An imaging test of the BILIARY TRACT in which a contrast dye (RADIOPAQUE MEDIA) is injected into the BILE DUCT and x-ray pictures are taken.
Solid crystalline precipitates in the BILIARY TRACT, usually formed in the GALLBLADDER, resulting in the condition of CHOLELITHIASIS. Gallstones, derived from the BILE, consist mainly of calcium, cholesterol, or bilirubin.
Fiberoptic endoscopy designed for duodenal observation and cannulation of VATER'S AMPULLA, in order to visualize the pancreatic and biliary duct system by retrograde injection of contrast media. Endoscopic (Vater) papillotomy (SPHINCTEROTOMY, ENDOSCOPIC) may be performed during this procedure.
The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.
Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.
Non-invasive diagnostic technique for visualizing the PANCREATIC DUCTS and BILE DUCTS without the use of injected CONTRAST MEDIA or x-ray. MRI scans provide excellent sensitivity for duct dilatation, biliary stricture, and intraductal abnormalities.
Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
Excision of the gallbladder through an abdominal incision using a laparoscope.
Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the COMMON BILE DUCT.
Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).
Diseases in any part of the ductal system of the BILIARY TRACT from the smallest BILE CANALICULI to the largest COMMON BILE DUCT.
Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.
The channels that collect and transport the bile secretion from the BILE CANALICULI, the smallest branch of the BILIARY TRACT in the LIVER, through the bile ductules, the bile ducts out the liver, and to the GALLBLADDER for storage.
Predominantly extrahepatic bile duct which is formed by the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts, which are predominantly intrahepatic, and, in turn, joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct.
The duct that is connected to the GALLBLADDER and allows the emptying of bile into the COMMON BILE DUCT.
The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
The period during a surgical operation.
Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).
Impairment of bile flow in the large BILE DUCTS by mechanical obstruction or stricture due to benign or malignant processes.
Abnormal passage in any organ of the biliary tract or between biliary organs and other organs.
Inflammation of the biliary ductal system (BILE DUCTS); intrahepatic, extrahepatic, or both.
Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.
Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the GALLBLADDER.
Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.
Any surgical procedure performed on the biliary tract.
Jaundice, the condition with yellowish staining of the skin and mucous membranes, that is due to impaired BILE flow in the BILIARY TRACT, such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS, or EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS.
Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.
Diseases of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.
Radiography of the gallbladder after ingestion of a contrast medium.
Chronic inflammatory disease of the BILIARY TRACT. It is characterized by fibrosis and hardening of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary ductal systems leading to bile duct strictures, CHOLESTASIS, and eventual BILIARY CIRRHOSIS.
Incision of Oddi's sphincter or Vater's ampulla performed by inserting a sphincterotome through an endoscope (DUODENOSCOPE) often following retrograde cholangiography (CHOLANGIOPANCREATOGRAPHY, ENDOSCOPIC RETROGRADE). Endoscopic treatment by sphincterotomy is the preferred method of treatment for patients with retained or recurrent bile duct stones post-cholecystectomy, and for poor-surgical-risk patients that have the gallbladder still present.
Inflammation of the GALLBLADDER; generally caused by impairment of BILE flow, GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, infections, or other diseases.
A congenital anatomic malformation of a bile duct, including cystic dilatation of the extrahepatic bile duct or the large intrahepatic bile duct. Classification is based on the site and type of dilatation. Type I is most common.
A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.
A water-soluble radiographic contrast media for cholecystography and intravenous cholangiography.
Surgical formation of an opening (stoma) into the COMMON BILE DUCT for drainage or for direct communication with a site in the small intestine, primarily the DUODENUM or JEJUNUM.
A malignant tumor arising from the epithelium of the BILE DUCTS.
Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A Y-shaped surgical anastomosis of any part of the digestive system which includes the small intestine as the eventual drainage site.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
Breakdown of the connection and subsequent leakage of effluent (fluids, secretions, air) from a SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS of the digestive, respiratory, genitourinary, and cardiovascular systems. Most common leakages are from the breakdown of suture lines in gastrointestinal or bowel anastomosis.
Surgery of the smooth muscle sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla to relieve blocked biliary or pancreatic ducts.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the digestive tract.
Diseases of the GALLBLADDER. They generally involve the impairment of BILE flow, GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, infections, neoplasms, or other diseases.
Passages external to the liver for the conveyance of bile. These include the COMMON BILE DUCT and the common hepatic duct (HEPATIC DUCT, COMMON).
An abnormal passage or communication between a bronchus and another part of the body.
Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.
The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.
The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.
A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.
Surgical formation of an opening through the ABDOMINAL WALL into the JEJUNUM, usually for enteral hyperalimentation.
The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.
INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.
Tumor or cancer of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.
A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.
Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.
Ultrasonography of internal organs using an ultrasound transducer sometimes mounted on a fiberoptic endoscope. In endosonography the transducer converts electronic signals into acoustic pulses or continuous waves and acts also as a receiver to detect reflected pulses from within the organ. An audiovisual-electronic interface converts the detected or processed echo signals, which pass through the electronics of the instrument, into a form that the technologist can evaluate. The procedure should not be confused with ENDOSCOPY which employs a special instrument called an endoscope. The "endo-" of endosonography refers to the examination of tissue within hollow organs, with reference to the usual ultrasonography procedure which is performed externally or transcutaneously.
Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.
Imino acids are organic compounds containing a nitrogen atom in their structure, classified as derivatives of amino acids, where the carbon atom adjacent to the carboxyl group is bonded to a nitrogen atom instead of a hydrogen atom, forming a characteristic imino functional group.
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.
A dilation of the duodenal papilla that is the opening of the juncture of the COMMON BILE DUCT and the MAIN PANCREATIC DUCT, also known as the hepatopancreatic ampulla.
Congenital cystic dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC). It consists of 2 types: simple Caroli disease is characterized by bile duct dilatation (ectasia) alone; and complex Caroli disease is characterized by bile duct dilatation with extensive hepatic fibrosis and portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL). Benign renal tubular ectasia is associated with both types of Caroli disease.
The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).
Gastrointestinal agents that stimulate the flow of bile into the duodenum (cholagogues) or stimulate the production of bile by the liver (choleretic).
Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment.
Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.
A complex of gadolinium with a chelating agent, diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA see PENTETIC ACID), that is given to enhance the image in cranial and spinal MRIs. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p706)
Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Impairment of bile flow due to injury to the HEPATOCYTES; BILE CANALICULI; or the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC).
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.

Complications of cholecystectomy: risks of the laparoscopic approach and protective effects of operative cholangiography: a population-based study. (1/364)

BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is associated with an increased risk of intraoperative injury involving the bile ducts, bowel, and vascular structures compared with open cholecystectomy (OC). Population-based studies are required to estimate the magnitude of the increased risk, to determine whether this is changing over time, and to identify ways by which this might be reduced. METHODS: Suspected cases of intraoperative injury associated with cholecystectomy in Western Australia in the period 1988 to 1994 were identified from routinely collected hospital statistical records and lists of persons undergoing postoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The case records of suspect cases were reviewed to confirm the nature and site of injury. Ordinal logistic regression was used to estimate the risk of injury associated with LC compared with OC after adjusting for confounding factors. RESULTS: After the introduction of LC in 1991, the proportion of all cholecystectomy cases with intraoperative injury increased from 0.67% in 1988-90 to 1.33% in 1993-94. Similar relative increases were observed in bile duct injuries, major bile leaks, and other injuries to bowel or vascular structures. Increases in intraoperative injury were observed in both LC and OC. After adjustment for age, gender, hospital type, severity of disease, intraoperative cholangiography, and calendar period, the odds ratio for intraoperative injury in LC compared with OC was 1.79. Operative cholangiography significantly reduced the risk of injury. CONCLUSION: Operative cholangiography has a protective effect for complications of cholecystectomy. Compared with OC, LC carries a nearly twofold higher risk of major bile, vascular, and bowel complications. Further study is required to determine the extent to which potentially preventable factors contribute to this risk.  (+info)

Helical computed tomographic cholangiography versus endosonography for suspected bile duct stones: a prospective blinded study in non-jaundiced patients. (2/364)

BACKGROUND: Helical computed tomography performed after intravenous administration of a cholangiographic contrast material (HCT-cholangiography) may be useful for detecting bile duct stones in non-jaundiced patients. However, this method has never been compared with other non-invasive biliary imaging tests. AIMS: To compare prospectively HCT-cholangiography and endosonography (EUS) in a group of non-jaundiced patients with suspected bile duct stones. METHODS: Fifty two subjects underwent both HCT-cholangiography and EUS. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP), with or without instrumental bile duct exploration, served as a reference method, and was successful in all but two patients. RESULTS: Thirty four patients (68%) were found to have choledocholithiasis at ERCP. The sensitivity for HCT-cholangiography in stone detection was 85%, specificity 88%, and accuracy 86%. For EUS the sensitivity was 91%, specificity 100%, and accuracy 94%. The differences were not significant. No serious complications occurred with either method. CONCLUSIONS: HCT-cholangiography and EUS are safe and comparably accurate methods for detecting bile duct stones in non-jaundiced patients.  (+info)

Cholangiographic features in the diagnosis and management of obstructive icteric type hepatocellular carcinoma. (3/364)

In 11 years and 3 months, 2,037 patients with HCC were seen and 48 patients (2.4%) were diagnosed to have obstructive icteric type HCC. Five patients were terminally ill and were not investigated further. Forty three patients were initially investigated by endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) or percutaneous transhepatic cholangiogram (PTC) and classified as having obstructive icteric type 1, 2, or 3 HCC based on the cholangiographic findings. The obstruction in type 1 HCC was due to intraluminal tumour casts and/or tumour fragments obstructing the hepatic ductal confluence or common bile duct, while intraluminal blood clots, from haemobilia, filling the biliary tree was the cause in type 2 HCC. The pathology in type 3 HCC was extraluminal obstruction by extensive tumour encasement of the intra-hepatic biliary ductal system and/or extrinsic compression of the hepatic and common bile ducts by tumour(s) and/or malignant lymph nodes. At the initial ERC/PTC, 10 patients (5 resected, 50%) had obstructive icteric type 1 and 23 patients (0 resected) had obstructive icteric type 3 HCC. Of the 10 patients initially classified according to cholangiography to have obstructive icteric type 2 HCC, subsequent investigations revealed that 6 patients had type 1 HCC (4 resectable,67%) and 4 patients had type 3 HCC (0 resectable). The classification of the obstructive icteric type HCC into types 1, 2, and 3, based on the initial cholangiographic appearances has simplified and rationalized our management strategy for this condition.  (+info)

Posterior hepatic duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy finally necessitating hepatic resection: case report. (4/364)

A case of bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy finally necessitating right hepatic lobectomy is reported to re-emphasize the importance of preoperative and intraoperative assessment of the biliary tree. A 47-year-old Japanese woman underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for cholecystolithiasis. On postoperative day 5, fever and right hypochondralgia developed, and CT revealed fluid collection at the right hypochondrium. Percutaneous drainage was performed, and subsequent fistulography revealed a communication of the cystic cavity with the right posterior bile duct, which suggested injury of the aberrant hepatic duct. Conservative therapy, including the adaptation of fibrin glue, was performed, but closure of the fistula and cavity was not obtainable. Finally, a right hepatic lobectomy was performed four months after cholecystectomy. In this case, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was unsuccessful preoperatively, and intraoperative cholangiography was not done. This case report re-emphasizes that the preoperative and intraoperative examination of the biliary tree is mandatory to avoid bile duct injury.  (+info)

Scintigraphic detection of bile leak and follow-up in a post-cholecystectomy patient with recognition of tail sign. (5/364)

Early detection of site and extent of biliary tract disruption can significantly reduce mortality and morbidity in a postoperative biliary leak. We report a case in whom extent and location of post surgical biliary leak was detected with the help of 99mTc BULIDA cholescintigraphy and showed a good correlation with "T" tube cholangiography. Cholescintigraphy was also useful in assessing the follow up of this patient. We conclude that 99mTc BULIDA cholescintigraphy is a non-invasive, safe, simple and sensitive procedure in the detection of the site, extent of the leak and in follow up of the postoperative biliary leak.  (+info)

The importance of intraoperative cholangiography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. (6/364)

