Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Sodium Cholate: A trihydroxy bile salt that is used as a digestive aid in dietary supplements. It is used in culture media and in conjunction with PAPAIN and PANCREATIN.Cholates: Salts and esters of CHOLIC ACID.Crowdsourcing: Social media model for enabling public involvement and recruitment in participation. Use of social media to collect feedback and recruit volunteer subjects.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Cholic Acid: A major primary bile acid produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption and cholesterol excretion.Cholic Acids: The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.Dictionaries, ChemicalVocabulary, Controlled: A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)Unilamellar Liposomes: Single membrane vesicles, generally made of PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Phosphatidylglycerols: A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Macrocyclic Compounds: Cyclic compounds with a ring size of approximately 1-4 dozen atoms.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Nanopores: Small holes of nanometer dimensions in a membrane, that can be used as single molecule detectors. The pores can be biological or synthetic.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Comamonas testosteroni: A species of gram-negative, aerobic rods formerly called Pseudomonas testosteroni. It is differentiated from other Comamonas species by its ability to assimilate testosterone and to utilize phenylacetate or maleate as carbon sources.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Secosteroids: Steroids in which fission of one or more ring structures and concomitant addition of a hydrogen atom at each terminal group has occurred.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Comamonas: A genus of gram-negative, straight or slightly curved rods which are motile by polar flagella and which accumulate poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate within the cells.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Calcitonin: A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Receptors, Calcitonin: Cell surface proteins that bind calcitonin and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Calcitonin receptors outside the nervous system mediate the role of calcitonin in calcium homeostasis. The role of calcitonin receptors in the brain is not well understood.Receptors, Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Cell surface proteins that bind CALCITONIN GENE-RELATED PEPTIDE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. CGRP receptors are present in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and the periphery. They are formed via the heterodimerization of the CALCITONIN RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN and RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 1.Calcitonin Receptor-Like Protein: A receptor protein that is associated with RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEINS. When bound to RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 1 it forms the CALCITONIN GENE-RELATED RECEPTOR. When bound to RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 2 or RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 3 it forms the ADRENOMEDULLIN RECEPTOR.Foramen Ovale, Patent: A condition in which the FORAMEN OVALE in the ATRIAL SEPTUM fails to close shortly after birth. This results in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. An isolated patent ovale foramen without other structural heart defects is usually of no hemodynamic significance.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Receptor, Insulin: A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.Lasers, Excimer: Gas lasers with excited dimers (i.e., excimers) as the active medium. The most commonly used are rare gas monohalides (e.g., argon fluoride, xenon chloride). Their principal emission wavelengths are in the ultraviolet range and depend on the monohalide used (e.g., 193 nm for ArF, 308 nm for Xe Cl). These lasers are operated in pulsed and Q-switched modes and used in photoablative decomposition involving actual removal of tissue. (UMDNS, 2005)EstersElectroplating: Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Sulfonium Compounds: Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.Microtechnology: Manufacturing technology for making microscopic devices in the micrometer range (typically 1-100 micrometers), such as integrated circuits or MEMS. The process usually involves replication and parallel fabrication of hundreds or millions of identical structures using various thin film deposition techniques and carried out in environmentally-controlled clean rooms.Photorefractive Keratectomy: A type of refractive surgery of the CORNEA to correct MYOPIA and ASTIGMATISM. An EXCIMER LASER is used directly on the surface of the EYE to remove some of the CORNEAL EPITHELIUM thus reshaping the anterior curvature of the cornea.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Angioplasty, Balloon, Laser-Assisted: Techniques using laser energy in combination with a balloon catheter to perform angioplasty. These procedures can take several forms including: 1, laser fiber delivering the energy while the inflated balloon centers the fiber and occludes the blood flow; 2, balloon angioplasty immediately following laser angioplasty; or 3, laser energy transmitted through angioplasty balloons that contain an internal fiber.

Acute effects of intravenous infusion of ApoA1/phosphatidylcholine discs on plasma lipoproteins in humans. (1/61)

To investigate the metabolism of nascent HDLs, apoA1/phosphatidylcholine (apoA1/PC) discs were infused IV over 4 hours into 7 healthy men. Plasma total apoA1 and phospholipid (PL) concentrations increased during the infusions. The rise in plasma apoA1 was greatest in small prebeta-migrating particles not present in the infusate. Total HDL unesterified cholesterol (UC) also increased simultaneously. After stopping the infusion, the concentrations of apoA1, PL, HDL UC, and small prebeta HDLs decreased, whereas those of HDL cholesteryl ester (CE) and large alpha-migrating apoA1 containing HDLs increased. ApoB-containing lipoproteins became enriched in CEs. Addition of apoA1/PC discs to whole blood at 37 degrees C in vitro also generated small prebeta HDLs, but did not augment the transfer of UC from erythrocytes to plasma. We conclude that the disc infusions increased the intravascular production of small prebeta HDLs in vivo, and that this was associated with an increase in the efflux and esterification of UC derived from fixed tissues. The extent to which the increase in tissue cholesterol efflux was dependent on that in prebeta HDL production could not be determined. Infusion of discs also reduced the plasma apoB and apoA2 concentrations, and increased plasma triglycerides and apoC3. Thus, nascent HDL secretion may have a significant impact on prebeta HDL production, reverse cholesterol transport and lipoprotein metabolism in humans.  (+info)

mrp, a multigene, multifunctional locus in Bacillus subtilis with roles in resistance to cholate and to Na+ and in pH homeostasis. (2/61)

A 5.9-kb region of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome is transcribed as a single transcript that is predicted to encode seven membrane-spanning proteins. Homologues of the first gene of this operon, for which the designation mrp (multiple resistance and pH adaptation) is proposed here, have been suggested to encode an Na+/H+ antiporter or a K+/H+ antiporter. In the present studies of the B. subtilis mrp operon, both polar and nonpolar mutations in mrpA were generated. Growth of these mutants was completely inhibited by concentrations of added Na+ as low as 0.3 M at pH 7.0 and 0.03 M at pH 8.3; there was no comparable inhibition by added K+. A null mutant that was constructed by full replacement of the mrp operon was even more Na+ sensitive. A double mutant with mutations in both mrpA and the multifunctional antiporter-encoding tetA(L) gene was no more sensitive than the mrpA mutants to Na+, consistent with a major role for mrpA in Na+ resistance. Expression of mrpA from an inducible promoter, upon insertion into the amyE locus, restored significant Na+ resistance in both the polar and nonpolar mrpA mutants but did not restore resistance in the null mutant. The mrpA disruption also resulted in an impairment of cytoplasmic pH regulation upon a sudden shift in external pH from 7.5 to 8.5 in the presence of Na+ and, to some extent, K+ in the range from 10 to 25 mM. By contrast, the mrpA tetA(L) double mutant, like the tetA(L) single mutant, completely lost its capacity for both Na+- and K+-dependent cytoplasmic pH regulation upon this kind of shift at cation concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 mM; thus, tetA(L) has a more pronounced involvement than mrpA in pH regulation. Measurements of Na+ efflux from the wild-type strain, the nonpolar mrpA mutant, and the complemented mutant indicated that inducible expression of mrpA increased the rate of protonophore- and cyanide-sensitive Na+ efflux over that in the wild-type in cells preloaded with 5 mM Na+. The mrpA and null mutants showed no such efflux in that concentration range. This is consistent with MrpA encoding a secondary, proton motive force-energized Na+/H+ antiporter. Studies of a polar mutant that leads to loss of mrpFG and its complementation in trans by mrpF or mrpFG support a role for MrpF as an efflux system for Na+ and cholate. Part of the Na+ efflux capacity of the whole mrp operon products is attributable to mrpF. Neither mrpF nor mrpFG expression in trans enhanced the cholate or Na+ resistance of the null mutant. Thus, one or more other mrp gene products must be present, but not at stoichiometric levels, for stability, assembly, or function of both MrpF and MrpA expressed in trans. Also, phenotypic differences among the mrp mutants suggest that functions in addition to Na+ and cholate resistance and pH homeostasis will be found among the remaining mrp genes.  (+info)

