Inflammation of the biliary ductal system (BILE DUCTS); intrahepatic, extrahepatic, or both.
Chronic inflammatory disease of the BILIARY TRACT. It is characterized by fibrosis and hardening of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary ductal systems leading to bile duct strictures, CHOLESTASIS, and eventual BILIARY CIRRHOSIS.
A rare, slowly progressive encephalitis caused by chronic infection with the MEASLES VIRUS. The condition occurs primarily in children and young adults, approximately 2-8 years after the initial infection. A gradual decline in intellectual abilities and behavioral alterations are followed by progressive MYOCLONUS; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; autonomic dysfunction; and ATAXIA. DEATH usually occurs 1-3 years after disease onset. Pathologic features include perivascular cuffing, eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions, neurophagia, and fibrous gliosis. It is caused by the SSPE virus, which is a defective variant of MEASLES VIRUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp767-8)
A pathological process consisting of hardening or fibrosis of an anatomical structure, often a vessel or a nerve.
A benign neoplasm of pneumocytes, cells of the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Originally considered to be vascular in origin, it is now classified as an epithelial tumor with several elements, including solid cellular areas, papillary structure, sclerotic regions, and dilated blood-filled spaces resembling HEMANGIOMA.
FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to obstruction of BILE flow (CHOLESTASIS) in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC; BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile secretion. Secondary biliary cirrhosis is produced by prolonged obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts from a variety of causes.
Fiberoptic endoscopy designed for duodenal observation and cannulation of VATER'S AMPULLA, in order to visualize the pancreatic and biliary duct system by retrograde injection of contrast media. Endoscopic (Vater) papillotomy (SPHINCTEROTOMY, ENDOSCOPIC) may be performed during this procedure.
The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.
Gastrointestinal agents that stimulate the flow of bile into the duodenum (cholagogues) or stimulate the production of bile by the liver (choleretic).
An epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a mammalian bile acid found first in the bear and is apparently either a precursor or a product of chenodeoxycholate. Its administration changes the composition of bile and may dissolve gallstones. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.
Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.
Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.
Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).
An imaging test of the BILIARY TRACT in which a contrast dye (RADIOPAQUE MEDIA) is injected into the BILE DUCT and x-ray pictures are taken.
Chemical agents injected into blood vessels and lymphatic sinuses to shrink or cause localized THROMBOSIS; FIBROSIS, and obliteration of the vessels. This treatment is applied in a number of conditions such as VARICOSE VEINS; HEMORRHOIDS; GASTRIC VARICES; ESOPHAGEAL VARICES; PEPTIC ULCER HEMORRHAGE.
A malignant tumor arising from the epithelium of the BILE DUCTS.
A benign tumor of the intrahepatic bile ducts.
Non-invasive diagnostic technique for visualizing the PANCREATIC DUCTS and BILE DUCTS without the use of injected CONTRAST MEDIA or x-ray. MRI scans provide excellent sensitivity for duct dilatation, biliary stricture, and intraductal abnormalities.
A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tokyo" is not a medical term that has a specific definition in the field of medicine. Tokyo is actually the capital city of Japan and is not used as a term in medicine.
Diseases in any part of the ductal system of the BILIARY TRACT from the smallest BILE CANALICULI to the largest COMMON BILE DUCT.
A defective variant of MEASLES VIRUS that has been isolated from the brain tissue of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.
Surgical formation of an opening (stoma) into the COMMON BILE DUCT for drainage or for direct communication with a site in the small intestine, primarily the DUODENUM or JEJUNUM.
Inflammation of the COLON that is predominantly confined to the MUCOSA. Its major symptoms include DIARRHEA, rectal BLEEDING, the passage of MUCUS, and ABDOMINAL PAIN.
Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Operation for biliary atresia by anastomosis of the bile ducts into the jejunum or duodenum.
Surgical formation of an opening through the ABDOMINAL WALL into the JEJUNUM, usually for enteral hyperalimentation.
Solid crystalline precipitates in the BILIARY TRACT, usually formed in the GALLBLADDER, resulting in the condition of CHOLELITHIASIS. Gallstones, derived from the BILE, consist mainly of calcium, cholesterol, or bilirubin.
Incision of Oddi's sphincter or Vater's ampulla performed by inserting a sphincterotome through an endoscope (DUODENOSCOPE) often following retrograde cholangiography (CHOLANGIOPANCREATOGRAPHY, ENDOSCOPIC RETROGRADE). Endoscopic treatment by sphincterotomy is the preferred method of treatment for patients with retained or recurrent bile duct stones post-cholecystectomy, and for poor-surgical-risk patients that have the gallbladder still present.
INFLAMMATION of the underlying layer of ADIPOSE TISSUE (panniculus) of the PERITONEUM, usually of the MESENTERY or the OMENTUM. There are several forms with various names and are usually characterized by infiltration of LYMPHOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS, fat NECROSIS, and FIBROSIS.
A slowly progressive condition of unknown etiology, characterized by deposition of fibrous tissue in the retroperitoneal space compressing the ureters, great vessels, bile duct, and other structures. When associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm, it may be called chronic periaortitis or inflammatory perianeurysmal fibrosis.
Acute inflammation of the GALLBLADDER wall. It is characterized by the presence of ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and LEUKOCYTOSIS. Gallstone obstruction of the CYSTIC DUCT is present in approximately 90% of the cases.
The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.
The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.
Jaundice, the condition with yellowish staining of the skin and mucous membranes, that is due to impaired BILE flow in the BILIARY TRACT, such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS, or EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS.
Inflammation of the GALLBLADDER; generally caused by impairment of BILE flow, GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, infections, or other diseases.
The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
Predominantly extrahepatic bile duct which is formed by the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts, which are predominantly intrahepatic, and, in turn, joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct.
INFLAMMATION of salivary tissue (SALIVARY GLANDS), usually due to INFECTION or injuries.
Progressive destruction or the absence of all or part of the extrahepatic BILE DUCTS, resulting in the complete obstruction of BILE flow. Usually, biliary atresia is found in infants and accounts for one third of the neonatal cholestatic JAUNDICE.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*08 allele family.
Passages external to the liver for the conveyance of bile. These include the COMMON BILE DUCT and the common hepatic duct (HEPATIC DUCT, COMMON).
Diseases of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.
A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
HLA-DR antigen subtypes that have been classified according to their affinity to specific ANTIBODIES. The DNA sequence analyses of HLA-DR ALPHA-CHAINS and HLA-DR BETA-CHAINS has for the most part revealed the specific alleles that are responsible for each serological subtype.
Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.
The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.
Any surgical procedure performed on the biliary tract.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
Chronic, non-specific inflammation of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Etiology may be genetic or environmental. This term includes CROHN DISEASE and ULCERATIVE COLITIS.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Neoplasms derived from the primitive sex cord or gonadal stromal cells of the embryonic GONADS. They are classified by their presumed histogenesis and differentiation. From the sex cord, there are SERTOLI CELL TUMOR and GRANULOSA CELL TUMOR; from the gonadal stroma, LEYDIG CELL TUMOR and THECOMA. These tumors may be identified in either the OVARY or the TESTIS.
Tumors or cancer in the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the digestive tract.
Congenital cystic dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC). It consists of 2 types: simple Caroli disease is characterized by bile duct dilatation (ectasia) alone; and complex Caroli disease is characterized by bile duct dilatation with extensive hepatic fibrosis and portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL). Benign renal tubular ectasia is associated with both types of Caroli disease.
Impairment of bile flow in the large BILE DUCTS by mechanical obstruction or stricture due to benign or malignant processes.
A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.
A benign tumor composed, wholly or in part, of cells with the morphologic characteristics of HISTIOCYTES and with various fibroblastic components. Fibrous histiocytomas can occur anywhere in the body. When they occur in the skin, they are called dermatofibromas or sclerosing hemangiomas. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p1747)
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the COMMON BILE DUCT.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
The act of dilating.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A common and benign breast disease characterized by varying degree of fibrocystic changes in the breast tissue. There are three major patterns of morphological changes, including FIBROSIS, formation of CYSTS, and proliferation of glandular tissue (adenosis). The fibrocystic breast has a dense irregular, lumpy, bumpy consistency.
Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).
A condition characterized by the formation of CALCULI and concretions in the hollow organs or ducts of the body. They occur most often in the gallbladder, kidney, and lower urinary tract.
A congenital anatomic malformation of a bile duct, including cystic dilatation of the extrahepatic bile duct or the large intrahepatic bile duct. Classification is based on the site and type of dilatation. Type I is most common.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Impairment of bile flow due to injury to the HEPATOCYTES; BILE CANALICULI; or the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC).
The production of adhesions between the parietal and visceral pleura. The procedure is used in the treatment of bronchopleural fistulas, malignant pleural effusions, and pneumothorax and often involves instillation of chemicals or other agents into the pleural space causing, in effect, a pleuritis that seals the air leak. (From Fishman, Pulmonary Diseases, 2d ed, p2233 & Dorland, 27th ed)
A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
A dilation of the duodenal papilla that is the opening of the juncture of the COMMON BILE DUCT and the MAIN PANCREATIC DUCT, also known as the hepatopancreatic ampulla.
Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)
A slow-growing benign pseudotumor in which plasma cells greatly outnumber the inflammatory cells.
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
A Y-shaped surgical anastomosis of any part of the digestive system which includes the small intestine as the eventual drainage site.
Characteristic cells of granulomatous hypersensitivity. They appear as large, flattened cells with increased endoplasmic reticulum. They are believed to be activated macrophages that have differentiated as a result of prolonged antigenic stimulation. Further differentiation or fusion of epithelioid cells is thought to produce multinucleated giant cells (GIANT CELLS).
INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Inflammation of the GALLBLADDER wall in the absence of GALLSTONES.
A chronic transmural inflammation that may involve any part of the DIGESTIVE TRACT from MOUTH to ANUS, mostly found in the ILEUM, the CECUM, and the COLON. In Crohn disease, the inflammation, extending through the intestinal wall from the MUCOSA to the serosa, is characteristically asymmetric and segmental. Epithelioid GRANULOMAS may be seen in some patients.
Inflammation of the mediastinum, the area between the pleural sacs.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.

Hepatic retransplantation in cholestatic liver disease: impact of the interval to retransplantation on survival and resource utilization. (1/344)

The aim of our study was to quantitatively assess the impact of hepatic retransplantation on patient and graft survival and resource utilization. We studied patients undergoing hepatic retransplantation among 447 transplant recipients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) at 3 transplantation centers. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used for survival analysis. Measures of resource utilization included the duration of hospitalization, length of stay in the intensive care unit, and the duration of transplantation surgery. Forty-six (10.3%) patients received 2 or more grafts during the follow-up period (median, 2.8 years). Patients who underwent retransplantation had a 3.8-fold increase in the risk of death compared with those without retransplantation (P <.01). Retransplantation after an interval of greater than 30 days from the primary graft was associated with a 6.7-fold increase in the risk of death (P <.01). The survival following retransplantations performed 30 days or earlier was similar to primary transplantations. Resource utilization was higher in patients who underwent multiple consecutive transplantations, even after adjustment for the number of grafts during the hospitalization. Among cholestatic liver disease patients, poor survival following hepatic retransplantation is attributed to late retransplantations, namely those performed more than 30 days after the initial transplantation. While efforts must be made to improve the outcome following retransplantation, a more critical evaluation may be warranted for late retransplantation candidates.  (+info)

Ileoanal anastomosis with reservoirs: complications and long-term results. (2/344)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the rate of complications of ileoanal pouch anastomosis, their treatment and their influence on a successful outcome. DESIGN: A computerized database and chart review. SETTING: Three academic tertiary care health centres. PATIENTS: All 239 patients admitted for surgery between 1981 and 1994 with a diagnosis of ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatosis coli. INTERVENTIONS: Sphincter-saving total proctocolectomy and construction of either S-type of J-type ileoanal reservoir. OUTCOME MEASURES: Indications, early and late complications, incidence of pouch excision. RESULTS: Of the 239 patients, 228 (95.4%) were operated on for ulcerative colitis and 11 (4.6%) for familial polyposis coli. One patient in each group was found to have a carcinoma not previously diagnosed. Twenty-eight patients had poor results: in 17 (7.1%) the ileostomy was never closed or was re-established because of pelvic sepsis or complex fistulas, sclerosing cholangitis or severe diarrhea; 11 (4.6%) patients required excision of the pouch because of anal stenosis, perirectal abscess-fistula or rectovaginal fistula. Three patients died--of suicide, and complications of liver transplantation and HIV infection. Thus, 208 patients maintained a functioning pouch. The early complication rate (within 30 days of operation) was 57.7% (138 patients) and the late complication rate was 52.3% (125 patients). Pouchitis alone did not lead to failure or pouch excision. Emptying difficulties in 25 patients with anal stenosis were helped in 2 by resorting to intermittent catheterization. Patients with indeterminate colitis had a higher rate of anorectal septic complications, and all patients having Crohn's disease after pouch construction had complicated courses. CONCLUSIONS: The complication rate associated with ileoanal pouch anastomosis continues to be relatively high despite increasing experience with this technique. Overall, however, a satisfactory outcome was obtained in 87% of patients.  (+info)

Expression of CD44 on bile ducts in primary sclerosing cholangitis and primary biliary cirrhosis. (3/344)

AIM: To examine expression of CD44, a transmembrane glycoprotein involved in lymphocyte homing and activation, in inflammatory liver diseases. METHODS: Formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissues were obtained from normal, uninvolved liver from patients undergoing partial hepatectomy for metastatic carcinoma (9) and transplant hepatectomy specimens from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (12), primary sclerosing cholangitis (8), autoimmune hepatitis (3), hepatitis C (3), and secondary sclerosing cholangitis (1). Expression of CD44 (using antibodies to three core epitopes), HLA-DR, and lymphocyte phenotypic markers was studied by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: CD44 expression was not detected in either hepatocytes or biliary epithelial cells in normal livers. In sections from all 27 transplant hepatectomy specimens, CD44 was positive in bile duct epithelial cells but not in hepatocytes. The proportion of CD44+ ducts was much higher in biliary disease than in chronic hepatitis. By contrast, expression of HLA-DR was detected in a relatively small percentage of bile ducts. Activated, memory phenotype CD4+ T lymphocytes were increased in the parenchyma of all diseased livers and an infiltrate of activated CD8+ cells within the biliary epithelium was evident in inflammatory biliary disease. CONCLUSIONS: CD44 appears to play an important role in the development of autoimmune biliary disease by promoting lymphoepithelial interactions, whereas HLA-DR may be involved in the subsequent progression of these conditions.  (+info)

Riedel's thyroiditis in multifocal fibrosclerosis: CT and MR imaging findings. (4/344)

Riedel's thyroiditis is a rare disorder of unknown etiology and may be seen isolated or as a part of multifocal fibrosclerosis. It is important to distinguish Riedel's thyroiditis from thyroid carcinoma. Reports about imaging features of Riedel's thyroiditis are limited in the radiologic literature. We describe herein CT and MR imaging features of Riedel's thyroiditis in a case of multifocal fibrosclerosis with previously unreported radiologic observations.  (+info)

Identification of Helicobacter pylori and other Helicobacter species by PCR, hybridization, and partial DNA sequencing in human liver samples from patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis or primary biliary cirrhosis. (5/344)