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) using an electrosurgery energy source was successfully performed in 59 (95%) out of 62 selected patients. The procedures were performed by different surgical teams at Trakya University, Medical Fakulty, in the department of General Surgery and the Karl-Franzens-University School of Medicine, in the department of General Surgery. Cholangiography was routine at Karl Franzens University and selective at Trakya University. Laparoscopic intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) was performed in 48 (81.3%) patients, and open IOC was performed in 3 patients. Two patients had common duct stones; one of which was unsuspected preoperatively. These cases underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and endoscopic papillotomy (EP). One patient had a choledocal tumor, unsuspected preoperatively. Anatomical anomalies were not identified. Cholangiography could not be performed in one case in which there was no suspected pathology. ERCP was performed on one patient 30 days after being discharged because of acute cholangitis. In this case, residual stones were identified in the choledocus. Four patients underwent open cholecystectomy because of tumor, unidentified cystic duct or common bile duct pathology that could not be visualized on the cholangiogram. Our study suggests that cholangiography performed via the cystic duct before any structures are divided can prevent the most serious complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy--common duct injury. We recommend that cholangiography be attempted on all patients undergoing LC.  (+info)

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and appendectomy in situs inversus totalis. (7/364)

Situs inversus totalis is an uncommon anatomic anomaly that complicates diagnosis and management of acute abdominal pain. Expedient diagnosis of common intraperitoneal disease processes such as biliary colic, acute appendicitis and diverticulitis is often delayed as a result of seemingly incongruous physical findings. We present the case of a young woman with prior emergency room visits for complaints of a vague left upper quadrant abdominal pain. An ultrasound performed on her third presentation revealed visceral situs inversus with cholelithiasis and dilated intra- and extrahepatic biliary ducts. Standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy and cholangiography with a mirror-image surgical approach was performed successfully and without complication.  (+info)

Changing strategies in diagnosis and management of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. (8/364)

Hilar cholangiocarcinoma is one of the most difficult tumors to stage and treat. This study aims to evaluate (1) the best diagnostic imaging, (2) the usefulness of preoperative biliary drainage, (3) the resectability rate, and (4) the results of palliative treatments and surgical resection. Seventy-six patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma with a mean age of 64 +/- 11 years were treated at our institution from 1989 to 1999. Patients were studied preoperatively using ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), and percutaneous cholangiography or magnetic resonance cholangiography. Forty-eight patients (63%) underwent palliative treatment. Twenty-eight patients underwent surgical curative therapy; 20 resections and 8 orthotopic liver transplantations (OLTs). Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography was performed in 18 of 28 patients (64%), and magnetic resonance cholangiography in 5 patients; both methods were equally effective in establishing tumoral invasion of the biliary ducts. Five patients did not undergo either diagnostic modality. Excluding the patients who underwent OLT, no significant differences were found in surgical mortality (1 v 2 patients) or postoperative morbidity (100% v 66%) for patients with and without preoperative biliary drainage. The postoperative mortality rate was 11% (3 of 28 patients). The overall resectability rate was 37%. Mean survival in the surgical and palliative groups was 35 and 6 months, respectively (P <.0001). Patients who underwent OLT had a better 5-year survival rate than those treated by tumor resection (36% v 21%; P =.02). Combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy apparently did not provide a significant survival benefit. Helical CT and magnetic resonance cholangiography are useful techniques to delineate tumor extent and rule out vascular invasion and lymph node or liver metastases. No clear conclusions regarding preoperative drainage can be drawn from this study. A high resectability rate (37%) is feasible with major hepatectomy.  (+info)

Cholangiography is a medical procedure that involves taking X-ray images of the bile ducts (the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the small intestine). This is typically done by injecting a contrast dye into the bile ducts through an endoscope or a catheter that has been inserted into the body.

There are several types of cholangiography, including:

* Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP): This procedure involves inserting an endoscope through the mouth and down the throat into the small intestine. A dye is then injected into the bile ducts through a small tube that is passed through the endoscope.
* Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC): This procedure involves inserting a needle through the skin and into the liver to inject the contrast dye directly into the bile ducts.
* Operative cholangiography: This procedure is performed during surgery to examine the bile ducts for any abnormalities or blockages.

Cholangiography can help diagnose a variety of conditions that affect the bile ducts, such as gallstones, tumors, or inflammation. It can also be used to guide treatment decisions, such as whether surgery is necessary to remove a blockage.

Gallstones are small, hard deposits that form in the gallbladder, a small organ located under the liver. They can range in size from as small as a grain of sand to as large as a golf ball. Gallstones can be made of cholesterol, bile pigments, or calcium salts, or a combination of these substances.

There are two main types of gallstones: cholesterol stones and pigment stones. Cholesterol stones are the most common type and are usually yellow-green in color. They form when there is too much cholesterol in the bile, which causes it to become saturated and form crystals that eventually grow into stones. Pigment stones are smaller and darker in color, ranging from brown to black. They form when there is an excess of bilirubin, a waste product produced by the breakdown of red blood cells, in the bile.

Gallstones can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and bloating, especially after eating fatty foods. In some cases, gallstones can lead to serious complications, such as inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), infection, or blockage of the bile ducts, which can cause jaundice, a yellowing of the skin and eyes.

The exact cause of gallstones is not fully understood, but risk factors include being female, older age, obesity, a family history of gallstones, rapid weight loss, diabetes, and certain medical conditions such as cirrhosis or sickle cell anemia. Treatment for gallstones may involve medication to dissolve the stones, shock wave therapy to break them up, or surgery to remove the gallbladder.

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a medical procedure that combines upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy and fluoroscopy to diagnose and treat certain problems of the bile ducts and pancreas.

During ERCP, a flexible endoscope (a long, thin, lighted tube with a camera on the end) is passed through the patient's mouth and throat, then through the stomach and into the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). A narrow plastic tube (catheter) is then inserted through the endoscope and into the bile ducts and/or pancreatic duct. Contrast dye is injected through the catheter, and X-rays are taken to visualize the ducts.

ERCP can be used to diagnose a variety of conditions affecting the bile ducts and pancreas, including gallstones, tumors, strictures (narrowing of the ducts), and chronic pancreatitis. It can also be used to treat certain conditions, such as removing gallstones from the bile duct or placing stents to keep the ducts open in cases of stricture.

ERCP is an invasive procedure that carries a risk of complications, including pancreatitis, infection, bleeding, and perforation (a tear in the lining of the GI tract). It should only be performed by experienced medical professionals in a hospital setting.

The common bile duct is a duct that results from the union of the cystic duct (which drains bile from the gallbladder) and the common hepatic duct (which drains bile from the liver). The common bile duct transports bile, a digestive enzyme, from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine.

The common bile duct runs through the head of the pancreas before emptying into the second part of the duodenum, either alone or in conjunction with the pancreatic duct, via a small opening called the ampulla of Vater. The common bile duct plays a crucial role in the digestion of fats by helping to break them down into smaller molecules that can be absorbed by the body.

Cholecystectomy is a medical procedure to remove the gallbladder, a small pear-shaped organ located on the right side of the abdomen, just beneath the liver. The primary function of the gallbladder is to store and concentrate bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver. During a cholecystectomy, the surgeon removes the gallbladder, usually due to the presence of gallstones or inflammation that can cause pain, infection, or other complications.

There are two primary methods for performing a cholecystectomy:

1. Open Cholecystectomy: In this traditional surgical approach, the surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen to access and remove the gallbladder. This method is typically used when there are complications or unique circumstances that make laparoscopic surgery difficult or risky.
2. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: This is a minimally invasive surgical procedure where the surgeon makes several small incisions in the abdomen, through which a thin tube with a camera (laparoscope) and specialized surgical instruments are inserted. The surgeon then guides these tools to remove the gallbladder while viewing the internal structures on a video monitor.

After the gallbladder is removed, bile flows directly from the liver into the small intestine through the common bile duct, and the body continues to function normally without any significant issues.

Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is a non-invasive medical imaging technique that uses magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize the bile ducts and pancreatic duct. This diagnostic test does not use radiation like other imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) scans or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).

During an MRCP, the patient lies on a table that slides into the MRI machine. Contrast agents may be used to enhance the visibility of the ducts. The MRI machine uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to produce detailed images of the internal structures, allowing radiologists to assess any abnormalities or blockages in the bile and pancreatic ducts.

MRCP is often used to diagnose conditions such as gallstones, tumors, inflammation, or strictures in the bile or pancreatic ducts. It can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatments for these conditions. However, it does not allow for therapeutic interventions like ERCP, which can remove stones or place stents.

Biliary tract diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the biliary system, which includes the gallbladder, bile ducts, and liver. Bile is a digestive juice produced by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and released into the small intestine through the bile ducts to help digest fats.

Biliary tract diseases can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, jaundice, fever, nausea, vomiting, and changes in stool color. Some of the common biliary tract diseases include:

1. Gallstones: Small, hard deposits that form in the gallbladder or bile ducts made up of cholesterol or bilirubin.
2. Cholecystitis: Inflammation of the gallbladder, often caused by gallstones.
3. Cholangitis: Infection or inflammation of the bile ducts.
4. Biliary dyskinesia: A motility disorder that affects the contraction and relaxation of the muscles in the biliary system.
5. Primary sclerosing cholangitis: A chronic autoimmune disease that causes scarring and narrowing of the bile ducts.
6. Biliary tract cancer: Rare cancers that affect the gallbladder, bile ducts, or liver.

Treatment for biliary tract diseases varies depending on the specific condition and severity but may include medications, surgery, or a combination of both.

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a surgical procedure to remove the gallbladder using a laparoscope, a thin tube with a camera, which allows the surgeon to view the internal structures on a video monitor. The surgery is performed through several small incisions in the abdomen, rather than a single large incision used in open cholecystectomy. This approach results in less postoperative pain, fewer complications, and shorter recovery time compared to open cholecystectomy.

The procedure is typically indicated for symptomatic gallstones or chronic inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), which can cause severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the standard of care for gallbladder removal due to its minimally invasive nature and excellent outcomes.

Choledocholithiasis is a medical condition characterized by the presence of one or more gallstones in the common bile duct, which is the tube that carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the small intestine. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps break down fats in the small intestine. Gallstones are hardened deposits of digestive fluids that can form in the gallbladder or, less commonly, in the bile ducts.

Choledocholithiasis can cause a variety of symptoms, including abdominal pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), nausea, vomiting, and fever. If left untreated, it can lead to serious complications such as infection or inflammation of the bile ducts or pancreas, which can be life-threatening.

The condition is typically diagnosed through imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and may require endoscopic or surgical intervention to remove the gallstones from the common bile duct.

Cholelithiasis is a medical term that refers to the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder. The gallbladder is a small pear-shaped organ located beneath the liver that stores bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver. Gallstones are hardened deposits that can form in the gallbladder when substances in the bile, such as cholesterol or bilirubin, crystallize.

Gallstones can vary in size and may be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball. Some people with gallstones may not experience any symptoms, while others may have severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes) if the gallstones block the bile ducts.

Cholelithiasis is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide, particularly women over the age of 40 and those with certain medical conditions such as obesity, diabetes, and rapid weight loss. If left untreated, gallstones can lead to serious complications such as inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), infection, or pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas). Treatment options for cholelithiasis include medication, shock wave lithotripsy (breaking up the gallstones with sound waves), and surgery to remove the gallbladder (cholecystectomy).

Bile duct diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the bile ducts, which are tiny tubes that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine. Bile is a digestive juice produced by the liver that helps break down fats in food.

There are several types of bile duct diseases, including:

1. Choledocholithiasis: This occurs when stones form in the common bile duct, causing blockage and leading to symptoms such as abdominal pain, jaundice, and fever.
2. Cholangitis: This is an infection of the bile ducts that can cause inflammation, pain, and fever. It can occur due to obstruction of the bile ducts or as a complication of other medical procedures.
3. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC): This is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the bile ducts in the liver, causing inflammation and scarring that can lead to cirrhosis and liver failure.
4. Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC): This is another autoimmune disease that causes inflammation and scarring of the bile ducts, leading to liver damage and potential liver failure.
5. Bile Duct Cancer: Also known as cholangiocarcinoma, this is a rare form of cancer that affects the bile ducts and can cause jaundice, abdominal pain, and weight loss.
6. Benign Strictures: These are narrowing of the bile ducts that can occur due to injury, inflammation, or surgery, leading to blockage and potential infection.

Symptoms of bile duct diseases may include jaundice, abdominal pain, fever, itching, dark urine, and light-colored stools. Treatment depends on the specific condition and may involve medication, surgery, or other medical interventions.

