A benzenesulfonamide-phthalimidine that tautomerizes to a BENZOPHENONES form. It is considered a thiazide-like diuretic.
Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.
A prazosin-related compound that is a selective alpha-1-adrenergic blocker.
Agents that inhibit SODIUM CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA.
A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It is used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.
One of the ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS (ACE inhibitors), orally active, that has been used in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure.
A long-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is effective in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS and HYPERTENSION.
A leukomaine (animal alkaloid) formed in brain and liver from dopamine and L-dopa; it may be implicated in psychiatric problems.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to PROPRANOLOL, but without a negative inotropic effect.
A white crystalline compound prepared by condensation of benzaldehyde in potassium cyanide and used in organic syntheses. This should not be confused with benzoin gum from STYRAX.
A thiazide diuretic with actions and uses similar to those of HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE. It has been used in the treatment of familial hyperkalemia, hypertension, edema, and urinary tract disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p810)
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
A selective adrenergic beta-1 blocking agent that is commonly used to treat ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS.
A potassium sparing diuretic that acts by antagonism of aldosterone in the distal renal tubules. It is used mainly in the treatment of refractory edema in patients with congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, or hepatic cirrhosis. Its effects on the endocrine system are utilized in the treatments of hirsutism and acne but they can lead to adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p827)
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.
The state of the PENIS when the erectile tissue becomes filled or swollen (tumid) with BLOOD and causes the penis to become rigid and elevated. It is a complex process involving CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS; HORMONES; SMOOTH MUSCLES; and vascular functions.
The psychic drive or energy associated with sexual instinct in the broad sense (pleasure and love-object seeking). It may also connote the psychic energy associated with instincts in general that motivate behavior.
The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.
Literary or artistic items having an erotic theme. It refers especially to books treating sexual love in a sensuous or voluptuous manner. (Webster, 3d ed)
The inability in the male to have a PENILE ERECTION due to psychological or organ dysfunction.

Hypokalemia associated with diuretic use and cardiovascular events in the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program. (1/89)

The treatment of hypertension with high-dose thiazide diuretics results in potassium depletion and a limited benefit for preventing coronary events. The clinical relevance of hypokalemia associated with low-dose diuretics has not been assessed. To determine whether hypokalemia that occurs with low-dose diuretics is associated with a reduced benefit on cardiovascular events, we analyzed data of 4126 participants in the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program (SHEP), a 5-year randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of chlorthalidone-based treatment of isolated systolic hypertension in older persons. After 1 year of treatment, 7.2% of the participants randomized to active treatment had a serum potassium <3.5 mmol/L compared with 1% of the participants randomized to placebo (P<0.001). During the 4 years after the first annual visit, 451 participants experienced a cardiovascular event, 215 experienced a coronary event, 177 experienced stroke, and 323 died. After adjustment for known risk factors and study drug dose, the participants who received active treatment and who experienced hypokalemia had a similar risk of cardiovascular events, coronary events, and stroke as those randomized to placebo. Within the active treatment group, the risk of these events was 51%, 55%, and 72% lower, respectively, among those who had normal serum potassium levels compared with those who experienced hypokalemia (P<0.05). The participants who had hypokalemia after 1 year of treatment with a low-dose diuretic did not experience the reduction in cardiovascular events achieved among those who did not have hypokalemia.  (+info)

Effect of different doses of chlorthalidone on blood pressure, serum potassium, and serum urate. (2/89)

Chlorthalidone given to 40 hypertensive women significantly decreased blood pressure and serum potassium levels and increased the serum urate concentration. There were no individual correlations between the reduction in blood pressure and the decrease in serum potassium or the increase in serum urate. A reduction in dosage from 50 mg daily to 50 mg three times a week produced no significant changes in the diastolic or mean blood pressures though the systolic blood pressure was moderately increased. Concomitantly, serum potassium increased and serum urate decreased significantly on the lower chlorthalidone dose. We conclude that high doses of oral diuretics compared with lower ones are of limited further benefit and may increase the risk of clinically significant hypokalaemia and hyperuricaemia.  (+info)

Dementia and disability outcomes in large hypertension trials: lessons learned from the systolic hypertension in the elderly program (SHEP) trial. (3/89)

In the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program (SHEP) trial (1985-1990), active treatment reduced the incidence of cardiovascular events, but not that of dementia and disability, as compared with placebo. This study aims to evaluate if assessment of cognitive and functional outcomes was biased by differential dropout. Characteristics of subjects who did or did not participate in follow-up cognitive and functional evaluations were compared. The relative risks of incident cognitive impairment and disability were assessed in the two treatment groups, with the use of the reported findings and under the assumption that the proportions of cognitive and functional impairment among dropouts increased. Assignment to the placebo group and the occurrence of cardiovascular events independently predicted missed assessments. From the reported findings, the risk of cognitive and functional impairment was similar between the two treatment groups. However, when 20-30% and 40-80% of the subjects who missed the assessment were assumed to be cognitively and, respectively, functionally impaired, assignment to active treatment reduced the risk of these outcomes. In the SHEP, the cognitive and functional evaluations were biased toward the null effect by differential dropout. This might have obscured the appraisal of a protective effect of treatment on the cognitive and functional decline of older hypertensive adults.  (+info)