Helicobacter pylori was identified in human liver tissue by PCR, hybridization, and partial DNA sequencing. Liver biopsies were obtained from patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (n = 12), primary biliary cirrhosis (n = 12), and noncholestatic liver cirrhosis (n = 13) and (as controls) normal livers (n = 10). PCR analyses were carried out using primers for the Helicobacter genus, Helicobacter pylori (the gene encoding a species-specific 26-kDa protein and the 16S rRNA), Helicobacter bilis, Helicobacter pullorum, and Helicobacter hepaticus. Samples from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis (11 and 9 samples, respectively) were positive by PCR with Helicobacter genus-specific primers. Of these 20 samples, 8 were positive with the 16S rRNA primer and 9 were positive with the 26-kDa protein primer of H. pylori. These nine latter samples were also positive by Southern blot hybridization for the amplified 26-kDa fragment, and four of those were verified to be H. pylori by partial 16S rDNA sequencing. None of the samples reacted with primers for H. bilis, H. pullorum, or H. hepaticus. None of the normal livers had positive results in the Helicobacter genus PCR assay, and only one patient in the noncholestatic liver cirrhosis group, a young boy who at reexamination showed histological features suggesting primary sclerosing cholangitis, had a positive result in the same assay. Helicobacter positivity was thus significantly more common in patients with cholestatic diseases (20 of 24) than in patients with noncholestatic diseases and normal controls (1 of 23) (P = <0.00001). Patients positive for Helicobacter genus had significantly higher values of alkaline phosphatases and prothrombin complex than Helicobacter-negative patients (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0003, respectively). Among primary sclerosing cholangitis patients, Helicobacter genus PCR positivity was weakly associated with ulcerative colitis (P = 0.05). Significant differences related to blood group or HLA status were not found.  (+info)

Plasma antioxidant levels in chronic cholestatic liver diseases. (6/344)

BACKGROUND: [corrected] A predictable consequence of cholestasis is malabsorption of fat-soluble factors, (vitamins A, D, E, K) and other free radical scavengers, such as carotenoids. It has been suggested that oxygen-derived free radicals may be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic liver damage. AIMS: (i) To evaluate retinol, alpha-tocopherol and carotenoid plasma levels in two groups of patients with chronic cholestatic liver disease (primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis); (ii) to compare the respective plasma levels with those of the general population; (iii) to correlate the plasma levels with disease severity. METHODS: A total of 105 patients with chronic cholestasis were included in the study: 86 with primary biliary cirrhosis (81 female, five male, mean age 55.5 +/- 11 years), 19 with primary sclerosing cholangitis (seven female, 12 male, mean age 35 +/- 11 years; six patients had associated inflammatory bowel disease); 105 sex- and age-matched subjects from the general population in the same geographical area (88 female, 17 male, mean age 51.3.5 +/- 10 years) served as controls. Carotenoids (lutein zeaxanthin, lycopene, beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin), retinol and alpha-tocopherol were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. A food frequency questionnaire was administered to each subject to evaluate the quality and the quantity of dietary compounds. Data were processed by analysis of variance and linear regression analysis, as appropriate. RESULTS: Both primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis patients had significantly lower levels of retinol, alpha-tocopherol, total carotenoids, lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene, alpha- and beta-carotene than controls (P < 0.0001). Among the cholestatic patients, no significant difference in the concentration of antioxidants was observed between primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis subjects. Anti-oxidant plasma levels were not affected by the severity of the histological stage in primary biliary cirrhosis, but a negative correlation was found between total carotenoids and both alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gammaglutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) (P < 0.013 and P < 0.018, respectively). Within the primary sclerosing cholangitis group, no correlation was found between total carotenoids and cholestatic enzymes. Nutritional intake in cholestatic patients was comparable to controls, including fruit and vegetable intake. CONCLUSIONS: Although no clinical sign of deficiency is evident, plasma levels of antioxidants are low in cholestatic patients even in early stages of the disease. This is probably due to malabsorption of fat-soluble vitamins, as well as other mechanisms of hepatic release, suggesting the need for dietary supplementation.  (+info)

Autoantibodies against the specific epitope of human tropomyosin(s) detected by a peptide based enzyme immunoassay in sera of patients with ulcerative colitis show antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity against HLA-DPw9 transfected L cells. (7/344)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recent studies suggest that tropomyosin (TM) may act as a putative autoantigen in ulcerative colitis (UC). Recently, we identified, by computer homology analysis, a specific peptide (HIAEDADRK) in human TM that can bind to HLA-DPw9. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of autoantibodies against this peptide in UC. METHODS: Antibodies were measured by ELISA with a synthetic peptide in 20 healthy volunteers, 48 patients with UC, 26 with Crohn's disease (CD), eight with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), and six with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). The functional significance of antibodies was investigated by antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against DPw9 transfected L cells using a standard (51)Cr release assay. RESULTS: Optical density values (mean (SD)) of sera from patients with UC (1.40 (0. 52)) and PSC (1.65 (0.12)) were significantly higher than those from healthy volunteers (0.32 (0.28)) (p<0.05), CD (0.50 (0.34)) (p<0.05) and PBC (0.14 (0.09)) (p<0.05). Values in UC decreased with clinical improvement. The ADCC activity of UC sera correlated well with antibody titre against this synthetic peptide. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-TM antibody was detected in UC sera by a specific peptide based ELISA with high reproducibility. This peptide may be an antigenic epitope of TM involved in the immunopathogenesis of UC and, perhaps, PSC.  (+info)

Predicting clinical and economic outcomes after liver transplantation using the Mayo primary sclerosing cholangitis model and Child-Pugh score. National Institutes of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Liver Transplantation Database Group. (8/344)

Issues in the selection and timing of liver transplantation for primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) remain controversial. Although the Child-Pugh classification (CP) score and Mayo PSC model have similar abilities to estimate pretransplantation survival, a comparison of these 2 scores in predicting survival after liver transplantation has not been conducted. The aim of this study is to compare the Mayo PSC model and CP score in predicting patient survival and related economic outcomes after liver transplantation. Data from 128 patients with PSC, identified from the NIDDK database, were used to calculate patient-specific Mayo PSC and CP scores before transplantation. Levels reflecting a poor outcome were defined a priori. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and regression methods (Cox proportional hazards and linear regression models) were used to assess the relationship between these 2 scores and 5 post liver transplantation outcome measures. CP score was found to be a significantly (P <.05) better predictor of death 4 months or less after liver transplantation than: (a) length of hospital stay >21 days (or death before discharge) and (b) resource utilization >200,000 units (measured by area under the ROC curve). The Cox model identified statistically significant (P <.05) associations between CP score and each outcome after adjusting for the Mayo PSC risk score. Similar results were not observed for the Mayo PSC model when adjusted for CP score. Among patients with PSC undergoing liver transplantation, CP score was a better overall predictor of both survival and economic resource utilization compared with the Mayo PSC model.  (+info)

Cholangitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the bile ducts, which are the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the small intestine. Bile is a digestive juice produced by the liver that helps break down fats in food.

There are two types of cholangitis: acute and chronic. Acute cholangitis is a sudden and severe infection that can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, fever, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), and dark urine. It is usually caused by a bacterial infection that enters the bile ducts through a blockage or obstruction.

Chronic cholangitis, on the other hand, is a long-term inflammation of the bile ducts that can lead to scarring and narrowing of the ducts. This can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, itching, and jaundice. Chronic cholangitis can be caused by various factors, including primary sclerosing cholangitis (an autoimmune disease), bile duct stones, or tumors in the bile ducts.

Treatment for cholangitis depends on the underlying cause of the condition. Antibiotics may be used to treat bacterial infections, and surgery may be necessary to remove blockages or obstructions in the bile ducts. In some cases, medications may be prescribed to manage symptoms and prevent further complications.

Sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic progressive disease characterized by inflammation and scarring (fibrosis) of the bile ducts, leading to their narrowing or obstruction. This results in impaired bile flow from the liver to the small intestine, which can cause damage to the liver cells and eventually result in cirrhosis and liver failure.

The condition often affects both the intrahepatic (within the liver) and extrahepatic (outside the liver) bile ducts. The exact cause of sclerosing cholangitis is not known, but it is believed to involve an autoimmune response, genetic predisposition, and environmental factors.

Symptoms of sclerosing cholangitis may include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), itching, abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss, dark urine, and light-colored stools. The diagnosis is typically made through imaging tests such as magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), which can visualize the bile ducts and detect any abnormalities.

Treatment for sclerosing cholangitis is aimed at managing symptoms, preventing complications, and slowing down the progression of the disease. This may include medications to relieve itching, antibiotics to treat infections, and drugs to reduce inflammation and improve bile flow. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary.

Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare, progressive, and fatal inflammatory disease of the brain characterized by seizures, cognitive decline, and motor function loss. It is caused by a persistent infection with the measles virus, even in individuals who had an uncomplicated acute measles infection earlier in life. The infection results in widespread degeneration and scarring (sclerosis) of the brain's gray matter.

The subacute phase of SSPE typically lasts for several months to a couple of years, during which patients experience a decline in cognitive abilities, behavioral changes, myoclonic jerks (involuntary muscle spasms), and visual disturbances. As the disease progresses, it leads to severe neurological impairment, coma, and eventually death.

SSPE is preventable through early childhood measles vaccination, which significantly reduces the risk of developing this fatal condition later in life.

Sclerosis is a medical term that refers to the abnormal hardening or scarring of body tissues, particularly in the context of various degenerative diseases affecting the nervous system. The term "sclerosis" comes from the Greek word "skleros," which means hard. In these conditions, the normally flexible and adaptable nerve cells or their protective coverings (myelin sheath) become rigid and inflexible due to the buildup of scar tissue or abnormal protein deposits.

There are several types of sclerosis, but one of the most well-known is multiple sclerosis (MS). In MS, the immune system mistakenly attacks the myelin sheath surrounding nerve fibers in the brain and spinal cord, leading to scarring and damage that disrupts communication between the brain and the rest of the body. This results in a wide range of symptoms, such as muscle weakness, numbness, vision problems, balance issues, and cognitive impairment.

Other conditions that involve sclerosis include:

1. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): Also known as Lou Gehrig's disease, ALS is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord, leading to muscle weakness, stiffness, and atrophy.
2. Systemic sclerosis: A rare autoimmune connective tissue disorder characterized by thickening and hardening of the skin and internal organs due to excessive collagen deposition.
3. Plaque psoriasis: A chronic inflammatory skin condition marked by red, scaly patches (plaques) resulting from rapid turnover and accumulation of skin cells.
4. Adhesive capsulitis: Also known as frozen shoulder, this condition involves stiffening and thickening of the shoulder joint's capsule due to scarring or inflammation, leading to limited mobility and pain.

Pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma is a rare, benign lung tumor of uncertain origin. It is also known as sclerosing pneumocytoma. This tumor primarily affects adults, with women being more commonly affected than men. The typical symptoms include cough, chest pain, and sometimes blood-streaked sputum. However, many cases are asymptomatic and discovered incidentally on chest imaging.

On histopathology, pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma is characterized by the presence of two types of cells: surface cells (similar to type II pneumocytes) and round cells (similar to mesenchymal cells). The tumor shows a variety of architectural patterns including solid areas, papillary structures, and hemorrhagic cavities.

The treatment of choice is surgical resection. Despite its benign nature, there have been reports of recurrence after incomplete resection. However, the prognosis after complete resection is excellent.

Biliary cirrhosis is a specific type of liver cirrhosis that results from chronic inflammation and scarring of the bile ducts, leading to impaired bile flow, liver damage, and fibrosis. It can be further classified into primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and secondary biliary cirrhosis. PBC is an autoimmune disease, while secondary biliary cirrhosis is often associated with chronic gallstones, biliary tract obstruction, or recurrent pyogenic cholangitis. Symptoms may include fatigue, itching, jaundice, and abdominal discomfort. Diagnosis typically involves blood tests, imaging studies, and sometimes liver biopsy. Treatment focuses on managing symptoms, slowing disease progression, and preventing complications.

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a medical procedure that combines upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy and fluoroscopy to diagnose and treat certain problems of the bile ducts and pancreas.

During ERCP, a flexible endoscope (a long, thin, lighted tube with a camera on the end) is passed through the patient's mouth and throat, then through the stomach and into the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). A narrow plastic tube (catheter) is then inserted through the endoscope and into the bile ducts and/or pancreatic duct. Contrast dye is injected through the catheter, and X-rays are taken to visualize the ducts.

ERCP can be used to diagnose a variety of conditions affecting the bile ducts and pancreas, including gallstones, tumors, strictures (narrowing of the ducts), and chronic pancreatitis. It can also be used to treat certain conditions, such as removing gallstones from the bile duct or placing stents to keep the ducts open in cases of stricture.

ERCP is an invasive procedure that carries a risk of complications, including pancreatitis, infection, bleeding, and perforation (a tear in the lining of the GI tract). It should only be performed by experienced medical professionals in a hospital setting.

Bile ducts are tubular structures that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder for storage or directly to the small intestine to aid in digestion. There are two types of bile ducts: intrahepatic and extrahepatic. Intrahepatic bile ducts are located within the liver and drain bile from liver cells, while extrahepatic bile ducts are outside the liver and include the common hepatic duct, cystic duct, and common bile duct. These ducts can become obstructed or inflamed, leading to various medical conditions such as cholestasis, cholecystitis, and gallstones.

Cholagogues and choleretics are terms used to describe medications or substances that affect bile secretion and flow in the body. Here is a medical definition for each:

1. Cholagogue: A substance that promotes the discharge of bile from the gallbladder into the duodenum, often by stimulating the contraction of the gallbladder muscle. This helps in the digestion and absorption of fats. Examples include chenodeoxycholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid, and some herbal remedies like dandelion root and milk thistle.
2. Choleretic: A substance that increases the production of bile by the liver or its flow through the biliary system. This can help with the digestion of fats and the elimination of waste products from the body. Examples include certain medications like ursodeoxycholic acid, as well as natural substances such as lemon juice, artichoke extract, and turmeric.

It is important to note that while cholagogues and choleretics can aid in digestion, they should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as improper use or overuse may lead to complications like diarrhea or gallstone formation.

Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a naturally occurring bile acid that is used medically as a therapeutic agent. It is commonly used to treat gallstones, particularly cholesterol gallstones, and other conditions associated with abnormal liver function, such as primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). UDCA works by decreasing the amount of cholesterol in bile and protecting liver cells from damage. It is also known as ursodiol or Ursotan.

Intrahepatic bile ducts are the small tubular structures inside the liver that collect bile from the liver cells (hepatocytes). Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins from food. The intrahepatic bile ducts merge to form larger ducts, which eventually exit the liver and join with the cystic duct from the gallbladder to form the common bile duct. The common bile duct then empties into the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine, where bile aids in digestion. Intrahepatic bile ducts can become obstructed or damaged due to various conditions such as gallstones, tumors, or inflammation, leading to complications like jaundice, liver damage, and infection.

Bile duct neoplasms, also known as cholangiocarcinomas, refer to a group of malignancies that arise from the bile ducts. These are the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine. Bile duct neoplasms can be further classified based on their location as intrahepatic (within the liver), perihilar (at the junction of the left and right hepatic ducts), or distal (in the common bile duct).

