The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Usually refers to the use of mathematical models in the prediction of learning to perform tasks based on the theory of probability applied to responses; it may also refer to the frequency of occurrence of the responses observed in the particular study.
An activity distinguished primarily by an element of risk in trying to obtain a desired goal, e.g., playing a game of chance for money.
A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.
Games designed to provide information on hypotheses, policies, procedures, or strategies.
Family in the order COLUMBIFORMES, comprised of pigeons or doves. They are BIRDS with short legs, stout bodies, small heads, and slender bills. Some sources call the smaller species doves and the larger pigeons, but the names are interchangeable.
Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.
Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
The selection or choice of sexual partner in animals. Often this reproductive preference is based on traits in the potential mate, such as coloration, size, or behavioral boldness. If the chosen ones are genetically different from the rejected ones, then NATURAL SELECTION is occurring.
Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The selection of one food over another.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
Sexual activities of animals.
Sexual activities of humans.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Any observable response or action of an adolescent.
Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.
The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.
Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.
Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.
Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.
Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.
Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Behavior in which persons hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
Selection of a type of occupation or profession.
Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.
Coordinate set of non-specific behavioral responses to non-psychiatric illness. These may include loss of APPETITE or LIBIDO; disinterest in ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING; or withdrawal from social interaction.
The behavior of performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to reward or pleasure. The act is usually a small, circumscribed behavior, almost ritualistic, yet not pathologically disturbing. Examples of compulsive behavior include twirling of hair, checking something constantly, not wanting pennies in change, straightening tilted pictures, etc.
Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.
An act which constitutes the termination of a given instinctive behavior pattern or sequence.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).

Relationships between various attitudes towards self-determination in health care with special reference to an advance directive. (1/4015)

OBJECTIVES: The subject of patient self-determination in health care has gained broad interest because of the increasing number of incompetent patients. In an attempt to solve the problems related to doctors' decision making in such circumstances, advance directives have been developed. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between public attitudes towards patient autonomy and advance directives. SUBJECTS AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A stratified random sample of 600 adults in northern Sweden was surveyed by a questionnaire with a response rate of 78.2%. The subjects were asked about their wish for control of their health care, their concerns about health care, their treatment preferences in a life-threatening situation (both reversible and irreversible), and their attitudes towards the application of advance directives. RESULTS: Numerous relationships between various aspects of self-determination in health care (desire for control, fears of over-treatment, and choice of treatment level) in general and advance directives, in particular, were found. Those who wanted to have a say in their health care (about 94%) also mainly supported the use of an advance directive. CONCLUSIONS: The fact that almost 30% of the respondents were undecided concerning their personal use of advance directives points to a lack of knowledge and to the necessity of education of the public on these issues.  (+info)

Women patients' preferences for female or male GPs. (2/4015)

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate general preferences to see a male or female GP either some or all of the time, and specific preferences to see a female primary health care (PHC) worker for individual health issues; to compare these preferences with reported consultation behaviour; and to explore women's evaluations of the quality of PHC services in relation to their preferences and consultation behaviour. METHOD: Results are reported on 881 women aged 16-65 years who had consulted their GP in the previous 6 months. Logistical regression analysis was undertaken to evaluate whether a general preference to see another woman is more important than specific women's health issues in determining why some women regularly choose to consult a female GP. RESULTS: General preference was 2.6 times more important than specific health issues in predicting choice of a female GP in a mixed-sex practice. Nearly a half (49.1 %) of women attending male-only practices stated that they wanted to see a female GP in at least some circumstances, compared with 63.8% of women in mixed-sex practices. In total, 65.5% of the sample stated that there was at least one specific health issue for which they would only want to be seen by a woman PHC worker. The most positive evaluations of the quality of GP services were made by women normally seeing a male GP in mixed-sex practices and the least positive evaluations were given by women in male-only GP practices CONCLUSIONS: In order to meet women's expressed preferences, every GP practice should have at least one female GP available at least some of the time and every GP practice should employ a female PHC worker.  (+info)

Why are workers uninsured? Employer-sponsored health insurance in 1997. (3/4015)

This study examines the number of workers in firms offering employee health plans, the number of workers eligible for such plans, and participation in employer-sponsored insurance. Data from the February 1997 Contingent Worker Supplement to the Current Population Survey indicate that 10.1 million workers are employed by firms offering insurance but are not eligible. Not all of these workers are eligible for coverage, most often because of hours of work. Our results indicate that 11.4 million workers rejected coverage when it was offered. Of those, 2.5 million workers were uninsured. Workers cited high cost of insurance most often as the primary factor for refusing coverage.  (+info)

Selection for oesophagectomy and postoperative outcome in a defined population. (4/4015)

OBJECTIVE: To measure the extent of use of, and perioperative mortality from, oesophagectomy for carcinoma of the oesophagus, and to examine the association between oesophagectomy and long term survival. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of cases of oesophageal carcinoma notified to the Thames Cancer Registry. SETTING: South East Thames and South West Thames health regions. PATIENTS: 3273 patients first registered with carcinoma of the oesophagus during 1985-9, 789 of whom were excluded because of incomplete data, leaving 2484 (75.9%) for further analysis. MAIN MEASURES: Treatment of oesophagectomy, mortality within 30 days of oesophagectomy, and duration of survival from date of diagnosis to death, according to patient and tumour characteristics. RESULTS: Oesophagectomy was performed in 571(23.0%) patients. Its use decreased with increasing age (odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 0.935(0.925 to 0.944) per year) and was less common for tumours of the middle or upper third of the oesophagus than the lower third (0.56(0.42 to 0.75)). The proportion of patients undergoing oesophagectomy varied threefold among the 28 districts of residence. The perioperative mortality rate was 15.1(86/571) (12% to 18%); it increased with age (odds ratio 1.05(1.02 to 1.08) per year) and for tumours of the middle or upper third of the oesophagus compared with the lower third (2.52(1.31 to 4.84)). Long term survival was slightly higher for patients undergoing oesophagectomy (0.5% v 0.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Despite a high perioperative mortality rate patients selected for oesophagectomy showed better long term survival than those who were not, suggesting that clinical judgements used in selection were independent markers of a better prognosis. The nature of this selection needs to be more completely characterised to permit a valid evaluation of outcome of oesophagectomy.  (+info)

Choice and accountability in health promotion: the role of health economics. (5/4015)

Choices need to be made between competing uses of health care resources. There is debate about how these choices should be made, who should make them and the criteria upon which they should be made. Evaluation of health care is an important part of this debate. It has been suggested that the contribution of health economics to the evaluation of health promotion is limited, both because the methods and principles underlying economic evaluation are unsuited to health promotion, and because the political and cultural processes governing the health care system are more appropriate mechanisms for allocating health care resources than systematic economic analysis of the costs and benefits of different health care choices. This view misrepresents and misunderstands the contribution of health economics to the evaluation of health promotion. It overstates the undoubted methodological difficulties of evaluating health promotion. It also argues, mistakenly, that economists see economic evaluation as a substitute for the political and cultural processes governing health care, rather than an input to them. This paper argues for an economics input on grounds of efficiency, accountability and ethics, and challenges the critics of the economic approach to judge alternative mechanisms for allocating resources by the same criteria.  (+info)

Medicare HMOs: who joins and who leaves? (6/4015)

Medicare risk health maintenance organizations (HMOs) are an increasingly common alternative to fee-for-service Medicare. To date, there has been no examination of whether the HMO program is preferentially used by blacks or by persons living in lower-income areas or whether race and income are associated with reversing Medicare HMO selection. This question is important because evidence suggests that these beneficiaries receive poorer care under the fee-for-service-system than do whites and persons from wealthier areas. Medicare enrollment data from South Florida were examined for 1990 to 1993. Four overlapping groups of enrollees were examined: all age-eligible (age 65 and over) beneficiaries in 1990; all age-eligible beneficiaries in 1993; all age-eligible beneficiaries residing in South Florida during the period 1990 to 1993; and all beneficiaries who became age-eligible for Medicare benefits between 1990 and 1993. The associations between race or income and choice of Medicare option were examined by logistic regression. The association between the demographic characteristics and time staying with a particular option was examined with Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox Proportional Hazards modeling. Enrollment in Medicare risk HMOs steadily increased over the 4-year study period. In the overall Medicare population, the following statistically significant patterns of enrollment in Medicare HMOs were seen: enrollment of blacks was two times higher than that of non-blacks; enrollment decreased with age; and enrollment decreased as income level increased. For the newly eligible population, initial selection of Medicare option was strongly linked to income; race effects were weak but statistically significant. The data for disenrollment from an HMO revealed a similar demographic pattern. At 6 months, higher percentages of blacks, older beneficiaries (older than 85), and individuals from the lowest income area (less than $15,000 per year) had disenrolled. A small percentage of beneficiaries moved between HMOs and FFS plans multiple times. These data on Medicare HMO populations in South Florida, an area with a high concentration of elderly individuals and with one of the highest HMO enrollment rates in the country, indicate that enrollment into and disenrollment from Medicare risk HMOs are associated with certain demographic characteristics, specifically, black race or residence in a low-income area.  (+info)

Determinants of patient choice of medical provider: a case study in rural China. (7/4015)

This study examines the factors that influence patient choice of medical provider in the three-tier health care system in rural China: village health posts, township health centres, and county (and higher level) hospitals. The model is estimated using a multinomial logit approach applied to a sample of 1877 cases of outpatient treatment from a household survey in Shunyi county of Beijing in 1993. This represents the first effort to identify and quantify the impact of individual factors on patient choice of provider in China. The results show that relative to self-pay patients, Government and Labour Health Insurance beneficiaries are more likely to use county hospitals, while patients covered by the rural Cooperative Medical System (CMS) are more likely to use village-level facilities. In addition, high-income patients are more likely to visit county hospitals than low-income patients. The results also reveal that disease patterns have a significant impact on patient choice of provider, implying that the ongoing process of health transition will lead people to use the higher quality services offered at the county hospitals. We discuss the implications of the results for organizing health care finance and delivery in rural China to achieve efficiency and equity.  (+info)