Effects of chlorthalidone and diltiazem on myocardial ischemia in elderly patients with hypertension and coronary artery disease. (4/89)

OBJECTIVE: Antihypertensive therapy with thiazides decreases coronary events in elderly patients. However, the influence of diuretics on myocardial ischemia has not been fully investigated. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of chlorthalidone and diltiazem on myocardial ischemia. METHODS: Following a randomized, double-blind, crossover protocol, we studied 15 elderly hypertensive patients aged 73.6+/-4.6 years with myocardial ischemia. All patients had angiographically documented coronary artery disease. We measured patients using 48- hour ambulatory electrocardiogram monitoring and exercise testing. After a 2-week period using placebo, patients received chlorthalidone or diltiazem for 4 weeks. RESULTS: Both treatments lowered systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The number of ischemic episodes on ambulatory electrocardiogram recordings was reduced with the use of chlorthalidone (2.5+/-3.8) and diltiazem (3.2+/-4.2) when compared with placebo (7.9+/-8.8; p<0.05). The total duration of ischemic episodes was reduced in both treatments when compared with placebo (chlorthalidone: 19.2+/-31.9min; diltiazem: 19.3+/-29.6min; placebo: 46.1+/-55.3min; p<0.05). CONCLUSION: In elderly hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease, chlorthalidone reduced myocardial ischemia similarly to diltiazem. This result is consistent with epidemiological studies and suggests that reduction of arterial blood pressure with thiazide therapy plays an important role in decreasing myocardial ischemia.  (+info)

Treatment of isolated systolic hypertension is most effective in older patients with high-risk profile. (5/89)

BACKGROUND: Although present guidelines suggest that treatment of hypertension is more effective in patients with multiple risk factors and higher risk of cardiovascular events, this hypothesis was never verified in older patients with systolic hypertension. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using data from the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program, we calculated the global cardiovascular risk score according to the American Heart Association Multiple Risk Factor Assessment Equation in 4,189 participants free of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and in 264 participants with CVD at baseline. In the placebo group, rates of cardiovascular events over 4.5 years were progressively higher according to higher quartiles of CVD risk. The protection conferred by treatment was similar across quartiles of risk. However, the numbers needed to treat (NNTs) to prevent one cardiovascular event were progressively smaller according to higher cardiovascular risk quartiles. In participants with baseline CVD, the NNTs to prevent one cardiovascular event were similar to those estimated for CVD-free participants in the highest-risk quartile. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of systolic hypertension is most effective in older patients who, because of additional risk factors or prevalent CVD, are at higher risk of developing a cardiovascular event. These patients are prime candidates for antihypertensive treatment.  (+info)

Functional differences between flounder and rat thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter. (6/89)

The purpose of the present study was to determine the major functional, pharmacological, and regulatory properties of the flounder thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter (flTSC) to make a direct comparison with our recent characterization of the rat TSC (rTSC; Monroy A, Plata C, Hebert SC, and Gamba G. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 279: F161-F169, 2000). When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, flTSC exhibits lower affinity for Na(+) than for Cl(-), with apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)) values of 58.2 +/- 7.1 and 22.1 +/- 4.2 mM, respectively. These K(m) values are significantly higher than those observed in rTSC. The Na(+) and Cl(-) affinities decreased when the concentration of the counterion was lowered, suggesting that the binding of one ion increases the affinity of the transporter for the other. The effect of several thiazides on flTSC function was biphasic. Low concentrations of thiazides (10(-9) to 10(-7) M) resulted in activation of the cotransporter, whereas higher concentrations (10(-6) to 10(-4) M) were inhibitory. In rTSC, this biphasic effect was observed only with chlorthalidone. The affinity for thiazides in flTSC was lower than in rTSC, but the affinity in flTSC was not affected by the Na(+) or the Cl(-) concentration in the uptake medium. In addition to thiazides, flTSC and rTSC were inhibited by Hg(2+), with an apparent higher affinity for rTSC. Finally, flTSC function was decreased by activation of protein kinase C with phorbol esters and by hypertonicity. In summary, we have found significant regulatory, kinetic, and pharmacological differences between flTSC and rTSC orthologues.  (+info)

Responsiveness of hypercalciuria to thiazide in Dent's disease. (7/89)

Hypercalciuria is the major risk factor promoting stone formation in Dent's disease, also known as X-linked recessive nephrolithiasis, but the effects of diuretics on calcium excretion and other stone risk factors in this disease are unknown. This study examined urine composition in eight male patients with Dent's disease, ages 6 to 49 yr, all of whom were hypercalciuric and had inactivating mutations of CLCN5. Eight males, ages 7 to 34 yr, with idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH) served as controls. Patients were instructed to maintain a consistent intake of sodium, potassium, calcium, and protein. Two consecutive 24-h urine collections were obtained after a baseline period and after 2 wk of chlorthalidone (25 mg), amiloride (5 mg), and the two diuretics in combination, with a week off drug separating the treatment periods in a randomized crossover design. Doses were reduced by half in boys under age 12 yr. Chlorthalidone alone (P < 0.002) and the combination of chlorthalidone and amiloride (P < 0.003) reduced calcium excretion significantly in either patient group. With chlorthalidone, calcium excretion fell to normal (<4.0 mg/kg per d) in all but one patient in each group. Amiloride alone had no significant effect on urinary calcium excretion, in either patient group. In patients with Dent's disease during chlorthalidone therapy, the supersaturation ratios for calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate fell by 25% and 35%, respectively. Mean citrate excretion was reduced by chlorthalidone (P <.04) and by chlorthalidone in combination with amiloride (P <.02). There were no significant differences in the responses to these diuretics between the patient groups in any of the urinary parameters. The intact hypocalciuric response to a thiazide diuretic indicates that inactivation of the ClC-5 chloride channel does not impair calcium transport in the distal convoluted tubule and indicates that thiazides should be useful in reducing the risk of kidney stone recurrence in patients with Dent's disease.  (+info)

