Excision of the gallbladder through an abdominal incision using a laparoscope.
Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.
A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.
Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).
Diseases of the GALLBLADDER. They generally involve the impairment of BILE flow, GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, infections, neoplasms, or other diseases.
Inflammation of the GALLBLADDER; generally caused by impairment of BILE flow, GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, infections, or other diseases.
Solid crystalline precipitates in the BILIARY TRACT, usually formed in the GALLBLADDER, resulting in the condition of CHOLELITHIASIS. Gallstones, derived from the BILE, consist mainly of calcium, cholesterol, or bilirubin.
Acute inflammation of the GALLBLADDER wall. It is characterized by the presence of ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and LEUKOCYTOSIS. Gallstone obstruction of the CYSTIC DUCT is present in approximately 90% of the cases.
Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the GALLBLADDER.
ENDOSCOPES for examining the abdominal and pelvic organs in the peritoneal cavity.
Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.
A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.
The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.
Deliberate introduction of air into the peritoneal cavity.
The duct that is connected to the GALLBLADDER and allows the emptying of bile into the COMMON BILE DUCT.
The pit in the center of the ABDOMINAL WALL marking the point where the UMBILICAL CORD entered in the FETUS.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.
An imaging test of the BILIARY TRACT in which a contrast dye (RADIOPAQUE MEDIA) is injected into the BILE DUCT and x-ray pictures are taken.
Fiberoptic endoscopy designed for duodenal observation and cannulation of VATER'S AMPULLA, in order to visualize the pancreatic and biliary duct system by retrograde injection of contrast media. Endoscopic (Vater) papillotomy (SPHINCTEROTOMY, ENDOSCOPIC) may be performed during this procedure.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.
Surgical removal of the vermiform appendix. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.
Incision into the side of the abdomen between the ribs and pelvis.
Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the COMMON BILE DUCT.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.
The duration of a surgical procedure in hours and minutes.
Radiography of the gallbladder after ingestion of a contrast medium.
Changing an operative procedure from an endoscopic surgical procedure to an open approach during the INTRAOPERATIVE PERIOD.
Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.
Pain during the period after surgery.
Mobilization of the lower end of the esophagus and plication of the fundus of the stomach around it (fundic wrapping) in the treatment of GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX that may be associated with various disorders, such as hiatal hernia. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Any woven or knit material of open texture used in surgery for the repair, reconstruction, or substitution of tissue. The mesh is usually a synthetic fabric made of various polymers. It is occasionally made of metal.
Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.
Incision of Oddi's sphincter or Vater's ampulla performed by inserting a sphincterotome through an endoscope (DUODENOSCOPE) often following retrograde cholangiography (CHOLANGIOPANCREATOGRAPHY, ENDOSCOPIC RETROGRADE). Endoscopic treatment by sphincterotomy is the preferred method of treatment for patients with retained or recurrent bile duct stones post-cholecystectomy, and for poor-surgical-risk patients that have the gallbladder still present.
Diseases in any part of the ductal system of the BILIARY TRACT from the smallest BILE CANALICULI to the largest COMMON BILE DUCT.
A motility disorder characterized by biliary COLIC, absence of GALLSTONES, and an abnormal GALLBLADDER ejection fraction. It is caused by gallbladder dyskinesia and/or SPHINCTER OF ODDI DYSFUNCTION.
Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
Surgery performed on the female genitalia.
An abdominal hernia with an external bulge in the GROIN region. It can be classified by the location of herniation. Indirect inguinal hernias occur through the internal inguinal ring. Direct inguinal hernias occur through defects in the ABDOMINAL WALL (transversalis fascia) in Hesselbach's triangle. The former type is commonly seen in children and young adults; the latter in adults.
Excision of a portion of the colon or of the whole colon. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Non-invasive diagnostic technique for visualizing the PANCREATIC DUCTS and BILE DUCTS without the use of injected CONTRAST MEDIA or x-ray. MRI scans provide excellent sensitivity for duct dilatation, biliary stricture, and intraductal abnormalities.
Excision of kidney.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.
Excision of the uterus.
The course of learning of an individual or a group. It is a measure of performance plotted over time.
The period during a surgical operation.
Procedures using an electrically heated wire or scalpel to treat hemorrhage (e.g., bleeding ulcers) and to ablate tumors, mucosal lesions, and refractory arrhythmias. It is different from ELECTROSURGERY which is used more for cutting tissue than destroying and in which the patient is part of the electric circuit.
Predominantly extrahepatic bile duct which is formed by the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts, which are predominantly intrahepatic, and, in turn, joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct.
Establishment of an opening into the gallbladder either for drainage or surgical communication with another part of the digestive tract, usually the duodenum or jejunum.
Loss of blood during a surgical procedure.
Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).
A congenital abnormality in which organs in the THORAX and the ABDOMEN are opposite to their normal positions (situs solitus) due to lateral transposition. Normally the STOMACH and SPLEEN are on the left, LIVER on the right, the three-lobed right lung is on the right, and the two-lobed left lung on the left. Situs inversus has a familial pattern and has been associated with a number of genes related to microtubule-associated proteins.
Surgical procedures performed through a natural opening in the body such as the mouth, nose, urethra, or anus, and along the natural body cavities with which they are continuous.
Surgical procedures involving the STOMACH and sometimes the lower ESOPHAGUS to correct anatomical defects, or to treat MORBID OBESITY by reducing the size of the stomach. There are several subtypes of bariatric gastroplasty, such as vertical banded gastroplasty, silicone ring vertical gastroplasty, and horizontal banded gastroplasty.
The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.
Acute inflammation of the APPENDIX. Acute appendicitis is classified as simple, gangrenous, or perforated.
Abnormal passage in any organ of the biliary tract or between biliary organs and other organs.
Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment.
Hemorrhage in or through the BILIARY TRACT due to trauma, inflammation, CHOLELITHIASIS, vascular disease, or neoplasms.
Diseases of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.
A specialty in which manual or operative procedures are used in the treatment of disease, injuries, or deformities.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Procedures that avoid use of open, invasive surgery in favor of closed or local surgery. These generally involve use of laparoscopic devices and remote-control manipulation of instruments with indirect observation of the surgical field through an endoscope or similar device.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Surgical procedures undertaken to repair abnormal openings through which tissue or parts of organs can protrude or are already protruding.
A protrusion of abdominal structures through the retaining ABDOMINAL WALL. It involves two parts: an opening in the abdominal wall, and a hernia sac consisting of PERITONEUM and abdominal contents. Abdominal hernias include groin hernia (HERNIA, FEMORAL; HERNIA, INGUINAL) and VENTRAL HERNIA.
Placement of one of the surgeon's gloved hands into the ABDOMINAL CAVITY to perform manual manipulations that facilitate the laparoscopic procedures.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.
Surgery which could be postponed or not done at all without danger to the patient. Elective surgery includes procedures to correct non-life-threatening medical problems as well as to alleviate conditions causing psychological stress or other potential risk to patients, e.g., cosmetic or contraceptive surgery.
Endoscopic surgical procedures performed with visualization via video transmission. When real-time video is combined interactively with prior CT scans or MRI images, this is called image-guided surgery (see SURGERY, COMPUTER-ASSISTED).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Abdominal symptoms after removal of the GALLBLADDER. The common postoperative symptoms are often the same as those present before the operation, such as COLIC, bloating, NAUSEA, and VOMITING. There is pain on palpation of the right upper quadrant and sometimes JAUNDICE. The term is often used, inaccurately, to describe such postoperative symptoms not due to gallbladder removal.
Surgery performed on the digestive system or its parts.
Unanticipated information discovered in the course of testing or medical care. Used in discussions of information that may have social or psychological consequences, such as when it is learned that a child's biological father is someone other than the putative father, or that a person tested for one disease or disorder has, or is at risk for, something else.
Surgical formation of an opening through the ABDOMINAL WALL into the JEJUNUM, usually for enteral hyperalimentation.
A Y-shaped surgical anastomosis of any part of the digestive system which includes the small intestine as the eventual drainage site.
A hernia caused by weakness of the anterior ABDOMINAL WALL due to midline defects, previous incisions, or increased intra-abdominal pressure. Ventral hernias include UMBILICAL HERNIA, incisional, epigastric, and spigelian hernias.
The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.
An abscess located in the abdominal cavity, i.e., the cavity between the diaphragm above and the pelvis below. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Surgical procedure involving either partial or entire removal of the spleen.
The separation and isolation of tissues for surgical purposes, or for the analysis or study of their structures.
A clinical syndrome with intermittent abdominal pain characterized by sudden onset and cessation that is commonly seen in infants. It is usually associated with obstruction of the INTESTINES; of the CYSTIC DUCT; or of the URINARY TRACT.
Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.
Surgical procedure in which the STOMACH is transected high on the body. The resulting small proximal gastric pouch is joined to any parts of the SMALL INTESTINE by an end-to-side SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS, depending on the amounts of intestinal surface being bypasses. This procedure is used frequently in the treatment of MORBID OBESITY by limiting the size of functional STOMACH, food intake, and food absorption.
The sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla within the duodenal papilla. The COMMON BILE DUCT and main pancreatic duct pass through this sphincter.
Surgery performed on the urinary tract or its parts in the male or female. For surgery of the male genitalia, UROLOGIC SURGICAL PROCEDURES, MALE is available.
The period following a surgical operation.
Removal of the uterus through the vagina.
Inflammation of the biliary ductal system (BILE DUCTS); intrahepatic, extrahepatic, or both.
The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A technique of closing incisions and wounds, or of joining and connecting tissues, in which staples are used as sutures.
STOMACH herniation located at or near the diaphragmatic opening for the ESOPHAGUS, the esophageal hiatus.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Excision of the whole (total gastrectomy) or part (subtotal gastrectomy, partial gastrectomy, gastric resection) of the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
Breakdown of the connection and subsequent leakage of effluent (fluids, secretions, air) from a SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS of the digestive, respiratory, genitourinary, and cardiovascular systems. Most common leakages are from the breakdown of suture lines in gastrointestinal or bowel anastomosis.
Accumulation of purulent EXUDATES beneath the DIAPHRAGM, also known as upper abdominal abscess. It is usually associated with PERITONITIS or postoperative infections.
Pathological processes in the COLON region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).
Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.
An area occupying the most posterior aspect of the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. It is bounded laterally by the borders of the quadratus lumborum muscles and extends from the DIAPHRAGM to the brim of the true PELVIS, where it continues as the pelvic extraperitoneal space.
Any surgical procedure performed on the biliary tract.
The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The outer margins of the ABDOMEN, extending from the osteocartilaginous thoracic cage to the PELVIS. Though its major part is muscular, the abdominal wall consists of at least seven layers: the SKIN, subcutaneous fat, deep FASCIA; ABDOMINAL MUSCLES, transversalis fascia, extraperitoneal fat, and the parietal PERITONEUM.
Inflammation of the GALLBLADDER wall in the absence of GALLSTONES.
An abnormal twisting or rotation of a bodily part or member on its axis.
Passages external to the liver for the conveyance of bile. These include the COMMON BILE DUCT and the common hepatic duct (HEPATIC DUCT, COMMON).
A process whereby bile is delivered from the gallbladder into the duodenum. The emptying is caused by both contraction of the gallbladder and relaxation of the sphincter mechanism at the choledochal terminus.
One of a pair of thick-walled tubes that transports urine from the KIDNEY PELVIS to the URINARY BLADDER.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.
The act of blowing a powder, vapor, or gas into any body cavity for experimental, diagnostic, or therapeutic purposes.
Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.
The flattened, funnel-shaped expansion connecting the URETER to the KIDNEY CALICES.
That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.
A nontoxic radiopharmaceutical that is used in RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING for the clinical evaluation of hepatobiliary disorders in humans.
Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
General term for CYSTS and cystic diseases of the OVARY.
Drugs used to prevent NAUSEA or VOMITING.
A surgical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of disorders and abnormalities of the COLON; RECTUM; and ANAL CANAL.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
The expenses incurred by a hospital in providing care. The hospital costs attributed to a particular patient care episode include the direct costs plus an appropriate proportion of the overhead for administration, personnel, building maintenance, equipment, etc. Hospital costs are one of the factors which determine HOSPITAL CHARGES (the price the hospital sets for its services).
Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
An abnormal anatomical passage between the INTESTINE, and another segment of the intestine or other organs. External intestinal fistula is connected to the SKIN (enterocutaneous fistula). Internal intestinal fistula can be connected to a number of organs, such as STOMACH (gastrocolic fistula), the BILIARY TRACT (cholecystoduodenal fistula), or the URINARY BLADDER of the URINARY TRACT (colovesical fistula). Risk factors include inflammatory processes, cancer, radiation treatment, and surgical misadventures (MEDICAL ERRORS).
The local implantation of tumor cells by contamination of instruments and surgical equipment during and after surgical resection, resulting in local growth of the cells and tumor formation.
Pathological processes involving the URETERS.
A benign tumor derived from smooth muscle tissue, also known as a fibroid tumor. They rarely occur outside of the UTERUS and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT but can occur in the SKIN and SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE, probably arising from the smooth muscle of small blood vessels in these tissues.
Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.
Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.
A condition with trapped gas or air in the PERITONEAL CAVITY, usually secondary to perforation of the internal organs such as the LUNG and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, or to recent surgery. Pneumoperitoneum may be purposely introduced to aid radiological examination.
Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)
Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.
A condition in which functional endometrial tissue is present outside the UTERUS. It is often confined to the PELVIS involving the OVARY, the ligaments, cul-de-sac, and the uterovesical peritoneum.
A condition caused by the lack of intestinal PERISTALSIS or INTESTINAL MOTILITY without any mechanical obstruction. This interference of the flow of INTESTINAL CONTENTS often leads to INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION. Ileus may be classified into postoperative, inflammatory, metabolic, neurogenic, and drug-induced.
A surgical specialty concerned with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the urinary tract in both sexes, and the genital tract in the male. Common urological problems include urinary obstruction, URINARY INCONTINENCE, infections, and UROGENITAL NEOPLASMS.
Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Apparatus, devices, or supplies intended for one-time or temporary use.
Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.
A motility disorder of the ESOPHAGUS in which the LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER (near the CARDIA) fails to relax resulting in functional obstruction of the esophagus, and DYSPHAGIA. Achalasia is characterized by a grossly contorted and dilated esophagus (megaesophagus).
A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.
Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.
Pathological processes involving any part of the UTERUS.
Subsequent admissions of a patient to a hospital or other health care institution for treatment.
Pathological processes in the SIGMOID COLON region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).
Inflammation of a DIVERTICULUM or diverticula.
Pathological conditions in the DUODENUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).
Impairment of bile flow in the large BILE DUCTS by mechanical obstruction or stricture due to benign or malignant processes.
Retrograde flow of duodenal contents (BILE ACIDS; PANCREATIC JUICE) into the STOMACH.
'Splenic diseases' refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the structure, function, or integrity of the spleen, leading to various symptoms and potential complications such as anemia, infection, or abdominal pain.
A double-layered fold of peritoneum that attaches the STOMACH to other organs in the ABDOMINAL CAVITY.
Cystic mass containing lymph from diseased lymphatic channels or following surgical trauma or other injury.
The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).
Any impairment, arrest, or reversal of the normal flow of INTESTINAL CONTENTS toward the ANAL CANAL.
A type of shock that occurs as a result of a surgical procedure.
Retrograde flow of gastric juice (GASTRIC ACID) and/or duodenal contents (BILE ACIDS; PANCREATIC JUICE) into the distal ESOPHAGUS, commonly due to incompetence of the LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.
A radiopharmaceutical used extensively in cholescintigraphy for the evaluation of hepatobiliary diseases. (From Int Jrnl Rad Appl Inst 1992;43(9):1061-4)
Organic or functional motility disorder involving the SPHINCTER OF ODDI and associated with biliary COLIC. Pathological changes are most often seen in the COMMON BILE DUCT sphincter, and less commonly the PANCREATIC DUCT sphincter.
The interval of time between onset of symptoms and receiving therapy.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.
Discrete abnormal tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the DIGESTIVE TRACT or the RESPIRATORY TRACT. Polyps can be spheroidal, hemispheroidal, or irregular mound-shaped structures attached to the MUCOUS MEMBRANE of the lumen wall either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.
The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
Moving a patient into a specific position or POSTURE to facilitate examination, surgery, or for therapeutic purposes.
Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.
Pathological developments in the RECTUM region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).
A mass of histologically normal tissue present in an abnormal location.
The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.
First aid or other immediate intervention for accidents or medical conditions requiring immediate care and treatment before definitive medical and surgical management can be procured.
A dilation of the duodenal papilla that is the opening of the juncture of the COMMON BILE DUCT and the MAIN PANCREATIC DUCT, also known as the hepatopancreatic ampulla.
The hindering of output from the STOMACH into the SMALL INTESTINE. This obstruction may be of mechanical or functional origin such as EDEMA from PEPTIC ULCER; NEOPLASMS; FOREIGN BODIES; or AGING.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.
Materials used in closing a surgical or traumatic wound. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The procedure of removing TISSUES, organs, or specimens from DONORS for reuse, such as TRANSPLANTATION.
Twisting of the STOMACH that may result in gastric ISCHEMIA and GASTRIC OUTLET OBSTRUCTION. It is often associated with DIAPHRAGMATIC HERNIA.
Death and putrefaction of tissue usually due to a loss of blood supply.
Penetration of a PEPTIC ULCER through the wall of DUODENUM or STOMACH allowing the leakage of luminal contents into the PERITONEAL CAVITY.
Inflammation of the COLONIC DIVERTICULA, generally with abscess formation and subsequent perforation.
Fastening devices composed of steel-tantalum alloys used to close operative wounds, especially of the skin, which minimizes infection by not introducing a foreign body that would connect external and internal regions of the body. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995)
Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)
Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.
Cyst-like space not lined by EPITHELIUM and contained within the PANCREAS. Pancreatic pseudocysts account for most of the cystic collections in the pancreas and are often associated with chronic PANCREATITIS.
Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.
Complete or partial surgical removal of the prostate. Three primary approaches are commonly employed: suprapubic - removal through an incision above the pubis and through the urinary bladder; retropubic - as for suprapubic but without entering the urinary bladder; and transurethral (TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF PROSTATE).
Hemorrhage following any surgical procedure. It may be immediate or delayed and is not restricted to the surgical wound.
A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).
Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)
Surgical removal of the pancreas. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Hospital department which administers all departmental functions and the provision of surgical diagnostic and therapeutic services.
Incision of tissues for injection of medication or for other diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. Punctures of the skin, for example may be used for diagnostic drainage; of blood vessels for diagnostic imaging procedures.
Blockage in any part of the URETER causing obstruction of urine flow from the kidney to the URINARY BLADDER. The obstruction may be congenital, acquired, unilateral, bilateral, complete, partial, acute, or chronic. Depending on the degree and duration of the obstruction, clinical features vary greatly such as HYDRONEPHROSIS and obstructive nephropathy.
Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.

Erich Muhe and the rejection of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (1985): a surgeon ahead of his time. (1/789)

During the early 1980s, news of Semm's laparoscopic appendectomy was rippling through German medical circles. Erich Muhe, fascinated by Semm's technique and spurred by successes of the Erlangen endoscopists, came up with the idea of laparoscopic removal of gallstones. In 1984, Muhe had already worked out the details of an operative laparoscope, the "Galloscope," and on September 12, 1985, he carried out the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Later, he modified his technique and operated through a trocar sleeve. Finally, he designed an "open laparoscope" with a circular light. By March 1987, Muhe had conducted 97 endoscopic gallbladder removals. He published information about his technique at the Congress of the German Surgical Society (April 1986) and at other surgical meetings in Germany. His concept, however, was ignored. In the middle of the 1980s, the surgical community was still not prepared for the era of "minimally invasive therapy." Erich Muhe was a surgeon ahead of his time.  (+info)

The best management for 'crescendo biliary colic' is urgent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. (2/789)

Gallbladder disease due to stones is well recognised as falling into two categories, presenting with either chronic symptoms or developing acute cholecystitis or other complications. We describe an intermediate group of 14 patients (11 women, three men, median age 31 years) presenting with 4-14 days of at least daily attacks of resolving biliary colic, who underwent early laparoscopic cholecystectomy within 24 hours of presentation. None had any evidence of acute inflammation, either at laparoscopy or on histology. Their surgery was straightforward with operating times ranging from 35-80 minutes and no complications. Patients with 'crescendo biliary colic' are often young women who can rarely afford invalidity. Rather than the current practice of analgesia for each attack and elective surgery weeks later, they are optimally managed by urgent laparoscopic cholecystectomy, preventing the development of complications and minimising the need for further medical involvement.  (+info)

Depression of liver protein synthesis during surgery is prevented by growth hormone. (3/789)

This study was undertaken to elucidate the specific effects of growth hormone (GH) on liver protein metabolism in humans during surgery. Otherwise healthy patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomized into controls (n = 9) or pretreatment with 12 units of GH for 1 day (GH 1, n = 9) or daily for 5 days (GH 5, n = 10). The fractional synthesis rate of liver proteins, as assessed by flooding with [2H5]phenylalanine, was higher in the GH 5 group (22.0 +/- 6.9%/day, mean +/- SD, P < 0.05) than in the control (16.1 +/- 3.1%/day) and GH 1 (16.5 +/- 5.5%/day) groups. During surgery, the fraction of polyribosomes in the liver, as assessed by ribosome analysis, decreased in the control group by approximately 12% (P < 0.01) but did not decrease in the GH-treated groups. In addition, the concentrations of the essential amino acids and aspartate in the liver decreased in response to GH treatment. In conclusion, GH pretreatment decreases hepatic free amino acid concentrations and preserves liver protein synthesis during surgery.  (+info)

Complications of cholecystectomy: risks of the laparoscopic approach and protective effects of operative cholangiography: a population-based study. (4/789)

BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is associated with an increased risk of intraoperative injury involving the bile ducts, bowel, and vascular structures compared with open cholecystectomy (OC). Population-based studies are required to estimate the magnitude of the increased risk, to determine whether this is changing over time, and to identify ways by which this might be reduced. METHODS: Suspected cases of intraoperative injury associated with cholecystectomy in Western Australia in the period 1988 to 1994 were identified from routinely collected hospital statistical records and lists of persons undergoing postoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The case records of suspect cases were reviewed to confirm the nature and site of injury. Ordinal logistic regression was used to estimate the risk of injury associated with LC compared with OC after adjusting for confounding factors. RESULTS: After the introduction of LC in 1991, the proportion of all cholecystectomy cases with intraoperative injury increased from 0.67% in 1988-90 to 1.33% in 1993-94. Similar relative increases were observed in bile duct injuries, major bile leaks, and other injuries to bowel or vascular structures. Increases in intraoperative injury were observed in both LC and OC. After adjustment for age, gender, hospital type, severity of disease, intraoperative cholangiography, and calendar period, the odds ratio for intraoperative injury in LC compared with OC was 1.79. Operative cholangiography significantly reduced the risk of injury. CONCLUSION: Operative cholangiography has a protective effect for complications of cholecystectomy. Compared with OC, LC carries a nearly twofold higher risk of major bile, vascular, and bowel complications. Further study is required to determine the extent to which potentially preventable factors contribute to this risk.  (+info)

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in an academic hospital: evaluation of changes in perioperative outcomes. (5/789)

OBJECTIVE: Evaluate changes in perioperative outcomes over an 82-month period in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy by a single attending surgeon in an academic hospital. METHODS: A retrospective review of 1025 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy from September 1992 to February 1997 was compared to the initial 600 patients from May 1990 to August 1992. Statistical analysis included Chi square with Yates correction and Fischer's exact test. RESULTS: Over the 82-month period there were no significant differences in the overall conversion rate to open cholecystectomy (p=0.26), intraoperative complications (p = 0.81), postoperative complications (p = 0.054) or mortality rates (p=0.66). There were 3 (0.5%) bile duct injuries in the initial 600 patients and only 1 (0.1%) in the group of 1025 patients (p=0.065). There was an increase (p<0.001) in laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed for acute cholecystitis and biliary dyskinesia and an increase (p<0.001) in the percentage of cases performed overall and for acute cholecystitis by the surgery residents over the last 54 months. Despite this, the conversion rates to open cholecystectomy in patients with acute cholecystitis decreased (p < 0.001) over the last 54 months. Additionally, more patients (p < 0.001) were discharged on the day of surgery in the most recent group. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be performed safely by surgery residents under the direct supervision of an experienced laparoscopist without significant changes in perioperative outcomes. Despite an increased percentage of cases being performed for acute cholecystitis over the last 54 months, conversion rates to open cholecystectomy and biliary tract injury rates have decreased, and the perioperative morbidity has remained the same.  (+info)

Implications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy for surgical residency training. (6/789)

BACKGROUND: Widespread adoption of minimal access techniques forced a generation of abdominal surgeons to re-learn many standard abdominal procedures. This threatened to reduce the pool of suitable "training" operations for surgical residents. METHODS: Operator grade, duration of operation, acute/elective operation, conversion rate, complications, and postoperative stay were recorded prospectively on all laparoscopic cholecystectomies (LC) since 1992. This data was evaluated to determine how the introduction of LC affected residents' training. RESULTS: The percentage of LCs performed by residents increased progressively to reach 58%. Operating time was longer for trainee surgeons, particularly for acute cases (145+/-50 minutes vs 111+/-54 minutes, p<0.05); however, conversion rate, incidence of complications, and postoperative stay were no different. CONCLUSIONS: LC can be performed by surgical trainees with similar complication rates and outcomes as those of qualified surgeons. Once institutional experience has accumulated, this procedure can be integrated into residency training.  (+info)

Investigation of bile ducts before laparoscopic cholecystectomy. (7/789)

BACKGROUND: Since the advent of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, there has been controversy about the investigation of the bile ducts and the management of common bile duct stones. Routine peroperative cholangiography (POC) in all cases has been recommended. We have adopted a policy of not performing routine POC, and the results of 700 cases are reported. METHODS: Since 1990, all patients have undergone preoperative ultrasound scan. We have performed selective preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) because of a clinical history of jaundice and/or pancreatitis, abnormal liver function tests and ultrasound evidence of dilated bile ducts (N=78, 11.1%). The remaining 622 patients did not have a routine POC, but selective peroperative cholangiogram (POC) was performed only in 42 patients (6%) because of unsuccessful ERCP or mild alteration in the criteria for the presence of bile duct stones. The remaining 580 patients did not undergo POC. Careful dissection of Calot's triangle was performed in all cases to reduce the risk of bile duct injuries. RESULTS: The overall operative complications, postoperative morbidity and mortality was 1.71%, 2.14% and 0.43%, respectively. Bile duct injuries occurred in two patients (0.26%) and both were recognized during the operation and repaired. There was a single incidence of retained stone in this series of 700 cases (0.14%), which required postoperative ERCP. CONCLUSIONS: This policy of selective preoperative ERCP, and not routine peroperative cholangiogram, is cost effective and not associated with significant incidence of retained stones or bile duct injuries after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.  (+info)

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy during pregnancy: three case reports. (8/789)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this presentation is to investigate the effects and feasibility of laparoscopic cholecystectomy during pregnancy. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: We present three pregnant patients who underwent a laparoscopic cholecystectomy for biliary colic during the early second and early third trimester of pregnancy. We also reviewed the literature regarding this topic. RESULTS: All three pregnant patients had uneventful hospital courses after their procedures and delivered full-term babies without complications. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy during the first trimester of pregnancy is contraindicated due to the ongoing fetal organogenesis and during the third trimester is not technically feasible due to the large uterine size. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that laparoscopic cholecystectomy during the second and very early third trimester of pregnancy is safe and feasible.  (+info)

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a surgical procedure to remove the gallbladder using a laparoscope, a thin tube with a camera, which allows the surgeon to view the internal structures on a video monitor. The surgery is performed through several small incisions in the abdomen, rather than a single large incision used in open cholecystectomy. This approach results in less postoperative pain, fewer complications, and shorter recovery time compared to open cholecystectomy.