Contraceptive needs of women attending a genitourinary medicine clinic for the first time. (8/4015)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the need for, and potential uptake of, a contraceptive service within a genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic. METHODS: 544 women, median age 17 years (range 13-54) including 142 teenagers, attending the Fife GUM clinics serving a semirural population of 350,000 for the first time in the 12 month period from 1 September 1995 to 31 August 1996 were interviewed. RESULTS: Contraception was required by 353, of whom only 5% (29) were at risk of unplanned pregnancy, although half (15) of these were teenagers. 23 of 29 (79%) stated that they would access contraception at a GUM clinic if it were available. Of women using contraception, 67% (217/324) were taking the oral contraceptive pill (OCP), of whom 177 obtained supplies from their general practitioners and were happy with this. However, 92/177 (52%) stated that they would access the OCP at GUM clinics if it were available. Overall, of the 243 women who stated that they would access contraception at the GUM clinic, 23 of whom were currently at risk of an unplanned pregnancy, the demand was principally for condoms and the OCP. CONCLUSION: The majority of women attending GUM clinics for the first time are using contraception, or have deliberately chosen not to do so. Only 5% were at risk of unplanned pregnancy. In general, the women using contraception were happy with their current source of contraception, but about two thirds would use a contraceptive service at GUM clinics if it were available at the time they were attending the clinic. It was found that teenagers accounted for half of those women at risk of unwanted pregnancy. However, the majority of teenagers requiring contraception would consider obtaining it from GUM clinics.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Association of Preferences for Papillary Thyroid Cancer Treatment With Disease Terminology: A Discrete Choice Experiment. AU - Nickel, Brooke. AU - Howard, Kirsten. AU - Brito, Juan P. AU - Barratt, Alexandra. AU - Moynihan, Ray. AU - McCaffery, Kirsten. PY - 2018/10/1. Y1 - 2018/10/1. N2 - Importance: Given recent evidence of overdiagnosis and overtreatment of small papillary thyroid cancers (PTCs) and other low-risk cancers, strategies are needed to help patients consider less invasive treatment options.Objectives: To determine which factors influence treatment preferences for patients with PTC, and the trade-offs in treatment factors people are willing to accept, and to understand how terminology influences preferences and benefit-harm trade-offs.Design, Setting, and Participants: Preferences in PTC treatment were evaluated using a discrete choice experiment (DCE) conducted as a web-based survey using an existing public online research panel. Participants were randomized to ...
Background: The availability and use of health apps continues to increase, revolutionizing the way mobile health interventions are delivered. Apps are increasingly used to prevent disease, improve well-being, and promote healthy behavior. On a similar rise is the incidence of skin cancers. Much of the underlying risk can be prevented through behavior change and adequate sun protection. Self-monitoring apps have the potential to facilitate prevention by measuring risk (eg, sun intensity) and encouraging protective behavior (eg, seeking shade). Objective: Our aim was to assess health care consumer preferences for sun protection with a self-monitoring app that tracks the duration and intensity of sun exposure and provides feedback on when and how to protect the skin. Methods: We conducted an unlabeled discrete choice experiment with 8 unique choice tasks, in which participants chose among 2 app alternatives, consisting of 5 preidentified 2-level attributes (self-monitoring method, privacy control, data
Background: Digital technological development in the last 20 years has led to significant growth in digital collection, use, and sharing of health data. To maintain public trust in the digital society and to enable acceptable policy-making in the future, it is important to investigate peoples preferences for sharing digital health data. Objective: The aim of this study is to elicit the preferences of the public in different Northern European countries (the United Kingdom, Norway, Iceland, and Sweden) for sharing health information in different contexts. Methods: Respondents in this discrete choice experiment completed several choice tasks, in which they were asked if data sharing in the described hypothetical situation was acceptable to them. Latent class logistic regression models were used to determine attribute-level estimates and heterogeneity in preferences. We calculated the relative importance of the attributes and the predicted acceptability for different contexts in which the data were shared
TY - JOUR. T1 - Using discrete choice experiments to understand preferences for quality of life. Variance-scale heterogeneity matters. AU - Flynn, TN. AU - Louviere, JJ. AU - Peters, TJ. AU - Coast, J. PY - 2010/6. Y1 - 2010/6. N2 - Aim Maturity-onset diabetes of the young is a monogenic form of familial, young-onset diabetes. It is rare (∼1% diabetes) and may be misdiagnosed as Type 1 diabetes and inappropriately treated with insulin. Type 1 diabetes is characterized by the presence of islet autoantibodies, including glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) and islet antigen-2 (IA-2) antibodies. The prevalence of islet autoantibodies is unknown in maturity-onset diabetes of the young and may have the potential to differentiate this form of diabetes from Type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of GAD and IA-2 antibodies in patients with maturity-onset diabetes of the young and Type 1 diabetes. Methods We measured plasma GAD and IA-2 antibodies in 508 patients with the most ...
An as-needed combination preventer and reliever regimen was recently introduced as an alternative to conventional daily preventer treatment for mild asthma. In a subgroup analysis of the PRACTICAL study, a pragmatic randomised controlled trial of budesonide-formoterol reliever therapy versus maintenance budesonide plus terbutaline reliever therapy in adults with mild asthma, we recently reported that about two-thirds preferred as-needed combination preventer and reliever therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the relative importance of attributes associated with these two asthma therapies in this subgroup of participants who indicated their preferred treatment in the PRACTICAL study.At their final study visit, a subgroup of participants indicated their preferred treatment and completed a discrete choice experiment using the Potentially All Pairwise RanKings of all possible Alternatives method and 1000minds software. Treatment attributes and their levels were selected from measurable ...
This marketing research course shows how to design a discrete choice experiment and how to analyze discrete choice data in SAS software. Analytical advice regarding number of choice sets, the number of alternatives, and number of subjects is also given.|p|This course includes practice data and exercises.
The Terms of Employment Individual Choices Model gives you some freedom to select your own terms and conditions. It essentially allows you to partially assemble your own terms and conditions package.
The Terms of Employment Individual Choices Model gives you some freedom to select your own terms and conditions. It essentially allows you to partially assemble your own terms and conditions package.
Abstract: In this paper we derive locally optimal designs for discrete choice experiments. As in Kanninen (2002) we consider a multinomial logistic model, which contains various ualitative attributes as well as a quantitative one, which may range over a sufficiently large region. The derived optimal designs improve upon those given in the literature, but have the feature that every choice set contains alternatives, which coincide in all but the quantitative attributes. The multinomial logistic model may then lead to an unrealistic response behavior, if the quantitative attribute is described by a price variable.. Keywords: conjoint analysis, discrete choice experiment, multinomial logistic model, locally optimal design. ...
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Perhaps the most understudied ecosystem services are related to socio-cultural values tied to non-material benefits arising from human-ecosystem relationships.
Universal coverage campaigns for long-lasting insecticide-treated nets do not always reach the goal of one net for every two household members, and even when ownership of at least one net per household is high, many households may not own enough nets. The retail market provides these households options for replacing or increasing the number of nets they own with products that best fit their needs since a variety of net shapes, sizes, and colours are available. Hence, it is important to understand the factors affecting private net demand. This study explores private demand for nets in Tanzania using a discrete choice experiment. The experiment provides participants the option to buy nets with their own money, and thus should prove more accurate than a hypothetical survey of net preferences. Nearly 800 participants sampled in two regions showed an overall strong demand for nets, with 40% choosing to buy a net across all seven combinations of net prices and characteristics such as size, shape, and
Designed to capture behavioral insights at speed, Marus Discrete Choice tool works seamlessly with the Groups integrated survey technology, including System 1 tools, empowering users to capture a holistic understanding of consumer response.Ged Parton, CEO at Maru Group, explains, Our research at Maru operates at the intersection of behavior and emotion. Its why weve prioritized the development of both System 1 and System 2 tools as part of the expansion of our Maru/HUB technology ecosystem.Our Discrete Choice tool combines an engaging user interface and advanced analytical output. Unlike other trade-off question designs, Marus Discrete Choice tool gives users the opportunity to create a choice-based exercise at speed, as well as uncovering enhanced insights predictive of behavior. By combining these results with attitudinal and emotional data, researchers are able to uncover a more holistic understanding of consumer response.Designed to work seamlessly across stimuli, from simple ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Factors affecting young peoples preferences for emerging technologies for chlamydia testing and treatment: a discrete choice experiment in England. AU - Eaton, S.. AU - Biggerstaff, D.. AU - Pink, J.. AU - Petrou, S.. AU - Osipenko, L.. AU - Gibbs, J.. AU - Estcourt, C.S.. AU - Sadiq, T.. AU - Szczepura, Ala. N1 - This is a published meeting abstract only, available on the Elsevier website at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673616322802. The paper was given at the Public Health Science: A National Conference Dedicated to New Research in UK Public Health. PY - 2016/11/25. Y1 - 2016/11/25. N2 - Background Technological advances offer opportunities to redesign existing chlamydia screening and testing, and treatment pathways, to improve screening uptake and the proportion of positive individuals successfully treated. Innovations underway include self-tests networked through mobile phones, which could be combined with online clinical care and other ...
Dynamic discrete choice (DDC) models, also known as discrete choice models of dynamic programming, model an agents choices over discrete options that have
Home / News / Lifestyle choices may help Glaucoma patients preserve their sight. Ask your UNC Eye Doctor about exercise, diet and healthy body weight to help minimize losing vision to Glaucoma. ...
The study of perceptual decisions has been developed as a substitute for investigating more complex multiple attribute decisions. However, little attention has been paid to the similarity of results between the two literatures. Four separate behavioral experiments and a secondary trial- by-trial analysis investigated the sensitivity of perceptual decisions. Results were compared to both previous perceptual decision research and that of multiple attribute decisions in an effort to bridge the divide. The first experiment examined the effect of increasing the similarity of available response alternatives on accuracy and reaction time. The results suggest that high levels of similarity can begin to degrade the decision process by lowering accuracy and slowing reaction time; however these changes may be dependent on the extent to which the alternatives use overlapping neuronal pools. The second experiment examined the effect of increasing the number of response alternatives available for a single ...
Dealer Binary Choice Counterparty risk is a priority for each devices, which is what the very short-term binary choices using the bitcoin block chain seek to alleviate. Fast and simple, the tradeable asset lists are intensive with durations of 60 seconds to a minimal of one week. Payouts range between 60% to 85%,
Start Over You searched for: Formats Still image ✖Remove constraint Formats: Still image Collections Images from the History of Medicine (IHM) ✖Remove constraint Collections: Images from the History of Medicine (IHM) Subjects Choice Behavior ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Choice Behavior Subjects Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome -- prevention & control ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome -- prevention & control Genre Posters ✖Remove constraint Genre: Posters Titles Sexual safety means making the right choice every time ✖Remove constraint Titles: Sexual safety means making the right choice every time Publication Year 1980 ✖Remove constraint Publication Year: 1980 ...
Decision-making is a hallmark of higher-order cognitive processing. The neural substrates of decision-making have been studied extensively in the monkey oculomotor system. It has been found that neurons in the oculomotor system modulate their activity by the variable on which animals base their decision, and also appear to encode the dynamics of the decision process. An outstanding question raised by this work is whether the decision-related findings in the oculomotor system generalize to other systems beyond the oculomotor system. This question is of critical importance to decision sciences as decision-related neural signals serve to construct and constraint models of choice behavior. However, the work on the neural basis of decision-making in the monkey oculomotor system cannot address this question because in this literature animals make choices using eye movements. In these tasks, the decision-related neuronal modulation could therefore specifically reflect the decision to make an eye movement, and
This paper outlines the methods and applications related to the nascent area of empirical discrete games in marketing. Many key strategic decisions firms make involve discrete choices such as deciding
TY - CONF. T1 - Housing markets and economic choices under uncertainty: exploring non-linear market dynamics in a spatial agent-based model. AU - Filatova, Tatiana. AU - Lee, J.S.. AU - Naimi, N.. N1 - Conference code: 20. PY - 2015/5/21. Y1 - 2015/5/21. M3 - Paper. T2 - 20th Workshop on the Economic Science with Heterogeneous Interacting Agents, WEHIA 2015. Y2 - 21 May 2015 through 23 May 2015. ER - ...
SAN FRANCISCO, June 7 /PRNewswire/ -- Pacific Urology Doctor Wins 2nd Patients Choice Award. Independent online patient reviews determine which physicians...
Based on examination of variation of practice patterns in the Dartmouth Atlas, John Wennberg, M.D. has suggested three general approaches to reduce inappropriate variation and increase the equity of medical care: increase the amount of effective care, reduce supply sensitive care and increase preference sensitive care [32]. The underuse of DMARDs by patients with RA, is an example of underutilization of effective care. This may be explained by healthcare system failures, individual physician behavior, or in some cases subsets of patients who are informed but elect not to take medications recommended in national standards of care. A recent computer based, simulated decision, discrete choice experiment of 144 RA patients preferences of specific risks and benefits of treatment found that when compared to white adults with RA, African American RA patients were more likely to be classified as risk averse (OR 8.4 [3.1-23.1]) [33]. In general, it is unknown if risk aversion is an inherent culturally ...
What do patients want? Llewellyn5 and Miners6 report linked studies exploring patient preferences for STI services in the UK, in the context of increased provision of such services in primary care over the past decade. Llewellyn et al report that while many participants were willing to test within general practice, perceived lack of expertise was a barrier as was the apparently limited range of tests in general practise. A discrete choice experiment presented by Miners again emphasised patients preference for staff with specialist knowledge, and for the availability of testing for all infections. These are important messages for policymakers.. Patient views are also explored a study by Conway et al,7 who describe quality of life valuations for HPV associated cancer health states. The authors explored valuations of various genital cancers, as well as oropharyngeal cancer. HPV prevention programmes are likely to become increasingly complex as the wide range of pathologies caused by the many HPV ...
This paper considers semiparametric identification of structural dynamic discrete choice models and models for dynamic treatment effects. Time to trea...
The participants will be interviewed in a face-to-face setting using computer-assisted personal interviewing technique. We will be using EuroQol Groups Valuation Technology (EQ-VT) software generated by the EuroQol Group. Each respondent will be asked to complete sociodemographic details and self-reported health questionnaire using EQ-5D-5L and the EuroQol Visual Analogue Scale (EQ-VAS). TTO valuation will be done using 10 composite TTO (c-TTO) tasks and 7 discrete choice experiment (DCE) tasks.. In the standard design of c-TTO, there will be 10 blocks of health states. Each block will contain 10 health states which include one anchor state (55555). The blocks used for interview will be randomly selected by the EQ-VT software. In TTO valuation, the respondent is asked to indicate the amount of time he/she is willing to give up to attain perfect health. The respondent will be asked to imagine two alternative health states (life A and life B) described on screen and express the preference using ...
Downloadable (with restrictions)! Increasingly, health economists are required to work across sectors when evaluating options for improving health, health care and well-being. Social care is a key sector which is both influenced by and influences the use and outcomes of health services. This paper reports on a developing approach to measuring social care outcome, designed to reflect outcomes across client groups. In this process it is important that we reflect the relative importance or value of these domains of outcome. This paper reports on a pilot study that investigated the feasibility of using discrete choice experiments to identify a financial willingness to accept valuation of a large number of domains and investigated factors associated with variations in respondents preferences. We conclude that, while the domains themselves need further work, the approach provides a helpful starting point in the difficult issue of reflecting population preferences for a large number of social care outcome
There are two salient facts about health care in low and middle-income countries; 1) the private sector plays an important role and 2) the care provided is often of poor quality. Despite these facts we know little about what drives quality of care in the private sector and why patients continue to seek care from poor quality providers. We use two field studies in India that provide unique insight into this issue. First, we use a discrete choice experiment to show that patients are willing to pay higher prices for better technical quality (defined by correct treatment and correct diagnosis). Second, we use standardized patients to show that private providers who provide better technical quality are not able to charge higher prices. Instead providers are able to charge higher prices for elements of quality that the patient can observe (good patient interactions and more effort), which are less important for health outcomes. Taken together, this research highlights a market inefficiency and ...
