A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).
Encyclopedias as Topic
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
von Ebner Glands
A chronic transmural inflammation that may involve any part of the DIGESTIVE TRACT from MOUTH to ANUS, mostly found in the ILEUM, the CECUM, and the COLON. In Crohn disease, the inflammation, extending through the intestinal wall from the MUCOSA to the serosa, is characteristically asymmetric and segmental. Epithelioid GRANULOMAS may be seen in some patients.
Anti-Infective Agents, Local
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.
A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Purity determination of gynalgin bactericidal tablets with HPLC method. (1/1)The study was aimed at developing a simple HPLC method for the determination of the content of impurities in Gynalgin, a two-component preparation. A satisfactory separation was performed on 250 x 4.6 mm Symmetry C8 column in a gradient elution system: mobile phase A--acetonitrile/buffer, pH 5.5 in 10:90, v/v proportion, and mobile phase B--acetonitrile/buffer, pH 5.5 in 75:25 v/v proportion. Two wavelengths: 250 nm and 315 nm were used for detection. Validation confirmed that the method was linear in a required concentration range. The values of correlation coefficients for specific drug substances and the related impurities were as high as 0.999. The results of the purity tests proved that the method was sufficiently selective and precise. (+info)
ATC code R02 - Wikipedia
ATC code R02 Throat preparations is a therapeutic subgroup of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System, a system of alphanumeric codes developed by the WHO for the classification of drugs and other medical products. Subgroup R02 is part of the anatomical group R Respiratory system. Codes for veterinary use (ATCvet codes) can be created by placing the letter Q in front of the human ATC code: for example, QR02. National issues of the ATC classification may include additional codes not present in this list, which follows the WHO version. R02AA01 Ambazone R02AA02 Dequalinium R02AA03 Dichlorobenzyl alcohol R02AA05 Chlorhexidine R02AA06 Cetylpyridinium R02AA09 Benzethonium R02AA10 Myristyl-benzalkonium R02AA11 Chlorquinaldol R02AA12 Hexylresorcinol R02AA13 Acriflavinium chloride R02AA14 Oxyquinoline R02AA15 Povidone-iodine R02AA16 Benzalkonium R02AA17 Cetrimonium R02AA18 Hexamidine R02AA19 Phenol R02AA20 Various R02AA21 Octenidine R02AB01 Neomycin R02AB02 Tyrothricin R02AB03 ...
Cl (Chlorquinaldol). *Br (Tilbroquinol. *Broxyquinoline). *I (Diiodohydroxyquinoline). *I, Cl (Clioquinol). *related: Chiniofon ...
Quinolines such as hydroxyquinolone, dequalium chloride, or chlorquinaldol. Alcohols, including ethanol and 2-propanol/ ...
ATC code G01
... combinations G01AB01 Acetarsol G01AC01 Diiodohydroxyquinoline G01AC02 Clioquinol G01AC03 Chlorquinaldol G01AC05 Dequalinium ...
List of drugs: Cf-Ch
... chlorquinaldol (INN) Chlortab chlortalidone (INN) chlortetracycline (INN) chlorthenoxazine (INN) chlorzoxazone (INN) Cholac ...
List of MeSH codes (D03)
... chlorquinaldol MeSH D03.438.810.350.625.400 - clioquinol MeSH D03.438.810.350.625.420 - iodoquinol MeSH D03.438.810.350.700 - ...
ATC code P01
P01AA01 Broxyquinoline P01AA02 Clioquinol P01AA04 Chlorquinaldol P01AA05 Tilbroquinol P01AA52 Clioquinol, combinations P01AB01 ...
ATC code D08
... combinations D08AH01 Dequalinium D08AH02 Chlorquinaldol D08AH03 Oxyquinoline D08AH30 Clioquinol D08AJ01 Benzalkonium D08AJ02 ...
ATC code R02
... alcohol R02AA05 Chlorhexidine R02AA06 Cetylpyridinium R02AA09 Benzethonium R02AA10 Myristyl-benzalkonium R02AA11 Chlorquinaldol ...
... is an antimicrobial agent and antiseptic. It is a chlorinated derivative of the popular chelating agent 8- ...
... is sold under the trade name Mercurochrome (where the suffix "-chrome" denotes "color"). The name is also commonly used for over-the-counter antiseptic solutions consisting of merbromin (typically at 2% concentration) dissolved in either ethyl alcohol (tincture) or water (aqueous). Its antiseptic qualities were discovered in 1918 by Hugh H. Young, a physician at Johns Hopkins Hospital. The chemical soon became popular among parents and physicians for everyday antiseptic uses, including minor schoolyard injuries. It was commonly referred to as "monkey blood," referring to its deep red color. On October 19, 1998, citing potential for mercury poisoning, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reclassified merbromin from "generally recognized as safe" to "untested," effectively halting its distribution within the United States. Sales were subsequently halted in Brazil (2001), Germany (2003),[better source needed] and France (2006).[better ...