Substrates of multidrug resistance-associated proteins block the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chloride channel. (3/61)

1. The effects of physiological substrates of multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs) on cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channel currents were examined using patch clamp recording from CFTR-transfected mammalian cell lines. 2. Two MRP substrates, taurolithocholate-3-sulphate (TLCS) and beta-estradiol 17-(beta-D-glucuronide) (E217betaG) caused a voltage-dependent block of macroscopic CFTR Cl- currents when applied to the intracellular face of excised membrane patches, with mean apparent dissociation constants (KDs) of 96+/-10 and 563+/-103 microM (at 0 mV) respectively. The unconjugated bile salts taurocholate and cholate were also effective CFTR channel blockers under these conditions, with KDs of 453+/-44 and 3760+/-710 microM (at 0 mV) respectively. 3. Reducing the extracellular Cl- concentration from 154 to 20 mM decreased the KD for block intracellular TLCS to 54+/-1 microM, and also significantly reduced the voltage dependence of block, by suggesting that TLCS blocks Cl- permeation through CFTR by binding within the channel pore. 4. Intracellular TLCS reduced the apparent amplitude of CFTR single channel currents, suggesting that the duration of block is very fast compared to the gating of the channel. 5. The apparent affinity of block by TLCs is comparable to that of other well-known CFTR channel blockers, suggesting that MRP substrates may comprise a novel class of probes of the CFTR channel pore. 6. These results also suggest that the related proteins CFTR and MRP may share a structurally similar anion binding site at the cytoplasmic face of the membrane.  (+info)

Antimicrobial activities of amine- and guanidine-functionalized cholic acid derivatives. (4/61)

Compounds in a series of cholic acid derivatives, designed to mimic the activities of polymyxin B and its derivatives, act as both potent antibiotics and effective permeabilizers of the outer membranes of gram-negative bacteria. Some of these compounds rival polymyxin B in antibacterial activity against gram-negative bacteria and are also very active against gram-positive organisms. Other compounds interact synergistically with hydrophobic antibiotics to inhibit bacterial growth.  (+info)

Uptake of bromosulfophthalein via SO2-4/OH- exchange increases the K+ conductance of rat hepatocytes. (5/61)

In confluent primary cultures of rat hepatocytes, micromolar concentrations of bromosulfophthalein (BSP) lead to a sizeable hyperpolarization of membrane voltage. The effect is a saturable function of BSP concentration yielding an apparent value of 226 micromol/l and a Vmax of -10.3 mV. The BSP-induced membrane hyperpolarization is inhibited by the K+ channel blocker Ba2+, and in cable-analysis and ion-substitution experiments it becomes evident that the effect is due to a significant increase in cell membrane K+ conductance. Voltage changes were attenuated by the simultaneous administration of SO2-4, succinate, and cholate (cis-inhibition) and increased after preincubation with SO2-4 and succinate (trans-stimulation), suggesting that the effect occurs via BSP uptake through the known SO2-4/OH- exchanger. Microfluorometric measurements reveal that BSP-induced activation of K+ conductance is not mediated by changes in cell pH, cell Ca2+, or cell volume. It is concluded that K+ channel activation by BSP (as well as by DIDS and indocyanine green) may reflect a physiological mechanism linking the sinusoidal uptake of certain anions to their electrogenic canalicular secretion.  (+info)

Hyperlipidemia and atherosclerotic lesion development in LDL receptor-deficient mice fed defined semipurified diets with and without cholate. (6/61)

Past studies of atherosclerosis in mice have used chow-based diets supplemented with cholesterol, lipid, and sodium cholate to overcome species resistance to lesion formation. Similar diets have been routinely used in studies with LDL receptor-deficient (LDLR(-/-)) mice. The nonphysiological nature and potential toxicity of cholate-containing diets have led to speculation that atherogenesis in these mice may not accurately reflect the human disease process. We have designed a semipurified AIN-76A-based diet that can be fed in powdered, pelleted, or liquid form and manipulated for the precise evaluation of diet-genetic interactions in murine atherosclerosis. LDLR(-/-) mice were randomly assigned among 4 diets (n=6/diet) as follows: 1, control, 10% kcal lipid; 2, high fat (40% kcal), moderate cholesterol (0.5% by weight); 3, high fat, high cholesterol (1.25% by weight); and 4, high fat, high cholesterol, and 0.5% (wt/wt) sodium cholate. Fasting serum cholesterol was increased in all cholesterol-supplemented mice compared with controls after 6 or 12 weeks of feeding (P<0.01). The total area of oil red O-stained atherosclerotic lesions was determined from digitally scanned photographs. In contrast to the control group, all mice in cholesterol-supplemented dietary groups 2 to 4 had lesions involving 7.01% to 12.79% area of the thoracic and abdominal aorta at 12 weeks (P<0.002, for each group versus control). The distribution pattern of atherosclerotic lesions was highly reproducible and comparable. The histological features of lesions in mice fed cholate-free or cholate-containing diets were similar. This study shows that sodium cholate is not necessary for the formation of atherosclerosis in LDLR(-/-) mice and that precisely defined semipurified diets are a valuable tool for the examination of diet-gene interactions.  (+info)

Alterations in detergent solubility of heterotrimeric G proteins after chronic activation of G(i/o)-coupled receptors: changes in detergent solubility are in correlation with onset of adenylyl cyclase superactivation. (7/61)

Prolonged G(i/o) protein-coupled receptor activation has been shown to lead to receptor internalization and receptor desensitization. In addition, it is well established that although acute activation of these receptors leads to inhibition of adenylyl cyclase (AC), long-term activation results in increased AC activity (especially evident on removal of the inhibitory agonist), a phenomenon defined as AC superactivation or sensitization. Herein, we show that chronic exposure to agonists of G(i)-coupled receptors also leads to a decrease in cholate detergent solubility of G protein subunits, and that antagonist treatment after such chronic agonist exposure leads to a time-dependent reversal of the cholate insolubility. With Chinese hamster ovary and COS cells transfected with several G(i/o)-coupled receptors (i.e., mu- and kappa-opioid, and m(4)-muscarinic), we observed that although no overall change occurred in total content of G(alphai)- and beta(1)-subunits, chronic agonist treatment led to a marked reduction in the ability of 1% cholate to solubilize G(betagamma) as well as G(alphai). This solubility shift is exclusively observed with G(alphai), and was not seen with G(alphas). The disappearance and reappearance of G(alphai) and G(betagamma) subunits from and to the detergent-soluble fractions occur with similar time courses as observed for the onset and disappearance of AC superactivation. Lastly, pertussis toxin, which blocks acute and chronic agonist-induced AC inhibition and superactivation, also blocks the shift in detergent solubility. These results suggest a correlation between the solubility shift of the heterotrimeric G(i) protein and the generation of AC superactivation.  (+info)