Lucas DialAltEnglish 11110 January, 2018The Other Wes Moore The Other Wes Moore is a story of two different lives, but with the same name, and how their journeys have been shaped by their decisions in the past. Through the book, there are many recurring themes. An individuals choices has consequences, Discipline and violence, and family influence are all common themes shown by author Wes moore throughout the book, shining light on each of their life journeys.One common theme throughout the book is that, an Individuals choice has consequences. This theme is shown throughout the book from multiple devices and situations such as Imagery, narrative reflection, and external conflict. Imagery is a strong device used by many authors to visually describe a literary work. In the other Wes Moore, imagery is used to support the theme of an individuals choices have consequences. Once the boys in East Baltimore heard that a west Baltimore guy was attempting to take over their corner, tempers flared. Tony ...
Zanolini, A, Sikombe, K, Sikazwe, I, Eshun-Wilson, I, Somwe, P, Bolton Moore, C, Topp, SM, Czaicki, N, Beres, LK, Mwamba, CP, Padian, N, Holmes, CB and Geng, EH (2018). Understanding preferences for HIV care and treatment in Zambia: Evidence from a discrete choice experiment among patients who have been lost to follow-up: S4 Appendix. Study data. [Data Collection]. PLOS Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002636.s004 ...
Consumer retail trends. How customer choices are changing. How workplace motivation is changing. Future marketing, management and leadership. Future will be driven by emotion - take hold of your future! Conference keynote speaker tutorial of Convergence and divergence in technology. course by Prof Patrick Dixon of Online Tutorials. You can download the course for FREE !
Usually only KEY1= is needed for an MCQ scoring key.. Up to 99 keys can be provided for scoring the response choices, with control variables KEY1= through KEY99=. Usually KEY1= is a character string of correct response choices. The standard is one column per correct response, or two columns if XWIDE=2.. As standard, responses matching the characters in KEY1= are scored 1. Other valid responses are scored 0. KEY2= through KEY99= are character strings of successively more correct response choices to be used when more than one level of correct response choice is possible for one or more items. The standard score value for KEY2= is 2, and so on up to the standard score value for KEY99= which is 99. The values assigned to these keys can be changed by means of KEYSCR=. If XWIDE=1, only the values assigned to KEY1= through KEY9= can be changed, KEY10= through KEY99= retain their standard values of 10 through 99. If XWIDE=2, the all KEYn= values can be changed.. More complicated scoring can be done ...
Almost one half (49%) of co-ed state-funded schools across England are strengthening gender imbalances in terms of subject choice while fewer than one in five (19%) are countering them.
Dive into the research topics of Neural correlates of math anxiety of consumer choices on price promotions. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Some of the highly controversial questions in macroeconomics critically hinge on the value of a single parameter of consumer preference--the elasticity of intertemporal substitution. This paper provides new estimates of this parameter for individual G-7 and a panel of twenty OECD countries. We find that single equation GMM estimates are typically small and imprecise, consistent with Halls (1988) finding from the U.S. data. Estimation of a system of equations that takes into account the cross-equation restrictions implied by theory, however, generally gives larger and better determined values for the parameter. The panel procedure also yields relatively large estimates. Overall our multi-country results contradict the hypothesis of zero intertemporal substitution.
A dynamic risk-sensitive portfolio optimization problem under risk constraints is discussed by the use of coherent risk measures and fuzzy random variables
The neural mechanisms underlying the selection and initiation of voluntary actions in the absence of external instructions are poorly understood. These mechanisms are usually investigated using a paradigm where different movement choices are self-generated by a participant on each trial. These free choices are compared with instructed choices, in which a stimulus informs subjects which action to make on each trial. Here, we introduce a novel paradigm to investigate these modes of action selection, by measuring brain processes evoked by an instruction to either reverse or maintain free and instructed choices in the period before a go signal. An unpredictable instruction to change a response plan had different effects on free and instructed choices. In instructed trials, change cues evoked a larger P300 than no-change cues, leading to a significant interaction of choice and change condition. Free-choice trials displayed a trend toward the opposite pattern. These results suggest a difference between
Prolonged waiting times for elective treatment have long been considered a serious problem of the Norwegian health care system. Overall waiting times have, due to both supply and demand reforms, dropped significantly over recent years. Despite the positive development, many patients still face substantial waiting times. The analysis provides support for claiming that a policy of combining patient choice of hospital with the removal of geographical restrictions on referrals may contribute to the reduction in waiting times for individual elective patients. The main results of the empirical analyses were found to be robust over different statistical model specifications. Patients who chose to move hospitals benefit the most. They spend about 11 weeks less, on average, waiting for hospital treatment than those who neither chose nor moved. The results corroborate with the results of a few previous empirical analyses, like The London Patient Choice Project. There, a reduction in waiting times for all ...
This article reexamines evidence that some 5O% of disposable income goes to households who simply consume their current incomes. Previous studies of such rule-of-thumb behavior have typically used log-linear Euler equations and have not distinguished between intertemporal substitution and relative risk aversion. In contrast, I use generalized method of moments to estimate the importance of rule-of-thumb behavior and separate intertemporal substitution from risk aversion by using the Epstein-Zin utility function. Using postwar U.S. data, I cannot reject the hypothesis that all income goes to permanent-income households--that is, that there are no rule-of-thumb households.
One of these is precisely what explained binary choices are. Binary alternate options bring a very high amount of hazards when it comes to predicting the expense of a house at a supplied element in time. Binary alternate options are merely two in general: the money-or-nothing choice as well as the tool-or-absolutely nothing choice. The entire year 2008 was actually a modifying aspect in the background of repaired profit possibilities. Undoubtedly from that time binary selections online-web sites showed up as well as auctioned directly into step up change-dealt all-or-absolutely nothing choices. This development was quick since it was within the mindset from the Securities and also Exchange Commission (SEC)s selection to allow the list of income-or-practically nothing set up comes back selections. This was a result of the proposal in the Options Eradicating Business in 2007 to include binary choices in its regulations.. Complying with all the SECs phase the Us Offer Change journeyed full span ...
Gerber, Eberhart and Andrea entered a small, dark room in which a row of chairs faced a large one-way glass which made up most of the rooms far wall. On the other side of this glass was a much larger room, a well-lit chamber containing a variety of high-tech apparatus and controls, most of which Andrea could not identify. Without a word, she and the two men sat down. They all knew what this place was for; there was no need for discussion. Andrea recognized Nina immediately. She had been restrained on a five foot wide, eight foot long metal table that was surrounded by the strange array of equipment. The top of the table had been tilted up forty-five degrees, leaving Nina neither lying flat nor standing, but positioned so as to give the three observers an optimal view of the proceedings. Ninas body lay spread-eagle and face up, her limbs pulled wide apart and stretched to their limits. Manacles welded to the table secured her wrists and ankles, completely immobilizing her. Nina was naked of ...
Probability and statistics are not dependent on an individuals choice. Its dependent on the population. The population in this case would be the cars that drive on that stretch of highway. This determines the probability of getting into an accident. So an individuals can choose whether to drive on the highway or do things like wear a seat belt or drive at a certain speed. The probability of an accident occurring isnt the function of individual choice but of the population or the event thats occurring. This illustrates free will beautifully which reaches down to Planck scales. So probability isnt interfered with because its a function of the population. If 50% of the cars stopped driving on that highway that wouldnt interfere with probability that would just change the statistics because theres a decrease in the population for the event ...
The video is fallacious and disingenuous. The two concepts, parable of the lost sheep and parable of the caravan presented in the video are not in any way contradictory. People will choose to leave Christs Church, and the proverbial predators will devour them. Is the video trying to suggest that members of the church can force people not to leave? Its all metaphorical and individual choice is just that, individual choice. As somebody who has spent many, many hours going out and inviting the proverbial lost sheep back and being told to pound sand time and time again. Approaching the people who are about to be devoured metaphorically when they leave the caravan and warning them not to go and again being told to mind my own business. And watching as they still choose to do so. Is the person in the video suggesting that I am not Christlike simply because the caravan parable actually does happen and plays out in real life. That because people do leave the caravan and fall into apostasy or in ...
The video is fallacious and disingenuous. The two concepts, parable of the lost sheep and parable of the caravan presented in the video are not in any way contradictory. People will choose to leave Christs Church, and the proverbial predators will devour them. Is the video trying to suggest that members of the church can force people not to leave? Its all metaphorical and individual choice is just that, individual choice. As somebody who has spent many, many hours going out and inviting the proverbial lost sheep back and being told to pound sand time and time again. Approaching the people who are about to be devoured metaphorically when they leave the caravan and warning them not to go and again being told to mind my own business. And watching as they still choose to do so. Is the person in the video suggesting that I am not Christlike simply because the caravan parable actually does happen and plays out in real life. That because people do leave the caravan and fall into apostasy or in ...
Consistent with the results of the Bechara study, our subjects gradually concentrated their choices on deck B (Fig. 2). The beginning phase of the task was an exploratory period in which both populations sampled each deck equally. For the next 20 draws subjects shifted towards deck B drawing on average 8 of the 20 cards from deck A. In the final 10 draws both groups largely abandoned deck A: on average the younger subjects chose deck A two times of 10 and the older subjects chose deck A three times of 10. In summary both populations appear to have adapted the same way to the payoffs.... ...
During the course, you will be able to access course materials electronically using the University Wifi. We suggest that you bring a laptop or tablet with PDF viewer if you wish to refer to the notes during the course. Please ensure that you make sure your electronic device is fully charged, as access to charging points may be limited within the lecture rooms.. ...
There also exist problems with the studys design (given the conclusions of the media). Since participants were automatically supplied with drugs on sample days, we cannot make any solid deductions about whether the same results would be garnered in periods of abstinence. Also, given that many of the participants may have been occasional users, a hit of meth every few days may have been ample, meaning the only real option to go for would have been money anyway. This also means that the employed strategy of many may have been to sequester funds for purchase of drugs after the experiment was over. However, this is unlikely to have been the case - at least if the plan was to spend the monetary rewards on meth. The values of the drug and monetary rewards over the course of the study were well matched ($60-$80 and $100, respectively), and given the average dose of meth (250mg) will set you back around $80 on the streets of New York (the studys location), the participants would receive the same ...
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The Initiative for Multipurpose Prevention Technologies (IMPT) is a project of CAMI Health, a social impact organization dedicated to improving the health of women and their families worldwide. CAMI Health is housed at the Public Health Institute (PHI).. This project is made possible by the generous support of the American people through the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) through an interagency agreement with the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), cooperative agreement #AID-OAA-A-16-00045. The contents of this website are the sole responsibility of the IMPT, CAMI Health, PHI, and its partners and do not necessarily reflect the views of USAID or the United States Government ...
A benefitâ risk assessment model for statins using multicriteria decision analysis based on a discrete choice experiment in Korean patients Ji-Hye Byun,1 Sun-Hong Kwon,1 Ji-Hye Ha,2 Eui-Kyung Lee1 1School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do, 2Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, Cheongju-si, Chungcheongbuk-do, South Korea Purpose: The benefitâ risk balance for drugs can alter post approval owing to additional data on efficacy or adverse events. This study developed a quantitative benefitâ risk assessment (BRA) model for statins using multicriteria decision analysis with discrete choice experiments and compared a recent BRA with that at the time of approval. Patients and methods: Following a systematic review of the literature, the benefit criteria within the statin BRA model were defined as a reduction in the plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and a reduction in myocardial infarction incidence; the risk criteria were hepatotoxicity (Liv) and fatal
TY - JOUR. T1 - Assessment of pedophilic sexual interest with an attentional choice reaction time task. AU - Mokros, A. AU - Dombert, B. AU - Osterheider, M. AU - Zappalà, A. AU - Santtila, Pekka. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. U2 - 10.1007/s10508-009-9530-6. DO - 10.1007/s10508-009-9530-6. M3 - Artikel. VL - 39. SP - 1081. EP - 1090. JO - Archives of Sexual Behavior. JF - Archives of Sexual Behavior. SN - 0004-0002. IS - 5. ER - ...
This bibliography includes abstracts of 59 studies and review articles which are related to the effect of color coding on choice reaction time. As color displays become more widely used for information gathering and decision-making tasks, the effect of color coding on these tasks and their components will become increasingly important design considerations. Choice reaction time, the time required to make a binary choice, affects the total execution time of many decision-making and information gathering tasks, and seems to be a particularly relevant measure of effectiveness of color coding. This bibliography draws together much of the current literature, for reference by human factors researchers and systems designers. Two techniques lend themselves to measurement of choice reaction time the Sternberg paradigm and the Within-Task Subtractive Method.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Acetaldehyde self-administration by a two-bottle choice paradigm: Consequences on emotional reactivity, spatial learning, and memory. AU - Maniaci, Giuseppe. AU - De Caro, Viviana. AU - Giannola, Libero Italo. AU - Sutera, Flavia Maria. AU - Cannizzaro, Emanuele. AU - Cannizzaro, Carla. AU - Plescia, Fulvio. AU - Brancato, Anna. AU - Venniro, Marco. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - Acetaldehyde, the first alcohol metabolite, is responsible for many pharmacological effects that are not clearly distinguishable from those exerted by its parent compound. It alters motor performance, induces reinforced learning and motivated behavior, and produces different reactions according to the route of administration and the relative accumulation in the brain or in the periphery. The effective activity of oral acetaldehyde represents an unresolved field of inquiry that deserves further investigation. Thus, this study explores the acquisition and maintenance of acetaldehyde drinking behavior in adult ...
Background: Exercise is effective in improving non-specific low back pain (LBP). Certain components of physical exercise, such as the type, intensity and frequency of exercise, are likely to influence participation among working adults with non-specific LBP, but the value and relative importance of these components remain unknown. The studys aim was to examine such specific components and their influence on individual preferences for exercise for secondary prevention of non-specific LBP among working adults. Methods: In a discrete choice experiment, working individuals with non-specific LBP answered a webbased questionnaire. Each respondent was given ten pairs of hypothetical exercise programs and asked to choose one option from each pair. The choices comprised six attributes of exercise (i.e., type of training, design, intensity, frequency, proximity and incentives), each with either three or four levels. A conditional logit regression that reflected the random utility model was used to ...
Background: Exercise is effective in improving non-specific low back pain (LBP). Certain components of physical exercise, such as the type, intensity and frequency of exercise, are likely to influence participation among working adults with non-specific LBP, but the value and relative importance of these components remain unknown. The studys aim was to examine such specific components and their influence on individual preferences for exercise for secondary prevention of non-specific LBP among working adults. Methods: In a discrete choice experiment, working individuals with non-specific LBP answered a webbased questionnaire. Each respondent was given ten pairs of hypothetical exercise programs and asked to choose one option from each pair. The choices comprised six attributes of exercise (i.e., type of training, design, intensity, frequency, proximity and incentives), each with either three or four levels. A conditional logit regression that reflected the random utility model was used to ...
Methods In a discrete choice experiment, participants evaluated eight choice sets, each of which showed two cigarette packages from four different brands and tar levels (high vs low), accompanied by an insert that included between-subject manipulations (ie, listing of HPHCs vs grouping by disease outcome and numeric values ascribed to HPHCs vs no numbers) and within-subject manipulations (ie, 1 of 4 warning topics; statement linking an HPHC with disease vs statement with no HPHC link). For each choice set, participants were asked: (1) which package is more harmful and (2) which motivates them to not smoke; each with a no difference option. Alternative-specific logit models regressed choice on attribute levels. ...
Successful choice under risk requires the integration of information about outcome probabilities and values and implicates a brain network including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and posterior parietal cortex (pPAR). Damage to the vmPFC is linked to poor decision-making and increased risk-taking. Electrophysiological and neuroimaging data implicate the pPAR in the processing of reward probability during choice, but the causal contribution of this area has not been established. We compared patients with lesions to the pPAR (n = 13), vmPFC (n = 13), and healthy volunteers (n = 22) on the Roulette Betting Task, a measure of risk-sensitive decision-making. Both lesion groups were impaired in adjusting their bets to the probability of winning. This impairment was correlated with the extent of pPAR, but not vmPFC, damage. In addition, the vmPFC group chose higher bets than healthy controls overall, an effect that correlated with lesion volume in the medial orbitofrontal cortex. Both lesion groups