First isolated from the Streptomyces fradiae and Streptomyces albogriseus in 1949 (NBRC 12773). Neomycin is a mixture of neomycin B (framycetin); and its epimer neomycin C, the latter component accounting for some 5-15% of the mixture. It is a basic compound that is most active with an alkaline reaction. It is also a thermostable compound that is soluble in water while insoluble in organic solvents. Neomycin has good activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, but is very ototoxic. Its use is thus restricted to oral treatment of intestinal infections. Neomycin B is composed of four linked parts: D-neosamine, 2-deoxystreptamine (2-DOS), D-ribose, and L-neosamine. Neomycin A, also called neamine, contains D-neosamine and 2-deoxystreptamine. Neamine is made from six genes, DOIS gene (btrC, neo7); L-glutamine:DOI aminotransferase gene (btrS, neo6); a putative glycosyltransferase gene (btrM, neo8); a putative aminotransferase (similar to glutamate-1-semialdehyde 2,1- ...
As an oxidant, silver nitrate should be properly stored away from organic compounds. Despite its common usage in extremely low concentrations to prevent gonorrhea and control nose bleeds, silver nitrate is still very much toxic and corrosive. Brief exposure will not produce any immediate side effects other than the purple, brown or black stains on the skin, but upon constant exposure to high concentrations, side effects will be noticeable, which include burns. Long-term exposure may cause eye damage. Silver nitrate is known to be a skin and eye irritant. Silver nitrate has not been thoroughly investigated for potential carcinogenic effect. Silver nitrate is currently unregulated in water sources by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. However, if more than 1 gram of silver is accumulated in the body, a condition called argyria may develop. Argyria is a permanent cosmetic condition in which the skin and internal organs turn a blue-gray color. The United States Environmental ...
Iodine is usually used in an alcohol solution (called tincture of iodine) or as Lugol's iodine solution as a pre- and postoperative antiseptic. Some people[who?] do not recommend disinfecting minor wounds with iodine because of concern that it may induce scar tissue formation and increase healing time. However, concentrations of 1% iodine or less have not been shown to increase healing time and are not otherwise distinguishable from treatment with saline. Novel iodine antiseptics containing povidone-iodine (an iodophor, complex of povidone, a water-soluble polymer, with triiodide anions I3−, containing about 10% of active iodine) are far better tolerated, do not negatively affect wound healing, and leave a deposit of active iodine, thereby creating the so-called "remnant", or persistent, effect. The great advantage of iodine antiseptics is their wide scope of antimicrobial activity, killing all principal pathogens and, given enough time, even spores, which are considered to be the most ...
... is an antiseptic and disinfectant. As dibrompropamidine isethionate, it is used in eyedrops and ointment for the treatment of minor eye and eyelid infections in adults and children. In the UK, such preparations are sold under the brand names Brolene (Aventis Pharma), Golden Eye (Typharm Ltd) and Brulidine (Manx Healthcare). ...
... is miscible in water, ethanol, ether, and chloroform. It will dissolve ethyl cellulose, polyvinyl butyral, many oils, alkaloids, gums and natural resins. Unlike ethanol or methanol, isopropyl alcohol is not miscible with salt solutions and can be separated from aqueous solutions by adding a salt such as sodium chloride. The process is colloquially called salting out, and causes concentrated isopropyl alcohol to separate into a distinct layer. Isopropyl alcohol forms an azeotrope with water, which gives a boiling point of 80.37 °C (176.67 °F) and a composition of 87.7 wt% (91 vol%) isopropyl alcohol. Water-isopropyl alcohol mixtures have depressed melting points. It has a slightly bitter taste, and is not safe to drink. Isopropyl alcohol becomes increasingly viscous with decreasing temperature and will freeze at −89 °C (−128 °F). Isopropyl alcohol has a maximum absorbance at 205 nm in an ultraviolet-visible spectrum. ...
