultrasound, nuclear medicine scans, or MRI, which can help assess gallbladder function and detect any abnormalities in the biliary system. Treatment for biliary dyskinesia may include medications to improve gallbladder motility, dietary modifications, or in some cases, surgery to remove the gallbladder.

Choledocholithiasis is a medical condition characterized by the presence of one or more gallstones in the common bile duct, which is the tube that carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the small intestine. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps break down fats in the small intestine. Gallstones are hardened deposits of digestive fluids that can form in the gallbladder or, less commonly, in the bile ducts.

Choledocholithiasis can cause a variety of symptoms, including abdominal pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), nausea, vomiting, and fever. If left untreated, it can lead to serious complications such as infection or inflammation of the bile ducts or pancreas, which can be life-threatening.

The condition is typically diagnosed through imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and may require endoscopic or surgical intervention to remove the gallstones from the common bile duct.

A granuloma is a small, nodular inflammatory lesion that occurs in various tissues in response to chronic infection, foreign body reaction, or autoimmune conditions. Histologically, it is characterized by the presence of epithelioid macrophages, which are specialized immune cells with enlarged nuclei and abundant cytoplasm, often arranged in a palisading pattern around a central area containing necrotic debris, microorganisms, or foreign material.

Granulomas can be found in various medical conditions such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, fungal infections, and certain autoimmune disorders like Crohn's disease. The formation of granulomas is a complex process involving both innate and adaptive immune responses, which aim to contain and eliminate the offending agent while minimizing tissue damage.

Organotechnetium compounds are chemical substances that contain carbon-technetium bonds, where technetium is an element with the symbol Tc and atomic number 43. These types of compounds are primarily used in medical imaging as radioactive tracers due to the ability of technetium-99m to emit gamma rays. The organotechnetium compounds help in localizing specific organs, tissues, or functions within the body, making them useful for diagnostic purposes in nuclear medicine.

It is important to note that most organotechnetium compounds are synthesized from technetium-99m, which is generated from the decay of molybdenum-99. The use of these compounds requires proper handling and administration by trained medical professionals due to their radioactive nature.

Cholangiography is a medical procedure that involves taking X-ray images of the bile ducts (the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the small intestine). This is typically done by injecting a contrast dye into the bile ducts through an endoscope or a catheter that has been inserted into the body.

There are several types of cholangiography, including:

* Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP): This procedure involves inserting an endoscope through the mouth and down the throat into the small intestine. A dye is then injected into the bile ducts through a small tube that is passed through the endoscope.
* Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC): This procedure involves inserting a needle through the skin and into the liver to inject the contrast dye directly into the bile ducts.
* Operative cholangiography: This procedure is performed during surgery to examine the bile ducts for any abnormalities or blockages.

Cholangiography can help diagnose a variety of conditions that affect the bile ducts, such as gallstones, tumors, or inflammation. It can also be used to guide treatment decisions, such as whether surgery is necessary to remove a blockage.

A biliary fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the biliary system (which includes the gallbladder, bile ducts, and liver) and another organ or structure, usually in the abdominal cavity. This connection allows bile, which is a digestive fluid produced by the liver, to leak out of its normal pathway and into other areas of the body.

Biliary fistulas can occur as a result of trauma, surgery, infection, or inflammation in the biliary system. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, fever, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), nausea, vomiting, and clay-colored stools. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the fistula, such as draining an infection or repairing damaged tissue, and diverting bile flow away from the site of the leak. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the fistula.

Gallbladder emptying refers to the process by which the gallbladder releases bile into the small intestine through the bile duct. The gallbladder is a small pear-shaped organ that stores and concentrates bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver. After eating, especially when fatty or greasy foods are consumed, the hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) is released into the bloodstream, which stimulates the contraction of the gallbladder and relaxation of the sphincter of Oddi, a muscle that controls the opening and closing of the bile duct. This allows the concentrated bile to flow from the gallbladder into the small intestine, where it helps break down fats for absorption.

Gallbladder emptying can be assessed through various diagnostic tests, such as ultrasound or cholescintigraphy (also known as a HIDA scan), which measures the rate and degree of gallbladder emptying in response to CCK stimulation. Abnormalities in gallbladder emptying can contribute to conditions such as gallstones, biliary dyskinesia, and other functional gallbladder disorders.

Drainage, in medical terms, refers to the removal of excess fluid or accumulated collections of fluids from various body parts or spaces. This is typically accomplished through the use of medical devices such as catheters, tubes, or drains. The purpose of drainage can be to prevent the buildup of fluids that may cause discomfort, infection, or other complications, or to treat existing collections of fluid such as abscesses, hematomas, or pleural effusions. Drainage may also be used as a diagnostic tool to analyze the type and composition of the fluid being removed.

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a medical procedure that combines upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy and fluoroscopy to diagnose and treat certain problems of the bile ducts and pancreas.

During ERCP, a flexible endoscope (a long, thin, lighted tube with a camera on the end) is passed through the patient's mouth and throat, then through the stomach and into the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). A narrow plastic tube (catheter) is then inserted through the endoscope and into the bile ducts and/or pancreatic duct. Contrast dye is injected through the catheter, and X-rays are taken to visualize the ducts.

ERCP can be used to diagnose a variety of conditions affecting the bile ducts and pancreas, including gallstones, tumors, strictures (narrowing of the ducts), and chronic pancreatitis. It can also be used to treat certain conditions, such as removing gallstones from the bile duct or placing stents to keep the ducts open in cases of stricture.

ERCP is an invasive procedure that carries a risk of complications, including pancreatitis, infection, bleeding, and perforation (a tear in the lining of the GI tract). It should only be performed by experienced medical professionals in a hospital setting.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Colic is a term used to describe excessive, frequent crying or fussiness in a healthy infant, often lasting several hours a day and occurring several days a week. Although the exact cause of colic is unknown, it may be related to digestive issues, such as gas or indigestion. The medical community defines colic by the "Rule of Three": crying for more than three hours per day, for more than three days per week, and for longer than three weeks in an infant who is well-fed and otherwise healthy. It typically begins within the first few weeks of life and improves on its own, usually by age 3-4 months. While colic can be distressing for parents and caregivers, it does not cause any long-term harm to the child.

Spontaneous rupture in medical terms refers to the sudden breaking or tearing of an organ, tissue, or structure within the body without any identifiable trauma or injury. This event can occur due to various reasons such as weakening of the tissue over time because of disease or degeneration, or excessive pressure on the tissue.