The procedure is typically indicated for symptomatic gallstones or chronic inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), which can cause severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the standard of care for gallbladder removal due to its minimally invasive nature and excellent outcomes.

Cholecystectomy is a medical procedure to remove the gallbladder, a small pear-shaped organ located on the right side of the abdomen, just beneath the liver. The primary function of the gallbladder is to store and concentrate bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver. During a cholecystectomy, the surgeon removes the gallbladder, usually due to the presence of gallstones or inflammation that can cause pain, infection, or other complications.

There are two primary methods for performing a cholecystectomy:

1. Open Cholecystectomy: In this traditional surgical approach, the surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen to access and remove the gallbladder. This method is typically used when there are complications or unique circumstances that make laparoscopic surgery difficult or risky.
2. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: This is a minimally invasive surgical procedure where the surgeon makes several small incisions in the abdomen, through which a thin tube with a camera (laparoscope) and specialized surgical instruments are inserted. The surgeon then guides these tools to remove the gallbladder while viewing the internal structures on a video monitor.

After the gallbladder is removed, bile flows directly from the liver into the small intestine through the common bile duct, and the body continues to function normally without any significant issues.

Laparoscopy is a surgical procedure that involves the insertion of a laparoscope, which is a thin tube with a light and camera attached to it, through small incisions in the abdomen. This allows the surgeon to view the internal organs without making large incisions. It's commonly used to diagnose and treat various conditions such as endometriosis, ovarian cysts, infertility, and appendicitis. The advantages of laparoscopy over traditional open surgery include smaller incisions, less pain, shorter hospital stays, and quicker recovery times.

Cholelithiasis is a medical term that refers to the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder. The gallbladder is a small pear-shaped organ located beneath the liver that stores bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver. Gallstones are hardened deposits that can form in the gallbladder when substances in the bile, such as cholesterol or bilirubin, crystallize.

Gallstones can vary in size and may be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball. Some people with gallstones may not experience any symptoms, while others may have severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes) if the gallstones block the bile ducts.

Cholelithiasis is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide, particularly women over the age of 40 and those with certain medical conditions such as obesity, diabetes, and rapid weight loss. If left untreated, gallstones can lead to serious complications such as inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), infection, or pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas). Treatment options for cholelithiasis include medication, shock wave lithotripsy (breaking up the gallstones with sound waves), and surgery to remove the gallbladder (cholecystectomy).

Gallbladder diseases refer to a range of conditions that affect the function and structure of the gallbladder, a small pear-shaped organ located beneath the liver. The primary role of the gallbladder is to store, concentrate, and release bile into the small intestine to aid in digesting fats. Gallbladder diseases can be chronic or acute and may cause various symptoms, discomfort, or complications if left untreated. Here are some common gallbladder diseases with brief definitions:

1. Cholelithiasis: The presence of gallstones within the gallbladder. Gallstones are small, hard deposits made of cholesterol, bilirubin, or a combination of both, which can vary in size from tiny grains to several centimeters.
2. Cholecystitis: Inflammation of the gallbladder, often caused by obstruction of the cystic duct (the tube connecting the gallbladder and the common bile duct) due to a gallstone. This condition can be acute or chronic and may cause abdominal pain, fever, and tenderness in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen.
3. Choledocholithiasis: The presence of gallstones within the common bile duct, which can lead to obstruction, jaundice, and potential infection of the biliary system (cholangitis).
4. Acalculous gallbladder disease: Gallbladder dysfunction or inflammation without the presence of gallstones. This condition is often seen in critically ill patients and can lead to similar symptoms as cholecystitis.
5. Gallbladder polyps: Small growths attached to the inner wall of the gallbladder. While most polyps are benign, some may have malignant potential, especially if they are larger than 1 cm in size or associated with certain risk factors.
6. Gallbladder cancer: A rare form of cancer that originates in the gallbladder tissue. It is often asymptomatic in its early stages and can be challenging to diagnose. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, jaundice, or a palpable mass in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen.

It is essential to consult with a healthcare professional if experiencing symptoms related to gallbladder disease for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Cholecystitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the gallbladder, a small pear-shaped organ located under the liver that stores and concentrates bile produced by the liver. Bile is a digestive fluid that helps break down fats in the small intestine during digestion.

Acute cholecystitis is a sudden inflammation of the gallbladder, often caused by the presence of gallstones that block the cystic duct, the tube that carries bile from the gallbladder to the common bile duct. This blockage can cause bile to build up in the gallbladder, leading to inflammation, swelling, and pain.

Chronic cholecystitis is a long-term inflammation of the gallbladder, often caused by repeated attacks of acute cholecystitis or the presence of gallstones that cause ongoing irritation and damage to the gallbladder wall. Over time, chronic cholecystitis can lead to thickening and scarring of the gallbladder wall, which can reduce its ability to function properly.

Symptoms of cholecystitis may include sudden and severe abdominal pain, often in the upper right or center of the abdomen, that may worsen after eating fatty foods; fever; nausea and vomiting; bloating and gas; and clay-colored stools. Treatment for cholecystitis typically involves antibiotics to treat any infection present, pain relief, and surgery to remove the gallbladder (cholecystectomy). In some cases, a nonsurgical procedure called endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) may be used to remove gallstones from the bile duct.

Gallstones are small, hard deposits that form in the gallbladder, a small organ located under the liver. They can range in size from as small as a grain of sand to as large as a golf ball. Gallstones can be made of cholesterol, bile pigments, or calcium salts, or a combination of these substances.

There are two main types of gallstones: cholesterol stones and pigment stones. Cholesterol stones are the most common type and are usually yellow-green in color. They form when there is too much cholesterol in the bile, which causes it to become saturated and form crystals that eventually grow into stones. Pigment stones are smaller and darker in color, ranging from brown to black. They form when there is an excess of bilirubin, a waste product produced by the breakdown of red blood cells, in the bile.

Gallstones can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and bloating, especially after eating fatty foods. In some cases, gallstones can lead to serious complications, such as inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), infection, or blockage of the bile ducts, which can cause jaundice, a yellowing of the skin and eyes.

The exact cause of gallstones is not fully understood, but risk factors include being female, older age, obesity, a family history of gallstones, rapid weight loss, diabetes, and certain medical conditions such as cirrhosis or sickle cell anemia. Treatment for gallstones may involve medication to dissolve the stones, shock wave therapy to break them up, or surgery to remove the gallbladder.

Acute cholecystitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis) that develops suddenly (acute). The gallbladder is a small pear-shaped organ located in the upper right part of the abdomen, beneath the liver. It stores bile, a digestive juice produced by the liver, which helps break down fats in the food we eat.

Acute cholecystitis occurs when the gallbladder becomes inflamed and irritated, often due to the presence of gallstones that block the cystic duct, the tube that carries bile from the gallbladder into the small intestine. When the cystic duct is obstructed, bile builds up in the gallbladder, causing it to become swollen, inflamed, and infected.

Symptoms of acute cholecystitis may include sudden and severe abdominal pain, often located in the upper right or middle part of the abdomen, that may radiate to the back or shoulder blade area. Other symptoms may include fever, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and abdominal tenderness or swelling.

Acute cholecystitis is typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scan. Treatment may involve hospitalization, antibiotics to treat infection, pain relief medications, and surgery to remove the gallbladder (cholecystectomy). In some cases, nonsurgical treatments such as endoscopic sphincterotomy or percutaneous cholecystostomy may be used to relieve obstruction and inflammation.

Cholecystolithiasis is the medical term for the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder. The gallbladder is a small pear-shaped organ located under the liver that stores and concentrates bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver. Gallstones are hardened deposits that can form in the gallbladder when substances in the bile, such as cholesterol or bilirubin, become concentrated and crystallize.

Gallstones can vary in size, from tiny grains of sand to large stones several centimeters in diameter. Some people may have a single gallstone, while others may have many. Gallstones may cause no symptoms at all, but if they block the flow of bile out of the gallbladder, they can cause pain, inflammation, and infection.

Symptoms of cholecystolithiasis may include abdominal pain, often in the upper right or center of the abdomen, that may be sharp or crampy and may occur after eating fatty foods. Other symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, fever, and chills. If gallstones are left untreated, they can lead to serious complications such as cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder), pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas), or cholangitis (infection of the bile ducts). Treatment for cholecystolithiasis may include medication to dissolve the gallstones, shock wave lithotripsy to break up the stones, or surgery to remove the gallbladder.

A laparoscope is a type of medical instrument called an endoscope, which is used to examine the interior of a body cavity or organ. Specifically, a laparoscope is a long, thin tube with a high-intensity light and a high-resolution camera attached to it. This device allows surgeons to view the abdominal cavity through small incisions, without having to make large, invasive cuts.

During a laparoscopic procedure, the surgeon will insert the laparoscope through a small incision in the abdomen, typically near the navel. The camera sends images back to a monitor, giving the surgeon a clear view of the organs and tissues inside the body. This allows for more precise and less invasive surgical procedures, often resulting in faster recovery times and fewer complications compared to traditional open surgery.

Laparoscopes are commonly used in a variety of surgical procedures, including:

1. Gynecological surgeries (e.g., hysterectomies, ovarian cyst removals)
2. Gallbladder removal (cholecystectomy)
3. Gastrointestinal surgeries (e.g., removing benign or malignant tumors)
4. Hernia repairs
5. Bariatric surgeries for weight loss (e.g., gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy)

While laparoscopes provide numerous benefits over open surgery, they still require specialized training and expertise to use effectively and safely.

Intraoperative complications refer to any unforeseen problems or events that occur during the course of a surgical procedure, once it has begun and before it is completed. These complications can range from minor issues, such as bleeding or an adverse reaction to anesthesia, to major complications that can significantly impact the patient's health and prognosis.

Examples of intraoperative complications include:

1. Bleeding (hemorrhage) - This can occur due to various reasons such as injury to blood vessels or organs during surgery.
2. Infection - Surgical site infections can develop if the surgical area becomes contaminated during the procedure.
3. Anesthesia-related complications - These include adverse reactions to anesthesia, difficulty maintaining the patient's airway, or cardiovascular instability.
4. Organ injury - Accidental damage to surrounding organs can occur during surgery, leading to potential long-term consequences.
5. Equipment failure - Malfunctioning surgical equipment can lead to complications and compromise the safety of the procedure.
6. Allergic reactions - Patients may have allergies to certain medications or materials used during surgery, causing an adverse reaction.
7. Prolonged operative time - Complications may arise if a surgical procedure takes longer than expected, leading to increased risk of infection and other issues.

Intraoperative complications require prompt identification and management by the surgical team to minimize their impact on the patient's health and recovery.

The gallbladder is a small, pear-shaped organ located just under the liver in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. Its primary function is to store and concentrate bile, a digestive enzyme produced by the liver, which helps in the breakdown of fats during the digestion process. When food, particularly fatty foods, enter the stomach and small intestine, the gallbladder contracts and releases bile through the common bile duct into the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine, to aid in fat digestion.

The gallbladder is made up of three main parts: the fundus, body, and neck. It has a muscular wall that allows it to contract and release bile. Gallstones, an inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), or other gallbladder diseases can cause pain, discomfort, and potentially serious health complications if left untreated.

Bile ducts are tubular structures that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder for storage or directly to the small intestine to aid in digestion. There are two types of bile ducts: intrahepatic and extrahepatic. Intrahepatic bile ducts are located within the liver and drain bile from liver cells, while extrahepatic bile ducts are outside the liver and include the common hepatic duct, cystic duct, and common bile duct. These ducts can become obstructed or inflamed, leading to various medical conditions such as cholestasis, cholecystitis, and gallstones.

Artificial pneumoperitoneum is a medical condition that refers to the presence of air or gas in the peritoneal cavity, which is the space between the lining of the abdominal wall and the organs within the abdomen. This condition is typically created intentionally during surgical procedures, such as laparoscopy, to provide a working space for the surgeon to perform the operation.

During laparoscopic surgery, a thin tube called a trocar is inserted through a small incision in the abdominal wall, and carbon dioxide gas is pumped into the peritoneal cavity to create a pneumoperitoneum. This allows the surgeon to insert specialized instruments through other small incisions and perform the surgery while visualizing the operative field with a camera.

While artificial pneumoperitoneum is generally safe, there are potential complications that can arise, such as injury to surrounding organs or blood vessels during trocar insertion, subcutaneous emphysema (air trapped under the skin), or gas embolism (gas in the bloodstream). These risks are typically minimized through careful technique and monitoring during the procedure.

The cystic duct is a short tube that connects the gallbladder to the common bile duct, which carries bile from the liver and gallbladder into the small intestine. The cystic duct allows bile to flow from the gallbladder into the common bile duct when it is needed for digestion. It is a part of the biliary system and plays an important role in the digestive process.

The umbilicus, also known as the navel, is the scar left on the abdominal wall after the removal of the umbilical cord in a newborn. The umbilical cord connects the developing fetus to the placenta in the uterus during pregnancy, providing essential nutrients and oxygen while removing waste products. After birth, the cord is clamped and cut, leaving behind a small stump that eventually dries up and falls off, leaving the umbilicus. In adults, it typically appears as a slight depression or dimple on the abdomen.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

The common bile duct is a duct that results from the union of the cystic duct (which drains bile from the gallbladder) and the common hepatic duct (which drains bile from the liver). The common bile duct transports bile, a digestive enzyme, from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine.

The common bile duct runs through the head of the pancreas before emptying into the second part of the duodenum, either alone or in conjunction with the pancreatic duct, via a small opening called the ampulla of Vater. The common bile duct plays a crucial role in the digestion of fats by helping to break them down into smaller molecules that can be absorbed by the body.

Cholangiography is a medical procedure that involves taking X-ray images of the bile ducts (the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the small intestine). This is typically done by injecting a contrast dye into the bile ducts through an endoscope or a catheter that has been inserted into the body.

There are several types of cholangiography, including:

* Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP): This procedure involves inserting an endoscope through the mouth and down the throat into the small intestine. A dye is then injected into the bile ducts through a small tube that is passed through the endoscope.
* Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC): This procedure involves inserting a needle through the skin and into the liver to inject the contrast dye directly into the bile ducts.
* Operative cholangiography: This procedure is performed during surgery to examine the bile ducts for any abnormalities or blockages.

Cholangiography can help diagnose a variety of conditions that affect the bile ducts, such as gallstones, tumors, or inflammation. It can also be used to guide treatment decisions, such as whether surgery is necessary to remove a blockage.

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a medical procedure that combines upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy and fluoroscopy to diagnose and treat certain problems of the bile ducts and pancreas.

During ERCP, a flexible endoscope (a long, thin, lighted tube with a camera on the end) is passed through the patient's mouth and throat, then through the stomach and into the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). A narrow plastic tube (catheter) is then inserted through the endoscope and into the bile ducts and/or pancreatic duct. Contrast dye is injected through the catheter, and X-rays are taken to visualize the ducts.

ERCP can be used to diagnose a variety of conditions affecting the bile ducts and pancreas, including gallstones, tumors, strictures (narrowing of the ducts), and chronic pancreatitis. It can also be used to treat certain conditions, such as removing gallstones from the bile duct or placing stents to keep the ducts open in cases of stricture.

ERCP is an invasive procedure that carries a risk of complications, including pancreatitis, infection, bleeding, and perforation (a tear in the lining of the GI tract). It should only be performed by experienced medical professionals in a hospital setting.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

"Length of Stay" (LOS) is a term commonly used in healthcare to refer to the amount of time a patient spends receiving care in a hospital, clinic, or other healthcare facility. It is typically measured in hours, days, or weeks and can be used as a metric for various purposes such as resource planning, quality assessment, and reimbursement. The length of stay can vary depending on the type of illness or injury, the severity of the condition, the patient's response to treatment, and other factors. It is an important consideration in healthcare management and can have significant implications for both patients and providers.

An appendectomy is a surgical procedure in which the vermiform appendix is removed. This procedure is performed when a patient has appendicitis, which is an inflammation of the appendix that can lead to serious complications such as peritonitis or sepsis if not treated promptly. The surgery can be done as an open procedure, in which a single incision is made in the lower right abdomen, or as a laparoscopic procedure, in which several small incisions are made and specialized instruments are used to remove the appendix. In some cases, if the appendix has burst, a more extensive surgery may be required to clean out the abdominal cavity.

Gallbladder neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the tissue of the gallbladder, which can be benign or malignant. Benign neoplasms are non-cancerous and typically do not spread to other parts of the body. Malignant neoplasms, also known as gallbladder cancer, can invade nearby tissues and organs and may metastasize (spread) to distant parts of the body. Gallbladder neoplasms can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, jaundice, and nausea, but they are often asymptomatic until they have advanced to an advanced stage. The exact causes of gallbladder neoplasms are not fully understood, but risk factors include gallstones, chronic inflammation of the gallbladder, and certain inherited genetic conditions.

A laparotomy is a surgical procedure that involves making an incision in the abdominal wall to gain access to the abdominal cavity. This procedure is typically performed to diagnose and treat various conditions such as abdominal trauma, tumors, infections, or inflammatory diseases. The size of the incision can vary depending on the reason for the surgery and the extent of the condition being treated. Once the procedure is complete, the incision is closed with sutures or staples.

The term "laparotomy" comes from the Greek words "lapara," which means "flank" or "side," and "tome," which means "to cut." Together, they describe the surgical procedure that involves cutting into the abdomen to examine its contents.

Choledocholithiasis is a medical condition characterized by the presence of one or more gallstones in the common bile duct, which is the tube that carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the small intestine. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps break down fats in the small intestine. Gallstones are hardened deposits of digestive fluids that can form in the gallbladder or, less commonly, in the bile ducts.

Choledocholithiasis can cause a variety of symptoms, including abdominal pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), nausea, vomiting, and fever. If left untreated, it can lead to serious complications such as infection or inflammation of the bile ducts or pancreas, which can be life-threatening.

The condition is typically diagnosed through imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and may require endoscopic or surgical intervention to remove the gallstones from the common bile duct.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Robotics, in the medical context, refers to the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots in medical fields. These machines are capable of performing a variety of tasks that can aid or replicate human actions, often with high precision and accuracy. They can be used for various medical applications such as surgery, rehabilitation, prosthetics, patient care, and diagnostics. Surgical robotics, for example, allows surgeons to perform complex procedures with increased dexterity, control, and reduced fatigue, while minimizing invasiveness and improving patient outcomes.

Operative time, in medical terms, refers to the duration from when an incision is made in the surgical procedure until the closure of the incision. This period includes any additional time needed for re-exploration or reopening during the same operation. It does not include any time spent performing other procedures that may be necessary but are carried out at a later stage. Operative time is an essential metric used in surgery to assess efficiency, plan resources, and determine costs.

Cholecystography is a medical procedure that involves the use of X-rays to examine the gallbladder and bile ducts. It is also known as an oral cholecystogram (OCG).

The procedure involves administering a contrast agent, typically a iodine-based dye, which is absorbed by the liver and excreted into the bile ducts and gallbladder. The dye makes the bile ducts and gallbladder visible on X-ray images, allowing doctors to diagnose conditions such as gallstones, tumors, or inflammation of the gallbladder.

Cholecystography is not commonly used today due to the development of more advanced imaging techniques, such as ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) scans, which are non-invasive and do not require the use of contrast agents. However, it may still be used in certain cases where other imaging tests are inconclusive or unavailable.

"Conversion to open surgery" is a medical term that refers to the situation when a surgical procedure, which was initially being performed using minimally invasive techniques (such as laparoscopy or thoracoscopy), needs to be changed to an open approach during the operation. This conversion may be necessary due to various reasons such as unforeseen technical difficulties, excessive bleeding, or discovery of unexpected surgical findings that cannot be safely managed using the minimally invasive approach. The decision to convert to an open surgery is typically made by the operating surgeon in order to ensure the safety and well-being of the patient.

Surgical instruments are specialized tools or devices that are used by medical professionals during surgical procedures to assist in various tasks such as cutting, dissecting, grasping, holding, retracting, clamping, and suturing body tissues. These instruments are designed to be safe, precise, and effective, with a variety of shapes, sizes, and materials used depending on the specific surgical application. Some common examples of surgical instruments include scalpels, forceps, scissors, hemostats, retractors, and needle holders. Proper sterilization and maintenance of these instruments are crucial to ensure patient safety and prevent infection.

Postoperative pain is defined as the pain or discomfort experienced by patients following a surgical procedure. It can vary in intensity and duration depending on the type of surgery performed, individual pain tolerance, and other factors. The pain may be caused by tissue trauma, inflammation, or nerve damage resulting from the surgical intervention. Proper assessment and management of postoperative pain is essential to promote recovery, prevent complications, and improve patient satisfaction.

Fundoplication is a surgical procedure in which the upper part of the stomach (the fundus) is wrapped around the lower esophagus and then stitched into place. This procedure strengthens the lower esophageal sphincter, which helps prevent acid reflux from the stomach into the esophagus. It is commonly used to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and paraesophageal hernias.

Surgical mesh is a medical device that is used in various surgical procedures, particularly in reconstructive surgery, to provide additional support to weakened or damaged tissues. It is typically made from synthetic materials such as polypropylene or polyester, or from biological materials such as animal tissue or human cadaveric tissue.

The mesh is designed to be implanted into the body, where it can help to reinforce and repair damaged tissues. For example, it may be used in hernia repairs to support the weakened abdominal wall, or in pelvic floor reconstruction surgery to treat conditions such as pelvic organ prolapse or stress urinary incontinence.

Surgical mesh can come in different forms, including sheets, plugs, and patches, and may be either absorbable or non-absorbable. The choice of mesh material and type will depend on the specific surgical indication and the patient's individual needs. It is important for patients to discuss the risks and benefits of surgical mesh with their healthcare provider before undergoing any surgical procedure that involves its use.

Ambulatory surgical procedures, also known as outpatient or same-day surgery, refer to medical operations that do not require an overnight hospital stay. These procedures are typically performed in a specialized ambulatory surgery center (ASC) or in a hospital-based outpatient department. Patients undergoing ambulatory surgical procedures receive anesthesia, undergo the operation, and recover enough to be discharged home on the same day of the procedure.

Examples of common ambulatory surgical procedures include:

1. Arthroscopy (joint scope examination and repair)
2. Cataract surgery
3. Colonoscopy and upper endoscopy
4. Dental surgery, such as wisdom tooth extraction
5. Gallbladder removal (cholecystectomy)
6. Hernia repair
7. Hysteroscopy (examination of the uterus)
8. Minor skin procedures, like biopsies and lesion removals
9. Orthopedic procedures, such as carpal tunnel release or joint injections
10. Pain management procedures, including epidural steroid injections and nerve blocks
11. Podiatric (foot and ankle) surgery
12. Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy

Advancements in medical technology, minimally invasive surgical techniques, and improved anesthesia methods have contributed to the growth of ambulatory surgical procedures, offering patients a more convenient and cost-effective alternative to traditional inpatient surgeries.

Endoscopic sphincterotomy is a medical procedure that involves the use of an endoscope (a flexible tube with a light and camera) to cut the papilla of Vater, which contains the sphincter of Oddi muscle. This procedure is typically performed to treat gallstones or to manage other conditions related to the bile ducts or pancreatic ducts.

The sphincterotomy helps to widen the opening of the papilla, allowing stones or other obstructions to pass through more easily. It may also be used to relieve pressure and pain caused by spasms of the sphincter of Oddi muscle. The procedure is usually done under sedation or anesthesia and carries a risk of complications such as bleeding, infection, perforation, and pancreatitis.

Bile duct diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the bile ducts, which are tiny tubes that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine. Bile is a digestive juice produced by the liver that helps break down fats in food.

There are several types of bile duct diseases, including:

1. Choledocholithiasis: This occurs when stones form in the common bile duct, causing blockage and leading to symptoms such as abdominal pain, jaundice, and fever.
2. Cholangitis: This is an infection of the bile ducts that can cause inflammation, pain, and fever. It can occur due to obstruction of the bile ducts or as a complication of other medical procedures.
3. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC): This is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the bile ducts in the liver, causing inflammation and scarring that can lead to cirrhosis and liver failure.
4. Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC): This is another autoimmune disease that causes inflammation and scarring of the bile ducts, leading to liver damage and potential liver failure.
5. Bile Duct Cancer: Also known as cholangiocarcinoma, this is a rare form of cancer that affects the bile ducts and can cause jaundice, abdominal pain, and weight loss.
6. Benign Strictures: These are narrowing of the bile ducts that can occur due to injury, inflammation, or surgery, leading to blockage and potential infection.

Symptoms of bile duct diseases may include jaundice, abdominal pain, fever, itching, dark urine, and light-colored stools. Treatment depends on the specific condition and may involve medication, surgery, or other medical interventions.

Biliary dyskinesia is a medical condition characterized by abnormal or impaired motility of the biliary system, which includes the gallbladder and the bile ducts. This can lead to symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, and vomiting, particularly after eating fatty foods.

In biliary dyskinesia, the gallbladder may not contract properly or may contract too much, leading to a backup of bile in the liver or bile ducts. This can cause inflammation and irritation of the biliary system and surrounding tissues.

The condition is often diagnosed through imaging tests such as ultrasound, nuclear medicine scans, or MRI, which can help assess gallbladder function and detect any abnormalities in the biliary system. Treatment for biliary dyskinesia may include medications to improve gallbladder motility, dietary modifications, or in some cases, surgery to remove the gallbladder.

Biliary tract diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the biliary system, which includes the gallbladder, bile ducts, and liver. Bile is a digestive juice produced by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and released into the small intestine through the bile ducts to help digest fats.

Biliary tract diseases can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, jaundice, fever, nausea, vomiting, and changes in stool color. Some of the common biliary tract diseases include:

1. Gallstones: Small, hard deposits that form in the gallbladder or bile ducts made up of cholesterol or bilirubin.
2. Cholecystitis: Inflammation of the gallbladder, often caused by gallstones.
3. Cholangitis: Infection or inflammation of the bile ducts.
4. Biliary dyskinesia: A motility disorder that affects the contraction and relaxation of the muscles in the biliary system.
5. Primary sclerosing cholangitis: A chronic autoimmune disease that causes scarring and narrowing of the bile ducts.
6. Biliary tract cancer: Rare cancers that affect the gallbladder, bile ducts, or liver.

Treatment for biliary tract diseases varies depending on the specific condition and severity but may include medications, surgery, or a combination of both.

Gynecologic surgical procedures refer to the operations that are performed on the female reproductive system and related organs. These surgeries can be either minimally invasive or open procedures, depending on the condition and the patient's health status.

