A thioxanthine with effects similar to the phenothiazine antipsychotics.

Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of tolerance to the prolactin-secreting effect of chlorprothixene after different modes of drug administration. (1/9)

The objective of this study was the construction of a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model to describe the effects of chlorprothixene on prolactin secretion and the time-dependent alterations in the concentration-effect relationship due to tolerance development. Prolactin and chlorprothixene serum concentrations were determined in eight healthy men for up to 72 h after the intravenous and oral administration of chlorprothixene. An integrated pharmacokinetic model and a physiological indirect pharmacodynamic/tolerance model were applied to describe the prolactin-secreting effect of chlorprothixene. A three-compartment model served as pharmacokinetic model. The pharmacodynamic and tolerance model accounted for the baseline effect, the effect induced by the drug, and the regulatory mechanism that opposes the effect of the drug. This model adequately characterized the prolactin response after intravenous and oral drug administration of each individual by the sensitivity (dissociation constant), the efficacy (maximal prolactin secretion rate), the extent, and the rate of tolerance development. We speculate that this approach improves the quality of neuroendocrine challenge tests to determine the subject's sensitivity to drugs and the time course of adaptation.  (+info)

EFFECT OF CHLORPROTHIXENE IN PATIENTS WITH PARANOID SYMPTOMS. (2/9)

Chlorprothixene, a thioxanthine derivative, claimed to have broad-spectrum antipsychotic properties, was compared with phenothiazine derivatives in the setting of a psychiatric admission service and aftercare clinic.In 32 female patients with paranoid symptoms, chlorprothixene in high dosage ranges (200 to 1200 mg. daily) was found to be as effective as similar doses of chlorpromazine in controlling the symptoms; fewer side effects were noted.  (+info)

THE INCREASE IN THE TOXICITY OF YOHIMBINE INDUCED BY IMIPRAMINE AND OTHER DRUGS IN MICE. (3/9)

In mice, yohimbine appears to accentuate the normal "alarm" reactions (alerting, flight) to external stimuli. Imipramine increases this effect and at the same time converts a non-lethal dose of yohimbine into a lethal one. The effect of imipramine is greatly reduced by adrenalectomy or by treatment with reserpine, syrosingopine, ganglion-blocking drugs or adrenaline antagonists acting on sympathetic beta-receptors. Hypnotic, anti-convulsant or anaesthetic agents, tetrabenazine or antagonists of 5-hydroxytryptamine do not reduce the imipramine effect. A variety of drugs which, like imipramine, are known to interfere with the tissue binding of noradrenaline also increase the toxicity of yohimbine. Yohimbine significantly reduces brain noradrenaline content; adrenal catechol amines are slightly reduced. The results suggest that yohimbine releases noradrenaline from stores or nerves as a consequence of increased central sympathetic activity. Imipramine increases the actions and toxicity of yohimbine by increasing the effects of the released noradrenaline on beta-receptors. The lethal effects of a high dose of yohimbine alone are not reduced by any of the treatments tested, and appear not to result from activation of sympathetic mechanisms.  (+info)

GASTROINTESTINAL DISTURBANCES ASSOCIATED WITH WITHDRAWAL OF ATARACTIC DRUGS. (4/9)

The psychological effects of abrupt withdrawal of ataractic drugs have been studied by others. Physical symptoms also occur under such circumstances and include abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Forty patients were divided into four groups of 10, each group receiving one of the following drugs: chlorpromazine, thioridazine, perphenazine or chlorprothixene. This medication was then suddenly withdrawn. In each of the chlorpromazine and thioridazine groups, three patients had gastrointestinal symptoms within 48 hours, lasting one to eight days. One patient on chlorprothixene, 450 mg. daily, experienced symptoms for six days. Perphenazine withdrawal produced no such symptoms. Thioridazine has little antiemetic action but perphenazine is prescribed for vomiting; hence it seems unlikely that the reported symptoms are due to a rebound action on the vomiting centre.These findings are relevant to the situation of withdrawal of ataractics prior to administration of anesthetics and to drug studies involving cross-over from an active compound to a placebo. The increasing use of ataractics suggests that this additional diagnostic possibility should be considered in the presence of obscure gastrointestinal symptoms.  (+info)

A COMPARISON OF IMIPRAMINE, CHLORPROMAZINE AND RELATED DRUGS IN VARIOUS TESTS INVOLVING AUTONOMIC FUNCTIONS AND ANTAGONISM OF RESERPINE. (5/9)

Seven structurally-related compounds consisting of three antidepressant drugs (imipramine, desmethylimipramine and amitriptyline), three tranquillizing agents (promazine, chlorpromazine and chlorprothixene) and a hybrid, desmethylpromazine, have been examined in a series of tests involving autonomic functions and antagonism of reserpine. Activities of the compounds in antagonizing reserpine-induced ptosis in rabbits and prolongation of alcohol hypnosis in mice give good correlation with their clinical actions, whilst their activities in augmenting excitation of rats by amphetamine and yohimbine toxicity in mice, and in reversing reserpine-induced bradycardia in rats offer further evidence for drug-induced sensitization to adrenergic or tryptaminic mechanisms, which is not however specific for antidepressant agents. No evidence has been obtained to indicate that a central parasympatholytic action is an important component of the antidepressant activity of imipramine and related drugs.  (+info)