For instance, a spontaneous rupture of the appendix is called an "appendiceal rupture," which can lead to peritonitis, a serious inflammation of the abdominal cavity. Similarly, a spontaneous rupture of a blood vessel, like an aortic aneurysm, can result in life-threatening internal bleeding.

Spontaneous ruptures are often medical emergencies and require immediate medical attention for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Abdominal pain is defined as discomfort or painful sensation in the abdomen. The abdomen is the region of the body between the chest and the pelvis, and contains many important organs such as the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen. Abdominal pain can vary in intensity from mild to severe, and can be acute or chronic depending on the underlying cause.

Abdominal pain can have many different causes, ranging from benign conditions such as gastritis, indigestion, or constipation, to more serious conditions such as appendicitis, inflammatory bowel disease, or abdominal aortic aneurysm. The location, quality, and duration of the pain can provide important clues about its cause. For example, sharp, localized pain in the lower right quadrant of the abdomen may indicate appendicitis, while crampy, diffuse pain in the lower abdomen may suggest irritable bowel syndrome.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience severe or persistent abdominal pain, especially if it is accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, vomiting, or bloody stools. A thorough physical examination, including a careful history and a focused abdominal exam, can help diagnose the underlying cause of the pain and guide appropriate treatment.

The common bile duct is a duct that results from the union of the cystic duct (which drains bile from the gallbladder) and the common hepatic duct (which drains bile from the liver). The common bile duct transports bile, a digestive enzyme, from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine.

The common bile duct runs through the head of the pancreas before emptying into the second part of the duodenum, either alone or in conjunction with the pancreatic duct, via a small opening called the ampulla of Vater. The common bile duct plays a crucial role in the digestion of fats by helping to break them down into smaller molecules that can be absorbed by the body.

A liver abscess is a localized collection of pus within the liver tissue caused by an infection. It can result from various sources such as bacterial or amebic infections that spread through the bloodstream, bile ducts, or directly from nearby organs. The abscess may cause symptoms like fever, pain in the upper right abdomen, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. If left untreated, a liver abscess can lead to serious complications, including sepsis and organ failure. Diagnosis typically involves imaging tests like ultrasound or CT scan, followed by drainage of the pus and antibiotic treatment.

Endoscopy of the digestive system, also known as gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, is a medical procedure that allows healthcare professionals to visually examine the inside lining of the digestive tract using a flexible tube with a light and camera attached to it, called an endoscope. This procedure can help diagnose and treat various conditions affecting the digestive system, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and cancer.

There are several types of endoscopy procedures that focus on different parts of the digestive tract:

1. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD): This procedure examines the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). It is often used to investigate symptoms such as difficulty swallowing, abdominal pain, or bleeding in the upper GI tract.
2. Colonoscopy: This procedure explores the large intestine (colon) and rectum. It is commonly performed to screen for colon cancer, as well as to diagnose and treat conditions like inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulosis, or polyps.
3. Sigmoidoscopy: Similar to a colonoscopy, this procedure examines the lower part of the colon (sigmoid colon) and rectum. It is often used as a screening tool for colon cancer and to investigate symptoms like rectal bleeding or changes in bowel habits.
4. Upper GI endoscopy: This procedure focuses on the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum, using a thin, flexible tube with a light and camera attached to it. It is used to diagnose and treat conditions such as GERD, ulcers, and difficulty swallowing.
5. Capsule endoscopy: This procedure involves swallowing a small capsule containing a camera that captures images of the digestive tract as it passes through. It can help diagnose conditions in the small intestine that may be difficult to reach with traditional endoscopes.

Endoscopy is typically performed under sedation or anesthesia to ensure patient comfort during the procedure. The images captured by the endoscope are displayed on a monitor, allowing the healthcare provider to assess the condition of the digestive tract and make informed treatment decisions.

A choristoma is a type of growth that occurs when normally functioning tissue is found in an abnormal location within the body. It is not cancerous or harmful, but it can cause problems if it presses on surrounding structures or causes symptoms. Choristomas are typically congenital, meaning they are present at birth, and are thought to occur due to developmental errors during embryonic growth. They can be found in various organs and tissues throughout the body, including the brain, eye, skin, and gastrointestinal tract.