The indications for gynecologic surgical procedures may include but are not limited to:

1. Diagnosis and treatment of various benign and malignant conditions such as uterine fibroids, ovarian cysts, endometriosis, and cancers of the reproductive organs.
2. Management of abnormal uterine bleeding, pelvic pain, and infertility.
3. Treatment of ectopic pregnancies and miscarriages.
4. Pelvic organ prolapse repair.
5. Sterilization procedures such as tubal ligation.
6. Investigation and treatment of suspicious lesions or abnormal Pap smears.

Some common gynecologic surgical procedures include hysterectomy (removal of the uterus), oophorectomy (removal of the ovary), salpingectomy (removal of the fallopian tube), cystectomy (removal of a cyst), myomectomy (removal of fibroids while preserving the uterus), and endometrial ablation (destruction of the lining of the uterus).

Minimally invasive surgical techniques such as laparoscopy and hysteroscopy have gained popularity in recent years due to their advantages over traditional open surgeries, including smaller incisions, less postoperative pain, quicker recovery times, and reduced risk of complications.

Inguinal hernia, also known as an inguinal rupture or groin hernia, is a protrusion of abdominal-cavity contents through the inguinal canal. The inguinal canal is a passage in the lower abdominal wall that carries the spermatic cord in males and a round ligament in females. Inguinal hernias are more common in men than women.

There are two types of inguinal hernias: direct and indirect. Direct inguinal hernias occur when the abdominal lining and/or fat push through a weakened area in the lower abdominal wall, while indirect inguinal hernias result from a congenital condition where the abdominal lining and/or fat protrude through the internal inguinal ring, a normal opening in the abdominal wall.

Inguinal hernias can cause discomfort or pain, especially during physical activities, coughing, sneezing, or straining. In some cases, incarceration or strangulation of the hernia may occur, leading to serious complications such as bowel obstruction or tissue necrosis, which require immediate medical attention.

Surgical repair is the standard treatment for inguinal hernias, and it can be performed through open or laparoscopic techniques. The goal of surgery is to return the protruding tissues to their proper position and strengthen the weakened abdominal wall with sutures or mesh reinforcement.

A colectomy is a surgical procedure in which all or part of the large intestine (colon) is removed. This surgery may be performed to treat or prevent various medical conditions, including colon cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulitis, and severe obstructions or injuries of the colon.

There are several types of colectomies, depending on how much of the colon is removed:

* Total colectomy: Removal of the entire colon.
* Partial colectomy: Removal of a portion of the colon.
* Hemicolectomy: Removal of one half of the colon.
* Sigmoidectomy: Removal of the sigmoid colon, which is the part of the colon that is closest to the rectum.

After the affected portion of the colon is removed, the remaining ends of the intestine are reconnected, allowing stool to pass through the digestive system as usual. In some cases, a temporary or permanent colostomy may be necessary, in which a surgical opening (stoma) is created in the abdominal wall and the end of the colon is attached to it, allowing stool to be collected in a pouch outside the body.

Colectomies are major surgeries that require general anesthesia and hospitalization. The recovery time can vary depending on the type of colectomy performed and the individual's overall health, but typically ranges from several weeks to a few months. Complications of colectomy may include bleeding, infection, leakage from the surgical site, bowel obstruction, and changes in bowel habits or function.

Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is a non-invasive medical imaging technique that uses magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize the bile ducts and pancreatic duct. This diagnostic test does not use radiation like other imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) scans or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).

During an MRCP, the patient lies on a table that slides into the MRI machine. Contrast agents may be used to enhance the visibility of the ducts. The MRI machine uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to produce detailed images of the internal structures, allowing radiologists to assess any abnormalities or blockages in the bile and pancreatic ducts.

MRCP is often used to diagnose conditions such as gallstones, tumors, inflammation, or strictures in the bile or pancreatic ducts. It can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatments for these conditions. However, it does not allow for therapeutic interventions like ERCP, which can remove stones or place stents.

Nephrectomy is a surgical procedure in which all or part of a kidney is removed. It may be performed due to various reasons such as severe kidney damage, kidney cancer, or living donor transplantation. The type of nephrectomy depends on the reason for the surgery - a simple nephrectomy involves removing only the affected portion of the kidney, while a radical nephrectomy includes removal of the whole kidney along with its surrounding tissues like the adrenal gland and lymph nodes.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Intraoperative care refers to the medical care and interventions provided to a patient during a surgical procedure. This care is typically administered by a team of healthcare professionals, including anesthesiologists, surgeons, nurses, and other specialists as needed. The goal of intraoperative care is to maintain the patient's physiological stability throughout the surgery, minimize complications, and ensure the best possible outcome.

Intraoperative care may include:

1. Anesthesia management: Administering and monitoring anesthetic drugs to keep the patient unconscious and free from pain during the surgery.
2. Monitoring vital signs: Continuously tracking the patient's heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, body temperature, and other key physiological parameters to ensure they remain within normal ranges.
3. Fluid and blood product administration: Maintaining adequate intravascular volume and oxygen-carrying capacity through the infusion of fluids and blood products as needed.
4. Intraoperative imaging: Utilizing real-time imaging techniques, such as X-ray, ultrasound, or CT scans, to guide the surgical procedure and ensure accurate placement of implants or other devices.
5. Neuromonitoring: Using electrophysiological methods to monitor the functional integrity of nerves and neural structures during surgery, particularly in procedures involving the brain, spine, or peripheral nerves.
6. Intraoperative medication management: Administering various medications as needed for pain control, infection prophylaxis, or the treatment of medical conditions that may arise during the surgery.
7. Temperature management: Regulating the patient's body temperature to prevent hypothermia or hyperthermia, which can have adverse effects on surgical outcomes and overall patient health.
8. Communication and coordination: Ensuring effective communication among the members of the surgical team to optimize patient care and safety.

A hysterectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of the uterus (womb). Depending on the specific medical condition and necessity, a hysterectomy may also include the removal of the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and surrounding tissues. There are different types of hysterectomies, including:

1. Total hysterectomy: The uterus and cervix are removed.
2. Supracervical (or subtotal) hysterectomy: Only the upper part of the uterus is removed, leaving the cervix intact.
3. Radical hysterectomy: This procedure involves removing the uterus, cervix, surrounding tissues, and the upper part of the vagina. It is typically performed in cases of cervical cancer.
4. Oophorectomy: The removal of one or both ovaries can be performed along with a hysterectomy depending on the patient's medical condition and age.
5. Salpingectomy: The removal of one or both fallopian tubes can also be performed along with a hysterectomy if needed.

The reasons for performing a hysterectomy may include but are not limited to: uterine fibroids, heavy menstrual bleeding, endometriosis, adenomyosis, pelvic prolapse, cervical or uterine cancer, and chronic pelvic pain. The choice of the type of hysterectomy depends on the patient's medical condition, age, and personal preferences.

A "learning curve" is not a medical term per se, but rather a general concept that is used in various fields including medicine. It refers to the process of acquiring new skills or knowledge in a specific task or activity, and the improvement in performance that comes with experience and practice over time.

In a medical context, a learning curve may refer to the rate at which healthcare professionals acquire proficiency in a new procedure, technique, or technology. It can also describe how quickly patients learn to manage their own health conditions or treatments. The term is often used to evaluate the effectiveness of training programs and to identify areas where additional education or practice may be necessary.

It's important to note that individuals may have different learning curves depending on factors such as prior experience, innate abilities, motivation, and access to resources. Therefore, it's essential to tailor training and support to the needs of each learner to ensure optimal outcomes.

The intraoperative period is the phase of surgical treatment that refers to the time during which the surgery is being performed. It begins when the anesthesia is administered and the patient is prepared for the operation, and it ends when the surgery is completed, the anesthesia is discontinued, and the patient is transferred to the recovery room or intensive care unit (ICU).

During the intraoperative period, the surgical team, including surgeons, anesthesiologists, nurses, and other healthcare professionals, work together to carry out the surgical procedure safely and effectively. The anesthesiologist monitors the patient's vital signs, such as heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and body temperature, throughout the surgery to ensure that the patient remains stable and does not experience any complications.

The surgeon performs the operation, using various surgical techniques and instruments to achieve the desired outcome. The surgical team also takes measures to prevent infection, control bleeding, and manage pain during and after the surgery.

Overall, the intraoperative period is a critical phase of surgical treatment that requires close collaboration and communication among members of the healthcare team to ensure the best possible outcomes for the patient.

Electrocoagulation is a medical procedure that uses heat generated from an electrical current to cause coagulation (clotting) of tissue. This procedure is often used to treat a variety of medical conditions, such as:

* Gastrointestinal bleeding: Electrocoagulation can be used to control bleeding in the stomach or intestines by applying an electrical current to the affected blood vessels, causing them to shrink and clot.
* Skin lesions: Electrocoagulation can be used to remove benign or malignant skin lesions, such as warts, moles, or skin tags, by applying an electrical current to the growth, which causes it to dehydrate and eventually fall off.
* Vascular malformations: Electrocoagulation can be used to treat vascular malformations (abnormal blood vessels) by applying an electrical current to the affected area, causing the abnormal vessels to shrink and clot.

The procedure is typically performed using a specialized device that delivers an electrical current through a needle or probe. The intensity and duration of the electrical current can be adjusted to achieve the desired effect. Electrocoagulation may be used alone or in combination with other treatments, such as surgery or medication.

It's important to note that electrocoagulation is not without risks, including burns, infection, and scarring. It should only be performed by a qualified medical professional who has experience with the procedure.

The common hepatic duct is a medical term that refers to the duct in the liver responsible for carrying bile from the liver. More specifically, it is the duct that results from the convergence of the right and left hepatic ducts, which themselves carry bile from the right and left lobes of the liver, respectively. The common hepatic duct then joins with the cystic duct from the gallbladder to form the common bile duct, which ultimately drains into the duodenum, a part of the small intestine.

The primary function of the common hepatic duct is to transport bile, a digestive juice produced by the liver, to the small intestine. Bile helps break down fats during the digestion process, making it possible for the body to absorb them properly. Any issues or abnormalities in the common hepatic duct can lead to problems with bile flow and potentially cause health complications such as jaundice, gallstones, or liver damage.

Cholecystostomy is a medical procedure that involves the creation of an opening or fistula between the gallbladder and the stomach or the skin surface to drain bile from the gallbladder. This procedure is typically performed when there is an obstruction in the cystic duct or common bile duct, leading to inflammation or infection of the gallbladder (cholecystitis).

There are two types of cholecystostomy: percutaneous and open. Percutaneous cholecystostomy is a minimally invasive procedure that involves inserting a small tube through the skin and into the gallbladder under the guidance of imaging techniques such as ultrasound or CT scan. Open cholecystostomy, on the other hand, requires an open surgical incision to access the gallbladder and create the fistula.

Cholecystostomy is usually a temporary measure to manage acute cholecystitis in high-risk patients who are not suitable candidates for surgery or until they become stable enough to undergo a more definitive treatment, such as cholecystectomy (surgical removal of the gallbladder).

Surgical blood loss is the amount of blood that is lost during a surgical procedure. It can occur through various routes such as incisions, punctures or during the removal of organs or tissues. The amount of blood loss can vary widely depending on the type and complexity of the surgery being performed.

Surgical blood loss can be classified into three categories:

1. Insensible losses: These are small amounts of blood that are lost through the skin, respiratory tract, or gastrointestinal tract during surgery. They are not usually significant enough to cause any clinical effects.
2. Visible losses: These are larger amounts of blood that can be seen and measured directly during surgery. They may require transfusion or other interventions to prevent hypovolemia (low blood volume) and its complications.
3. Hidden losses: These are internal bleeding that cannot be easily seen or measured during surgery. They can occur in the abdominal cavity, retroperitoneal space, or other areas of the body. They may require further exploration or imaging studies to diagnose and manage.

Surgical blood loss can lead to several complications such as hypovolemia, anemia, coagulopathy (disorders of blood clotting), and organ dysfunction. Therefore, it is essential to monitor and manage surgical blood loss effectively to ensure optimal patient outcomes.

Suture techniques refer to the various methods used by surgeons to sew or stitch together tissues in the body after an injury, trauma, or surgical incision. The main goal of suturing is to approximate and hold the edges of the wound together, allowing for proper healing and minimizing scar formation.

There are several types of suture techniques, including:

1. Simple Interrupted Suture: This is one of the most basic suture techniques where the needle is passed through the tissue at a right angle, creating a loop that is then tightened to approximate the wound edges. Multiple stitches are placed along the length of the incision or wound.
2. Continuous Locking Suture: In this technique, the needle is passed continuously through the tissue in a zigzag pattern, with each stitch locking into the previous one. This creates a continuous line of sutures that provides strong tension and support to the wound edges.
3. Running Suture: Similar to the continuous locking suture, this technique involves passing the needle continuously through the tissue in a straight line. However, instead of locking each stitch, the needle is simply passed through the previous loop before being tightened. This creates a smooth and uninterrupted line of sutures that can be easily removed after healing.
4. Horizontal Mattress Suture: In this technique, two parallel stitches are placed horizontally across the wound edges, creating a "mattress" effect that provides additional support and tension to the wound. This is particularly useful in deep or irregularly shaped wounds.
5. Vertical Mattress Suture: Similar to the horizontal mattress suture, this technique involves placing two parallel stitches vertically across the wound edges. This creates a more pronounced "mattress" effect that can help reduce tension and minimize scarring.
6. Subcuticular Suture: In this technique, the needle is passed just below the surface of the skin, creating a smooth and barely visible line of sutures. This is particularly useful in cosmetic surgery or areas where minimizing scarring is important.

The choice of suture technique depends on various factors such as the location and size of the wound, the type of tissue involved, and the patient's individual needs and preferences. Proper suture placement and tension are crucial for optimal healing and aesthetic outcomes.

Situs Inversus is a congenital condition in which the major visceral organs are situated in mirror-image positions to their normal locations. Instead of being on the left side, the heart and its large blood vessels are on the right side, while the liver is on the left side and the lungs are reversed. The stomach, spleen, and pancreas may also be affected. It's important to note that this condition is generally asymptomatic and often goes unnoticed unless there are complications or associated abnormalities.

There are two types of Situs Inversus: total (complete reversal of all organs) and partial (reversal of only some organs). Total Situs Inversus is also sometimes referred to as "mirror-image dextrocardia" because the heart, which is usually on the left side, is located on the right side in a mirrored position.

While Situs Inversus itself does not typically cause health problems, people with this condition may have an increased risk for certain medical conditions, such as congenital heart defects or primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), which can lead to chronic respiratory infections and infertility.

Natural Orifice Endoscopic Surgery (NOES) is a surgical technique that uses natural body openings, such as the mouth, anus, or vagina, to perform minimally invasive surgery. This approach eliminates the need for external incisions and can result in less postoperative pain, reduced risk of infection, faster recovery times, and improved cosmetic outcomes compared to traditional surgical methods.

In NOES, a flexible endoscope is inserted through a natural orifice and guided to the target organ or structure within the body. Specialized instruments are then passed through the endoscope to perform the necessary surgical procedures, such as removing organs, taking biopsies, or repairing tissues.

NOES has been used in various surgical procedures, including gallbladder removal, gastric bypass surgery, and hysterectomy. However, this technique is still considered experimental and requires further research and development to fully establish its safety and efficacy compared to traditional surgical methods.

Gastroplasty is a surgical procedure that involves reducing the size of the stomach to treat morbid obesity. It is also known as vertical banded gastroplasty or stomach stapling. In this procedure, a part of the stomach is permanently stapled vertically to create a small pouch at the top of the stomach. This restricts the amount of food that can be eaten at one time and causes a feeling of fullness with smaller amounts of food.

The goal of gastroplasty is to help patients lose weight by reducing their calorie intake, promoting weight loss, and improving overall health. However, it is important to note that gastroplasty requires significant lifestyle changes, including regular exercise and healthy eating habits, to maintain long-term weight loss success.

As with any surgical procedure, there are risks associated with gastroplasty, such as infection, bleeding, and complications related to anesthesia. It is important for patients to discuss these risks with their healthcare provider before deciding whether or not to undergo the procedure.

Morbid obesity is a severe form of obesity, defined by a body mass index (BMI) of 40 or higher or a BMI of 35 or higher in the presence of at least one serious obesity-related health condition, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, or sleep apnea. It is called "morbid" because it significantly increases the risk of various life-threatening health problems and reduces life expectancy.

Morbid obesity is typically associated with significant excess body weight, often characterized by a large amount of abdominal fat, that can strain the body's organs and lead to serious medical complications, such as:

* Type 2 diabetes
* High blood pressure (hypertension)
* Heart disease
* Stroke
* Sleep apnea and other respiratory problems
* Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
* Osteoarthritis
* Certain types of cancer, such as breast, colon, and endometrial cancer

Morbid obesity can also have significant negative impacts on a person's quality of life, including mobility issues, difficulty with daily activities, and increased risk of mental health problems, such as depression and anxiety. Treatment for morbid obesity typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, medication, and in some cases, surgery.

Appendicitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the appendix, a small finger-like structure that projects from the colon located in the lower right abdomen. The appendix doesn't have a known function, and its removal (appendectomy) does not appear to affect a person's health.

The inflammation of the appendix can be caused by various factors, such as obstruction due to hardened stool, foreign bodies, or tumors. The blockage can lead to increased pressure within the appendix, reduced blood flow, and bacterial growth, resulting in infection and inflammation. If left untreated, appendicitis can progress to peritonitis (inflammation of the lining of the abdominal cavity) or even sepsis, a life-threatening condition.

Common symptoms of appendicitis include:

* Sudden onset of pain in the lower right abdomen, which may start around the navel and shift to the lower right side over several hours
* Pain that worsens with movement, coughing, or sneezing
* Nausea and vomiting
* Loss of appetite
* Fever and chills
* Constipation or diarrhea
* Abdominal swelling or bloating

If you suspect appendicitis, it's essential to seek immediate medical attention. The standard treatment for appendicitis is surgical removal of the appendix (appendectomy), which can be performed as an open surgery or laparoscopically. Antibiotics are also administered to treat any existing infection. Delaying treatment can lead to serious complications, so it's crucial not to ignore symptoms and seek medical help promptly.

A biliary fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the biliary system (which includes the gallbladder, bile ducts, and liver) and another organ or structure, usually in the abdominal cavity. This connection allows bile, which is a digestive fluid produced by the liver, to leak out of its normal pathway and into other areas of the body.

Biliary fistulas can occur as a result of trauma, surgery, infection, or inflammation in the biliary system. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, fever, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), nausea, vomiting, and clay-colored stools. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the fistula, such as draining an infection or repairing damaged tissue, and diverting bile flow away from the site of the leak. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the fistula.

Iatrogenic disease refers to any condition or illness that is caused, directly or indirectly, by medical treatment or intervention. This can include adverse reactions to medications, infections acquired during hospitalization, complications from surgical procedures, or injuries caused by medical equipment. It's important to note that iatrogenic diseases are unintended and often preventable with proper care and precautions.

Hemobilia is a medical condition that refers to the presence of blood in the bile ducts, which can lead to the passage of blood in the stool or vomiting of blood (hematemesis). This condition usually results from a traumatic injury, rupture of a blood vessel, or a complication from a medical procedure involving the liver, gallbladder, or bile ducts. In some cases, hemobilia may also be caused by tumors or abnormal blood vessels in the liver. Symptoms of hemobilia can include abdominal pain, jaundice, and gastrointestinal bleeding. Diagnosis typically involves imaging tests such as CT scans or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) to visualize the bile ducts and identify the source of bleeding. Treatment may involve endovascular procedures, surgery, or other interventions to stop the bleeding and manage any underlying conditions.

Common bile duct diseases refer to conditions that affect the common bile duct, a tube that carries bile from the liver and gallbladder into the small intestine. Some common examples of common bile duct diseases include:

1. Choledocholithiasis: This is the presence of stones (calculi) in the common bile duct, which can cause blockage, inflammation, and infection.
2. Cholangitis: This is an infection or inflammation of the common bile duct, often caused by obstruction due to stones, tumors, or strictures.
3. Common bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma): This is a rare but aggressive cancer that arises from the cells lining the common bile duct.
4. Biliary strictures: These are narrowing or scarring of the common bile duct, which can be caused by injury, inflammation, or surgery.
5. Benign tumors: Non-cancerous growths in the common bile duct can also cause blockage and other symptoms.

Symptoms of common bile duct diseases may include abdominal pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, and dark urine or light-colored stools. Treatment depends on the specific condition and severity but may include medications, endoscopic procedures, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

General surgery is a surgical specialty that focuses on the abdominal organs, including the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, pancreas, gallbladder and bile ducts, and often the thyroid gland. General surgeons may also deal with diseases involving the skin, breast, soft tissue, and hernias. They employ a wide range of surgical procedures, using both traditional and laparoscopic techniques.

This definition is consistent with the guidelines provided by professional medical organizations such as the American College of Surgeons and the Royal College of Surgeons. However, it's important to note that specific practices can vary based on factors like geographical location, training, and individual expertise.

A feasibility study is a preliminary investigation or analysis conducted to determine the viability of a proposed project, program, or product. In the medical field, feasibility studies are often conducted before implementing new treatments, procedures, equipment, or facilities. These studies help to assess the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed intervention, as well as its potential benefits and risks.

Feasibility studies in healthcare typically involve several steps:

1. Problem identification: Clearly define the problem that the proposed project, program, or product aims to address.
2. Objectives setting: Establish specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) objectives for the study.
3. Literature review: Conduct a thorough review of existing research and best practices related to the proposed intervention.
4. Methodology development: Design a methodology for data collection and analysis that will help answer the research questions and achieve the study's objectives.
5. Resource assessment: Evaluate the availability and adequacy of resources, including personnel, time, and finances, required to carry out the proposed intervention.
6. Risk assessment: Identify potential risks and challenges associated with the implementation of the proposed intervention and develop strategies to mitigate them.
7. Cost-benefit analysis: Estimate the costs and benefits of the proposed intervention, including direct and indirect costs, as well as short-term and long-term benefits.
8. Stakeholder engagement: Engage relevant stakeholders, such as patients, healthcare providers, administrators, and policymakers, to gather their input and support for the proposed intervention.
9. Decision-making: Based on the findings of the feasibility study, make an informed decision about whether or not to proceed with the proposed project, program, or product.

Feasibility studies are essential in healthcare as they help ensure that resources are allocated efficiently and effectively, and that interventions are evidence-based, safe, and beneficial for patients.

Minimally invasive surgical procedures are a type of surgery that is performed with the assistance of specialized equipment and techniques to minimize trauma to the patient's body. This approach aims to reduce blood loss, pain, and recovery time as compared to traditional open surgeries. The most common minimally invasive surgical procedure is laparoscopy, which involves making small incisions (usually 0.5-1 cm) in the abdomen or chest and inserting a thin tube with a camera (laparoscope) to visualize the internal organs.

The surgeon then uses long, slender instruments inserted through separate incisions to perform the necessary surgical procedures, such as cutting, coagulation, or suturing. Other types of minimally invasive surgical procedures include arthroscopy (for joint surgery), thoracoscopy (for chest surgery), and hysteroscopy (for uterine surgery). The benefits of minimally invasive surgical procedures include reduced postoperative pain, shorter hospital stays, quicker return to normal activities, and improved cosmetic results. However, not all surgeries can be performed using minimally invasive techniques, and the suitability of a particular procedure depends on various factors, including the patient's overall health, the nature and extent of the surgical problem, and the surgeon's expertise.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Herniorrhaphy is a surgical procedure where the herniated tissue or organ is placed back into its original position, and the weakened or damaged muscle wall is repaired. This is typically done to correct a hernia, which is a protrusion of an organ or tissue through a weakened area in the abdominal wall. The surgical incision may be closed with sutures or staples, and sometimes a mesh patch is used to reinforce the repair.

An abdominal hernia refers to the protrusion of an organ or tissue through a weakened area in the abdominal wall, resulting in a bulge. This condition can occur due to various factors such as congenital defects, aging, obesity, pregnancy, persistent coughing, or previous surgeries that have left behind weak spots in the abdominal wall.

There are several types of abdominal hernias, including:

1. Inguinal Hernia: This is the most common type of hernia, occurring when the intestine or bladder protrudes through the inguinal canal in the lower abdomen. Inguinal hernias are more prevalent in men than women.
2. Femoral Hernia: This type of hernia occurs when the intestine or fatty tissue pushes through a weakened area near the femoral artery, located in the upper thigh region. Femoral hernias are more common in women, especially those who are pregnant or obese.
3. Incisional Hernia: This type of hernia develops at the site of a previous abdominal surgery where the abdominal muscles have weakened or failed to heal properly.
4. Umbilical Hernia: An umbilical hernia occurs when the intestine protrudes through the abdominal wall near the navel, often visible as a bulge around the belly button. This type of hernia is more common in infants but can also affect adults, particularly those who are overweight or have had multiple pregnancies.
5. Epigastric Hernia: An epigastric hernia occurs when fatty tissue protrudes through a weakened area between the breastbone and the navel. These hernias are usually small and often painless but can cause discomfort or complications if they become incarcerated or strangulated.

Abdominal hernias can vary in size, from small and barely noticeable to large and severely painful. Symptoms may include a visible bulge, localized pain or discomfort, especially when lifting heavy objects, coughing, or straining during bowel movements. In some cases, hernias may become incarcerated (trapped) or strangulated (blood supply is cut off), which can lead to severe pain, nausea, vomiting, and require immediate medical attention.

Treatment for abdominal hernias typically involves surgical repair, either through open surgery or laparoscopic techniques. The choice of procedure depends on various factors, including the size and location of the hernia, the patient's overall health, and their personal preferences. In some cases, watchful waiting may be recommended for small, asymptomatic hernias, but it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional to determine the best course of action.

Hand-assisted laparoscopy (HAL) is a surgical technique that combines the principles of traditional open surgery and minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery. In HAL, a small incision is made, typically in the abdomen, through which the surgeon's hand can be introduced into the abdominal cavity while maintaining a pneumoperitoneum (insufflation of carbon dioxide gas to create a working space). This approach allows the surgeon to use their hands to perform complex surgical procedures with the aid of laparoscopic instruments, which are inserted through other small incisions.

The hand-assisted technique provides several advantages over traditional laparoscopy, including improved tactile feedback, enhanced dexterity, and more precise dissection and manipulation of tissues. This approach is often used in complex urological, gynecological, and general surgical procedures, such as nephrectomy (removal of the kidney), colectomy (removal of part of the colon), and gastrectomy (removal of part of the stomach).

Hand-assisted laparoscopy offers several benefits over traditional open surgery, including smaller incisions, reduced postoperative pain, shorter hospital stays, quicker recovery times, and improved cosmetic outcomes. However, HAL still requires general anesthesia and carries the risks associated with any surgical procedure, such as infection, bleeding, and injury to surrounding tissues or organs.

A reoperation is a surgical procedure that is performed again on a patient who has already undergone a previous operation for the same or related condition. Reoperations may be required due to various reasons, such as inadequate initial treatment, disease recurrence, infection, or complications from the first surgery. The nature and complexity of a reoperation can vary widely depending on the specific circumstances, but it often carries higher risks and potential complications compared to the original operation.

Pancreatitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the pancreas, a gland located in the abdomen that plays a crucial role in digestion and regulating blood sugar levels. The inflammation can be acute (sudden and severe) or chronic (persistent and recurring), and it can lead to various complications if left untreated.

Acute pancreatitis often results from gallstones or excessive alcohol consumption, while chronic pancreatitis may be caused by long-term alcohol abuse, genetic factors, autoimmune conditions, or metabolic disorders like high triglyceride levels. Symptoms of acute pancreatitis include severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and increased heart rate, while chronic pancreatitis may present with ongoing abdominal pain, weight loss, diarrhea, and malabsorption issues due to impaired digestive enzyme production. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as intravenous fluids, pain management, and addressing the underlying cause. In severe cases, hospitalization and surgery may be necessary.

Elective surgical procedures are operations that are scheduled in advance because they do not involve a medical emergency. These surgeries are chosen or "elective" based on the patient's and doctor's decision to improve the patient's quality of life or to treat a non-life-threatening condition. Examples include but are not limited to:

1. Aesthetic or cosmetic surgery such as breast augmentation, rhinoplasty, etc.
2. Orthopedic surgeries like knee or hip replacements
3. Cataract surgery
4. Some types of cancer surgeries where the tumor is not spreading or causing severe symptoms
5. Gastric bypass for weight loss

It's important to note that while these procedures are planned, they still require thorough preoperative evaluation and preparation, and carry risks and benefits that need to be carefully considered by both the patient and the healthcare provider.

Video-assisted surgery, also known as video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS), is a type of minimally invasive surgical procedure that uses a video camera and specialized instruments to perform the operation. A small incision is made in the body, and the surgeon inserts a thin tube with a camera on the end, known as a thoracoscope, into the chest cavity. The camera transmits images of the internal organs onto a video monitor, allowing the surgeon to visualize and perform the surgery. This type of surgery often results in smaller incisions, less pain, and faster recovery times compared to traditional open surgery. It is commonly used for procedures such as lung biopsies, lobectomies, and esophageal surgeries.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Postcholecystectomy Syndrome is a condition that occurs in some patients following the surgical removal of the gallbladder (cholecystectomy). The syndrome encompasses a variety of symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, gas, indigestion, and diarrhea, which can be caused by several factors including:

1. Abnormal functioning or motility of the sphincter of Oddi (a muscle that controls the flow of bile and pancreatic juice into the small intestine)
2. Formation of gallstones in the bile ducts (choledocholithiasis)
3. Biliary dyskinesia (impaired functioning of the biliary tract muscles)
4. Persistent or recurrent infection or inflammation of the bile ducts (biliopathy)
5. Formation of abnormal bile-filled pouches (biliolethiasis or bile duct cysts)
6. Changes in bowel habits due to altered enterohepatic circulation of bile acids

The symptoms of Postcholecystectomy Syndrome can vary in severity and frequency, and they may appear soon after the surgery or develop months or even years later. The diagnosis of this condition typically involves a comprehensive medical evaluation, including a detailed history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as ultrasound, CT scan, MRI, or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).

Treatment options for Postcholecystectomy Syndrome depend on the underlying cause of the symptoms and may include medications, dietary modifications, endoscopic procedures, or surgery. In some cases, the syndrome may resolve on its own without any specific treatment.

The digestive system is a series of organs that work together to convert food into nutrients and energy. Digestive system surgical procedures involve operations on any part of the digestive system, including the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, pancreas, and gallbladder. These procedures can be performed for a variety of reasons, such as to treat diseases, repair damage, or remove cancerous growths.

Some common digestive system surgical procedures include:

1. Gastric bypass surgery: A procedure in which the stomach is divided into two parts and the smaller part is connected directly to the small intestine, bypassing a portion of the stomach and upper small intestine. This procedure is used to treat severe obesity.
2. Colonoscopy: A procedure in which a flexible tube with a camera on the end is inserted into the rectum and colon to examine the lining for polyps, cancer, or other abnormalities.
3. Colectomy: A procedure in which all or part of the colon is removed, often due to cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, or diverticulitis.
4. Gastrostomy: A procedure in which a hole is made through the abdominal wall and into the stomach to create an opening for feeding. This is often done for patients who have difficulty swallowing.
5. Esophagectomy: A procedure in which all or part of the esophagus is removed, often due to cancer. The remaining esophagus is then reconnected to the stomach or small intestine.
6. Liver resection: A procedure in which a portion of the liver is removed, often due to cancer or other diseases.
7. Pancreatectomy: A procedure in which all or part of the pancreas is removed, often due to cancer or chronic pancreatitis.
8. Cholecystectomy: A procedure in which the gallbladder is removed, often due to gallstones or inflammation.

These are just a few examples of digestive system surgical procedures. There are many other types of operations that can be performed on the digestive system depending on the specific needs and condition of each patient.

Incidental findings are diagnoses or conditions that are discovered unintentionally while evaluating a patient for a different condition or symptom. These findings are not related to the primary reason for the medical examination, investigation, or procedure. They can occur in various contexts such as radiology studies, laboratory tests, or physical examinations.

Incidental findings can sometimes lead to further evaluation and management, depending on their nature and potential clinical significance. However, they also pose challenges related to communication, informed consent, and potential patient anxiety or harm. Therefore, it is essential to have clear guidelines for managing incidental findings in clinical practice.

A jejunostomy is a surgical procedure where an opening (stoma) is created in the lower part of the small intestine, called the jejunum. This stoma allows for the passage of nutrients and digestive enzymes from the small intestine into a tube or external pouch, bypassing the mouth, esophagus, stomach, and upper small intestine (duodenum).

Jejunostomy is typically performed to provide enteral nutrition support in patients who are unable to consume food or liquids by mouth due to various medical conditions such as dysphagia, gastroparesis, bowel obstruction, or after certain surgical procedures. The jejunostomy tube can be used for short-term or long-term nutritional support, depending on the patient's needs and underlying medical condition.

Roux-en-Y anastomosis is a type of surgical connection between two parts of the gastrointestinal tract, typically performed during gastric bypass surgery for weight loss. In this procedure, a small pouch is created from the upper stomach, and the remaining portion of the stomach is bypassed. The Roux limb, a segment of the small intestine, is then connected to both the pouch and the bypassed stomach, creating two separate channels for food and digestive juices to mix. This surgical technique helps to reduce the amount of food that can be consumed and absorbed, leading to weight loss.

A ventral hernia is a type of hernia that occurs in the abdominal wall, specifically in the anterior (front) aspect. It can occur due to a weakness or defect in the abdominal wall muscles and fascia, which allows the internal organs or tissues to push through and create a bulge or swelling.

Ventral hernias can be classified into several types based on their location, size, and cause. Some of the common types include:

1. Incisional Hernia - occurs at the site of a previous surgical incision, where the abdominal wall has not healed properly or has become weakened over time.
2. Epigastric Hernia - located in the upper middle part of the abdomen, between the breastbone and the navel.
3. Umbilical Hernia - occurs around the belly button, most commonly seen in infants but can also affect adults.
4. Spigelian Hernia - a rare type of hernia that occurs lateral to the rectus sheath, usually at the level of the semilunar line.
5. Diastasis Recti - a separation of the abdominal muscles in the midline, which can lead to a ventral hernia if not treated.

Symptoms of a ventral hernia may include pain or discomfort, especially when lifting heavy objects, straining, coughing, or during physical activity. In some cases, a hernia may become incarcerated or strangulated, which requires immediate medical attention. Treatment options for ventral hernias typically involve surgical repair, either through open surgery or laparoscopic techniques.

Drainage, in medical terms, refers to the removal of excess fluid or accumulated collections of fluids from various body parts or spaces. This is typically accomplished through the use of medical devices such as catheters, tubes, or drains. The purpose of drainage can be to prevent the buildup of fluids that may cause discomfort, infection, or other complications, or to treat existing collections of fluid such as abscesses, hematomas, or pleural effusions. Drainage may also be used as a diagnostic tool to analyze the type and composition of the fluid being removed.

An abdominal abscess is a localized collection of pus in the abdominal cavity, caused by an infection. It can occur as a result of complications from surgery, trauma, or inflammatory conditions such as appendicitis or diverticulitis. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, fever, and tenderness at the site of the abscess. Abdominal abscesses can be serious and require medical treatment, which may include antibiotics, drainage of the abscess, or surgery.

Preoperative care refers to the series of procedures, interventions, and preparations that are conducted before a surgical operation. The primary goal of preoperative care is to ensure the patient's well-being, optimize their physical condition, reduce potential risks, and prepare them mentally and emotionally for the upcoming surgery.

Preoperative care typically includes:

1. Preoperative assessment: A thorough evaluation of the patient's overall health status, including medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and diagnostic imaging, to identify any potential risk factors or comorbidities that may impact the surgical procedure and postoperative recovery.
2. Informed consent: The process of ensuring the patient understands the nature of the surgery, its purpose, associated risks, benefits, and alternative treatment options. The patient signs a consent form indicating they have been informed and voluntarily agree to undergo the surgery.
3. Preoperative instructions: Guidelines provided to the patient regarding their diet, medication use, and other activities in the days leading up to the surgery. These instructions may include fasting guidelines, discontinuing certain medications, or arranging for transportation after the procedure.
4. Anesthesia consultation: A meeting with the anesthesiologist to discuss the type of anesthesia that will be used during the surgery and address any concerns related to anesthesia risks, side effects, or postoperative pain management.
5. Preparation of the surgical site: Cleaning and shaving the area where the incision will be made, as well as administering appropriate antimicrobial agents to minimize the risk of infection.
6. Medical optimization: Addressing any underlying medical conditions or correcting abnormalities that may negatively impact the surgical outcome. This may involve adjusting medications, treating infections, or managing chronic diseases such as diabetes.
7. Emotional and psychological support: Providing counseling, reassurance, and education to help alleviate anxiety, fear, or emotional distress related to the surgery.
8. Preoperative holding area: The patient is transferred to a designated area near the operating room where they are prepared for surgery by changing into a gown, having intravenous (IV) lines inserted, and receiving monitoring equipment.

By following these preoperative care guidelines, healthcare professionals aim to ensure that patients undergo safe and successful surgical procedures with optimal outcomes.

A splenectomy is a surgical procedure in which the spleen is removed from the body. The spleen is an organ located in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen, near the stomach and behind the ribs. It plays several important roles in the body, including fighting certain types of infections, removing old or damaged red blood cells from the circulation, and storing platelets and white blood cells.

There are several reasons why a splenectomy may be necessary, including:

* Trauma to the spleen that cannot be repaired
* Certain types of cancer, such as Hodgkin's lymphoma or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
* Sickle cell disease, which can cause the spleen to enlarge and become damaged
* A ruptured spleen, which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly
* Certain blood disorders, such as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) or hemolytic anemia

A splenectomy is typically performed under general anesthesia and may be done using open surgery or laparoscopically. After the spleen is removed, the incision(s) are closed with sutures or staples. Recovery time varies depending on the individual and the type of surgery performed, but most people are able to return to their normal activities within a few weeks.

It's important to note that following a splenectomy, individuals may be at increased risk for certain types of infections, so it's recommended that they receive vaccinations to help protect against these infections. They should also seek medical attention promptly if they develop fever, chills, or other signs of infection.

In medical terms, dissection refers to the separation of the layers of a biological tissue or structure by cutting or splitting. It is often used to describe the process of surgically cutting through tissues, such as during an operation to separate organs or examine their internal structures.

However, "dissection" can also refer to a pathological condition in which there is a separation of the layers of a blood vessel wall by blood, creating a false lumen or aneurysm. This type of dissection is most commonly seen in the aorta and can be life-threatening if not promptly diagnosed and treated.

In summary, "dissection" has both surgical and pathological meanings related to the separation of tissue layers, and it's essential to consider the context in which the term is used.

Colic is a term used to describe excessive, frequent crying or fussiness in a healthy infant, often lasting several hours a day and occurring several days a week. Although the exact cause of colic is unknown, it may be related to digestive issues, such as gas or indigestion. The medical community defines colic by the "Rule of Three": crying for more than three hours per day, for more than three days per week, and for longer than three weeks in an infant who is well-fed and otherwise healthy. It typically begins within the first few weeks of life and improves on its own, usually by age 3-4 months. While colic can be distressing for parents and caregivers, it does not cause any long-term harm to the child.

Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are common complications following surgical procedures. It is defined as nausea, vomiting, or both that occurs within the first 24 hours after surgery. PONV can lead to dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, wound dehiscence, and impaired patient satisfaction. Risk factors for PONV include female gender, non-smoking status, history of motion sickness or PONV, use of opioids, and longer duration of surgery. Preventive measures and treatments include antiemetic medications, fluid therapy, and acupuncture or acupressure.

Gastric bypass is a surgical procedure that involves creating a small pouch in the stomach and rerouting the small intestine to connect to this pouch, thereby bypassing the majority of the stomach and the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). This procedure is typically performed as a treatment for morbid obesity and related health conditions such as type 2 diabetes, sleep apnea, and high blood pressure.

The smaller stomach pouch restricts food intake, while the rerouting of the small intestine reduces the amount of calories and nutrients that are absorbed, leading to weight loss. Gastric bypass can also result in hormonal changes that help regulate appetite and metabolism, further contributing to weight loss and improved health outcomes.

There are different types of gastric bypass procedures, including Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and laparoscopic gastric bypass. The choice of procedure depends on various factors such as the patient's overall health, medical history, and personal preferences. Gastric bypass is generally considered a safe and effective treatment for morbid obesity, but like any surgical procedure, it carries risks and requires careful consideration and preparation.

The Sphincter of Oddi is a muscular valve that controls the flow of bile and pancreatic juice from the pancreatic and bile ducts into the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine. It is named after Ruggero Oddi, an Italian physiologist who discovered it in 1887. The Sphincter of Oddi has two parts: the sphincter papillae, which surrounds the common opening of the pancreatic and bile ducts into the duodenum, and the sphincter choledochus, which is located more proximally in the bile duct. The contraction and relaxation of these muscles help regulate the release of digestive enzymes from the pancreas and the flow of bile from the liver to aid in digestion.

Urologic surgical procedures refer to various types of surgeries that are performed on the urinary system and male reproductive system. These surgeries can be invasive (requiring an incision) or minimally invasive (using small incisions or scopes). They may be performed to treat a range of conditions, including but not limited to:

1. Kidney stones: Procedures such as shock wave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy, and percutaneous nephrolithotomy are used to remove or break up kidney stones.
2. Urinary tract obstructions: Surgeries like pyeloplasty and urethral dilation can be done to correct blockages in the urinary tract.
3. Prostate gland issues: Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), simple prostatectomy, and robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy are some procedures used for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or prostate cancer.
4. Bladder problems: Procedures such as cystectomy (removal of the bladder), bladder augmentation, and implantation of an artificial urinary sphincter can be done for conditions like bladder cancer or incontinence.
5. Kidney diseases: Nephrectomy (removal of a kidney) may be necessary for severe kidney damage or cancer.
6. Testicular issues: Orchiectomy (removal of one or both testicles) can be performed for testicular cancer.
7. Pelvic organ prolapse: Surgeries like sacrocolpopexy and vaginal vault suspension can help correct this condition in women.

These are just a few examples; there are many other urologic surgical procedures available to treat various conditions affecting the urinary and reproductive systems.

The postoperative period is the time following a surgical procedure during which the patient's response to the surgery and anesthesia is monitored, and any complications or adverse effects are managed. This period can vary in length depending on the type of surgery and the individual patient's needs, but it typically includes the immediate recovery phase in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) or recovery room, as well as any additional time spent in the hospital for monitoring and management of pain, wound healing, and other aspects of postoperative care.

The goals of postoperative care are to ensure the patient's safety and comfort, promote optimal healing and rehabilitation, and minimize the risk of complications such as infection, bleeding, or other postoperative issues. The specific interventions and treatments provided during this period will depend on a variety of factors, including the type and extent of surgery performed, the patient's overall health and medical history, and any individualized care plans developed in consultation with the patient and their healthcare team.

A vaginal hysterectomy is a surgical procedure in which the uterus is removed through the vagina. During this type of hysterectomy, an incision is made in the vagina, and the uterus is separated from its attachments and then removed. The cervix may also be removed during a vaginal hysterectomy. This procedure is typically used to treat conditions such as uterine fibroids, endometriosis, pelvic support problems, and gynecologic cancer.

It's important to note that after a hysterectomy, a woman will no longer have menstrual periods or be able to become pregnant. Additionally, the removal of the ovaries (oophorectomy) during a hysterectomy can lead to surgical menopause and associated symptoms such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and mood changes.

As with any surgery, there are risks involved with vaginal hysterectomy, including infection, bleeding, injury to surrounding organs, and reactions to anesthesia. It is important for patients to discuss the potential benefits and risks of this procedure with their healthcare provider before making a decision about treatment.

Cholangitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the bile ducts, which are the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the small intestine. Bile is a digestive juice produced by the liver that helps break down fats in food.

There are two types of cholangitis: acute and chronic. Acute cholangitis is a sudden and severe infection that can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, fever, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), and dark urine. It is usually caused by a bacterial infection that enters the bile ducts through a blockage or obstruction.

Chronic cholangitis, on the other hand, is a long-term inflammation of the bile ducts that can lead to scarring and narrowing of the ducts. This can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, itching, and jaundice. Chronic cholangitis can be caused by various factors, including primary sclerosing cholangitis (an autoimmune disease), bile duct stones, or tumors in the bile ducts.

Treatment for cholangitis depends on the underlying cause of the condition. Antibiotics may be used to treat bacterial infections, and surgery may be necessary to remove blockages or obstructions in the bile ducts. In some cases, medications may be prescribed to manage symptoms and prevent further complications.

Postoperative care refers to the comprehensive medical treatment and nursing attention provided to a patient following a surgical procedure. The goal of postoperative care is to facilitate the patient's recovery, prevent complications, manage pain, ensure proper healing of the incision site, and maintain overall health and well-being until the patient can resume their normal activities.

This type of care includes monitoring vital signs, managing pain through medication or other techniques, ensuring adequate hydration and nutrition, helping the patient with breathing exercises to prevent lung complications, encouraging mobility to prevent blood clots, monitoring for signs of infection or other complications, administering prescribed medications, providing wound care, and educating the patient about postoperative care instructions.

The duration of postoperative care can vary depending on the type and complexity of the surgical procedure, as well as the individual patient's needs and overall health status. It may be provided in a hospital setting, an outpatient surgery center, or in the patient's home, depending on the level of care required.

Surgical stapling is a medical technique that uses specialized staplers to place linear staple lines to close surgical incisions, connect or remove organs and tissues during surgical procedures. Surgical staples are made of titanium or stainless steel and can be absorbable or non-absorbable. They provide secure, fast, and accurate wound closure, reducing the risk of infection and promoting faster healing compared to traditional suturing methods.

The surgical stapler consists of a handle, an anvil, and a cartridge containing multiple staples. The device is loaded with staple cartridges and used to approximate tissue edges before deploying the staples. Once the staples are placed, the stapler is removed, leaving the staple line in place.

Surgical stapling has various applications, including gastrointestinal anastomosis, lung resection, vascular anastomosis, and skin closure. It is widely used in different types of surgeries, such as open, laparoscopic, and robotic-assisted procedures. The use of surgical stapling requires proper training and expertise to ensure optimal patient outcomes.

A hiatal hernia is a type of hernia that occurs when a part of the stomach protrudes or squeezes through an opening (hiatus) in the diaphragm, the muscular partition between the chest and abdominal cavities. Normally, the esophagus passes through this opening to connect to the stomach, but in a hiatal hernia, a portion of the stomach also moves up into the chest cavity through the hiatus.

There are two main types of hiatal hernias: sliding and paraesophageal. In a sliding hiatal hernia, the junction between the esophagus and stomach (gastroesophageal junction) slides upward into the chest cavity, which is the most common type. Paraesophageal hiatal hernias are less common but can be more severe, as they involve the stomach herniating alongside the esophagus, potentially leading to complications like obstruction or strangulation of the blood supply to the stomach.

Many people with hiatal hernias do not experience symptoms, but some may have heartburn, acid reflux, regurgitation, difficulty swallowing, chest pain, or shortness of breath. Treatment depends on the severity and associated symptoms, ranging from lifestyle modifications and medications to surgical repair in severe cases.

Equipment design, in the medical context, refers to the process of creating and developing medical equipment and devices, such as surgical instruments, diagnostic machines, or assistive technologies. This process involves several stages, including:

1. Identifying user needs and requirements
2. Concept development and brainstorming
3. Prototyping and testing
4. Design for manufacturing and assembly
5. Safety and regulatory compliance
6. Verification and validation
7. Training and support

The goal of equipment design is to create safe, effective, and efficient medical devices that meet the needs of healthcare providers and patients while complying with relevant regulations and standards. The design process typically involves a multidisciplinary team of engineers, clinicians, designers, and researchers who work together to develop innovative solutions that improve patient care and outcomes.

A Gastrectomy is a surgical procedure involving the removal of all or part of the stomach. This procedure can be total (complete resection of the stomach), partial (removal of a portion of the stomach), or sleeve (removal of a portion of the stomach to create a narrow sleeve-shaped pouch).

Gastrectomies are typically performed to treat conditions such as gastric cancer, benign tumors, severe peptic ulcers, and in some cases, for weight loss in individuals with morbid obesity. The type of gastrectomy performed depends on the patient's medical condition and the extent of the disease.

Following a gastrectomy, patients may require adjustments to their diet and lifestyle, as well as potential supplementation of vitamins and minerals that would normally be absorbed in the stomach. In some cases, further reconstructive surgery might be necessary to reestablish gastrointestinal continuity.

Surgical anastomosis is a medical procedure that involves the connection of two tubular structures, such as blood vessels or intestines, to create a continuous passage. This technique is commonly used in various types of surgeries, including vascular, gastrointestinal, and orthopedic procedures.

During a surgical anastomosis, the ends of the two tubular structures are carefully prepared by removing any damaged or diseased tissue. The ends are then aligned and joined together using sutures, staples, or other devices. The connection must be secure and leak-free to ensure proper function and healing.

The success of a surgical anastomosis depends on several factors, including the patient's overall health, the location and condition of the structures being joined, and the skill and experience of the surgeon. Complications such as infection, bleeding, or leakage can occur, which may require additional medical intervention or surgery.

Proper postoperative care is also essential to ensure the success of a surgical anastomosis. This may include monitoring for signs of complications, administering medications to prevent infection and promote healing, and providing adequate nutrition and hydration.

Bile is a digestive fluid that is produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It plays an essential role in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the small intestine. Bile consists of bile salts, bilirubin, cholesterol, phospholipids, electrolytes, and water.

Bile salts are amphipathic molecules that help to emulsify fats into smaller droplets, increasing their surface area and allowing for more efficient digestion by enzymes such as lipase. Bilirubin is a breakdown product of hemoglobin from red blood cells and gives bile its characteristic greenish-brown color.

Bile is released into the small intestine in response to food, particularly fats, entering the digestive tract. It helps to break down large fat molecules into smaller ones that can be absorbed through the walls of the intestines and transported to other parts of the body for energy or storage.

An anastomotic leak is a medical condition that occurs after a surgical procedure where two hollow organs or vessels are connected (anastomosed). It refers to the failure of the connection, resulting in a communication between the inside of the connected structures and the outside, which can lead to the escape of fluids, such as digestive contents or blood, into the surrounding tissues.

Anastomotic leaks can occur in various parts of the body where anastomoses are performed, including the gastrointestinal tract, vasculature, and respiratory system. The leakage can cause localized or systemic infection, inflammation, sepsis, organ failure, or even death if not promptly diagnosed and treated.

The risk of anastomotic leaks depends on several factors, such as the patient's overall health, the type and location of the surgery, the quality of the surgical technique, and the presence of any underlying medical conditions that may affect wound healing. Treatment options for anastomotic leaks vary depending on the severity and location of the leak, ranging from conservative management with antibiotics and bowel rest to surgical intervention, such as drainage, revision of the anastomosis, or resection of the affected segment.

A subphrenic abscess is a localized collection of pus (purulent material) that forms in the area below the diaphragm and above the upper part of the stomach, known as the subphrenic space. This condition often results from a complication of abdominal or pelvic surgery, perforated ulcers, or severe intra-abdominal infections. The abscess can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, fever, and decreased appetite, and it may require medical intervention, including antibiotics, drainage, or surgical management.

Colonic diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the colon, also known as the large intestine or large bowel. The colon is the final segment of the digestive system, responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes, and storing and eliminating waste products.

Some common colonic diseases include:

1. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): This includes conditions such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, which cause inflammation and irritation in the lining of the digestive tract.
2. Diverticular disease: This occurs when small pouches called diverticula form in the walls of the colon, leading to symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel movements.
3. Colorectal cancer: This is a type of cancer that develops in the colon or rectum, often starting as benign polyps that grow and become malignant over time.
4. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): This is a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel movements, but without any underlying structural or inflammatory causes.
5. Constipation: This is a common condition characterized by infrequent bowel movements, difficulty passing stools, or both.
6. Infectious colitis: This occurs when the colon becomes infected with bacteria, viruses, or parasites, leading to symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever.

Treatment for colonic diseases varies depending on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include medications, lifestyle changes, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Tissue adhesions, also known as scar tissue adhesions, are abnormal bands of fibrous tissue that form between two or more internal organs, or between organs and the walls of the chest or abdominal cavity. These adhesions can develop after surgery, infection, injury, radiation, or prolonged inflammation. The fibrous bands can cause pain, restrict movement of the organs, and potentially lead to complications such as bowel obstruction. Treatment options for tissue adhesions may include medication, physical therapy, or surgical intervention to remove the adhesions.

The retroperitoneal space refers to the area within the abdominal cavity that is located behind (retro) the peritoneum, which is the smooth serous membrane that lines the inner wall of the abdomen and covers the abdominal organs. This space is divided into several compartments and contains vital structures such as the kidneys, adrenal glands, pancreas, duodenum, aorta, and vena cava.

The retroperitoneal space can be further categorized into two regions:

1. The posterior pararenal space, which is lateral to the psoas muscle and contains fat tissue.
2. The perirenal space, which surrounds the kidneys and adrenal glands and is filled with fatty connective tissue.

Disorders or conditions affecting the retroperitoneal space may include infections, tumors, hematomas, or inflammation, which can lead to various symptoms depending on the specific structures involved. Imaging techniques such as CT scans or MRI are commonly used to diagnose and assess retroperitoneal pathologies.