Peterson, George L.; Stynes, Daniel J.; Rosenthal, Donald H.; Dwyer, John F. 1985. Substitution in recreation choice behavior. In: Stankey, George H.; McCool, Stephen F., compilers. Proceedings--symposium on recreation choice behavior; 1984 March 22-23; Missoula, MT. General Technical Report INT-184. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. p. 19-30 ...
Background This study investigated patient opinion about the provision of nurse-led vs. doctor-led primary health care in the treatment of minor illness.. Design A postal questionnaire survey including discrete choice experiment (DCE) of a national sample followed by telephone interviews with respondent volunteers.. Setting and participants A large random sample of the population of Scotland from a range of general practices including traditional and extended practice nursing roles was invited to participate.. Main outcome measures Patient satisfaction with, opinion of and preference for practice nurse (PN) vs. doctor consultation in primary care in relation to gender, age, education and income.. Results Questionnaire response rate was 49% (1343 of 2740). Women, younger people, the less well-educated and those with higher income had a more positive attitude towards the PN. Older people had a more positive attitude to the doctor. Results from the DCE indicated that whilst most respondents would ...
The 3-day Outcomes Workshop includes material linked directly to the needs of organisations, such as the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), which make decisions about health care delivery and funding. The workshop covers the key principles of outcomes measurement and valuation as well as their practical implementation in health technology assessment. It focusses on the design, construction and application of a range of approaches to measuring and valuing health outcomes. The approaches considered include methods used in healthcare economic evaluation, such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) based on preference-based generic measures (e.g. EQ-5D, HUI); approaches used to map from clinical and disease-specific outcomes to generic measures; and direct elicitation of preferences. The use of discrete choice experiments is also considered. This workshop assumes participants have a basic familiarity with health technology assessment (HTA) and focuses on the role and ...
Huo, M., Gorayski, P., Poulsen, M., Thompson, K., Pinkham, MB. Evidence-based Peer Review for Radiation Therapy - Updated Review of the Literature with a Focus on Tumour Subsite and Treatment Modality. PubMed-NCBI. ClinOncol (R Coll Radiol). 2017 May 18. pii: S0936-6555(17)30225-X. doi:10.1016/j.clon.2017.04.038.. Huo, M., Gorayski, P., Pinkham MB., Lehman M. Advances in radiotherapy technology for non-small cell lung cancer: What every general practitioner should know. Aus Fam Physician. 2015 No;45(11): 805-809. PMID: 27806449. Lehman M, Gorayski P, Watson S, Edeling D, Jackson J, Whitty J. Patient preferences regarding prophylactic cranial orradiation: A discrete choice experiment. Radiother Oncol. 2016 Nov;121(2): 225-231. doi: 10.1016/j.radonc.2016.09.003.. Nicholls L, Gorayski P, Poulsen M, Plank AW, Schick K, Pham T, Khoo EL. Maintaining prostate contouring consistency following an educational intervention. J Med Radiat Sci. 2016 Sep;63(3):155-60. doi: 10.1002/jmrs.168.. Gorayski, P, ...
Huo, M., Gorayski, P., Poulsen, M., Thompson, K., Pinkham, MB. Evidence-based Peer Review for Radiation Therapy - Updated Review of the Literature with a Focus on Tumour Subsite and Treatment Modality. PubMed-NCBI. ClinOncol (R Coll Radiol). 2017 May 18. pii: S0936-6555(17)30225-X. doi:10.1016/j.clon.2017.04.038.. Huo, M., Gorayski, P., Pinkham MB., Lehman M. Advances in radiotherapy technology for non-small cell lung cancer: What every general practitioner should know. Aus Fam Physician. 2015 No;45(11): 805-809. PMID: 27806449. Lehman M, Gorayski P, Watson S, Edeling D, Jackson J, Whitty J. Patient preferences regarding prophylactic cranial orradiation: A discrete choice experiment. Radiother Oncol. 2016 Nov;121(2): 225-231. doi: 10.1016/j.radonc.2016.09.003.. Nicholls L, Gorayski P, Poulsen M, Plank AW, Schick K, Pham T, Khoo EL. Maintaining prostate contouring consistency following an educational intervention. J Med Radiat Sci. 2016 Sep;63(3):155-60. doi: 10.1002/jmrs.168.. Gorayski, P, ...
PURPOSE: To establish the relative weighting given by patients and healthcare professionals to gains in diagnostic sensitivity versus loss of specificity when using CT colonography (CTC) for colorectal cancer screening. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Following ethical approval and informed consent, 75 patients and 50 healthcare professionals undertook a discrete choice experiment in which they chose between standard CTC and enhanced CTC that raised diagnostic sensitivity 10% for either cancer or polyps in exchange for varying levels of specificity. We established the relative increase in false-positive diagnoses participants traded for an increase in true-positive diagnoses. RESULTS: Data from 122 participants were analysed. There were 30 (25%) non-traders for the cancer scenario and 20 (16%) for the polyp scenario. For cancer, the 10% gain in sensitivity was traded up to a median 45% (IQR 25 to |85) drop in specificity, equating to 2250 (IQR 1250 to |4250) additional false-positives per additional true
In this paper we present a stochastic route choice model for transit networks that explicitly addresses route correlation due to overlapping alternatives. The model is based on a multi-objective mathematical programming problem, the optimality conditions of which generate an extension to the Multinomial Logit models. The proposed model considers a fixed point problem for treating correlations between routes, which can be solved iteratively. We estimated the new model on the Santiago (Chile) Metro network and compared the results with other route choice models that can be found in the literature. The new model has better explanatory and predictive power that many other alternative models, correctly capturing the correlation factor. Our methodology can be extended to private transport networks.
To date there have been no value sets to support the use of the EQ-5D-Y in cost-utility analysis. Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) can be used to obtain values on a latent scale, but these values require anchoring at 0 = dead to meet the conventions of quality-adjusted life year (QALY) estimation. This Research Paper describes a study in which four stated preference methods for anchoring EQ-5D-Y values were compared: visual analogue scale, DCE (with a duration attribute), lag-time TTO and the recently developed location-of-dead (LOD) element of the personal utility function approach. ...
MyJournals.org - Science - Criteria for prioritization of HIV programs in Viet Nam: a discrete choice experiment (BMC Health Services Research)
A study conducted by researchers based at the St. Jude Childrens Research Hospital has determined that healthy lifestyle choices can help cancer survivors avoid the metabolic syndrome.
Behavior becomes difficult to analyze when there are many stimuli and many response options. As a consequence, in most laboratory experiments the numbers of stimuli and choices are limited, with the two-alternative forced-choice experiment the most widely adopted. This minimal approach has been successful in studying reinforcement learning, in which responses to rewarded stimuli lead to predictable changes in behavior (1). To what extent can the basic principles of reinforcement learning, coupled with a complex environment and a large memory, account for more complex behaviors? The leaders of the cognitive revolution in the 1950s assumed that reinforcement learning could not account for cognitive behaviors such as language and reasoning, but surprisingly, recent advances in computational theory and experimental studies have challenged this assumption. A tour de force study in PNAS (2) adds to this evidence by showing that reinforcement learning can explain not only behavioral choice in a complex ...
The UK Black and The Health Divide reports considered two primary mechanisms for understanding how social determinants influence health: cultural/behavioral and materialist/structuralist[17] The cultural/behavioral explanation is that individuals behavioral choices (e.g., tobacco and alcohol use, diet, physical activity, etc.) were responsible for their development and deaths from a variety of diseases. However, both the Black and Health Divide reports found that behavioral choices are determined by ones material conditions of life, and these behavioral risk factors account for a relatively small proportion of variation in the incidence and death from various diseases. The materialist/structuralist explanation emphasizes the peoples material living conditions. These conditions include availability of resources to access the amenities of life, working conditions, and quality of available food and housing among others. Within this view, three frameworks have been developed to explain how social ...
Listing of the answers to the question: What are some easy ways to make eco-friendly choices at the supermarket? (Weekly Topic Inspiration) Going green at the grocery store can make a big impact on the environment- and ones budget! Sometimes, though, its hard to know where to start. What are your tips for making more sustainable choices at the supermarket? If you would like to use a keyword-researched and search friendly title or get some group support writing your Hub Answer, stop by our forum thread: http://hubpages.com/forum/topic/94967
Figure 15: Research on Preference Polyhedron Model Based Evolutionary Multiobjective Optimization Method for Multilink Transmission Mechanism Conceptual Design
Cowell, Frank and Amiel, Yoram (2007) Social welfare and individual preferences under uncertainty: a questionnaire-experimental approach. In: Bishop, John and Amiel, Yoram, (eds.) Inequality and Poverty: Papers From the Society for the Study of Economic Inequalities Inaugural Meeting. Research on economic inequality,14. Elsevier, Oxford, pp. 345-364. ISBN 0762313749 ...
Castilla, Carolina and Timothy Haab. Limited Attention to Search Costs in the Gasoline Retail Market: Evidence from a Choice Experiment on Consumer Willingness to Search Am. J. Agr. Econ. (2013) 95(1): 181-199 doi:10.1093/ajae/aas131 Abstract: We conduct a choice experiment to investigate whether U.S. gasoline consumers exhibit limited attention to the...
WWII German Choice Model 1942 Normandy Camo Helmet- We recently acquired this beautiful helmet from a prominent Swiss collector. It has a fantastic tri-color, sprayed on finish of green, tan and red. It remains 95% intact. Inside there is a brown leather liner that remains very soft and supple. There is moderate wear,
We have previously documented the exquisite motion sensitivity of neurons in extrastriate area MT by studying the relationship between their responses and the direction and strength of visual motion signals delivered to their receptive fields. These results suggested that MT neurons might provide th …
Even a simple sensory stimulus can elicit distinct innate behaviors and sequences. During sensorimotor decisions, competitive interactions among neurons that
Waiting times for elective care have been considered a serious problem in many health care systems. A topic of particular concern has been how administrative boundaries act as barriers to efficient patient flows. In Norway, a policy combining patients choice of hospital and removal of restriction on referrals was introduced in 2001, thereby creating a nationwide competitive referral system for elective hospital treatment. The article aims to analyse if patient choice and an increased opportunity for geographical mobility has reduced waiting times for individual elective patients. A survey conducted among Norwegian somatic patients in 2004 gave information about whether the choice of hospital was made by the individual patient or by others. Survey data was then merged with administrative data on which hospital that actually performed the treatment. The administrative data also gave individual waiting time for hospital admission. Demographics, socio-economic position, and medical need were controlled for
The RPL can take on a number of different functional forms and incorporate a number of underlying distribution assumptions. The most popular assumptions are normal, triangular, uniform and log-normal distributions (Bhat, 2000; 2001). The log-normal distribution is applied if the response parameter needs to be a specific sign (Louviere et al., 2000; Carlsson et al., 2003). Where dummy variables are used, a uniform distribution with a (0, 1) bound is appropriate. It can be difficult to determine which variables to distribute and which distributions to choose. Some applications only randomise the cost variable, others choose to randomise all non-price variables and leave cost as non-random (Layton, 2000; Anderson, 2003). The latter choice is favoured for two reasons: firstly, the distribution of the marginal willingness to pay (WTP) for an attribute is simply the distribution of that attributes parameter estimate, and, secondly, it allows the cost variable to be restricted to be non-positive for ...
Relations between an dependent categorial variable and independent variables can be analyzed with logit models. The first part of the paper gives an short overview on different logit models including models for binary panel data, ordinal variables and decision trees. The availability of these model... mehr Relations between an dependent categorial variable and independent variables can be analyzed with logit models. The first part of the paper gives an short overview on different logit models including models for binary panel data, ordinal variables and decision trees. The availability of these models im BMDP, LIMDEP, SAS, SPSS, SYSTAT and the free ware statistical system TDA is discussed in the second part. Though only few procedures are designed especially to estimate the parameters of logistic models other procedures can be used as well. For example, the conditional logit model or logistic discrete choice model may be estimated by procedures for event history analysis. Exemplaric program ...
City, University of London is an independent member institution of the University of London. Established by Royal Charter in 1836, the University of London consists of 18 independent member institutions with outstanding global reputations and several prestigious central academic bodies and activities. © 2017 City, University of London. ...
Perceptual decisions occur after the evaluation and integration of momentary sensory inputs, and dividing attention between spatially disparate sources of information impairs decision performance. However, it remains unknown whether dividing attention degrades the precision of sensory signals, precludes their conversion into decision signals, or dampens the integration of decision information toward an appropriate response. Here we recorded human electroencephalographic (EEG) activity while participants categorized one of two simultaneous and independent streams of visual gratings according to their average tilt. By analyzing trial-by-trial correlations between EEG activity and the information offered by each sample, we obtained converging behavioral and neural evidence that dividing attention between left and right visual fields does not dampen the encoding of sensory or decision information. Under divided attention, momentary decision information from both visual streams was encoded in slow parietal
How do we make decisions? Conventional decision theory tells us only which behavioral choices we ought to make if we follow certain axioms. In real life, however, our choices are governed by cognitive mechanisms shaped over evolutionary time through the process of natural selection. Evolution has created strong biases in how and when we process information, and it is these evolved cognitive building blocks-from signal detection and memory to individual and social learning-that provide the foundation for our choices ...
The integration of stimuli from the same or different modalities offers many benefits such as enhanced discrimination and accelerated reaction to objects. This thesis investigates the effects of stimulis spatial location on the redundancy gain (RG) obtained with cross-modal and within-modal stimulations. The RG is a decrease in reaction times (RT) when two or more stimuli are presented simultaneously rather than a single stimulation. The first study investigated cross-modal visuo-tactile integration in a single reaction time task and a choice reaction time task. Each unisensory stimulus was presented to either the left or right hemispace, and multisensory stimuli were presented in a unilateral (e.g. visual right/tactile right) or bilateral configuration (e.g. visual right/tactile left). The first task was a simple reaction time (SRT) paradigm where participants had to responded to all stimulations, irrespective of spatial position. Results showed that multisensory gain and coactivation were the ...
RECOGNITION OF EXCELLENCE - patients choice (2014, 2015, 2016, 2017): Based on the preset criteria, analysis of evaluation and comments on all doctors (physicians) in the Republic of Croatia, available at the www.najdoktor.comportal, Professor Ivica Klapan, MD, PhD, has been chosen as one of the best doctors according to patients choice, and also as the superior ENT specialist/head and neck surgeon in 2014., 2015. 2016., and 2017. The list of all doctors chosen by patients is available at http://najdoktor.com/najbolji-lijecnici-po-preporukama-pacijenata/a223#&panel1-2. ...
By Dr Eider M Arenaza-Urquijo (posted 16th December 2016) There is now much evidence to support the idea that healthy lifestyle choices may play an important role in the prevention of Alzheimers disease. Studies show that keeping mentally and physically active may offer protection against developing cognitive decline and dementia. For almost four years, we…
Along with other medications, some of your lifestyle choices may affect your International Normalised Ratio (INR), which in turn may affect your warfarin dose.
Anatomical, neuroimaging and lesion studies indicate that prefrontal cortex (PFC) can be subdivided into different subregions supporting distinct aspects of decision making. However, explanations of neuronal computations within these subregions varies widely across studies. An integrated and mechanistic account of PFC function therefore remains elusive. Resolving these debates demands a rich dataset that directly contrasts neuronal activity across multiple PFC subregions within a single paradigm, whilst experimentally controlling factors such as the order, duration and frequency in which choice options are attended and compared. Here, we contrast neuronal population responses between macaque orbitofrontal (OFC), anterior cingulate (ACC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFC) during sequential value-guided information search and choice. From the first fixation of choice-related stimuli, a strong triple dissociation of information encoding emerges in parallel across these PFC subregions. As further
Many women have dense breasts, and they may benefit from other forms of cancer screening beyond mammograms. But none of the options is ideal, and the available data dont make the decision easier.
This course takes place online at The Institute for 4 weeks. During each course week, you participate at times of your own choosing - there are no set times when you must be online. Course participants will be given access to a private discussion board. In class discussions led by the instructor, you can post questions, seek clarification, and interact with your fellow students and the instructor.. At the beginning of each week, you receive the relevant material, in addition to answers to exercises from the previous session. During the week, you are expected to go over the course materials, work through exercises, and submit answers. Discussion among participants is encouraged. The instructor will provide answers and comments, and at the end of the week, you will receive individual feedback on your homework answers. ...
This study examined performance measures and eye movements associated with complex arithmetic strategies in young and older adults. Participants added pairs of three-digit numbers using two different strategies, under choice and no-choice conditions. Older adults made more errors but were not significantly slower than young adults, and response times and errors showed no interaction between age and the number of carries. Older adults chose strategies less adaptively than young adults. Eye movements were consistent with use of required strategies on no-choice trials and reported strategies on choice trials. Eye movement data also suggested that young adults more successfully distinguished between strategies. Implications of these findings for understanding aging effects in complex arithmetic are discussed ...
Free Choice South Lake in South Lake, WA, 6164. Business contact details for Free Choice South Lake including phone number, reviews & map location - TrueLocal