Effects of four antihypertensive monotherapies on cardiac mass and function in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy: randomized prospective study. (8/89)

AIM: To compare the effects of four antihypertensive drugs, which have reportedly different effectiveness in reducing myocardial mass. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, prospective study included 80 hypertensive patients with left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy confirmed both electrocardiographically and echocardiographically. We investigated the effects of indapamide, nicardipine, propranolol, and chlorthalidone on arterial blood pressure and LV mass and function. RESULTS: Sixty-four patients (34 men and 30 women) completed the 6-month study. No significant differences in antihypertensive effects of the four medications were found. The average decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure was 12.8% and 10.4%, respectively. All four antihypertensive medications caused pronounced reduction in LV mass, between 7.9% in the propranolol group and 10.1% in the nicardipine group, with no significant difference between the groups. In patients receiving diuretics, predominant decrease was observed in LV mass and LV mass index. In patients treated with propranolol, the thickness of both the LV wall and interventricular septum was reduced, whereas the reduction in LV mass, LV wall and interventricular septum thickness was found in patients treated with nicardipine. There was no significant correlation between the changes in LV mass and other variables (blood pressure, and systolic and diastolic function). Systolic function did not improve with the reversion of LV hypertrophy in any group of patients, but improvement was observed in some indices of diastolic function. The early and late LV filling velocity and their ratio did not improve significantly, either. Clinically relevant side effects were not observed. CONCLUSION: All four antihypertensive monotherapies achieved a comparable control of hypertension and reduction in LV hypertrophy.  (+info)

Chlorthalidone is a diuretic medication, which is a type of drug that helps the body get rid of excess salt and water by increasing urine production. It is a type of sulfonamide, and it works by blocking the reabsorption of sodium and chloride in the distal convoluted tubules of the kidneys, which leads to increased excretion of these ions and water in the urine.

Chlorthalidone is used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) and edema (fluid retention) associated with various medical conditions, such as heart failure, cirrhosis, and kidney disease. It may be used alone or in combination with other medications to achieve better blood pressure control.

Like all medications, chlorthalidone can cause side effects, including electrolyte imbalances, dehydration, dizziness, headache, muscle cramps, and gastrointestinal disturbances. It is important to take this medication as directed by a healthcare provider and to report any bothersome or persistent symptoms promptly.

Diuretics are a type of medication that increase the production of urine and help the body eliminate excess fluid and salt. They work by interfering with the reabsorption of sodium in the kidney tubules, which in turn causes more water to be excreted from the body. Diuretics are commonly used to treat conditions such as high blood pressure, heart failure, liver cirrhosis, and kidney disease. There are several types of diuretics, including loop diuretics, thiazide diuretics, potassium-sparing diuretics, and osmotic diuretics, each with its own mechanism of action and potential side effects. It is important to use diuretics under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can interact with other medications and have an impact on electrolyte balance in the body.

Doxazosin is an antihypertensive drug, which belongs to the class of medications called alpha-1 receptor blockers. It works by relaxing the muscles in the blood vessels, which helps to lower blood pressure and improve blood flow. Doxazosin is primarily used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a condition characterized by an enlarged prostate gland that can cause urinary symptoms such as difficulty in beginning the flow of urine, weak stream, and frequent urination.

The medical definition of Doxazosin is:

Doxazosin mesylate - A selective alpha-1 adrenergic receptor blocker used in the treatment of hypertension and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). It works by relaxing the smooth muscle in blood vessels, which lowers blood pressure and improves blood flow. Doxazosin may also be used off-label for other indications such as Raynaud's phenomenon or painful bladder syndrome. The drug is available in oral tablet form and is typically taken once daily. Common side effects include dizziness, lightheadedness, and headache.

Sodium chloride symporter inhibitors are a class of pharmaceutical agents that block the function of the sodium chloride symporter (NCC), which is a protein found in the kidney's distal convoluted tubule. The NCC is responsible for reabsorbing sodium and chloride ions from the filtrate back into the bloodstream, helping to regulate electrolyte balance and blood pressure.

Sodium chloride symporter inhibitors work by selectively binding to and blocking the NCC, preventing it from transporting sodium and chloride ions across the cell membrane. This leads to increased excretion of sodium and chloride in the urine, which can help lower blood pressure in patients with hypertension.

Examples of sodium chloride symporter inhibitors include thiazide diuretics such as hydrochlorothiazide and chlorthalidone, which have been used for many years to treat hypertension and edema associated with heart failure and liver cirrhosis. These medications work by reducing the amount of sodium and fluid in the body, which helps lower blood pressure and reduce swelling.