These tumors are relatively rare, but their incidence has been increasing in recent years. They can cause a variety of symptoms, including jaundice, abdominal pain, weight loss, and fever. The diagnosis of bile duct neoplasms typically involves imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, as well as blood tests to assess liver function. In some cases, a biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment options for bile duct neoplasms depend on several factors, including the location and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgical resection is the preferred treatment for early-stage tumors, while chemotherapy and radiation therapy may be used in more advanced cases. For patients who are not candidates for surgery, palliative treatments such as stenting or bypass procedures may be recommended to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life.

Cholestasis is a medical condition characterized by the interruption or reduction of bile flow from the liver to the small intestine. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the breakdown and absorption of fats. When the flow of bile is blocked or reduced, it can lead to an accumulation of bile components, such as bilirubin, in the blood, which can cause jaundice, itching, and other symptoms.

Cholestasis can be caused by various factors, including liver diseases (such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, or cancer), gallstones, alcohol abuse, certain medications, pregnancy, and genetic disorders. Depending on the underlying cause, cholestasis may be acute or chronic, and it can range from mild to severe in its symptoms and consequences. Treatment for cholestasis typically involves addressing the underlying cause and managing the symptoms with supportive care.

Cholangiography is a medical procedure that involves taking X-ray images of the bile ducts (the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the small intestine). This is typically done by injecting a contrast dye into the bile ducts through an endoscope or a catheter that has been inserted into the body.

There are several types of cholangiography, including:

* Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP): This procedure involves inserting an endoscope through the mouth and down the throat into the small intestine. A dye is then injected into the bile ducts through a small tube that is passed through the endoscope.
* Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC): This procedure involves inserting a needle through the skin and into the liver to inject the contrast dye directly into the bile ducts.
* Operative cholangiography: This procedure is performed during surgery to examine the bile ducts for any abnormalities or blockages.

Cholangiography can help diagnose a variety of conditions that affect the bile ducts, such as gallstones, tumors, or inflammation. It can also be used to guide treatment decisions, such as whether surgery is necessary to remove a blockage.

Sclerosing solutions are medications or substances that are used to intentionally cause the scarring and hardening (sclerosis) of tissue, usually in the context of treating various medical conditions. These solutions work by irritating the interior lining of blood vessels or other targeted tissues, leading to the formation of a fibrous scar and the eventual closure of the affected area.

One common use of sclerosing solutions is in the treatment of abnormal veins, such as varicose veins or spider veins. A solution like sodium tetradecyl sulfate or polidocanol is injected directly into the problematic vein, causing inflammation and eventual closure of the vein. The body then gradually absorbs the closed vein, reducing its appearance and associated symptoms.

Other medical applications for sclerosing solutions include the treatment of lymphatic malformations, hydroceles, and certain types of tumors or cysts. It is essential to administer these substances under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional, as improper use can lead to complications such as infection, tissue damage, or embolism.

Cholangiocarcinoma is a type of cancer that arises from the cells that line the bile ducts, which are small tubes that carry digestive enzymes from the liver to the small intestine. It can occur in different parts of the bile duct system, including the bile ducts inside the liver (intrahepatic), the bile ducts outside the liver (extrahepatic), and the area where the bile ducts join the pancreas and small intestine (ampulla of Vater).

Cholangiocarcinoma is a relatively rare cancer, but its incidence has been increasing in recent years. It can be difficult to diagnose because its symptoms are often nonspecific and similar to those of other conditions, such as gallstones or pancreatitis. Treatment options depend on the location and stage of the cancer, and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Adenoma of the bile duct is a benign (noncancerous) tumor that develops in the bile ducts, which are tiny tubes that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver.

Bile duct adenomas are rare and usually do not cause any symptoms. However, if they grow large enough, they may obstruct the flow of bile and cause jaundice (yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes), abdominal pain, or itching. In some cases, bile duct adenomas may become cancerous and develop into bile duct carcinomas.

The exact cause of bile duct adenomas is not known, but they are more common in people with certain genetic disorders, such as Gardner's syndrome and von Hippel-Lindau disease. Treatment for bile duct adenomas typically involves surgical removal of the tumor.

Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is a non-invasive medical imaging technique that uses magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize the bile ducts and pancreatic duct. This diagnostic test does not use radiation like other imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) scans or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).

During an MRCP, the patient lies on a table that slides into the MRI machine. Contrast agents may be used to enhance the visibility of the ducts. The MRI machine uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to produce detailed images of the internal structures, allowing radiologists to assess any abnormalities or blockages in the bile and pancreatic ducts.

MRCP is often used to diagnose conditions such as gallstones, tumors, inflammation, or strictures in the bile or pancreatic ducts. It can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatments for these conditions. However, it does not allow for therapeutic interventions like ERCP, which can remove stones or place stents.

Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic (long-term) disease in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the liver, leading to inflammation and damage. This results in decreased liver function over time if not treated. The exact cause of autoimmune hepatitis is unknown, but it is believed to be associated with genetic factors and exposure to certain environmental triggers, such as viral infections or medications.

There are two main types of autoimmune hepatitis:

1. Type 1 (classic) autoimmune hepatitis: This form can affect both adults and children, and it is more common in women than men. People with this type may also have other autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, or ulcerative colitis.
2. Type 2 autoimmune hepatitis: This form primarily affects children and young women. It is less common than type 1 and tends to be more severe. People with this type may also have other autoimmune disorders, such as celiac disease or chronic candidiasis.

Symptoms of autoimmune hepatitis can vary widely, from mild to severe. They may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, joint pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), dark urine, and light-colored stools.

Diagnosis typically involves blood tests, imaging studies, and sometimes a liver biopsy to assess the extent of damage. Treatment usually includes medications that suppress the immune system, such as corticosteroids and immunosuppressants, which can help reduce inflammation and slow or stop liver damage. In some cases, lifestyle changes and supportive care may also be necessary.

Liver transplantation is a surgical procedure in which a diseased or failing liver is replaced with a healthy one from a deceased donor or, less commonly, a portion of a liver from a living donor. The goal of the procedure is to restore normal liver function and improve the patient's overall health and quality of life.

Liver transplantation may be recommended for individuals with end-stage liver disease, acute liver failure, certain genetic liver disorders, or liver cancers that cannot be treated effectively with other therapies. The procedure involves complex surgery to remove the diseased liver and implant the new one, followed by a period of recovery and close medical monitoring to ensure proper function and minimize the risk of complications.

The success of liver transplantation has improved significantly in recent years due to advances in surgical techniques, immunosuppressive medications, and post-transplant care. However, it remains a major operation with significant risks and challenges, including the need for lifelong immunosuppression to prevent rejection of the new liver, as well as potential complications such as infection, bleeding, and organ failure.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tokyo" is not a medical term. It is the capital city of Japan and the country's largest metropolitan area. If you have any questions about medical terms or topics, I would be happy to help with those!

Bile duct diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the bile ducts, which are tiny tubes that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine. Bile is a digestive juice produced by the liver that helps break down fats in food.

There are several types of bile duct diseases, including:

1. Choledocholithiasis: This occurs when stones form in the common bile duct, causing blockage and leading to symptoms such as abdominal pain, jaundice, and fever.
2. Cholangitis: This is an infection of the bile ducts that can cause inflammation, pain, and fever. It can occur due to obstruction of the bile ducts or as a complication of other medical procedures.
3. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC): This is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the bile ducts in the liver, causing inflammation and scarring that can lead to cirrhosis and liver failure.
4. Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC): This is another autoimmune disease that causes inflammation and scarring of the bile ducts, leading to liver damage and potential liver failure.
5. Bile Duct Cancer: Also known as cholangiocarcinoma, this is a rare form of cancer that affects the bile ducts and can cause jaundice, abdominal pain, and weight loss.
6. Benign Strictures: These are narrowing of the bile ducts that can occur due to injury, inflammation, or surgery, leading to blockage and potential infection.

Symptoms of bile duct diseases may include jaundice, abdominal pain, fever, itching, dark urine, and light-colored stools. Treatment depends on the specific condition and may involve medication, surgery, or other medical interventions.

Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is not caused by a virus, but rather it is a slow, progressive, and fatal inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that is caused by a persistent infection with the measles virus. Therefore, there isn't a specific "SSPE virus," but rather SSPE is a complication of a measles virus infection.

In most cases, measles causes an acute infection that lasts for about 1-2 weeks and then resolves. However, in rare cases, the measles virus can persist in the body, particularly in immunocompromised individuals, and cause a progressive neurological disorder known as SSPE. The disease typically develops several years after the initial measles infection, and it is characterized by behavioral changes, intellectual deterioration, myoclonus (involuntary muscle jerks), seizures, and eventually coma and death.

It's important to note that vaccination against measles is highly effective in preventing both the acute infection and the development of SSPE.

Choledochostomy is a surgical procedure that involves creating an opening (stoma) into the common bile duct, which carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the small intestine. This procedure is typically performed to relieve obstructions or blockages in the bile duct, such as those caused by gallstones, tumors, or scar tissue.

During the choledochostomy procedure, a surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen and exposes the common bile duct. The duct is then cut open, and a small tube (catheter) is inserted into the duct to allow bile to drain out of the body. The catheter may be left in place temporarily or permanently, depending on the underlying condition causing the obstruction.

Choledochostomy is typically performed as an open surgical procedure, but it can also be done using minimally invasive techniques such as laparoscopy or robotic-assisted surgery. As with any surgical procedure, choledochostomy carries risks such as bleeding, infection, and damage to surrounding tissues. However, these risks are generally low in the hands of an experienced surgeon.

Ulcerative colitis is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that affects the lining of the large intestine (colon) and rectum. In ulcerative colitis, the lining of the colon becomes inflamed and develops ulcers or open sores that produce pus and mucous. The symptoms of ulcerative colitis include diarrhea, abdominal pain, and rectal bleeding.

The exact cause of ulcerative colitis is not known, but it is thought to be related to an abnormal immune response in which the body's immune system attacks the cells in the digestive tract. The inflammation can be triggered by environmental factors such as diet, stress, and infections.

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic condition that can cause symptoms ranging from mild to severe. It can also lead to complications such as anemia, malnutrition, and colon cancer. There is no cure for ulcerative colitis, but treatment options such as medications, lifestyle changes, and surgery can help manage the symptoms and prevent complications.

Biliary tract diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the biliary system, which includes the gallbladder, bile ducts, and liver. Bile is a digestive juice produced by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and released into the small intestine through the bile ducts to help digest fats.

Biliary tract diseases can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, jaundice, fever, nausea, vomiting, and changes in stool color. Some of the common biliary tract diseases include:

1. Gallstones: Small, hard deposits that form in the gallbladder or bile ducts made up of cholesterol or bilirubin.
2. Cholecystitis: Inflammation of the gallbladder, often caused by gallstones.
3. Cholangitis: Infection or inflammation of the bile ducts.
4. Biliary dyskinesia: A motility disorder that affects the contraction and relaxation of the muscles in the biliary system.
5. Primary sclerosing cholangitis: A chronic autoimmune disease that causes scarring and narrowing of the bile ducts.
6. Biliary tract cancer: Rare cancers that affect the gallbladder, bile ducts, or liver.

Treatment for biliary tract diseases varies depending on the specific condition and severity but may include medications, surgery, or a combination of both.

Measles virus is a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus belonging to the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. It is the causative agent of measles, a highly contagious infectious disease characterized by fever, cough, runny nose, and a red, blotchy rash. The virus primarily infects the respiratory tract and then spreads throughout the body via the bloodstream.

The genome of the measles virus is approximately 16 kilobases in length and encodes for eight proteins: nucleocapsid (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), fusion protein (F), hemagglutinin (H), large protein (L), and two non-structural proteins, V and C. The H protein is responsible for binding to the host cell receptor CD150 (SLAM) and mediating viral entry, while the F protein facilitates fusion of the viral and host cell membranes.

Measles virus is transmitted through respiratory droplets and direct contact with infected individuals. The virus can remain airborne for up to two hours in a closed space, making it highly contagious. Measles is preventable through vaccination, which has led to significant reductions in the incidence of the disease worldwide.

Pancreatitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the pancreas, a gland located in the abdomen that plays a crucial role in digestion and regulating blood sugar levels. The inflammation can be acute (sudden and severe) or chronic (persistent and recurring), and it can lead to various complications if left untreated.

Acute pancreatitis often results from gallstones or excessive alcohol consumption, while chronic pancreatitis may be caused by long-term alcohol abuse, genetic factors, autoimmune conditions, or metabolic disorders like high triglyceride levels. Symptoms of acute pancreatitis include severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and increased heart rate, while chronic pancreatitis may present with ongoing abdominal pain, weight loss, diarrhea, and malabsorption issues due to impaired digestive enzyme production. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as intravenous fluids, pain management, and addressing the underlying cause. In severe cases, hospitalization and surgery may be necessary.

Autoimmune diseases are a group of disorders in which the immune system, which normally protects the body from foreign invaders like bacteria and viruses, mistakenly attacks the body's own cells and tissues. This results in inflammation and damage to various organs and tissues in the body.

In autoimmune diseases, the body produces autoantibodies that target its own proteins or cell receptors, leading to their destruction or malfunction. The exact cause of autoimmune diseases is not fully understood, but it is believed that a combination of genetic and environmental factors contribute to their development.

There are over 80 different types of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Graves' disease, psoriasis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Symptoms can vary widely depending on the specific autoimmune disease and the organs or tissues affected. Treatment typically involves managing symptoms and suppressing the immune system to prevent further damage.

A hepatic portoenterostomy, also known as Kasai procedure, is a surgical operation performed on infants with extrahepatic biliary atresia. This condition is characterized by the absence or abnormal formation of the bile ducts that carry bile from the liver to the small intestine, leading to obstruction and damage to the liver.

During a hepatic portoenterostomy, the surgeon creates an anastomosis (connection) between the portal vein, which brings blood to the liver, and a loop of intestine. This connection allows bile to flow directly from the liver into the intestine, bypassing the blocked or absent bile ducts. The goal of the procedure is to restore bile flow and prevent further damage to the liver.

The success of the procedure varies, but it can help improve the child's quality of life and delay or prevent the need for a liver transplant in some cases. However, many children with biliary atresia will eventually require a liver transplant as the disease progresses.

A jejunostomy is a surgical procedure where an opening (stoma) is created in the lower part of the small intestine, called the jejunum. This stoma allows for the passage of nutrients and digestive enzymes from the small intestine into a tube or external pouch, bypassing the mouth, esophagus, stomach, and upper small intestine (duodenum).

Jejunostomy is typically performed to provide enteral nutrition support in patients who are unable to consume food or liquids by mouth due to various medical conditions such as dysphagia, gastroparesis, bowel obstruction, or after certain surgical procedures. The jejunostomy tube can be used for short-term or long-term nutritional support, depending on the patient's needs and underlying medical condition.

Gallstones are small, hard deposits that form in the gallbladder, a small organ located under the liver. They can range in size from as small as a grain of sand to as large as a golf ball. Gallstones can be made of cholesterol, bile pigments, or calcium salts, or a combination of these substances.