Biliary tract surgical procedures refer to a range of operations that involve the biliary system, which includes the liver, gallbladder, and bile ducts. These procedures can be performed for various reasons, including the treatment of gallstones, bile duct injuries, tumors, or other conditions affecting the biliary tract. Here are some examples of biliary tract surgical procedures:

1. Cholecystectomy: This is the surgical removal of the gallbladder, which is often performed to treat symptomatic gallstones or chronic cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder). It can be done as an open procedure or laparoscopically.
2. Bile duct exploration: This procedure involves opening the common bile duct to remove stones, strictures, or tumors. It is often performed during a cholecystectomy if there is suspicion of common bile duct involvement.
3. Hepaticojejunostomy: This operation connects the liver's bile ducts directly to a portion of the small intestine called the jejunum, bypassing a damaged or obstructed segment of the biliary tract. It is often performed for benign or malignant conditions affecting the bile ducts.
4. Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy: This procedure involves creating a Y-shaped limb of jejunum and connecting it to the liver's bile ducts, bypassing the common bile duct and duodenum. It is often performed for complex biliary tract injuries or malignancies.
5. Whipple procedure (pancreaticoduodenectomy): This extensive operation involves removing the head of the pancreas, the duodenum, a portion of the jejunum, the gallbladder, and the common bile duct. It is performed for malignancies involving the pancreas, bile duct, or duodenum.
6. Liver resection: This procedure involves removing a portion of the liver to treat primary liver tumors (hepatocellular carcinoma or cholangiocarcinoma) or metastatic cancer from other organs.
7. Biliary stenting or bypass: These minimally invasive procedures involve placing a stent or creating a bypass to relieve bile duct obstructions caused by tumors, strictures, or stones. They can be performed endoscopically (ERCP) or percutaneously (PTC).
8. Cholecystectomy: This procedure involves removing the gallbladder, often for symptomatic cholelithiasis (gallstones) or cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder). It can be performed laparoscopically or open.
9. Biliary drainage: This procedure involves placing a catheter to drain bile from the liver or bile ducts, often for acute or chronic obstructions caused by tumors, strictures, or stones. It can be performed endoscopically (ERCP) or percutaneously (PTC).
10. Bilioenteric anastomosis: This procedure involves connecting the biliary tract to a portion of the small intestine, often for benign or malignant conditions affecting the bile ducts or pancreas. It can be performed open or laparoscopically.

Clinical competence is the ability of a healthcare professional to provide safe and effective patient care, demonstrating the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required for the job. It involves the integration of theoretical knowledge with practical skills, judgment, and decision-making abilities in real-world clinical situations. Clinical competence is typically evaluated through various methods such as direct observation, case studies, simulations, and feedback from peers and supervisors.

A clinically competent healthcare professional should be able to:

1. Demonstrate a solid understanding of the relevant medical knowledge and its application in clinical practice.
2. Perform essential clinical skills proficiently and safely.
3. Communicate effectively with patients, families, and other healthcare professionals.
4. Make informed decisions based on critical thinking and problem-solving abilities.
5. Exhibit professionalism, ethical behavior, and cultural sensitivity in patient care.
6. Continuously evaluate and improve their performance through self-reflection and ongoing learning.

Maintaining clinical competence is essential for healthcare professionals to ensure the best possible outcomes for their patients and stay current with advances in medical science and technology.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

The abdominal wall refers to the group of muscles, fascia (sheaths of connective tissue), and skin that make up the front and sides of the abdomen, extending from the thorax (chest) to the pelvis. It provides protection to the abdominal organs, supports the trunk, and allows for movement of the torso.

The main muscles of the anterior abdominal wall include:

1. Rectus sheaths (Rectus Abdominis): paired vertical muscles running from the pubic symphysis to the xiphoid process and costal cartilages of ribs 5-7.
2. External obliques: thin, irregular muscles that lie over the lower part of the abdomen and run diagonally downward and forward from the lower ribs to the iliac crest (pelvic bone) and pubic tubercle.
3. Internal obliques: thicker muscles that lie under the external obliques, running diagonally upward and forward from the iliac crest to the lower ribs.
4. Transverse abdominis: deepest of the abdominal muscles, lying horizontally across the abdomen, attaching from the lower ribs to the pelvis.

These muscles are interconnected by various layers of fascia and aponeuroses (flat, broad tendons), forming a complex structure that allows for both stability and mobility. The linea alba, a fibrous band, runs down the midline of the anterior abdominal wall, connecting the rectus sheaths.

Damage to the abdominal wall can occur due to trauma, surgery, or various medical conditions, which may require surgical intervention for repair.

Acalculous cholecystitis is a form of inflammation of the gallbladder that occurs in the absence of gallstones, which are commonly associated with gallbladder inflammation. It mainly affects critically ill or debilitated patients and can be caused by various factors such as bacterial or viral infection, reduced blood flow to the gallbladder, and injury to the bile ducts.

The symptoms of acalculous cholecystitis may include abdominal pain, fever, nausea, vomiting, and jaundice. The diagnosis is often made through imaging tests such as ultrasound or CT scan, which may show gallbladder wall thickening, fluid accumulation around the gallbladder, and other signs of inflammation.

Treatment typically involves antibiotics to manage infection, intravenous fluids, and pain management. In severe cases, cholecystectomy (surgical removal of the gallbladder) may be necessary. If left untreated, acalculous cholecystitis can lead to serious complications such as gangrene, perforation of the gallbladder, and sepsis.

A "torsion abnormality" is not a standard medical term, but I believe you are asking about torsional deformities or abnormalities related to torsion. Torsion refers to a twisting force or movement that can cause structures to rotate around their long axis. In the context of medical definitions:

Torsional abnormality could refer to a congenital or acquired condition where anatomical structures, such as blood vessels, muscles, tendons, or bones, are twisted or rotated in an abnormal way. This can lead to various complications depending on the structure involved and the degree of torsion.

For instance, in congenital torsional deformities of long bones (like tibia or femur), the rotation of the bone axis can cause issues with gait, posture, and joint function. In some cases, this may require surgical intervention to correct the abnormality.

In the context of vascular torsion abnormalities, such as mesenteric torsion, it could lead to bowel ischemia due to the twisting of blood vessels that supply the intestines. This can be a surgical emergency and requires immediate intervention to restore blood flow and prevent further damage.

It's essential to consult with a medical professional for a precise diagnosis and treatment options if you or someone else experiences symptoms related to torsional abnormalities.

Extrahepatic bile ducts refer to the portion of the biliary system that lies outside the liver. The biliary system is responsible for producing, storing, and transporting bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver.

The extrahepatic bile ducts include:

1. The common hepatic duct: This duct is formed by the union of the right and left hepatic ducts, which drain bile from the corresponding lobes of the liver.
2. The cystic duct: This short duct connects the gallbladder to the common hepatic duct, allowing bile to flow into the gallbladder for storage and concentration.
3. The common bile duct: This is the result of the fusion of the common hepatic duct and the cystic duct. It transports bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine, where it aids in fat digestion.
4. The ampulla of Vater (or hepatopancreatic ampulla): This is a dilated area where the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct join and empty their contents into the duodenum through a shared opening called the major duodenal papilla.

Extrahepatic bile ducts can be affected by various conditions, such as gallstones, inflammation (cholangitis), strictures, or tumors, which may require medical or surgical intervention.

Gallbladder emptying refers to the process by which the gallbladder releases bile into the small intestine through the bile duct. The gallbladder is a small pear-shaped organ that stores and concentrates bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver. After eating, especially when fatty or greasy foods are consumed, the hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) is released into the bloodstream, which stimulates the contraction of the gallbladder and relaxation of the sphincter of Oddi, a muscle that controls the opening and closing of the bile duct. This allows the concentrated bile to flow from the gallbladder into the small intestine, where it helps break down fats for absorption.

Gallbladder emptying can be assessed through various diagnostic tests, such as ultrasound or cholescintigraphy (also known as a HIDA scan), which measures the rate and degree of gallbladder emptying in response to CCK stimulation. Abnormalities in gallbladder emptying can contribute to conditions such as gallstones, biliary dyskinesia, and other functional gallbladder disorders.

A ureter is a thin, muscular tube that transports urine from the kidney to the bladder. In humans, there are two ureters, one for each kidney, and they are typically about 10-12 inches long. The ureters are lined with a special type of cells called transitional epithelium that can stretch and expand as urine passes through them. They are located in the retroperitoneal space, which is the area behind the peritoneum, the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity. The ureters play a critical role in the urinary system by ensuring that urine flows from the kidneys to the bladder for storage and eventual elimination from the body.

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

Foreign-body migration is a medical condition that occurs when a foreign object, such as a surgical implant, tissue graft, or trauma-induced fragment, moves from its original position within the body to a different location. This displacement can cause various complications and symptoms depending on the type of foreign body, the location it migrated to, and the individual's specific physiological response.

Foreign-body migration may result from insufficient fixation or anchoring of the object during implantation, inadequate wound healing, infection, or an inflammatory reaction. Symptoms can include pain, swelling, redness, or infection at the new location, as well as potential damage to surrounding tissues and organs. Diagnosis typically involves imaging techniques like X-rays, CT scans, or MRIs to locate the foreign body, followed by a surgical procedure to remove it and address any resulting complications.

Insufflation is a medical term that refers to the act of introducing a gas or vapor into a body cavity or passage, typically through a tube or surgical instrument. This procedure is often used in medical and surgical settings for various purposes, such as:

* To administer anesthesia during surgery (e.g., introducing nitrous oxide or other gases into the lungs)
* To introduce medication or other substances into the body (e.g., insufflating steroids into a joint)
* To perform diagnostic procedures (e.g., insufflating air or a contrast agent into the gastrointestinal tract to visualize it with X-rays)
* To clean out a body cavity (e.g., irrigating and insufflating the bladder during urological procedures).

It's important to note that insufflation should be performed under controlled conditions, as there are potential risks associated with introducing gases or vapors into the body, such as barotrauma (damage caused by changes in pressure) and infection.

A surgical wound infection, also known as a surgical site infection (SSI), is defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as an infection that occurs within 30 days after surgery (or within one year if an implant is left in place) and involves either:

1. Purulent drainage from the incision;
2. Organisms isolated from an aseptically obtained culture of fluid or tissue from the incision;
3. At least one of the following signs or symptoms of infection: pain or tenderness, localized swelling, redness, or heat; and
4. Diagnosis of surgical site infection by the surgeon or attending physician.

SSIs can be classified as superficial incisional, deep incisional, or organ/space infections, depending on the depth and extent of tissue involvement. They are a common healthcare-associated infection and can lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs.

The kidney pelvis, also known as the renal pelvis, is the funnel-shaped part of the upper end of the ureter in the kidney. It receives urine from the minor and major calyces, which are extensions of the renal collecting tubules, and then drains it into the ureter, which carries it to the bladder for storage and eventual elimination from the body. The kidney pelvis is lined with transitional epithelium, which is designed to stretch and accommodate changes in urine volume.

The abdomen refers to the portion of the body that lies between the thorax (chest) and the pelvis. It is a musculo-fascial cavity containing the digestive, urinary, and reproductive organs. The abdominal cavity is divided into several regions and quadrants for medical description and examination purposes. These include the upper and lower abdomen, as well as nine quadrants formed by the intersection of the midline and a horizontal line drawn at the level of the umbilicus (navel).

The major organs located within the abdominal cavity include:

1. Stomach - muscular organ responsible for initial digestion of food
2. Small intestine - long, coiled tube where most nutrient absorption occurs
3. Large intestine - consists of the colon and rectum; absorbs water and stores waste products
4. Liver - largest internal organ, involved in protein synthesis, detoxification, and metabolism
5. Pancreas - secretes digestive enzymes and hormones such as insulin
6. Spleen - filters blood and removes old red blood cells
7. Kidneys - pair of organs responsible for filtering waste products from the blood and producing urine
8. Adrenal glands - sit atop each kidney, produce hormones that regulate metabolism, immune response, and stress response

The abdomen is an essential part of the human body, playing a crucial role in digestion, absorption, and elimination of food and waste materials, as well as various metabolic processes.

Technetium Tc 99m Lidofenin is a radiopharmaceutical used in nuclear medicine imaging procedures, specifically for hepatobiliary scintigraphy. It is a technetium-labeled compound, where the radioisotope technetium-99m (^99m^Tc) is bound to lidofenin, a liver-imaging agent.

The compound is used to assess the function and anatomy of the liver, gallbladder, and biliary system. After intravenous administration, Technetium Tc 99m Lidofenin is taken up by hepatocytes (liver cells) and excreted into the bile ducts and ultimately into the small intestine. The distribution and excretion of this radiopharmaceutical can be monitored using a gamma camera, providing functional information about the liver and biliary system.

It is essential to note that the use of Technetium Tc 99m Lidofenin should be under the guidance and supervision of healthcare professionals trained in nuclear medicine, as its administration and handling require specific expertise and safety measures due to the radioactive nature of the compound.

Adrenalectomy is a surgical procedure in which one or both adrenal glands are removed. The adrenal glands are small, triangular-shaped glands located on top of each kidney that produce hormones such as cortisol, aldosterone, and adrenaline (epinephrine).

There are several reasons why an adrenalectomy may be necessary. For example, the procedure may be performed to treat tumors or growths on the adrenal glands, such as pheochromocytomas, which can cause high blood pressure and other symptoms. Adrenalectomy may also be recommended for patients with Cushing's syndrome, a condition in which the body is exposed to too much cortisol, or for those with adrenal cancer.

During an adrenalectomy, the surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen or back and removes the affected gland or glands. In some cases, laparoscopic surgery may be used, which involves making several small incisions and using specialized instruments to remove the gland. After the procedure, patients may need to take hormone replacement therapy to compensate for the loss of adrenal gland function.

An ovarian cyst is a sac or pouch filled with fluid that forms on the ovary. Ovarian cysts are quite common in women during their childbearing years, and they often cause no symptoms. In most cases, ovarian cysts disappear without treatment over a few months. However, larger or persistent cysts may require medical intervention, including surgical removal.

There are various types of ovarian cysts, such as functional cysts (follicular and corpus luteum cysts), which develop during the menstrual cycle due to hormonal changes, and non-functional cysts (dermoid cysts, endometriomas, and cystadenomas), which can form due to different causes.

While many ovarian cysts are benign, some may have malignant potential or indicate an underlying medical condition like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Regular gynecological check-ups, including pelvic examinations and ultrasounds, can help detect and monitor ovarian cysts.

Antiemetics are a class of medications that are used to prevent and treat nausea and vomiting. They work by blocking or reducing the activity of dopamine, serotonin, and other neurotransmitters in the brain that can trigger these symptoms. Antiemetics can be prescribed for a variety of conditions, including motion sickness, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, postoperative nausea and vomiting, and pregnancy-related morning sickness. Some common examples of antiemetic medications include ondansetron (Zofran), promethazine (Phenergan), and metoclopramide (Reglan).

Colorectal surgery is a medical specialty that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of disorders affecting the colon, rectum, and anus. This can include conditions such as colorectal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease (such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis), diverticulitis, and anal fistulas or fissures.

The surgical procedures performed by colorectal surgeons may involve minimally invasive techniques, such as laparoscopic or robotic-assisted surgery, or more traditional open surgery. These procedures can range from removing polyps during a colonoscopy to complex resections of the colon, rectum, or anus.

Colorectal surgeons also work closely with other medical specialists, such as gastroenterologists, oncologists, and radiologists, to provide comprehensive care for their patients.

The Chi-square distribution is a continuous probability distribution that is often used in statistical hypothesis testing. It is the distribution of a sum of squares of k independent standard normal random variables. The resulting quantity follows a chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom, denoted as χ²(k).

The probability density function (pdf) of the Chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom is given by:

f(x; k) = (1/ (2^(k/2) * Γ(k/2))) \* x^((k/2)-1) \* e^(-x/2), for x > 0 and 0, otherwise.

Where Γ(k/2) is the gamma function evaluated at k/2. The mean and variance of a Chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom are k and 2k, respectively.

The Chi-square distribution has various applications in statistical inference, including testing goodness-of-fit, homogeneity of variances, and independence in contingency tables.

Hospital costs are the total amount of money that is expended by a hospital to provide medical and healthcare services to patients. These costs can include expenses related to:

* Hospital staff salaries and benefits
* Supplies, such as medications, medical devices, and surgical equipment
* Utilities, such as electricity, water, and heating
* Facility maintenance and renovation
* Equipment maintenance and purchase
* Administrative costs, such as billing and insurance processing

Hospital costs can also be classified into fixed and variable costs. Fixed costs are those that do not change with the volume of services provided, such as rent or depreciation of equipment. Variable costs are those that change with the volume of services provided, such as supplies and medications.

It's important to note that hospital costs can vary widely depending on factors such as the complexity of care provided, the geographic location of the hospital, and the patient population served. Additionally, hospital costs may not always align with charges or payments for healthcare services, which can be influenced by factors such as negotiated rates with insurance companies and government reimbursement policies.

General anesthesia is a state of controlled unconsciousness, induced by administering various medications, that eliminates awareness, movement, and pain sensation during medical procedures. It involves the use of a combination of intravenous and inhaled drugs to produce a reversible loss of consciousness, allowing patients to undergo surgical or diagnostic interventions safely and comfortably. The depth and duration of anesthesia are carefully monitored and adjusted throughout the procedure by an anesthesiologist or certified registered nurse anesthetist (CRNA) to ensure patient safety and optimize recovery. General anesthesia is typically used for more extensive surgical procedures, such as open-heart surgery, major orthopedic surgeries, and neurosurgery.

An intestinal fistula is an abnormal communication or connection between the intestines (or a portion of the intestine) and another organ or the skin surface. This connection forms a tract or passage, allowing the contents of the intestines, such as digestive enzymes, bacteria, and waste materials, to leak into other body areas or outside the body. Intestinal fistulas can develop due to various reasons, including inflammatory bowel diseases (like Crohn's disease), infections, complications from surgery, radiation therapy, or trauma. They can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, skin irritation, and infection. Treatment of intestinal fistulas often involves a combination of medical management, nutritional support, and surgical intervention.

Neoplasm seeding, also known as tumor seeding or iatrogenic implantation, is a rare complication that can occur during surgical procedures. It refers to the accidental spread of cancer cells from the primary tumor site to other locations in the body, usually along the path of a surgical incision or via bodily fluids. This can result in new tumor growths (metastases) at these sites, which may complicate treatment and worsen the patient's prognosis.

Neoplasm seeding is more commonly associated with certain types of surgeries, such as those involving the liver, pancreas, or other organs with highly vascular tumors. It can also occur during biopsy procedures, where a needle is used to remove tissue samples for diagnostic purposes. While neoplasm seeding is a known risk of these procedures, it is relatively uncommon and often outweighed by the benefits of timely and effective treatment.

Ureteral diseases refer to a range of conditions that affect the ureters, which are the thin tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder. These diseases can cause various symptoms such as pain in the side or back, fever, and changes in urinary patterns. Here are some examples of ureteral diseases:

1. Ureteral stricture: A narrowing of the ureter that can be caused by scarring, inflammation, or tumors. This can lead to a backup of urine, which can cause kidney damage or infection.
2. Ureteral stones: Small, hard mineral deposits that form in the ureters and can cause pain, nausea, and blood in the urine.
3. Ureteral cancer: A rare type of cancer that affects the ureters and can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, weight loss, and bloody urine.
4. Ureteral reflux: A condition in which urine flows backward from the bladder into the ureters, causing infection and kidney damage.
5. Ureteral trauma: Injury to the ureters can occur due to accidents, surgeries, or other medical procedures. This can lead to bleeding, scarring, or blockages in the ureters.

Treatment for ureteral diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include medications, surgery, or minimally invasive procedures such as stenting or balloon dilation.

Leiomyoma is a benign (non-cancerous) tumor that originates from the smooth muscle cells. It most commonly occurs in the uterus, where it is also known as a fibroid, but can also develop in other parts of the body such as the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary system. Leiomyomas are typically slow-growing and often cause no symptoms, although they can lead to various complications depending on their size and location. Treatment options for leiomyomas include surveillance, medication, or surgical removal.

Tubal sterilization, also known as female sterilization or tubal ligation, is a permanent form of birth control for women. It involves blocking, sealing, or removing the fallopian tubes, which prevents the sperm from reaching and fertilizing the egg. This procedure can be performed surgically through various methods such as cutting and tying the tubes, using clips or rings to block them, or removing a portion of the tube (known as a partial salpingectomy). Tubal sterilization is considered a highly effective form of contraception with a low failure rate. However, it does not protect against sexually transmitted infections and should be combined with condom use for that purpose. It's important to note that tubal sterilization is a permanent procedure and cannot be easily reversed.

An emergency is a sudden, unexpected situation that requires immediate medical attention to prevent serious harm, permanent disability, or death. Emergencies can include severe injuries, trauma, cardiac arrest, stroke, difficulty breathing, severe allergic reactions, and other life-threatening conditions. In such situations, prompt medical intervention is necessary to stabilize the patient's condition, diagnose the underlying problem, and provide appropriate treatment.

Emergency medical services (EMS) are responsible for providing emergency care to patients outside of a hospital setting, such as in the home, workplace, or public place. EMS personnel include emergency medical technicians (EMTs), paramedics, and other first responders who are trained to assess a patient's condition, provide basic life support, and transport the patient to a hospital for further treatment.

In a hospital setting, an emergency department (ED) is a specialized unit that provides immediate care to patients with acute illnesses or injuries. ED staff includes physicians, nurses, and other healthcare professionals who are trained to handle a wide range of medical emergencies. The ED is equipped with advanced medical technology and resources to provide prompt diagnosis and treatment for critically ill or injured patients.

Overall, the goal of emergency medical care is to stabilize the patient's condition, prevent further harm, and provide timely and effective treatment to improve outcomes and save lives.

Pneumoperitoneum is a medical condition characterized by the presence of free air or gas within the peritoneal cavity, which is the space between the lining of the abdominal wall and the internal organs. This accumulation of air can occur due to various reasons such as perforation of an organ (e.g., stomach, intestine, or esophagus), recent surgery, or medical procedures involving the introduction of air into the abdomen.

The presence of pneumoperitoneum is often diagnosed through imaging techniques like X-rays or computed tomography (CT) scans, which can reveal the presence of free gas in the peritoneal cavity. The condition may require prompt medical attention, depending on the underlying cause and the patient's symptoms. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause, such as repairing a perforation or managing an infection.

Operative surgical procedures refer to medical interventions that involve manual manipulation of tissues, structures, or organs in the body, typically performed in an operating room setting under sterile conditions. These procedures are carried out with the use of specialized instruments, such as scalpels, forceps, and scissors, and may require regional or general anesthesia to ensure patient comfort and safety.

Operative surgical procedures can range from relatively minor interventions, such as a biopsy or the removal of a small lesion, to more complex and extensive surgeries, such as open heart surgery or total joint replacement. The specific goals of operative surgical procedures may include the diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions, the repair or reconstruction of damaged tissues or organs, or the prevention of further disease progression.

Regardless of the type or complexity of the procedure, all operative surgical procedures require careful planning, execution, and postoperative management to ensure the best possible outcomes for patients.

Costs refer to the total amount of resources, such as money, time, and labor, that are expended in the provision of a medical service or treatment. Costs can be categorized into direct costs, which include expenses directly related to patient care, such as medication, supplies, and personnel; and indirect costs, which include overhead expenses, such as rent, utilities, and administrative salaries.

Cost analysis is the process of estimating and evaluating the total cost of a medical service or treatment. This involves identifying and quantifying all direct and indirect costs associated with the provision of care, and analyzing how these costs may vary based on factors such as patient volume, resource utilization, and reimbursement rates.

Cost analysis is an important tool for healthcare organizations to understand the financial implications of their operations and make informed decisions about resource allocation, pricing strategies, and quality improvement initiatives. It can also help policymakers and payers evaluate the cost-effectiveness of different treatment options and develop evidence-based guidelines for clinical practice.

Endometriosis is a medical condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus (endometrium) grows outside the uterine cavity, most commonly on the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and the pelvic peritoneum. This misplaced endometrial tissue continues to act as it would inside the uterus, thickening, breaking down, and bleeding with each menstrual cycle. However, because it is outside the uterus, this blood and tissue have no way to exit the body and can lead to inflammation, scarring, and the formation of adhesions (tissue bands that bind organs together).

The symptoms of endometriosis may include pelvic pain, heavy menstrual periods, painful intercourse, and infertility. The exact cause of endometriosis is not known, but several theories have been proposed, including retrograde menstruation (the backflow of menstrual blood through the fallopian tubes into the pelvic cavity), genetic factors, and immune system dysfunction.

Endometriosis can be diagnosed through a combination of methods, such as medical history, physical examination, imaging tests like ultrasound or MRI, and laparoscopic surgery with tissue biopsy. Treatment options for endometriosis include pain management, hormonal therapies, and surgical intervention to remove the misplaced endometrial tissue. In severe cases, a hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) may be recommended, but this is typically considered a last resort due to its impact on fertility and quality of life.

Ileus is a condition characterized by a lack of intestinal motility or paralysis of the bowel, leading to obstruction of the digestive tract. It is not caused by a physical blockage but rather by a disruption of the normal muscular contractions (peristalsis) that move food through the intestines. This can result in abdominal distention, vomiting, and absence of bowel movements or gas passage. Ileus can be a complication of various surgical procedures, intra-abdominal infections, or other medical conditions. It is essential to diagnose and treat ileus promptly to prevent further complications such as tissue damage, sepsis, or even death.

Urology is a surgical specialty that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and conditions related to the male and female urinary tract system and the male reproductive organs. This includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, prostate gland, and testicles. Urologists are medical doctors who have completed specialized training in this field, and they may perform various surgical procedures such as cystoscopy, lithotripsy, and radical prostatectomy to treat conditions like kidney stones, urinary tract infections, bladder cancer, enlarged prostate, and infertility.

Hepatectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of part or all of the liver. This procedure can be performed for various reasons, such as removing cancerous or non-cancerous tumors, treating liver trauma, or donating a portion of the liver to another person in need of a transplant (live donor hepatectomy). The extent of the hepatectomy depends on the medical condition and overall health of the patient. It is a complex procedure that requires significant expertise and experience from the surgical team due to the liver's unique anatomy, blood supply, and regenerative capabilities.

Endoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the use of an endoscope, which is a flexible tube with a light and camera at the end, to examine the interior of a body cavity or organ. The endoscope is inserted through a natural opening in the body, such as the mouth or anus, or through a small incision. The images captured by the camera are transmitted to a monitor, allowing the physician to visualize the internal structures and detect any abnormalities, such as inflammation, ulcers, or tumors. Endoscopy can also be used for diagnostic purposes, such as taking tissue samples for biopsy, or for therapeutic purposes, such as removing polyps or performing minimally invasive surgeries.

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

Disposable equipment in a medical context refers to items that are designed to be used once and then discarded. These items are often patient-care products that come into contact with patients or bodily fluids, and are meant to help reduce the risk of infection transmission. Examples of disposable medical equipment include gloves, gowns, face masks, syringes, and bandages.

Disposable equipment is intended for single use only and should not be reused or cleaned for reuse. This helps ensure that the equipment remains sterile and free from potential contaminants that could cause harm to patients or healthcare workers. Proper disposal of these items is also important to prevent the spread of infection and maintain a safe and clean environment.

Adrenal gland neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the adrenal glands. These glands are located on top of each kidney and are responsible for producing hormones that regulate various bodily functions such as metabolism, blood pressure, and stress response. Adrenal gland neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign adrenal tumors are called adenomas and are usually small and asymptomatic. However, some adenomas may produce excessive amounts of hormones, leading to symptoms such as high blood pressure, weight gain, and mood changes.

Malignant adrenal tumors are called adrenocortical carcinomas and are rare but aggressive cancers that can spread to other parts of the body. Symptoms of adrenocortical carcinoma may include abdominal pain, weight loss, and hormonal imbalances.