Compaction of DNA in an anionic micelle environment followed by assembly into phosphatidylcholine liposomes. (8/61)

A difficult problem concerning the interaction of DNA with amphiphiles of opposite charge above their critical micelle concentration is the propensity for aggregation of the condensed DNA complexes. In this study, this problem was addressed by attenuating amphiphile charge density within a cholate micelle environment. The amphiphile consisted of a cationic peptide, acetyl-CWKKKPKK-amide, conjugated to dilaurylphos-phatidylethanolamine. In the presence of cholate, multiple equivalents of cationic charge were required to bring about the completion of DNA condensation. At the end point of condensation, stable, soluble DNA-micelle complexes were formed, which by dynamic light scattering exhibited apparent hydro-dynamic diameters between 30 and 60 nm. Aggregation, as measured by static light scattering at 90 degrees and by turbidity, was not observed until further additions of peptide-lipid conjugate were made beyond the end point of DNA condensation. Liposome complexes containing the non-aggregated, compacted DNA were formed by adding dioleoylphosphatidylcholine followed by removing the cholate by dialysis. The resulting complexes were distributed within a narrow density range, the DNA was quantitatively assembled into the liposomes, and liposomes without DNA were not detected. Small particles were formed with a mean hydrodynamic diameter of 77 nm. The liposomal DNA showed complete retention of its supercoiled form and no detectable sensitivity to DNase (25 U/10 microg DNA, 1.5 h, 37 degrees C). The use of an anionic, dialyzable amphiphile to attenuate charge inter-actions between DNA and cationic amphiphiles is a useful technology for the quantitative assembly of compacted DNA into conventional liposomes, with complete protection against nuclease activity.  (+info)

*Cholate-CoA ligase

... (EC 6.2.1.7, BAL, bile acid CoA ligase, bile acid coenzyme A ligase, choloyl-CoA synthetase, choloyl ... Cholate---CoA ligase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular Biology ... is an enzyme with systematic name cholate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction (1) ... ATP + cholate + CoA ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } AMP + diphosphate + choloyl-CoA (2) ATP + (25R)-3alpha,7alpha,12alpha ...

*Cholic acid

Salts of cholic acid are called cholates. Cholic acid, along with chenodeoxycholic acid, is one of the two major bile acids ...

*Nanodisc

Shih, A. Y.; Freddolino, P. L.; Sligar, S. G.; Schulten, K. (2007). "Disassembly of Nanodiscs with Cholate". Nano Letters. 7 (6 ...

*Monovalent cation:proton antiporter-3

YufF (MrpF) appears to catalyze cholate efflux, possibly by a Na+ symport mechanism. It plays a major role in Na+ extrusion and ... multifunctional locus in Bacillus subtilis with roles in resistance to cholate and to Na+ and in pH homeostasis". Journal of ... and alkali but not cholate resistance". Journal of Bacteriology. 182 (20): 5663-5670. doi:10.1128/jb.182.20.5663-5670.2000. ...

*5-HT3 antagonist

"Enantioseparation of palonosetron hydrochloride by micellar electrokinetic chromatography with sodium cholate as chiral ...

*Webb County, Texas

The fees were paid to the San Antonio firm Goode, Casseb, Jones, Riklin, Cholate & Watson. Additional amounts beyond the $ ...

*SLC27A5

"The human liver-specific homolog of very long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase is cholate:CoA ligase". J Biol Chem. 275 (21): 15605-8 ...

*COQ2

"Stimulation of polyprenyl 4-hydroxybenzoate transferase activity by sodium cholate and 3-[(cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1- ...

*Photolabile protecting group

"A Study of the Photochemical Response of o-Nitrobenzyl Cholate Derivatives in P(MMA-MAA) Matrices". Journal of Polymer Science ...

*SLC27A6

2000). "The human liver-specific homolog of very long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase is cholate:CoA ligase". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (21 ...

*Octyl glucoside

"The effect of octylglucoside and sodium cholate in Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa adhesion to soft ...

*Mass concentration (chemistry)

... cholate solution, 0.1 grams of cholate are dissolved in 10 ml of water. Volumetric flasks are the most appropriate piece of ...

*ABCB11

This particular protein is responsible for the transport of taurocholate and other cholate conjugates from hepatocytes (liver ...

*Liver biopsy

The best of these were the perfused hepatic mass (PHM) by quantitative liver spleen scan (QLSS) and oral Cholate clearance and ...

*Bile-acid 7alpha-dehydroxylase

... (EC 1.17.99.5, cholate 7alpha-dehydroxylase, 7alpha-dehydroxylase, bile acid 7-dehydroxylase) is ... cholate + NADH + H+ (2) lithocholate + NAD+ + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } chenodeoxycholate + NADH + H+ Bile-acid ...

*List of MeSH codes (D04)

... cholates MeSH D04.808.105.225.130.330.850 --- sodium cholate MeSH D04.808.105.225.261 --- dehydrocholic acid MeSH D04.808. ... cholates MeSH D04.808.221.430.130.330.850 --- sodium cholate MeSH D04.808.221.430.265 --- dehydrocholic acid MeSH D04.808. ...

*SLCO1B3

CDCA-NBD Cholate (CA) Cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) Dehydroepiandroserone-3-sulfate (DHEAS) Deltorphin II ...

*List of EC numbers (EC 6)

... cholate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.8: oxalate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.9: malate-CoA ligase EC 6.2.1.10: acid-CoA ligase (GDP-forming) EC ...

*Decellularization of porcine heart valve

Chemical treatments- anionic detergent: (Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)), sodium cholate, enzymatic agent (Trypsin), non-ionic ...

*Choloyl-CoA hydrolase

... cholate + CoA Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are choloyl-CoA and H2O, whereas its two products are cholate and CoA. ...

*BAL

... a measurement used by Australian Standard 3959 Cholate-CoA ligase, an enzyme Bangladesh Awami League, a political party in ...

*Organo anion transporter family

... taurocholate and cholate), steroid conjugates, thyroid hormones, anionic oligopeptides, drugs, toxins and other xenobiotics. ...

*Thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar

... which is a naturally occurring substance containing a mixture of bile salts and sodium cholate, a pure bile salt. Sodium ... liter Yeast extract 5.0 g Proteose Peptone 10.0 g Sodium thiosulfate 10.0 g Sodium citrate 10.0 g Ox gall 5.0 g Sodium cholate ...
The distribution and the metabolic pathways of bacteria degrading steroid compounds released by eukaryotic organisms were investigated using the bile salt cholate as model substrate. Cholate-degrading bacteria could be readily isolated from freshwater environments. All isolated strains transiently released steroid degradation intermediates into culture supernatants before their further degradation. Cholate degradation could be initiated via two different reaction sequences. Most strains degraded cholate via a reaction sequence known from the model organism Pseudomonas sp. strain Chol1 releasing intermediates with a 3-keto-Δ,sup,1,4,/sup,-diene structure of the steroid skeleton. The actinobacterium Dietzia sp. strain Chol2 degraded cholate via a different and yet unexplored reaction sequence releasing intermediates with a 3-keto-Δ,sup,4,6,/sup,-diene-7-deoxy structure of the steroid skeleton such as 3,12-dioxo-4,6-choldienoic acid (DOCDA). Using DOCDA as substrate, two Alphaproteobacteria, ...
Cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox2) total knockout and myeloid knockout (MKO) mice develop Crohns-like intestinal inflammation when fed cholate-containing high-fat diet (CCHF). We demonstrated that CCHF impaired intestinal barrier function and increased translocation of endotoxin, initiating TLR/MyD88-dependent inflammation in Cox2-KO but not WT mice. Cox2-MKO increased proinflammatory mediators in LPS-activated macrophages, and in the intestinal tissue and plasma upon CCHF challenge. Cox2-MKO also reduced inflammation resolving lipoxin A4 (LXA4) in intestinal tissue, whereas administration of an LXA4 analog rescued disease in Cox2-MKO mice fed CCHF. The apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1) mimetic 4F mitigated disease in both the Cox2-MKO/CCHF and piroxicam-accelerated Il10-/- models of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and reduced elevated levels of proinflammatory mediators in tissue and plasma. APOA1 mimetic Tg6F therapy was also effective in reducing intestinal inflammation in the Cox2-MKO/CCHF model. We further ...
Cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox2) total knockout and myeloid knockout (MKO) mice develop Crohns-like intestinal inflammation when fed cholate-containing high-fat diet (CCHF). We demonstrated that CCHF impaired intestinal barrier function and increased translocation of endotoxin, initiating TLR/MyD88-dependent inflammation in Cox2-KO but not WT mice. Cox2-MKO increased proinflammatory mediators in LPS-activated macrophages, and in the intestinal tissue and plasma upon CCHF challenge. Cox2-MKO also reduced inflammation resolving lipoxin A4 (LXA4) in intestinal tissue, whereas administration of an LXA4 analog rescued disease in Cox2-MKO mice fed CCHF. The apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1) mimetic 4F mitigated disease in both the Cox2-MKO/CCHF and piroxicam-accelerated Il10-/- models of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and reduced elevated levels of proinflammatory mediators in tissue and plasma. APOA1 mimetic Tg6F therapy was also effective in reducing intestinal inflammation in the Cox2-MKO/CCHF model. We further ...
... Brer ("Brother") Rabbit is a trickster character in folktales of African, African-American, and Native American Culture. Brer Rabbit is the consummate trickster, who typically matches wits with Brer Fox, whom he always bests. The Native American tribes of the eastern seaboard of
Get this from a library! Brer Rabbit in the Briar Patch.. -- Relates how the wily Brer Rabbit outwits Brer Fox who has set out to trap him.
New steroid compounds of the general formula: ##STR1## wherein X is a hydroxyl group and Y is a hydrogen atom, or X and Y, taken together, form an oxo group; each of the two R radicals is independently a hydrogen atom, acyl group, a silyl group, an alkoxycarbonyl group or a ...
Estrogens (also called Oestrogens) are steroid compounds that are important for development and functioning of females of the species. They are named so because they play an important role in the estrous cycle. Their name comes from estrus/oistros (period of fertility for female mammals) + gen/gonos = to generate.
Equipoise is a potent steroid compound that is widely used by the bodybuilders and other sportsmen. You should know everything about this drug in detail before making its use.
In this study, we report the ability of R. jostii RHA1 to synthesize and accumulate different storage compounds, including poly(3HB-co-3HV), TAG, wax esters, glycogen and polyP. We found that the RHA1 genome is remarkably rich in genes involved in storage lipid metabolism, with genes encoding 14 WS/DGATs, 54 lipases/esterases and three sets of PHA synthases/depolymerases. These results agree with previous observations in other actinomycetes, like M. tuberculosis, which devotes a large portion of its genome to genes involved in lipid metabolism [61].. Similarly to RHA1, M. tuberculosis contains 15 atf genes encoding WS/DGATs, [9]. Some of these genes, like rv3130c, show the highest induction and activity during hypoxia [9, 62]. Multiple atf genes were also identified in the genomes of other actinomycetes, including three in S. coelicolor [63], 10 in R. opacus [10], 12 in M. bovis AF2122/97, 8 in M. smegmatis mc2155, 5 in N. farcinica IFM 10152 and 4 in Nocardioides sp. JS614 [8]. By contrast, ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Brer (Brother) Rabbit is the main character of folktales told in the South; a tricky guy who outsmarts Brer Fox and Brer Bear who want to do him harm, a...
The title compound, C10H18N2OS, is found to adopt a conformation where the carbonyl bond of the acyl group and the C=S bond of the thiourea group are facing approximately opposite directions. The three C-N bonds in the molecule differ noticeably in length, the N-(C=S) bond on the acyl side being much longer than the corresponding bond on the opposite side of the molecule. © 2006 International Union of Crystallography All rights reserved.. ...
Pregnenolone is a naturally occurring metabolite that is made in your body. It is often referred to as the mother steroid compound because it is the basic raw material for all steroid hormones in the body.
A dissolution modification agent suitable for use in a photoresist composition including a polymer, a photoacid generator and casting solvent. The dissolution modification agent is insoluble in aqueous alkaline developer and inhibits dissolution of the polymer in the developer until acid is generated by the photoacid generator being exposed to actinic radiation, whereupon the dissolution modifying agent, at a suitable temperature, becomes soluble in the developer and allows the polymer to dissolve in the developer. The DMAs are glucosides, cholates, citrates and adamantanedicarboxylates protected with acid-labile ethoxyethyl, tetrahydrofuranyl, and angelicalactonyl groups.
ID Q0SKT7_RHOJR Unreviewed; 406 AA. AC Q0SKT7; DT 17-OCT-2006, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 17-OCT-2006, sequence version 1. DT 08-MAY-2019, entry version 69. DE SubName: Full=Transposase {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABG91849.1}; GN OrderedLocusNames=RHA1_ro00013 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABG91849.1}; OS Rhodococcus jostii (strain RHA1). OC Bacteria; Actinobacteria; Corynebacteriales; Nocardiaceae; OC Rhodococcus. OX NCBI_TaxID=101510 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABG91849.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000008710}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000008710} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=RHA1 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000008710}; RX PubMed=17030794; DOI=10.1073/pnas.0607048103; RA McLeod M.P., Warren R.L., Hsiao W.W.L., Araki N., Myhre M., RA Fernandes C., Miyazawa D., Wong W., Lillquist A.L., Wang D., RA Dosanjh M., Hara H., Petrescu A., Morin R.D., Yang G., Stott J.M., RA Schein J.E., Shin H., Smailus D., Siddiqui A.S., Marra M.A., RA Jones S.J.M., Holt R., Brinkman F.S.L., Miyauchi K., ...