There are two main types of gallstones: cholesterol stones and pigment stones. Cholesterol stones are the most common type and are usually yellow-green in color. They form when there is too much cholesterol in the bile, which causes it to become saturated and form crystals that eventually grow into stones. Pigment stones are smaller and darker in color, ranging from brown to black. They form when there is an excess of bilirubin, a waste product produced by the breakdown of red blood cells, in the bile.

Gallstones can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and bloating, especially after eating fatty foods. In some cases, gallstones can lead to serious complications, such as inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), infection, or blockage of the bile ducts, which can cause jaundice, a yellowing of the skin and eyes.

The exact cause of gallstones is not fully understood, but risk factors include being female, older age, obesity, a family history of gallstones, rapid weight loss, diabetes, and certain medical conditions such as cirrhosis or sickle cell anemia. Treatment for gallstones may involve medication to dissolve the stones, shock wave therapy to break them up, or surgery to remove the gallbladder.

Endoscopic sphincterotomy is a medical procedure that involves the use of an endoscope (a flexible tube with a light and camera) to cut the papilla of Vater, which contains the sphincter of Oddi muscle. This procedure is typically performed to treat gallstones or to manage other conditions related to the bile ducts or pancreatic ducts.

The sphincterotomy helps to widen the opening of the papilla, allowing stones or other obstructions to pass through more easily. It may also be used to relieve pressure and pain caused by spasms of the sphincter of Oddi muscle. The procedure is usually done under sedation or anesthesia and carries a risk of complications such as bleeding, infection, perforation, and pancreatitis.

Peritoneal panniculitis is a rare inflammatory condition that affects the fatty tissue (panniculus) in the peritoneum, which is the thin membrane that lines the inside of the abdominal cavity and covers the organs within it. The condition is characterized by the accumulation of inflammatory cells in the fatty tissue, leading to nodular or diffuse enlargement and subsequent necrosis (death) of the adipose tissue.

Peritoneal panniculitis can occur as a primary disorder or secondary to other medical conditions such as malignancies, infections, autoimmune diseases, or reactions to medications. The exact cause of primary peritoneal panniculitis remains unclear. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, bloating, fever, weight loss, and elevated white blood cell count. Diagnosis typically involves imaging studies (such as CT or MRI scans) and confirmation through biopsy of the affected tissue. Treatment depends on the underlying cause but often includes corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive medications to manage the inflammation.

Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) is a rare and progressive condition characterized by the abnormal growth of fibrous tissue in the retroperitoneal space, which is the area behind the peritoneum (the lining that covers the abdominal cavity). This fibrous tissue can encase and compress vital structures such as the ureters, blood vessels, and nerves, leading to various symptoms.

RPF can be idiopathic (without a known cause) or secondary to other conditions like infections, malignancies, autoimmune diseases, or medications. The exact pathogenesis of RPF is not fully understood, but it's believed that an abnormal immune response and inflammation play significant roles in its development.

Symptoms of RPF may include:

1. Flank pain or back pain
2. Renal insufficiency or kidney failure due to ureteral compression
3. Hydronephrosis (dilatation of the renal pelvis and calyces)
4. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE) due to vascular compression
5. Neurological symptoms due to nerve compression
6. Weight loss, fatigue, and fever (in some cases)

Diagnosis of RPF typically involves imaging studies such as computed tomography (CT) scans or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), along with laboratory tests and sometimes biopsy for confirmation. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause but generally involve immunosuppressive medications, corticosteroids, and surgical intervention in severe cases.

Acute cholecystitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis) that develops suddenly (acute). The gallbladder is a small pear-shaped organ located in the upper right part of the abdomen, beneath the liver. It stores bile, a digestive juice produced by the liver, which helps break down fats in the food we eat.

Acute cholecystitis occurs when the gallbladder becomes inflamed and irritated, often due to the presence of gallstones that block the cystic duct, the tube that carries bile from the gallbladder into the small intestine. When the cystic duct is obstructed, bile builds up in the gallbladder, causing it to become swollen, inflamed, and infected.

Symptoms of acute cholecystitis may include sudden and severe abdominal pain, often located in the upper right or middle part of the abdomen, that may radiate to the back or shoulder blade area. Other symptoms may include fever, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and abdominal tenderness or swelling.

Acute cholecystitis is typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scan. Treatment may involve hospitalization, antibiotics to treat infection, pain relief medications, and surgery to remove the gallbladder (cholecystectomy). In some cases, nonsurgical treatments such as endoscopic sphincterotomy or percutaneous cholecystostomy may be used to relieve obstruction and inflammation.

The common bile duct is a duct that results from the union of the cystic duct (which drains bile from the gallbladder) and the common hepatic duct (which drains bile from the liver). The common bile duct transports bile, a digestive enzyme, from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine.

The common bile duct runs through the head of the pancreas before emptying into the second part of the duodenum, either alone or in conjunction with the pancreatic duct, via a small opening called the ampulla of Vater. The common bile duct plays a crucial role in the digestion of fats by helping to break them down into smaller molecules that can be absorbed by the body.

Drainage, in medical terms, refers to the removal of excess fluid or accumulated collections of fluids from various body parts or spaces. This is typically accomplished through the use of medical devices such as catheters, tubes, or drains. The purpose of drainage can be to prevent the buildup of fluids that may cause discomfort, infection, or other complications, or to treat existing collections of fluid such as abscesses, hematomas, or pleural effusions. Drainage may also be used as a diagnostic tool to analyze the type and composition of the fluid being removed.

Obstructive Jaundice is a medical condition characterized by the yellowing of the skin, sclera (whites of the eyes), and mucous membranes due to the accumulation of bilirubin in the bloodstream. This occurs when there is an obstruction or blockage in the bile ducts that transport bile from the liver to the small intestine.

Bile, which contains bilirubin, aids in digestion and is usually released from the liver into the small intestine. When the flow of bile is obstructed, bilirubin builds up in the blood, causing jaundice. The obstruction can be caused by various factors, such as gallstones, tumors, or strictures in the bile ducts.

Obstructive jaundice may present with additional symptoms like dark urine, light-colored stools, itching, abdominal pain, and weight loss, depending on the cause and severity of the obstruction. It is essential to seek medical attention if jaundice is observed, as timely diagnosis and management can prevent potential complications, such as liver damage or infection.

Cholecystitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the gallbladder, a small pear-shaped organ located under the liver that stores and concentrates bile produced by the liver. Bile is a digestive fluid that helps break down fats in the small intestine during digestion.

Acute cholecystitis is a sudden inflammation of the gallbladder, often caused by the presence of gallstones that block the cystic duct, the tube that carries bile from the gallbladder to the common bile duct. This blockage can cause bile to build up in the gallbladder, leading to inflammation, swelling, and pain.

Chronic cholecystitis is a long-term inflammation of the gallbladder, often caused by repeated attacks of acute cholecystitis or the presence of gallstones that cause ongoing irritation and damage to the gallbladder wall. Over time, chronic cholecystitis can lead to thickening and scarring of the gallbladder wall, which can reduce its ability to function properly.

Symptoms of cholecystitis may include sudden and severe abdominal pain, often in the upper right or center of the abdomen, that may worsen after eating fatty foods; fever; nausea and vomiting; bloating and gas; and clay-colored stools. Treatment for cholecystitis typically involves antibiotics to treat any infection present, pain relief, and surgery to remove the gallbladder (cholecystectomy). In some cases, a nonsurgical procedure called endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) may be used to remove gallstones from the bile duct.

The biliary tract is a system of ducts that transport bile from the liver to the gallbladder and then to the small intestine. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the breakdown and absorption of fats in the small intestine. The main components of the biliary tract are:

1. Intrahepatic bile ducts: These are the smaller branches of bile ducts located within the liver that collect bile from the liver cells or hepatocytes.
2. Gallbladder: A small pear-shaped organ located beneath the liver, which stores and concentrates bile received from the intrahepatic bile ducts. The gallbladder releases bile into the small intestine when food is ingested, particularly fats, to aid digestion.
3. Common hepatic duct: This is a duct that forms by the union of the right and left hepatic ducts, which carry bile from the right and left lobes of the liver, respectively.
4. Cystic duct: A short duct that connects the gallbladder to the common hepatic duct, forming the beginning of the common bile duct.
5. Common bile duct: This is a larger duct formed by the union of the common hepatic duct and the cystic duct. It carries bile from the liver and gallbladder into the small intestine.
6. Pancreatic duct: A separate duct that originates from the pancreas, a gland located near the liver and stomach. The pancreatic duct joins the common bile duct just before they both enter the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine.
7. Ampulla of Vater: This is the dilated portion where the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct join together and empty their contents into the duodenum through a shared opening called the papilla of Vater.

Disorders related to the biliary tract include gallstones, cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder), bile duct stones, bile duct strictures or obstructions, and primary sclerosing cholangitis, among others.

Liver diseases refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the normal functioning of the liver. The liver is a vital organ responsible for various critical functions such as detoxification, protein synthesis, and production of biochemicals necessary for digestion.

Liver diseases can be categorized into acute and chronic forms. Acute liver disease comes on rapidly and can be caused by factors like viral infections (hepatitis A, B, C, D, E), drug-induced liver injury, or exposure to toxic substances. Chronic liver disease develops slowly over time, often due to long-term exposure to harmful agents or inherent disorders of the liver.

Common examples of liver diseases include hepatitis, cirrhosis (scarring of the liver tissue), fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, autoimmune liver diseases, genetic/hereditary liver disorders (like Wilson's disease and hemochromatosis), and liver cancers. Symptoms may vary widely depending on the type and stage of the disease but could include jaundice, abdominal pain, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, and weight loss.

Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent progression and potential complications associated with liver diseases.

The common hepatic duct is a medical term that refers to the duct in the liver responsible for carrying bile from the liver. More specifically, it is the duct that results from the convergence of the right and left hepatic ducts, which themselves carry bile from the right and left lobes of the liver, respectively. The common hepatic duct then joins with the cystic duct from the gallbladder to form the common bile duct, which ultimately drains into the duodenum, a part of the small intestine.

The primary function of the common hepatic duct is to transport bile, a digestive juice produced by the liver, to the small intestine. Bile helps break down fats during the digestion process, making it possible for the body to absorb them properly. Any issues or abnormalities in the common hepatic duct can lead to problems with bile flow and potentially cause health complications such as jaundice, gallstones, or liver damage.

Sialadenitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the salivary gland. It can occur in any of the major salivary glands, including the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands. The inflammation may result from bacterial or viral infections, autoimmune disorders, or obstruction of the salivary ducts.

Acute sialadenitis is often caused by bacterial infections and can lead to symptoms such as pain, swelling, redness, and difficulty swallowing. Chronic sialadenitis, on the other hand, may be caused by recurrent infections, autoimmune disorders like Sjogren's syndrome, or stones in the salivary ducts. Symptoms of chronic sialadenitis can include intermittent swelling, pain, and dry mouth.

Treatment for sialadenitis depends on the underlying cause but may include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, hydration, and massage of the salivary glands. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove obstructions or damaged tissue in the salivary gland.

Biliary atresia is a rare, progressive liver disease in infants and children, characterized by the inflammation, fibrosis, and obstruction of the bile ducts. This results in the impaired flow of bile from the liver to the intestine, leading to cholestasis (accumulation of bile in the liver), jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), and eventually liver cirrhosis and failure if left untreated.

The exact cause of biliary atresia is not known, but it is believed to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. It can occur as an isolated condition or in association with other congenital anomalies. The diagnosis of biliary atresia is typically made through imaging studies, such as ultrasound and cholangiography, and confirmed by liver biopsy.

The standard treatment for biliary atresia is a surgical procedure called the Kasai portoenterostomy, which aims to restore bile flow from the liver to the intestine. In this procedure, the damaged bile ducts are removed and replaced with a loop of intestine that is connected directly to the liver. The success of the Kasai procedure depends on several factors, including the age at diagnosis and surgery, the extent of liver damage, and the skill and experience of the surgeon.

Despite successful Kasai surgery, many children with biliary atresia will eventually develop cirrhosis and require liver transplantation. The prognosis for children with biliary atresia has improved significantly over the past few decades due to earlier diagnosis, advances in surgical techniques, and better postoperative care. However, it remains a challenging condition that requires close monitoring and multidisciplinary management by pediatric hepatologists, surgeons, and other healthcare professionals.

HLA-B8 antigen is a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I histocompatibility antigen. HLAs are proteins that play an important role in the body's immune system by helping to distinguish between the body's own cells and foreign substances such as viruses and bacteria.

The HLA-B8 antigen is a specific variant of the HLA-B gene, which is located on chromosome 6. It is commonly found in approximately 10% of the Caucasian population and is associated with an increased risk of certain autoimmune diseases such as coeliac disease, type 1 diabetes, and autoimmune thyroid disease.

It's important to note that while having the HLA-B8 antigen may increase the risk of developing these conditions, it does not necessarily mean that the person will definitely develop the disease. Other genetic and environmental factors also play a role in the development of these conditions.

Extrahepatic bile ducts refer to the portion of the biliary system that lies outside the liver. The biliary system is responsible for producing, storing, and transporting bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver.

The extrahepatic bile ducts include:

1. The common hepatic duct: This duct is formed by the union of the right and left hepatic ducts, which drain bile from the corresponding lobes of the liver.
2. The cystic duct: This short duct connects the gallbladder to the common hepatic duct, allowing bile to flow into the gallbladder for storage and concentration.
3. The common bile duct: This is the result of the fusion of the common hepatic duct and the cystic duct. It transports bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine, where it aids in fat digestion.
4. The ampulla of Vater (or hepatopancreatic ampulla): This is a dilated area where the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct join and empty their contents into the duodenum through a shared opening called the major duodenal papilla.

Extrahepatic bile ducts can be affected by various conditions, such as gallstones, inflammation (cholangitis), strictures, or tumors, which may require medical or surgical intervention.

Common bile duct diseases refer to conditions that affect the common bile duct, a tube that carries bile from the liver and gallbladder into the small intestine. Some common examples of common bile duct diseases include:

1. Choledocholithiasis: This is the presence of stones (calculi) in the common bile duct, which can cause blockage, inflammation, and infection.
2. Cholangitis: This is an infection or inflammation of the common bile duct, often caused by obstruction due to stones, tumors, or strictures.
3. Common bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma): This is a rare but aggressive cancer that arises from the cells lining the common bile duct.
4. Biliary strictures: These are narrowing or scarring of the common bile duct, which can be caused by injury, inflammation, or surgery.
5. Benign tumors: Non-cancerous growths in the common bile duct can also cause blockage and other symptoms.

Symptoms of common bile duct diseases may include abdominal pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, and dark urine or light-colored stools. Treatment depends on the specific condition and severity but may include medications, endoscopic procedures, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Jaundice is a medical condition characterized by the yellowing of the skin, sclera (whites of the eyes), and mucous membranes due to an excess of bilirubin in the bloodstream. Bilirubin is a yellow-orange pigment produced when hemoglobin from red blood cells is broken down. Normally, bilirubin is processed by the liver and excreted through bile into the digestive system. However, if there's an issue with bilirubin metabolism or elimination, it can accumulate in the body, leading to jaundice.