Efficacy, tolerability, and preference of mirtazapine orally disintegrating tablets in depressed patients: a 17-week naturalistic study in Lithuania. (6/9)

Mirtazapine is an established antidepressant with well-documented efficacy demonstrated in controlled clinical trials. However, the gap between the results obtained in controlled clinical trials and everyday clinical practice exists. Therefore, the importance of naturalistic studies in psychiatry is becoming recognized. The aim of present naturalistic study was to acquire data on efficacy, safety, and preference of mirtazapine orally disintegrating tablets during a 17-week treatment of depression. This prospective, open-label, multicenter study in patients with mild to severe depression was conducted at 47 mental health centers of Lithuania by 78 psychiatrists. Patients were initially given 15 mg or 30 mg of mirtazapine orally disintegrating tablets; the maximum allowed dose was 45 mg per day. The primary efficacy measure was the total score on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 (HAMD-17), the Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S), and Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) scales. Tolerability was primarily measured by assessing the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events. Patients were evaluated at baseline, at weeks 1, 5, 9, 13, and 17. A total of 779 patients (595 women [76.4%] with a mean [SD] age of 50.2 [13.65] and 184 men [23.6%] with a mean [SD] age of 52.4 [14.6] years) were enrolled into the study; 687 (88.2%) patients completed the study. The mean (SD) daily dose of mirtazapine orally disintegrating tablets was 29.0 (3.8) mg. The mean total (SD) HAMD-17 score improved significantly from 25.7 (4.6) to 7.3 (4.3) (P<0.005). At each visit, the mean HAMD-17 score was significantly lower than that at the preceding visit. At week 17, remission (HAMD-17 score < or =7) was observed in 436 (56%) patients. The mean (SD) CGI-S score improved significantly from 4.9 (1.0) at baseline to 1.5 (0.6) at endpoint (P<0.001). According to the CGI-I assessments, 621 patients (89.4%) improved and improved very much. The vast majority of patients (80%) preferred the new formulation of mirtazapine - mirtazapine orally disintegrating tablet. Treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 106 patients (13.6%). The most frequent adverse events were weight gain, sedation, dizziness, and dry mouth. In this study conducted in Lithuania with depressed patients, a significant improvement was shown in all efficacy measures. In addition, mirtazapine orally disintegrating tablet was a well-tolerated and preferable formulation for the treatment of depressed patients.  (+info)

Solvent dependence of the photophysical properties of 2-chlorothioxanthone, the principal photoproduct of chlorprothixene. (7/9)

 (+info)

Diagnosis and treatment of conduct disorder related to frontal lobe syndrome in a 16-year-old girl. (8/9)

Conduct disorders are the most frequent psychiatric diagnosis in the pediatric and adolescent population, with different etiology and difficult to treat. Delinquent, aggressive, and impulsive behavior, lack of empathy and inability to predict possible consequences of the behavior lead to significant desadaptation and danger for these patients. In clinical practice, focus is usually given on social and psychological causes of conduct disorders ignoring possible biological factors in etiology and pathophysiology. A clinical case described in this article shows the linkage between frontal brain dysfunction and behavioral symptoms. The first clues of organic brain disorder were multiple and severe symptoms of disinhibition resistant to treatment with dopaminergic drugs and the results of neuropsychological testing. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imagining, and single-photon emission computed tomography findings were minor and not supported by associated neurological symptoms. However, the location of alterations of brain structure and perfusion significantly correlated with psychopathology. Clarification of the organic cause of the conduct disorder allowed choosing an effective strategy of psychopharmacologic treatment. A positive clinical effect was achieved after switching the treatment from dopaminergic antipsychotic drugs to carbamazepine, which modulates the GABAergic system. Presenting this clinical case, we intended to emphasize the importance of careful attention to the findings of neurovisual and neuropsychological testing diagnosing conduct disorders and individually choosing the most effective psychopharmacologic treatment.  (+info)

Chlorprothixene is a type of antipsychotic medication that is primarily used to treat chronic schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. It belongs to a class of drugs known as phenothiazines, which work by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain. This helps to reduce the symptoms of psychosis, such as hallucinations, delusions, and disordered thinking.

Chlorprothixene is available in tablet and injectable forms, and its typical starting dose for adults ranges from 10 to 25 milligrams per day. The dosage may be gradually increased over time based on the individual's response to treatment. Common side effects of chlorprothixene include drowsiness, dizziness, dry mouth, constipation, and weight gain.