Chronic cholecystitis may be asymptomatic, may present as a more severe case of acute cholecystitis, or may lead to a number of ... In acalculous cholecystitis, no stone is in the biliary ducts. It accounts for 5-10% of all cases of cholecystitis and is ... Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) is a rare form of chronic cholecystitis which mimics gallbladder cancer although it is ... People with cholecystitis most commonly have symptoms of biliary colic before developing cholecystitis. The pain becomes severe ...
Cholecystitis, inflammation of the gallbladder can occur in both acute and chronic cases. Ultrasound is the diagnostic test of ... The sign also has over a 90% positive and negative predictive value for acute cholecystitis Gallstones may develop in the ... There can be a mild elevation in alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin in some instances, such as cholecystitis. If gallstones are ... cite journal}}: ,first1= has generic name (help) Salati, Sajad; al Kadi, Azzam (2012). "Murphy's sign of cholecystitis-a brief ...
"Cholecystitis acute". Medcyclopaedia. GE. Archived from the original on 2012-02-05. (Articles with short description, Short ... Adedeji OA, McAdam WA (April 1996). "Murphy's sign, acute cholecystitis and elderly people". J R Coll Surg Edinb. 41 (2): 88-9 ... Typically, it is positive in cholecystitis, but negative in choledocholithiasis, pyelonephritis, and ascending cholangitis. ... a negative Murphy's sign in an elderly person is not useful for ruling out cholecystitis if other tests and the clinical ...
in xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis). Many T lymphocytes were identified by these authors positive to CD4 and CD8. Macrophages ... The xanthogranulomatous type of inflammation is most-commonly seen in pyelonephritis and cholecystitis, although it has more ... Goodman ZD, Ishak KG (October 1981). "Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis". Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 5 (7): 653-9. doi:10.1097/ ... Franco V, Aragona F, Genova G, Florena AM, Stella M, Campesi G (June 1990). "Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis. ...
Known as cholecystitis, inflammation of the gallbladder is commonly caused by obstruction of the duct with gallstones, which is ... Cholecystitis is often managed with rest and antibiotics, particularly cephalosporins and, in severe cases, metronidazole. ... Some historians believe the death of Alexander the Great may have been associated with an acute episode of cholecystitis. The ... If the stone blocks the gallbladder, inflammation known as cholecystitis may result. If the stone lodges in the biliary system ...
McCoy JJ, Vila R, Petrossian G, McCall RA, Reddy KS (March 1976). "Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis. Report of two cases". J S ... Gender- approximately twice as common in women than men, usually in seventh and eighth decades Obesity Chronic cholecystitis ... Makino I, Yamaguchi T, Sato N, Yasui T, Kita I (August 2009). "Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis mimicking gallbladder ... Rao RV, Kumar A, Sikora SS, Saxena R, Kapoor VK (2005). "Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: differentiation from associated ...
Localization of pain to the upper right quadrant can be indicative of cholecystitis or choledocholithiasis, which can progress ... Schirmer BD, Winters KL, Edlich RF (2005). "Cholelithiasis and cholecystitis". Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants ...
It is different from the Murphy sign found on physical examination, but both signs are associated with cholecystitis When the ... "Acute Calculous Cholecystitis". ultrasoundtraining.com. Archived from the original on January 5, 2009. Retrieved May 26, 2011. ... "The sonographic diagnosis of acute gangrenous cholecystitis: importance of the Murphy sign". AJR. American Journal of ... "Real-time sonography in suspected acute cholecystitis. Prospective evaluation of primary and secondary signs". Radiology. 155 ( ...
Patients usually have normal vital signs with biliary colic, whereas patients with cholecystitis are usually febrile and more ... Shakespear, J. S.; Shaaban, A. M.; Rezvani, M. (2010). "CT findings of acute cholecystitis and its complications". American ... Presence of infection indicates cholecystitis. It is unclear whether those experiencing a gallstone attack should receive ... Ansaloni, L. (2016). "2016 WSES guidelines on acute calculous cholecystitis". World Journal of Emergency Surgery. 11: 25. doi: ...
Metastatic abscesses, cholecystitis, endocarditis, and osteitis. Low platelet count (thrombocytopenia) is sometimes seen. The ...
... died on 16 May 1928 at Mount Lawley; the cause of death was cholecystitis. She was buried at the Anglican ...
... somatostatinomas usually induce diabetes and cholecystitis. From these symptoms, patients undergo biochemical testing from ...
Trowbridge, RL; Rutkowski, NK; Shojania, KG (1 January 2003). "Does this patient have acute cholecystitis?" (PDF). JAMA. 289 (1 ... which can be a symptom in acute cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder). It is one of many signs a medical provider may ...
"Sympathetic Nerve Block in Early Acute Cholecystitis". Arch. Surg. 63 (1): 128-131. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1951.01250040131019. ...
Biliary complications include cholecystitis and biliary strictures. Investigation of yttrium-90 and other radioisotopes for ...
They also argued that his sepsis was actually caused by post-traumatic acute acalculous cholecystitis. Based on the autopsy ... Pappas, Theodore N.; Joharifard, Shahrzad (July 8, 2013). "Did James A. Garfield die of cholecystitis? Revisiting the autopsy ... state that they don't believe that Garfield's doctors could have saved him even if they had been aware of his cholecystitis, ...
Csikesz N, Ricciardi R, Tseng JF, Shah SA (October 2008). "Current status of surgical management of acute cholecystitis in the ... Csikesz NG, Tseng JF, Shah SA (August 2008). "Trends in surgical management for acute cholecystitis". Surgery. 144 (2): 283-9. ... "Surgical Management of Acute Cholecystitis at a Tertiary Care Center in the Modern Era". Arch. Surg. 145 (5): 439-44. doi: ...
"Open versus laparoscopic cholecystectomy in acute cholecystitis. Systematic review and meta-analysis". International Journal of ...
... has been identified in a rare case of cholecystitis but is included in the EFSA list of bacteria ... a pathogen in documented cholecystitis". International Journal of Surgery Case Reports. 4 (8): 662-664. doi:10.1016/j.ijscr. ...
Specific infection associated with Kocuria are urinary tract infections, cholecystitis, catheter-associated bacteremia, ... "Kocuria kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis". BMC Infectious Diseases. 5 (1): 60. doi:10.1186/1471-2334-5- ...
They also argued that his sepsis was actually caused by post-traumatic acute acalculous cholecystitis. Based on the autopsy ... Pappas, Theodore N.; Joharifard, Shahrzad (July 8, 2013). "Did James A. Garfield die of cholecystitis? Revisiting the autopsy ...
They also argued that his sepsis was actually caused by post-traumatic acute acalculous cholecystitis (inflammation of the ... 312-313 Pappas, Theodore N.; Joharifard, Shahrzad (July 8, 2013). "Did James A. Garfield die of cholecystitis? Revisiting the ...
People with repeat episodes of acute cholecystitis can develop chronic cholecystitis from changes in the normal anatomy of the ... such as acute cholecystitis, that requires urgent surgery. Acute cholecystitis is the second most common cause of acute abdomen ... Pain in cholecystitis is similar to that of biliary colic, but lasts longer than six hours and occurs together with signs of ... People with cholecystitis will also usually have a positive Murphy sign on physical exam - meaning that when a doctor asks the ...