It is commonly available without a prescription in various dosage forms, such as a topical cream, ointment, or vaginal suppository. It is also available as an oral troche or throat lozenge as a prescription only. Topically, clotrimazole is used for vulvovaginal candidiasis (yeast infection) or yeast infections of the skin. For vulvovaginal candidiasis (yeast infection), clotrimazole tablets and creams are inserted into the vagina. Topical clotrimazole is usually not effective in treatment of fungal infections of the scalp or nails. When using over-the-counter drug clotrimazole products, use should be discontinued if condition does not improve after treatment for 2 weeks for jock itch or after 4 weeks for athlete's foot or ringworm. Throat lozenge preparations are used for oropharyngeal candidiasis (oral thrush) or prevention of oral thrush in people with neutropenia. Clotrimazole is usually used 5 times daily for 14 days for oral thrush, twice daily for 2 to 8 weeks for ...
... (trade names Oxistat in the US, Oxizole in Canada) is an antifungal medication typically administered in a cream or lotion to treat skin infections, such as athlete's foot, jock itch and ringworm. It can also be prescribed to treat the skin rash known as tinea versicolor, caused by systemic yeast overgrowth (Candida spp.). ...
2 will react violently. High-concentration hydrogen peroxide streams, typically above 40%, should be considered hazardous due to concentrated hydrogen peroxide's meeting the definition of a DOT oxidizer according to U.S. regulations, if released into the environment. The EPA Reportable Quantity (RQ) for D001 hazardous wastes is 100 pounds (45 kg), or approximately 10 US gallons (38 L), of concentrated hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide should be stored in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area and away from any flammable or combustible substances. It should be stored in a container composed of non-reactive materials such as stainless steel or glass (other materials including some plastics and aluminium alloys may also be suitable). Because it breaks down quickly when exposed to light, it should be stored in an opaque container, and pharmaceutical formulations typically come in brown bottles that block light. Hydrogen peroxide, either in pure or diluted form, can pose several risks, the main ...
An observational study of using octenidine on the skin of patients in 17 intensive care units in Berlin in 2014 showed decreasing nosocomial infection rates.. In a survey of German neonatal intensive-care units octenidine without phenoxyethanol and octenidine were the most common skin antiseptics used for intensive-care procedures. Skin complications included blistering, necrosis and scarring, which has not been previously reported in this population.. In a 2016 study of pediatric cancer patients with long-term central venous access devices using octenidine/isopropanol for the disinfection of catheter hubs and 3-way stopcocks as part of a bundled intervention, the risk of bloodstream infections decreased.. ...
... has been used for decades in the food industry as a hurdle to fungal outgrowth in dairy products and other foods. Potential advantages for the usage of natamycin might include the replacement of traditional chemical preservatives, a neutral flavor impact, and less dependence on pH for efficacy, as is common with chemical preservatives. It can be applied in a variety of ways: as an aqueous suspension (such as mixed into a brine) sprayed on the product or into which the product is dipped, or in powdered form (along with an anticaking agent such as cellulose) sprinkled on or mixed into the product. While not currently approved for use on meats in the United States, some countries allow natamycin to be applied to the surface of dry and fermented sausages to prevent mold growth on the casing. Also, natamycin is approved for various dairy applications in the United States. More specifically, natamycin is commonly used in products such as cream cheeses, cottage cheese, sour cream, yogurt, ...
... is an organic compound with local anaesthetic, antiseptic and anthelmintic properties. It is available for use topically on small skin infections, or as an ingredient in throat lozenges. Johnson & Johnson markets hexylresorcinol in its Neutrogena and RoC skincare products as an anti-aging cream. It is marketed as S.T. 37 by Numark Laboratories, Inc. (in a 0.1% solution) for oral pain relief and as an antiseptic. A study published in Chemical Research in Toxicology  shows that 4-hexylresorcinol used as a food additive (E-586) exhibits some estrogenic activity, i.e. resembles action of the female sex hormone estrogen. In one study, 4-hexylresorcinol increased the shelf life of shrimp by reducing melanosis (black spots). In mice with cancer, 4-hexylresorcinol inhibited NF-κB and extended their survival rate. ...
... is found primarily in sour milk products, such as koumiss, laban, yogurt, kefir, and some cottage cheeses. The casein in fermented milk is coagulated (curdled) by lactic acid. Lactic acid is also responsible for the sour flavor of sourdough bread. In lists of nutritional information lactic acid might be included under the term "carbohydrate" (or "carbohydrate by difference") because this often includes everything other than water, protein, fat, ash, and ethanol. If this is the case then the calculated food energy may use the standard 4 calories per gram that is often used for all carbohydrates. But in some cases lactic acid is ignored in the calculation. The energy density of lactic acid is 362 kilocalories (1,510 kJ) per 100 g. In beer brewing some styles of beer (sour beer) purposely contain lactic acid. Most commonly this is produced naturally by various strains of bacteria. These bacteria ferment sugars into acids, unlike yeast, which ferment sugar into ethanol. One ...