It is important to diagnose and treat adrenal gland neoplasms early to prevent complications and improve outcomes. Diagnostic tests may include imaging studies such as CT scans or MRIs, as well as hormone level testing and biopsy. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Esophageal achalasia is a rare disorder of the esophagus, the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach. In this condition, the muscles at the lower end of the esophagus fail to relax properly during swallowing, making it difficult for food and liquids to pass into the stomach. This results in symptoms such as difficulty swallowing (dysphagia), regurgitation of food, chest pain, and weight loss. The cause of esophageal achalasia is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to damage to the nerves that control the muscles of the esophagus. Treatment options include medications to relax the lower esophageal sphincter, botulinum toxin injections, and surgical procedures such as laparoscopic Heller myotomy or peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM).

The hepatic artery is a branch of the celiac trunk or abdominal aorta that supplies oxygenated blood to the liver. It typically divides into two main branches, the right and left hepatic arteries, which further divide into smaller vessels to supply different regions of the liver. The hepatic artery also gives off branches to supply other organs such as the gallbladder, pancreas, and duodenum.

It's worth noting that there is significant variability in the anatomy of the hepatic artery, with some individuals having additional branches or variations in the origin of the vessel. This variability can have implications for surgical procedures involving the liver and surrounding organs.

Abdominal pain is defined as discomfort or painful sensation in the abdomen. The abdomen is the region of the body between the chest and the pelvis, and contains many important organs such as the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen. Abdominal pain can vary in intensity from mild to severe, and can be acute or chronic depending on the underlying cause.

Abdominal pain can have many different causes, ranging from benign conditions such as gastritis, indigestion, or constipation, to more serious conditions such as appendicitis, inflammatory bowel disease, or abdominal aortic aneurysm. The location, quality, and duration of the pain can provide important clues about its cause. For example, sharp, localized pain in the lower right quadrant of the abdomen may indicate appendicitis, while crampy, diffuse pain in the lower abdomen may suggest irritable bowel syndrome.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience severe or persistent abdominal pain, especially if it is accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, vomiting, or bloody stools. A thorough physical examination, including a careful history and a focused abdominal exam, can help diagnose the underlying cause of the pain and guide appropriate treatment.

Uterine diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the uterus, which is the reproductive organ in females where fetal development occurs. These diseases can be categorized into structural abnormalities, infectious diseases, and functional disorders. Here are some examples:

1. Structural abnormalities: These include congenital malformations such as septate uterus or bicornuate uterus, as well as acquired conditions like endometrial polyps, fibroids (benign tumors of the muscular wall), and adenomyosis (where the endometrial tissue grows into the muscular wall).

2. Infectious diseases: The uterus can be affected by various infections, including bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic agents. Examples include pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), tuberculosis, and candidiasis.

3. Functional disorders: These are conditions that affect the normal functioning of the uterus without any apparent structural abnormalities or infections. Examples include dysmenorrhea (painful periods), menorrhagia (heavy periods), and endometriosis (where the endometrial tissue grows outside the uterus).

4. Malignant diseases: Uterine cancer, including endometrial cancer and cervical cancer, are significant health concerns for women.

5. Other conditions: Miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility can also be considered as uterine diseases since they involve the abnormal functioning or structural issues of the uterus.

Patient readmission refers to the event when a patient who was previously discharged from a hospital or healthcare facility returns for further treatment, often within a specified period. It is measured as a percentage of patients who are readmitted within a certain time frame, such as 30, 60, or 90 days after discharge. Readmissions may be planned or unplanned and can occur due to various reasons, including complications from the initial illness or treatment, inadequate post-discharge follow-up care, or the patient's inability to manage their health conditions effectively at home. High readmission rates are often considered an indicator of the quality of care provided during the initial hospitalization and may also signify potential issues with care coordination and transitions between healthcare settings.

"Sigmoid diseases" is not a widely recognized medical term. However, the sigmoid colon is a part of the large intestine, and it can be affected by various conditions such as:

1. Sigmoid diverticulitis: Inflammation or infection of small pouches (diverticula) that form on the wall of the sigmoid colon.
2. Sigmoid volvulus: Twisting of the sigmoid colon on itself, which can lead to obstruction and ischemia.
3. Sigmoid cancer: Malignant tumor arising from the epithelial cells lining the sigmoid colon.
4. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): Chronic inflammation of the intestine, including the sigmoid colon, that can lead to symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weight loss.
5. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): Functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and altered bowel habits, which can affect the sigmoid colon.

Therefore, "sigmoid diseases" could refer to any of these conditions or others that specifically affect the sigmoid colon.

Diverticulitis is a medical condition characterized by the inflammation or infection of one or more diverticula, which are small pouches that form in the wall of the colon (large intestine). The condition most commonly affects the sigmoid colon, which is the part of the colon located in the lower left abdomen.

Diverticulitis occurs when these pouches become inflamed or infected, often as a result of a small piece of stool or undigested food getting trapped inside them. This can cause symptoms such as:

* Severe abdominal pain and tenderness, particularly in the lower left side of the abdomen
* Fever and chills
* Nausea and vomiting
* Constipation or diarrhea
* Bloating and gas
* Loss of appetite

Diverticulitis can range from mild to severe, and in some cases, it may require hospitalization and surgery. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to clear the infection, as well as a liquid diet to allow the colon to rest and heal. In more severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the affected portion of the colon.

Duodenal diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine. Here are some examples of duodenal diseases:

1. Duodenitis: This is inflammation of the duodenum, which can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and bloating. Duodenitis can be caused by bacterial or viral infections, excessive use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or chronic inflammation due to conditions like Crohn's disease.
2. Peptic ulcers: These are sores that develop in the lining of the duodenum, usually as a result of infection with Helicobacter pylori bacteria or long-term use of NSAIDs. Symptoms can include abdominal pain, bloating, and heartburn.
3. Duodenal cancer: This is a rare type of cancer that affects the duodenum. Symptoms can include abdominal pain, weight loss, and blood in the stool.
4. Celiac disease: This is an autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack the lining of the small intestine in response to gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye. This can lead to inflammation and damage to the duodenum.
5. Duodenal diverticulosis: This is a condition in which small pouches form in the lining of the duodenum. While many people with duodenal diverticulosis do not experience symptoms, some may develop complications such as inflammation or infection.
6. Duodenal atresia: This is a congenital condition in which the duodenum does not form properly, leading to blockage of the intestine. This can cause symptoms such as vomiting and difficulty feeding in newborns.

Extrahepatic cholestasis is a medical condition characterized by the impaired flow of bile outside of the liver. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the absorption and digestion of fats. When the flow of bile is obstructed or blocked, it can lead to an accumulation of bile components, such as bilirubin, in the bloodstream, resulting in jaundice, dark urine, light-colored stools, and itching.

Extrahepatic cholestasis can be caused by various factors, including gallstones, tumors, strictures, or inflammation of the bile ducts. It is essential to diagnose and treat extrahepatic cholestasis promptly to prevent further complications, such as liver damage or infection. Treatment options may include medications, endoscopic procedures, or surgery, depending on the underlying cause of the condition.

Duodenogastric reflux (DGR) is a medical condition in which the contents of the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine, flow backward into the stomach. This occurs when the pyloric sphincter, a muscle that separates the stomach and duodenum, fails to function properly, allowing the reflux of duodenal juice into the stomach.

Duodenogastric refluxate typically contains bile acids, digestive enzymes, and other stomach-irritating substances. Chronic DGR can lead to gastritis (inflammation of the stomach lining), ulcers, and other gastrointestinal complications. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, and indigestion. Treatment usually involves medications that reduce acid production or neutralize stomach acid, as well as lifestyle modifications to minimize reflux triggers.

Splenic diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the structure, function, or health of the spleen. The spleen is an organ located in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen, which plays a vital role in filtering the blood and fighting infections. Some common splenic diseases include:

1. Splenomegaly: Enlargement of the spleen due to various causes such as infections, liver disease, blood disorders, or cancer.
2. Hypersplenism: Overactivity of the spleen leading to excessive removal of blood cells from circulation, causing anemia, leukopenia, or thrombocytopenia.
3. Splenic infarction: Partial or complete blockage of the splenic artery or its branches, resulting in tissue death and potential organ dysfunction.
4. Splenic rupture: Traumatic or spontaneous tearing of the spleen capsule, causing internal bleeding and potentially life-threatening conditions.
5. Infections: Bacterial (e.g., sepsis, tuberculosis), viral (e.g., mononucleosis, cytomegalovirus), fungal (e.g., histoplasmosis), or parasitic (e.g., malaria) infections can affect the spleen and cause various symptoms.
6. Hematologic disorders: Conditions such as sickle cell disease, thalassemia, hemolytic anemias, lymphomas, leukemias, or myeloproliferative neoplasms can involve the spleen and lead to its enlargement or dysfunction.
7. Autoimmune diseases: Conditions like rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or vasculitis can affect the spleen and cause various symptoms.
8. Cancers: Primary (e.g., splenic tumors) or secondary (e.g., metastatic cancer from other organs) malignancies can involve the spleen and lead to its enlargement, dysfunction, or rupture.
9. Vascular abnormalities: Conditions such as portal hypertension, Budd-Chiari syndrome, or splenic vein thrombosis can affect the spleen and cause various symptoms.
10. Trauma: Accidental or intentional injuries to the spleen can lead to bleeding, infection, or organ dysfunction.

The omentum, in anatomical terms, refers to a large apron-like fold of abdominal fatty tissue that hangs down from the stomach and loops over the intestines. It is divided into two portions: the greater omentum, which is larger and hangs down further, and the lesser omentum, which is smaller and connects the stomach to the liver.

The omentum has several functions in the body, including providing protection and cushioning for the abdominal organs, assisting with the immune response by containing a large number of immune cells, and helping to repair damaged tissues. It can also serve as a source of nutrients and energy for the body during times of starvation or other stressors.

In medical contexts, the omentum may be surgically mobilized and used to wrap around injured or inflamed tissues in order to promote healing and reduce the risk of infection. This technique is known as an "omentopexy" or "omentoplasty."

A lymphocele is a localized collection or sac filled with lymph fluid, which usually forms as a result of surgical dissection or injury to the lymphatic vessels. The accumulation of lymph fluid occurs due to the disruption of normal lymphatic drainage in the affected area.

Lymphoceles are most commonly found following surgeries involving the lymph nodes, such as pelvic, groin, or abdominal procedures. They can also occur after radiotherapy treatments that damage the lymphatic vessels. In some cases, lymphoceles may develop spontaneously due to underlying medical conditions affecting the lymphatic system.

While lymphoceles are generally not harmful on their own, they can cause complications such as infection, delayed wound healing, or impaired limb function if they become large enough to put pressure on surrounding tissues and organs. Treatment options for lymphoceles include compression garments, percutaneous drainage, sclerosis (the injection of a substance that causes the sac to stick together), or surgical removal in severe cases.

Intraoperative monitoring (IOM) is the practice of using specialized techniques to monitor physiological functions or neural structures in real-time during surgical procedures. The primary goal of IOM is to provide continuous information about the patient's status and the effects of surgery on neurological function, allowing surgeons to make informed decisions and minimize potential risks.

IOM can involve various methods such as:

1. Electrophysiological monitoring: This includes techniques like somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), motor evoked potentials (MEP), and electroencephalography (EEG) to assess the integrity of neural pathways and brain function during surgery.
2. Neuromonitoring: Direct electrical stimulation of nerves or spinal cord structures can help identify critical neuroanatomical structures, evaluate their functional status, and guide surgical interventions.
3. Hemodynamic monitoring: Measuring blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, and oxygen saturation helps assess the patient's overall physiological status during surgery.
4. Imaging modalities: Intraoperative imaging techniques like ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide real-time visualization of anatomical structures and surgical progress.

The specific IOM methods employed depend on the type of surgery, patient characteristics, and potential risks involved. Intraoperative monitoring is particularly crucial in procedures where there is a risk of neurological injury, such as spinal cord or brain surgeries, vascular interventions, or tumor resections near critical neural structures.

Intestinal obstruction, also known as bowel obstruction, is a medical condition characterized by a blockage that prevents the normal flow of contents through the small intestine or large intestine (colon). This blockage can be caused by various factors such as tumors, adhesions (scar tissue), hernias, inflammation, or impacted feces.

The obstruction can be mechanical, where something physically blocks the intestinal lumen, or functional, where the normal muscular contractions of the bowel are impaired. Mechanical obstructions are more common than functional ones.

Symptoms of intestinal obstruction may include abdominal pain and cramping, nausea and vomiting, bloating, inability to pass gas or have a bowel movement, and abdominal distention. If left untreated, intestinal obstruction can lead to serious complications such as tissue death (necrosis), perforation of the intestine, and sepsis. Treatment typically involves hospitalization, intravenous fluids, nasogastric decompression, and possibly surgery to remove the obstruction.

Surgical shock is not a specific type of shock but rather a term used to describe the development of shock as a complication following surgical procedures. It is a life-threatening condition characterized by inadequate tissue perfusion and oxygenation due to various causes, such as severe blood loss, sepsis, trauma, or severe infection.

In the context of surgery, surgical shock can occur due to several reasons, including:

1. Hemorrhagic shock: This is the most common cause of surgical shock and results from significant blood loss during or after surgery, leading to a decrease in circulating blood volume and subsequent inadequate tissue perfusion.
2. Septic shock: Surgical procedures can sometimes introduce bacteria into the body, leading to severe infection and sepsis. This can result in widespread inflammation, vasodilation, and increased capillary permeability, causing hypotension, organ dysfunction, and shock.
3. Cardiogenic shock: Surgical interventions on the heart or major blood vessels can sometimes lead to impaired cardiac function, resulting in reduced cardiac output and tissue perfusion.
4. Obstructive shock: This type of shock can occur when there is an obstruction in the circulatory system, such as a pulmonary embolism or tension pneumothorax, leading to decreased venous return and impaired tissue perfusion.

The treatment for surgical shock involves addressing the underlying cause, providing supportive care, and ensuring adequate oxygenation and tissue perfusion. This may include fluid resuscitation, blood transfusions, vasopressors, antibiotics, and surgical interventions to control bleeding or remove sources of infection.

Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is the retrograde movement of stomach contents into the esophagus, which can cause discomfort and symptoms. It occurs when the lower esophageal sphincter (a ring of muscle between the esophagus and stomach) relaxes inappropriately, allowing the acidic or non-acidic gastric contents to flow back into the esophagus.

Gastroesophageal reflux becomes gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) when it is more severe, persistent, and/or results in complications such as esophagitis, strictures, or Barrett's esophagus. Common symptoms of GERD include heartburn, regurgitation, chest pain, difficulty swallowing, and chronic cough or hoarseness.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

A cyst is a closed sac, having a distinct membrane and division between the sac and its surrounding tissue, that contains fluid, air, or semisolid material. Cysts can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, internal organs, and bones. They can be caused by various factors, such as infection, genetic predisposition, or blockage of a duct or gland. Some cysts may cause symptoms, such as pain or discomfort, while others may not cause any symptoms at all. Treatment for cysts depends on the type and location of the cyst, as well as whether it is causing any problems. Some cysts may go away on their own, while others may need to be drained or removed through a surgical procedure.

Technetium Tc 99m Disofenin is not a medical condition, but rather a radiopharmaceutical used in diagnostic imaging. It is a radioactive tracer used in nuclear medicine scans, specifically for liver and biliary system imaging. The compound consists of the radioisotope Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) bonded to the pharmaceutical Disofenin.

The Tc-99m is a gamma emitter with a half-life of 6 hours, making it ideal for diagnostic imaging. When administered to the patient, the compound is taken up by the liver and excreted into the bile ducts and gallbladder, allowing medical professionals to visualize these structures using a gamma camera. This can help detect various conditions such as tumors, gallstones, or obstructions in the biliary system.

It's important to note that Technetium Tc 99m Disofenin is used diagnostically and not for therapeutic purposes. The radiation exposure from this compound is generally low and considered safe for diagnostic use. However, as with any medical procedure involving radiation, the benefits and risks should be carefully weighed and discussed with a healthcare professional.

Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) is a condition characterized by abnormalities in the functioning of the Sphincter of Oddi, which is a muscular valve that controls the flow of bile and pancreatic juice from the pancreas and gallbladder into the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine).

In SOD, the sphincter may either fail to relax properly or become overactive, leading to a variety of symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, bloating, and elevated liver enzymes. The condition can be classified into two types: Type I, which is associated with elevated liver enzymes and/or pancreatic enzymes, and Type II, which is characterized by abdominal pain without biochemical abnormalities.

The diagnosis of SOD typically involves a series of tests such as manometry (measuring the pressure inside the sphincter), endoscopic ultrasound, or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) to visualize the anatomy and function of the sphincter. Treatment options may include medications to relax the sphincter, endoscopic therapy to cut or stretch the muscle, or surgery in severe cases.

"Time-to-Treatment" is a medical term that refers to the duration of time taken from the identification or diagnosis of a medical condition to the initiation of appropriate treatment. This interval is crucial in determining the prognosis and outcome of various medical conditions, particularly those that require prompt intervention such as stroke, myocardial infarction (heart attack), and sepsis.

Reducing time-to-treatment can significantly improve patient outcomes by minimizing the risk of complications, reducing morbidity and mortality, and enhancing the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. Therefore, healthcare providers strive to optimize and streamline their processes to ensure timely and effective treatment for their patients.

Pain measurement, in a medical context, refers to the quantification or evaluation of the intensity and/or unpleasantness of a patient's subjective pain experience. This is typically accomplished through the use of standardized self-report measures such as numerical rating scales (NRS), visual analog scales (VAS), or categorical scales (mild, moderate, severe). In some cases, physiological measures like heart rate, blood pressure, and facial expressions may also be used to supplement self-reported pain ratings. The goal of pain measurement is to help healthcare providers better understand the nature and severity of a patient's pain in order to develop an effective treatment plan.

Rectal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the tissues of the rectum, which can be benign or malignant. They are characterized by uncontrolled cell division and can invade nearby tissues or spread to other parts of the body (metastasis). The most common type of rectal neoplasm is rectal cancer, which often begins as a small polyp or growth in the lining of the rectum. Other types of rectal neoplasms include adenomas, carcinoids, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Regular screenings are recommended for early detection and treatment of rectal neoplasms.

A polyp is a general term for a small growth that protrudes from a mucous membrane, such as the lining of the nose or the digestive tract. Polyps can vary in size and shape, but they are usually cherry-sized or smaller and have a stalk or a broad base. They are often benign (noncancerous), but some types of polyps, especially those in the colon, can become cancerous over time.

In the digestive tract, polyps can form in the colon, rectum, stomach, or small intestine. Colorectal polyps are the most common type and are usually found during routine colonoscopies. There are several types of colorectal polyps, including:

* Adenomatous polyps (adenomas): These polyps can become cancerous over time and are the most likely to turn into cancer.
* Hyperplastic polyps: These polyps are usually small and benign, but some types may have a higher risk of becoming cancerous.
* Inflammatory polyps: These polyps are caused by chronic inflammation in the digestive tract, such as from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

Polyps can also form in other parts of the body, including the nose, sinuses, ears, and uterus. In most cases, polyps are benign and do not cause any symptoms. However, if they become large enough, they may cause problems such as bleeding, obstruction, or discomfort. Treatment typically involves removing the polyp through a surgical procedure.

The biliary tract is a system of ducts that transport bile from the liver to the gallbladder and then to the small intestine. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the breakdown and absorption of fats in the small intestine. The main components of the biliary tract are:

1. Intrahepatic bile ducts: These are the smaller branches of bile ducts located within the liver that collect bile from the liver cells or hepatocytes.
2. Gallbladder: A small pear-shaped organ located beneath the liver, which stores and concentrates bile received from the intrahepatic bile ducts. The gallbladder releases bile into the small intestine when food is ingested, particularly fats, to aid digestion.
3. Common hepatic duct: This is a duct that forms by the union of the right and left hepatic ducts, which carry bile from the right and left lobes of the liver, respectively.
4. Cystic duct: A short duct that connects the gallbladder to the common hepatic duct, forming the beginning of the common bile duct.
5. Common bile duct: This is a larger duct formed by the union of the common hepatic duct and the cystic duct. It carries bile from the liver and gallbladder into the small intestine.
6. Pancreatic duct: A separate duct that originates from the pancreas, a gland located near the liver and stomach. The pancreatic duct joins the common bile duct just before they both enter the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine.
7. Ampulla of Vater: This is the dilated portion where the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct join together and empty their contents into the duodenum through a shared opening called the papilla of Vater.

Disorders related to the biliary tract include gallstones, cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder), bile duct stones, bile duct strictures or obstructions, and primary sclerosing cholangitis, among others.

Patient positioning in a medical context refers to the arrangement and placement of a patient's body in a specific posture or alignment on a hospital bed, examination table, or other medical device during medical procedures, surgeries, or diagnostic imaging examinations. The purpose of patient positioning is to optimize the patient's comfort, ensure their safety, facilitate access to the surgical site or area being examined, enhance the effectiveness of medical interventions, and improve the quality of medical images in diagnostic tests.

Proper patient positioning can help prevent complications such as pressure ulcers, nerve injuries, and respiratory difficulties. It may involve adjusting the height and angle of the bed, using pillows, blankets, or straps to support various parts of the body, and communicating with the patient to ensure they are comfortable and aware of what to expect during the procedure.

In surgical settings, patient positioning is carefully planned and executed by a team of healthcare professionals, including surgeons, anesthesiologists, nurses, and surgical technicians, to optimize surgical outcomes and minimize risks. In diagnostic imaging examinations, such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRIs, patient positioning is critical for obtaining high-quality images that can aid in accurate diagnosis and treatment planning.

In the context of healthcare, "safety" refers to the freedom from harm or injury that is intentionally designed into a process, system, or environment. It involves the prevention of adverse events or injuries, as well as the reduction of risk and the mitigation of harm when accidents do occur. Safety in healthcare aims to protect patients, healthcare workers, and other stakeholders from potential harm associated with medical care, treatments, or procedures. This is achieved through evidence-based practices, guidelines, protocols, training, and continuous quality improvement efforts.

Rectal diseases refer to conditions that affect the structure or function of the rectum, which is the lower end of the large intestine, just above the anus. The rectum serves as a storage area for stool before it is eliminated from the body. Some common rectal diseases include:

1. Hemorrhoids: Swollen veins in the rectum or anus that can cause pain, itching, bleeding, and discomfort.
2. Rectal cancer: Abnormal growth of cells in the rectum that can invade and destroy nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body.
3. Anal fissures: Small tears in the lining of the anus that can cause pain, bleeding, and itching.
4. Rectal prolapse: A condition where the rectum slips outside the anus, causing discomfort, fecal incontinence, and other symptoms.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): A group of chronic inflammatory conditions that affect the digestive tract, including the rectum, such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
6. Rectal abscess: A collection of pus in the rectum caused by an infection, which can cause pain, swelling, and fever.
7. Fistula-in-ano: An abnormal connection between the rectum and the skin around the anus, which can cause drainage of pus or stool.
8. Rectal foreign bodies: Objects that are accidentally or intentionally inserted into the rectum and can cause injury, infection, or obstruction.

These are just a few examples of rectal diseases, and there are many other conditions that can affect the rectum. If you experience any symptoms related to the rectum, it is important to seek medical attention from a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

A choristoma is a type of growth that occurs when normally functioning tissue is found in an abnormal location within the body. It is not cancerous or harmful, but it can cause problems if it presses on surrounding structures or causes symptoms. Choristomas are typically congenital, meaning they are present at birth, and are thought to occur due to developmental errors during embryonic growth. They can be found in various organs and tissues throughout the body, including the brain, eye, skin, and gastrointestinal tract.

Patient satisfaction is a concept in healthcare quality measurement that reflects the patient's perspective and evaluates their experience with the healthcare services they have received. It is a multidimensional construct that includes various aspects such as interpersonal mannerisms of healthcare providers, technical competence, accessibility, timeliness, comfort, and communication.

Patient satisfaction is typically measured through standardized surveys or questionnaires that ask patients to rate their experiences on various aspects of care. The results are often used to assess the quality of care provided by healthcare organizations, identify areas for improvement, and inform policy decisions. However, it's important to note that patient satisfaction is just one aspect of healthcare quality and should be considered alongside other measures such as clinical outcomes and patient safety.

Emergency treatment refers to the urgent medical interventions and care provided to individuals who are experiencing a severe injury, illness, or life-threatening condition. The primary aim of emergency treatment is to stabilize the patient's condition, prevent further harm, and provide immediate medical attention to save the patient's life or limb.

Emergency treatment may include various medical procedures, such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), airway management, administering medications, controlling bleeding, treating burns, immobilizing fractures, and providing pain relief. The specific emergency treatment provided will depend on the nature and severity of the patient's condition.

Emergency treatment is typically delivered in an emergency department (ED) or a similar setting, such as an urgent care center, ambulance, or helicopter transport. Healthcare professionals who provide emergency treatment include emergency physicians, nurses, paramedics, and other specialists trained in emergency medicine.

It's important to note that emergency treatment is different from routine medical care, which is usually provided on a scheduled basis and focuses on preventing, diagnosing, and managing chronic or ongoing health conditions. Emergency treatment, on the other hand, is provided in response to an acute event or crisis that requires immediate attention and action.

The ampulla of Vater, also known as hepatopancreatic ampulla, is a dilated portion of the common bile duct where it joins the main pancreatic duct and empties into the second part of the duodenum. It serves as a conduit for both bile from the liver and digestive enzymes from the pancreas to reach the small intestine, facilitating the digestion and absorption of nutrients. The ampulla of Vater is surrounded by a muscular sphincter, the sphincter of Oddi, which controls the flow of these secretions into the duodenum.

Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is a medical condition that refers to the blockage of the passage from the stomach to the small intestine, also known as the pylorus. This blockage can be caused by various factors, including tumors, scar tissue, or gallstones. As a result, food and digestive enzymes cannot pass through the pylorus into the small intestine, leading to symptoms such as vomiting, abdominal pain, bloating, and weight loss. In severe cases, GOO can lead to malnutrition, dehydration, and other complications if left untreated. Treatment options for GOO depend on the underlying cause of the obstruction and may include medication, endoscopic procedures, or surgery.

Uterine neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the uterus, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can originate from different types of cells within the uterus, leading to various types of uterine neoplasms. The two main categories of uterine neoplasms are endometrial neoplasms and uterine sarcomas.

Endometrial neoplasms develop from the endometrium, which is the inner lining of the uterus. Most endometrial neoplasms are classified as endometrioid adenocarcinomas, arising from glandular cells in the endometrium. Other types include serous carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma, and mucinous carcinoma.

Uterine sarcomas, on the other hand, are less common and originate from the connective tissue (stroma) or muscle (myometrium) of the uterus. Uterine sarcomas can be further divided into several subtypes, such as leiomyosarcoma, endometrial stromal sarcoma, and undifferentiated uterine sarcoma.

Uterine neoplasms can cause various symptoms, including abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge, pelvic pain, and difficulty urinating or having bowel movements. The diagnosis typically involves a combination of imaging tests (such as ultrasound, CT, or MRI scans) and tissue biopsies to determine the type and extent of the neoplasm. Treatment options depend on the type, stage, and patient's overall health but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or hormone therapy.