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: An accumulation of ceramides has been implicated in the generation of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle upon an oversupply of fatty acid. Different ceramide species are generated through the actions of ceramide synthases (CerSs), which incorporate specific acyl side chains. We tested whether particular CerS isoforms promoted insulin resistance through the generation of more inhibitory ceramide species, thus representing potential targets for intervention. METHODS: CerS isoforms CerS1, CerS2, CerS4, CerS5 and CerS6 were overexpressed in L6 myotubes using adenovirus, and cells were treated with palmitate and stimulated with insulin. Alternatively, CerS isoforms were knocked down using siRNAs. Sphingolipids were examined by mass spectrometry and tracer incorporation. Phosphorylation of IRS1 and Akt was measured by immunoblotting, while glucose disposal was assessed by measuring GLUT4 translocation and the incorporation of [(14)C]glucose into glycogen. RESULTS: Palmitate treatment
Brer Rabbit Blackstrap Molasses (unsulphured nutrition facts and nutritional information. Find calories, carbs, and nutritional contents for Brer Rabbit Blackstrap Molasses (unsulphured and over 2,000,000 other foods at MyFitnessPal.com.
Brer Rabbit Mild Molasses* nutrition facts and nutritional information. Find calories, carbs, and nutritional contents for Brer Rabbit Mild Molasses* and over 2,000,000 other foods at MyFitnessPal.com.
Boldenone is also known under the trade names Equipoise, Ganabol, Equigan and Ultragan Equipoise makes you vascular and gives you strength. Youll lean out and youll have a boost your cardio. Body builders use it at the end with harderners. Equipoise is a steroid compound that can give users slow but steady gains...
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Shop for Brer Rabbit molasses products. Try it today in 3 flavors: Full, Mild and Blackstrap. Use Brer Rabbit as a sugar substitute when cooking and baking.
Currently, we are investigating how steroid-degrading bacteria like Rhodococcus jostii access water-insoluble steroid substrates like cholesterol, which normally occur in biological membranes. We are using a liposome-based model system with R. jostii and mutant strains. In addition, we are developing tools to explore bacterial genomes and environmental metagenomes for genes encoding steroid catabolism pathways in order to expand our knowledge of the diversity of steroid catabolism and the roles of steroid-degraders in diverse ecosystems.. ...
When we talk about plant sterols and stanols, what we are really talking about collectively are compounds that belong to the phytosterol class of plant substances. They are naturally occurring steroid compounds according to Wikipedia, and are found various forms in plants with over 200 different types identified. Not only are these compounds prolific among supplements to lower cholesterol, they are also added to foods in order to fortify them, and are commonly found in goods like orange juice and margarines. Plant sterols supplements have been proven both effective and safe in terms of lowering cholesterol numbers.. ...
When we talk about plant sterols and stanols, what we are really talking about collectively are compounds that belong to the phytosterol class of plant substances. They are naturally occurring steroid compounds according to Wikipedia, and are found various forms in plants with over 200 different types identified. Not only are these compounds prolific among supplements to lower cholesterol, they are also added to foods in order to fortify them, and are commonly found in goods like orange juice and margarines. Plant sterols supplements have been proven both effective and safe in terms of lowering cholesterol numbers.. ...
Mifepristone is a synthetic steroid compound used as a pharmaceutical. It is a progesterone receptor antagonist used as an abortifacient in the first months of pregnancy, and in smaller doses as an emergency contraceptive. Mifepristone is also a powerful glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, and has occasionally been used in refractory Cushings Syndrome (due to ectopic/neoplastic ACTH/Cortisol secretion). During early trials, it was known as RU-38486 or simply RU-486, its designation at the Roussel Uclaf company, which designed the drug. The drug was initially made available in France, and other countries then followed-often amid controversy. It is marketed under tradenames Mifegyne, Zacafemyl and Mifeprex. ...
Allergic contact dermatitis is the result of exposure to substances that sensitize the skin. Each time the foot is exposed to the substance, an inflammatory reaction occurs. Some people are allergic to the substances in sock dyes or certain shoe materials. Adhesive tapes can cause an allergic reaction with blisters or a rash developing beneath the tape. Because of the heat and the accumulation of moisture beneath the tape, an acute Athletes Foot infection can also be caused by an allergic reaction to the adhesive. Treatments include the use of cool compresses, topical steroid compounds (like hydrocortisone creams), and antifungal creams.. ...
Allergic contact dermatitis is the result of exposure to substances that sensitize the skin. Each time the foot is exposed to the substance, an inflammatory reaction occurs. Some people are allergic to the substances in sock dyes or certain shoe materials. Adhesive tapes can cause an allergic reaction with blisters or a rash developing beneath the tape. Because of the heat and the accumulation of moisture beneath the tape, an acute Athletes Foot infection can also be caused by an allergic reaction to the adhesive. Treatments include the use of cool compresses, topical steroid compounds (like hydrocortisone creams), and antifungal creams.. ...
SUGAR COOKIES (BRER RABBIT MOLASSES) recipe by Pat Simmons, is from The Standley Family Cookbook, one of the cookbooks created at FamilyCookbookProject.com. Family cookbooks are an important way to preserve our mealtime traditions for future generations with individual printed recipes or your own professionally printed cookbook.
Definition of cholate synthetase. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
Run rabbit, run! William Morris captures the classic trickster in a whimsical print. These picnic-ready leggings are great with snuggly jumpers, breezey blouses and your favourite boots. HWMF is that noise you make when you flip your hair and walk away dr
Steroids represent a category of natural merchandises with diverse curative belongingss. It has been observed that minor alterations in the molecular construction of steroids can impact their biological activity [ 4,5 ] . Hence legion research have been conducted to better the activity of bing steroid compounds and to synthesise fresh steroidal compounds with pharmacological activity, and therefore the most important country of these research is the transmutation of steroids utilizing biocatalysts.. Biotransformation could be defined as the alteration of an organic compound into a recoverable merchandise by chemical reactions catalysed by enzymes arising from a biological system [ 6 ] . It should be noted that the organic compound which is the substrate is non involved in the primary or secondary metamorphosis of the biological system concerned, and therefore distinguishes this procedure from biogenesis. The biotransformation of steroids is one of the most of import microbic procedures that are ...
TCS application on AD lesions does reduce Staphylococcus aureus bacterial load, likely via decreasing the inflammatory cytokines that inhibit antimicrobial peptide production. There is some worry that TCS may impair the process of wound healing and re-epithelialization, although excoriated and fissured lesions should be included in treatment given that the underlying inflammation and pruritus lead to these secondary changes. Allergic contact dermatitis/type IV hypersensitivity can develop to TCS or other ingredients in their formulations, such as propylene glycol and preservatives. This should be considered if lesions fail to respond as expected or worsen with application. Patch testing is needed to determine if the allergen is the steroid compound itself or a component of the vehicle. Development of tachyphylaxis is of concern for some practitioners, where the efficacy is thought to decrease with repeated use of the same agent, although data are lacking to suggest that this is a significant ...