... is a broad spectrum antiseptic for topical application in the treatment and prevention of wound infection. It may be used in first aid for minor cuts, grazes, burns, abrasions and blisters. Povidone-iodine exhibits longer lasting antiseptic effects than tincture of iodine, due to its slow absorption via soft tissue, making it the choice for longer surgeries. Chlorhexidine provides superior results with equivalent adverse events. Consequently, PVP-I has found broad application in medicine as a surgical scrub; for pre- and post-operative skin cleansing; for the treatment and prevention of infections in wounds, ulcers, cuts and burns; for the treatment of infections in decubitus ulcers and stasis ulcers; in gynecology for vaginitis associated with candidal, trichomonal or mixed infections. For these purposes PVP-I has been formulated at concentrations of 7.5-10.0% in solution, spray, surgical scrub, ointment, and swab dosage forms; however, use of 10% povidone-iodine though ...
Chlorquinaldol - Wikipedia
Frontiers | In vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Chlorquinaldol against Microorganisms Responsible for Skin and Soft Tissue...
MIC of chlorquinaldol, gentamicin or fusidic acid. Staphylococci resulted the most sensitive Gram-positives to chlorquinaldol, ... MIC of chlorquinaldol, gentamicin or fusidic acid. Staphylococci resulted the most sensitive Gram-positives to chlorquinaldol, ... The activity of chlorquinaldol was investigated against a collection of bacterial isolates responsible for skin infections, ... The activity of chlorquinaldol was investigated against a collection of bacterial isolates responsible for skin infections, ...
Properties: Yellow needles from alc, mp 114-115° (slight decompn). Medicinal odor. uv max (ethanol): 316 nm (A1%1cm 170); min 280 nm. Practically insol in water. Soly (25°) in ethanol 1.0 g/100 ml of soln; chloroform 5.0 g; acetone 4.0 g; ether 3.0 g; 0.1N NaOH 1.4 g. Also sol in benzene, glacial acetic acid. ...
Chlorchinaldin H - Drugs.com
Prevention and treatment of atrophic rhinitis in pigs with Getroxel, chlorquinaldol and oxytetracycline.<...
... chlorquinaldol and oxytetracycline.. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Chlorquinaldol Medicine & Life Sciences ... Varga J, Magyar K, Fodor L, Romváry A. Prevention and treatment of atrophic rhinitis in pigs with Getroxel, chlorquinaldol and ... Getroxel, chlorquinaldol and oxytetracycline and the former two ones combined with trimethoprim inhibited the growth of both ... Getroxel, chlorquinaldol and oxytetracycline and the former two ones combined with trimethoprim inhibited the growth of both ...
Chlorquinaldol : medicine prices in Pakistan - WhatPriceDrugs.com
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METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR TREATING CANCER - GLOBAVIR BIOSCIENCES, INC.
In some embodiments, the antimicrobial agent comprises chlorquinaldol, or a salt or solvate thereof. In some embodiments, a PD- ... In some embodiments, the antimicrobial agent comprises chlorquinaldol, or a salt or solvate thereof. In some embodiments, the ... In some embodiments, the antimicrobial agent comprises chlorquinaldol, or a salt or solvate thereof. In some embodiments, an ... In some embodiments, the antimicrobial agent comprises chlorquinaldol, or a salt or solvate thereof. In some embodiments, a ...
Could essential oils help prevent millions of infections every year? - Innovation Toronto
Frontiers | Antimicrobial Effects of Sulfonyl Derivative of 2(5H)-Furanone against Planktonic and Biofilm Associated...
- The cosmetic in its composition contains, among others, clotrimazole, chlorquinaldol, which have antifungal and antibacterial properties, as well as castor oil and vitamin E. (pharmacyapozona.com)
- Quinolines such as hydroxyquinolone, dequalium chloride, or chlorquinaldol. (wikipedia.org)
- Chlorquinaldol was used historically as a topical antiseptic agent for skin infections. (drugbank.ca)
- The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of chlorquinaldol as an alternative approach to currently used topical antibiotics for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections. (frontiersin.org)
- In conclusion, chlorquinaldol may represent a valuable alternative to conventional topical antibiotics for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections. (frontiersin.org)
- Prevention and treatment of atrophic rhinitis in pigs with Getroxel, chlorquinaldol and oxytetracycline. (elsevier.com)
- When efficacy was tested in SPF in the group fed a combination of Getroxel, chlorquinaldol and oxytetracycline (60 mg, 240 mg and 360 mg/kg of feed, respectively), P. multocida disappeared from the nasal cavity by the end of a 30-day treatment. (elsevier.com)