Jaundice can be a symptom of various underlying conditions, such as liver diseases (hepatitis, cirrhosis), gallbladder issues (gallstones, tumors), or blood disorders (hemolysis). It is essential to consult a healthcare professional if jaundice is observed, as it may indicate a severe health problem requiring prompt medical attention.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

HLA-DR serological subtyping refers to the identification and classification of specific variants or subtypes of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DR antigens based on their reactivity with a panel of antibodies in serological assays. HLAs are cell surface proteins that play a crucial role in the immune system by presenting peptide antigens to T-cells. The HLA-DR molecules are involved in the presentation of foreign antigens, such as viruses and bacteria, to the immune system.

The serological subtyping of HLA-DR antigens is performed using a panel of antibodies with known specificity for different HLA-DR epitopes. The reactivity of an individual's HLA-DR antigens with these antibodies allows for the determination of their HLA-DR serological subtype. This information can be useful in various clinical settings, such as histocompatibility testing for organ transplantation and the diagnosis of certain autoimmune diseases.

It is important to note that HLA-DR serological subtyping has largely been replaced by molecular typing methods, which provide more precise and detailed information about HLA alleles. Molecular typing involves the direct sequencing or genotyping of HLA genes, allowing for the identification of specific HLA alleles and their associated amino acid sequences.

Cholecystectomy is a medical procedure to remove the gallbladder, a small pear-shaped organ located on the right side of the abdomen, just beneath the liver. The primary function of the gallbladder is to store and concentrate bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver. During a cholecystectomy, the surgeon removes the gallbladder, usually due to the presence of gallstones or inflammation that can cause pain, infection, or other complications.

There are two primary methods for performing a cholecystectomy:

1. Open Cholecystectomy: In this traditional surgical approach, the surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen to access and remove the gallbladder. This method is typically used when there are complications or unique circumstances that make laparoscopic surgery difficult or risky.
2. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: This is a minimally invasive surgical procedure where the surgeon makes several small incisions in the abdomen, through which a thin tube with a camera (laparoscope) and specialized surgical instruments are inserted. The surgeon then guides these tools to remove the gallbladder while viewing the internal structures on a video monitor.

After the gallbladder is removed, bile flows directly from the liver into the small intestine through the common bile duct, and the body continues to function normally without any significant issues.

Pathological constriction refers to an abnormal narrowing or tightening of a body passage or organ, which can interfere with the normal flow of blood, air, or other substances through the area. This constriction can occur due to various reasons such as inflammation, scarring, or abnormal growths, and can affect different parts of the body, including blood vessels, airways, intestines, and ureters. Pathological constriction can lead to a range of symptoms and complications depending on its location and severity, and may require medical intervention to correct.

Biliary tract surgical procedures refer to a range of operations that involve the biliary system, which includes the liver, gallbladder, and bile ducts. These procedures can be performed for various reasons, including the treatment of gallstones, bile duct injuries, tumors, or other conditions affecting the biliary tract. Here are some examples of biliary tract surgical procedures:

1. Cholecystectomy: This is the surgical removal of the gallbladder, which is often performed to treat symptomatic gallstones or chronic cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder). It can be done as an open procedure or laparoscopically.
2. Bile duct exploration: This procedure involves opening the common bile duct to remove stones, strictures, or tumors. It is often performed during a cholecystectomy if there is suspicion of common bile duct involvement.
3. Hepaticojejunostomy: This operation connects the liver's bile ducts directly to a portion of the small intestine called the jejunum, bypassing a damaged or obstructed segment of the biliary tract. It is often performed for benign or malignant conditions affecting the bile ducts.
4. Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy: This procedure involves creating a Y-shaped limb of jejunum and connecting it to the liver's bile ducts, bypassing the common bile duct and duodenum. It is often performed for complex biliary tract injuries or malignancies.
5. Whipple procedure (pancreaticoduodenectomy): This extensive operation involves removing the head of the pancreas, the duodenum, a portion of the jejunum, the gallbladder, and the common bile duct. It is performed for malignancies involving the pancreas, bile duct, or duodenum.
6. Liver resection: This procedure involves removing a portion of the liver to treat primary liver tumors (hepatocellular carcinoma or cholangiocarcinoma) or metastatic cancer from other organs.
7. Biliary stenting or bypass: These minimally invasive procedures involve placing a stent or creating a bypass to relieve bile duct obstructions caused by tumors, strictures, or stones. They can be performed endoscopically (ERCP) or percutaneously (PTC).
8. Cholecystectomy: This procedure involves removing the gallbladder, often for symptomatic cholelithiasis (gallstones) or cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder). It can be performed laparoscopically or open.
9. Biliary drainage: This procedure involves placing a catheter to drain bile from the liver or bile ducts, often for acute or chronic obstructions caused by tumors, strictures, or stones. It can be performed endoscopically (ERCP) or percutaneously (PTC).
10. Bilioenteric anastomosis: This procedure involves connecting the biliary tract to a portion of the small intestine, often for benign or malignant conditions affecting the bile ducts or pancreas. It can be performed open or laparoscopically.

Bile is a digestive fluid that is produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It plays an essential role in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the small intestine. Bile consists of bile salts, bilirubin, cholesterol, phospholipids, electrolytes, and water.

Bile salts are amphipathic molecules that help to emulsify fats into smaller droplets, increasing their surface area and allowing for more efficient digestion by enzymes such as lipase. Bilirubin is a breakdown product of hemoglobin from red blood cells and gives bile its characteristic greenish-brown color.

Bile is released into the small intestine in response to food, particularly fats, entering the digestive tract. It helps to break down large fat molecules into smaller ones that can be absorbed through the walls of the intestines and transported to other parts of the body for energy or storage.

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) are a group of chronic inflammatory conditions primarily affecting the gastrointestinal tract. The two main types of IBD are Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

Crohn's disease can cause inflammation in any part of the digestive system, from the mouth to the anus, but it most commonly affects the lower part of the small intestine (the ileum) and/or the colon. The inflammation caused by Crohn's disease often spreads deep into the layers of affected bowel tissue.

Ulcerative colitis, on the other hand, is limited to the colon, specifically the innermost lining of the colon. It causes long-lasting inflammation and sores (ulcers) in the lining of the large intestine (colon) and rectum.

Symptoms can vary depending on the severity and location of inflammation but often include abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss, and reduced appetite. IBD is not the same as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which is a functional gastrointestinal disorder.

The exact cause of IBD remains unknown, but it's thought to be a combination of genetic factors, an abnormal immune response, and environmental triggers. There is no cure for IBD, but treatments can help manage symptoms and reduce inflammation, potentially leading to long-term remission.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumors are a type of rare cancer that develops in the cells of the ovaries or testicles that produce hormones and help to form ova or sperm. These tumors can be benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can occur in both males and females, although they are more common in females.

There are several subtypes of sex cord-gonadal stromal tumors, including granulosa cell tumors, thecomas, fibromas, Sertoli cell tumors, Leydig cell tumors, and gonadoblastomas. The symptoms and treatment options for these tumors depend on several factors, including the type and stage of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and whether the tumor is producing hormones.

Common symptoms of sex cord-gonadal stromal tumors may include abdominal pain or swelling, bloating, irregular menstrual periods, vaginal bleeding, or a feeling of fullness in the abdomen. In some cases, these tumors may produce hormones that can cause additional symptoms, such as breast tenderness, acne, or voice deepening.

Treatment for sex cord-gonadal stromal tumors typically involves surgery to remove the tumor and any affected tissue. Depending on the stage and type of the tumor, additional treatments such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy may also be recommended. Regular follow-up care is important to monitor for recurrence and manage any long-term effects of treatment.

Biliary tract neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the biliary system, which includes the gallbladder, bile ducts inside and outside the liver, and the ducts that connect the liver to the small intestine. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Malignant biliary tract neoplasms are often referred to as cholangiocarcinoma if they originate in the bile ducts, or gallbladder cancer if they arise in the gallbladder. These cancers are relatively rare but can be aggressive and difficult to treat. They can cause symptoms such as jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), abdominal pain, weight loss, and dark urine.

Risk factors for biliary tract neoplasms include chronic inflammation of the biliary system, primary sclerosing cholangitis, liver cirrhosis, hepatitis B or C infection, parasitic infections, and certain genetic conditions. Early detection and treatment can improve outcomes for patients with these neoplasms.

Endoscopy of the digestive system, also known as gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, is a medical procedure that allows healthcare professionals to visually examine the inside lining of the digestive tract using a flexible tube with a light and camera attached to it, called an endoscope. This procedure can help diagnose and treat various conditions affecting the digestive system, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and cancer.

There are several types of endoscopy procedures that focus on different parts of the digestive tract:

1. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD): This procedure examines the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). It is often used to investigate symptoms such as difficulty swallowing, abdominal pain, or bleeding in the upper GI tract.
2. Colonoscopy: This procedure explores the large intestine (colon) and rectum. It is commonly performed to screen for colon cancer, as well as to diagnose and treat conditions like inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulosis, or polyps.
3. Sigmoidoscopy: Similar to a colonoscopy, this procedure examines the lower part of the colon (sigmoid colon) and rectum. It is often used as a screening tool for colon cancer and to investigate symptoms like rectal bleeding or changes in bowel habits.
4. Upper GI endoscopy: This procedure focuses on the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum, using a thin, flexible tube with a light and camera attached to it. It is used to diagnose and treat conditions such as GERD, ulcers, and difficulty swallowing.
5. Capsule endoscopy: This procedure involves swallowing a small capsule containing a camera that captures images of the digestive tract as it passes through. It can help diagnose conditions in the small intestine that may be difficult to reach with traditional endoscopes.

Endoscopy is typically performed under sedation or anesthesia to ensure patient comfort during the procedure. The images captured by the endoscope are displayed on a monitor, allowing the healthcare provider to assess the condition of the digestive tract and make informed treatment decisions.

Caroli disease is a rare genetic disorder that affects the liver and bile ducts. It is characterized by abnormal dilations or sac-like structures in the intrahepatic bile ducts, which are the ducts that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine. These dilations can lead to recurrent cholangitis (inflammation of the bile ducts), stone formation, and liver damage.

Caroli disease is usually diagnosed in childhood or early adulthood, and it can be associated with other congenital anomalies such as polycystic kidney disease. The exact cause of Caroli disease is not fully understood, but it is believed to be inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, meaning that an individual must inherit two copies of the abnormal gene, one from each parent, to develop the condition.

Treatment for Caroli disease may include antibiotics to manage cholangitis, endoscopic procedures to remove stones or dilate strictures, and surgery to bypass or remove affected bile ducts. In severe cases, liver transplantation may be necessary. Regular monitoring of liver function and surveillance for complications are essential in the management of this condition.

Extrahepatic cholestasis is a medical condition characterized by the impaired flow of bile outside of the liver. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the absorption and digestion of fats. When the flow of bile is obstructed or blocked, it can lead to an accumulation of bile components, such as bilirubin, in the bloodstream, resulting in jaundice, dark urine, light-colored stools, and itching.

Extrahepatic cholestasis can be caused by various factors, including gallstones, tumors, strictures, or inflammation of the bile ducts. It is essential to diagnose and treat extrahepatic cholestasis promptly to prevent further complications, such as liver damage or infection. Treatment options may include medications, endoscopic procedures, or surgery, depending on the underlying cause of the condition.

The gallbladder is a small, pear-shaped organ located just under the liver in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. Its primary function is to store and concentrate bile, a digestive enzyme produced by the liver, which helps in the breakdown of fats during the digestion process. When food, particularly fatty foods, enter the stomach and small intestine, the gallbladder contracts and releases bile through the common bile duct into the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine, to aid in fat digestion.

The gallbladder is made up of three main parts: the fundus, body, and neck. It has a muscular wall that allows it to contract and release bile. Gallstones, an inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), or other gallbladder diseases can cause pain, discomfort, and potentially serious health complications if left untreated.

Benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH) is a common benign tumor of the skin and superficial soft tissues. It primarily affects middle-aged adults and is more prevalent in men than women. The exact cause of BFH is unknown, but it's thought to arise from dermal fibroblasts or histiocytes.

Medical Definition: Benign Fibrous Histiocytoma (BFH) is a benign, slowly growing, solitary cutaneous or subcutaneous nodular tumor predominantly composed of a mixture of fibroblastic and histiocytic-like cells. The tumor typically presents as a well-circumscribed, firm, dome-shaped papule or nodule, ranging in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters. Histologically, BFH is characterized by the proliferation of spindle-shaped fibroblasts and histiocytes arranged in a storiform pattern, along with variable amounts of collagen deposition, multinucleated giant cells, and hemosiderin deposits. The lesion usually has a pushing border with no invasion into the surrounding tissues. BFH generally follows a benign clinical course, with local recurrence being uncommon following complete surgical excision.

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

Choledocholithiasis is a medical condition characterized by the presence of one or more gallstones in the common bile duct, which is the tube that carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the small intestine. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps break down fats in the small intestine. Gallstones are hardened deposits of digestive fluids that can form in the gallbladder or, less commonly, in the bile ducts.

Choledocholithiasis can cause a variety of symptoms, including abdominal pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), nausea, vomiting, and fever. If left untreated, it can lead to serious complications such as infection or inflammation of the bile ducts or pancreas, which can be life-threatening.

The condition is typically diagnosed through imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and may require endoscopic or surgical intervention to remove the gallstones from the common bile duct.

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

Liver function tests (LFTs) are a group of blood tests that are used to assess the functioning and health of the liver. These tests measure the levels of various enzymes, proteins, and waste products that are produced or metabolized by the liver. Some common LFTs include:

1. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT): An enzyme found primarily in the liver, ALT is released into the bloodstream in response to liver cell damage. Elevated levels of ALT may indicate liver injury or disease.
2. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST): Another enzyme found in various tissues, including the liver, heart, and muscles. Like ALT, AST is released into the bloodstream following tissue damage. High AST levels can be a sign of liver damage or other medical conditions.
3. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP): An enzyme found in several organs, including the liver, bile ducts, and bones. Elevated ALP levels may indicate a blockage in the bile ducts, liver disease, or bone disorders.
4. Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT): An enzyme found mainly in the liver, pancreas, and biliary system. Increased GGT levels can suggest liver disease, alcohol consumption, or the use of certain medications.
5. Bilirubin: A yellowish pigment produced when hemoglobin from red blood cells is broken down. Bilirubin is processed by the liver and excreted through bile. High bilirubin levels can indicate liver dysfunction, bile duct obstruction, or certain types of anemia.
6. Albumin: A protein produced by the liver that helps maintain fluid balance in the body and transports various substances in the blood. Low albumin levels may suggest liver damage, malnutrition, or kidney disease.
7. Total protein: A measure of all proteins present in the blood, including albumin and other types of proteins produced by the liver. Decreased total protein levels can indicate liver dysfunction or other medical conditions.

These tests are often ordered together as part of a routine health checkup or when evaluating symptoms related to liver function or disease. The results should be interpreted in conjunction with clinical findings, medical history, and other diagnostic tests.

Measles, also known as rubeola, is a highly infectious viral disease that primarily affects the respiratory system. It is caused by the measles virus, which belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae and the genus Morbillivirus. The virus is transmitted through direct contact with infected individuals or through airborne droplets released during coughing and sneezing.