Intraoperative care refers to the medical care and interventions provided to a patient during a surgical procedure. This care is typically administered by a team of healthcare professionals, including anesthesiologists, surgeons, nurses, and other specialists as needed. The goal of intraoperative care is to maintain the patient's physiological stability throughout the surgery, minimize complications, and ensure the best possible outcome.

Intraoperative care may include:

1. Anesthesia management: Administering and monitoring anesthetic drugs to keep the patient unconscious and free from pain during the surgery.
2. Monitoring vital signs: Continuously tracking the patient's heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, body temperature, and other key physiological parameters to ensure they remain within normal ranges.
3. Fluid and blood product administration: Maintaining adequate intravascular volume and oxygen-carrying capacity through the infusion of fluids and blood products as needed.
4. Intraoperative imaging: Utilizing real-time imaging techniques, such as X-ray, ultrasound, or CT scans, to guide the surgical procedure and ensure accurate placement of implants or other devices.
5. Neuromonitoring: Using electrophysiological methods to monitor the functional integrity of nerves and neural structures during surgery, particularly in procedures involving the brain, spine, or peripheral nerves.
6. Intraoperative medication management: Administering various medications as needed for pain control, infection prophylaxis, or the treatment of medical conditions that may arise during the surgery.
7. Temperature management: Regulating the patient's body temperature to prevent hypothermia or hyperthermia, which can have adverse effects on surgical outcomes and overall patient health.
8. Communication and coordination: Ensuring effective communication among the members of the surgical team to optimize patient care and safety.

Bile ducts are tubular structures that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder for storage or directly to the small intestine to aid in digestion. There are two types of bile ducts: intrahepatic and extrahepatic. Intrahepatic bile ducts are located within the liver and drain bile from liver cells, while extrahepatic bile ducts are outside the liver and include the common hepatic duct, cystic duct, and common bile duct. These ducts can become obstructed or inflamed, leading to various medical conditions such as cholestasis, cholecystitis, and gallstones.

The common hepatic duct is a medical term that refers to the duct in the liver responsible for carrying bile from the liver. More specifically, it is the duct that results from the convergence of the right and left hepatic ducts, which themselves carry bile from the right and left lobes of the liver, respectively. The common hepatic duct then joins with the cystic duct from the gallbladder to form the common bile duct, which ultimately drains into the duodenum, a part of the small intestine.

The primary function of the common hepatic duct is to transport bile, a digestive juice produced by the liver, to the small intestine. Bile helps break down fats during the digestion process, making it possible for the body to absorb them properly. Any issues or abnormalities in the common hepatic duct can lead to problems with bile flow and potentially cause health complications such as jaundice, gallstones, or liver damage.

The cystic duct is a short tube that connects the gallbladder to the common bile duct, which carries bile from the liver and gallbladder into the small intestine. The cystic duct allows bile to flow from the gallbladder into the common bile duct when it is needed for digestion. It is a part of the biliary system and plays an important role in the digestive process.

The biliary tract is a system of ducts that transport bile from the liver to the gallbladder and then to the small intestine. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the breakdown and absorption of fats in the small intestine. The main components of the biliary tract are:

1. Intrahepatic bile ducts: These are the smaller branches of bile ducts located within the liver that collect bile from the liver cells or hepatocytes.
2. Gallbladder: A small pear-shaped organ located beneath the liver, which stores and concentrates bile received from the intrahepatic bile ducts. The gallbladder releases bile into the small intestine when food is ingested, particularly fats, to aid digestion.
3. Common hepatic duct: This is a duct that forms by the union of the right and left hepatic ducts, which carry bile from the right and left lobes of the liver, respectively.
4. Cystic duct: A short duct that connects the gallbladder to the common hepatic duct, forming the beginning of the common bile duct.
5. Common bile duct: This is a larger duct formed by the union of the common hepatic duct and the cystic duct. It carries bile from the liver and gallbladder into the small intestine.
6. Pancreatic duct: A separate duct that originates from the pancreas, a gland located near the liver and stomach. The pancreatic duct joins the common bile duct just before they both enter the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine.
7. Ampulla of Vater: This is the dilated portion where the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct join together and empty their contents into the duodenum through a shared opening called the papilla of Vater.

Disorders related to the biliary tract include gallstones, cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder), bile duct stones, bile duct strictures or obstructions, and primary sclerosing cholangitis, among others.

The intraoperative period is the phase of surgical treatment that refers to the time during which the surgery is being performed. It begins when the anesthesia is administered and the patient is prepared for the operation, and it ends when the surgery is completed, the anesthesia is discontinued, and the patient is transferred to the recovery room or intensive care unit (ICU).

During the intraoperative period, the surgical team, including surgeons, anesthesiologists, nurses, and other healthcare professionals, work together to carry out the surgical procedure safely and effectively. The anesthesiologist monitors the patient's vital signs, such as heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and body temperature, throughout the surgery to ensure that the patient remains stable and does not experience any complications.

The surgeon performs the operation, using various surgical techniques and instruments to achieve the desired outcome. The surgical team also takes measures to prevent infection, control bleeding, and manage pain during and after the surgery.

Overall, the intraoperative period is a critical phase of surgical treatment that requires close collaboration and communication among members of the healthcare team to ensure the best possible outcomes for the patient.

Cholestasis is a medical condition characterized by the interruption or reduction of bile flow from the liver to the small intestine. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the breakdown and absorption of fats. When the flow of bile is blocked or reduced, it can lead to an accumulation of bile components, such as bilirubin, in the blood, which can cause jaundice, itching, and other symptoms.

Cholestasis can be caused by various factors, including liver diseases (such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, or cancer), gallstones, alcohol abuse, certain medications, pregnancy, and genetic disorders. Depending on the underlying cause, cholestasis may be acute or chronic, and it can range from mild to severe in its symptoms and consequences. Treatment for cholestasis typically involves addressing the underlying cause and managing the symptoms with supportive care.

Extrahepatic cholestasis is a medical condition characterized by the impaired flow of bile outside of the liver. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the absorption and digestion of fats. When the flow of bile is obstructed or blocked, it can lead to an accumulation of bile components, such as bilirubin, in the bloodstream, resulting in jaundice, dark urine, light-colored stools, and itching.

Extrahepatic cholestasis can be caused by various factors, including gallstones, tumors, strictures, or inflammation of the bile ducts. It is essential to diagnose and treat extrahepatic cholestasis promptly to prevent further complications, such as liver damage or infection. Treatment options may include medications, endoscopic procedures, or surgery, depending on the underlying cause of the condition.

A biliary fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the biliary system (which includes the gallbladder, bile ducts, and liver) and another organ or structure, usually in the abdominal cavity. This connection allows bile, which is a digestive fluid produced by the liver, to leak out of its normal pathway and into other areas of the body.

Biliary fistulas can occur as a result of trauma, surgery, infection, or inflammation in the biliary system. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, fever, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), nausea, vomiting, and clay-colored stools. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the fistula, such as draining an infection or repairing damaged tissue, and diverting bile flow away from the site of the leak. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the fistula.

Cholangitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the bile ducts, which are the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the small intestine. Bile is a digestive juice produced by the liver that helps break down fats in food.

There are two types of cholangitis: acute and chronic. Acute cholangitis is a sudden and severe infection that can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, fever, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), and dark urine. It is usually caused by a bacterial infection that enters the bile ducts through a blockage or obstruction.

Chronic cholangitis, on the other hand, is a long-term inflammation of the bile ducts that can lead to scarring and narrowing of the ducts. This can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, itching, and jaundice. Chronic cholangitis can be caused by various factors, including primary sclerosing cholangitis (an autoimmune disease), bile duct stones, or tumors in the bile ducts.

Treatment for cholangitis depends on the underlying cause of the condition. Antibiotics may be used to treat bacterial infections, and surgery may be necessary to remove blockages or obstructions in the bile ducts. In some cases, medications may be prescribed to manage symptoms and prevent further complications.

Bile duct neoplasms, also known as cholangiocarcinomas, refer to a group of malignancies that arise from the bile ducts. These are the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine. Bile duct neoplasms can be further classified based on their location as intrahepatic (within the liver), perihilar (at the junction of the left and right hepatic ducts), or distal (in the common bile duct).

These tumors are relatively rare, but their incidence has been increasing in recent years. They can cause a variety of symptoms, including jaundice, abdominal pain, weight loss, and fever. The diagnosis of bile duct neoplasms typically involves imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, as well as blood tests to assess liver function. In some cases, a biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment options for bile duct neoplasms depend on several factors, including the location and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgical resection is the preferred treatment for early-stage tumors, while chemotherapy and radiation therapy may be used in more advanced cases. For patients who are not candidates for surgery, palliative treatments such as stenting or bypass procedures may be recommended to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life.

Cholecystolithiasis is the medical term for the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder. The gallbladder is a small pear-shaped organ located under the liver that stores and concentrates bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver. Gallstones are hardened deposits that can form in the gallbladder when substances in the bile, such as cholesterol or bilirubin, become concentrated and crystallize.

Gallstones can vary in size, from tiny grains of sand to large stones several centimeters in diameter. Some people may have a single gallstone, while others may have many. Gallstones may cause no symptoms at all, but if they block the flow of bile out of the gallbladder, they can cause pain, inflammation, and infection.

Symptoms of cholecystolithiasis may include abdominal pain, often in the upper right or center of the abdomen, that may be sharp or crampy and may occur after eating fatty foods. Other symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, fever, and chills. If gallstones are left untreated, they can lead to serious complications such as cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder), pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas), or cholangitis (infection of the bile ducts). Treatment for cholecystolithiasis may include medication to dissolve the gallstones, shock wave lithotripsy to break up the stones, or surgery to remove the gallbladder.

Intrahepatic bile ducts are the small tubular structures inside the liver that collect bile from the liver cells (hepatocytes). Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins from food. The intrahepatic bile ducts merge to form larger ducts, which eventually exit the liver and join with the cystic duct from the gallbladder to form the common bile duct. The common bile duct then empties into the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine, where bile aids in digestion. Intrahepatic bile ducts can become obstructed or damaged due to various conditions such as gallstones, tumors, or inflammation, leading to complications like jaundice, liver damage, and infection.

Biliary tract surgical procedures refer to a range of operations that involve the biliary system, which includes the liver, gallbladder, and bile ducts. These procedures can be performed for various reasons, including the treatment of gallstones, bile duct injuries, tumors, or other conditions affecting the biliary tract. Here are some examples of biliary tract surgical procedures:

1. Cholecystectomy: This is the surgical removal of the gallbladder, which is often performed to treat symptomatic gallstones or chronic cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder). It can be done as an open procedure or laparoscopically.
2. Bile duct exploration: This procedure involves opening the common bile duct to remove stones, strictures, or tumors. It is often performed during a cholecystectomy if there is suspicion of common bile duct involvement.
3. Hepaticojejunostomy: This operation connects the liver's bile ducts directly to a portion of the small intestine called the jejunum, bypassing a damaged or obstructed segment of the biliary tract. It is often performed for benign or malignant conditions affecting the bile ducts.
4. Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy: This procedure involves creating a Y-shaped limb of jejunum and connecting it to the liver's bile ducts, bypassing the common bile duct and duodenum. It is often performed for complex biliary tract injuries or malignancies.
5. Whipple procedure (pancreaticoduodenectomy): This extensive operation involves removing the head of the pancreas, the duodenum, a portion of the jejunum, the gallbladder, and the common bile duct. It is performed for malignancies involving the pancreas, bile duct, or duodenum.
6. Liver resection: This procedure involves removing a portion of the liver to treat primary liver tumors (hepatocellular carcinoma or cholangiocarcinoma) or metastatic cancer from other organs.
7. Biliary stenting or bypass: These minimally invasive procedures involve placing a stent or creating a bypass to relieve bile duct obstructions caused by tumors, strictures, or stones. They can be performed endoscopically (ERCP) or percutaneously (PTC).
8. Cholecystectomy: This procedure involves removing the gallbladder, often for symptomatic cholelithiasis (gallstones) or cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder). It can be performed laparoscopically or open.
9. Biliary drainage: This procedure involves placing a catheter to drain bile from the liver or bile ducts, often for acute or chronic obstructions caused by tumors, strictures, or stones. It can be performed endoscopically (ERCP) or percutaneously (PTC).
10. Bilioenteric anastomosis: This procedure involves connecting the biliary tract to a portion of the small intestine, often for benign or malignant conditions affecting the bile ducts or pancreas. It can be performed open or laparoscopically.