Choice of career is very significant for all 16+ students. A great deal of thought and careful consideration should be given to the very important decisions that have to be made at this stage. The Skills Development Scotland (SDS) Careers Adviser attached to Bucksburn Academy, and in school 2-3 days per week, is Ms Claire Rankine. SDS aim to help pupils understand and develop Career Management Skills to ensure they are successful planners not only in school and as they approach transition points, but throughout their lives. A flexible approach is adopted - use of www.myworldofwork.co.uk as well as face to face support from Ms Rankine through group work, drop in clinics, 1:1 interviews and attendance at reviews/meetings as appropriate. Combined with Pupil Support Staff and appropriate classroom teachers, a valuable careers information, advice and guidance service designed to meet all young peoples needs is provided.. Students should be aware of the constantly changing labour market and the ...
Intertemporal preferences and intergenerational equity considerations in optimal resource harvesting. Economics of antibiotic resistance: a theory of optimal use
When decision-options appear framed as a likely gain, risk-averse choices predominate. A shift toward risk-seeking behavior ... Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman have shown that framing can affect the outcome of choice problems (i.e. the choices one makes ... riskier choices tend to result. In a study by researchers at Dartmouth Medical School, 57% of the subjects chose a medication ... The choices they then make are influenced by their creation of a frame. Framing involves social construction of a social ...
Choice: Current Reviews for Academic Libraries writer R. S. Stansbury explained that the book is able to use simple examples to ... Gottlieb, Jeffrey D. (March 1, 2013). "Questions Left Unanswered". Ethics & Behavior. 23 (2): 163-166. doi:10.1080/ ... doi:10.5860/CHOICE.50-4929. Retrieved March 20, 2015. Dzwonkowska, Dominika (March 2013). "The Machine Question: Critical ... Stansbury, R. S. (May 2013). "Reviews: The machine question: critical perspectives on AI, robots, and ethics". Choice: Current ...
Maccarone, Alan D.; Montevecchi, W. A. (1986). "Factors affecting food choice by Grey Jays". Bird Behavior. 6 (2): 90-92. doi: ... Male Canada jays choose a nest site in a mature conifer tree; the nests are found most commonly in black spruce, with white ... Bird Behavior. 12 (1/2): 7-14. doi:10.3727/015613897797141335. Burnell, Kristi L.; Tomback, Diane F. (1985). "Steller's jays ...
ISBN 978-0-7006-1702-9. Stone, Walter J. (1984). "Prenomination Candidate Choice and General Election Behavior: Iowa ... Vermont-Kennedy did surprisingly well in Democratic town and city caucuses on April 22 to choose delegates to the May 24 state ... The 1980 Democratic presidential primaries were the selection process by which voters of the Democratic Party chose its nominee ... Norrander, Barbara (1986). "Correlates of Vote Choice in the 1980 Presidential Primaries". Journal of Politics. 48 (1): 156-166 ...
Articles, a selection: Peck, Dennis L (1983). "The last moments of life: Learning to cope". Deviant Behavior. 4 (3-4): 313-332 ... Peck, Dennis L (1986). "Completed suicides: Correlates of choice of method". OMEGA: Journal of Death and Dying. 16 (4): 309-323 ... In addition to his interdisciplinary contributions in the general areas of demography, the sociology of law, deviant behavior, ...
One of the main purposes of females vocalizing is the induction of mate guarding behavior in males. Conversely, calls may also ... Calling signals sexual receptivity of the female and therefore affects mate choice. There are many different hypotheses as to ... The vocalizations of female elephants are also used in order to incite mate guarding behavior in the male, which manifests ... Pomerantz, S. M.; Nunez, A. A.; Bean, N. J. (1983). "Female behavior is affected by male ultrasonic vocalizations in house mice ...
Bird, Brittany L.; Branch, Lyn C.; Miller, Deborah L. (2004). "Effects of Coastal Lighting on Foraging Behavior of Beach Mice ... Reproductive behaviour effects may involve changes in courtship and mating behaviours, mate choice, or changes in nest building ... Gore, Andrea C.; Holley, Amanda M.; Crews, David (2017). "Mate choice, sexual selection, and endocrine-disrupting chemicals". ... Hormones and Behavior. 101: 3-12. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2017.09.001. PMC 5845777. PMID 28888817. Crews, D.; Gore, A. C.; Hsu, T. ...
inclusive fitness models of suicidal behavior against the ethnographic record". Evolution and Human Behavior. 37 (3): 179-192. ... Miller, Geoffrey F. (2000). The mating mind : how sexual choice shaped the evolution of human nature (1st Anchor Books ed.). ... A signal differs from a cue in that signals evolved to influence the behavior or perceptions of others, while a cue is any ... For this reason, risky behaviors may be often be honest signals, with individuals who lack the relevant traits being expected ...
Nicolò, Antonio; Yu, Yan (2008-09-01). "Strategic divide and choose" (PDF). Games and Economic Behavior. 64 (1): 268-289. doi: ... They can use the classic divide and choose procedure: Alice cuts the cake into two pieces worth exactly 1/2 in her eyes, and ... George chooses the piece that he considers more valuable. The outcome is always fair. However, the procedure is not symmetric: ...
"Information choice in a social learning experiment". Games and Economic Behavior. 118: 295-315. 2019-11-01. doi:10.1016/j.geb. ... They investigated the concept of who chooses to become a copier and discovered that risk aversion is a deciding factor. The ... Copy-trading platforms can influence behavior in a variety of ways. Their key institutional features encourage imitation both ... Members of communities who proactively signal their trustworthiness online have a powerful influence over the behavior of other ...
Similarly it is also common for people to seek informal support from friends and family around their career choices and to ... Journal of Vocational Behavior. 100: 175-184. doi:10.1016/j.jvb.2017.03.010. Council of the European Union (October 31, 2008 ... Personality inventories are sometimes used to help people with career choice. The use of these inventories for this purpose is ... The validity of the MBTI for career choice is highly questionable. In the United States, the designation, "career counselor" is ...
Wood, W.; Eagly, A. H. (2002). "A cross-cultural analysis of the behavior of men and women: Implications for the origins of sex ... Simpson, J. A.; Gangestad, S. W. (1992). "Sociosexuality and romantic partner choice". Journal of Personality. 60: 31-51. doi: ... The SOI-R also allows for the separate assessment of three facets of sociosexuality: behavior, attitude and desire. Men tend to ... However, gay men are the most unrestricted in sociosexual behavior, followed by bisexual men and then, heterosexual men. This ...
Your behavior is aggressive. We have several chosen ones. We will meet again". Parravicini was back on the same sidewalk bank ... This behavior worried his father (a psychiatrist), who had his son undertake several medical tests to prove if he had an ...
Choice. Control 636-637........Applied psychology 638-648........New Thought. Menticulture, etc. 660-685........Comparative ... Sexual behavior 697-697.5......Differential psychology. Individuality. Self 698-698.9......Personality 699-711........Genetic ...
Making Vocational Choices: A Theory of Careers. (Prentice-Hall, 1973). Prediger, Dale J (December 1982). "Dimensions underlying ... Journal of Vocational Behavior. 48 (1): 59-67. doi:10.1006/jvbe.1996.0005. Prediger, Dale J. (1999). "Basic structure of work- ... The Holland Codes or the Holland Occupational Themes (RIASEC) refers to a theory of careers and vocational choice (based upon ... Holland, John L. Making vocational choices: a theory of careers. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1973. Streufert, Billie. "How ...
Games and Economic Behavior. 14, pages 308-314, 2019. Laslier, J.-F. Interpretation of electoral mixed strategies Social Choice ... Comparison functions and choice correspondences. Social Choice and Welfare, 16: 513-532, 1999. F. Brandt, M. Brill, H. G. ... Games and Economic Behavior, 5(1):182-201, 1993. D. C. Fisher and J. Ryan. Tournament games and positive tournaments. Journal ... Probabilistic social choice based on simple voting comparisons. Review of Economic Studies, 51(4):683-692, 1984. F. Brandl, F. ...
Behavior Reviews. 4: 29-39. doi:10.3819/ccbr.2009.40003. Hanson, Anne (2012). "How do rats choose what to eat?". Rat behavior ... This behavior was initially interpreted as part of their tunnel building behavior, but it was eventually realized that they ... ISBN 978-0-8018-7416-1. Hanson, Anne (25 October 2006). "Wild Norway rat behavior". Rat behavior and biology. Retrieved 1 July ... They have interesting behaviors, but unless handled regularly they may be defensive. Gerbils are not usually aggressive, rarely ...
Piacentini, Maria (2004). "Symbolic consumption in teenagers' clothing choices". Journal of Consumer Behavior. 3 (3): 251-262. ... Modern Westerners have a vast number of choices in the selection of their clothes. What a person chooses to wear can reflect ... From the theory of interactionism, a certain practice or expression is chosen by those in power in a community, and that ... Researchers have found that the fashion choices of teenagers are used for self-expression and also to recognize other teens who ...
Kahneman, Daniel (2000). "Evaluation by moments, past and future". In Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky (ed.). Choices, Values ... Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. 119 (1): 1-14. doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2012.04.001. ISSN 0749-5978. "Logical ... Cognition and social behavior. 2. pp. 227-236. Koehler, J. J. (2010). "The base rate fallacy reconsidered: Descriptive, ...
"Preference for Facial Self-Resemblance and Attractiveness in Human Mate Choice". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 40 (6): 1263-1270 ... Haran, Ally R.; Handler, Alfred M.; Landolt, Peter J. (1999). "Size-assortative mating, male choice and female choice in the ... mate choice based on racial or ethnic background, and mate choice based on religious beliefs. Assortative mating based on socio ... a phenomenon termed as mutual mate choice. Mutual mate choice occurs when both males and females are searching for a mate that ...
... and product choice: Hormonal influences on consumer behavior". Journal of Consumer Research. 37 (6): 921-934. CiteSeerX 10.1. ... Women's choices to purchase more attractive or revealing clothing at high fertility are also increased when they are first ... The theory also proposes that women's behavior may change during the most fertile time in their ovulatory cycle. At high ... Some studies have indicated that women engage in more competitive behaviors with other women when they are at high fertility. ...
Transparency of ethical behavior. Of these requisites, only the first six are necessary for a regulator to be effective. The ... Intelligence to choose the best actions. Influence on the regulated system. Ethics expressed as unambiguously prioritized rules ...
On Asymptotic Strategy-Proofness of Classical Social Choice Rules An article by Arkadii Slinko about strategy-proofness in ... Games and Economic Behavior. 46: 174-188. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.18.6796. doi:10.1016/S0899-8256(03)00045-9.. ... ISBN 0-521-87282-0. "Group Strategy-proofness And Social Choice Between Two Alternatives" (PDF). Yokoo, M.; Sakurai, Y.; ... it is also called a social choice function); A P a y m e n t {\displaystyle Payment} function, that takes as input the value- ...
... the mate exercises choice, so sexual selection acts on the display. These behaviors often include ritualized movement ("dances ... In many primate species, males direct agonistic behavior toward females prior to courtship behaviors. Such behavior can include ... Male choice in reproduction can arise if males are the sex in a species that are in short supply, for example, if there is a ... If a female chooses more than one male, then sperm competition comes into play. This is competition between sperm to fertilize ...
Such inclinations and behaviors are found in the Middle East as well[citation needed]. During the pre-modern period (1500-1800 ... doi:10.5860/choice.34-4049. ISSN 0009-4978. Ames Ma & Houston DA. Legal, social, and biological definitions of paedophilia. ... Archives of Sexual Behavior. 1990 Aug;19(4):333-42. El-Rouayheb, Khaled. Before Homosexuality in the Arab-Islamic World, 1500- ... With the increased influence of the West, even if one were to abide by the societal norms that once made such behavior ...
There it is shown that rational behavior involves making choices over bets in such a way that they correspond to subjective ... Forced to choose between A and B, I may choose A, yet the two may really not be comparable choices, thus we cannot conclude ... If choices are not comparable, then again the money pump argument fails. A more complex and sophisticated version of this ... Then choices could be intransitive. The Money Pump was published by Davidson, McKinsey and Suppes in 1955, although the idea ...
Computational social choice studies computational aspects of social choice, the aggregation of individual agents' preferences. ... Foster, Dean P.; Vohra, Rakesh V. (1996). "Calibrated Learning and Correlated Equilibrium". Games and Economic Behavior. Felix ... The payments should be carefully chosen as to motivate all participants to act as the algorithm designer wishes. We apply the ... Auction Theory Computational social choice Load balancing (computing) Mechanism design Multi-agent system Voting in game theory ...
Hanson, Anne (2012). "How do rats choose what to eat?". Rat behavior and biology. Retrieved 24 August 2014. CS1 maint: ... Adults only display teaching behavior in response to pup begging calls, and adults modify their specific teaching behaviors ... This behavior is shown by an ant who has located a food source in order to guide a naive ant to the desired location. The ... These learned behavior complexes shared by individuals appear in the population generation after generation and persist in the ...
Evolution and Human Behavior. 29 (1): 26-34. doi:10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2007.07.005. "'Pear shaped' genes found - NHS Choices ... Evolution and Human Behavior. 26 (6): 458-68. doi:10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2005.07.005. Zaadstra BM, Seidell JC, Van Noord PA, te ... Eating Behaviors. 8 (3): 319-333. doi:10.1016/j.eatbeh.2006.11.008. PMC 3033406. PMID 17606230. Freedman, R. E.; Carter, M. M ... Social Behavior and Personality. 2: 30-4. doi:10.2224/sbp.1974.2.1.30. Wilson, Glenn D.; Nias, David; Brazendale, Anthony (1975 ...
They were able to show that changes in neurogenesis are directly related to food storing behavior. Food caching behavior ... In a study on preschoolers, using a questionnaire method in a yes/no and multiple choice format, the result of forcing an ... The reproduction of behaviors such as choosing one object over another or repeatedly placing an object in a certain spot is a ... Changes in behavior such as crying less and smiling more shows evidence for recognition of a familiar face. Recognition can ...
This may be a result of a lifestyle choice, due to hunger or famine, as part of a diet or as religious fasting. ... McKenna, R. J. (1972). "Some Effects of Anxiety Level and Food Cues on the Eating Behavior of Obese and Normal Subjects: A ... Carlson, Neil (2010). Physiology of Behavior. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. pp. 412-426.. ...
... finger foods are becoming more popular because they are less expensive and offer more flexibility with menu choices.[citation ... Eating behaviors of humans. *Street food. Hidden categories: *Articles with short description ...
This behavior allows searching for more cooperating peers and gives a second chance to previously non-cooperating peers. The ... Periodically, a peer will allocate an upload slot to a randomly chosen uncooperative peer (unchoke). This is called optimistic ... The Tit for Tat strategy copies what the other player previously choose. If players cooperate by playing strategy (C,C) they ... Those using it quickly recognize its contingencies and adjust their behavior accordingly. Moreover, it is considered to be nice ...
The musical choices of the Maria-sama ga Miteru anime adaptations are generally classical music-inspired.[7][8] The Christian ... There is an implicit code of behavior between sœurs, especially in the Yamayuri Council-the student council of the school: ... Candidates for the position, which lasts through the school year, are chosen through an election. Any student can run to become ... praising the casting choices, and noting that even "peripheral" characters are "fully realized."[6] Holly Ellingwood of Active ...
Urbain chose the names neoytterbium (Latin for "new ytterbium") for ytterbium and lutecium (from Latin Lutetia, for Paris) for ... However, different behavior is observed in other d-block groups, especially in group 4, in which zirconium, hafnium and ... While the choice of lutetium would be in accordance with the trend for period 6 transition metals to behave more similarly to ... Actinium, which occurs only in trace amounts, continues the trend in chemical behavior for metals that form tripositive ions ...
If the biologically active tracer molecule chosen for PET is fludeoxyglucose (FDG), an analogue of glucose, the concentrations ... Carlson, Neil (January 22, 2012). Physiology of Behavior. Methods and Strategies of Research. 11th edition. Pearson. p. 151. ...
The individual is largely a product of his environment and much of his conduct and behavior is the reflex of getting a living ... "LibSoc share with LibCap an aversion to any interference to freedom of thought, expression or choice of lifestyle." Roderick T ...
... animal behavior and other factors may trigger outbreaks among animal populations.[82] ... "In Liberia's Ebola-Stricken Villages, Residents Face 'Stark' Choices". Common Dreams. Archived from the original on 20 August ...
The ecology & behavior of amphibians. University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0226893340 *↑ "American Bullfrog". Shastaherps.org. ... When a female frog has chosen a mate, the male frog hops on top of her. They swim together as she lay eggs in the water.[14]p7 ... Wells, Kentwood (2007), The ecology and behavior of amphibians, Rosen Publishing Group, ISBN 978-0-226-89334-1. CS1 maint: ref= ...
"Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. 105 (1): 98-121. doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2007.05.002. PMC 2702783 . PMID ... Journal of Nonverbal Behavior. 28 (3): 187-209. doi:10.1023/b:jonb.0000039649.20015.0e. ISSN 0191-5886.. ... that used these approaches seem to have mistaken and interpreted mathematical artifacts as the products of human behavior. The ...
The predation-avoidance behavior of sleeping with one eye open, allowing one brain hemisphere to remain aware while the other ... The mallard is omnivorous and very flexible in its choice of food.[61] Its diet may vary based on several factors, including ...
"The Predatory Behavior and Ecology of Wild Chimpanzees".. *^ Milton, Katharine (1999). "A hypothesis to explain the role of ... Evidence shows these early hominins intentionally selected raw materials with good flaking qualities and chose appropriate ... "When Did "Modern" Behavior Emerge in Humans?". National Geographic News. Retrieved 2008-02-05.. ... Lower Paleolithic Acheulean tool users, according to Robert G. Bednarik, began to engage in symbolic behavior such as art ...
Shaw J, Lickey EB, Schilling EE, Small RL (March 2007). "Comparison of whole chloroplast genome sequences to choose noncoding ... There isn't a lot of direct evidence for this behavior though.[38] ...
A quadratic behavior is not observed in modern devices, for example, at the 65 nm technology node.[77] ... Parameters are chosen such that the "off" output is limited to leakage currents too small to affect connected circuitry, the ... In the example light-switch circuit shown, the resistor is chosen to provide enough base current to ensure the transistor will ... Even after MOSFETs became widely available in the 1970s, the BJT remained the transistor of choice for many analog circuits ...
It is generally not a first-line choice due to its higher cost and a lack of clear superiority over other antibiotics.[1][15] ...
Others argued for complete space separation citing the pressure on women to engage in sexual behavior to keep their jobs.[1]: ... Transgender people often face harassment based on their choice in public toilets regardless of whether they use the toilet room ... The central government has allowed transgender persons to use the toilets of their choice in public and community toilets. ... Thus, building owners may choose not to update existing features because it allows them to continue following the older ...