Migration of proglottids can cause cholecystitis or cholangitis. Diphyllobothriasis is caused by infection by several species ...
It increases in size in cholecystitis and cholangitis;[citation needed] it becomes enlarged in most cases of acute ... cholecystitis which serendipously also makes it easier to identify in case of subsequent surgery. It is an anatomic landmark ...
Owen CC, Bilhartz LE (2003). "Gallbladder polyps, cholesterolosis, adenomyomatosis, and acute acalculous cholecystitis". Semin ...
This is done to prevent treatment induced cholecystitis. The distal gastroduodenal artery, the right gastric artery, and small ...
"Erdogan's Mother Tenzile Erdogan Dies of Acute Cholecystitis". Turkish Weekly. 7 October 2011. Archived from the original on 8 ...
It is a morphological variant of chronic cholecystitis. Inflammatory scarring of the wall, combined with dystrophic ...
A 1.9 cm gallstone impacted in the neck of the gallbladder and leading to cholecystitis as seen on ultrasound. There is 4 mm ... 2016). "2016 WSES guidelines on acute calculous cholecystitis". World Journal of Emergency Surgery. 11: 25. doi:10.1186/s13017- ... Complications from gallstones may include inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), inflammation of the pancreas ( ... Cholecystitis and Choledocholithiasis. Clinical Guideline 188": 101. PMID 25473723. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires , ...
Chronic cholecystitis may be asymptomatic, may present as a more severe case of acute cholecystitis, or may lead to a number of ... In acalculous cholecystitis, no stone is in the biliary ducts. It accounts for 5-10% of all cases of cholecystitis and is ... Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) is a rare form of chronic cholecystitis which mimics gallbladder cancer although it is ... People with cholecystitis most commonly have symptoms of biliary colic before developing cholecystitis. The pain becomes severe ...
Chronic cholecystitis is swelling and irritation of the gallbladder that continues over time. ... Acute cholecystitis is a painful condition that leads to chronic cholecystitis. It is not clear whether chronic cholecystitis ... Most of the time, chronic cholecystitis is caused by repeated attacks of acute (sudden) cholecystitis. Most of these attacks ... Chronic cholecystitis is swelling and irritation of the gallbladder that continues over time. ...
... which can include acute cholecystitis. Disease-causing bacteria, such as ... Cholecystitis, acute or chronic inflammation of the gallbladder, in most instances associated with the presence of gallstones. ... cholecystitis, acute or chronic inflammation of the gallbladder, in most instances associated with the presence of gallstones. ... Acute cholecystitis is often found in people who have had an earlier infection of the gallbladder that led to bile retention. ...
Duncan first recognized it in 1844 when a fatal case of acalculous cholecystitis complicating an incarcerated hernia was ... Acalculous cholecystitis is a severe illness that is a complication of various other medical or surgical conditions. ... Acalculous cholecystitis has a slight male predominance, unlike calculous cholecystitis, which has a female predominance. ... Acalculous cholecystitis comprises approximately 5-10% of all cases of acute cholecystitis. ...
Acute cholecystitis (AC) is a common and potentially life-threatening condition. While early cholecystectomy (surgical removal ... We used the following search terms: acute cholecystitis OR severe cholecystitis OR cholecystitis AND cholecystectomy OR ... Cholecystostomy in acute cholecystitis in modern surgical practice. Beburishvili, A.G.; Panin, S.I.; Zyubina, E.N.; Nesterov, S ... Acute cholecystitis (AC) is a common and potentially life-threatening condition. While early cholecystectomy (surgical removal ...
... World J Gastrointest Surg 2017; 9(5): 118-126 ... Acute calculous cholecystitis: Review of current best practices. World J Gastrointest Surg 2017; 9(5): 118-126 [PMID: 28603584 ...
... recovery and follow-up care for Chronic cholecystitis. ... Learn about Chronic cholecystitis, find a doctor, complications ... Acute cholecystitis is a painful condition that leads to chronic cholecystitis. It is not clear whether chronic cholecystitis ... Most of the time, chronic cholecystitis is caused by repeated attacks of acute (sudden) cholecystitis. Most of these attacks ... Chronic cholecystitis is swelling and irritation of the gallbladder that continues over time. ...
In severe cholecystitis laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) can be technically difficult with a high risk of duct and arterial ... Subtotal Cholecystectomy Versus Total Cholecystectomy for Technically Difficult Cholecystitis. V.v. Grubnik, Prof, V.v. ... compared to conversion to OC for technically difficult cholecystitis. ...
X-Ray abdomen is of limited value in acute cholecystitis as only 15-20% of gallstones are visible on an X-Ray. ... Abdominal X-Ray does not aid diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. It is performed as an initial evaluation to diagnose the ... Abdominal X-Ray does not aid diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. It is performed as an initial evaluation to diagnose the ... "Imaging of Cholecystitis : American Journal of Roentgenology : Vol. 196, No. 4 (AJR)".. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font- ...
What is the best practice management for patients with acute cholecystitis?. Koji Asai, MD, Manabu Watanabe, Hiroshi Matsukiyo ... We assessed the best practice management for patients with acute cholecystitis (AC) according to our own experience. ...
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Researchers interested in Emphysematous Cholecystitis
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy versus percutaneous catheter drainage for acute cholecystitis in high risk patients (CHOCOLATE): ... Laparoscopic cholecystectomy versus percutaneous catheter drainage for acute cholecystitis in high risk patients (CHOCOLATE): ... Laparoscopic cholecystectomy versus percutaneous catheter drainage for acute cholecystitis in high risk patients (CHOCOLATE): ... Laparoscopic cholecystectomy versus percutaneous catheter drainage for acute cholecystitis in high risk patients (CHOCOLATE): ...
... acute cholecystitis, bile acids, blood cholesterol, chronic cholecystitis, crystal forms, fever and chills, gallbladder, ... Gallbladder Disease (Gallstones and Cholecystitis). By Tom Monte,2018-04-03T19:32:18+00:00March 21st, 2011,Categories: Natural ...
Acute acalculous cholecystitis in a pediatric dengue hemorrhagic fever patient: A case report, lesson learned from limited ... Acute acalculous cholecystitis in a pediatric dengue hemorrhagic fever patient: A case report, lesson learned from limited ... Acute acalculous cholecystitis in a pediatric dengue hemorrhagic fever patient: A case report, lesson learned from limited ... However, the incidence of abdominal pain as a clinical manifestation of DF, which refers to acalculous cholecystitis, is rare. ...
Acute cholecystitis is a painful condition that leads to chronic cholecystitis. It is not clear whether chronic cholecystitis ... Chronic cholecystitis. Cholecystitis - chronic. Chronic cholecystitis is swelling and irritation of the gallbladder that ... Cholecystitis, CT scan - illustration This is a CT scan of the upper abdomen showing cholecystitis (gall stones). ... Cholecystitis, CT scan - illustration This is a CT scan of the upper abdomen showing cholecystitis (gall stones). ...
2015/16 ICD-10-CM K80.21 Calculus of gallbladder without cholecystitis with obstruction ...