Obstructive Jaundice is a medical condition characterized by the yellowing of the skin, sclera (whites of the eyes), and mucous membranes due to the accumulation of bilirubin in the bloodstream. This occurs when there is an obstruction or blockage in the bile ducts that transport bile from the liver to the small intestine.

Bile, which contains bilirubin, aids in digestion and is usually released from the liver into the small intestine. When the flow of bile is obstructed, bilirubin builds up in the blood, causing jaundice. The obstruction can be caused by various factors, such as gallstones, tumors, or strictures in the bile ducts.

Obstructive jaundice may present with additional symptoms like dark urine, light-colored stools, itching, abdominal pain, and weight loss, depending on the cause and severity of the obstruction. It is essential to seek medical attention if jaundice is observed, as timely diagnosis and management can prevent potential complications, such as liver damage or infection.

Intraoperative complications refer to any unforeseen problems or events that occur during the course of a surgical procedure, once it has begun and before it is completed. These complications can range from minor issues, such as bleeding or an adverse reaction to anesthesia, to major complications that can significantly impact the patient's health and prognosis.

Examples of intraoperative complications include:

1. Bleeding (hemorrhage) - This can occur due to various reasons such as injury to blood vessels or organs during surgery.
2. Infection - Surgical site infections can develop if the surgical area becomes contaminated during the procedure.
3. Anesthesia-related complications - These include adverse reactions to anesthesia, difficulty maintaining the patient's airway, or cardiovascular instability.
4. Organ injury - Accidental damage to surrounding organs can occur during surgery, leading to potential long-term consequences.
5. Equipment failure - Malfunctioning surgical equipment can lead to complications and compromise the safety of the procedure.
6. Allergic reactions - Patients may have allergies to certain medications or materials used during surgery, causing an adverse reaction.
7. Prolonged operative time - Complications may arise if a surgical procedure takes longer than expected, leading to increased risk of infection and other issues.

Intraoperative complications require prompt identification and management by the surgical team to minimize their impact on the patient's health and recovery.

Common bile duct diseases refer to conditions that affect the common bile duct, a tube that carries bile from the liver and gallbladder into the small intestine. Some common examples of common bile duct diseases include:

1. Choledocholithiasis: This is the presence of stones (calculi) in the common bile duct, which can cause blockage, inflammation, and infection.
2. Cholangitis: This is an infection or inflammation of the common bile duct, often caused by obstruction due to stones, tumors, or strictures.
3. Common bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma): This is a rare but aggressive cancer that arises from the cells lining the common bile duct.
4. Biliary strictures: These are narrowing or scarring of the common bile duct, which can be caused by injury, inflammation, or surgery.
5. Benign tumors: Non-cancerous growths in the common bile duct can also cause blockage and other symptoms.

Symptoms of common bile duct diseases may include abdominal pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, and dark urine or light-colored stools. Treatment depends on the specific condition and severity but may include medications, endoscopic procedures, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Cholecystography is a medical procedure that involves the use of X-rays to examine the gallbladder and bile ducts. It is also known as an oral cholecystogram (OCG).

The procedure involves administering a contrast agent, typically a iodine-based dye, which is absorbed by the liver and excreted into the bile ducts and gallbladder. The dye makes the bile ducts and gallbladder visible on X-ray images, allowing doctors to diagnose conditions such as gallstones, tumors, or inflammation of the gallbladder.

Cholecystography is not commonly used today due to the development of more advanced imaging techniques, such as ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) scans, which are non-invasive and do not require the use of contrast agents. However, it may still be used in certain cases where other imaging tests are inconclusive or unavailable.

Sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic progressive disease characterized by inflammation and scarring (fibrosis) of the bile ducts, leading to their narrowing or obstruction. This results in impaired bile flow from the liver to the small intestine, which can cause damage to the liver cells and eventually result in cirrhosis and liver failure.

The condition often affects both the intrahepatic (within the liver) and extrahepatic (outside the liver) bile ducts. The exact cause of sclerosing cholangitis is not known, but it is believed to involve an autoimmune response, genetic predisposition, and environmental factors.

Symptoms of sclerosing cholangitis may include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), itching, abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss, dark urine, and light-colored stools. The diagnosis is typically made through imaging tests such as magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), which can visualize the bile ducts and detect any abnormalities.

Treatment for sclerosing cholangitis is aimed at managing symptoms, preventing complications, and slowing down the progression of the disease. This may include medications to relieve itching, antibiotics to treat infections, and drugs to reduce inflammation and improve bile flow. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary.

Endoscopic sphincterotomy is a medical procedure that involves the use of an endoscope (a flexible tube with a light and camera) to cut the papilla of Vater, which contains the sphincter of Oddi muscle. This procedure is typically performed to treat gallstones or to manage other conditions related to the bile ducts or pancreatic ducts.

The sphincterotomy helps to widen the opening of the papilla, allowing stones or other obstructions to pass through more easily. It may also be used to relieve pressure and pain caused by spasms of the sphincter of Oddi muscle. The procedure is usually done under sedation or anesthesia and carries a risk of complications such as bleeding, infection, perforation, and pancreatitis.

Cholecystitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the gallbladder, a small pear-shaped organ located under the liver that stores and concentrates bile produced by the liver. Bile is a digestive fluid that helps break down fats in the small intestine during digestion.

Acute cholecystitis is a sudden inflammation of the gallbladder, often caused by the presence of gallstones that block the cystic duct, the tube that carries bile from the gallbladder to the common bile duct. This blockage can cause bile to build up in the gallbladder, leading to inflammation, swelling, and pain.

Chronic cholecystitis is a long-term inflammation of the gallbladder, often caused by repeated attacks of acute cholecystitis or the presence of gallstones that cause ongoing irritation and damage to the gallbladder wall. Over time, chronic cholecystitis can lead to thickening and scarring of the gallbladder wall, which can reduce its ability to function properly.

Symptoms of cholecystitis may include sudden and severe abdominal pain, often in the upper right or center of the abdomen, that may worsen after eating fatty foods; fever; nausea and vomiting; bloating and gas; and clay-colored stools. Treatment for cholecystitis typically involves antibiotics to treat any infection present, pain relief, and surgery to remove the gallbladder (cholecystectomy). In some cases, a nonsurgical procedure called endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) may be used to remove gallstones from the bile duct.

A Choledochal cyst is a congenital dilatation or abnormal enlargement of the bile ducts, which are the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the small intestine. Bile is a digestive juice produced by the liver that helps in the digestion of fats.

Choledochal cysts can be classified into several types based on their location and the anatomy of the biliary tree. The most common type, called Type I, involves dilatation of the common bile duct. Other types include dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts (Type II), dilatation of both the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts (Type III), and multiple cystic dilatations of the bile ducts (Type IV).

Choledochal cysts are more common in females than males, and they can present at any age. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, jaundice, vomiting, and fever. Complications of choledochal cysts can include bile duct stones, infection, and cancer. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the cyst, followed by reconstruction of the biliary tree.

The gallbladder is a small, pear-shaped organ located just under the liver in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. Its primary function is to store and concentrate bile, a digestive enzyme produced by the liver, which helps in the breakdown of fats during the digestion process. When food, particularly fatty foods, enter the stomach and small intestine, the gallbladder contracts and releases bile through the common bile duct into the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine, to aid in fat digestion.

The gallbladder is made up of three main parts: the fundus, body, and neck. It has a muscular wall that allows it to contract and release bile. Gallstones, an inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), or other gallbladder diseases can cause pain, discomfort, and potentially serious health complications if left untreated.

Iodipamide is not typically defined in a medical dictionary or resource as it is not a medical term itself, but rather a chemical compound. Iodipamide is a radiocontrast agent that contains iodine atoms and is used during imaging procedures such as X-rays and CT scans to enhance the visibility of internal body structures.

The chemical formula for iodipamide is C8H9I5N2O2, and it is a type of organoiodine compound that is highly water-soluble and radiopaque, making it useful as a contrast agent in medical imaging. Iodipamide works by blocking X-rays and absorbing them, which allows the radiologist to see the internal structures more clearly on an X-ray or CT scan image.

While iodipamide is generally considered safe for use as a contrast agent, it can cause side effects in some people, including allergic reactions, kidney damage, and thyroid problems. As with any medical procedure, patients should discuss the risks and benefits of using iodipamide with their healthcare provider before undergoing an imaging exam.

Choledochostomy is a surgical procedure that involves creating an opening (stoma) into the common bile duct, which carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the small intestine. This procedure is typically performed to relieve obstructions or blockages in the bile duct, such as those caused by gallstones, tumors, or scar tissue.

During the choledochostomy procedure, a surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen and exposes the common bile duct. The duct is then cut open, and a small tube (catheter) is inserted into the duct to allow bile to drain out of the body. The catheter may be left in place temporarily or permanently, depending on the underlying condition causing the obstruction.

Choledochostomy is typically performed as an open surgical procedure, but it can also be done using minimally invasive techniques such as laparoscopy or robotic-assisted surgery. As with any surgical procedure, choledochostomy carries risks such as bleeding, infection, and damage to surrounding tissues. However, these risks are generally low in the hands of an experienced surgeon.

Cholangiocarcinoma is a type of cancer that arises from the cells that line the bile ducts, which are small tubes that carry digestive enzymes from the liver to the small intestine. It can occur in different parts of the bile duct system, including the bile ducts inside the liver (intrahepatic), the bile ducts outside the liver (extrahepatic), and the area where the bile ducts join the pancreas and small intestine (ampulla of Vater).

Cholangiocarcinoma is a relatively rare cancer, but its incidence has been increasing in recent years. It can be difficult to diagnose because its symptoms are often nonspecific and similar to those of other conditions, such as gallstones or pancreatitis. Treatment options depend on the location and stage of the cancer, and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Preoperative care refers to the series of procedures, interventions, and preparations that are conducted before a surgical operation. The primary goal of preoperative care is to ensure the patient's well-being, optimize their physical condition, reduce potential risks, and prepare them mentally and emotionally for the upcoming surgery.

Preoperative care typically includes:

1. Preoperative assessment: A thorough evaluation of the patient's overall health status, including medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and diagnostic imaging, to identify any potential risk factors or comorbidities that may impact the surgical procedure and postoperative recovery.
2. Informed consent: The process of ensuring the patient understands the nature of the surgery, its purpose, associated risks, benefits, and alternative treatment options. The patient signs a consent form indicating they have been informed and voluntarily agree to undergo the surgery.
3. Preoperative instructions: Guidelines provided to the patient regarding their diet, medication use, and other activities in the days leading up to the surgery. These instructions may include fasting guidelines, discontinuing certain medications, or arranging for transportation after the procedure.
4. Anesthesia consultation: A meeting with the anesthesiologist to discuss the type of anesthesia that will be used during the surgery and address any concerns related to anesthesia risks, side effects, or postoperative pain management.
5. Preparation of the surgical site: Cleaning and shaving the area where the incision will be made, as well as administering appropriate antimicrobial agents to minimize the risk of infection.
6. Medical optimization: Addressing any underlying medical conditions or correcting abnormalities that may negatively impact the surgical outcome. This may involve adjusting medications, treating infections, or managing chronic diseases such as diabetes.
7. Emotional and psychological support: Providing counseling, reassurance, and education to help alleviate anxiety, fear, or emotional distress related to the surgery.
8. Preoperative holding area: The patient is transferred to a designated area near the operating room where they are prepared for surgery by changing into a gown, having intravenous (IV) lines inserted, and receiving monitoring equipment.

By following these preoperative care guidelines, healthcare professionals aim to ensure that patients undergo safe and successful surgical procedures with optimal outcomes.

Roux-en-Y anastomosis is a type of surgical connection between two parts of the gastrointestinal tract, typically performed during gastric bypass surgery for weight loss. In this procedure, a small pouch is created from the upper stomach, and the remaining portion of the stomach is bypassed. The Roux limb, a segment of the small intestine, is then connected to both the pouch and the bypassed stomach, creating two separate channels for food and digestive juices to mix. This surgical technique helps to reduce the amount of food that can be consumed and absorbed, leading to weight loss.

Bile is a digestive fluid that is produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It plays an essential role in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the small intestine. Bile consists of bile salts, bilirubin, cholesterol, phospholipids, electrolytes, and water.