JEL: K4 - Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior JEL: K40 - Geral. JEL: K41 - Litigation Process. JEL: K42 - ... JEL: G11 - Portfolio choice; Investment decisions. JEL: G12 - Asset pricing; Trading volume; Bond interest rates. JEL: G13 - ... JEL: H3 - Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents JEL: H30 - Geral. JEL: H31 - Eletrodomésticos. JEL: H32 - Empresa. ... JEL: L2 - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior JEL: L20 - Geral. JEL: L21 - Business Objectives of the Firm. JEL: L22 - ...
Post-HSCT oral cancer may have more aggressive behavior with poorer prognosis, when compared to oral cancer in non-HSCT ... Bone marrow transplant - How it is performed on NHS Choices. *HCT-CI (Sorror et al. 2005) online calculator ...
... an estimate of the probability that a randomly chosen subject from population B has a higher weight than a randomly chosen ... Animal Behavior Processes. 2: 285-302. doi:10.1037/0097-7403.2.4.285.. ... where X and Y are randomly chosen observations from the two distributions. Both extreme values represent complete separation of ...
Which of the various techniques an angler may choose is dictated mainly by the target species and by its habitat. Angling can ... Scottish scientists at the University of Edinburgh performing research on rainbow trout concluded that fish exhibit behaviors ...
Panic attacks and anxiety can occur; also, delusional behavior may be seen, including somatoform delusions, sometimes ... oral administration of doxycycline is widely recommended as the first choice, as it is effective against not only Borrelia ... Intravenous administration of ceftriaxone is recommended as the first choice in these cases;[23] cefotaxime and doxycycline are ...
"NHS Choices. 20 August 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2016.. *^ a b Swanson ES (2015). "Pseudoscience". Science and Society: ... changing risky/unhealthy behaviors, nutritional/dietary recommendations, relaxation/stress reduction recommendations, ice pack/ ... "NHS Choices. 20 August 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2016.. *^ Vohra S, Johnston BC, Cramer K, Humphreys K (2007). "Adverse ... CMCC was granted the privilege of offering a professional health care degree under the Post-secondary Education Choice and ...
Hazel twigs in Europe and witch-hazel in the United States are traditionally commonly chosen, as are branches from willow or ... which entails involuntary and unconscious motor behavior." ... if they only afterward chose the statistical analysis that ...
Recent research has suggested that the explosive behavior of alkali metals in water is driven by a Coulomb explosion rather ... Thus none of the three placements are entirely satisfactory, although group 1 is the most common placement (if one is chosen) ... a majority of chemists chose to classify these elements in group IB and remove them from group VIII for the resulting symmetry ... "The Physiological Behavior of Rubidium and Cesium in Relation to That of Potassium". The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine ...
Snappy, vicious behavior is considered a serious fault in the breed.[60] Though not suitable for being a guard dog because it ... Some minor registries and Internet registry businesses will register dogs as any breed the owner chooses with minimal or no ... that they do not owe anyone good behavior and they become very spoiled and uncontrollable.[82][83][84] ...
After that, everyone chooses an agency for their internship. Izuku is still not sure which agency he should join when suddenly ... Iida apologizes for his rash behavior and decides to work on improving himself. ... Izuku struggles to convince Katsuki to work with him, especially since Izuku believes they have no choice but to escape and ...
Violent behavior. Risperidone prescription Depression. Feelings of sadness. Very rare. Most severe. 20 years of age. ... The symbol of the foundation is an apple, chosen for its representation of knowledge, feminine beauty, immortality, rebirth, ... all of which are involved in cognitive function and behavior. There is some experimental evidence that RSK2 regulates synaptic ... When affected individuals display aggressive or destructive behavior that could harm themselves or others, the antipsychotic ...
If the chosen identifier harms the organism, then its behavior might become irregular. ...
In the stages beyond formal, more complex behaviors characterize multiple system models.[citation needed] ... Reaction time to situations where one must choose between two or more alternatives is one measure of control of processing. ... The interaction between the two levels of mind ensures flexibility of behavior, because the self-oriented level provides the ... Case and his colleagues identified central conceptual structures for quantities, space, social behavior, narrative, music, and ...
Kim, Yoon-Ho; R. Yu; S.P. Kulik; Y.H. Shih; Marlan Scully (2000). "A Delayed "Choice" Quantum Eraser". Physical Review Letters ... thus changing the transfer function and behavior of the circuit itself. Even a more passive device such as a current clamp, ... See also: Quantum decoherence and Delayed choice quantum eraser. The uncertainty principle has been frequently confused with ... after the photon is produced leads to collapsing the wave function and loading a back-history as shown by delayed choice ...
recreation choice behavior, recreation research, psychology, geography, economics, transportation. Related Search. *Choosing ... Recreation decision behavior is characterized as a nested or sequential choice process. Examples are included from urban and ... Substitution in recreation choice behavior. In: Stankey, George H.; McCool, Stephen F., compilers. Proceedings--symposium on ... Proceedings--symposium on recreation choice behavior; 1984 March 22-23; Missoula, MT. General Technical Report INT-184. Ogden, ...
... brand choice behavior. In this paper, nonparametric brand-specific time-variable functions replace the brand-specific constants ... brand choice decisions. In almost all applications of this model, the parameters of the consumers utility function are assumed ... usually found in brand choice models. I estimate the model for panel data from two product categories and derive management ... "Measuring Changes In Brand Choice Behavior," Schmalenbach Business Review (sbr), LMU Munich School of Management, vol. 55(3), ...
On page 1321 of this issue, Augier et al. (3) demonstrate that aberrant choice behavior-that is, choosing alcohol over an ... They also provide a mechanistic understanding of this aberrant choice behavior that could lead to new treatment opportunities. ... Patients suffering from alcohol dependence no longer have the freedom to choose between alternative rewards because alcohol ...
And search more of iStocks library of royalty-free stock images that features Animal Behavior photos available for quick and ... Dogs of Choice - Stock image. .... USA, Animal Behavior, Animal Body Part, Animal Eye, Animal Hair. ... Download this Dogs Of Choice photo now. ...
Finally, based on metabolite measurements, we propose that the influence of bacteria on host physiology and behavior is not ... Our study demonstrates how the interaction of specific nutrients with the microbiome can shape behavior and animal fitness and ... choose to eat has a tremendous impact on health and wellbeing. Though intake of dietary proteins and amino acids is essential ...
Ways of Behavior - improve human behavior - Behavior - Pro-Choice - Behavior - Imagery and Word Choice - Behavior - Psychology ... of Behavior Change - Free Choice Activites - Risky behavior - Symbols and their meaning - Learned Helplessness « You Are Not So ... White Paper - Saving Energy with Neighborly Behavior. Reaching the "High-Hanging Fruit" with Behavior Change & Social Marketing ... 6) Too many choices overwhelm people unless people are already clear about their options. 7) When giving a free gift with an ...
Ticket Fare Optimization for Chinas High-Speed Railway Based on Passenger Choice Behavior. Jinzi Zheng,1 Jun Liu,1 and David B ... "Ticket Fare Optimization for Chinas High-Speed Railway Based on Passenger Choice Behavior," Discrete Dynamics in Nature and ...
Roy D. Howell and Jerry D. Rogers (1981) ,Research Into Shopping Mall Choice Behavior, in NA - Advances in Consumer Research ... This paper explores some of the issues relevant to research into shopping mall choice behavior, including the measurement of ... Much of the research in both store and mall-choice behavior has utilized assures of affect, preference, or behavioral ... ABSTRACT - This paper explores some of the issues relevant to research into shopping mall choice behavior, including the ...
Keywords: Brands and Branding; Segmentation; Decision Choices and Conditions; Customers; Behavior; Format: Print. 9 pages. Find ... "A Brands Eye View of Response Segmentation in Consumer Choice Behavior." Journal of Marketing Research (JMR) 32, no. 1 ( ... A Brands Eye View of Response Segmentation in Consumer Choice Behavior. by Randolph E. Bucklin, Sunil Gupta and Sangman Han ...
Grb10+/p mice make less impulsive choices. We used the delayed reinforcement task to examine impulsive choice behavior (Isles ... Impulsive Choice in Mice Lacking Paternal Expression of Grb10 Suggests Intragenomic Conflict in Behavior. View ORCID Profile ... Impulsive Choice in Mice Lacking Paternal Expression of Grb10 Suggests Intragenomic Conflict in Behavior. View ORCID Profile ... Impulsive Choice in Mice Lacking Paternal Expression of Grb10 Suggests Intragenomic Conflict in Behavior. View ORCID Profile ...
How are such choices affected by energy budget, or income? Does it matter if the choices are framed as involving gains (e.g., ... under what conditions might verbal-hypothetical choices serve as an adequate substitute for choices with actual outcomes? ... Risky Choice. Under what conditions do people and other animals prefer a certain payoff (e.g., a single morsel of food, a $50 ... Cross-Species Analysis of Adaptive Choice. How do people and other animals make decisions about different courses of action? ...
"How Consumer Behavior and Choices will Shape Tomorrows Mobility Ecosystem". Having listened to many interesting and ... Mobile User Behavior Mobile Workforce Network Use Networks and Services Powertrain Body Chassis and Safety PriceTRAX RF and ... Indeed, the growth of car-sharing and ride-hailing services is being presented by some as evidence that consumer behaviors are ...
Citation: Noorani I (2014) LATER models of neural decision behavior in choice tasks. Front. Integr. Neurosci. 8:67. doi: ... LATER models of neural decision behavior in choice tasks. Imran Noorani*. *Department of Neurosurgery, Wessex Neurological ... and the final choice out of a number of options occurs when the decision signal for this choice reaches threshold before the ... Logan, G. D., Cowan, W. B., and Davis, K. A. (1984). On the ability to inhibit simple and choice reaction time responses: a ...
... perceived risk and accountability on peoples choice of cues perceived as high in predictive value and low in confidence value ...
The Psychological Impact of Annuities: Can Pension Payout Choice Influence Health Behavior? ... Can Pension Payout Choice Influence Health Behavior?, in NA - Advances in Consumer Research Volume 46, eds. Andrew Gershoff, ... Does a Blurry Background Make a High Roller? The Effects of Blurry versus Sharp Backgrounds on Consumers Risk-Taking Behavior ... receiving lifelong income where total payout increases with length of life can boost health-related behavior. ...
Cancer information scanning and seeking behavior is associated with knowledge, lifestyle choices, and screening. ... Cancer information scanning and seeking behavior is associated with knowledge, lifestyle choices, and screening ... Both scanning and seeking were significantly associated with knowledge about cancer (B=.36; B=.34) and lifestyle choices that ... Individuals who scan or seek cancer information are those who acquire knowledge, adopt healthy lifestyle behaviors, and get ...
... how these cues are integrated with information about past behavior. Methodology/Principal Findings Using highly controlled ... but survives in richer environments where relevant details about partner past behavior are available. ...
You Might Not Choose Your Sexual Urges, But You Do Choose Your Lifestyle and Behavior ... that our behavior is a choice, if not our desires -- but I know for sure that anyone who claims "transgenderism" as scientific ... You choose to be gay, because you are not defined by what you feel, but by what you do and how you live. You may not have ... I would say no, and so in that sense, it is a choice whether to be gay or to be straight. Our feelings may not be up to us, but ...
... by a continuous and intermittent free-choice paradigm, during pre-gestational time, pregnancy and lactation; moreover the ... by a continuous and intermittent free-choice paradigm, during pre-gestational time, pregnancy and lactation; moreover the ... Figure 6. Maternal behavior in female rats exposed to the home cage, 2-bottle "alcohol vs. water" choice regimen, under the ... Maternal behavior was assessed by a silent and unseen observer who recorded dams spontaneous behavior in the presence of the ...
personal opportunities in their daily life to make healthy food choices,. and also their healthy food choices should be ... And also here, unhealthy food choices are much easier to make than a healthy food choice. ... You will gain new knowledge and insights that will help you form your own opinion on these subjects and make better choices in ... healthy eating is not automatically translated into actual healthy eating behaviors.. And in addition, people also need to have ...
2 Effects of ultrasonic stimulation on choice behavior.. (A) Single-session examples. Mean (± SEM) proportion of choices of the ... choices. The ability to influence choice behavior noninvasively without using drugs could provide new ways to diagnose and ... choice bias (2:1), the monkey chose the rightward target nearly twice as often as the leftward target. Monkey B chose the ... Animals showed typical choice behavior in this task, being sensitive to the difference in target onset times (Fig. 2A, black ...
No involvement of the LEC and MEC when an object alone cued choice behavior. It is important to note that compared to the SSC ... Double dissociation between the LEC and MEC in visual scene-based choice behavior. We tested rats (n = 8) implanted with ... Functional double dissociation within the entorhinal cortex for visual scene-dependent choice behavior. ... Once trained, the rat does not stop at the choice point of the T-maze before making a choice in the SSC task, but it does pause ...
Many families choose housing and evince living behaviors according to criteria that sharply contrast with their expressed ... Many families choose housing and evince living behaviors according to criteria that sharply contrast with their expressed ... Descriptors: Aspiration, Attitude Change, Attitudes, Behavior, Foreign Countries, Housing, Migration, Residential Patterns, ...
Context Factors Affecting Wine Consumer Behavior, Choice and Perception To Be Addressed at ASEVs National Conferences Keynote ... DAVIS, Calif., April 26, 2019…Wine Enologist and Consumer Behavior Researcher Dr. Susan Bastian of The University of Adelaide, ...
How to Choose the Right Groomer. February 6, 2015. By Animal Behavior College 22 Comments ... Animal Behavior College is an animal career training school that offers dog training, veterinary assistant, dog grooming and ...
In studying motivation we are interested in understanding why people choose to do certain things rather than... ... Organizational Behavior. In Studying Motivation We Are Interested In Understanding Why People Choose To Do Certain Things ... Why People Choose to Work Essay. 2008 words - 8 pages Why People Choose to Work Work is an application of mental or physical ... Find Another Essay On Organizational behavior. In studying motivation we are interested in understanding why people choose to ...
SoC Faculty to Research Effect of Social Media on Healthy Behavior Choices * View Larger Image ... SoC Faculty to Research Effect of Social Media on Healthy Behavior Choices. ... will collaborate to identify the processes that influence young people to make healthy behavior choices. Children and ... intentions and behaviors as they use social media to see if they believe they play a role in communicating health issues. ...
b) Human study : We investigate human mate choice behavior through literature. M.Hasegawa translated two influential English ... Sexual selection / Mate choice / Parasite load / Fluctuating asymmetry / Peacock / Human / Human nature / Human sexuality / 配偶者 ... As females visited several males before copulation and male did not force to copulate with females, females seemed to choose ... a) Peafowl study : Field study of peafowl mating behavior was conducted in Izu Cactus Park, Shizuoka Prefecture. We measured 1 ...
Presentation] Simultaneous presentation of two attractants modifies taxis behavior in C.elegans.2010. *. Author(s). Shingai, R. ... Presentation] Simultaneous presentation of two attractants modifies taxis behavior in C.elegans.2010. *. Author(s). Shingai, R. ... Presentation] Simultaneous presentation of two attractants modifies taxis behavior in C. elegans2010. *. Author(s). Shingai, R ... In order to understand the relationship between the nervous system and behavior of C.θ1θgans, we developed software to analyze ...
  • DAVIS, Calif., April 26, 2019…Wine Enologist and Consumer Behavior Researcher Dr. Susan Bastian of The University of Adelaide, Australia, will be this year's American Society for Enology and Viticulture's (ASEV) National Conference keynote speaker that's taking place in Napa, California on June 19, 2019. (asev.org)
  • What Is Consumer Behavior? (psychologytoday.com)
  • Consumer behavior is a hotbed of psychological research as it ties together issues of communication (advertising and marketing), identity ( you are what you buy) , social status, decision-making, and mental and physical health . (psychologytoday.com)
  • Corporations use findings about consumer behavior to determine how best to market products. (psychologytoday.com)
  • VINAMILK GROUP Describe and analyze consumer behavior of Vinamilk' customers. (bartleby.com)
  • Looking for more information on how paper and print influence and impact consumer behavior and daily living? (printing.org)
  • ABSTRACT - This paper explores some of the issues relevant to research into shopping mall choice behavior, including the measurement of patronage, situational specificity, and the level of aggregation in parameter estimation. (acrwebsite.org)
  • This abstract type of preference could in fact be converted into a simple physical measure of how close to another person with known similar or dissimilar convictions a participant chose to sit. (sciencemag.org)
  • citation needed] There it is shown that rational behavior involves making choices over bets in such a way that they correspond to subjective probabilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • A hypothetical descriptive behavioral model extending the theory of planned behavior (TPB) was examined for subjective perceived control beliefs as antecedents of the apprenticeship orientation for vocational-educational training (VET). (helsinki.fi)
  • Theory of planned behavior can affect the human food choice in a great way, MacFarlane & Woolfson (24 p51). (academic-master.com)
  • The theory of planned behavior is however not the best model that influence human food choice, Ajzen & Sheikh (19 p50). (academic-master.com)
  • Anja Schanbacher, David Faro, Simona Botti, and Shlomo Benartzi (2018) ,'The Psychological Impact of Annuities: Can Pension Payout Choice Influence Health Behavior? (acrwebsite.org)
  • For humans, under what conditions might verbal-hypothetical choices serve as an adequate substitute for choices with actual outcomes? (reed.edu)
  • It has been established that decisions are usually accompanied by a degree of certainty or confidence, a graded belief that our choices will produce positive outcomes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Confidence plays a critical role in guiding our future behavior in complex environments, especially when decision outcomes are delayed and rapid learning is required. (eurekalert.org)
  • People normally accept outcomes they have personally chosen, but they may also accept outcomes they neither chose nor could reject. (ssrn.com)
  • The monkey's bias fluctuated at two distinct time scales: slow, spanning tens to hundreds of trials, and fast, arising from choices and outcomes of the most recent trials. (nyu.edu)
  • This dissertation explores the college major decision-making process, both for initial and subsequent major choices, and analyzes the associations between major choice behaviors and student outcomes such as time to degree and probability of graduation. (rand.org)
  • Evolution of mate choice behavior and its cognitive mechanism. (nii.ac.jp)
  • b) Human study : We investigate human mate choice behavior through literature. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The role of static features of males in the mate choice behavior of female Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). (uky.edu)