Manganganak Na Lang Ako Ng 20 Times Kesa Sakit Ng Cholecystitis,Chynna Ortaleza, cholecystitis, chronic cholecystitis, body ... celebrity body changes Chynna Ortaleza baby stage pregnancy stage cholecystitis chronic cholecystitis gallbladder ... celebrity,body changes,Chynna Ortaleza,baby stage,pregnancy stage,cholecystitis,chronic cholecystitis,gallbladder,Chynna ... A person with cholecystitis usually experiences painful episodes of cramping and even nausea and vomiting at times. According ...
Cholecystitis - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer Version. ... Acalculous cholecystitis Cholecystitis without gallstones is called acalculous cholecystitis. Instead of gallstones, you have ... What causes cholecystitis? The most common cause of cholecystitis is gallstones Gallstones Gallstones are solid material that ... What is cholecystitis? Cholecystitis is inflammation of your gallbladder. Your gallbladder is the sac just under your liver ...
Systematic review of antibiotic treatment for acute calculous cholecystitis.. A H van Dijk, P R de Reuver, T N Tasma, S van ... BACKGROUND: Intravenous antibiotics are frequently used in the initial management of acute calculous cholecystitis (ACC), ...
Background: Acute cholecystitis is an emergency condition. If not promptly diagnosed and properly managed, the complication of ... Patients with gangrenous cholecystitis tended to be male, showed a significantly higher white cell count, higher neutrophil ... Patients with gangrenous cholecystitis tended to be male, showed a significantly higher white cell count, higher neutrophil ... Patients with gangrenous cholecystitis tended to be male, showed a significantly higher white cell count, higher neutrophil ...
Hemorrhage in the gallbladder can occur for a variety of reasons (gallstone cholecystitis, secondary to trauma, percutaneous ... Hemorrhagic cholecystitis is a rare complication of acute cholecystitis. ... Hemorrhagic cholecystitis is a rare complication of acute cholecystitis. Hemorrhage in the gallbladder can occur for a variety ... of reasons (gallstone cholecystitis, secondary to trauma, percutaneous procedures, neoplasms, bile parasites, or disorders of ...
Genres / Categories: Biliary ...
Cholecystitis. This lesson includes audio, video and textual description. ... Cholecystitis.. Other I.. Other II.. Common Bile Duct I.. Common Bile Duct II.. Summing Up.. Author. Dr. Christopher Moore ...
What is cholecystitis? Cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder, the pear-shaped organ beneath the liver that serves as ... Types of cholecystitis may include: acute cholecystitis, a sudden inflammation of the gallbladder that causes severe pain in ... chronic cholecystitis, swelling and irritation of the gallbladder that persists over time as a result of Cholecystitis ... Cholecystitis Cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder which typically occurs when the passage that connects the ...
Condition: Acute Cholecystitis. Date: 2014-03-20. Completed. Study Name: The Real World of Acute Cholecystitis. Condition: ... Study Name: FDG-PET/CT in the Evaluation of Patients With Suspected Cholecystitis. Condition: Cholecystitis. Date: 2007-12-26. ... Study Name: A Randomized Controlled Trial on EGBD vs PC for Acute Cholecystitis.. Condition: Acute Cholecystitis. Date: 2014-08 ... Condition: Acute Cholecystitis With Chronic Cholecystitis. Date: 2014-06-01. Interventions: Procedure: Laparoscopic ...
Gain confidence interpreting MRI Imaging of the Gallbladder w/ MRI Online. Interact with scrollable cases, watch microlearning videos, & earn CME. Try it free!
We help to introduce acupuncture therapy for cholecystitis, definition of the disease based on TCM theory, pair-point treatment ... Clinically, it is differentiated into acute cholecystitis and chronic cholecystitis. Acute cholecystitis is the initial onset ... Generally, for acute cholecystitis caused by qi stagnation, select Waiguan (SJ5), Yangfu (GB38). For acute cholecystitis ... Acute cholecystitis is related to the over consumption of high cholestrol foods, exhaustion and emotional problems. In addition ...
  • Duncan first recognized it in 1844 when a fatal case of acalculous cholecystitis complicating an incarcerated hernia was reported. (medscape.com)
  • [ 4 ] ). In addition, acalculous cholecystitis is associated with a higher incidence of gangrene and perforation compared to calculous disease. (medscape.com)
  • Acalculous cholecystitis can be observed in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, although it is a late manifestation of this disease. (medscape.com)
  • Acalculous cholecystitis can also be found in patients on total parenteral nutrition (TPN), typically those on TPN for more than three months. (medscape.com)
  • Gallbladder wall ischemia that occurs because of a low-flow state due to fever, dehydration, or heart failure may also play a role in the pathogenesis of acalculous cholecystitis. (medscape.com)
  • The main cause of acalculous cholecystitis is gallbladder stasis with resulting stagnant bile. (medscape.com)
  • Acalculous cholecystitis comprises approximately 5-10% of all cases of acute cholecystitis. (medscape.com)
  • Acalculous cholecystitis has a slight male predominance, unlike calculous cholecystitis, which has a female predominance. (medscape.com)
  • The prognosis of patients with acalculous cholecystitis is guarded. (medscape.com)
  • The reported mortality range is 10%-50% for acalculous cholecystitis as compared to 1% for calculous cholecystitis. (medscape.com)
  • Treinen C, Lomelin D, Krause C, Goede M, Oleynikov D. Acute acalculous cholecystitis in the critically ill: risk factors and surgical strategies. (medscape.com)
  • Tana M, Tana C, Cocco G, Iannetti G, Romano M, Schiavone C. Acute acalculous cholecystitis and cardiovascular disease: a land of confusion. (medscape.com)
  • Acalculous cholecystitis in severely burned patients: incidence and predisposing factors. (medscape.com)
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14625840?tool=bestpractice.com In 5% of cases, bile inspissation (due to dehydration) or bile stasis (due to trauma or severe systemic illness) can block the cystic duct, causing acalculous cholecystitis. (bmj.com)
  • Acute acalculous cholecystitis in a pediatric dengue hemorrhagic fever patient: A case report, lesson learned from limited resource setting. (iasp-pain.org)
  • However, the incidence of abdominal pain as a clinical manifestation of DF, which refers to acalculous cholecystitis, is rare. (iasp-pain.org)
  • Cholecystitis without gallstones is called acalculous cholecystitis. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Cholecystitis is one of the most common complications of cholelithiasis (calculous cholecystitis) but inflammation without gallstones (acalculous cholecystitis) can occur in a minority of patients. (lecturio.com)
  • Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) represents inflammation of the gallbladder in the absence of demonstrated calculi (see the image below). (medscape.com)
  • Acalculous cholecystitis typically occurs as a secondary event in patients who are hospitalized and are acutely ill with another disease. (medscape.com)
  • A much higher rate of complications is observed in patients with acalculous cholecystitis (eg, gangrene, perforation) because of the more fulminant course and coexistent disease. (medscape.com)
  • As a result, some authors propose the term necrotizing cholecystitis to reflect the fact that acalculous cholecystitis does not simply represent cholecystitis without stones. (medscape.com)
  • Early imaging evaluation is required for patients with acalculous cholecystitis, and frequently, multiple diagnostic tests are performed. (medscape.com)
  • All available modalities have a significant false-positive and false-negative rate and generally are better at excluding, rather than confirming, the presence of acalculous cholecystitis. (medscape.com)
  • Although it is unusual for acalculous cholecystitis to occur in patients with a normal gallbladder, on US and cholescintigraphy examinations, the gallbladder may be found to be normal early in the course of the disease. (medscape.com)