Bile salts are amphipathic molecules that help to emulsify fats into smaller droplets, increasing their surface area and allowing for more efficient digestion by enzymes such as lipase. Bilirubin is a breakdown product of hemoglobin from red blood cells and gives bile its characteristic greenish-brown color.

Bile is released into the small intestine in response to food, particularly fats, entering the digestive tract. It helps to break down large fat molecules into smaller ones that can be absorbed through the walls of the intestines and transported to other parts of the body for energy or storage.

An anastomotic leak is a medical condition that occurs after a surgical procedure where two hollow organs or vessels are connected (anastomosed). It refers to the failure of the connection, resulting in a communication between the inside of the connected structures and the outside, which can lead to the escape of fluids, such as digestive contents or blood, into the surrounding tissues.

Anastomotic leaks can occur in various parts of the body where anastomoses are performed, including the gastrointestinal tract, vasculature, and respiratory system. The leakage can cause localized or systemic infection, inflammation, sepsis, organ failure, or even death if not promptly diagnosed and treated.

The risk of anastomotic leaks depends on several factors, such as the patient's overall health, the type and location of the surgery, the quality of the surgical technique, and the presence of any underlying medical conditions that may affect wound healing. Treatment options for anastomotic leaks vary depending on the severity and location of the leak, ranging from conservative management with antibiotics and bowel rest to surgical intervention, such as drainage, revision of the anastomosis, or resection of the affected segment.

Transhepatic sphincterotomy is a medical procedure that involves the incision or cutting of the papilla of Vater, which is a small muscular structure located at the junction of the common bile duct and the main pancreatic duct, with the ampulla of Vater, within the second part of the duodenum. This procedure is performed using a special type of endoscope that is passed through the liver (transhepatically) to access the bile ducts.

The goal of transhepatic sphincterotomy is to relieve obstructions or blockages in the bile ducts, such as gallstones or tumors, that cannot be removed using other endoscopic techniques. This procedure is typically performed by an interventional radiologist or a gastroenterologist with specialized training in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).

Transhepatic sphincterotomy is considered a higher-risk procedure than traditional ERCP sphincterotomy due to the need for liver puncture and the potential complications associated with this approach, including bleeding, infection, and injury to surrounding organs. However, it may be necessary in certain situations where traditional ERCP is not feasible or has failed.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

Liver transplantation is a surgical procedure in which a diseased or failing liver is replaced with a healthy one from a deceased donor or, less commonly, a portion of a liver from a living donor. The goal of the procedure is to restore normal liver function and improve the patient's overall health and quality of life.

Liver transplantation may be recommended for individuals with end-stage liver disease, acute liver failure, certain genetic liver disorders, or liver cancers that cannot be treated effectively with other therapies. The procedure involves complex surgery to remove the diseased liver and implant the new one, followed by a period of recovery and close medical monitoring to ensure proper function and minimize the risk of complications.

The success of liver transplantation has improved significantly in recent years due to advances in surgical techniques, immunosuppressive medications, and post-transplant care. However, it remains a major operation with significant risks and challenges, including the need for lifelong immunosuppression to prevent rejection of the new liver, as well as potential complications such as infection, bleeding, and organ failure.

Endoscopy of the digestive system, also known as gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, is a medical procedure that allows healthcare professionals to visually examine the inside lining of the digestive tract using a flexible tube with a light and camera attached to it, called an endoscope. This procedure can help diagnose and treat various conditions affecting the digestive system, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and cancer.

There are several types of endoscopy procedures that focus on different parts of the digestive tract:

1. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD): This procedure examines the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). It is often used to investigate symptoms such as difficulty swallowing, abdominal pain, or bleeding in the upper GI tract.
2. Colonoscopy: This procedure explores the large intestine (colon) and rectum. It is commonly performed to screen for colon cancer, as well as to diagnose and treat conditions like inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulosis, or polyps.
3. Sigmoidoscopy: Similar to a colonoscopy, this procedure examines the lower part of the colon (sigmoid colon) and rectum. It is often used as a screening tool for colon cancer and to investigate symptoms like rectal bleeding or changes in bowel habits.
4. Upper GI endoscopy: This procedure focuses on the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum, using a thin, flexible tube with a light and camera attached to it. It is used to diagnose and treat conditions such as GERD, ulcers, and difficulty swallowing.
5. Capsule endoscopy: This procedure involves swallowing a small capsule containing a camera that captures images of the digestive tract as it passes through. It can help diagnose conditions in the small intestine that may be difficult to reach with traditional endoscopes.

Endoscopy is typically performed under sedation or anesthesia to ensure patient comfort during the procedure. The images captured by the endoscope are displayed on a monitor, allowing the healthcare provider to assess the condition of the digestive tract and make informed treatment decisions.

Gallbladder diseases refer to a range of conditions that affect the function and structure of the gallbladder, a small pear-shaped organ located beneath the liver. The primary role of the gallbladder is to store, concentrate, and release bile into the small intestine to aid in digesting fats. Gallbladder diseases can be chronic or acute and may cause various symptoms, discomfort, or complications if left untreated. Here are some common gallbladder diseases with brief definitions:

1. Cholelithiasis: The presence of gallstones within the gallbladder. Gallstones are small, hard deposits made of cholesterol, bilirubin, or a combination of both, which can vary in size from tiny grains to several centimeters.
2. Cholecystitis: Inflammation of the gallbladder, often caused by obstruction of the cystic duct (the tube connecting the gallbladder and the common bile duct) due to a gallstone. This condition can be acute or chronic and may cause abdominal pain, fever, and tenderness in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen.
3. Choledocholithiasis: The presence of gallstones within the common bile duct, which can lead to obstruction, jaundice, and potential infection of the biliary system (cholangitis).
4. Acalculous gallbladder disease: Gallbladder dysfunction or inflammation without the presence of gallstones. This condition is often seen in critically ill patients and can lead to similar symptoms as cholecystitis.
5. Gallbladder polyps: Small growths attached to the inner wall of the gallbladder. While most polyps are benign, some may have malignant potential, especially if they are larger than 1 cm in size or associated with certain risk factors.
6. Gallbladder cancer: A rare form of cancer that originates in the gallbladder tissue. It is often asymptomatic in its early stages and can be challenging to diagnose. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, jaundice, or a palpable mass in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen.

It is essential to consult with a healthcare professional if experiencing symptoms related to gallbladder disease for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Extrahepatic bile ducts refer to the portion of the biliary system that lies outside the liver. The biliary system is responsible for producing, storing, and transporting bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver.

The extrahepatic bile ducts include:

1. The common hepatic duct: This duct is formed by the union of the right and left hepatic ducts, which drain bile from the corresponding lobes of the liver.
2. The cystic duct: This short duct connects the gallbladder to the common hepatic duct, allowing bile to flow into the gallbladder for storage and concentration.
3. The common bile duct: This is the result of the fusion of the common hepatic duct and the cystic duct. It transports bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine, where it aids in fat digestion.
4. The ampulla of Vater (or hepatopancreatic ampulla): This is a dilated area where the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct join and empty their contents into the duodenum through a shared opening called the major duodenal papilla.

Extrahepatic bile ducts can be affected by various conditions, such as gallstones, inflammation (cholangitis), strictures, or tumors, which may require medical or surgical intervention.

A bronchial fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the bronchial tree (the airways in the lungs) and the surrounding tissues, such as the pleural space (the space between the lungs and the chest wall), blood vessels, or other organs. This condition can result from various causes, including lung injury, infection, surgery, or certain diseases such as cancer or tuberculosis.

Bronchial fistulas can lead to symptoms like coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest pain. They may also cause air leaks, pneumothorax (collapsed lung), or chronic infections. Treatment for bronchial fistulas depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition but often involves surgical repair or closure of the abnormal connection.

Endoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the use of an endoscope, which is a flexible tube with a light and camera at the end, to examine the interior of a body cavity or organ. The endoscope is inserted through a natural opening in the body, such as the mouth or anus, or through a small incision. The images captured by the camera are transmitted to a monitor, allowing the physician to visualize the internal structures and detect any abnormalities, such as inflammation, ulcers, or tumors. Endoscopy can also be used for diagnostic purposes, such as taking tissue samples for biopsy, or for therapeutic purposes, such as removing polyps or performing minimally invasive surgeries.

Ultrasonography, also known as sonography, is a diagnostic medical procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) to produce dynamic images of organs, tissues, or blood flow inside the body. These images are captured in real-time and can be used to assess the size, shape, and structure of various internal structures, as well as detect any abnormalities such as tumors, cysts, or inflammation.

During an ultrasonography procedure, a small handheld device called a transducer is placed on the patient's skin, which emits and receives sound waves. The transducer sends high-frequency sound waves into the body, and these waves bounce back off internal structures and are recorded by the transducer. The recorded data is then processed and transformed into visual images that can be interpreted by a medical professional.

Ultrasonography is a non-invasive, painless, and safe procedure that does not use radiation like other imaging techniques such as CT scans or X-rays. It is commonly used to diagnose and monitor conditions in various parts of the body, including the abdomen, pelvis, heart, blood vessels, and musculoskeletal system.

Pathological constriction refers to an abnormal narrowing or tightening of a body passage or organ, which can interfere with the normal flow of blood, air, or other substances through the area. This constriction can occur due to various reasons such as inflammation, scarring, or abnormal growths, and can affect different parts of the body, including blood vessels, airways, intestines, and ureters. Pathological constriction can lead to a range of symptoms and complications depending on its location and severity, and may require medical intervention to correct.

Jaundice is a medical condition characterized by the yellowing of the skin, sclera (whites of the eyes), and mucous membranes due to an excess of bilirubin in the bloodstream. Bilirubin is a yellow-orange pigment produced when hemoglobin from red blood cells is broken down. Normally, bilirubin is processed by the liver and excreted through bile into the digestive system. However, if there's an issue with bilirubin metabolism or elimination, it can accumulate in the body, leading to jaundice.

Jaundice can be a symptom of various underlying conditions, such as liver diseases (hepatitis, cirrhosis), gallbladder issues (gallstones, tumors), or blood disorders (hemolysis). It is essential to consult a healthcare professional if jaundice is observed, as it may indicate a severe health problem requiring prompt medical attention.

A jejunostomy is a surgical procedure where an opening (stoma) is created in the lower part of the small intestine, called the jejunum. This stoma allows for the passage of nutrients and digestive enzymes from the small intestine into a tube or external pouch, bypassing the mouth, esophagus, stomach, and upper small intestine (duodenum).

Jejunostomy is typically performed to provide enteral nutrition support in patients who are unable to consume food or liquids by mouth due to various medical conditions such as dysphagia, gastroparesis, bowel obstruction, or after certain surgical procedures. The jejunostomy tube can be used for short-term or long-term nutritional support, depending on the patient's needs and underlying medical condition.

Drainage, in medical terms, refers to the removal of excess fluid or accumulated collections of fluids from various body parts or spaces. This is typically accomplished through the use of medical devices such as catheters, tubes, or drains. The purpose of drainage can be to prevent the buildup of fluids that may cause discomfort, infection, or other complications, or to treat existing collections of fluid such as abscesses, hematomas, or pleural effusions. Drainage may also be used as a diagnostic tool to analyze the type and composition of the fluid being removed.

Pancreatitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the pancreas, a gland located in the abdomen that plays a crucial role in digestion and regulating blood sugar levels. The inflammation can be acute (sudden and severe) or chronic (persistent and recurring), and it can lead to various complications if left untreated.

Acute pancreatitis often results from gallstones or excessive alcohol consumption, while chronic pancreatitis may be caused by long-term alcohol abuse, genetic factors, autoimmune conditions, or metabolic disorders like high triglyceride levels. Symptoms of acute pancreatitis include severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and increased heart rate, while chronic pancreatitis may present with ongoing abdominal pain, weight loss, diarrhea, and malabsorption issues due to impaired digestive enzyme production. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as intravenous fluids, pain management, and addressing the underlying cause. In severe cases, hospitalization and surgery may be necessary.

Common bile duct neoplasms refer to abnormal growths that can occur in the common bile duct, which is a tube that carries bile from the liver and gallbladder into the small intestine. These growths can be benign or malignant (cancerous).

Benign neoplasms of the common bile duct include papillomas, adenomas, and leiomyomas. Malignant neoplasms are typically adenocarcinomas, which arise from the glandular cells lining the duct. Other types of malignancies that can affect the common bile duct include cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder carcinoma, and metastatic cancer from other sites.