The classic symptoms of measles include:

1. Fever: A high fever (often greater than 104°F or 40°C) usually appears before the onset of the rash, lasting for about 4-7 days.
2. Cough: A persistent cough is common and may become severe.
3. Runny nose: A runny or blocked nose is often present during the early stages of the illness.
4. Red eyes (conjunctivitis): Inflammation of the conjunctiva, the mucous membrane that covers the inner surface of the eyelids and the white part of the eye, can cause redness and irritation.
5. Koplik's spots: These are small, irregular, bluish-white spots with a red base that appear on the inside lining of the cheeks, usually 1-2 days before the rash appears. They are considered pathognomonic for measles, meaning their presence confirms the diagnosis.
6. Rash: The characteristic measles rash typically starts on the face and behind the ears, then spreads downward to the neck, trunk, arms, and legs. It consists of flat red spots that may merge together, forming irregular patches. The rash usually lasts for 5-7 days before fading.

Complications from measles can be severe and include pneumonia, encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), and ear infections. In rare cases, measles can lead to serious long-term complications or even death, particularly in young children, pregnant women, and individuals with weakened immune systems.

Vaccination is an effective way to prevent measles. The measles vaccine is typically administered as part of the Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) vaccine, which provides immunity against all three diseases.

Dilation, also known as dilatation, refers to the process of expanding or enlarging a body passage or cavity. In medical terms, it typically refers to the widening of a bodily opening or hollow organ, allowing for increased flow or access. This can occur naturally, such as during childbirth when the cervix dilates to allow for the passage of a baby, or it can be induced through medical procedures or interventions.

For example, dilation of the pupils is a natural response to darkness or certain medications, while dilation of blood vessels is a common side effect of some drugs and can also occur in response to changes in temperature or emotional state. Dilation of the stomach or intestines may be necessary for medical procedures such as endoscopies or surgeries.

It's important to note that dilation can also refer to the abnormal enlargement of a body part, such as dilated cardiomyopathy, which refers to an enlarged and weakened heart muscle.

Autoantibodies are defined as antibodies that are produced by the immune system and target the body's own cells, tissues, or organs. These antibodies mistakenly identify certain proteins or molecules in the body as foreign invaders and attack them, leading to an autoimmune response. Autoantibodies can be found in various autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and thyroiditis. The presence of autoantibodies can also be used as a diagnostic marker for certain conditions.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Fibrocystic breast disease, also known as fibrocystic change or chronic cystic mastitis, is not actually a disease but a condition that affects many women at some point in their lives. It is characterized by the formation of benign (non-cancerous) lumps or cysts in the breasts, often accompanied by breast pain, tenderness, and swelling.

The condition is caused by hormonal fluctuations that affect the breast tissue, making it more prone to developing fibrous tissue and fluid-filled sacs called cysts. Fibrocystic breast changes are usually harmless and do not increase the risk of breast cancer. However, in some cases, they can make it harder to detect early signs of breast cancer through mammography or self-examination.

The symptoms of fibrocystic breast change may vary from woman to woman and can range from mild to severe. They tend to be more noticeable just before a woman's menstrual period and may improve after menopause. Treatment options for fibrocystic breast changes include pain relievers, hormonal medications, and lifestyle modifications such as reducing caffeine intake and wearing a well-supportive bra. In some cases, draining or removing the cysts may be necessary to alleviate symptoms.

Cholelithiasis is a medical term that refers to the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder. The gallbladder is a small pear-shaped organ located beneath the liver that stores bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver. Gallstones are hardened deposits that can form in the gallbladder when substances in the bile, such as cholesterol or bilirubin, crystallize.

Gallstones can vary in size and may be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball. Some people with gallstones may not experience any symptoms, while others may have severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes) if the gallstones block the bile ducts.

Cholelithiasis is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide, particularly women over the age of 40 and those with certain medical conditions such as obesity, diabetes, and rapid weight loss. If left untreated, gallstones can lead to serious complications such as inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), infection, or pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas). Treatment options for cholelithiasis include medication, shock wave lithotripsy (breaking up the gallstones with sound waves), and surgery to remove the gallbladder (cholecystectomy).

Lithiasis is a medical term that refers to the formation of stones or calculi in various organs of the body. These stones can develop in the kidneys (nephrolithiasis), gallbladder (cholelithiasis), urinary bladder (cystolithiasis), or salivary glands (sialolithiasis). The stones are usually composed of minerals and organic substances, and their formation can be influenced by various factors such as diet, dehydration, genetic predisposition, and chronic inflammation. Lithiasis can cause a range of symptoms depending on the location and size of the stone, including pain, obstruction, infection, and damage to surrounding tissues. Treatment may involve medication, shock wave lithotripsy, or surgical removal of the stones.

A Choledochal cyst is a congenital dilatation or abnormal enlargement of the bile ducts, which are the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the small intestine. Bile is a digestive juice produced by the liver that helps in the digestion of fats.

Choledochal cysts can be classified into several types based on their location and the anatomy of the biliary tree. The most common type, called Type I, involves dilatation of the common bile duct. Other types include dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts (Type II), dilatation of both the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts (Type III), and multiple cystic dilatations of the bile ducts (Type IV).

Choledochal cysts are more common in females than males, and they can present at any age. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, jaundice, vomiting, and fever. Complications of choledochal cysts can include bile duct stones, infection, and cancer. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the cyst, followed by reconstruction of the biliary tree.

A biopsy is a medical procedure in which a small sample of tissue is taken from the body to be examined under a microscope for the presence of disease. This can help doctors diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as cancer, infections, or autoimmune disorders. The type of biopsy performed will depend on the location and nature of the suspected condition. Some common types of biopsies include:

1. Incisional biopsy: In this procedure, a surgeon removes a piece of tissue from an abnormal area using a scalpel or other surgical instrument. This type of biopsy is often used when the lesion is too large to be removed entirely during the initial biopsy.

2. Excisional biopsy: An excisional biopsy involves removing the entire abnormal area, along with a margin of healthy tissue surrounding it. This technique is typically employed for smaller lesions or when cancer is suspected.

3. Needle biopsy: A needle biopsy uses a thin, hollow needle to extract cells or fluid from the body. There are two main types of needle biopsies: fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA extracts loose cells, while a core needle biopsy removes a small piece of tissue.

4. Punch biopsy: In a punch biopsy, a round, sharp tool is used to remove a small cylindrical sample of skin tissue. This type of biopsy is often used for evaluating rashes or other skin abnormalities.

5. Shave biopsy: During a shave biopsy, a thin slice of tissue is removed from the surface of the skin using a sharp razor-like instrument. This technique is typically used for superficial lesions or growths on the skin.

After the biopsy sample has been collected, it is sent to a laboratory where a pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope and provide a diagnosis based on their findings. The results of the biopsy can help guide further treatment decisions and determine the best course of action for managing the patient's condition.

Intrahepatic cholestasis is a medical condition characterized by the interruption or reduction of bile flow within the liver. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins. Intrahepatic cholestasis occurs when there is a problem with the transport of bile components inside the liver cells (hepatocytes). This can lead to an accumulation of bile acids, bilirubin, and other substances in the liver, which can cause damage to liver cells and result in symptoms such as jaundice, itching, and dark urine.

Intrahepatic cholestasis can be caused by various factors, including medications, alcohol abuse, hepatitis viruses, autoimmune disorders, genetic defects, and cancer. Depending on the underlying cause, intrahepatic cholestasis can be acute or chronic, and it can range from mild to severe. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition, as well as providing supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Pleurodesis is a medical procedure that involves the intentional inflammation and subsequent fusion of the pleural surfaces, which are the thin layers of tissue that separate the lungs from the chest wall. This procedure is typically performed to prevent the recurrence of pneumothorax (a collapsed lung) or pleural effusions (abnormal fluid accumulation in the pleural space).

During the pleurodesis procedure, an irritant such as talc, doxycycline, or silver nitrate is introduced into the pleural space. This causes an inflammatory response, leading to the formation of adhesions between the visceral and parietal pleura. These adhesions obliterate the potential space between the pleural layers, preventing the accumulation of air or fluid within that space.

There are two primary approaches to performing pleurodesis: thoracoscopic (using a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery or VATS) and chemical (instilling a sclerosing agent through a chest tube). Both methods aim to achieve the same goal of creating adhesions between the pleural layers.

It is essential to note that, while pleurodesis can be an effective treatment for preventing recurrent pneumothorax or pleural effusions, it is not without risks and potential complications. These may include pain, fever, infection, empyema (pus in the pleural space), or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Patients should discuss these risks with their healthcare provider before undergoing the procedure.

Steroids, also known as corticosteroids, are a type of hormone that the adrenal gland produces in your body. They have many functions, such as controlling the balance of salt and water in your body and helping to reduce inflammation. Steroids can also be synthetically produced and used as medications to treat a variety of conditions, including allergies, asthma, skin conditions, and autoimmune disorders.

Steroid medications are available in various forms, such as oral pills, injections, creams, and inhalers. They work by mimicking the effects of natural hormones produced by your body, reducing inflammation and suppressing the immune system's response to prevent or reduce symptoms. However, long-term use of steroids can have significant side effects, including weight gain, high blood pressure, osteoporosis, and increased risk of infections.

It is important to note that anabolic steroids are a different class of drugs that are sometimes abused for their muscle-building properties. These steroids are synthetic versions of the male hormone testosterone and can have serious health consequences when taken in large doses or without medical supervision.

The ampulla of Vater, also known as hepatopancreatic ampulla, is a dilated portion of the common bile duct where it joins the main pancreatic duct and empties into the second part of the duodenum. It serves as a conduit for both bile from the liver and digestive enzymes from the pancreas to reach the small intestine, facilitating the digestion and absorption of nutrients. The ampulla of Vater is surrounded by a muscular sphincter, the sphincter of Oddi, which controls the flow of these secretions into the duodenum.

Plasma cells are a type of white blood cell that are derived from B cells (another type of white blood cell) and are responsible for producing antibodies. Antibodies are proteins that help the body to fight against infections by recognizing and binding to specific antigens, such as bacteria or viruses. Plasma cells are found in the bone marrow, spleen, and lymph nodes, and they play a crucial role in the immune system's response to infection.

Plasma cells are characterized by their large size, eccentric nucleus, and abundant cytoplasm filled with rough endoplasmic reticulum, which is where antibody proteins are synthesized and stored. When activated, plasma cells can produce and secrete large amounts of antibodies into the bloodstream and lymphatic system, where they can help to neutralize or eliminate pathogens.

It's worth noting that while plasma cells play an important role in the immune response, abnormal accumulations of these cells can also be a sign of certain diseases, such as multiple myeloma, a type of cancer that affects plasma cells.

A "Plasma Cell Granuloma" is a specific type of granulomatous inflammation that is characterized by the presence of numerous plasma cells. Plasma cells are white blood cells that produce antibodies, which are proteins that help the body fight off infections and diseases. In a Plasma Cell Granuloma, there is an excessive accumulation of these cells, leading to the formation of a nodular lesion or mass.

Plasma Cell Granulomas can occur in various organs, including the skin, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and oral cavity. They are often associated with chronic inflammation, autoimmune disorders, or malignancies. The exact cause of Plasma Cell Granulomas is not always known, but they may be triggered by infections, foreign bodies, or other stimuli that induce an immune response.

Histologically, a Plasma Cell Granuloma is composed of a central area of plasma cells surrounded by a rim of lymphocytes and macrophages. The lesion may also contain multinucleated giant cells, eosinophils, and other inflammatory cells. Treatment options for Plasma Cell Granulomas depend on the location and extent of the lesion, as well as the underlying cause. Surgical excision is often curative, but medical therapy may be necessary in some cases.

Bilirubin is a yellowish pigment that is produced by the liver when it breaks down old red blood cells. It is a normal byproduct of hemoglobin metabolism and is usually conjugated (made water-soluble) in the liver before being excreted through the bile into the digestive system. Elevated levels of bilirubin can cause jaundice, a yellowing of the skin and eyes. Increased bilirubin levels may indicate liver disease or other medical conditions such as gallstones or hemolysis. It is also measured to assess liver function and to help diagnose various liver disorders.

Roux-en-Y anastomosis is a type of surgical connection between two parts of the gastrointestinal tract, typically performed during gastric bypass surgery for weight loss. In this procedure, a small pouch is created from the upper stomach, and the remaining portion of the stomach is bypassed. The Roux limb, a segment of the small intestine, is then connected to both the pouch and the bypassed stomach, creating two separate channels for food and digestive juices to mix. This surgical technique helps to reduce the amount of food that can be consumed and absorbed, leading to weight loss.

Epithelioid cells are a type of cell that can be found in certain types of tissue in the body, including connective tissue and some organs. These cells have a characteristic appearance under a microscope, with an enlarged, oval or round shape and a pale, abundant cytoplasm. They may also have a nucleus that is centrally located and has a uniform, rounded shape.

Epithelioid cells are often seen in the context of inflammation or disease, particularly in relation to granulomatous disorders such as sarcoidosis and tuberculosis. In these conditions, epithelioid cells can form clusters known as granulomas, which are a hallmark of the diseases. The exact function of epithelioid cells is not fully understood, but they are thought to play a role in the immune response and may help to contain and eliminate foreign substances or pathogens from the body.

Peritonitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the peritoneum, which is the serous membrane that lines the inner wall of the abdominal cavity and covers the abdominal organs. The peritoneum has an important role in protecting the abdominal organs and providing a smooth surface for them to move against each other.

Peritonitis can occur as a result of bacterial or fungal infection, chemical irritation, or trauma to the abdomen. The most common cause of peritonitis is a rupture or perforation of an organ in the abdominal cavity, such as the appendix, stomach, or intestines, which allows bacteria from the gut to enter the peritoneal cavity.

Symptoms of peritonitis may include abdominal pain and tenderness, fever, nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite, and decreased bowel movements. In severe cases, peritonitis can lead to sepsis, a life-threatening condition characterized by widespread inflammation throughout the body.

Treatment for peritonitis typically involves antibiotics to treat the infection, as well as surgical intervention to repair any damage to the abdominal organs and remove any infected fluid or tissue from the peritoneal cavity. In some cases, a temporary or permanent drain may be placed in the abdomen to help remove excess fluid and promote healing.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Acalculous cholecystitis is a form of inflammation of the gallbladder that occurs in the absence of gallstones, which are commonly associated with gallbladder inflammation. It mainly affects critically ill or debilitated patients and can be caused by various factors such as bacterial or viral infection, reduced blood flow to the gallbladder, and injury to the bile ducts.

The symptoms of acalculous cholecystitis may include abdominal pain, fever, nausea, vomiting, and jaundice. The diagnosis is often made through imaging tests such as ultrasound or CT scan, which may show gallbladder wall thickening, fluid accumulation around the gallbladder, and other signs of inflammation.

Treatment typically involves antibiotics to manage infection, intravenous fluids, and pain management. In severe cases, cholecystectomy (surgical removal of the gallbladder) may be necessary. If left untreated, acalculous cholecystitis can lead to serious complications such as gangrene, perforation of the gallbladder, and sepsis.

Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the anus. It is characterized by chronic inflammation of the digestive tract, which can lead to symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss, and malnutrition.

The specific causes of Crohn's disease are not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic, environmental, and immune system factors. The disease can affect people of any age, but it is most commonly diagnosed in young adults between the ages of 15 and 35.