  • Plain film radiography is of limited use in the diagnosis of acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC). (medscape.com)
  • One should be familiar with the CT scan signs that suggest acalculous cholecystitis in the appropriate clinical setting (see the image below). (medscape.com)
  • Patients with acalculous cholecystitis may present with fever and sepsis alone, without the history of pain. (medscape.com)
  • Among biliary pathology, chronic acalculous cholecystitis (CAC) occupies one of the central places. (researchbib.com)
  • Based on the results of a comprehensive clinical, laboratory, biochemical and instrumental examination, all patients with chronic acalculous cholecystitis were divided into three groups depending on the variant of impairment of the motor-kinetic function of the gallbladder. (researchbib.com)
  • Three other cancer drugs on the list also will undergo scrutiny for a possible causal link to reported adverse events: vitiligo-like depigmentation for imiquimod cream, acute acalculous cholecystitis for alemtuzumab, and enterocolitis for docetaxel . (medscape.com)
  • Is conservative management a safe approach for patients with acute acalculous cholecystitis presenting with an acute abdomen? (bvsalud.org)
  • Patients with acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) often present with acute abdominal symptoms. (bvsalud.org)
  • Three separate papers published online in Neurology on March 30 describe eight cases of acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC), two cases of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), and one occurrence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), all linked to the drug. (medscape.com)
  • cholecystitis , acute or chronic inflammation of the gallbladder , in most instances associated with the presence of gallstones . (britannica.com)
  • An estimated 20 to 40 percent of patients who have gallstones eventually develop complications, which can include acute cholecystitis. (britannica.com)
  • X-Ray abdomen is of limited value in acute cholecystitis as only 15-20% of gallstones are visible on an X-Ray. (wikidoc.org)
  • symptomatic gallstones are common before developing cholecystitis. (bmj.com)
  • Acute cholecystitis is acute inflammation of the gallbladder, and is one of the major complications of cholelithiasis (the presence of gallstones). (bmj.com)
  • Cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder, which occurs most commonly due to obstruction of the cystic duct with gallstones (cholelithiasis). (bricklaboratories.com)
  • Not everyone who has gallstones will go on to develop Cholecystitis. (bricklaboratories.com)
  • Cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder that occurs most commonly because of the presence of stones in the gallbladder or an obstruction of the cystic duct by gallstones arising from the gallbladder (cholelithiasis). (medscape.com)
  • If the patient's vital signs were normal and the ultrasound showed gallstones with no other sonographic signs of cholecystitis, biliary colic would be more likely. (iem-student.org)
  • The condition causes approximately 5%-10% of all cases of acute cholecystitis and is usually associated with more serious morbidity and higher mortality rates than calculous cholecystitis. (medscape.com)
  • Systematic review of antibiotic treatment for acute calculous cholecystitis. (qxmd.com)
  • Intravenous antibiotics are frequently used in the initial management of acute calculous cholecystitis (ACC), although supportive care alone preceding delayed elective cholecystectomy may be sufficient. (qxmd.com)
  • In seven cases of calculous cholecystitis, two underwent percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage, and one underwent percutaneous cholecystostomy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The death and the severe case have similar characteristics of low BMI, multiple underlying diseases, high plasma osmotic pressure and calculous cholecystitis, which occurred after orthopaedic surgery. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complications of acute cholecystitis include gallstone pancreatitis, common bile duct stones, or inflammation of the common bile duct. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the inflammation, its size can be felt from the outside of the body in 25-50% of people with cholecystitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Untreated cholecystitis can lead to worsened inflammation and infected bile that can lead to a collection of pus inside the gallbladder, also known as empyema. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inflammation of cholecystitis can lead to adhesions between the gallbladder and other parts of the gastrointestinal tract, most commonly the duodenum. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most cases (90%), acute cholecystitis is caused by obstruction of the cystic duct due to a stone in the gallbladder neck or cystic duct, which leads to inflammation within the gallbladder wall. (bmj.com)
  • Moreover, Chynna shared that just two months after giving birth to her son in September 2019, she has had to undergo an operation to have her gallbladder removed due to chronic cholecystitis , or inflammation of the gallbladder. (smartparenting.com.ph)
  • Cholecystitis Cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder which typically occurs when the passage that connects the gallbladder to the bile duct is blocked. (studyres.com)
  • Cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder, the pear-shaped organ beneath the liver that serves as a storage reservoir for bile. (studyres.com)
  • Cholecystitis may occur when the cystic duct (the passage that connects the gallbladder to the bile duct) is blocked, typically by a gallstone, causing bile to become trapped leading to inflammation of the gallbladder. (studyres.com)
  • Types of cholecystitis may include: acute cholecystitis, a sudden inflammation of the gallbladder that causes severe pain in the upper abdomen. (studyres.com)
  • Cholecystitis is characterized by acute and chronic inflammation of the gallbladder. (tcmwindow.com)
  • Cholecystitis is the inflammation of the gallbladder (GB) usually caused by the obstruction of the cystic duct (acute cholecystitis). (lecturio.com)
  • Cholecystitis is the inflammation Inflammation Inflammation is a complex set of responses to infection and injury involving leukocytes as the principal cellular mediators in the body's defense against pathogenic organisms. (lecturio.com)
  • Cholecystitis is an inflammation of the gallbladder. (rifetherapies.com)
  • The medical term for inflammation (swelling) of the gallbladder is called Cholecystitis (ko-luh-sis-TIE-tis). (healthysourceonline.com)
  • The incidence of gangrenous cholecystitis was also greater in the AAC than in ACC (31.2% vs 5.6%, respectively). (medscape.com)
  • If not promptly diagnosed and properly managed, the complication of gangrenous cholecystitis may develop, which may be a life-threatening complication. (monash.edu)
  • Objectives: The study aims to examine various characteristics and physiological parameters in patients diagnosed with acute cholecystitis to evaluate if significant predictive factors exist for the differential diagnosis of gangrenous cholecystitis. (monash.edu)
  • Cases were divided according to whether or not there was a histopathological diagnosis of gangrenous cholecystitis. (monash.edu)
  • Patients with gangrenous cholecystitis tended to be male, showed a significantly higher white cell count, higher neutrophil percentage, lower lymphocyte percentage and higher ESR compared with patients without gangrenous cholecystitis. (monash.edu)