Symptoms of common bile duct neoplasms may include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), abdominal pain, dark urine, and light-colored stools. Diagnosis may involve imaging tests such as CT scans or MRCP (magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography) and biopsy to confirm the type of neoplasm. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the neoplasm and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Laparoscopy is a surgical procedure that involves the insertion of a laparoscope, which is a thin tube with a light and camera attached to it, through small incisions in the abdomen. This allows the surgeon to view the internal organs without making large incisions. It's commonly used to diagnose and treat various conditions such as endometriosis, ovarian cysts, infertility, and appendicitis. The advantages of laparoscopy over traditional open surgery include smaller incisions, less pain, shorter hospital stays, and quicker recovery times.

Contrast media are substances that are administered to a patient in order to improve the visibility of internal body structures or processes in medical imaging techniques such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasounds. These media can be introduced into the body through various routes, including oral, rectal, or intravenous administration.

Contrast media work by altering the appearance of bodily structures in imaging studies. For example, when a patient undergoes an X-ray examination, contrast media can be used to highlight specific organs, tissues, or blood vessels, making them more visible on the resulting images. In CT and MRI scans, contrast media can help to enhance the differences between normal and abnormal tissues, allowing for more accurate diagnosis and treatment planning.

There are several types of contrast media available, each with its own specific properties and uses. Some common examples include barium sulfate, which is used as a contrast medium in X-ray studies of the gastrointestinal tract, and iodinated contrast media, which are commonly used in CT scans to highlight blood vessels and other structures.

While contrast media are generally considered safe, they can sometimes cause adverse reactions, ranging from mild symptoms such as nausea or hives to more serious complications such as anaphylaxis or kidney damage. As a result, it is important for healthcare providers to carefully evaluate each patient's medical history and individual risk factors before administering contrast media.

Endosonography, also known as endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), is a medical procedure that combines endoscopy and ultrasound to obtain detailed images and information about the digestive tract and surrounding organs. An endoscope, which is a flexible tube with a light and camera at its tip, is inserted through the mouth or rectum to reach the area of interest. A high-frequency ultrasound transducer at the tip of the endoscope generates sound waves that bounce off body tissues and create echoes, which are then translated into detailed images by a computer.

Endosonography allows doctors to visualize structures such as the esophageal, stomach, and intestinal walls, lymph nodes, blood vessels, and organs like the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder. It can help diagnose conditions such as tumors, inflammation, and infections, and it can also be used to guide biopsies or fine-needle aspirations of suspicious lesions.

Overall, endosonography is a valuable tool for the diagnosis and management of various gastrointestinal and related disorders.

Gallbladder neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the tissue of the gallbladder, which can be benign or malignant. Benign neoplasms are non-cancerous and typically do not spread to other parts of the body. Malignant neoplasms, also known as gallbladder cancer, can invade nearby tissues and organs and may metastasize (spread) to distant parts of the body. Gallbladder neoplasms can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, jaundice, and nausea, but they are often asymptomatic until they have advanced to an advanced stage. The exact causes of gallbladder neoplasms are not fully understood, but risk factors include gallstones, chronic inflammation of the gallbladder, and certain inherited genetic conditions.

Imino acids are organic compounds that contain a nitrogen atom as part of an amide-like structure. They are structurally similar to amino acids, which contain a carboxyl group and an amino group, but instead of the amino group, imino acids have a structural unit known as an imine or Schiff base, which is a carbon-nitrogen double bond with a hydrogen atom attached to the nitrogen atom.

One example of an imino acid is proline, which is a cyclic imino acid that plays important roles in protein structure and function. Proline is unique among the 20 standard amino acids because its side chain is linked to the nitrogen atom of the backbone, forming a ring-like structure. This structural feature gives proline unique properties, such as restricted rotation around the bond between the nitrogen and alpha carbon atoms, which can affect protein folding and stability.

Other imino acids may be formed through chemical reactions or enzymatic processes, and they can play important roles in various biological pathways, including the biosynthesis of amino acids, nucleotides, and other biomolecules. However, imino acids are not typically considered to be part of the standard set of 20 amino acids that make up proteins.

Bilirubin is a yellowish pigment that is produced by the liver when it breaks down old red blood cells. It is a normal byproduct of hemoglobin metabolism and is usually conjugated (made water-soluble) in the liver before being excreted through the bile into the digestive system. Elevated levels of bilirubin can cause jaundice, a yellowing of the skin and eyes. Increased bilirubin levels may indicate liver disease or other medical conditions such as gallstones or hemolysis. It is also measured to assess liver function and to help diagnose various liver disorders.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Catheterization is a medical procedure in which a catheter (a flexible tube) is inserted into the body to treat various medical conditions or for diagnostic purposes. The specific definition can vary depending on the area of medicine and the particular procedure being discussed. Here are some common types of catheterization:

1. Urinary catheterization: This involves inserting a catheter through the urethra into the bladder to drain urine. It is often performed to manage urinary retention, monitor urine output in critically ill patients, or assist with surgical procedures.
2. Cardiac catheterization: A procedure where a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel, usually in the groin or arm, and guided to the heart. This allows for various diagnostic tests and treatments, such as measuring pressures within the heart chambers, assessing blood flow, or performing angioplasty and stenting of narrowed coronary arteries.
3. Central venous catheterization: A catheter is inserted into a large vein, typically in the neck, chest, or groin, to administer medications, fluids, or nutrition, or to monitor central venous pressure.
4. Peritoneal dialysis catheterization: A catheter is placed into the abdominal cavity for individuals undergoing peritoneal dialysis, a type of kidney replacement therapy.
5. Neurological catheterization: In some cases, a catheter may be inserted into the cerebrospinal fluid space (lumbar puncture) or the brain's ventricular system (ventriculostomy) to diagnose or treat various neurological conditions.

These are just a few examples of catheterization procedures in medicine. The specific definition and purpose will depend on the medical context and the particular organ or body system involved.

The ampulla of Vater, also known as hepatopancreatic ampulla, is a dilated portion of the common bile duct where it joins the main pancreatic duct and empties into the second part of the duodenum. It serves as a conduit for both bile from the liver and digestive enzymes from the pancreas to reach the small intestine, facilitating the digestion and absorption of nutrients. The ampulla of Vater is surrounded by a muscular sphincter, the sphincter of Oddi, which controls the flow of these secretions into the duodenum.

Caroli disease is a rare genetic disorder that affects the liver and bile ducts. It is characterized by abnormal dilations or sac-like structures in the intrahepatic bile ducts, which are the ducts that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine. These dilations can lead to recurrent cholangitis (inflammation of the bile ducts), stone formation, and liver damage.

Caroli disease is usually diagnosed in childhood or early adulthood, and it can be associated with other congenital anomalies such as polycystic kidney disease. The exact cause of Caroli disease is not fully understood, but it is believed to be inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, meaning that an individual must inherit two copies of the abnormal gene, one from each parent, to develop the condition.

Treatment for Caroli disease may include antibiotics to manage cholangitis, endoscopic procedures to remove stones or dilate strictures, and surgery to bypass or remove affected bile ducts. In severe cases, liver transplantation may be necessary. Regular monitoring of liver function and surveillance for complications are essential in the management of this condition.

Intraoperative monitoring (IOM) is the practice of using specialized techniques to monitor physiological functions or neural structures in real-time during surgical procedures. The primary goal of IOM is to provide continuous information about the patient's status and the effects of surgery on neurological function, allowing surgeons to make informed decisions and minimize potential risks.

IOM can involve various methods such as:

1. Electrophysiological monitoring: This includes techniques like somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), motor evoked potentials (MEP), and electroencephalography (EEG) to assess the integrity of neural pathways and brain function during surgery.
2. Neuromonitoring: Direct electrical stimulation of nerves or spinal cord structures can help identify critical neuroanatomical structures, evaluate their functional status, and guide surgical interventions.
3. Hemodynamic monitoring: Measuring blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, and oxygen saturation helps assess the patient's overall physiological status during surgery.
4. Imaging modalities: Intraoperative imaging techniques like ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide real-time visualization of anatomical structures and surgical progress.

The specific IOM methods employed depend on the type of surgery, patient characteristics, and potential risks involved. Intraoperative monitoring is particularly crucial in procedures where there is a risk of neurological injury, such as spinal cord or brain surgeries, vascular interventions, or tumor resections near critical neural structures.

Cholagogues and choleretics are terms used to describe medications or substances that affect bile secretion and flow in the body. Here is a medical definition for each:

1. Cholagogue: A substance that promotes the discharge of bile from the gallbladder into the duodenum, often by stimulating the contraction of the gallbladder muscle. This helps in the digestion and absorption of fats. Examples include chenodeoxycholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid, and some herbal remedies like dandelion root and milk thistle.
2. Choleretic: A substance that increases the production of bile by the liver or its flow through the biliary system. This can help with the digestion of fats and the elimination of waste products from the body. Examples include certain medications like ursodeoxycholic acid, as well as natural substances such as lemon juice, artichoke extract, and turmeric.

It is important to note that while cholagogues and choleretics can aid in digestion, they should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as improper use or overuse may lead to complications like diarrhea or gallstone formation.

Iatrogenic disease refers to any condition or illness that is caused, directly or indirectly, by medical treatment or intervention. This can include adverse reactions to medications, infections acquired during hospitalization, complications from surgical procedures, or injuries caused by medical equipment. It's important to note that iatrogenic diseases are unintended and often preventable with proper care and precautions.

Liver function tests (LFTs) are a group of blood tests that are used to assess the functioning and health of the liver. These tests measure the levels of various enzymes, proteins, and waste products that are produced or metabolized by the liver. Some common LFTs include:

1. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT): An enzyme found primarily in the liver, ALT is released into the bloodstream in response to liver cell damage. Elevated levels of ALT may indicate liver injury or disease.
2. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST): Another enzyme found in various tissues, including the liver, heart, and muscles. Like ALT, AST is released into the bloodstream following tissue damage. High AST levels can be a sign of liver damage or other medical conditions.
3. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP): An enzyme found in several organs, including the liver, bile ducts, and bones. Elevated ALP levels may indicate a blockage in the bile ducts, liver disease, or bone disorders.
4. Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT): An enzyme found mainly in the liver, pancreas, and biliary system. Increased GGT levels can suggest liver disease, alcohol consumption, or the use of certain medications.
5. Bilirubin: A yellowish pigment produced when hemoglobin from red blood cells is broken down. Bilirubin is processed by the liver and excreted through bile. High bilirubin levels can indicate liver dysfunction, bile duct obstruction, or certain types of anemia.
6. Albumin: A protein produced by the liver that helps maintain fluid balance in the body and transports various substances in the blood. Low albumin levels may suggest liver damage, malnutrition, or kidney disease.
7. Total protein: A measure of all proteins present in the blood, including albumin and other types of proteins produced by the liver. Decreased total protein levels can indicate liver dysfunction or other medical conditions.

These tests are often ordered together as part of a routine health checkup or when evaluating symptoms related to liver function or disease. The results should be interpreted in conjunction with clinical findings, medical history, and other diagnostic tests.

Gadolinium DTPA (Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) is a type of gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) used in medical imaging, particularly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). It functions as a paramagnetic substance that enhances the visibility of internal body structures during these imaging techniques.

The compound Gadolinium DTPA is formed when gadolinium ions are bound to diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, a chelating agent. This binding helps to make the gadolinium ion safer for use in medical imaging by reducing its toxicity and improving its stability in the body.

Gadolinium DTPA is eliminated from the body primarily through the kidneys, making it important to monitor renal function before administering this contrast agent. In some cases, Gadolinium DTPA may cause adverse reactions, including allergic-like responses and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) in patients with impaired kidney function.

A cyst is a closed sac, having a distinct membrane and division between the sac and its surrounding tissue, that contains fluid, air, or semisolid material. Cysts can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, internal organs, and bones. They can be caused by various factors, such as infection, genetic predisposition, or blockage of a duct or gland. Some cysts may cause symptoms, such as pain or discomfort, while others may not cause any symptoms at all. Treatment for cysts depends on the type and location of the cyst, as well as whether it is causing any problems. Some cysts may go away on their own, while others may need to be drained or removed through a surgical procedure.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Intrahepatic cholestasis is a medical condition characterized by the interruption or reduction of bile flow within the liver. Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins. Intrahepatic cholestasis occurs when there is a problem with the transport of bile components inside the liver cells (hepatocytes). This can lead to an accumulation of bile acids, bilirubin, and other substances in the liver, which can cause damage to liver cells and result in symptoms such as jaundice, itching, and dark urine.