  • In two experiments, we investigated the mate choice behavior of female Japanese quail toward taxidermically-prepared male models. (uky.edu)
  • According to Emanuel, that "shows that when people are spending their own money, even with subsidies, and choosing a health insurance product for themselves, that premium is a primary determinant of their choices. (californiahealthline.org)
  • Researchers have found that consumers cite taste as the primary determinant of food choice. (wikipedia.org)
  • The theory is based on the hypothesis that in order to predict human behavior, the main determinant is the intention of the individual. (academic-master.com)
  • The aim of this study was to determine the selection of bedding material by broiler chickens during the rearing period and whether the choice was determinant to their performing a specific behavior. (gva.es)
  • Consumer researchers have in recent years begun to focus more of their theory-building and empirical research efforts in the area of consumer patronage behavior (Darden 1980). (acrwebsite.org)
  • Recently, Nevin and Houston (1980) have applied a model containing both gravitational and image components to the area of shopping mall choice behavior. (acrwebsite.org)
  • A theoretical integration of the direct experience and attitude-behavior consistency literature, the minority influence and choice shift literatures, and the social combination models literature was made in an attempt to more fully understand influence processes in small groups. (illinois.edu)
  • Therefore, in this more theoretical sense, collective behavior is in fact ubiquitous, and every analysis that focuses on the dynamic (and therefore problematic) aspects of interaction deals to that extent with collective behavior phenomena. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Theoretical models of behavior incorporate both individual and environmental factors affecting the formation or modification of behaviors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal Behavior College is an animal career training school that offers dog training, veterinary assistant, dog grooming and cat training certifications. (animalbehaviorcollege.com)
  • Publications] Hasegawa M.: Animal behavior and feminism. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The effect of bacterial sepsis on animal behavior and physiology is complex due to direct and indirect actions. (mdpi.com)
  • It's an intriguing notion that the brain might convert its data--gathered through the senses--into units of 'degree of belief' by combining evidence and elapsed time," adds co-author Michael Shadlen, MD, a professor of neuroscience at Columbia University, an investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and a member of Columbia's Mortimer B. Zuckerman Mind Brain Behavior Institute. (eurekalert.org)
  • Specifically, we show that mice lacking paternal Grb10 make fewer impulsive choices, with no dissociable effects on a separate measure of impulsive action. (genetics.org)
  • Taken together with previous work showing that mice lacking maternal Nesp55 make more impulsive choices, this suggests that impulsive choice behavior is a substrate for the action of genomic imprinting. (genetics.org)
  • Moreover, the contrasting effect of these two genes suggests that impulsive choices are subject to intragenomic conflict and that maternal and paternal interests pull this behavior in opposite directions. (genetics.org)
  • Finally, these data may also indicate that an imbalance in expression of imprinted genes contributes to pathological conditions such as gambling and drug addiction, where impulsive behavior becomes maladaptive. (genetics.org)
  • comes that our environment is mainly stimulating unhealthy impulsive eating behaviors. (coursera.org)
  • Thus premature responses, those occurring during the ITI prior to stimulus presentation, provide a useful index of impulsive behavior. (jove.com)
  • What Is User Behavior Analytics? (citrix.com)
  • User behavior analytics (also known as UBA or entity behavior analytics) is cybersecurity technology that uses monitoring tools to gather and assess data from user activity in order to proactively find and flag suspicious behavior before it leads to a data breach. (citrix.com)
  • While SIEM primarily analyzes events that occur behind firewalls, UBA focuses on data generated by user behavior. (citrix.com)
  • Why are user behavior analytics important? (citrix.com)
  • User behavior analytics address this challenge by continuously monitoring the activity of every user, then using anomaly detection to find and flag anomalous behavior before it leads to a breach. (citrix.com)
  • Citrix Analytics for Security is a user behavior analytics tool that helps to proactively safeguard the entire Citrix Workspace - a complete digital workspace with Gartner recognized industry-leading capabilities. (citrix.com)
  • How do user behavior analytics work? (citrix.com)
  • At a high level, user behavior analytics work by establishing benchmarks or rules for normal user behavior and alerting IT whenever a user deviates from these benchmarks. (citrix.com)
  • The first step towards ending your self-destructive behavior is developing awareness. (lifehack.org)
  • This research reports the results of an experiment examining the effect of time pressure, perceived risk and accountability on people's choice of cues perceived as high in predictive value and low in confidence value versus cues perceived as low in predictive value and high in confidence value. (illinois.edu)
  • Once the situation is "unfrozen" and orientations are no longer firmly anchored in conventions, participants begin to pay more attention to cues directly inferred from the behavior of others. (encyclopedia.com)
  • [1] In addition, environmental cues and increased portion sizes play a role in the choice and amount of foods consumed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many environmental cues influence food choice and intake, although consumers may not be aware of their effects (see mindless eating ). (wikipedia.org)
  • There are dozens of unconscious processes and cues directing customers' behavior. (psychologytoday.com)
  • There are a different kind of people who have different behavior. (academic-master.com)
  • By cross-breeding, cross-fostering newborns, and even transferring embryos between foxes of different behavior, they determined that about 35 percent of the foxes' defense response was attributable to genetic factors. (creation.com)
  • The book draws on research in psychology and behavioral economics to defend libertarian paternalism and active engineering of choice architecture. (pearltrees.com)
  • This white paper is the first in a series of ACEEE papers discussing insights drawn from the social and behavioral sciences in order to advance energy-efficient behavior and choices. (pearltrees.com)
  • The quantitative behavioral analysis, behavioral model, and neural model were utilized to understand the behavioral choice when two sensory inputs were applied simultaneously, and that in the acid avoidance behavior. (nii.ac.jp)
  • the high temperature reduced behavioral consistency while Environmental change may nevertheless lead individuals to acclimation increased it, suggesting that consistency is im- relocate to another site, although such relocations can be en- paired by unfavorable environmental change. (deepdyve.com)
  • Direct interpersonal exposure was defined as direct behavioral interaction with an individual who was directly affected by the attitude object and is theoretically tied to the direct experience and attitude-behavior consistency literature. (illinois.edu)
  • The pre-stimulus representation of history-dependent bias was functionally indistinguishable from the neural representation of upcoming choice before stimulus onset, validating our model of single-trial biases and suggesting that pre-stimulus representation of choice could be fully defined by biases inferred from behavioral history. (nyu.edu)
  • Through genetic and behavioral screens, I identified a conserved gene that is required for flies to make metabolic feeding choices. (grantome.com)
  • Furthermore, thanks to the wealth of behavioral genetic tools available in Drosophila, the effect of these genes can be directly tested on behavior. (grantome.com)
  • The 5-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT) was developed by Trevor Robbins and colleagues at the University of Cambridge in order to understand the behavioral deficits displayed by people diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) 1,2 . (jove.com)
  • By relying on machine learning to learn from how users normally interact with an organization's technology, apps, and sites, user behavioral analytics can immediately recognize anomalous behavior to stop bad actors from accessing sensitive information. (citrix.com)
  • These results represent a critical step towards the ability to influence choice behavior noninvasively, enabling systematic investigations and treatments of brain circuits underlying disorders of choice. (sciencemag.org)
  • By proceeding in this careful, systematic manner the behavior analyst working with the child can see and remove barriers that prevent success and revise the plan so eventually success is achieved. (butterflyeffects.com)
  • Here, we report systematic, gain-reducing choice biases in highly trained monkeys performing a motion direction discrimination task where only the current stimulus is behaviorally relevant. (nyu.edu)
  • As part of this effort, LFE researchers will be developing algorithms to mimic irrational but common investor behavior (e.g., buying high, selling low, and moving to cash for extended periods of time) in an attempt to quantify the systematic mistakes made by investors. (planadviser.com)
  • Mochol, G , Kiani, R & Moreno-Bote, R 2021, ' Prefrontal cortex represents heuristics that shape choice bias and its integration into future behavior ', Current Biology , vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 1234-1244.e6. (nyu.edu)
  • Recreation decision behavior is characterized as a nested or sequential choice process. (usda.gov)
  • Such an accumulator model approach to neural decision-making has been applied to many important features of decision behavior, yet there is still much to be explained. (frontiersin.org)
  • Using interview data with 62 court and correctional decision makers, this article examines how the contemporary juvenile justice system responds to girls' sexual behavior and explores the policies and procedures used to restrain sexual agency and reproductive choices, both physically and cognitively. (wvu.edu)
  • Beginning with a foreword by Edward O. Wilson, the book explores the fascinating natural history and behavior of cockroaches, describing their various colors, sizes, and shapes, as well as how they move on land, in water, and through the air. (google.com)
  • Boehmer and Scott will interview athletes about their social media habits and use surveys to measure athletes' perceptions, attitudes, intentions and behaviors as they use social media to see if they believe they play a role in communicating health issues. (miami.edu)
  • Choosing something improves a person's attitude toward it, a classic example of behavior affecting attitudes. (ssrn.com)
  • This finding contradicts explanations for post-choice spreading based on self-perception theory, where people learn their attitudes from their own voluntary behaviors. (ssrn.com)
  • This model is based on the beliefs and attitudes that a person towards a certain health condition and food choice. (academic-master.com)
  • The above diagram clearly shows how intention and behavior are affected or affects other factors which are attitudes and beliefs. (academic-master.com)
  • The behavior beliefs will lead to the change in attitudes towards the food choice. (academic-master.com)
  • If people choose foods because they like them due to the good attitudes towards the foods then people will never consume foods rich in nutrients. (academic-master.com)
  • Their nonchalant attitudes and behaviors are respected at our house. (hubpages.com)
  • Do price interventions, namely taxes on unhealthy food and subsidies on healthy food, affect food-purchasing behavior? (cornell.edu)
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of health screening interventions aimed at enhancing informed choice. (isharonline.org)
  • Five of the 8 prescreening interventions led to greater informed choice. (isharonline.org)
  • Outside of driving safety, negative impacts on cognitive load in transportation choice and usage are unknown. (dot.gov)
  • Though future work would be needed to confirm, we also discuss potential implications for cognitive dissonance theory, suggesting that agency over choice may not be prerequisite for dissonance, as previously believed. (ssrn.com)
  • Importantly, these challenges have consistent effects on behavior across laboratories in intact animals and can reveal either enhancements or deficits in cognitive function that are not apparent when rats are only tested on the standard task. (jove.com)
  • The difference again is that both characters choose - same desperation, different cognitive process. (psychcentral.com)
  • In order to understand the relationship between the nervous system and behavior of C.θ1θgans, we developed software to analyze the behavior. (nii.ac.jp)
  • I will analyze if the neural circuit expressing this gene is necessary and sufficient for the choice for metabolizable sugars, and how the dynamics of glucosensation in these neurons modulate food choice behavior. (grantome.com)
  • moreover, the consequences of long-term alcohol consumption on the response to natural reward and maternal behavior were evaluated. (frontiersin.org)
  • Animals were tested for saccharin preference, and maternal behavior was assessed by recording dams' undisturbed spontaneous home-cage behavior in the presence of their offspring. (frontiersin.org)
  • Moreover, long-lasting alcohol intake can affect sensitivity to natural rewarding stimuli and maternal behavior and sensitivity to natural rewarding stimuli in a pattern-related manner. (frontiersin.org)
  • You will gain new knowledge and insights that will help you form your own opinion on these subjects and make better choices in your food consumption. (coursera.org)
  • But according to a new study in the Journal of Public Policy & Marketing , the severely restricted consumption choices faced by the 3,000 or so inmates at Gramercy create opportunities to pursue innovative and entrepreneurial business ventures. (eurekalert.org)
  • A better understanding of the sociocultural, environmental, economic, and other individual factors that influence consumer choice is necessary for the design of effective consumer guidance, especially where the intent is to communicate balancing of benefits and risks associated with its consumption. (nap.edu)
  • Factors influencing seafood consumption choices are similar to those for other foods (e.g., taste, convenience, or ease of preparation) (Gempesaw et al. (nap.edu)
  • The multinomial logit model is frequently used in marketing research to explain consumers' brand choice decisions. (repec.org)
  • Brief, low-intensity ultrasound pulses delivered noninvasively into specific brain regions of macaque monkeys influenced their decisions regarding which target to choose. (sciencemag.org)
  • That's why people don't have the same food choice or taste since there are factors that affect their decisions towards choosing the diet. (academic-master.com)
  • The first step is to understand how the environment in which we make our choices - also known as the choice architecture - influences our decisions. (mpg.de)
  • The idea is to help people make more rational and healthier decisions without the need for bans or financial incentives, by steering their behavior in a certain direction. (mpg.de)
  • To do this, you need to be able to characterize two things: (1) the observable dependencies of the black box-the components in its environment upon which it depends, including their interfaces and behaviors, and (2) the observable behavior of the black box-how it responds to stimuli provided by other solution components and which stimuli it provides to those components. (informit.com)
  • Our findings enabled single trial prediction of biases, which influenced the choice especially on trials with weak stimuli. (nyu.edu)
  • Locomotor behavior was not altered, but feeding behavior increased and responses to sensory tactile stimuli were decreased. (mdpi.com)
  • Although normative standards continue to have some influence on the direction in which activities unfold, the interaction is characterized by relatively greater spontaneity, volatility, and transitoriness than it would be if the behavior of the participants were more securely anchored in recognized norms. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Soltani, A & Wang, X-J 2008, ' From biophysics to cognition: reward-dependent adaptive choice behavior ', Current Opinion in Neurobiology , vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 209-216. (elsevier.com)
  • Reaction time, or latency, is composed of more than the simple sum of times of for sensory input and motor output, and it is this extra time that reflects the time taken for the brain to choose a response. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our findings suggest that the entorhinal cortex is critical for scene-dependent mnemonic behavior, and the response modality may interact with a sensory modality to determine the involvement of the LEC and MEC in scene-based memory tasks. (elifesciences.org)
  • Goal-directed behavior requires integrating sensory information with prior knowledge about the environment. (nyu.edu)
  • This offset persisted throughout the stimulus viewing period, when sensory information was integrated, leading to a biased choice. (nyu.edu)
  • An interdisciplinary topic, food choice comprises psychological and sociological aspects (including food politics and phenomena such as vegetarianism or religious dietary laws ), economic issues (for instance, how food prices or marketing campaigns influence choice) and sensory aspects (such as the study of the organoleptic qualities of food). (wikipedia.org)
  • It also must take into account user click-through and browsing behaviors, if search-result accuracy is to be improved. (eweek.com)
  • By accurately modeling and interpreting users search behavior, search engines also can better detect click-spam and deliver more accurate and personalized results, according to the Microsoft researchers. (eweek.com)
  • Revealed preference theory provides axiomatic tools for assessing whether individuals make observable choices "as if" they are maximizing an underlying utility function. (pnas.org)
  • What you learn about the component are its dependencies and observable behavior. (informit.com)
  • Roy D. Howell and Jerry D. Rogers (1981) ,'Research Into Shopping Mall Choice Behavior', in NA - Advances in Consumer Research Volume 08, eds. (acrwebsite.org)
  • Jamieson is the recipient of the 2005 Decade of Behavior Research Award from AERA, an international organization that advances educational research and its practical application. (upenn.edu)
  • Collective behavior is the field of sociology that focuses on the sequences and patterns of interaction that emerge in problematic situations. (encyclopedia.com)
  • During my postdoctoral studies I developed an assay to study food choice behavior in Drosophila and found that flies are equipped with a mechanism to detect the nutritional value of food independently of taste. (grantome.com)
  • Unlike prior studies, this paper examines the relative strength of the association of financial literacy, attitude towards balancing spending and savings, and financial satisfaction with credit card debt-taking behavior by analyzing the 2016 wave of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey. (ssrn.com)
  • Reaching the "High-Hanging Fruit" with Behavior Change & Social Marketing. (pearltrees.com)
  • The goal of the ACEEE Behavior Program in providing these white papers is to afford program developers, implementers, and evaluators greater ease in selecting among the rapidly proliferating social science-based ideas that have taken root across the industry in the past decade. (pearltrees.com)
  • These reports have outlined the potential impact of binge-drinking behavior from a health, economic, and social perspective, but no mention has been made on the potential teratogenic effect of alcohol. (frontiersin.org)
  • Each of the four elements of organizational behavior will be considered briefly.Key elements in organizational behaviorPeople make up the internal social system of the organization. (brightkite.com)
  • How our social networks and connections are exploited by apps to change our choices and transportation experiences. (dot.gov)