There is no cure for Crohn's disease, but treatments such as medications, lifestyle changes, and surgery can help manage symptoms and prevent complications. Treatment options depend on the severity and location of the disease, as well as the individual patient's needs and preferences.

Mediastinitis is a medical condition that refers to the inflammation of the mediastinum, which is the area in the chest that separates the lungs and contains various vital structures such as the heart, esophagus, trachea, thymus gland, and major blood vessels. Mediastinitis can be caused by bacterial or fungal infections, trauma, or complications from medical procedures such as esophageal surgery or heart catheterization.

The symptoms of mediastinitis may include chest pain, fever, difficulty swallowing, shortness of breath, cough, and neck stiffness. The diagnosis is typically made through imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans, and confirmed with laboratory tests that identify the causative organism. Treatment usually involves antibiotics or antifungal medications to eliminate the infection, along with supportive care such as pain management, fluids, and nutrition. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to drain infected fluid or remove damaged tissue.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

A cyst is a closed sac, having a distinct membrane and division between the sac and its surrounding tissue, that contains fluid, air, or semisolid material. Cysts can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, internal organs, and bones. They can be caused by various factors, such as infection, genetic predisposition, or blockage of a duct or gland. Some cysts may cause symptoms, such as pain or discomfort, while others may not cause any symptoms at all. Treatment for cysts depends on the type and location of the cyst, as well as whether it is causing any problems. Some cysts may go away on their own, while others may need to be drained or removed through a surgical procedure.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