New Supplement! Tame your testosterone with our new Estrogen supplement! Estrogen Is A Group Of Steroid Compounds, Important To The Estrous Cycle And Functions As The Primary Female Sex Hormone: Estradiol: Secreted Chiefly By The Ovaries. Most Potent Estrogen; Critical Impact On Reproductive And Sexual Functions; Affects Bone Structure. Estrone: An Estrogenic Hormone Secreted By The Ovary; Found Chiefly As A Metabolite Of Estradiol. Estriol: A Reduction Product Of Estrone And Estradiol. Dhea Is Converted To Estriol By The Placenta. Levels Are Usually Stable After Menopause. These estrogen drops help to increase estrogen levels. Use only as directed. One to ten drops under the tongue daily. Keep out of reach of children ...
The important Uncle Remus clinicians of the same rough download handbook of genetics volume 4 vertebrates of( American of them organized around the presentation pronunciation of Brer Rabbit and 1970s like Brer Fox, Brer Wolf, etc) promote Finally been on this t of product, nominated with initial Cherokee leaders( although they was digitally Fridays been by quantitative Americans like Joel Chandler Harris). Brer Lion explore a download handbook of genetics volume 4 vertebrates, an eh average Brer Goat duh orientation points- everyone many country duh wuk eh vision an der time. Wen eh download handbook of genetics patient crowd 17th eh right organizations same.
Weve certainly enjoyed our fill of homemade molasses cookies this holiday season. Granny graciously sent up a few batches and then Rachel requested the recipe. So Granny and Poppa shared the recipe and a few tips with us. The first major tip is that Brer Rabbit molasses has the best flavor. In fact this recipe was originally taken off the Brer Rabbit molasses bottle. This recipe does produce a rather large batch; next time we will probably halve it. Here is the recipe as Poppa emailed it to us ...
Cable news has created an entirely new breed of blowhards -- and the style has infected banking and even the arts. The following is an excerpt from
Author summary The anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a prominent pathogen in hospitals worldwide and the leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea. Numerous risk factors are associated with C. difficile infections (CDIs) including: antibiotics, advanced age, vitamin D deficiency, and proton pump inhibitors. Antibiotic use disrupts the intestinal microbiota allowing for C. difficile to colonize, however, why these other risk factors increase CDI incidence is unclear. Notably, deficient intestinal calcium absorption (i.e., increased calcium levels) is associated with these risk factors. In this work, we investigate the role of calcium in C. difficile spore germination. C. difficile spores are the infectious particles and they must become metabolically active (germinate) to cause disease. Here, we show that calcium is required for C. difficile germination, specifically activating the key step of cortex hydrolysis, and that this calcium can be derived from either within
TCS application on AD lesions does reduce Staphylococcus aureus bacterial load, likely via decreasing the inflammatory cytokines that inhibit antimicrobial peptide production. There is some worry that TCS may impair the process of wound healing and re-epithelialization, although excoriated and fissured lesions should be included in treatment given that the underlying inflammation and pruritus lead to these secondary changes. Allergic contact dermatitis/type IV hypersensitivity can develop to TCS or other ingredients in their formulations, such as propylene glycol and preservatives. This should be considered if lesions fail to respond as expected or worsen with application. Patch testing is needed to determine if the allergen is the steroid compound itself or a component of the vehicle. Development of tachyphylaxis is of concern for some practitioners, where the efficacy is thought to decrease with repeated use of the same agent, although data are lacking to suggest that this is a significant ...
TCS application on AD lesions does reduce Staphylococcus aureus bacterial load, likely via decreasing the inflammatory cytokines that inhibit antimicrobial peptide production. There is some worry that TCS may impair the process of wound healing and re-epithelialization, although excoriated and fissured lesions should be included in treatment given that the underlying inflammation and pruritus lead to these secondary changes. Allergic contact dermatitis/type IV hypersensitivity can develop to TCS or other ingredients in their formulations, such as propylene glycol and preservatives. This should be considered if lesions fail to respond as expected or worsen with application. Patch testing is needed to determine if the allergen is the steroid compound itself or a component of the vehicle. Development of tachyphylaxis is of concern for some practitioners, where the efficacy is thought to decrease with repeated use of the same agent, although data are lacking to suggest that this is a significant ...
... (also known as methandrostenolone, Dbol, dianabol) is an orally-effective anabolic steroid originally developed in Germany and released in the US in the early 1960s by Ciba Specialty Chemicals. This is a derivative from testosterone, one of the most popular steroid compounds in the world and the second steroid (after testosterone) ever produced. Methandienone promotes dramatic increases in protein synthesis, glycogenolysis, and muscle strength over a short space of time. It also has the effect of decreasing the steroids affinity for sex hormone binding globulin. As a result, methandrostenolone is significantly more active than an equivalent quantity of testosterone, resulting in rapid growth of muscle tissue. However, the concomitant elevation in estrogen levels - a result of the aromatization of methandrostenolone - results in significant water retention. Hence, do not forget to perform blood works and use an aromatase inhibitor.. In summary, this is a very good drug, and a ...
chemBlink provides information about CAS # 1338221-87-6, (3alpha,17beta)-4-Chloro-17-methylandrosta-1,4-diene-3,17-diol, molecular formula: C20H29ClO2.
Susto-Test Depot Ingredients: 17a-methyl-androst-1 4-diene-3-17b-diol 100 mg Estra-4, 9-diene-3, 17-dione 75 mg 6,7 dihydroxybergamottin (DHB) 155 mg
Comme Basnage, lhistorien juif du dix-neuvième siècle Graetz a pu imaginer plus dune explication de la loi de Théodose de 408 interdisant de se moquer du christianisme et de ses symboles lors de la fête de Pourim. « En ce jour », écrit-il, « les jeunes lurons [ lustige Jugend ] étaient habitués davoir à la main une effigie du pire ennemi des Juifs, Haman, sur une potence (gibet), et cette potence, quil était coutume de brûler, avait, soit par dessein, soit par accident, la forme dune croix ». (Nous soulignons). Son contemporain, cependant, Ferdinand Gregorovius, lhistorien de Rome né en Prusse, a présenté la question dune façon un peu plus unilatérale. Gregorovius, contrairement à Graetz, appartenait à lécole qui avait tendance à considérer les Juifs comme étant eux-mêmes « responsables du mépris » dont ils faisaient souvent lobjet. Il est fortement étonnant, donc, quil a vu la loi de Théodose comme interdisant aux Juifs « de célébrer une certain fête ...
Buy high quality 16α,17-Epoxy-21-hydroxypregna-4,9(11)-diene-3,20-dione Acetate 115034-45-2 from toronto research chemicals Inc.
Find quality suppliers and manufacturers of 1420-49-1(Androsta-3,5-diene-7,17-dione) for price inquiry. where to buy 1420-49-1(Androsta-3,5-diene-7,17-dione).Also offer free database of 1420-49-1(Androsta-3,5-diene-7,17-dione) including MSDS sheet(poisoning, toxicity, hazards and safety),chemical properties,Formula, density and structure, solution etc.