  • However, serum amylase and lipase demonstrated no differential diagnostic utility Conclusion: Male patients with a high ESR level, high total leucocyte count with a relative high proportion of neutrophils and a low proportion of lymphocytes were found to be at increased risk of the presence of gangrenous cholecystitis. (monash.edu)
  • Cholecystitis is suspected based on symptoms and laboratory testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • People with cholecystitis most commonly have symptoms of biliary colic before developing cholecystitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The symptoms of empyema are similar to uncomplicated cholecystitis but greater severity: high fever, severe abdominal pain, more severely elevated white blood count. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is not clear whether chronic cholecystitis causes any symptoms. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Contact your provider if you develop symptoms of cholecystitis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • What are symptoms of cholecystitis? (msdmanuals.com)
  • Older people (over age 55) may have different symptoms for acute cholecystitis. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Additional symptoms of cholecystitis include: nausea vomiting fever pain in the abdomen that intensifies when taking a deep breath abdominal pain and cramping after meals (especially fatty foods) How is cholecystitis diagnosed and evaluated? (studyres.com)
  • In fact, clinical symptoms of chronic cholecystitis are mostly atypical. (tcmwindow.com)
  • Risk factors for cholelithiasis and cholecystitis are similar and include increasing age, female sex, pregnancy, certain medications, obesity, rapid weight loss, and Native American or Mexican American ethnicity. (bricklaboratories.com)
  • Besides cholecystectomy (CC), percutaneous cholecystostomy (PC) has been recommended for the management of critically ill patients with acute cholecystitis. (aerzteblatt.de)
  • The benefit of percutaneous cholecystostomy (PC) over cholecystectomy (CC) in the management of critically ill patients with acute cholecystitis could not be proven in this systematic review. (aerzteblatt.de)
  • While early cholecystectomy (surgical removal of the gallbladder independent of the means of access) has been unequivocally established as the gold standard for the management of young and fit for surgery patients with AC ( 1 3 ), the optimal management of critically ill and elderly patients with acute cholecystitis remains a topic of discussion. (aerzteblatt.de)
  • The aim of this systematic review therefore was to investigate the clinical benefit of PC in the management of critically ill patients with acute cholecystitis by comparing the outcomes of critically ill patients managed with PC to those of similar patients managed with cholecystectomy (CC). The null hypothesis assumed there is no difference amongst both interventions with regard to outcomes. (aerzteblatt.de)
  • We used the following search terms: acute cholecystitis OR severe cholecystitis OR cholecystitis AND cholecystectomy OR laparoscopic cholecystectomy OR open cholecystectomy AND Cholecystostomy OR percutaneous cholecystectomy OR gallbladder drain OR gallbladder tube OR transhepatic gallbladder drain OR transhepatic gallbladder tube OR cholecystostomy tube. (aerzteblatt.de)
  • In severe cholecystitis laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) can be technically difficult with a high risk of duct and arterial injury. (sages.org)
  • Aim of the study was to investigate the safety and complications of laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy (LSTC) compared to conversion to OC for technically difficult cholecystitis. (sages.org)
  • However, because cholecystitis may recur frequently, your physician may recommend gallbladder removal using either: laparoscopic cholecystectomy, performed while the patient is under general anesthesia, where the surgeon uses the belly button and several small abdominal incisions to insert a laparoscope and instruments to view the inside of the abdominal cavity and remove the gallbladder, leaving behind a minimal scar. (studyres.com)
  • However, the age, obese body habitus, fever, and location of the pain support a diagnosis of acute cholecystitis (Choice B). Treatment of acute cholecystitis involves IV hydration, parenteral pain management and antiemetics, IV antibiotics, and surgical consultation for cholecystectomy. (iem-student.org)
  • He underwent an emergent laparoscopic converted to open subtotal fenestrating cholecystectomy with abdominal washout for management of his acute hemorrhagic cholecystitis with massive intra-abdominal hemorrhage. (autopsyandcasereports.org)
  • Abdominal X-Ray does not aid diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. (wikidoc.org)
  • Materials and methods: This was a retrospective study included patients with acute cholecystitis diagnosis, who presented to 'blinded for peer review' from 1 January 2010 to 1 January 2017. (monash.edu)
  • Hemorrhage in the gallbladder can occur for a variety of reasons (gallstone cholecystitis, secondary to trauma, percutaneous procedures, neoplasms, bile parasites, or disorders of hemostasis).CT scan can help the diagnosis. (authorea.com)
  • Further, the clinical characteristics of post-traumatic acute cholecystitis are different from those of primary cholecystitis, which has a high missed diagnosis rate and high mortality rate [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The absence of physical findings, however, does not rule out the diagnosis of cholecystitis. (medscape.com)
  • CT scanning is a secondary imaging test that can identify extrabiliary disorders and complications of acute cholecystitis when US has not yielded a clear diagnosis. (medscape.com)
  • MRI, often with IV gadolinium-based contrast medium, is also a possible secondary choice for confirming a diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. (medscape.com)
  • A validation study of TG07 has shown that the diagnostic criteria for acute cholecystitis are highly reliable but that the definition of definite diagnosis is ambiguous. (keyopinionleaders.com)
  • Materials and Methods: We analyzed all patients admitted to our Emergency Department for Acute cholecystitis between February 1, 2020, and December 31, 2021, and graded each case according to the 2018 Tokyo Guidelines. (ulutasmedicaljournal.com)
  • Acute cholecystitis is a painful condition that leads to chronic cholecystitis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The initial onset of acute cho1ecystitis inevitably leads to chronic cholecystitis. (tcmwindow.com)
  • Without treatment, chronic cholecystitis may occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hemorrhagic cholecystitis is a rare complication of acute cholecystitis. (authorea.com)
  • Emphysematous cholecystitis, which can occur as a complication of acute cholecystitis, is seen in the images below. (medscape.com)
  • 10 Vijendren A, Cattle K, Obichere M. Spontaneous haemorrhagic perforation of gallbladder in acute cholecystitis as a complication of antiplatelet, immunosuppressant and corticosteroid therapy. (autopsyandcasereports.org)
  • In 2007, the Tokyo Guidelines for the management of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis (TG07) were first published in the Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery. (keyopinionleaders.com)
  • BACKGROUND: The Tokyo Guidelines for the management of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis (TG07) were published in 2007 as the world's first guidelines for acute cholangitis and cholecystitis. (keyopinionleaders.com)
  • More than 90% of the time acute cholecystitis is caused from blockage of the cystic duct by a gallstone. (wikipedia.org)