It's worth noting that while sodium chloride symporter inhibitors can be effective at treating hypertension, they can also cause side effects such as electrolyte imbalances, dehydration, and increased urination. As with any medication, it's important to use them under the guidance of a healthcare provider and to follow dosing instructions carefully.

Hydrochlorothiazide is a diuretic drug, which means it helps the body get rid of extra salt and water by increasing the amount of urine that is produced. The medical definition of Hydrochlorothiazide is:

A thiazide diuretic drug used to treat hypertension and edema associated with heart failure, liver cirrhosis, and kidney disorders. It works by inhibiting the reabsorption of sodium and chloride ions in the distal convoluted tubule of the nephron, which increases water excretion and decreases blood volume and pressure. Hydrochlorothiazide may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents. It is also used to treat conditions such as diabetes insipidus, renal tubular acidosis, and hypercalcemia.

The usual starting dose of hydrochlorothiazide for adults is 25 mg to 50 mg once a day, which may be increased gradually depending on the patient's response. The maximum recommended daily dose is 100 mg. Common side effects of hydrochlorothiazide include increased urination, headache, dizziness, and muscle cramps.

Lisinopril is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, which is a type of medication used to treat various cardiovascular conditions. It works by blocking the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, resulting in relaxation and widening of blood vessels, decreased blood pressure, and increased blood flow.

Lisinopril is primarily used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure), congestive heart failure, and to improve survival after a heart attack. It may also be used to protect the kidneys from damage due to diabetes or high blood pressure. Additionally, it has been shown to reduce proteinuria (excess protein in urine) in patients with diabetic nephropathy.

Common side effects of Lisinopril include dizziness, headache, fatigue, and cough. More serious side effects may include angioedema (rapid swelling of the face, lips, tongue, or throat), hyperkalemia (elevated potassium levels), and impaired kidney function.

It is important to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully when taking Lisinopril and to report any unusual symptoms promptly. Regular monitoring of blood pressure, kidney function, and electrolyte levels may be necessary during treatment with this medication.

Amlodipine is a type of medication known as a calcium channel blocker, which is primarily used to treat high blood pressure and angina (chest pain caused by reduced blood flow to the heart). It works by relaxing the muscles around the blood vessels, which causes them to widen and improves blood flow. This helps to lower blood pressure and reduce the workload on the heart, making it easier for the heart to pump blood effectively.

Amlodipine is available in various strengths as a tablet or an extended-release tablet, and it is typically taken once daily. The medication may take several weeks to reach its full effect, so it is important to continue taking it even if you do not notice any immediate improvement in your symptoms.

As with any medication, amlodipine can cause side effects, including headache, dizziness, fatigue, and swelling of the ankles or feet. In rare cases, it may also cause more serious side effects such as allergic reactions, irregular heartbeat, or liver damage. If you experience any unusual symptoms while taking amlodipine, it is important to contact your healthcare provider right away.

It is important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when taking amlodipine, and to inform them of any other medications or supplements that you are taking, as well as any medical conditions that you have. This will help ensure that the medication is safe and effective for you to use.

Antihypertensive agents are a class of medications used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). They work by reducing the force and rate of heart contractions, dilating blood vessels, or altering neurohormonal activation to lower blood pressure. Examples include diuretics, beta blockers, ACE inhibitors, ARBs, calcium channel blockers, and direct vasodilators. These medications may be used alone or in combination to achieve optimal blood pressure control.

Tetrahydropapaveroline (THP) is not a medical term itself, but it is a chemical compound that has been studied in the field of medicine and biochemistry. THP is a bioactive alkaloid found in various plants, including opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), and is produced through the biosynthetic pathway involving tyrosine and dopamine.

In scientific research, THP has been investigated for its potential role in various physiological processes due to its interactions with neurotransmitters and receptors in the brain. Some studies suggest that THP may contribute to the development of tolerance and dependence associated with opioid use, as well as have implications in the regulation of mood and addiction.

However, it is essential to note that further research is required to fully understand the role and significance of Tetrahydropapaveroline in human health and disease.

Hypertension is a medical term used to describe abnormally high blood pressure in the arteries, often defined as consistently having systolic blood pressure (the top number in a blood pressure reading) over 130 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number) over 80 mmHg. It is also commonly referred to as high blood pressure.

Hypertension can be classified into two types: primary or essential hypertension, which has no identifiable cause and accounts for about 95% of cases, and secondary hypertension, which is caused by underlying medical conditions such as kidney disease, hormonal disorders, or use of certain medications.

If left untreated, hypertension can lead to serious health complications such as heart attack, stroke, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. Therefore, it is important for individuals with hypertension to manage their condition through lifestyle modifications (such as healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management) and medication if necessary, under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Atenolol is a beta-blocker medication that is primarily used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure), angina (chest pain), and certain types of heart rhythm disorders. It works by blocking the action of certain hormones in the body, such as adrenaline, on the heart and blood vessels. This helps to reduce the heart's workload, lower its rate and force of contractions, and improve blood flow.