Cholate synthetase definition | Drugs.comCholate synthetase definition | Drugs.com

Definition of cholate synthetase. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/dict/cholate-synthetase.html

Cholate-CoA ligase - WikipediaCholate-CoA ligase - Wikipedia

Cholate-CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.7, BAL, bile acid CoA ligase, bile acid coenzyme A ligase, choloyl-CoA synthetase, choloyl ... Cholate---CoA ligase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular Biology ... is an enzyme with systematic name cholate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction (1) ... ATP + cholate + CoA ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } AMP + diphosphate + choloyl-CoA (2) ATP + (25R)-3alpha,7alpha,12alpha ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cholate%E2%80%94CoA_ligase

Effect of sodium deoxycholate and sodium cholate on DPPC vesicles: A fluorescence anisotropy study with diphenylhexatriene |...Effect of sodium deoxycholate and sodium cholate on DPPC vesicles: A fluorescence anisotropy study with diphenylhexatriene |...

... and sodium cholate (NaC), on DPPC small unilamellar vesicles have been investigated using the steady-state fluorescence ... Effects of two bile salts, namely sodium deoxycholate (NaDC) and sodium cholate (NaC), on DPPC small unilamellar vesicles have ... Effect of sodium deoxycholate and sodium cholate on DPPC vesicles: A fluorescence anisotropy study with diphenylhexatriene. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12039-007-0024-6

Hyperlipidemia and Atherosclerotic Lesion Development in LDL Receptor Deficient Mice Fed Defined Semipurified Diets With and...Hyperlipidemia and Atherosclerotic Lesion Development in LDL Receptor Deficient Mice Fed Defined Semipurified Diets With and...

The histological features of lesions in mice fed cholate-free or cholate-containing diets were similar. This study shows that ... Past studies of atherosclerosis in mice have used chow-based diets supplemented with cholesterol, lipid, and sodium cholate to ... The nonphysiological nature and potential toxicity of cholate-containing diets have led to speculation that atherogenesis in ... sodium cholate. Fasting serum cholesterol was increased in all cholesterol-supplemented mice compared with controls after 6 or ...
more infohttps://dash.harvard.edu/handle/1/35140985

Cholate ionic detergent, sodium saltCholate ionic detergent, sodium salt

Use Cholate in diagnostic reagents, such as for the determination of cholesterol and triglycerides.. +- ...
more infohttps://custombiotech.roche.com/home/Product_Details/3_2_16_1_36_1.html

Studies on mono amine oxidase part 44 effect of sodium cholate on mitochondrial mono amine oxidase from rabbit liver - Request...Studies on mono amine oxidase part 44 effect of sodium cholate on mitochondrial mono amine oxidase from rabbit liver - Request...

Studies on mono amine oxidase part 44 effect of sodium cholate on mitochondrial mono amine oxidase from rabbit liver ... Sodium cholate had no effect on MAO activity in rabbit serum. The pH optimum and pS maximum for tyramine were not changed when ... Sodium cholate acted as an uncompetitive inhibitor for tyramine and benzylamine oxidation. After addition of various ... When 50 mM sodium cholate was added, 50% of the activities were found in each fraction with tyramine as substrate, while when ...
more infohttps://eurekamag.com/research/006/509/006509723.php

Cholate:SCnc:Pt:Ser:Qn - Semantic ScholarCholate:SCnc:Pt:Ser:Qn - Semantic Scholar

Crystals of calcium cholate chloride heptahydrate, CaC24H39O7Cl . 7H2O, are monoclinic, space group P2(1), with a = 11.918(2), ... Identification of a thiolase gene essential for β-oxidation of the acyl side chain of the steroid compound cholate in ... The conformations of three cholate foldamers and one molecular basket were studied by fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy. In… ( ... FLAG- and HA-tagged M2 muscarinic receptors from coinfected Sf9 cells have been purified in digitonin-cholate and reconstituted ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/topic/Cholate%3ASCnc%3APt%3ASer%3AQn/6684105

Precursor and ProductPrecursor and Product

... sodium cholate Precursor products, sodium cholate Downstream products ect. ... Current Page: Home › Chemical Dictionary › 361-09-1 › sodium cholate 361-09-1 Precursor and Products ...
more infohttp://www.molbase.com/en/precursor_361-09-1-moldata-46375.html

benzene-1,4-diboronic acid/sodium cholate coated single-walled carbon nanotubesbenzene-1,4-diboronic acid/sodium cholate coated single-walled carbon nanotubes

4-diboronic acid/sodium cholate coated single-walled carbon nanotubes . It has composition images, properties, Characterization ... benzene-1,4-diboronic acid/sodium cholate coated single-walled carbon nanotubes. ...
more infohttps://nano.nature.com/nano/GR-M328302?error=cookies_not_supported&code=19180572-0950-4d19-ac6c-b94cd5b82a25

Gentaur Molecular :EIAab \ Acsb,BA-CoA ligase,BACS,BAL,Bile acid-CoA ligase,Bile acyl-CoA synthetase,Cholate--CoA ligase,Fatp5...Gentaur Molecular :EIAab \ Acsb,BA-CoA ligase,BACS,BAL,Bile acid-CoA ligase,Bile acyl-CoA synthetase,Cholate--CoA ligase,Fatp5...

Cholate--CoA ligase,Fatp5,FATP-5,Fatty acid transport protein 5,Rat,Rattus norvegicus,Slc27a5,Solute carrier family 27 member ... Product name : Acsb,BA-CoA ligase,BACS,BAL,Bile acid-CoA ligase,Bile acyl-CoA synthetase,Cholate--CoA ligase,Fatp5,FATP-5,Fatty ... Index / EIAab / Acsb,BA-CoA ligase,BACS,BAL,Bile acid-CoA ligase,Bile acyl-CoA synthetase,Cholate--CoA ligase,Fatp5,FATP-5, ... EIAAB36859 Acsb,BA-CoA ligase,BACS,BAL,Bile acid-CoA ligase,Bile acyl-CoA synthetase,Cholate--CoA ligase,Fatp5,FATP-5,Fatty ...
more infohttp://www.antibody-antibodies.com/product2888194-search-Acsb,BA_CoA_ligase,BACS,BAL,Bile_acid_CoA_ligase,Bile_acyl_CoA_synthetase,Cholate__CoA_ligase,Fatp5,FATP_5,Fatty_acid_transport_protein_5,Rat,Rattus_norvegicus,Slc27a5,Solute_carrier_family_27_member_.html

in cholesterol-loaded POPC/POPG large unilamellar vesicle macrocyclic cholate trimer transmembrane nanoporein cholesterol-loaded POPC/POPG large unilamellar vesicle macrocyclic cholate trimer transmembrane nanopore

Page contains details about in cholesterol-loaded POPC/POPG large unilamellar vesicle macrocyclic cholate trimer transmembrane ... in cholesterol-loaded POPC/POPG large unilamellar vesicle macrocyclic cholate trimer transmembrane nanopore. ...
more infohttp://nano.nature.com/nano/GR-M198051

Evidence of distinct pathways for bacterial degradation of the steroid compound cholate suggests the potential for metabolic...Evidence of distinct pathways for bacterial degradation of the steroid compound cholate suggests the potential for metabolic...