Intrahepatic cholestasis can be caused by various factors, including medications, alcohol abuse, hepatitis viruses, autoimmune disorders, genetic defects, and cancer. Depending on the underlying cause, intrahepatic cholestasis can be acute or chronic, and it can range from mild to severe. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition, as well as providing supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

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... is a form of cholangiography that was introduced in 1954. The intravenous cholangiogram or IVC is a ... by MRI cholangiography, none of which are affected by jaundice. It is sometimes used when ERCP is unsuccessful. Albert L. Baert ...
... and when performed later in the same drain it is called secondary cholangiography. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography ... Post-operative T-tube cholangiography is performed on the 10th day post operation where either high osmolar or low osmolar ... Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, percutaneous hepatic cholangiogram (PTHC) is a radiological technique used to ... Cholangiography during a biliary drainage intervention is called perioperative or primary choloangiography, ...
Intravenous cholangiography. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy for examination of the stomach, duodenum and the area major duodenal ...
"Intraoperative cholangiography in cholecystectomy". www.sbu.se. Swedish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Assessment ... Such injury can be prevented by routinely using X-ray investigation of the bile ducts (intraoperative cholangiography). 3D- ... This can additionally be performed as part of a percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, then a form of interventional ...
"Intraoperative cholangiography in cholecystectomy". www.sbu.se. Swedish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Assessment ... intraoperative cholangiography (IOC)). This method was assessed by the Swedish SBU and routine use deemed to decrease risk of ... of patients during cholecystectomy when intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) is routinely performed. There are several ...
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"Transjugular approach to liver biopsy and transhepatic cholangiography". N. Engl. J. Med. 289 (5): 227-31. doi:10.1056/ ...
Biliary atresia requires urgent surgical intervention with intraoperative cholangiography. A hepatoportoenterostomy (HPE) ...
If needed, intravenous cholecystography and cholangiography may be done.[citation needed] Current medical practice prefers ...
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... comparison between MR cholangiography and direct cholangiography". Radiology. 220 (3): 677-82. doi:10.1148/radiol.2202001252. ...
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... percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography may be used. CT or MRI-based cholangiography may also be useful, particularly in ... Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography may be useful to visualize the extrahepatic biliary ducts. In case of anatomical ... Voegeli DR, Crummy AB, Weese JL (August 1985). "Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, drainage, and biopsy in patients ... the cause and extent of obstruction is best determined by cholangiography. Potential causes of extrahepatic cholestasis include ...
However, cholangiography is the best, and final, approach to show the enlarged bile ducts as a result of Caroli disease.[ ... Maurea S, Mollica C, Imbriaco M, Fusari M, Camera L, Salvatore M (2010). "Magnetic Resonance Cholangiography with Mangafodipir ...
As an alternative to ERCP, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) may be utilized. Magnetic resonance ... "Performance characteristics of magnetic resonance cholangiography in the staging of malignant hilar strictures". Gut. 46 (1): ...
Currently, the preferred option for diagnostic cholangiography, given its noninvasive yet highly accurate nature, is magnetic ... June 2013). "Micro-computed tomography and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging for noninvasive, live-mouse cholangiography". ... 1.5x the upper limit of normal for longer than 6 months cholangiography demonstrating biliary strictures or irregularity ...
Cholangiography: Imaging the bile ducts within the liver to look for areas of blockage. Biopsy: Taking of a tissue sample from ... an interventional radiologist can perform a procedure called a percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC). A PTC is an ...
September 2019). "Computed Tomography Cholangiography Using the Magnetic Resonance Contrast Agent Gadoxetate Disodium: A ...
Cholangiography is performed if there is a percutaneous access or if ERCP is undertaken.[citation needed] Most bleeding from ...
ERCP and percutaneous or intraoperative cholangiography. A cholescintigraphy scan is a nuclear imaging procedure used to assess ...
Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography Reynolds' pentad Charcot's cholangitis triad Primary sclerosing cholangitis Adler, ... "Use of a single-balloon enteroscope compared with variable-stiffness colonoscopes for endoscopic retrograde cholangiography in ...
A Novel Technique to Perform Cholangiography from a Percutaneous Approach through the Cystic Duct". Cureus. 10 (11): e3577. doi ...
... preoperative evaluation of biliary anatomy in right-lobe living donors with mangafodipir trisodium-enhanced MR cholangiography ...
"Diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and ultrasound compared with direct cholangiography in the ...
... the title of Docent in Radiology in 1967 after successfully defending his thesis on percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography. ...
... donor candidates at mangafodipir trisodium-enhanced MR cholangiography versus conventional T2-weighted MR cholangiography". ...
US patent 5224931, "Method and device for performing cholangiography", published 1993-07-06 "State of Tennessee, August 7, 2014 ...
Cholangiography has largely replaced the previously used method of intravenous cholangiography (IVC).[citation needed] Magnetic ... There are at least four types of cholangiography:[citation needed] Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC): Examination ... Cholangiography is the imaging of the bile duct (also known as the biliary tree) by x-rays and an injection of contrast medium ... Secondary cholangiography: Done after a biliary drainage intervention. In both cases fluorescent fluids are used to create ...
Video Tag: Intraoperative Cholangiography. Chair: B. Fernando Santos, MD Faculty: Peter Muscarella, MD and Ezra Teitelbaum, MD ... intraoperative cholangiography, intravenous, IOC, irrigation, IV tubing, jaundice, JP drain, Kocher maneuver, LAO, lap chole, ... intraoperative cholangiography, intubation, IOC, IR, ischemia, ischemic, ITP, J-tube, jejunostomy tube, lap chole, laparoscopic ... percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, perforation, periampullary diverticulum, perioperative management, port, porta ...
As a private, non-denominational university, AKU is committed to quality education and promoting human welfare through teaching, research and community service initiatives.
Intravenous cholangiography may be used in the investigation of gallbladder and biliary disease:. *intravenous contrast is used ... Cholangiography (intravenous). Last reviewed dd mmm yyyy. Last edited dd mmm yyyy ...
Trends and industry analysis now available from IndustryARC.The report reveals Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangiography Market ... 22.South America Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangiography By Application. 23.Europe Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangiography ... 24.APAC Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangiography By Application. 25.MENA Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangiography By ... 6. Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangiography Market Forces. 6.1 Drivers. 6.2 Constraints. 6.3 Challenges. 6.4 Porters five ...
Home › Cholangiography Catheter Cholangiography Catheter. Sort by. Featured. Best Selling. Alphabetically, A-Z. Alphabetically ...
Cholangiography, T-drain, choledocholithiasis. CASE. Mild distention of common bile duct with two faceted lucencies in the ...
Magnetic resonance cholangiography. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) has also been reported to be a useful ...
Find out all about Cholangiography 📙: meaning, pronunciation, synonyms, antonyms, origin, difficulty, usage index and more. ... Definitions of cholangiography word * noun cholangiography radiographic examination of the bile ducts after the introduction ... noun cholangiography X-ray examination of the bile ducts, used to locate and identify an obstruction. 1 ... noun cholangiography x-ray examination of the bile ducts using a radiopaque contrast medium. 1 ...
Livingston, E. H., Miller, J. A. G., Coan, B., & Rege, R. V. (2005). Indications for selective intraoperative cholangiography. ... Livingston, EH, Miller, JAG, Coan, B & Rege, RV 2005, Indications for selective intraoperative cholangiography, Journal of ... Indications for selective intraoperative cholangiography. / Livingston, Edward H.; Miller, Jordan A G; Coan, Brian et al. In: ... Indications for selective intraoperative cholangiography. In: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery. 2005 ; Vol. 9, No. 9. pp. ...
... percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography) - Computed tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) ... Keyword PTC (percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography). #. Image group title. View. 15. Parenchymal bleeding in liver after ...
Conclusion: Fluorescent cholangiography can be considered as a useful tool for intra-operative visualization of the biliary ... Conclusion: Fluorescent cholangiography can be considered as a useful tool for intra-operative visualization of the biliary ... Near-infrared fluorescent cholangiography - real-time visualization of the biliary tree during elective laparoscopic ... Background: The purpose was to evaluate the efficacy of near-infrared fluorescent cholangiography (FC) in real-time ...
PTC; Cholangiogram - PTC; PTC; PBD - Percutaneous biliary drainage; Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography. Images. ...
Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC): In this procedure, the doctor puts a thin, hollow needle through the skin of ...
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography.. Consent. Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this ... Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP) was performed to investigate the biliary or pancreatic duct, but cannulation of ...
Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography . Your doctor inserts a small needle through your liver and into one of the biliary ... The latest MRI technology, magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRCP), is a specific type of MRI used to help diagnose bile duct ... In some cases, a percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography is more useful than an ERCP. ...
INTERVENTIONS: Intraoperative cholangiography use during cholecystectomy was determined at the level of the patients (yes/no), ... INTERVENTIONS: Intraoperative cholangiography use during cholecystectomy was determined at the level of the patients (yes/no), ... INTERVENTIONS: Intraoperative cholangiography use during cholecystectomy was determined at the level of the patients (yes/no), ... INTERVENTIONS: Intraoperative cholangiography use during cholecystectomy was determined at the level of the patients (yes/no), ...
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography using an anterior oblique-viewing endoscope in patie Endoscopic retrograde ... cholangiography using an anterior oblique-viewing endoscope in patients with altered gastrointestinal anatomy. ...
Dive into the research topics of Evaluation of the Cystic Duct and Cysticohepatic Junction with MR Cholangiography: Comparison ... Evaluation of the Cystic Duct and Cysticohepatic Junction with MR Cholangiography: Comparison of various techniques and ...
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Computed Tomography Cholangiography (CTC) is a fast and widely available alternative technique to visualise hepatobiliary ... Table 4 Published studies on the frequency of adverse reactions at infusion of iotroxate at intravenous cholangiography. ... Complementary role of helical CT cholangiography to MR cholangiography in the evaluation of biliary function and kinetics. Eur ... helical CT cholangiography versus MR cholangiography. Am J Roentgenol. 2000, 175: 713-20. ...
Fluorescence cholangiography is a new innovation in the field of navigation surgery. This procedure is safe and easy to perform ... To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of the use of fluorescence cholangiography during laparoscopic ... He underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy with intraoperative fluorescence cholangiography. The operation was successfully ... From: Fluorescence cholangiography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a patient with situs inversus totalis: a case report ...
Heterogeneity of subvesical ducts or the ducts of Luschka: A study using drip-infusion cholangiography-computed tomography in ... Heterogeneity of subvesical ducts or the ducts of Luschka: A study using drip-infusion cholangiography-computed tomography in ... Heterogeneity of subvesical ducts or the ducts of Luschka : A study using drip-infusion cholangiography-computed tomography in ... Heterogeneity of subvesical ducts or the ducts of Luschka: A study using drip-infusion cholangiography-computed tomography in ...
Multidetector CT cholangiography was performed after slow infusion of 20 mL of iodipamide meglumine 52% diluted in 80 mL of ... Multidetector CT cholangiography was performed after slow infusion of 20 mL of iodipamide meglumine 52% diluted in 80 mL of ... Multidetector CT cholangiography was performed after slow infusion of 20 mL of iodipamide meglumine 52% diluted in 80 mL of ... Multidetector CT cholangiography was performed after slow infusion of 20 mL of iodipamide meglumine 52% diluted in 80 mL of ...
Contact Sutter Cancer Center at . Sutter Cancer Center is located at 2800 L Street, Sacramento CA 95816 and is part of the Sutter Health Network.
methylglucamine i. a water-soluble organic iodine compound used for intravenous cholangiography and cholecystography. iodism (i ... An ionic, dimeric, water-soluble radiographic contrast medium for intravenous cholangiography; used as the sodium or ... formerly used primarily for intravenous cholangiography. ioduria (i-o-doo′re-a). Urinary excretion of iodine. ioglycamic acid ( ... formerly used for intravenous cholangiography. iohexol (i′o-heks′ol). A monomeric, nonionic, water-soluble, low osmolar ...
Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy with Real-time Near-Infrared Fluorescent Cholangiography. 1067 views 2 years ago ...
Systematic review of intraoperative cholangiography in cholecystectomy. Ford JA, Soop M, Du J, Loveday BP, Rodgers M. Ford JA, ...
  • There are at least four types of cholangiography:[citation needed] Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC): Examination of liver and bile ducts by x-rays. (wikipedia.org)
  • what is percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography? (wordpanda.net)
  • In some cases, a percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography is more useful than an ERCP. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • ERCP and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) are invasive. (medscape.com)
  • Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) is a more invasive technique that can allow direct visualization of the biliary tree and then therapy with transcutaneous interventions. (medscape.com)
  • Image obtained after percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography shows the percutaneous biliary drainage tube in place. (medscape.com)