Beta-blockers like atenolol are also sometimes used to prevent migraines or to treat symptoms of anxiety, such as rapid heartbeat or tremors. Atenolol is available in immediate-release and extended-release forms, and it is typically taken orally once or twice a day. As with any medication, atenolol can have side effects, including dizziness, fatigue, and gastrointestinal symptoms, and it may interact with other medications or medical conditions. It is important to use atenolol only under the supervision of a healthcare provider.

Benzoin, in a medical context, most commonly refers to a type of compound called a benzoin resin or benzoin tincture, which is derived from the bark of certain trees in the genus Styrax. It has been used traditionally in medicine for its antiseptic and expectorant properties.

Benzoin resin is obtained by making incisions in the bark of the tree and allowing the resin to exude and harden. The solidified resin is then collected and may be ground into a powder or dissolved in alcohol to create a tincture.

Benzoin tincture has been used topically as an antiseptic and to help heal wounds, ulcers, and burns. It has also been used as an expectorant to help clear respiratory congestion and coughs.

It is important to note that benzoin should be used with caution, as it can cause skin irritation and allergic reactions in some people. Additionally, benzoin tincture contains a significant amount of alcohol and should not be taken internally without the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Bendroflumethiazide is a diuretic medication, which means it helps the body get rid of excess salt and water by increasing urine production. It is primarily used to treat high blood pressure and edema (swelling) caused by various medical conditions.

The drug works by inhibiting the reabsorption of sodium and chloride ions in the distal convoluted tubule of the kidney, which leads to increased water excretion. This results in a decrease in blood volume and, consequently, reduced blood pressure.

Bendroflumethiazide is available under various brand names, such as Aprinox, Corrida, and Natrilix. It's important to note that this medication should only be taken under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can have side effects and interact with other medications.

The double-blind method is a study design commonly used in research, including clinical trials, to minimize bias and ensure the objectivity of results. In this approach, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which group the participants are assigned to, whether it be the experimental group or the control group. This means that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving a particular treatment or placebo, thus reducing the potential for bias in the evaluation of outcomes. The assignment of participants to groups is typically done by a third party not involved in the study, and the codes are only revealed after all data have been collected and analyzed.

Metoprolol is a type of medication known as a beta blocker. According to the US National Library of Medicine's MedlinePlus, metoprolol is used to treat high blood pressure, angina (chest pain), and heart conditions that may occur after a heart attack. It works by blocking the action of certain natural chemicals in your body, such as epinephrine, on the heart and blood vessels. This helps to reduce the heart's workload, lower its blood pressure, and regulate its rhythm.

Metoprolol is available under various brand names, including Lopressor and Toprol-XL. It can be taken orally as a tablet or an extended-release capsule. As with any medication, metoprolol should be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, who can monitor its effectiveness and potential side effects.

It is important to note that this definition is intended to provide a general overview of the medical use of metoprolol and should not be considered a substitute for professional medical advice.

Spironolactone is a prescription medication that belongs to a class of drugs known as potassium-sparing diuretics. It works by blocking the action of aldosterone, a hormone that helps regulate sodium and potassium balance in your body. This results in increased urine production (diuresis) and decreased salt and fluid retention.

Spironolactone is primarily used to treat edema (fluid buildup) associated with heart failure, liver cirrhosis, or kidney disease. It's also prescribed for the treatment of high blood pressure and primary hyperaldosteronism, a condition where the adrenal glands produce too much aldosterone.

Furthermore, spironolactone is used off-label to treat conditions such as acne, hirsutism (excessive hair growth in women), and hormone-sensitive breast cancer in postmenopausal women.

It's important to note that spironolactone can cause increased potassium levels in the blood (hyperkalemia) and should be used with caution in patients with kidney impairment or those taking other medications that affect potassium balance. Regular monitoring of electrolyte levels, including potassium and sodium, is essential during spironolactone therapy.

Combination drug therapy is a treatment approach that involves the use of multiple medications with different mechanisms of action to achieve better therapeutic outcomes. This approach is often used in the management of complex medical conditions such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, and cardiovascular diseases. The goal of combination drug therapy is to improve efficacy, reduce the risk of drug resistance, decrease the likelihood of adverse effects, and enhance the overall quality of life for patients.

In combining drugs, healthcare providers aim to target various pathways involved in the disease process, which may help to:

1. Increase the effectiveness of treatment by attacking the disease from multiple angles.
2. Decrease the dosage of individual medications, reducing the risk and severity of side effects.
3. Slow down or prevent the development of drug resistance, a common problem in chronic diseases like HIV/AIDS and cancer.
4. Improve patient compliance by simplifying dosing schedules and reducing pill burden.

Examples of combination drug therapy include:

1. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV treatment, which typically involves three or more drugs from different classes to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
2. Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where multiple cytotoxic agents are used to target various stages of the cell cycle and reduce the likelihood of tumor cells developing resistance.
3. Cardiovascular disease management, which may involve combining medications such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-blockers, diuretics, and statins to control blood pressure, heart rate, fluid balance, and cholesterol levels.
4. Treatment of tuberculosis, which often involves a combination of several antibiotics to target different aspects of the bacterial life cycle and prevent the development of drug-resistant strains.

When prescribing combination drug therapy, healthcare providers must carefully consider factors such as potential drug interactions, dosing schedules, adverse effects, and contraindications to ensure safe and effective treatment. Regular monitoring of patients is essential to assess treatment response, manage side effects, and adjust the treatment plan as needed.

Blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the blood vessels. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is given as two figures:

1. Systolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart pushes blood out into the arteries.
2. Diastolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart rests between beats, allowing it to fill with blood.

Normal blood pressure for adults is typically around 120/80 mmHg, although this can vary slightly depending on age, sex, and other factors. High blood pressure (hypertension) is generally considered to be a reading of 130/80 mmHg or higher, while low blood pressure (hypotension) is usually defined as a reading below 90/60 mmHg. It's important to note that blood pressure can fluctuate throughout the day and may be affected by factors such as stress, physical activity, and medication use.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

MedlinePlus is not a medical term, but rather a consumer health website that provides high-quality, accurate, and reliable health information, written in easy-to-understand language. It is produced by the U.S. National Library of Medicine, the world's largest medical library, and is widely recognized as a trusted source of health information.

MedlinePlus offers information on various health topics, including conditions, diseases, tests, treatments, and wellness. It also provides access to drug information, medical dictionary, and encyclopedia, as well as links to clinical trials, medical news, and patient organizations. The website is available in both English and Spanish and can be accessed for free.

Penile erection is a physiological response that involves the engagement of the corpus cavernosum and spongiosum (erectile tissue) of the penis with blood, leading to its stiffness and rigidity. This process is primarily regulated by the autonomic nervous system and is influenced by factors such as sexual arousal, emotional state, and certain medications or medical conditions. A penile erection may also occur in non-sexual situations, such as during sleep (nocturnal penile tumescence) or due to other physical stimuli.

Libido, in medical and psychological terms, refers to a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity. This term was first introduced by Sigmund Freud in his psychoanalytic theory, where he described it as one of the three components of human personality. Libido is influenced by biological, psychological, and social factors, and can vary significantly among individuals. It's important to note that a low or absent libido does not necessarily indicate an underlying medical issue, but could be a result of various factors such as stress, fatigue, relationship issues, mental health disorders, or hormonal imbalances. If you have concerns about your libido, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare professional for a proper evaluation and guidance.

The penis is a part of the male reproductive and urinary systems. It has three parts: the root, the body, and the glans. The root attaches to the pelvic bone and the body makes up the majority of the free-hanging portion. The glans is the cone-shaped end that protects the urethra, the tube inside the penis that carries urine from the bladder and semen from the testicles.

The penis has a dual function - it acts as a conduit for both urine and semen. During sexual arousal, the penis becomes erect when blood fills two chambers inside its shaft. This process is facilitated by the relaxation of the smooth muscles in the arterial walls and the trappping of blood in the corpora cavernosa. The stiffness of the penis enables sexual intercourse. After ejaculation, or when the sexual arousal passes, the muscles contract and the blood flows out of the penis back into the body, causing it to become flaccid again.

The foreskin, a layer of skin that covers the glans, is sometimes removed in a procedure called circumcision. Circumcision is often performed for religious or cultural reasons, or as a matter of family custom. In some countries, it's also done for medical reasons, such as to treat conditions like phimosis (an inability to retract the foreskin) or balanitis (inflammation of the glans).

It's important to note that any changes in appearance, size, or function of the penis should be evaluated by a healthcare professional, as they could indicate an underlying medical condition.

Erotica is a genre of literature, art, photographs, films, or other media that depicts sexual subject matter in an artistic or aesthetically appealing way. It is intended to evoke sexual feelings and can be used as a means of exploring one's own sexuality or enhancing a romantic relationship. Erotica differs from pornography in that it generally places greater emphasis on the emotional, romantic, or sensual aspects of sexuality, rather than simply focusing on explicit sexual acts.

It is important to note that what may be considered erotic by one person may not be perceived as such by another, and individual preferences can vary widely. Additionally, while some people find erotica to be a healthy and enjoyable form of sexual expression, others may have reservations about its use due to personal, cultural, or religious beliefs.

In medical contexts, the term "erotica" is not typically used, as it is more commonly found in discussions related to art, literature, and media. However, mental health professionals may discuss clients' experiences with erotica as part of a broader conversation about sexuality, relationships, and personal values.

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the inability to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance. It can have physical and psychological causes, such as underlying health conditions like diabetes, heart disease, obesity, and mental health issues like stress, anxiety, and depression. ED can also be a side effect of certain medications. Treatment options include lifestyle changes, medication, counseling, and in some cases, surgery.