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... (also known as "NISCH syndrome" and "ichthyosis-sclerosing cholangitis ... ISBN 978-1-4160-2999-1. "Ichthyosis, leukocyte vacuoles, alopecia, and sclerosing cholangitis - About the Disease - Genetic and ... "OMIM Entry - # 607626 - ICHTHYOSIS, LEUKOCYTE VACUOLES, ALOPECIA, AND SCLEROSING CHOLANGITIS; ILVASC". omim.org. Retrieved 2022 ... ichthyosis and sclerosing cholangitis. Only 5 cases from 3 families worldwide have been described in medical literature. It ...
Sclerosing Cholangitis". Digestive Diseases and Sciences. 50 (10): 1838-1843. doi:10.1007/s10620-005-2948-3. PMID 16187184. ...
Primary sclerosing cholangitis. Haemochromatosis Cholesteryl ester storage disease Porphyria Wilson's disease Niemann Pick ...
Primary sclerosing cholangitis. In Kostic K, Grbic R: Bile acids in liver and biliary channels. Medical Academy of Serbian ... Milosavljevic T. Primary sclerosing cholangitis. In: Teodorović J et al.: Gastroenterology, the third part of the Children ... cholangitis (270-271) cholangiocarcinoma (272-274) In : O.Popović . Gastroenterology 100 lessons - a manual for physicians. ...
Lindor KD (March 1997). "Ursodiol for primary sclerosing cholangitis. Mayo Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis-Ursodeoxycholic Acid ... Some rare causes include primary sclerosing cholangitis, primary biliary cholangitis, familial intrahepatic cholestasis, ... "Primary Biliary Cholangitis and Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis". The American Journal of Gastroenterology. 114 (10): 1593-1605 ... Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is one of the most common cholestatic liver diseases, yet treatment options remain limited ...
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Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a serious chronic inflammatory disease of the bile duct, which is believed to be autoimmune ... "Sclerosing cholangitis: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-20. "Hepatic vein obstruction ( ...
WHO Drug Information advises against its use in primary sclerosing cholangitis in unapproved doses beyond 13-15 mg/kg/day. UDCA ... Poropat G, Giljaca V, Stimac D, Gluud C (January 2011). "Bile acids for primary sclerosing cholangitis". The Cochrane Database ... September 2009). "High-dose ursodeoxycholic acid for the treatment of primary sclerosing cholangitis". Hepatology. 50 (3): 808- ... mg/kg/day increases risk of death and need for liver transplant by 2.3-fold among those with primary sclerosing cholangitis, ...
Treatment of benign biliary/papillary strictures: diseases such as primary sclerosing cholangitis can lead to fibrosis and ... Karlsen, Tom H.; Folseraas, Trine; Thorburn, Douglas; Vesterhus, Mette (December 2017). "Primary sclerosing cholangitis - a ... Cholangitis/sepsis: the incidence of cholangitis after biliary endoscopic sphincterotomy is between 1% and 3%. Late ... These strictures can cause cholestasis which can lead to jaundice, pruritus, cholangitis, and gallstone formation. Biliary ...
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Folseraas, T; Boberg, KM (February 2016). "Cancer Risk and Surveillance in Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis". Clinics in Liver ... usually in seventh and eighth decades Obesity Chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis Primary sclerosing cholangitis Chronic ...
However, when small polyps occur with other conditions, such as primary sclerosing cholangitis, they are less likely to be ... Karlsen TH, Schrumpf E, Boberg KM (2008). "Gallbladder polyps in primary sclerosing cholangitis: not so benign". Current ...
"Primary sclerosing cholangitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and colon cancer". Seminars in Liver Disease. 26 (1): 31-41. doi: ... Crohn's disease may also be associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis, a type of inflammation of the bile ducts. Liver ...
Kane was diagnosed with primary sclerosing cholangitis in 2006. In 2013 he required a liver transplant. To pay the deductible ...
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In addition, colectomy does not have an impact on the course of primary sclerosing cholangitis in individuals with UC. PSC is ... As many as 5% of people with ulcerative colitis may progress to develop primary sclerosing cholangitis. PSC is more common in ... Liver function tests are performed to screen for bile duct involvement: primary sclerosing cholangitis. Imaging such as x-ray ... In some cases, primary sclerosing cholangitis occurs several years before the bowel symptoms of ulcerative colitis develop. PSC ...
Primary sclerosing cholangitis, an idiopathic inflammatory condition of the biliary tree, has been associated with the ... "Cholangiocarcinoma in primary sclerosing cholangitis: risk factors and clinical presentation". Scandinavian Journal of ...
Boonstra K, Beuers U, Ponsioen CY (May 2012). "Epidemiology of primary sclerosing cholangitis and primary biliary cirrhosis: a ... Levy C, Lindor KD (April 2003). "Treatment Options for Primary Biliary Cirrhosis and Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis". Current ... Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), previously known as primary biliary cirrhosis, is an autoimmune disease of the liver. It ... Because cirrhosis is a feature only of advanced disease, a change of its name to "primary biliary cholangitis" was proposed by ...
Franco, J.; Saeian, K. (April 1999). "Biliary tract inflammatory disorders: primary sclerosing cholangitis and primary biliary ... Chronic inflammatory conditions of the biliary tract, including Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC) and Primary Biliary ... This condition is known as acute cholangitis and is commonly associated with a triad of clinical symptoms known as Charcot's ... This constellation of symptoms has a 96% specificity for cholangitis, and can be expanded upon with the addition of hypotension ...
Loss of function mutations result in neonatal ichthyosis-sclerosing cholangitis syndrome. CLDN1 has been shown to interact with ...
Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography Reynolds' pentad Charcot's cholangitis triad Primary sclerosing cholangitis Adler, ... Tharian, B.; George, N. E.; Tham, T. C. (2015). "What is the current role of endoscopy in primary sclerosing cholangitis?". ... primary sclerosing cholangitis, anastomotic strictures after liver transplantation) extraction of liver flukes from the biliary ... Other complications (less than 1%) may include heart and lung problems, infection in the bile duct called cholangitis, that can ...
Foreman suggests that the liver, kidney and eye point towards sclerosing cholangitis. House orders a biopsy to confirm. As the ... picornavirus or rotavirus Neurosyphilis Heavy metal poisoning Varicella or Behçet's disease Sclerosing cholangitis ...
Other research foci have been the diseases psoriasis and primary sclerosing cholangitis. Franke's work in genome wide ...
Lineham suffered from primary sclerosing cholangitis, a chronic disease that damages the liver. She received a liver transplant ... Deaths from primary sclerosing cholangitis, Burials at Eastern Cemetery, Invercargill). ...
Seuling died of the rare liver disease sclerosing cholangitis on August 21, 1984. The following year, Sea Gate closed down. ...
"Long-term outcomes of positive fluorescence in situ hybridization tests in primary sclerosing cholangitis". Hepatology. 51 (1 ...
Primary sclerosing cholangitis, a hardening of the bile duct by scarring and repeated inflammation. Systemic sclerosis ( ...
In 2005, as a result of Weigand's primary sclerosing cholangitis, he experienced liver failure. In April 2005, he received a ... Soon after becoming bishop, Weigand was diagnosed with primary sclerosing cholangitis, the source of his health issues. However ...
Secondary sclerosing cholangitis (SSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease. SSC is a sclerosing cholangitis with a known ... It has been clearly demonstrated that sclerosing cholangitis can develop after an episode of severe bacterial cholangitis. Also ... ter Borg PC, van Buuren HR, Depla AC (June 2002). "Bacterial cholangitis causing secondary sclerosing cholangitis: a case ... Sclerosing cholangitis in critically ill patients, however, is associated with rapid disease progression and poor outcome. ...
Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a condition that affects the bile ducts. Explore symptoms, inheritance, genetics of this ... in people with primary sclerosing cholangitis.. Primary sclerosing cholangitis is often associated with another condition ... medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/primary-sclerosing-cholangitis/ Primary sclerosing cholangitis. ... Primary sclerosing cholangitis occurs because of inflammation in the bile ducts (cholangitis) that leads to scarring (sclerosis ...
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic liver disease characterized by a progressive course of cholestasis with ... encoded search term (Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis) and Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis What to Read Next on Medscape ... Nationwide survey for primary sclerosing cholangitis and IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis in Japan. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat ... Diseases articles Pediatric Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis and Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Imaging. ...
These data show that pANCA may be a genetic marker in families of patients with ulcerative colitis and primary sclerosing ... Results: pANCA were found in 82% of the patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis and in 25% of their relatives. In ... Neutrophil autoantibodies: a genetic marker in primary sclerosing cholangitis and ulcerative colitis Gastroenterology. 1994 Aug ... Methods: Three hundred twenty-seven sera from 11 families of patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis, 43 families of ...
As if the stress from having primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) isnt enough, the stress while waiting for a liver transplant ...
... ... announced today a delay of at least 6 months in the initiation of its Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC) Ph 2a Study. ... www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/galmed-announces-a-delay-in-the-initiation-of-its-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-psc-phase-2a- ...
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is characterized by multiple strictures of the biliary tree. Patients ... BACKGROUND AND AIM: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is characterized by multiple strictures of the biliary tree. Patients ... article{39af1b28-1993-4884-a09e-4dcbad570b11, abstract = {{,p,BACKGROUND AND AIM: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is ... These procedures are encumbered by an increased incidence of infectious adverse events such as cholangitis. Evidence regarding ...
Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical ... What is primary sclerosing cholangitis? Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a long-term disease that causes swelling, scarring, ... What causes primary sclerosing cholangitis? Doctors arent sure exactly what causes primary sclerosing cholangitis, but its ... How can doctors tell if I have primary sclerosing cholangitis? Doctors suspect you have primary sclerosing cholangitis from ...
Antibody Formation, Antigen Presentation, Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic, Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic, Cholangitis, Sclerosing, Disease ...
The Role of Abcb11 and FGF15/19 in the Pathogenesis of Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis. *Green, Richard (PD/PI) ...
... of sclerosing cholangitis. (Reproduced, with permission, from Levy C, Bowlus CL. Primary and Secondary Sclerosing Cholangitis. ... but do not meet criteria for IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis. The diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis may be ... relatives of patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis have a fourfold increased risk of primary sclerosing cholangitis and ... Friedman L.S. Friedman, Lawrence S. "Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis." Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2023 Papadakis MA, ...
Angulo, P., & Lindor, K. D. (2000). Medical treatment for primary sclerosing cholangitis: Risk versus benefit. Hepatology, 32(4 ... Medical treatment for primary sclerosing cholangitis: Risk versus benefit. / Angulo, Paul; Lindor, Keith D. In: Hepatology, Vol ... Angulo, P & Lindor, KD 2000, Medical treatment for primary sclerosing cholangitis: Risk versus benefit, Hepatology, vol. 32, ... Medical treatment for primary sclerosing cholangitis: Risk versus benefit. Hepatology. 2000;32(4 I):871-872. doi: 10.1002/hep. ...
Clinical information Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic choleastic liver disease with progressive destruction of ... Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic choleastic liver disease with progressive destruction of the bile ducts. PSC ... In suspected cases of overlap syndrome with autoimmune hepatitis or primary biliary cholangitis (up to 10% of cases), ...
Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic cholestatic liver disease of unknown etiology that leads to progressive ... Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic cholestatic liver disease of unknown etiology that leads to progressive ...
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic liver disease characterized by inflammation, destructionand fibrosis of the ... PSC is often complicated by recurrent episodes of bacterial cholangitis (infection of the bile ducts with bacteria). Patients ... Sclerosing Cholangitis Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic liver disease characterized by inflammation, ... Secondary causes of sclerosing cholangitis must be ruled out when making the diagnosis of PSC. Causes of secondary sclerosing ...
... ... IgG4 related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC) is a chronic cholestatic autoimmune liver disease, characterized by obstruction ... IgG4 related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC) is a chronic cholestatic autoimmune liver disease, characterized by obstruction ... IgG4-sclerosing cholangitis. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunoglobulin G. Male. Bile Duct ...
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic disease that affects the liver and biliary tract. Untreated, it leads to ... 1. What is primary sclerosing cholangitis. Psc, or primary sclerosing cholangitis, is a chronic liver disease that causes ... Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic disease that affects the liver and biliary tract. Untreated, it leads to ... 2. Symptoms of primary sclerosing cholangitis. Psc is quite tricky and may be asymptomatic for a long time, or it may be non- ...
Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic cholestatic liver disease that is associated with both hepatobiliary and colorectal ... An urgent need exists to identify an effective medical treatment for primary sclerosing cholangitis through well-designed RCTs ... Trials had few restrictions apart from an established diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis, evidence of cholestasis, ... Pharmacological interventions for primary sclerosing cholangitis. Overview of attention for article published in Cochrane ...
Cholangiocarcinoma complicating primary sclerosing cholangitis: Cholangiographic appearances. R. L. MacCarty, N. F. LaRusso, G ... Cholangiocarcinoma complicating primary sclerosing cholangitis: Cholangiographic appearances. / MacCarty, R. L.; LaRusso, N. F. ... Cholangiocarcinoma complicating primary sclerosing cholangitis: Cholangiographic appearances. Radiology. 1985 Jan 1;156(1):43- ... Cholangiocarcinoma complicating primary sclerosing cholangitis : Cholangiographic appearances. In: Radiology. 1985 ; Vol. 156, ...
Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic inflammatory disease described by cholestasis and progressive stricturing and ... Primary sclerosing cholangitis is described by the interplay of inflammation, fibrosis, and cholestasis. A cholestatic picture ... Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic inflammatory disease described by cholestasis and progressive stricturing and ... Effective medical treatment of primary sclerosing cholangitis has been inhibited by uncertainty regarding the pathogenesis of ...
Sclerosing Cholangitis Owing to Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2022; 119: 686. DOI: 10.3238/arztebl. ...
Dive into the research topics of Emerging therapeutic targets for primary sclerosing cholangitis. Together they form a unique ...
biliary atresia or primary sclerosing cholangitis. - Subjects who have been on oral vancomycin for 1 year for biliary atresia ... The investigators will focus on primary sclerosing cholangitis, biliary atresia, as well as states of health. The composition ... The Human Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiota in the Setting of Treating Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis and Biliary Atresia With ... Clinical diagnosis of biliary atresia or primary sclerosing cholangitis. - Clinical controls who are undergoing upper endoscopy ...
Vedolizumab Therapy in Children With Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis. Vedolizumab Therapy in Children With Primary Sclerosing ... Cholangitis. Inflammatory Bowel Disease Abstract. Objectives:. Most patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) also ...
Some patients who receive intensive care may develop a sclerosing cholangitis. The diagnosis can be easily missed. ... Some patients who receive intensive care may develop a sclerosing cholangitis. The diagnosis can be easily missed. ... 3) negative past history for biliary obstruction, primary sclerosing cholangitis or other biliary disorder ... 1) primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) (2) other causes of secondary sclerosing cholangitis. ...
The new therapy strategy for primary sclerosing cholangitis, a liver disease that at present still cannot be cured with ... New therapy strategies for primary sclerosing cholangitis indicate initial success. Go to article ...
About Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis. Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a rare, serious, idiopathic chronic cholestatic ... Volixibat is currently being evaluated in Phase 2b studies for primary sclerosing cholangitis (VISTAS clinical trial) and ... First and only data evaluating IBAT inhibition in treating primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) ... adults with primary sclerosing cholangitis and the VANTAGE Phase 2b clinical trial for adults with primary biliary cholangitis. ...
Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis and IBD Nutrition with Brittany Roman-Green, ...
  • Background and Aims: Many children with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) receive oral vancomycin therapy (OVT) or ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). (northwestern.edu)
  • Secondary sclerosing cholangitis (SSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primary and Secondary Sclerosing Cholangitis. (mhmedical.com)
  • Causes of secondary sclerosing cholangitis include drugs, bile duct cancers, past biliary tree surgery and opportunistic infections of the bile ducts that can cause a similar picture in patients with AIDS. (texasliver.com)
  • These causes of secondary sclerosing cholangitis can usually be ruled-out by history, physical examination and laboratory tests. (texasliver.com)
  • It is likely that specific genetic variations increase a person's risk of developing primary sclerosing cholangitis, and then exposure to certain environmental factors triggers the disorder. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There is evidence that variations in certain genes involved in immune function influence the risk of developing primary sclerosing cholangitis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • in people with primary sclerosing cholangitis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Approximately 70 percent of people with primary sclerosing cholangitis have inflammatory bowel disease, most commonly a form of the condition known as ulcerative colitis . (medlineplus.gov)
  • In addition, people with primary sclerosing cholangitis are more likely to have an autoimmune disorder, such as type 1 diabetes , celiac disease , or thyroid disease, than people without the condition. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People with primary sclerosing cholangitis also have an increased risk of developing cancer, particularly cancer of the bile ducts ( cholangiocarcinoma ). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Specific variations of several HLA genes seem to be present more often in people with primary sclerosing cholangitis than in people who do not have the disorder. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These variations may dysregulate the body's immune response, leading to the inflammation of the bile ducts in people with primary sclerosing cholangitis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • To assess the comparative benefits and harms of different pharmacological interventions in people with primary sclerosing cholangitis by performing a network meta-analysis, and to generate rankings of available pharmacological interventions according to their safety and efficacy. (altmetric.com)
  • Current therapies and clinical controversies in the management of primary sclerosing cholangitis. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Current therapies and clinical controversies in the management of primary sclerosing cholangitis. (elsevierpure.com)
  • For more information, see the Medscape Drugs & Diseases articles Pediatric Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis and Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Imaging . (medscape.com)
  • Fatigue is a significant problem for patients with primary biliary cirrhosis and although experienced less by patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis, a minority still report significant fatigue. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic cholestatic liver disease of unknown etiology that leads to progressive obliterative fibrosis of the biliary tree. (ox.ac.uk)
  • IgG4 related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC) is a chronic cholestatic autoimmune liver disease, characterized by obstruction of the biliary tract due to IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltrations associated with fibrosis, phlebitis and presence of eosinophils. (unict.it)
  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic cholestatic liver disease that is associated with both hepatobiliary and colorectal malignancies, which can result in liver cirrhosis and its complications. (altmetric.com)
  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis is often associated with another condition called inflammatory bowel disease, which is characterized by inflammation of the intestines that causes open sores (ulcers) in the intestines and abdominal pain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In this study, to accumulate further evidence for the importance of genetic factors in pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, sera of patients with inflammatory bowel disease and primary sclerosing cholangitis and their unaffected family members were tested for pANCA. (nih.gov)
  • Most patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) also have inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). (cheoresearch.ca)
  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a progressive cholestatic liver disease of unknown cause, but strongly associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). (bvsalud.org)
  • BACKGROUND: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is an incurable, cholestatic liver disease often coincident with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • abstract = "BACKGROUND: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is an incurable, cholestatic liver disease often coincident with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).AIMS: To evaluate the impact of liver disease and IBD on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in PSC.METHODS: A mixed-methods, cross-sectional study was performed at a tertiary center. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • FOSTER CITY, Calif.-(BUSINESS WIRE)- Mirum Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Nasdaq: MIRM) today announced that Hepatology Communications published data from the CAMEO study evaluating the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of LIVMARLI® (maralixibat) oral solution in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). (chiesiventures.com)
  • Also it was suggested that it can result from insult to the biliary tree by obstructive cholangitis secondary to choledocholithiasis, surgical damage, trauma, vascular insults, parasites, or congenital fibrocystic disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • BACKGROUND AND AIM: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is characterized by multiple strictures of the biliary tree. (lu.se)
  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic inflammatory disease described by cholestasis and progressive stricturing and destruction of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary tree. (unisciencepub.com)
  • Complications involving the biliary tree are common and include cholangitis, as well as ductal strictures and gallstones, the latter of which frequently require endoscopic or surgical interventions. (chiesiventures.com)
  • The etiology of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) remains unknown, but it is thought to be multifactorial, including genetic predisposition, exposure to an environmental antigen, and subsequent aberrant immunologic response to that stimulus. (medscape.com)
  • Secondary causes of sclerosing cholangitis must be ruled out when making the diagnosis of PSC. (texasliver.com)
  • We included only RCTs, irrespective of language, blinding, or publication status, in which participants were given a diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis. (altmetric.com)
  • Trials had few restrictions apart from an established diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis, evidence of cholestasis, absence of decompensated liver disease, and absence of malignancy. (altmetric.com)
  • Clinical diagnosis of biliary atresia or primary sclerosing cholangitis. (stanford.edu)
  • A 45-year-old woman with the diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis and ulcerative colitis admitted with the complaints of pruritus and jaundice. (ogu.edu.tr)
  • The most powerful predictors of the confirmed PSC medical diagnosis was narrative reference to principal sclerosing cholangitis or the amount of ICD-9-CM rules for cholangitis accompanied by usage of ursodiol and going through an abdominal magnetic resonance imaging or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MR/MRCP) evaluation. (conferencedequebec.org)
  • Therefore, the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis-primary sclerosing cholangitis overlap syndrome was made, and prednisolone, azathioprine, and ursodeoxycholic acid was initiated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • TEL AVIV, Israel , Nov. 20, 2023 /PRNewswire/ -- Galmed Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (Nasdaq: GLMD) ("Galmed" or the "Company"), a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company for liver, metabolic and fibrotic diseases, announced today a delay of at least 6 months in the initiation of its Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC) Ph 2a Study. (fox21news.com)
  • It has been clearly demonstrated that sclerosing cholangitis can develop after an episode of severe bacterial cholangitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • PSC is often complicated by recurrent episodes of bacterial cholangitis (infection of the bile ducts with bacteria). (texasliver.com)
  • Patients can also present with signs and symptoms indistinguishable from those of acute bacterial cholangitis such as fever, chills and right upper quadrant abdominal pain. (texasliver.com)
  • Sometimes, large fluctuations in serum bilirubin concentration can occur, even early in the disease, possibly as a result of transient bile duct obstruction or superimposed bacterial cholangitis. (texasliver.com)
  • The course of disease is usually complicated by recurrent bouts of superimposed bacterial cholangitis. (texasliver.com)
  • Perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (pANCA) were found at high frequency in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis and ulcerative colitis. (nih.gov)
  • Three hundred twenty-seven sera from 11 families of patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis, 43 families of patients with ulcerative colitis, 11 families of patients with Crohn's disease, and 11 healthy families were tested for pANCA in immunofluorescence on cytospin slides with isolated neutrophils. (nih.gov)
  • Only 16% of the patients with ulcerative colitis and their families and none of the patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis and their families were completely negative for pANCA. (nih.gov)
  • These data show that pANCA may be a genetic marker in families of patients with ulcerative colitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis. (nih.gov)
  • however, clinically significant sclerosing cholangitis develops in only 1-4% of patients with ulcerative colitis. (mhmedical.com)
  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis is associated with the histocompatibility antigens HLA-B8 and -DR3 or -DR4, and first-degree relatives of patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis have a fourfold increased risk of primary sclerosing cholangitis and a threefold increased risk of ulcerative colitis. (mhmedical.com)
  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis is often accompanied by other autoimmune diseases, most commonly ulcerative colitis. (medicalwholesome.com)
  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic inflammatory liver disease affecting the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts, and is strongly associated with ulcerative colitis (UC). (figshare.com)
  • We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index - Expanded, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and randomised controlled trials registers until February 2017 to identify randomised clinical trials (RCT) on pharmacological interventions for primary sclerosing cholangitis. (altmetric.com)
  • Clinical controls who are undergoing upper endoscopy or colonoscopy and do not have biliary atresia or primary sclerosing cholangitis. (stanford.edu)
  • Autoimmune hepatitis-primary sclerosing cholangitis (AIH-PSC) overlap syndrome is a clinical, biochemical, immunological, and histological feature of AIH with cholangiographic abnormalities characteristic of PSC [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic liver disease characterized by a progressive course of cholestasis with inflammation and fibrosis of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts. (medscape.com)
  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis is described by the interplay of inflammation, fibrosis, and cholestasis. (unisciencepub.com)
  • The total diagnosed prevalent cases of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) in China, the United States, and Europe are 281.1 thousand patients in 2022. (hightidetx.com)
  • Co-Editor-in-Chief Jasmohan Bajaj, MD, MS, FACG interviews Kris Kowdley, MD on the recent Rapid RCT "A Randomized, Dose-Finding, Proof of Concept Study of Berberine Ursodeoxycholate in Patients with Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis," published in the November 2022 issue of AJG. (gi.org)
  • In the absence of previous instrumentation, cholangitis is uncommon with malignant strictures. (medscape.com)
  • Cholangitis occurs in the presence of partial or complete obstruction of the common bile duct (CBD), with increased intraluminal pressures, bacterial infection of the bile with multiplication of the organisms within the duct, and seeding of the bloodstream with bacteria or endotoxin. (medscape.com)
  • pANCA were found in 82% of the patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis and in 25% of their relatives. (nih.gov)
  • Coffee consumption is also associated with a decreased risk of primary sclerosing cholangitis, and statin use is associated with improved outcomes in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. (mhmedical.com)
  • The optimal pharmacological treatment for patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis remains controversial. (altmetric.com)
  • Cholangiograms from 104 patients (and serial cholangiograms in 66 patients) with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) were reviewed. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Autoimmune hepatitis-primary sclerosing cholangitis overlap syndrome is a form of autoimmune hepatitis with cholestatic features and is characterized by negative anti-mitochondrial antibody and cholangiographic changes on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the United States, the prevalence of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is not known. (medscape.com)
  • SSC is clinically related to primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), but originates from a known pathological process. (wikipedia.org)
  • The association with IBD has suggested a role for intestinal microbial dysbiosis and altered bile acid metabolism in the pathogenesis of primary sclerosing cholangitis. (mhmedical.com)
  • Effective medical treatment of primary sclerosing cholangitis has been inhibited by uncertainty regarding the pathogenesis of the disease and the factors responsible for its progression. (unisciencepub.com)
  • In suspected cases of overlap syndrome with autoimmune hepatitis or primary biliary cholangitis (up to 10% of cases), serological antibody tests may provide additional diagnostic information. (euroimmun.ch)
  • Peripheral blood hypereosinophilia in conjunction with autoimmune hepatitis-primary sclerosing cholangitis overlap syndrome has not been reported yet. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we present a case of autoimmune hepatitis-primary sclerosing cholangitis overlap syndrome with hypereosinophilia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As UDCA is the drug most commonly investigated for primary sclerosing cholangitis, we performed a second analysis in which we stratified the dose of UDCA. (altmetric.com)
  • When apparent, the earliest signs and symptoms of primary sclerosing cholangitis include extreme tiredness (fatigue), discomfort in the abdomen, and severe itchiness (pruritus). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Liver biopsy specimens showing two views of the characteristic periductal fibrosis ("onion-skinning") of sclerosing cholangitis. (mhmedical.com)
  • A cholestatic picture of liver function with an elevation in serum alkaline phosphatase level is the biochemical hallmark of primary sclerosing cholangitis, although certain patients perhaps have normal alkaline phosphatase levels. (unisciencepub.com)
  • Patients presenting with cholangitis may also have fever and right upper quadrant tenderness in addition to jaundice (ie, Charcot triad), hypotension, and altered mental status (ie, Reynold pentad). (medscape.com)
  • Mayo Clinic is the expert for PSC - Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis occurs because of inflammation in the bile ducts (cholangitis) that leads to scarring (sclerosis) and narrowing of the ducts. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Researchers believe that genetic changes play a role in this condition because it often occurs in several members of a family and because immediate family members of someone with primary sclerosing cholangitis have an increased risk of developing the condition. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Women with primary sclerosing cholangitis may be more likely to have recurrent UTIs and less likely to use hormone replacement therapy than healthy controls. (mhmedical.com)
  • The new therapy strategy for primary sclerosing cholangitis, a liver disease that at present still cannot be cured with medication, shows initial measureable success with the nor-ursodeoxycholic acid (norUrso). (buzzpost.com)
  • What are the symptoms of primary sclerosing cholangitis? (msdmanuals.com)
  • More than 95% of cases of primary biliary cholangitis are associated with positive test results for antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA). (medscape.com)
  • Sclerosing cholangitis in critically ill patients, however, is associated with rapid disease progression and poor outcome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic choleastic liver disease with progressive destruction of the bile ducts. (euroimmun.ch)
  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic disease that affects the liver and biliary tract. (medicalwholesome.com)
  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis may present with cystic dilatations up to a level that it may resemble Caroli disease. (ogu.edu.tr)
  • Introduction: Principal sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and inflammatory colon disease (IBD) often co-occur. (conferencedequebec.org)
  • 2 patients had mixed connective tissue disease, 1 had systemic sclerosis, 1 had sclerosing cholangitis, 1 had microscopic polyangiitis, 3 had type 1 diabetes, 1 had multiple sclerosis, and 2 had psoriasis. (cdc.gov)