In medical terms, sutures are specialized surgical threads made from various materials such as absorbable synthetic or natural fibers, or non-absorbable materials like nylon or silk. They are used to approximate and hold together the edges of a wound or incision in the skin or other tissues during the healing process. Sutures come in different sizes, types, and shapes, each designed for specific uses and techniques depending on the location and type of tissue being sutured. Properly placed sutures help to promote optimal healing, minimize scarring, and reduce the risk of infection or other complications.

Tissue and organ harvesting is the surgical removal of healthy tissues or organs from a living or deceased donor for the purpose of transplantation into another person in need of a transplant. This procedure is performed with great care, adhering to strict medical standards and ethical guidelines, to ensure the safety and well-being of both the donor and the recipient.

In the case of living donors, the harvested tissue or organ is typically removed from a site that can be safely spared, such as a kidney, a portion of the liver, or a segment of the lung. The donor must undergo extensive medical evaluation to ensure they are physically and psychologically suitable for the procedure.

For deceased donors, tissue and organ harvesting is performed in a manner that respects their wishes and those of their family, as well as adheres to legal and ethical requirements. Organs and tissues must be recovered promptly after death to maintain their viability for transplantation.

Tissue and organ harvesting is an essential component of the transplant process, allowing individuals with terminal illnesses or severe injuries to receive life-saving or life-enhancing treatments. It is a complex and highly regulated medical practice that requires specialized training, expertise, and coordination among healthcare professionals, donor families, and recipients.

Stomach volvulus is a medical condition that involves the twisting or rotation of the stomach around its axis, leading to obstruction of the inflow and outflow of the stomach. This can result in strangulation of the blood supply to the stomach wall, potentially causing ischemia, necrosis, and perforation if not promptly treated. It is a surgical emergency that requires immediate medical attention. The condition can be congenital or acquired, with the acquired form being more common and often associated with underlying conditions such as gastric distention, laxity of gastrocolic ligaments, or previous abdominal surgery.

Gangrene is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when there is a loss of blood flow to a specific area of the body, resulting in tissue death. It can be caused by various factors such as bacterial infections, trauma, diabetes, vascular diseases, and smoking. The affected tissues may become discolored, swollen, and emit a foul odor due to the accumulation of bacteria and toxins.

Gangrene can be classified into two main types: dry gangrene and wet (or moist) gangrene. Dry gangrene develops slowly and is often associated with peripheral arterial disease, which reduces blood flow to the extremities. The affected area turns black and shriveled as it dries out. Wet gangrene, on the other hand, progresses rapidly due to bacterial infections that cause tissue breakdown and pus formation. This type of gangrene can spread quickly throughout the body, leading to severe complications such as sepsis and organ failure if left untreated.

Treatment for gangrene typically involves surgical removal of the dead tissue (debridement), antibiotics to control infections, and sometimes revascularization procedures to restore blood flow to the affected area. In severe cases where the infection has spread or the damage is irreversible, amputation of the affected limb may be necessary to prevent further complications and save the patient's life.

Peptic ulcer perforation is a serious and sightful gastrointestinal complication characterized by the penetration or erosion of an acid-peptic ulcer through the full thickness of the stomach or duodenal wall, resulting in spillage of gastric or duodenal contents into the peritoneal cavity. This leads to chemical irritation and/or bacterial infection of the abdominal cavity, causing symptoms such as sudden severe abdominal pain, tenderness, rigidity, and potentially life-threatening sepsis if not promptly diagnosed and treated with surgical intervention, antibiotics, and supportive care.

Diverticulitis, Colonic is a medical condition characterized by the inflammation or infection of one or more diverticula in the colon. Diverticula are small, bulging pouches that form in the wall of the colon, usually in older adults. They are caused by increased pressure on weakened areas of the colon wall, resulting in the formation of these sac-like protrusions.

When diverticula become inflamed or infected, it leads to the condition known as diverticulitis. Symptoms of colonic diverticulitis may include abdominal pain, fever, nausea, vomiting, constipation or diarrhea, and a decreased appetite. In severe cases, complications such as perforation, abscess formation, or peritonitis (inflammation of the lining of the abdominal cavity) may occur, requiring hospitalization and surgical intervention.

The exact cause of diverticulitis is not fully understood, but it is believed to be associated with a low-fiber diet, obesity, smoking, and lack of exercise. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to clear the infection, a liquid diet to allow the colon to rest, and over-the-counter or prescription pain medications to manage discomfort. In severe cases or in patients who experience recurrent episodes of diverticulitis, surgery may be necessary to remove the affected portion of the colon.

Surgical staplers are medical devices used in various surgical procedures to create secure and precise connections between tissues, vessels, or organs. They function by placing sterile, disposable staple cartridges into the device that contain rows of stainless steel staples. The stapler then applies pressure to deform the staples, forming a B-shaped staple line that holds the tissue together.

These devices are often used in place of traditional suturing methods due to their speed, accuracy, and ability to reduce surgical trauma. They can be employed in various types of surgeries, including gastrointestinal, thoracic, gynecologic, and orthopedic procedures.

Surgical staplers come in different shapes and sizes, with some designed for specific applications such as linear or circular stapling. Linear staplers are used to create straight lines of staples, while circular staplers form a ring-shaped connection, often used in anastomosis procedures (the joining of two hollow organs or vessels).

It is essential to follow proper techniques and indications when using surgical staplers, as improper usage can lead to complications such as bleeding, infection, leakage, or even tissue necrosis.

Lymph node excision is a surgical procedure in which one or more lymph nodes are removed from the body for the purpose of examination. This procedure is often conducted to help diagnose or stage various types of cancer, as malignant cells may spread to the lymphatic system and eventually accumulate within nearby lymph nodes.

During a lymph node excision, an incision is made in the skin overlying the affected lymph node(s). The surgeon carefully dissects the tissue surrounding the lymph node(s) to isolate them from adjacent structures before removing them. In some cases, a sentinel lymph node biopsy may be performed instead, where only the sentinel lymph node (the first lymph node to which cancer cells are likely to spread) is removed and examined.

The excised lymph nodes are then sent to a laboratory for histopathological examination, which involves staining and microscopic evaluation of the tissue to determine whether it contains any malignant cells. The results of this examination can help guide further treatment decisions and provide valuable prognostic information.

Patient selection, in the context of medical treatment or clinical research, refers to the process of identifying and choosing appropriate individuals who are most likely to benefit from a particular medical intervention or who meet specific criteria to participate in a study. This decision is based on various factors such as the patient's diagnosis, stage of disease, overall health status, potential risks, and expected benefits. The goal of patient selection is to ensure that the selected individuals will receive the most effective and safe care possible while also contributing to meaningful research outcomes.

A pancreatic pseudocyst is a fluid-filled sac that forms in the abdomen, usually as a result of pancreatitis or trauma to the pancreas. It is composed of cells and tissues from the pancreas, along with enzymes, debris, and fluids. Unlike true cysts, pseudocysts do not have an epithelial lining. They can vary in size and may cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, or fever. In some cases, they may resolve on their own, but larger or symptomatic pseudocysts may require medical intervention, such as drainage or surgery.

Internship: In medical terms, an internship is a supervised program of hospital-based training for physicians and surgeons who have recently graduated from medical school. The duration of an internship typically ranges from one to three years, during which the intern engages in a variety of clinical rotations in different departments such as internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, psychiatry, and neurology. The primary aim of an internship is to provide newly graduated doctors with hands-on experience in patient care, diagnosis, treatment planning, and communication skills under the close supervision of experienced physicians.

Residency: A residency is a structured and intensive postgraduate medical training program that typically lasts between three and seven years, depending on the specialty. Residents are licensed physicians who have completed their internship and are now receiving advanced training in a specific area of medicine or surgery. During this period, residents work closely with experienced attending physicians to gain comprehensive knowledge and skills in their chosen field. They are responsible for managing patient care, performing surgical procedures, interpreting diagnostic tests, conducting research, teaching medical students, and participating in continuing education activities. Residency programs aim to prepare physicians for independent practice and board certification in their specialty.

A prostatectomy is a surgical procedure where all or part of the prostate gland is removed. This surgery can be performed through various approaches such as open surgery, laparoscopic surgery, or robotic-assisted surgery. The type of prostatectomy performed depends on the reason for the surgery and the patient's individual circumstances.

There are two main types of prostatectomies: radical and simple. A radical prostatectomy is a surgical procedure to remove the entire prostate gland, seminal vesicles, and surrounding lymph nodes. This type of prostatectomy is typically performed as a treatment for prostate cancer.

A simple prostatectomy, on the other hand, involves removing only the inner part of the prostate gland that is causing symptoms such as difficulty urinating or bladder obstruction. Simple prostatectomies are usually performed to alleviate benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), which is a non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland.

Regardless of the type of prostatectomy, potential risks and complications include bleeding, infection, urinary incontinence, erectile dysfunction, and changes in sexual function. It is important for patients to discuss these risks with their healthcare provider before undergoing surgery.

Postoperative hemorrhage is a medical term that refers to bleeding that occurs after a surgical procedure. This condition can range from minor oozing to severe, life-threatening bleeding. Postoperative hemorrhage can occur soon after surgery or even several days later, as the surgical site begins to heal.

The causes of postoperative hemorrhage can vary, but some common factors include:

1. Inadequate hemostasis during surgery: This means that all bleeding was not properly controlled during the procedure, leading to bleeding after surgery.
2. Blood vessel injury: During surgery, blood vessels may be accidentally cut or damaged, causing bleeding after the procedure.
3. Coagulopathy: This is a condition in which the body has difficulty forming blood clots, increasing the risk of postoperative hemorrhage.
4. Use of anticoagulant medications: Medications that prevent blood clots can increase the risk of bleeding after surgery.
5. Infection: An infection at the surgical site can cause inflammation and bleeding.

Symptoms of postoperative hemorrhage may include swelling, pain, warmth, or discoloration around the surgical site, as well as signs of shock such as rapid heartbeat, low blood pressure, and confusion. Treatment for postoperative hemorrhage depends on the severity of the bleeding and may include medications to control bleeding, transfusions of blood products, or additional surgery to stop the bleeding.

Ectopic pregnancy is a type of abnormal pregnancy that occurs outside the uterine cavity. The most common site for an ectopic pregnancy is the fallopian tube, accounting for about 95% of cases. This condition is also known as tubal pregnancy. Other less common sites include the ovary, cervix, and abdominal cavity.

In a normal pregnancy, the fertilized egg travels down the fallopian tube and implants itself in the lining of the uterus. However, in an ectopic pregnancy, the fertilized egg implants and starts to develop somewhere other than the uterus. The growing embryo cannot survive outside the uterus, and if left untreated, an ectopic pregnancy can cause life-threatening bleeding due to the rupture of the fallopian tube or other organs.

Symptoms of ectopic pregnancy may include abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding, shoulder pain, lightheadedness, fainting, and in severe cases, shock. Diagnosis is usually made through a combination of medical history, physical examination, ultrasound, and blood tests to measure the levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone produced during pregnancy.

Treatment for ectopic pregnancy depends on several factors, including the location, size, and growth rate of the ectopic mass, as well as the patient's overall health and desire for future pregnancies. Treatment options may include medication to stop the growth of the embryo or surgery to remove the ectopic tissue. In some cases, both methods may be used together. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent serious complications and improve the chances of preserving fertility in future pregnancies.

The abdominal muscles, also known as the abdominals or abs, are a group of muscles in the anterior (front) wall of the abdominopelvic cavity. They play a crucial role in maintaining posture, supporting the trunk, and facilitating movement of the torso. The main abdominal muscles include:

1. Rectus Abdominis: These are the pair of long, flat muscles that run vertically along the middle of the anterior abdominal wall. They are often referred to as the "six-pack" muscles due to their visible, segmented appearance in well-trained individuals. The primary function of the rectus abdominis is to flex the spine, allowing for actions such as sitting up from a lying down position or performing a crunch exercise.

2. External Obliques: These are the largest and most superficial of the oblique muscles, located on the lateral (side) aspects of the abdominal wall. They run diagonally downward and forward from the lower ribs to the iliac crest (the upper part of the pelvis) and the pubic tubercle (a bony prominence at the front of the pelvis). The external obliques help rotate and flex the trunk, as well as assist in side-bending and exhalation.

3. Internal Obliques: These muscles lie deep to the external obliques and run diagonally downward and backward from the lower ribs to the iliac crest, pubic tubercle, and linea alba (the strong band of connective tissue that runs vertically along the midline of the abdomen). The internal obliques help rotate and flex the trunk, as well as assist in forced exhalation and increasing intra-abdominal pressure during actions such as coughing or lifting heavy objects.

4. Transversus Abdominis: This is the deepest of the abdominal muscles, located inner to both the internal obliques and the rectus sheath (a strong, fibrous covering that surrounds the rectus abdominis). The transversus abdominis runs horizontally around the abdomen, attaching to the lower six ribs, the thoracolumbar fascia (a broad sheet of connective tissue spanning from the lower back to the pelvis), and the pubic crest (the front part of the pelvic bone). The transversus abdominis helps maintain core stability by compressing the abdominal contents and increasing intra-abdominal pressure.

Together, these muscles form the muscular "corset" of the abdomen, providing support, stability, and flexibility to the trunk. They also play a crucial role in respiration, posture, and various movements such as bending, twisting, and lifting.

A pancreatectomy is a surgical procedure in which all or part of the pancreas is removed. There are several types of pancreatectomies, including:

* **Total pancreatectomy:** Removal of the entire pancreas, as well as the spleen and nearby lymph nodes. This type of pancreatectomy is usually done for patients with cancer that has spread throughout the pancreas or for those who have had multiple surgeries to remove pancreatic tumors.
* **Distal pancreatectomy:** Removal of the body and tail of the pancreas, as well as nearby lymph nodes. This type of pancreatectomy is often done for patients with tumors in the body or tail of the pancreas.
* **Partial (or segmental) pancreatectomy:** Removal of a portion of the head or body of the pancreas, as well as nearby lymph nodes. This type of pancreatectomy is often done for patients with tumors in the head or body of the pancreas that can be removed without removing the entire organ.
* **Pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD):** A type of surgery used to treat tumors in the head of the pancreas, as well as other conditions such as chronic pancreatitis. In this procedure, the head of the pancreas, duodenum, gallbladder, and bile duct are removed, but the stomach and lower portion of the esophagus (pylorus) are left in place.

After a pancreatectomy, patients may experience problems with digestion and blood sugar regulation, as the pancreas plays an important role in these functions. Patients may need to take enzyme supplements to help with digestion and may require insulin therapy to manage their blood sugar levels.

The Surgery Department in a hospital is a specialized unit where surgical procedures are performed. It is typically staffed by surgeons, anesthesiologists, nurse anesthetists, registered nurses, surgical technologists, and other healthcare professionals who work together to provide surgical care for patients. The department may include various sub-specialties such as cardiovascular surgery, neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, pediatric surgery, plastic surgery, and trauma surgery, among others.

The Surgery Department is responsible for the preoperative evaluation and preparation of patients, the performance of surgical procedures, and the postoperative care and management of patients. This includes ordering and interpreting diagnostic tests, developing treatment plans, obtaining informed consent from patients, performing surgeries, managing complications, providing postoperative pain control and wound care, and coordinating with other healthcare providers to ensure continuity of care.

The Surgery Department is equipped with operating rooms that contain specialized equipment and instruments necessary for performing surgical procedures. These may include microscopes, endoscopes, imaging equipment, and other technology used to assist in the performance of surgeries. The department may also have dedicated recovery areas, such as post-anesthesia care units (PACUs) or intensive care units (ICUs), where patients can be monitored and cared for immediately after surgery.

Overall, the Surgery Department plays a critical role in the delivery of healthcare services in a hospital setting, providing specialized surgical care to patients with a wide range of medical conditions and injuries.

A puncture, in medical terms, refers to a small hole or wound that is caused by a sharp object penetrating the skin or other body tissues. This can result in damage to underlying structures such as blood vessels, nerves, or organs, and may lead to complications such as bleeding, infection, or inflammation.

Punctures can occur accidentally, such as from stepping on a nail or getting pricked by a needle, or they can be inflicted intentionally, such as during medical procedures like injections or blood draws. In some cases, puncture wounds may require medical attention to clean and close the wound, prevent infection, and promote healing.

Ureteral obstruction is a medical condition characterized by the partial or complete blockage of the ureter, which is the tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder. This blockage can be caused by various factors such as kidney stones, tumors, blood clots, or scar tissue, leading to a backup of urine in the kidney (hydronephrosis). Ureteral obstruction can cause pain, infection, and potential kidney damage if not treated promptly.

A living donor is a person who voluntarily donates an organ or part of an organ to another person while they are still alive. This can include donations such as a kidney, liver lobe, lung, or portion of the pancreas or intestines. The donor and recipient typically undergo medical evaluation and compatibility testing to ensure the best possible outcome for the transplantation procedure. Living donation is regulated by laws and ethical guidelines to ensure that donors are fully informed and making a voluntary decision.

Duodenostomy is a surgical procedure that creates an opening (stoma) into the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine. This procedure is typically performed to divert the flow of digestive secretions and contents away from a diseased or obstructed area of the gastrointestinal tract.

A duodenostomy may be created as a temporary measure to allow a portion of the intestine to heal or as a permanent solution for conditions such as chronic inflammatory bowel disease, cancer, or congenital abnormalities. The stoma can be located on the abdominal wall, allowing for the external drainage of digestive secretions and contents into a collection bag.

It is important to note that the specific medical definition and indications for duodenostomy may vary based on individual clinical context and patient needs. Therefore, it is always best to consult with a healthcare professional or medical expert for accurate information.

Obstructive Jaundice is a medical condition characterized by the yellowing of the skin, sclera (whites of the eyes), and mucous membranes due to the accumulation of bilirubin in the bloodstream. This occurs when there is an obstruction or blockage in the bile ducts that transport bile from the liver to the small intestine.

Bile, which contains bilirubin, aids in digestion and is usually released from the liver into the small intestine. When the flow of bile is obstructed, bilirubin builds up in the blood, causing jaundice. The obstruction can be caused by various factors, such as gallstones, tumors, or strictures in the bile ducts.

Obstructive jaundice may present with additional symptoms like dark urine, light-colored stools, itching, abdominal pain, and weight loss, depending on the cause and severity of the obstruction. It is essential to seek medical attention if jaundice is observed, as timely diagnosis and management can prevent potential complications, such as liver damage or infection.

Laser therapy, also known as phototherapy or laser photobiomodulation, is a medical treatment that uses low-intensity lasers or light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to stimulate healing, reduce pain, and decrease inflammation. It works by promoting the increase of cellular metabolism, blood flow, and tissue regeneration through the process of photobiomodulation.

The therapy can be used on patients suffering from a variety of acute and chronic conditions, including musculoskeletal injuries, arthritis, neuropathic pain, and wound healing complications. The wavelength and intensity of the laser light are precisely controlled to ensure a safe and effective treatment.

During the procedure, the laser or LED device is placed directly on the skin over the area of injury or discomfort. The non-ionizing light penetrates the tissue without causing heat or damage, interacting with chromophores in the cells to initiate a series of photochemical reactions. This results in increased ATP production, modulation of reactive oxygen species, and activation of transcription factors that lead to improved cellular function and reduced pain.

In summary, laser therapy is a non-invasive, drug-free treatment option for various medical conditions, providing patients with an alternative or complementary approach to traditional therapies.

A district hospital is a type of healthcare facility that provides medical services to a specific geographic area, or "district." These hospitals are typically smaller than regional or tertiary care facilities and offer a range of general and specialized medical services to the local population. They serve as the primary point of contact for many patients seeking medical care and may provide emergency services, inpatient and outpatient care, surgery, diagnostic imaging, laboratory services, and rehabilitation. District hospitals are an essential part of healthcare systems in many countries, particularly in rural or underserved areas where access to larger medical centers may be limited.

A "University Hospital" is a type of hospital that is often affiliated with a medical school or university. These hospitals serve as major teaching institutions where medical students, residents, and fellows receive their training and education. They are equipped with advanced medical technology and resources to provide specialized and tertiary care services. University hospitals also conduct research and clinical trials to advance medical knowledge and practices. Additionally, they often treat complex and rare cases and provide a wide range of medical services to the community.

The sigmoid colon is a part of the large intestine that forms an "S"-shaped curve before it joins the rectum. It gets its name from its unique shape, which resembles the Greek letter sigma (σ). The main function of the sigmoid colon is to store stool temporarily and assist in the absorption of water and electrolytes from digestive waste before it is eliminated from the body.

Surgical hemostasis refers to the methods and techniques used during surgical procedures to stop bleeding or prevent hemorrhage. This can be achieved through various means, including the use of surgical instruments such as clamps, ligatures, or staples to physically compress blood vessels and stop the flow of blood. Electrosurgical tools like cautery may also be used to coagulate and seal off bleeding vessels using heat. Additionally, topical hemostatic agents can be applied to promote clotting and control bleeding in wounded tissues. Effective surgical hemostasis is crucial for ensuring a successful surgical outcome and minimizing the risk of complications such as excessive blood loss, infection, or delayed healing.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

Manometry is a medical test that measures pressure inside various parts of the gastrointestinal tract. It is often used to help diagnose digestive disorders such as achalasia, gastroparesis, and irritable bowel syndrome. During the test, a thin, flexible tube called a manometer is inserted through the mouth or rectum and into the area being tested. The tube is connected to a machine that measures and records pressure readings. These readings can help doctors identify any abnormalities in muscle function or nerve reflexes within the digestive tract.

Bupivacaine is a long-acting local anesthetic drug, which is used to cause numbness or loss of feeling in a specific area of the body during certain medical procedures such as surgery, dental work, or childbirth. It works by blocking the nerves that transmit pain signals to the brain.

Bupivacaine is available as a solution for injection and is usually administered directly into the tissue surrounding the nerve to be blocked (nerve block) or into the spinal fluid (epidural). The onset of action of bupivacaine is relatively slow, but its duration of action is long, making it suitable for procedures that require prolonged pain relief.

Like all local anesthetics, bupivacaine carries a risk of side effects such as allergic reactions, nerve damage, and systemic toxicity if accidentally injected into a blood vessel or given in excessive doses. It should be used with caution in patients with certain medical conditions, including heart disease, liver disease, and neurological disorders.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Teaching Materials" is not a medical term or concept. It generally refers to resources and tools used by educators to facilitate learning, which can include textbooks, multimedia presentations, handouts, and other materials used in educational settings. If you have a specific term related to medicine or healthcare in mind, please let me know so I can provide a more accurate definition.

A false aneurysm, also known as a pseudoaneurysm, is a type of aneurysm that occurs when there is a leakage or rupture of blood from a blood vessel into the surrounding tissues, creating a pulsating hematoma or collection of blood. Unlike true aneurysms, which involve a localized dilation or bulging of the blood vessel wall, false aneurysms do not have a complete covering of all three layers of the arterial wall (intima, media, and adventitia). Instead, they are typically covered by only one or two layers, such as the intima and adventitia, or by surrounding tissues like connective tissue or fascia.

False aneurysms can result from various factors, including trauma, infection, iatrogenic causes (such as medical procedures), or degenerative changes in the blood vessel wall. They are more common in arteries than veins and can occur in any part of the body. If left untreated, false aneurysms can lead to serious complications such as rupture, thrombosis, distal embolization, or infection. Treatment options for false aneurysms include surgical repair, endovascular procedures, or observation with regular follow-up imaging.

Orchiopexy is a surgical procedure in which the testicle (or testicles) that have descended into the scrotum incompletely or not at all (undescended or retractile testes) are fixed into their normal position within the scrotum. This procedure is typically performed on boys, often between the ages of 6 and 12 months, to correct cryptorchidism, a condition where one or both testicles fail to descend into the scrotum.

The main goals of orchiopexy are to:

1. Place the testicle in its proper anatomical location within the scrotum.
2. Fix the testicle in a stable position to prevent retractile testes from moving back into the inguinal canal.
3. Preserve the testicular blood supply and innervation, ensuring normal testicular function and development.
4. Lower the risk of testicular torsion (twisting of the spermatic cord) and malignancy in later life.

Orchiopexy can be performed through an open or laparoscopic approach, depending on the location of the undescended testicle(s). The choice of surgical technique depends on factors such as the patient's age, associated conditions, and surgeon's preference.

Organ sparing treatments refer to medical interventions that are designed to preserve the structure and function of an organ, while still effectively treating the underlying disease or condition. These treatments can include surgical techniques, radiation therapy, or medications that aim to target specific cells or processes involved in the disease, while minimizing damage to healthy tissues.

Organ sparing treatments may be used in a variety of medical contexts, such as cancer treatment, where the goal is to eliminate malignant cells while preserving as much normal tissue as possible. For example, radiation therapy may be delivered with precise techniques that limit exposure to surrounding organs, or medications may be used to target specific receptors on cancer cells, reducing the need for more extensive surgical interventions.

Similarly, in the context of kidney disease, organ sparing treatments may include medications that help control blood pressure and reduce proteinuria (protein in the urine), which can help slow the progression of kidney damage and potentially delay or prevent the need for dialysis or transplantation.

Overall, organ sparing treatments represent an important area of medical research and practice, as they offer the potential to improve patient outcomes, reduce treatment-related morbidity, and maintain quality of life.

Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy and Laparoscopic Surgery in Developing Countries. Udwadia received the SAGES Millennium Award from ... Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195629118. Udwadia, Tehemton E. (1997). Laparoscopic Surgery in ... Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195629118. Udwadia, Tehemton E. (1997). Laparoscopic Surgery in ... "Mumbai: 'Father of laparoscopic surgery in India' nominated for Padma Bhushan , Latest News & Updates at Daily News & Analysis ...
Wills, VL; Hunt DR (2000). "Pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy". Br J Surg. 87 (3): 539-546. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2168.2000. ... During laparoscopy (laparoscopic surgery or minimally invasive surgery), it is necessary to insufflate the abdominal cavity (i. ... Bessel, J; Karatassas A; Patterson J; Jamieson G; Maddern G (1995). "Hypothermia induced by laparoscopic insufflation. A ... Bessel, J; Maddern G (1998). "Influence of gas temperatures during laparoscopic procedures". The Pathophysiology of ...
2001). "The First Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy". Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons. 5 (1): 89-94. PMC 3015420 ... He was cleared of the charges in 1990, by which time laparoscopic cholecystectomy was being performed widely across North ... Litynski, Grzegorz S. (1998). "Erich Mühe and the Rejection of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (1985): A Surgeon Ahead of His Time ... marking the world's first laparoscopic cholecystectomy. He first presented his work in April 1986 at the Congress of the German ...
The risk of biliary injury is more during laparoscopic cholecystectomy than during open cholecystectomy. Biliary injury may ... A cholecystectomy may be an open procedure, or a laparoscopic one. In the surgery, the gallbladder is removed from the neck to ... The first laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed by Erich Mühe of Germany in 1985, although French surgeons Phillipe Mouret and ... It happens when there is a bile leak, for example after surgery for removing the gallbladder (laparoscopic cholecystectomy), ...
Laparoscopic treatment of bile leakage from the Luschka duct after laparoscopic cholecystectomy]. Orvosi Hetilap (in Hungarian ... Balija, M; Huis, M; Szerda, F; Bubnjar, J; Stulhofer, M (2003). "[Laparoscopic cholecystectomy--accessory bile ducts]". Acta ... Balija, M; Huis, M; Szerda, F; Bubnjar, J; Stulhofer, M (2003). "[Laparoscopic cholecystectomy--accessory bile ducts]". Acta ... they can be a source of a bile leak or biliary peritonitis after cholecystectomy in both adults and children. If an accessory ...
Reynolds, Walker (2001). "The First Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy". Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons. 5 (1): ... "Antegrade dissection in laparoscopic cholecystectomy". Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons. 11 (2): 225-8. PMC ... The rate of cholecystectomies being performed on patients with cholecystitis has increased markedly since the first ... Extirpation of the gallbladder, known as a cholecystectomy, may be used as a treatment for recurrent gallstones or ...
Blum, C.; Adams, D. (2011). "Who did the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy?". Journal of Minimal Access Surgery. 7 (3): 165- ... Division of Gastrointestinal and Laparoscopic Surgery and Co-Director of the Digestive Disease Center at the Medical University ...
Bisgaard T, Kehlet H, Rosenberg J (February 2001). "Pain and convalescence after laparoscopic cholecystectomy". The European ...
"Early experiences of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in five Irish hospitals. Irish Laparoscopic Group". Irish Journal of Medical ... Kiely JM, Brannigan AE, Foley E, Cheema S, O'Brien W, Delaney PV (April 2001). "Day case laparoscopic cholecystectomy is ...
Navarra G, Pozza E, Occhionorelli S, Carcoforo P, Donini I (May 1997). "One-wound laparoscopic cholecystectomy". Br J Surg. 84 ... Tacchino R, Greco F, Matera D (2009). "Single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy: surgery without a visible scar". Surgical ... 2009). "Single Port Access Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (with video)" (PDF). World J. Surg. 33 (5): 1015-9. doi:10.1007/s00268- ... Elective Transumbilical Compared with Standard Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy. European J of Surg. 1999 Feb; 165(1): 29-34(6) ...
In 1985 Erich Mühe showed that Semm's laparoscopic approach could be applied for cholecystectomy, and it became the gold ... Soper NJ, Stockmann PT, Dunnegan DL, Ashley SW (August 1992). "Laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The new 'gold standard'?". ... "Open versus laparoscopic cholecystectomy in acute cholecystitis. Systematic review and meta-analysis". International Journal of ... Persisting controversies with the gold standard of laparoscopic cholecystectomy". Journal of Minimal Access Surgery. 2 (2): 49- ...
Piskun, Gregory; Rajpal, Sanjeev (1999). "Transumbilical Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Utilizes No Incisions Outside the ...
... laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is performed using several small incisions located at various points ... Several studies have demonstrated the superiority of laparoscopic cholecystectomy when compared to open cholecystectomy (using ... Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy (within 7 days of visiting a doctor with symptoms) as compared to delayed treatment (more ... Chen L, Tao SF, Xu Y, Fang F, Peng SY (2005). "Patients' quality of life after laparoscopic or open cholecystectomy". Journal ...
Best paper award for the paper "Laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy. First Indian to win Best Video award in EAES : 16th ... Served 47,526 of patients till now 3,485 of free laparoscopic surgeries. Financial assistance for poor students to persuade ... Choledochalcyst laparoscopic excision & Hepatojejunostomy Hydatid cyst excision ( palanivelu's hydatid trocar system ) Single ... This procedure named after him and called "Palanivelu's technique of esophagectomy". Laparoscopic Whipple operation for cancer ...
Tacchino R, Greco F, Matera D (April 2009). "Single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy: surgery without a visible scar". ... Raman JD, Bagrodia A, Cadeddu JA (May 2009). "Single-incision, umbilical laparoscopic versus conventional laparoscopic ... The first laparoscopic implantation of the LAP-BAND was performed by Belachew and Favretti in September 1993 and since then, ... Until now, the laparoscopic technique required 5 incisions (4 × 5 mm and 1 × 5 mm), with visible scars. SILS is the next ...
Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy happens within 72 hours of diagnosis. In a Cochrane review that evaluated receiving early ... Gurusamy, K. S.; Koti, R.; Fusai, G.; Davidson, B. R. (2013). "Early versus delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy for ... "Cholecystectomy: Approaches and Technique". The Lecturio Medical Concept Library. Retrieved 8 July 2021. ... Complications from gallstone disease is 0.3% per year and therefore prophylactic cholecystectomy are rarely indicated unless ...
Several studies have pointed out that for various laparoscopic surgical applications (such as cholecystectomy, groin hernia ... "Direct trocar insertion versus veress needle insertion in laparoscopic cholecystectomy". The American Journal of Surgery. 177 ( ... "Direct trocar insertion without pneumoperitoneum and the Veress needle in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a comparative study". ... Vascular injury Laparoscopic surgery Trocar Baskett, Thomas F. (2019). Eponyms and Names in Obstetrics and Gynaecology. ...
Patients who have undergone hepatobiliary surgery or laparoscopic cholecystectomy are more at risk for developing biloma. ... Delayed diagnosis 77% of patients resulted from abdominal bile collections and bile leaks after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy ... Iatrogenic cases are procedures such as laparoscopic cholecystectomy, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), ... known as laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This procedure can be complicated by biloma with incidence of 0.3-2%. Other causes are ...
"Predictors of Major Complications after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy:Surgeon, Hospital, or Patient?". J Am Coll Surg. 211 (1): ... "Predicting Major Complications after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Simple Risk Score". Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery. ... Singla A, Simons JP, Carroll JE, Li YF, Ng SC, Tseng JF, Shah SA (Mar 2010). "Hospital Volume as a Surrogate for Laparoscopic- ... Csikesz NG, Singla A, Murphy MM, Tseng JF, Shah SA (Aug 2010). "Surgeon volume metrics in laparoscopic cholesystectomy". Dig ...
The first laparoscopic cholecystectomy by German surgeon Erich Mühe. 1985. Positron emission tomography was invented. 1987. The ... German surgeon Georg Kelling performed the first Laparoscopic surgery on dogs. 1901. Austrian physician Karl Landsteiner ... Swedish physician Hans Christian Jacobaeus performed the first Laparoscopic surgery on humans. 1914. Blood transfusion was ...
A case study of willingness to pay for laparoscopic cholecystectomy". Social Science and Medicine. 44 (5): 699-707. doi:10.1016 ...
"Effect of acupressure on postoperative nausea and vomiting in laparoscopic cholecystectomy". Archived from the original on 2012 ... laparoscopic and ENT procedures, and strabismus procedures in children. Anesthetic risk factors include the use of volatile ...
September 12 - German surgeon Erich Mühe performs the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy. October 17 - The British House of ...
"Neuroticism in relation to recovery and persisting pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy". Scandinavian Journal of ...
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, introduced in the 1980s, is performed via three to four small puncture holes for a camera and ... Sathesh-Kumar, T (1 February 2004). "Spilled gall stones during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a review of the literature". ... There are two surgical options for cholecystectomy: Open cholecystectomy is performed via an abdominal incision (laparotomy) ... The term is derived from the Greek words meaning 'breaking (or pulverizing) stones': litho- + τρίψω, tripso). Cholecystectomy ( ...
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been used to treat the condition when due to dyskinesia of the gallbladder. Symptoms may ... June 2008). "Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for biliary dyskinesia in children provides durable symptom relief". J. Pediatr. Surg ... Geiger TM (May 2008). "Prognostic indicators of quality of life after cholecystectomy for biliary dyskinesia". Am Surg. 74 (5 ... is considered to be diagnostic of biliary dyskinesia and suitable for cholecystectomy to be considered. ...
Cholecystectomy may be performed via an open incision or via laparoscopic methods, but gallbladder anatomy and consistency may ... Tomioka, T.; Tajima, Y.; Inoue, K.; Onizuka, S.; Ikematsu, Y.; Kanematsu, T. (March 1997). "Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Is a ... The first study reviewed 10,741 cholecystectomies and found that the 88 patients with gallbladder cancer did not have calcified ... Based on evidence in the current literature, a prophylactic cholecystectomy is not routinely recommended for all patients with ...
In another randomised controlled trial of skills transfer from Touch Surgery to laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the Touch Surgery ... From Touch Surgery to Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy". Journal of Surgical Research. 234: 217-223. doi:10.1016/j.jss.2018.09.042 ... for cognitive training and assessment of laparoscopic cholecystectomy". Surgical Endoscopy. 31 (10): 4058-4066. doi:10.1007/ ... app has proved effective for providing cognitive training in laparoscopic cholecystectomies to medical students. In October ...
The triangle is used to locate the cystic artery during a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The hepatobiliary triangle is the area ... The cystic artery lies within the hepatobiliary triangle, which is used to locate it during a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. It ... "Using a standardized method for laparoscopic cholecystectomy to create a concept operation-specific checklist". HPB. 16 (5): ...
The risk of biliary injury is higher during laparoscopic cholecystectomy than during open cholecystectomy. Biliary injury may ... It is most commonly an iatrogenic complication of cholecystectomy (surgical removal of the gallbladder), but can also be caused ...
... in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized double-blind controlled trial. ... postoperative analgesic efficacy of M-TAPA block performed before surgery in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy ( ...
Cholecystectomy, Gynecology, Urology, Endoscopy Surgery, General Surgery, Thoracic, Colorectal Surgery, Gastric Bypass, Lap ... OrthoGuru comes on the heels of LapGuru, the flagship product that has been widely appreciated by the laparoscopic surgeon ...
Explore trusted Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Specialists in Chandanagar. Visit the best gastroenterologist care at Medicover ... Consultant Surgical Gastroenterologist and Laparoscopic Surgeon10 AM - 4 PM*Exp:33+ Yrs ...
Click here to read the testimonials of patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed by Prof. Siba Senapati. ... Laparoscopic cholecystectomy Testimonials. *. My quality of life has definitely gone back to normal and I would most certainly ... Home » Patient Info » Upper GI Surgery » Upper GI Surgery Testimonials » Laparoscopic cholecystectomy Testimonials ...
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has rapidly become the procedure of choice for rou... ... equally true that no procedure has been more instrumental in ushering in the laparoscopic age than laparoscopic cholecystectomy ... Whereas it is true that no operation has been more profoundly affected by the advent of laparoscopy than cholecystectomy has, ... encoded search term (Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy) and Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy What to Read Next on Medscape ...
"Known Complication of the Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Procedure". Page name. Known Complication of the Laparoscopic ... Nucleus Medical Media (1969). Known complication of the laparoscopic cholecystectomy procedure [Digital image]. Retrieved from ... Citation styles for "Known Complication of the Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Procedure". AMA style. Nucleus Medical Media. Known ... "Known Complication of the Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Procedure." Nucleus Catalog. . 31 Dec 1969 19:00 EST. Nucleus Medical ...
Some factors may increase the rate of laparoscopic conversion to ... of gender as a risk factor for laparoscopic cholecystectomy is ... Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the preferable treatment for chronic or acute cholecystitis. ... Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the preferable treatment for chronic or acute cholecystitis. Some factors may increase the rate ... Of a total 1,645 patients who were subjected to laparoscopic cholecystectomy, 540 (32.8%) were men and 1,105 (67.2%) were women ...
Open or laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Traditionally, early open cholecystectomy was the initial treatment of choice acute ... Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for this condition was first described in 1994, and experience with this technique continues to ... Laparoscopic cholecystectomy: safe and feasible in emphysematous cholecystitis. Surg Laparosc Endosc. 1994 Jun. 4(3):189-91. [ ... Although laparoscopic cholecystectomy is feasible, there is no current comparative analysis to compare mortality and ...
Splenic rupture is an unusual but life-threatening complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. What went wrong for this ... Background Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is generally safe and well-accepted. In rare cases, it is associated with ... A Case of Splenic Rupture: A Rare Event After Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy. Girolamo Geraci; Antonino Picciurro; Andrea Attard ... laparoscopic exploration + Midline laparotomy with splenectomy. Discharged home one week following splenectomy. ...
Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the gold standard treatment for symptomatic gallbladder stone disease. This is ... Preoperative Predictors of Level of Difficulty of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.. Prem Chand, Manpreet Kaur, Sumit Bhandari. ... In spite of these, conversion to open cholecystectomy which is sometimes required in difficult cases could be challenging.. ...
R P Stone Clinic a well known Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Surgery in Delhi, Karnal, Sonipat, Rohtak, Jind, Gurugram, Gurgaon, ... If you are coming from Ajitgarh for the Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Surgery, R P Stone Clinic - a Panipat based Hospital, you ... Seeking for Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Surgery in Panipat? ... A Pioneer Center for Laparoscopic Gynecological Surgery in ...
Return to Article Details Factors affecting conversion rates in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a single surgeon study Download ...
Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy and Laparoscopic Surgery in Developing Countries. Udwadia received the SAGES Millennium Award from ... Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195629118. Udwadia, Tehemton E. (1997). Laparoscopic Surgery in ... Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195629118. Udwadia, Tehemton E. (1997). Laparoscopic Surgery in ... "Mumbai: Father of laparoscopic surgery in India nominated for Padma Bhushan , Latest News & Updates at Daily News & Analysis ...
Laparoscopic Gallbladder Removal (Cholecystectomy). *. Large Breasts. *. Laser Surgery. *. Liposuction. *. Mini Fift. *. Mini ...
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in cirrhotic patients. J Am Coll Surg. 1998 Oct. 187(4):400-3. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... several reports have described the successful performance of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients with Child Class A or B ... 66] Although cholecystectomy was among the riskier surgeries noted, ...
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in cirrhotic patients. J Am Coll Surg. 1998 Oct. 187(4):400-3. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... several reports have described the successful performance of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients with Child Class A or B ... 66] Although cholecystectomy was among the riskier surgeries noted, ...
Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Elective Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: a Systematic Review and N Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Elective ... versus placebo/no intervention in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy (eLCC) to prevent surgical site ... Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: a Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis. Gomez-Ospina, Juan Camilo; Zapata-Copete, James A ...
Laparoscopic Gallbladder Removal (Cholecystectomy) * View other providers who treat Laparoscopic Gallbladder Removal ( ... Laparoscopic Umbilical or Ventral Hernia Repair * View other providers who treat Laparoscopic Umbilical or Ventral Hernia ...
Transvaginal laparoscopic cholecystectomy: laparoscopically assisted. Surg Endosc, 22, 7, (Jul), 1432-2218. 1715. 1716. ... NOTES cholecystectomy: matched-pair analysis comparing the transvaginal hybrid and conventional laparoscopic techniques in a ... The duration of the hybrid transvaginal procedure was longer than the conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (52 vs. 35 ... 2010a) reported that by means of rigid laparoscopic instruments, transvaginal cholecystectomy can be routinely performed. ...
Laparoscopic gallbladder removal (cholecystectomy). *Laparoscopic gastric tube (G-tube) Insertion. *Laparoscopic pyloromyotomy ...
One patient underwent laparoscopic gastric sleeve and cholecystectomy. #Four patients underwent unspecified gastric sleeve and ... cholecystectomy. **Statistically significant difference compared with noncases; p,0.05. ††Persons who were interviewed reported ...
Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy. * Laparoscopic Fundoplication. * Laparoscopy. * Lapiplasty® 3D Bunion Correction™. * Laser Hair ...
Michael Brunt, "After 25 years of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, it is time to undertake the difficult issue of reducing bile ... It has been reported to occur in 0.2 to 1% of laparoscopic cholecystectomies. ... The SAGES Safe Cholecystectomy Task Force is designing its approach based on the results of a Delphi survey of SAGES leadership ... The SAGES Task Force on Safe Cholecystectomy is committed to this purpose and we look forward to working with the surgical ...
... laparoscopic cholecystectomy). Open gallbladder surgery is used when laparoscopic surgery cannot be done safely. In some cases ... Cholecystectomy - open; Gallbladder - open cholecystectomy; Cholecystitis - open cholecystectomy; Gallstones - open ... Bonds M, Rocha F. Cholecystectomy techniques and postoperative problems. In: Jarnagin WR, Allen PJ, Chapman WC, et al, eds. ... the surgeon needs to switch to an open surgery if laparoscopic surgery cannot be successfully continued. ...
... for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Udayasankar M, Udupi S, Shenoy A. Udayasankar M, et al. Among authors: udupi s. ...
Dexamethasone reduces nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. British journal of anaesthesia, 1999, 83(5):772-5 ... showed dexamethasone decreased nausea and vomiting from 63% to 23% in patients having laparoscopic cholecystectomy [16]. ... on laparoscopic surgery patients, the incidence of nausea and vomiting was 46% in the placebo group and 14% in the ... clinical trial of the effect of postoperative dexamethasone on nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. British ...
Learn about this rare anomaly and its implications in cholecystectomy. Read now! ... S. B. Archer, D. W. Brown, C. D. Smith, G. D. Branum and J. G. Hunter, "Bile Duct Injury during Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: ... "An Analysis of Perioperative Cholangiography in One Thousand Laparoscopic Cholecystectomies," Surgery, Vol. 122, No. 4, 1997, ... Cholecystectomy is the most common digestive tract surgery performed worldwide and injury to the bile duct leads to both acute ...
Laparoscopic Surgery: Appendectomy, Cholecystectomy, Hernioplasty. - Chest wall/pleural procedures. - GI endoscopy: Upper, & ...
... safety of laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be greatly improved in the aged patients. ...
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  • The primary purpose of the present study was to investigate the postoperative analgesic efficacy of M-TAPA block performed before surgery in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). (iasp-pain.org)
  • [ 4 ] Assuming all patients with emphysematous cholecystitis undergo surgery, this would indicate that at least 5,000 cholecystectomies are performed per year for emphysematous cholecystitis. (medscape.com)
  • If you are coming from Ajitgarh for the Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Surgery , R P Stone Clinic - a Panipat based Hospital, you can book your appointment by filling the enquiry form. (rpstoneclinic.com)
  • A Pioneer Center for Laparoscopic Gynecological Surgery in Haryana. (rpstoneclinic.com)
  • Tehemton Erach Udwadia (15 July 1934 - 7 January 2023) was an Indian surgeon and gastroenterologist, considered by many as the father of laparoscopic surgery in India. (wikipedia.org)
  • He has published over 90 articles in peer reviewed journals and is the author of two books, Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy and Laparoscopic Surgery in Developing Countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laparoscopic Surgery in Developing Countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Task Force plans also to support surgical decision-making around the timing of surgery for acute cholecystitis and the management of various difficult cholecystectomy scenarios. (sages.org)
  • Open gallbladder surgery is used when laparoscopic surgery cannot be done safely. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In some cases, the surgeon needs to switch to an open surgery if laparoscopic surgery cannot be successfully continued. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Comparison of perioperative patient comfort with 'enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) approach' versus 'traditional approach' for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. (nih.gov)
  • Cholecystectomy is the most common digestive tract surgery performed worldwide and injury to the bile duct lead s to both acute and chronic sequelae. (scirp.org)
  • S. B. Archer, D. W. Brown, C. D. Smith, G. D. Branum and J. G. Hunter, "Bile Duct Injury during Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: Results of a National Survey," Annals of Surgery, Vol. 234, No. 4, 2001, pp. 549-558. (scirp.org)
  • A Study of the Structures of the Cystohepatic Angle Encountered in Cholecystectomy and Supraduodenal Choledochostomy," American Journal of Surgery, Vol. 82, No. 1, 1951, pp. 132-143. (scirp.org)
  • Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair originated in the early 1990s as laparoscopy gained a foothold in general surgery. (bvsalud.org)
  • A National Institutes of Health consensus statement in 1992 stated that laparoscopic cholecystectomy provides a safe and effective treatment for most patients with symptomatic gallstones and has become the treatment of choice for many patients. (medscape.com)
  • Cholecystectomy is not indicated in most patients with asymptomatic (silent) gallstones, because only 2-3% of these patients go on to become symptomatic each year. (medscape.com)
  • Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has rapidly become the procedure of choice for routine gallbladder removal and is currently the most commonly performed major abdominal procedure in Western countries. (medscape.com)
  • SAGES seeks to create a universal culture of safety in cholecystectomy by educating residents, fellows, and practicing surgeons about technical steps to prevent bile duct injury, such as the Critical View of Safety and intraoperative biliary imaging. (sages.org)
  • Bile duct injury (BDI) can be a devastating complication of cholecystectomy, one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures in the world. (sages.org)
  • Laparoscopic cholecystectomy decreases postoperative pain, decreases the need for postoperative analgesia, shortens the hospital stay from 1 week to less than 24 hours, and returns the patient to full activity within 1 week (compared with 1 month after open cholecystectomy). (medscape.com)
  • For an accurate determination of the indications for elective cholecystectomy, the risk posed by the operation (with individual patient age comorbid factors taken into account) must be weighed against the risk of complications and death if the operation is not done. (medscape.com)
  • Inclusion criteria: Patients aged between 18 and 70 years, with the American Society of Anesthesiologists' physical status classification score (ASA) I-II, without mental or psychiatric defect, who were scheduled for elective cholecystectomy between March 2021 and July 2021 are included in the study. (who.int)
  • OrthoGuru comes on the heels of LapGuru , the flagship product that has been widely appreciated by the laparoscopic surgeon fraternity and now has a few thousand videos as well as registered surgeons. (lapguru.com)
  • Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the preferable treatment for chronic or acute cholecystitis. (revistaabcd.org.br)
  • All patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for chronic or acute cholecystitis were included. (revistaabcd.org.br)
  • Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has received nearly universal acceptance and is currently considered the criterion standard for the treatment of symptomatic cholelithiasis. (medscape.com)
  • Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the gold standard treatment for symptomatic gallbladder stone disease. (qxmd.com)
  • During the study period, 46 laparoscopic hernioplasties were performed consecutively in patients with inguinal hernia diagnosis and in five of them, videolaparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed in patients with inguinal hernia and symptomatic vesicular lithiasis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Data were obtained from the database of the statistics department and from the medical records collected from the archive of patients treated with TAPP laparoscopic hernioplasty at the National Hospital between June 2014 and August 2016. (bvsalud.org)
  • He has served as the president of the Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy of India, Association of Surgeons of India and the Society of Endoscopic and Laparoscopic Surgeons of Asia. (wikipedia.org)
  • it is sometimes treated with laparoscopic cholecystectomy or endoscopic sphincterotomy. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Whereas it is true that no operation has been more profoundly affected by the advent of laparoscopy than cholecystectomy has, it is equally true that no procedure has been more instrumental in ushering in the laparoscopic age than laparoscopic cholecystectomy has. (medscape.com)
  • The general indications for laparoscopic cholecystectomy are the same as those for the corresponding open procedure. (medscape.com)
  • According to SAGES President, Dr. Michael Brunt , "After 25 years of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, it is time to undertake the difficult issue of reducing bile duct injuries for this common procedure. (sages.org)
  • [ 3 , 4 ] Laparoscopic cholecystectomy also provides improved cosmesis and improved patient satisfaction as compared with open cholecystectomy . (medscape.com)
  • Some factors may increase the rate of laparoscopic conversion to open cholecystectomy and perioperative complications. (revistaabcd.org.br)
  • In spite of these, conversion to open cholecystectomy which is sometimes required in difficult cases could be challenging. (qxmd.com)
  • Hence, laparoscopic cholecystectomy was introduced and gained acceptance not through organized and carefully conceived clinical trials but through acclamation. (medscape.com)
  • However, the TAP block has also found clinical utility in procedures such as abdominal and inguinal hernia repair, radical prostatectomy, nephrectomy, and many different laparoscopic procedures in general. (medscape.com)
  • Ultrasound-guided bilateral modified-thoracoabdominal nerve block through a perichondrial approach (M-TAPA) in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized double-blind controlled trial. (iasp-pain.org)
  • Trials have shown that laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients in outpatient settings and those in inpatient settings recover equally well, indicating that a greater proportion of patients should be offered the outpatient modality. (medscape.com)
  • Of a total 1,645 patients who were subjected to laparoscopic cholecystectomy, 540 (32.8%) were men and 1,105 (67.2%) were women. (revistaabcd.org.br)
  • To determine the effectiveness and harms of using antibiotic prophylaxis (ABP) versus placebo/no intervention in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy (eLCC) to prevent surgical site infection (SSI). (bvsalud.org)
  • Cette étude clinique en double aveugle évaluait l'incidence des nausées et des vomissements après une chirurgie de la cataracte avec anesthésie par voie intraveineuse chez 100 patients auxquels un placebo (eau saline), du métoclopramide (10 mg), de la dexaméthasone (8 mg) ou les deux médicaments associés avaient été administrés de manière randomisée avant l'opération. (who.int)
  • L'association du métoclopramide et de la dexaméthasone a considérablement réduit les nausées et vomissements, non seulement en salle de réveil mais également dans les 24 heures qui suivent, et est recommandée pour les groupes à haut risque, notamment pour les patients opérés en ambulatoire. (who.int)
  • Background Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is generally safe and well-accepted. (medscape.com)
  • fueron realizadas 47 hernioplastias laparoscópicas de manera consecutiva, en pacientes con diagnóstico de hernia inguinal y en cinco de ellas fueron realizadas en el mismo acto operatorio la colecistectomía videolaparoscópica en pacientes con litiasis vesicular sintomática. (bvsalud.org)
  • The SAGES Task Force on Safe Cholecystectomy is committed to this purpose and we look forward to working with the surgical community to accomplish this goal. (sages.org)
  • Although direct operating room and recovery room costs are higher for laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the shortened length of hospital stay leads to a net savings. (medscape.com)
  • estudio retrospectivo de corte transversalde la base de datos del departamento de estadísticas y de las historias clínicas, de pacientes tratados con hernioplastia laparoscópica TAPP en el Hospital Nacional entre los meses de junio del 2014 a agosto del 2016.El seguimiento de los pacientes se realizó en los controles post operatorios. (bvsalud.org)
  • Please click on the link for strategies for minimizing bile duct injuries and a video by Dr. Michael Brunt introducing the SAGES Safe Cholecystectomy program. (sages.org)
  • The SAGES Safe Cholecystectomy Task Force is designing its approach based on the results of a Delphi survey of SAGES leadership and experts in cholecystectomy. (sages.org)
  • Male gender is not an independent risk factor for laparoscopic conversion and perioperative complications. (revistaabcd.org.br)
  • The role of gender as a risk factor for laparoscopic cholecystectomy is controversial. (revistaabcd.org.br)
  • There will be a half-day session devoted to preventing BDI and improving safety in cholecystectomy during the 2015 SAGES meeting. (sages.org)
  • In fact, with the higher rate of cholecystectomy in the laparoscopic era, the costs in the United States of treating gallstone disease may actually have increased. (medscape.com)
  • The most common way to remove the gallbladder is by using a medical instrument called a laparoscope ( laparoscopic cholecystectomy ). (medlineplus.gov)
  • An estimated 500,000 cholecystectomies are performed per year in the United States. (medscape.com)
  • En nuestra experiencia inicial la técnica Tapp presenta buenos resultados, similares a los que se describen en la literatura, y sin aumentar la comorbilidad al agregársele otros procedimientos video laparoscópicos simultánea. (bvsalud.org)

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