"Chlorthalidone" (PDF). FDA. Retrieved 27 March 2020. Dineva S, Uzunova K, Pavlova V, Filipova E, Kalinov K, Vekov T (November ... Chlorthalidone is the official name of the medication according to the (USAN), which is the medication naming system ... "Chlorthalidone". Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. National Library of Medicine. PMID ... Mulley BA, Parr GD, Pau WK, Rye RM, Mould JJ, Siddle NC (May 1978). "Placental transfer of chlorthalidone and its elimination ...
Examples include metolazone, chlorthalidone, and indapamide. Foye's Principles of Medicinal Chemistry. David Williams (ed.) ( ...
His research work also led to the approval of low-dose chlorthalidone (6.25 mg) and the first combination of chlorthalidone and ... low-dose chlorthalidone, beta-Arteether, Aceclofenac. He has publications in leading medical journals; with one of the clinical ... "Efficacy of Low-Dose Chlorthalidone and Hydrochlorothiazide as Assessed by 24-h Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring". J Am ... comparative study evaluating the efficacy and tolerability of losartan-low dose chlorthalidone (6.25 mg) combination with ...
Another option would be to use chlorthalidone or indapamide. Pharmaceutical interventions should only be made an option ...
"Drug Approval Package:Edarbyclor (azilsartan medoxomil and chlorthalidone) NDA #202331". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA ...
... is less potent but may be more effective than chlorthalidone in reducing blood pressure. More robust ... Hydrochlorothiazide appears be more effective than chlorthalidone in preventing heart attacks and strokes. ...
... has an additive antihypertensive effect when combined with a diuretic, such as chlorthalidone. It is available in a ...
Patients taking diuretic medications such as furosemide (Lasix), hydrochlorothiazide, chlorthalidone, etc., become volume ...
All times are in Peru Time (UTC-5). Source: Notes Jean Pérez Faure has tested positive for doping with chlorthalidone, a ...
ALLHAT showed that major CHD events did not differ between initial use of chlorthalidone versus lisinopril or amlodipine. As ... The study concluded that major CHD events did not differ between initial use of chlorthalidone versus lisinopril or amlodipine ... Participants were initially randomised to chlorthalidone (diuretic) versus doxazosin (alpha-adrenergic blocker), lisinopril ( ... Participants Assigned to Doxazosin and Chlorthalidone". Current Control Trials Cardiovascular Medicine. Vol. 3, Issue 1 (14 ...
Chlorthalidone is the thiazide drug that is most strongly supported by the evidence as providing a mortality benefit; in the ... Chlorthalidone has repeatedly been found to have a stronger effect on lowering blood pressure than hydrochlorothiazide, and ... which found that chlorthalidone was effective. The largest study, Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent ... indapamide chlorthalidone metolazone Xipamide Clopamide Potassium-sparing diuretics: amiloride triamterene spironolactone ...
Specific treatments such as thiazide diuretics (e.g., chlorthalidone) in congestive heart failure or corticosteroids in ...
... such as chlorthalidone or indapamide. These drugs inhibit the formation of calcium-containing stones by reducing urinary ...
She received a two-year ban from the sport for doping, after testing positive for chlorthalidone (a diuretic) at the 2007 ...
Participants Assigned to Doxazosin and Chlorthalidone". Current Controlled Trials in Cardiovascular Medicine. 3 (1): 10. doi: ...
Diuretic medications such as loop diuretics (e.g., furosemide) or thiazides (e.g., chlorthalidone) can cause or worsen urinary ...
... such as chlorthalidone and metolazone. These agents are more properly termed thiazide-like diuretics.[citation needed] Thiazide ...
The thiazide-like diuretics (indapamide and chlorthalidone) reduce risk of major cardiovascular events and heart failure in ...
A thiazide diuretic, such as chlorthalidone or hydrochlorothiazide, can be used to create mild hypovolemia which encourages ...
Chlorthalidone) and he is suspended provisionally until 2026. Важкоатлет Олександр Пелешенко - чемпіон Європи "Weightlifter ...
... was tested positive for doping with chlorthalidone, a prohibited diuretic. The Panam Sports Disciplinary Commission announced ...
A combination of 25 mg of chlorthalidone plus 5 mg of amiloride daily led to a substantial reduction in urine calcium in Dent's ...
Chlorothiazide, chlorthalidone, and indapamide are alternatives Alternatives are 4th level ATC chemical subgroup (C09AA ACE ... and chlorthalidone, chlorothiazide, indapamide (for hydrochlorothiazide) Alternatives are 4th level ATC chemical subgroup ( ... and chlorthalidone, chlorothiazide, indapamide (for hydrochlorothiazide) Alternatives are 4th level ATC chemical subgroup ( ... Bumetanide and torasemide are alternatives Chlorothiazide and chlorthalidone are alternatives Alternatives are 4th level ATC ...
... chlorthalidone MeSH D02.886.590.700.390 - clopamide MeSH D02.886.590.700.410 - dichlorphenamide MeSH D02.886.590.700.420 - ... chlorthalidone MeSH D02.065.884.390 - clopamide MeSH D02.065.884.485 - dichlorphenamide MeSH D02.065.884.500 - ethoxzolamide ... chlorthalidone MeSH D02.478.770.150 - bromosuccinimide MeSH D02.478.770.333 - ethosuximide MeSH D02.491.203.340 - cme- ... chlorthalidone MeSH D02.522.296.100 - acetoin MeSH D02.522.296.400 - diacetyl MeSH D02.522.296.900 - thenoyltrifluoroacetone ...