  • The indications for selective intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) include a clinical history of jaundice, pancreatitis, elevated bilirubin level, abnormal liver function test results, increased amylase levels, a high lipase level, or dilated common bile duct on preoperative ultrasonography. (elsevierpure.com)
  • IMPORTANCE: Significant controversy exists regarding routine intraoperative cholangiography in preventing common duct injury during cholecystectomy. (utmb.edu)
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between intraoperative cholangiography use during cholecystectomy and common duct injury. (utmb.edu)
  • INTERVENTIONS: Intraoperative cholangiography use during cholecystectomy was determined at the level of the patients (yes/no), hospitals (percentage intraoperative cholangiography use for all cholecystectomies at the hospital), and surgeons (percentage use for all cholecystectomies performed by the surgeon). (utmb.edu)
  • RESULTS: Of 92 932 patients undergoing cholecystectomy, 37 533 (40.4%) underwent concurrent intraoperative cholangiography and 280 (0.30%) had a common duct injury. (utmb.edu)
  • The common duct injury rate was 0.21% among patients with intraoperative cholangiography and 0.36%among patients without it. (utmb.edu)
  • CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: When confounders were controlled with instrumental variable analysis, there was no statistically significant association between intraoperative cholangiography and common duct injury. (utmb.edu)
  • Intraoperative cholangiography is not effective as a preventive strategy against common duct injury during cholecystectomy. (utmb.edu)
  • Dili A, Bertrand C. Laparoscopic ultrasonography as an alternative to intraoperative cholangiography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. (wjgnet.com)
  • Intraoperative cholangiography confirmed biliary drainage only into the GI tract of baby B. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • Chair: B. Fernando Santos, MD Faculty: Peter Muscarella, MD and Ezra Teitelbaum, MD Laparoscopic cholangiography & fluoroscopic-guided techniques by Dr. Santos-1:46 Choledocholithiasis: The hidden trap-3:25 Surg Endosc 2016 JAMA Surg 2014 Transcystic fluoro-guided "basket-in-catheter"-26:27 Surg Endosc 2016 Laparoscopic transcystic video-guided CBDE by Dr. Teitelbaum-35:48 How can we increase utilization of LCBDE? (sages.org)
  • Background: The purpose was to evaluate the efficacy of near-infrared fluorescent cholangiography (FC) in real-time visualization of the biliary tree during elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. (unict.it)
  • Methods: Fifty consecutive elective laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed with fluorescent cholangiography. (unict.it)
  • Conclusion: Fluorescent cholangiography can be considered as a useful tool for intra-operative visualization of the biliary tree during laparoscopic cholecystectomies. (unict.it)
  • Intraoperative ultrasound versus fluorescence and X-ray cholangiography for the identification of bile duct stones, biliary anatomy and bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: Time for a randomized controlled trial? (wjgnet.com)
  • Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP) was performed to investigate the biliary or pancreatic duct, but cannulation of the ampulla of Vater could not be performed successfully due to the invasion of the tumor. (hindawi.com)
  • Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography using an anterior oblique-viewing endoscope in patients with altered gastrointestinal anatomy. (bvsalud.org)
  • Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiography (ERC) is often regarded as the gold standard for visualising biliary disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • citation needed] Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is another cholangiography method. (wikipedia.org)
  • The latest MRI technology, magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRCP), is a specific type of MRI used to help diagnose bile duct cancer. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Cholangiography has largely replaced the previously used method of intravenous cholangiography (IVC). (wikipedia.org)
  • Conclusion: The results suggest that premedication with intravenous morphine prior to CT cholangiography in potential liver donors does not increase bile duct caliber or improve biliary visualization. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Diagnosis is based on ultrasonography plus CT cholangiography or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Ultrasonography (US), CT, MRI, cholangiography, angiography and scintigraphy are the most common radiological modalities used to evaluate the hepatic graft. (medscape.com)
  • Computed Tomography Cholangiography (CTC) is a fast and widely available alternative technique to visualise hepatobiliary disease in patients with an inconclusive ultrasound when MRI cannot be performed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For diagnosis of hepatobiliary disease, ultrasound and MR cholangiography (MRC) are most frequently used. (biomedcentral.com)
  • noun cholangiography X-ray examination of the bile ducts, used to locate and identify an obstruction. (wordpanda.net)
  • Cholangiography is the imaging of the bile duct (also known as the biliary tree) by x-rays and an injection of contrast medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three-dimensional drip infusion CT cholangiography in patients with suspected obstructive biliary disease: a retrospective analysis of feasibility and adverse reaction to contrast material. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The objective of this study was to examine the heterogeneity of the subvesical duct or the ducts of Luschka as well as the reliability of drip-infusion cholangiography with computed tomography (DIC-CT) for their identification. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Primary cholangiography (or perioperative): Done in the operation room during a biliary drainage intervention. (wikipedia.org)
  • noun cholangiography The diagnostic imaging of the bile duct by means of X-rays. (wordpanda.net)
  • A cholangiography, imaging of the bile ducts, may also be performed. (mesothelioma.net)
  • noun cholangiography x-ray examination of the bile ducts using a radiopaque contrast medium. (wordpanda.net)
  • In contrast, cholangiography deals with retrieving images of bile ducts within the liver to look for areas of blockage. (medgadget.com)
  • MRI cholangiography performed before the demission showed a complete surgical recovery. (sages.org)
  • Diagnostic interventional radiology mainly includes three subcategories - angiography and, cholangiography, and biopsy. (medgadget.com)
  • Purpose: To retrospectively determine whether premedication with intravenously administered morphine improves bile duct caliber and visualization in potential liver donors undergoing computed tomographic (CT) cholangiography. (elsevierpure.com)
  • MR cholangiography: technical advances and clinical applications. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Reconstruction consisted of Billroth II gastrectomy (BII) in 25 patients (30 procedures ) and Roux-en-Y anastomosis (RY) in 15 patients (20 procedures ). (bvsalud.org)
  • The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the role of intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) for patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) to determine whether it could be safely omitted for all patients who fit standard criteria, namely normal liver function tests, no history of gallstone pancreatitis, common bile duct (CBD) diameter less than 10 mm or previous history of jaundice. (medscape.com)
  • Although there has been widespread acceptance of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) as the 'gold standard' for the treatment of gallstone disease worldwide, there is still no consensus among clinicians regarding the need for routine intraoperative cholangiography (IOC), and the subsequent treatment of retained bile duct stones. (medscape.com)
  • The "culture of safety" concept is based on demonstrating the critical view of safety (CVS) and/or correctly interpreting intraoperative cholangiography (IOC). (researchgate.net)
  • This technique is called intraoperative cholangiography . (healthline.com)
  • An Intraoperative ultrasound of the biliary tract or operative cholangiography (30439) can be claimed in association with a cholecystectomy (item 30448 or 30449). (health.gov.au)
  • In the era of LC, because of an obvious lack of expertise in laparoscopic surgery, if the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis was established during intraoperative cholangiography, the surgeon was confronted with a therapeutic dilemma-that was, the choice between conversion to open surgery, or postoperative ERCP (two-stage treatment). (sages.org)
  • RESULTS: Common bile duct stones were demonstrated in 68 patients by routine intraoperative cholangiography. (sages.org)
  • Cholangiography uses dye injected into your bile ducts to show the gallbladder and bile ducts on an X-ray. (healthline.com)
  • Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography is usually performed when noninvasive diagnostic procedures such as magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography ( ERCP ) are not feasible. (medicinenet.com)
  • Cholangiography may be performed during surgery or during a procedure called endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) . (nih.gov)
  • 4. A randomized trial of percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography with the Chiba needle versus endoscopic retrograde cholangiography for bile duct visualization in jaundice. (nih.gov)
  • The databook report provides procedure volumes within segments - Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) Pancreatic and Biliary Stenting Procedures and Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangiography (PTC) Biliary Stenting Procedures. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • In these patients, releiving biliary obstruction with endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP) and endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) is essential. (intechopen.com)
  • These include endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). (utah.edu)
  • Noninvasive magnetic resonance cholangiography isvunknown preferred over endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or percutaneous trans hepatio cholangiography. (standardofcare.com)
  • Cite this: Selective Operative Cholangiography in the Performance of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy - Medscape - Nov 01, 2005. (medscape.com)
  • Primary cholangiography (or perioperative): Done in the operation room during a biliary drainage intervention. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secondary cholangiography: Done after a biliary drainage intervention. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are at least four types of cholangiography:[citation needed] Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC): Examination of liver and bile ducts by x-rays. (wikipedia.org)
  • How Is Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangiography Done? (medicinenet.com)
  • What is percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography? (medicinenet.com)
  • Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography is a minimally invasive diagnostic and/or therapeutic procedure to evaluate and treat obstruction in the biliary tract. (medicinenet.com)
  • Why is percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography performed? (medicinenet.com)
  • Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography is performed to find out the cause and location of biliary obstruction. (medicinenet.com)
  • Purely diagnostic percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography is uncommon, the procedure usually also includes placement of a catheter for draining the bile fluid. (medicinenet.com)
  • Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography is usually performed by an interventional radiologist in the radiology lab. (medicinenet.com)
  • What are the risks and complications of percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography? (medicinenet.com)
  • Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography is generally a low-risk procedure. (medicinenet.com)
  • The diagnosis was made by transhepatic cholangiography and by finding the trematode eggs in bile fluid. (nih.gov)
  • 2. Transhepatic cholangiography: the radiological method of choice in suspected obstructive jaundice. (nih.gov)
  • 6. [Application of percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography in the diagnosis of obstructive jaundice--with report of 104 cases]. (nih.gov)
  • 8. [Morphological lesions of the choledochus studied with combined percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and hypotonic duodenography]. (nih.gov)
  • 10. [Use of percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) in the diagnosis of cholestatic jaundice]. (nih.gov)
  • 11. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography: an invaluable adjunct in the diagnosis of jaundice. (nih.gov)
  • 12. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography. (nih.gov)
  • A correlative study with percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography. (nih.gov)
  • The final diagnosis was obtained through direct cholangiography in the remaining cases. (unipi.it)
  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis: a review of its clinical features, cholangiography, and hepatic histology. (bmj.com)
  • Patients with jaundice should have cholangiography to evaluate for hepatic and biliary invasion of tumor. (standardofcare.com)
  • 7. The accuracy of sonography in the differential diagnosis of obstructive jaundice: a comparison with cholangiography. (nih.gov)
  • Cholangiography in hepatocellular carcinoma with obstructive jaundice. (nih.gov)
  • 14. Magnetic resonance cholangiography for evaluation of obstructive jaundice. (nih.gov)
  • 18. [Retrograde cholangiography in obstructive jaundice]. (nih.gov)
  • citation needed] Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is another cholangiography method. (wikipedia.org)
  • We assessed the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) when evaluating ischemic-type biliary lesions in the follow-up of liver transplant patients. (unipi.it)
  • Here we report our experience with using micro-computed tomography (microCT) and nuclear magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to develop a technique for live-mouse cholangiography. (elsevierpure.com)
  • This article outlines the procedure for percutaneous cholangiography. (medscape.com)
  • Such procedures include the Billroth II procedure, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, and the Whipple procedure , to name a few. (medscape.com)
  • For item 30445 an attempt at cholangiography requires use of a cholangiography catheter and presence of radiography staff and equipment in theatre. (health.gov.au)
  • In some cases, difficulty performing bile duct reconstruction makes it necessary to perform complex surgical procedures, such as bile duct resection and choledochojejunostomy by the Roux-en-Y method. (medscape.com)
  • We, therefore, demonstrate that MR cholangiography can be a useful tool for longitudinal studies of the biliary tree in live mice, whereas microCT yields suboptimal duct visualization despite requiring contrast administration. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Cholangiography has largely replaced the previously used method of intravenous cholangiography (IVC). (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings support further development and application of MR cholangiography to the study of mouse models of PSC and other cholangiopathies. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Thus, we use certain criteria to determine the need for cholangiography. (lifespan.org)