  • You can get an attack of cholecystitis when a gallstone blocks your cystic duct. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Chronic cholecystitis is swelling and irritation of the gallbladder that continues over time. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Acute cholecystitis is sudden swelling and irritation of the gallbladder. (adam.com)
  • Acute cholecystitis, biliary obstruction and biliary leakage. (bmj.com)
  • A number of complications may occur from cholecystitis if not detected early or properly treated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complications include the following: Gangrene Gallbladder rupture Empyema Fistula formation and gallstone ileus Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses Cholecystitis causes the gallbladder to become distended and firm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although abdominal complications are rare in patients with hip fracture and hip surgery, the intermittent occurrence of acute cholecystitis prompted us to study the incidence of acute cholecystitis in this particular group of patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Treatment of cholecystitis depends on the severity of the condition and the presence or absence of complications. (medscape.com)
  • 3 Bedirli A, Sakrak O, Sozuer EM, Kerek M, Guler I. Factors effecting the complications in the natural history of acute cholecystitis. (autopsyandcasereports.org)
  • Rupture can also occur in cases of chronic cholecystitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abdominal radiograph of acalculous emphysematous cholecystitis demonstrating curvilinear air pattern conforming to the shape of the gallbladder wall. (medscape.com)
  • The most common presenting symptom of acute cholecystitis is upper abdominal pain. (medscape.com)
  • CT scanning with intravenous (IV) contrast medium is useful in diagnosing acute cholecystitis in patients with nonspecific abdominal pain. (medscape.com)
  • We describe a patient with clinical and radiologic findings of acute cholecystitis with a gallbladder rupture and massive intra-abdominal bleeding. (autopsyandcasereports.org)
  • Gallbladder perforation and massive intra-abdominal haemorrhage complicating acute cholecystitis in a patient with haemophilia A. BMJ Case Reports . (autopsyandcasereports.org)
  • Patients aged 65 years and older who underwent femoral neck or intertrochanteric fracture surgery in our hospital from January 1, 2018, to April 30, 2023, and whose discharge diagnoses included acute cholecystitis were included in this retrospective analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Acute hemorrhagic cholecystitis is a rare, life-threatening condition that can be further complicated by perforation of the gallbladder. (autopsyandcasereports.org)
  • 5 Tavernaraki K, Sykara A, Tavernaraki E, Chondros D, Lolis ED. Massive intraperitoneal bleeding due to hemorrhagic cholecystitis and gallbladder rupture: CT findings. (autopsyandcasereports.org)
  • Signs of acute cholecystitis on ultrasound include a thickened gallbladder wall, pericholecystic fluid (anechoic (black) fluid around gallbladder), the presence of a gallstone (hyperechoic (white) with posterior shadowing), sonographic Murphy sign (tenderness when the transducer is pressed into gallbladder), and a dilated gallbladder. (iem-student.org)
  • What is the best practice management for patients with acute cholecystitis? (sages.org)
  • We assessed the best practice management for patients with acute cholecystitis (AC) according to our own experience. (sages.org)
  • This study's aim is to describe the characteristics of perioperative acute cholecystitis in older patients with hip fracture. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This is the first study on the characteristics of acute cholecystitis in older patients with hip fracture in China. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In older patients, acute cholecystitis is more likely to lead to septic shock and, eventually, death [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the literature reports on the incidence and disease characteristics of acute cholecystitis in older patients with hip fracture are extremely limited, particularly relevant case reports or studies based in China. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As the National Centre for Orthopaedics, we believe that summarising and sharing the clinical characteristics of perioperative acute cholecystitis in older patients with hip fracture in our hospital is representative and necessary. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This form of complicated cholecystitis typically is seen in older male patients with diabetes. (medscape.com)
  • Often gallbladder attacks (biliary colic) precede acute cholecystitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • If untreated, about 20% of people with biliary colic develop acute cholecystitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using clinical information of E. tarda bactere- gitis, liver abscess, and cholecystitis. (cdc.gov)
  • Nausea is common and vomiting occurs in 75% of people with cholecystitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • A person with cholecystitis usually experiences painful episodes of cramping and even nausea and vomiting at times. (smartparenting.com.ph)
  • 4 Kwok A, Chern TY, Winn R. Acute cholecystitis and gallbladder perforation leading to massive haemoperitoneum in a patient taking rivaroxaban. (autopsyandcasereports.org)
  • Without appropriate treatment, recurrent episodes of cholecystitis are common. (wikipedia.org)
  • This treatment is appropriate for acute cholecystitis caused by qi stagnation. (tcmwindow.com)
  • This treatment is appropriate for acute cholecystitis accompanied by jaundice. (tcmwindow.com)
  • This treatment is appropriate for cholecystitis caused by rib pain, etc. (tcmwindow.com)
  • This treatment is appropriate for all types of cholecystitis. (tcmwindow.com)
  • Acupuncture is effective in the treatment of both acute and chronic cholecystitis. (tcmwindow.com)
  • In cases of mild, uncomplicated acute cholecystitis, outpatient treatment may be appropriate. (medscape.com)
  • What is the treatment for cholecystitis? (topdoctors.co.uk)
  • Although many centers had to prefer non-surgical methods in the treatment of acute cholecystitis, we did not turn to alternative treatments because there was no emergency surgery restriction in our hospital. (ulutasmedicaljournal.com)
  • From the disease to the treatment methods, there are several myths that surround cholecystitis. (healthysourceonline.com)
  • Our 10 cases with hip fractures accompanied by acute cholecystitis have common characteristics of poor-to-moderate functional capacity before fracture, increased blood glucose levels and enhanced protein metabolism after fracture. (biomedcentral.com)
  • abstract = "Background: Acute cholecystitis is an emergency condition. (monash.edu)
  • The diagnostic criteria and severity assessment of acute cholecystitis have since been widely used all over the world. (keyopinionleaders.com)
  • The pain becomes severe and constant in cholecystitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • A person with acute cholecystitis is feverish and usually feels pain in the right upper abdomen. (britannica.com)
  • This is a CT scan of the upper abdomen showing cholecystitis (gall stones). (mountsinai.org)
  • After this finding, the provider ordered a computed tomography (CT) scan of his abdomen, and the results showed acute cholecystitis. (nursinganswers.net)
  • This patient has some but not all sonographic signs of cholecystitis. (iem-student.org)
  • Most of the time, chronic cholecystitis is caused by repeated attacks of acute (sudden) cholecystitis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In Chinese medicine , all types of liver and gallbladder damp heat, spleen and stomach deficiency, qi and blood blockage, can all cause cholecystitis. (tcmwindow.com)