Alternatives limited to chlorothiazide and chlorthalidone Alternatives limited to 4th level ATC chemical subgroup (A02BC Proton ...
... such as chlorthalidone) and spironolactone. Patients with refractory hypertension typically exhibit increased sympathetic ...
... chlorthalidone, chlorthiazide) - may be useful for mild CHF, but typically used in severe CHF in combination with loop ...
Glyclopyramide Glimepiride Glipizide Gliquidone Glisoxepide Tolazamide Tolbutamide Acetazolamide Bumetanide Chlorthalidone ...
... chlorthalidone, butamide, triamterene/hydrochlorothiazide Antiarrhythmics - amiodarone Chemotherapy - 5-fluorouracil ...
... chlorthalidone), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & lactation ... chlorthalidone oral CHLORTHALIDONE - ORAL (klor-THAL-i-done) COMMON BRAND NAME(S): Thalitone USES: Chlorthalidone is used to ... encoded search term (chlorthalidone (Hygroton%2C Thalitone)) and chlorthalidone (Hygroton, Thalitone) What to Read Next on ... terbutaline, chlorthalidone. Mechanism: pharmacodynamic synergism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Hypokalemia.. chlorthalidone, ...
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Chlorthalidone is a water pill (diuretic). It increases the amount of urine you make, especially when you first start the ... Chlorthalidone is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). Lowering high blood pressure helps prevent strokes, heart ... Chlorthalidone is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). Lowering high blood pressure helps prevent strokes, heart ... Chlorthalidone - Buy Chlorthalidone at the best price ...
Chlorthalidone inhibits the reabsorption of sodium in distal tubules, causing increased excretion of sodium and water, as well ...
Chlorthalidone. N/A Tablet 25 mg Tablet 25-50 mg Tablet 12.5 mg Tablet 50 mg ...
CAS Number: 77-36-1 Analytical reference standard for Chlorthalidone
"Chlorthalidone" (PDF). FDA. Retrieved 27 March 2020. Dineva S, Uzunova K, Pavlova V, Filipova E, Kalinov K, Vekov T (November ... Chlorthalidone is the official name of the medication according to the (USAN), which is the medication naming system ... "Chlorthalidone". Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. National Library of Medicine. PMID ... Mulley BA, Parr GD, Pau WK, Rye RM, Mould JJ, Siddle NC (May 1978). "Placental transfer of chlorthalidone and its elimination ...
chlorthalidone. guanfacine. metoprolol. prazosin. aliskiren. clevidipine. hydralazine. moexipril. propranolol. amlodipine. ...
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chlorthalidone. *hydrochlorothiazide. *metolazone. Gout drugs. You shouldnt take bumetanide with certain drugs used to treat ...
Chlorthalidone (Hygroton). *Clonidine (Catapres). *Enalapril (Vasotec). *Furosemide (Lasix). *Guanabenz (Wytensin). * ...
Hydrochlorothiazide vs chlorthalidone, indapamide, and potassium-sparing/hydrochlorothiazi Hydrochlorothiazide vs ... CHIP diuretics surpassed HCTZ in reducing LVM chlorthalidone -8.2 (-14.7, -1.6), P = 0.015; indapamide -7.5 (-12.7, -2.3), P = ... CHlorthalidone, Indapamide, and Potassium-sparing diuretic/hydrochlorothiazide [PSD/HCTZ]) would reduce LVM more than HCTZ. ... chlorthalidone, indapamide, and potassium-sparing/hydrochlorothiazide diuretics for reducing left ventricular hypertrophy: A ...
Hypokalemia was higher in the chlorthalidone group (6.0% vs 4.4%). I was drawn to the fact that whereas experts had favored ... More than 13,000 patients were randomly assigned to chlorthalidone or hydrochlorothiazide. After 2.4 years, there were no ... The other issue was differing doses of the drugs-lower with chlorthalidone. ... the enrolled patients were already taking hydrochlorothiazide and were assigned to stay on the drug or switch to chlorthalidone ...
Exposures to chlorthalidone (77361) (CTD) were investigated on May 18, 19, 28 and 29, 1981 at Mylan Pharmaceuticals Company ( ...
CHLORTHALIDONE 25 MG TABLET 3. Preferred Brand. 20%. 20%. None. CHLORTHALIDONE 50 MG TABLET 3. Preferred Brand. 20%. 20%. None ...
Chlorthalidone: A diuretic that helps the body get rid of excess salt and water, thereby reducing blood pressure. ...
Chlorthalidone versus hydrochlorothiazide as the preferred diuretic: is there a verdict yet? Hypertens 2011; 57;665-666. ... Chlorthalidone attenuates the reduction in total cholesterol and small, dense LDL cholesterol subclass associated with weight ...
Chlorthalidone (Thalitone). *Hydrochlorothiazide (Microzide, HCTZ). *Metolazone (Zaroxolyn). *Steroids such as prednisone ( ...
Chlorthalidone. Ethacrynic acid. Furosemide. Hydrochlorothiazide. Mannitol*. Mersalyl. Spironolactone. Triamterene. .....and ...
diuretics such furosemide (Lasix), hydrochlorothiazide (Microzide), and chlorthalidone (Thalitone). *lithium. *warfarin ( ...
Design and methods for a pilot study and multicenter pragmatic trial comparing HCTZ and chlorthalidone for cardiovascular ...
high cholesterol statin use FDA approved high blood pressure medicine of potassium: Chloride, a Kinsones, and chlorthalidone, ...
... clonidine and chlorthalidone, which work together to effectively lower blood pressure and manage symptoms associated with ADHD ...
Chlorthalidone. Chlorthalidone inhibits reabsorption of sodium in distal tubules, causing increased excretion of sodium and ...
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