Cholate degradation could be initiated via two different reaction sequences. Most strains degraded cholate via a reaction ... Cholate degradation could be initiated via two different reaction sequences. Most strains degraded cholate via a reaction ... strain Chol2 degraded cholate via a different and yet unexplored reaction sequence releasing intermediates with a 3-keto-Δ4,6- ... strain Chol2 degraded cholate via a different and yet unexplored reaction sequence releasing intermediates with a 3-keto-Δ,sup, ...
more infohttps://kops.uni-konstanz.de/handle/123456789/28424

GMD - Sodium cholate hydrate - InChI=1S/C24H40O5.Na.H2O/c1-13(4-7-21(28)29)16-5-6-17-22-18(12-20(27)24(16,17)3)23(2)9-8-15(25...GMD - Sodium cholate hydrate - InChI=1S/C24H40O5.Na.H2O/c1-13(4-7-21(28)29)16-5-6-17-22-18(12-20(27)24(16,17)3)23(2)9-8-15(25...

Replica of Sodium cholate hydrate. reference substance. supplier. supplier code. lot. Sodium cholate hydrate. Sigma. C1254. ... Details Sodium cholate hydrate. rotate: click+drag; translate: alt. +click+drag; zoom: mousewheel; save: mol ...
more infohttp://gmd.mpimp-golm.mpg.de/ReferenceSubstances/8077C658-415D-4E05-B3D5-9E3C3DE14876.aspx

Thorntons Chocolate Heart Lollipop Reviews
				

				
				
			
			| IWOOT
		
	Thorntons Chocolate Heart Lollipop Reviews | IWOOT

thortons cholate heart lollipop. 4 This Thorntons Chocolate Heart Lollipop was a really good buy. Really yummy chocolate. ...
more infohttps://www.iwantoneofthose.com/gift-home-office/thorntons-chocolate-heart-lollipop/10586822.reviews

Detergent extraction of erythrocyte ghost... & related info | MendeleyDetergent extraction of erythrocyte ghost... & related info | Mendeley

3. 3. The cholate residue gave a trilamellar image by electron microscopy and in condensed form gave a smaller membrane repeat ... 2. 2. Treatment with cholate, glycocholate, taurocholate, or with Triton X-100 gave lipid-depleted residues. These could still ... Comparison of residues after cholate and Triton x-100 treatments. *Coleman R ...
more infohttps://www.mendeley.com/papers/detergent-extraction-erythrocyte-ghosts-comparison-residues-after-cholate-triton-x100-treatments/

Surfactant Chemicals |  Lab Fine Chemicals | Spectrum ChemicalSurfactant Chemicals | Lab Fine Chemicals | Spectrum Chemical

Sodium Cholate, Reagent SO162 , 361-09-1 , C24H39NaO5 , Spectrum Chemical Sodium Cholate, Reagent The Reagent grade denotes ...
more infohttps://www.spectrumchemical.com/OA_HTML/Chemicals_Fine-Chemicals_Organic_Surfactants.jsp?section=10232&beginIndex=

cholic acid (CHEBI:16359)cholic acid (CHEBI:16359)

cholate salt (CHEBI:23169) has functional parent cholic acid (CHEBI:16359). cholic acid 24-O-(β-D-glucuronide) (CHEBI:137791) ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:41494

Patent US20100105624 - Calcitonin drug-oligomer conjugates, and uses thereof - Google PatentsPatent US20100105624 - Calcitonin drug-oligomer conjugates, and uses thereof - Google Patents

The sodium cholate was slowly added to the phosphate buffer with stirring until dissolved. The deoxy cholate was then added and ...
more infohttp://www.google.co.uk/patents/US20100105624

INFLUENZA VACCINES INCLUDING COMBINATIONS OF PARTICULATE ADJUVANTS AND IMMUNOPOTENTIATORS - NOVARTIS VACCINES AND DIAGNOSTICS...INFLUENZA VACCINES INCLUDING COMBINATIONS OF PARTICULATE ADJUVANTS AND IMMUNOPOTENTIATORS - NOVARTIS VACCINES AND DIAGNOSTICS...

... sodium cholate; deoxycholic acid; sodium deoxycholate; taurocholic acid; sodium taurocholate; taurodeoxycholic acid; sodium ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2009/0304739.html

COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR TREATING OBESITY - Zadini, Filiberto P.COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR TREATING OBESITY - Zadini, Filiberto P.

... sodium cholate; methyl cholate; benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium cholate; methyl 1,3-dihydroxycholan-24-o ate; and ... trioctylmethylammonium cholate); cholic acid glucuronide; cholyl-coenzyme A; cholyl-lysylfluorescein; cholyldiglycylhistamine; ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2011/0086829.html

hdhA - 7-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase - Escherichia coli (strain K12) - hdhA gene & proteinhdhA - 7-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase - Escherichia coli (strain K12) - hdhA gene & protein

Catalyzes the oxidation of the 7-alpha-hydroxy group of primary bile acids such as cholate, chenodeoxycholate and ... cholate 7-alpha-dehydrogenase activity Source: UniProtKB ,p>Inferred from Direct Assay,/p> ,p>Used to indicate a direct assay ... S → A or H: Reduction of the catalytic efficiency by over 65%. No effect on the affinity for cholate and NAD. 1 Publication. ... Y → H: Reduction of the catalytic efficiency by 87.7%. No effect on the affinity for cholate and NAD. 1 Publication. Manual ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P0AET8

Implication of sortase-dependent proteins of Streptococcus thermophilus in adhesion to human intestinal epithelial cell lines...Implication of sortase-dependent proteins of Streptococcus thermophilus in adhesion to human intestinal epithelial cell lines...

... and cholate). The effect of mutations in prtS (protease), mucBP (MUCin-Binding Protein), and srtA genes in ST LMD-9 in these ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00253-016-7322-1
  • This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction (1) ATP + cholate + CoA ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } AMP + diphosphate + choloyl-CoA (2) ATP + (25R)-3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestan-26-oate + CoA ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } AMP + diphosphate + (25R)-3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestanoyl-CoA This enzyme requires Mg2+ for activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • ATP + cholate + CoA = AMP + diphosphate + choloyl-CoA. (uniprot.org)
  • strain Chol2 degraded cholate via a different and yet unexplored reaction sequence releasing intermediates with a 3-keto-Δ 4,6 -diene-7-deoxy structure of the steroid skeleton such as 3,12-dioxo-4,6-choldienoic acid (DOCDA). (uni-konstanz.de)
  • The nonphysiological nature and potential toxicity of cholate-containing diets have led to speculation that atherogenesis in these mice may not accurately reflect the human disease process. (harvard.edu)
  • This study shows that sodium cholate is not necessary for the formation of atherosclerosis in LDLR−/− mice and that precisely defined semipurified diets are a valuable tool for the examination of diet-gene interactions. (harvard.edu)