  • The phenomena studied range from responses to disaster, the disorderly street mob, or the radical social upheaval to the peaceful and comparatively trivial shifts in the orientations of individuals and small groups that, occurring en masse, can produce major changes in taste, fashion, or public opinion. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Some elementary aspect is actually present in every social encounter, since the behavior of the participants is never completely determined by prior expectations associated with the positions they occupy in stable social structures. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Every elementary collective behavior episode involves a partial derailment of social interaction from its normatively structured or expected course. (encyclopedia.com)
  • There's an opposite extreme to this behavior and that's being too social - avoiding solitude can imply that you're avoiding a problem that needs to be solved. (lifehack.org)
  • In his book, Social Evolution , biologist Robert Trivers pointed out that female choice "is not just a matter of permitting sex. (blogspot.com)
  • Food choice is the subject of research in nutrition , food science , psychology , anthropology , sociology , and other branches of the natural and social sciences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Social scientists have developed different conceptual frameworks of food choice behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Probabilistic social choice based on simple voting comparisons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent probabilistic social choice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laslier, J.-F. Interpretation of electoral mixed strategies Social Choice and Welfare 17: pages 283-292, 2000. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, we have found that reducing these procedural differences brings behavior of different species into better accord. (reed.edu)
  • Rat behavior in go/no-go and two-alternative choice odor discrimination: differences and similarities. (semanticscholar.org)
  • However, differences between the behaviors performed in each bedding material were shown mainly for resting (preferably performed on wood shavings and straw), dust bathing (on sand), pecking and scratching (on rice hulls). (gva.es)
  • According to the sociology perspectives, the behaviors associated with an individual affects his/her food choice. (academic-master.com)
  • We demonstrate, for the first time, oppositional effects of imprinted genes on brain and behavior. (genetics.org)
  • While much has been learned from mammalian model organisms, very few genes involved in feeding behavior and energy homeostasis have been identified because of the difficulty in performing genetic screens in these models. (grantome.com)
  • Finally, I will conduct two targeted genetic screens: one to identify other genes involved downstream of glucosensing in dSGLT neurons and the other to identify the neuropeptides and neuropeptide circuits downstream of SGLT neurons that mediate the effector mechanisms ultimately regulating food choice. (grantome.com)
  • The findings suggest that shopping situation should be specified, that multiple indicators of patronage should be explored, and that parameters in a model of mall-choice behavior should initially be estimated separately for each shopping area under study. (acrwebsite.org)
  • The strength of this modeling approach lies in its detailed, quantitative predictions of behavior, yet LATER models still retain their conceptual simplicity that made LATER initially successful in explaining reaction times in simple decision tasks. (frontiersin.org)
  • What initially attracted much interest to collective behavior was the element of drama almost invariably present in certain "mass" phenomena, whether in the form of novelty, bizarre behavior, exaggerated emotionality, violence, extremist ideology, or some kind of oddity. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Research on shopping center preference and patronage has reflected this positioning, with theory and methodology being drawn from trading area theory, emphasizing the mass-distance relationship (Huff 1964), and from the store choice literature, which emphasizes store "image" and its components (Lindquist 1974-75). (acrwebsite.org)
  • Research into shopping center or shopping mall choice behavior cannot, however, be simply a straightforward extension of the trade area and store choice research streams, While some of the problems present in researching shopping mall preference and patronage are similar to those faced by the researcher investigating at the level of the retail store, others are unique. (acrwebsite.org)
  • In a design using basic features of revealed preference theory, we measured in rhesus monkeys the frequency of repeated choices between bundles of two liquids. (pnas.org)
  • Change of option set size demonstrated choice optimality and satisfied the Weak Axiom of Revealed Preference (WARP). (pnas.org)
  • In biology, female choice means more than a female showing her preference for certain males. (blogspot.com)
  • This differentiates between choice and preference. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Psychological Impact of Annuities: Can Pension Payout Choice Influence Health Behavior? (acrwebsite.org)
  • We find evidence that, compared to receiving a lump-sum, receiving lifelong income where total payout increases with length of life can boost health-related behavior. (acrwebsite.org)
  • This study uses Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS, 2003) data to describe cancer-related scanning and seeking behavior (SSB) and assess its relationship with knowledge, lifestyle behavior, and screening. (rti.org)
  • In the empirical model, the combined tax and subsidy had little effect on household purchasing behavior, and did not increase food purchases in important health-related categories such as fruits and vegetables. (cornell.edu)
  • This study piloted a brief individual motivational intervention targeting multiple health risk behaviors in HIV-positive youth aged 16-25. (motivationalinterviewing.org)
  • Findings demonstrate the potential of a brief motivational enhancement intervention to improve health risk behaviors in HIV-positive youth. (motivationalinterviewing.org)
  • Decade lectures focus on Decade of Behavior themes - safety, health, education, prosperity and/or democracy. (upenn.edu)
  • Food choice is influenced by a complex informational environment that also includes labeling, point-of-purchase information, commercial advertising and promotion, and Web-based health information. (nap.edu)
  • The way people choose the foods to take affects their health conditions in the feature. (academic-master.com)
  • Food choice is in turn influenced by human health behavior. (academic-master.com)
  • There are many models related to health behavior which try to explain why people have different behaviors towards their health. (academic-master.com)
  • The control beliefs changes to perceived behavior controls and all those are gain related to one another in different ways and at long last affecting the intentions of an individual leading to food human choice difference which leads to different health conditions. (academic-master.com)
  • If such a model is used to influence food choice, then there is a very high probability that people with health can deteriorate with a very big margin, Razzaque (20 p00). (academic-master.com)
  • All the ACE certification exams - Personal Trainer, Group Fitness Instructor, Health Coach, and Medical Exercise Specialist - are multiple-choice questions with a single answer. (acefitness.org)
  • While behavior has a genetic component, it certainly isn't completely determined by genetics. (creation.com)
  • Three studies re-examine the causal role of behavior in this "post-choice spreading of alternatives" phenomenon, demonstrating that neither the behavior of choosing nor the self-perception of having made a choice is required for it to occur. (ssrn.com)
  • Thus, we question the causal role of behavior in a classic phenomenon. (ssrn.com)
  • The ability to influence choice behavior noninvasively without using drugs could provide new ways to diagnose and treat disorders of choice. (sciencemag.org)
  • The two faculty members from the Department of Journalism and Media Management and the Department of Strategic Communication, respectively, will collaborate to identify the processes that influence young people to make healthy behavior choices. (miami.edu)
  • Smartphone Applications to Influence Travel Choices Practices and Policies: Chapter 4. (dot.gov)
  • Smartphone apps have a strong influence on the travel choices people make. (dot.gov)
  • Things that influence the behavior from the outside Boxes in book Test questions come from the boxes How do you know if someone is motivated? (coursehero.com)
  • Studies of food choice behavior have identified both individual and environmental factors that influence the complex process of decision making (Lutz et al. (nap.edu)
  • The low-velocity impact behavior of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) reinforced resin matrix polymers is investigated and the influence of the SMA volume fraction on the impact performance of polymer composites is considered for the first time, which are the highlights in this paper. (mdpi.com)
  • Li, H. The Influence of Shape Memory Alloy Volume Fraction on the Impact Behavior of Polymer Composites. (mdpi.com)
  • Sun M, Sun X, Wang Z, Chang M, Li H. The Influence of Shape Memory Alloy Volume Fraction on the Impact Behavior of Polymer Composites. (mdpi.com)
  • Their choice frequencies conformed to curves of equal choice frequency (indifference curves) and satisfied crucial consistency and axiomatic tests involving out-of-sample prediction from modeled indifference curves, transitivity, and axiomatic change of option set size. (pnas.org)
  • Individuals who scan or seek cancer information are those who acquire knowledge, adopt healthy lifestyle behaviors, and get screened for cancer. (rti.org)
  • Food shortage and Healthy choices. (coursera.org)
  • For a long time, encouraging healthy food choices focus on the individual. (coursera.org)
  • healthy eating is not automatically translated into actual healthy eating behaviors. (coursera.org)
  • and also their healthy food choices should be encouraged by our living environment. (coursera.org)
  • It is not always easy to make healthy food choices. (coursera.org)
  • The lack of specific molecular and neurochemical markers to identify subsets of glucosensing cells, and the absence of exhaustive studies, from behavior to physiology, has hindered our understanding on the role of glucosensing neurons in feeding and homeostasis. (grantome.com)
  • William J. Bell (1943-1998) was a revered entomologist specializing in insect physiology and behavior. (google.com)
  • Hence, what happens in collective behavior is spontaneous in that it is rarely the product of prior consensus or design. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The question of how we choose one option over another has intrigued neuroscientists in the field of neural decision-making for many decades. (frontiersin.org)
  • For example, if clinicians are to determine which brain circuits drive a patient's craving for an addictive drug, the neuromodulatory effects on a particular neural circuit should be potent enough to yield measurable changes in the subject's choice behavior, i.e., whether the subject decides to use the drug or not. (sciencemag.org)
  • But fascination with and criticism of these unusual and "irrational" aspects of collective behavior soon gave way to more basic sociological concerns. (encyclopedia.com)
  • To say that elementary collective behavior occurs spontaneously is to point to the role played in its initiation by individuals who experience greater subjective freedom or psychological compulsion to express unconventional ideas, to engage in unconventional behavior, or otherwise to deviate from established standards. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This enables the UBA solution to identify typical user patterns of activity, and then take action if users deviate from these patterns in ways that indicate malicious behavior. (citrix.com)
  • to justify the existence of subjective probabilities as a requirement for rational behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • How might lab models of risky choice relate to gambling problems outside the lab? (reed.edu)
  • The investigators found that men who chose to be circumcised were significantly more likely than men who chose to remain uncircumcised to have had risky sex in the three months before entry to the study (p = 0.025) and to have had unprotected risky sex during this period (p = 0.03). (circumcisionandhiv.com)
  • They say that the circumcised control group did not report "any appreciable [ … ] excess of risky sex or unprotected risky sex" over the group who chose to remain intact. (circumcisionandhiv.com)
  • But rather than make his case by bringing up the sex habits of inmates (not a good example at all, considering much of the sex in prison is about power and dominance, not to mention a lot of these guys aren't given a choice in the matter), he could have brought up the myriad of identical twins studies that show gays were not "born that way. (theblaze.com)
  • Yet, to make it truly useful, the approach would ideally provide neuromodulatory effects that are strong enough to manifest in behavior. (sciencemag.org)
  • To policy makers these results suggest that small taxes and subsidies may not help individuals make better, healthier, food choices. (cornell.edu)
  • Direction - what choices you make 3. (coursehero.com)
  • However, it is challenging to separate these two factors as the evidence supporting a specific choice typically affects the time we use to make it. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers controlled the level of difficulty--the noisiness--of the motion and tracked the eye movements to ascertain the choice, amount of time to make the choice, and the confidence in that choice. (eurekalert.org)
  • This chapter presents an approach to Step Two: developing an understanding of how consumers make seafood choices and the informational environment in which they do so. (nap.edu)
  • These factors make the individual behaviors different from the others. (academic-master.com)
  • For example, a guy who has friends who hate a certain food and proofs by giving myths about the food choice will make the person choose to believe those myths and also get the belief that the food choice is the best. (academic-master.com)
  • Outlook 2015 presents the outcome of various studies and researches in the field of green behavior and how it contributes to an environment in which information and tools are needed to make greener choices for actions that support environmental goals and tailoring policies to suit markets for a global sustainable future. (routledge.com)
  • Despite our better knowledge, we often make choices that aren't good for us - and feel bad about it later. (mpg.de)
  • The idea behind self-nudging is that people can design and structure their own environments in ways that make it easier for them to make the right choices - and ultimately to reach their long-term goals. (mpg.de)
  • The second step is to change that architecture - whether it be the constant notifications from our smartphone or the positioning of the foods in our fridge - in ways that enable us to make choices that are in our own interests. (mpg.de)
  • White bravely and honorably chooses to make sure his family is taken care of financially before he expires from cancer. (psychcentral.com)
  • In this paper, nonparametric brand-specific time-variable functions replace the brand-specific constants usually found in brand choice models. (repec.org)
  • Third, the level of aggregation appropriate for parameter estimation in models of mall choice behavior is discussed. (acrwebsite.org)
  • An individual behavior can change within a short while due to its factors making it less useful models. (academic-master.com)
  • My adult book, SEXUAL STRATEGIES: HOW FEMALES CHOOSE THEIR MATES, has an updated edition through the Authors Guild Back in Print program with iUniverse.com. (blogspot.com)
  • Parents who financially help their unemployed adult children offset such costs by adjusting their behavior, particularly by spending less money on food, working more, and reducing retirement savings. (rand.org)
  • The imputation of wages above the contribution limit with the German IAB employment sample ," FDZ Methodenreport 200502_en, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]. (repec.org)
  • Most of the research in this area has dealt with the store choice decision (Granbois 1977), as is proper and to be expected. (acrwebsite.org)
  • Stanley and Sewall (1977) demonstrate how these two approaches can be combined in store-choice research, as do Jain and Mahajan (1979). (acrwebsite.org)
  • Kathleen Hall Jamieson, director of the Annenberg Public Policy Center , has been chosen to deliver the 2006 Decade of Behavior Lecture of the American Educational Research Association (AERA). (upenn.edu)
  • Two-Alternative Choice: TAC) that are commonly used in olfactory research. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Research into food choice investigates how people select the food they eat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natixis Global Asset Management announced plans to fund a research project focused on investor behavior and personal financial benchmarking, based at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). (planadviser.com)
  • We will also look at the possible sustainable solutions for several accut issues: the demands of the growing human population, the role of nutrition, and the need to understand food choices in order to have healthier diet and consider the possibilities of alternative foods. (coursera.org)
  • However, these efforts alone will not lead to healthier food choices. (coursera.org)
  • Food Power Adventure is the kind of active learning experience students need to help them see how the food they choose gives them the energy they need to play and grow," said Tracy Minnis, nutrition program associate with the University of Missouri Extension. (chillicothenews.com)
  • It shows how food choice is important to the human body. (academic-master.com)
  • If a person is born and is taught that a certain food is not accepted in that culture that would be the belief and will affect the food choice forever. (academic-master.com)
  • All the factors can affect the belief of a person hence affecting the human food choice, Korotina & Jargalsaikhan (21 p00). (academic-master.com)
  • Furthermore, how signals from both metabolic (to replenish energy) and hedonic (for reward) feeding circuits are integrated to regulate food intake and food choice remain unclear. (grantome.com)
  • My hypothesis is that dSGLT regulates food choice by monitoring glucose levels in the blood. (grantome.com)
  • Jinzi Zheng, Jun Liu, and David B. Clarke, "Ticket Fare Optimization for China's High-Speed Railway Based on Passenger Choice Behavior," Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society , vol. 2017, Article ID 6237642, 6 pages, 2017. (hindawi.com)
  • The goals of this dissertation were to conduct detailed analyses of behavior in transition in response to changes in reinforcement contingencies by using mixed concurrent Random Interval-Random Interval (conc RI RI) schedules of reinforcement and to examine the effects of d-amphetamine on behavior in transition. (auburn.edu)
  • 3 ) demonstrate that aberrant choice behavior-that is, choosing alcohol over an alternative reward-is a key driver for the transition from controlled to compulsive alcohol use. (sciencemag.org)
  • How are such choices affected by the nature of the reward-primary (hedonic) versus secondary (symbolic) rewards? (reed.edu)
  • How are such choices affected by the magnitude (size) of the reward? (reed.edu)
  • Or, better yet, he could have drawn the important distinction between sexual urges and sexual behavior , and pointed out that, whatever causes the former, the latter is always a choice. (theblaze.com)
  • She also contributes articles on human nature and sexual behavior through Japanese newspapers and magazines. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Interviews about sexual behavior and substance use and viral load testing were obtained from 51 HIV-positive youth at baseline and post intervention. (motivationalinterviewing.org)
  • Throughout transformations in juvenile justice, control over girls' bodies, sexual behavior, and reproductive choices has remained a constant focal point among decision makers, with girls infrequently charged with serious law violations and commonly judged in terms of their moral welfare and chasteness. (wvu.edu)
  • Aidsmap reports on a study released this month showing that Kenyan men who choose to undergo circumcision have a history of engaging in unsafe sexual behavior at a higher rate than men who choose to remain intact. (circumcisionandhiv.com)
  • A recent book exposes what Darwin got wrong about sexual behavior in birds, and what his error tells us about the evolution of scientific knowledge. (the-scientist.com)