It is important to note that chlorprothixene can have serious side effects, including tardive dyskinesia (involuntary muscle movements), neuroleptic malignant syndrome (a rare but potentially fatal reaction to antipsychotic medication), and agranulocytosis (a severe decrease in white blood cell count). As with any medication, chlorprothixene should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

However, chlorprothixene can be used as co-medication in severe chronic pain. Also, like most antipsychotics, chlorprothixene ... For this reason, chlorprothixene has sometimes been described instead as an atypical antipsychotic. Chlorprothixene has also ... Chlorprothixene is sold mainly under the brand name Truxal. Chlorprothixene is widely available throughout Europe and elsewhere ... Chlorprothixene has a strong sedative activity with a high incidence of anticholinergic side effects. The types of side effects ...
Chlorprothixene • Droperidol • Flupentixol • Fluphenazine • Fluspirilene • Haloperidol • Loxapine • Mesoridazine • ...
Analogues include chlorprothixene, clopenthixol, flupentixol, and zuclopenthixol. Anvisa (2023-03-31). "RDC Nº 784 - Listas de ... is a typical antipsychotic of the thioxanthene class which is related to chlorprothixene and is used in the treatment of ...
... chlorprothixene, and quetiapine". Journal of Analytical Toxicology. 39 (1): 41-44. doi:10.1093/jat/bku121. PMID 25342720. " ...
This effect has also been observed with low-potency tricyclic antipsychotics like thioridazine and chlorprothixene. Notably, ...
His most commonly-used drug to treat bedwetting was the antipsychotic chlorprothixene, which was neither the standard drug of ... large-scale investigations into chlorprothixene for bedwetting were conducted, and general practitioners began to use it. His ...
... may refer to: Chlorprothixene, a pharmaceutical Tardan, Iran, a village in Markazi Province, Iran This disambiguation ...
After the war, Lundbeck continued to grow and in 1957 the company introduced Truxal (chlorprothixene) for the treatment of ...
... chlorprothixene, flupentixol, thiothixene, zuclopenthixol Tricyclic and piperidine: pimethixene, cyproheptadine Acyclic: ...
... chlorprothixene (INN) chlorquinaldol (INN) Chlortab chlortalidone (INN) chlortetracycline (INN) chlorthenoxazine (INN) ...
... chlorprothixene MeSH D03.494.953.704.269 - clopenthixol MeSH D03.494.953.704.360 - flupenthixol MeSH D03.494.953.704.450 - ...
Cyclopentolate Cisapride Citalopram Clomacran Clomethiazole Clomipramine Chloralodol Chlorpromazine Chlorprothixene Clotiapine ...
For a list of typical antipsychotics organized by potency, see below: Chlorpromazine Chlorprothixene Levomepromazine ...
The derivatives of thioxanthene used clinically as antipsychotics include: Chlorprothixene (Cloxan, Taractan, Truxal) ...
Aprindine Astemizole AY-9944 Benzatropine Bepridil Biperiden Camylofin Carvedilol Cepharanthine Chlorpromazine Chlorprothixene ...
... chlorprothixene, thioridazine and levomepromazine, but trifluoperazine appears to cause more adverse effects than these drugs. ...
N05AE03 Sertindole N05AE04 Ziprasidone N05AE05 Lurasidone N05AF01 Flupentixol N05AF02 Clopenthixol N05AF03 Chlorprothixene ...
Chlorprothixene (low-potency typical antipsychotic, trade name: Truxal) Chloropyramine (first generation antihistamine marketed ...
However, chlorprothixene can be used as co-medication in severe chronic pain. Also, like most antipsychotics, chlorprothixene ... For this reason, chlorprothixene has sometimes been described instead as an atypical antipsychotic. Chlorprothixene has also ... Chlorprothixene is sold mainly under the brand name Truxal. Chlorprothixene is widely available throughout Europe and elsewhere ... Chlorprothixene has a strong sedative activity with a high incidence of anticholinergic side effects. The types of side effects ...
... chlorprothixene) is a small molecule pharmaceutical. Chlorprothixene was first approved as Taractan on 1982-01-01. It is used ... Taractan (chlorprothixene) is a small molecule pharmaceutical. Chlorprothixene was first approved as Taractan on 1982-01-01. It ... Chlorprothixene is a member of thioxanthenes, a tertiary amino compound and an organochlorine compound. It has a role as a non- ...
Empower your API initiatives with our expertise. Reach out to us now to pave the way for enhanced collaboration and success ...
Tag: Chlorprothixene. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have emerged as potential cell sources for. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have ...
Chlorprothixene. Flupentixol (Depixol, Fluanxol). Zuclopenthixol (Clopixol, Acuphase). Amisulpride (Solian). Asenapine (Saphris ...
This medicine may make you dizzy, drowsy, or have trouble with thinking or controlling body movements. Do not drive or do anything else that could be dangerous until you know how this medicine affects you. This medicine may cause tardive dyskinesia (a movement disorder). Check with your doctor right away if you have any of the following symptoms while taking this medicine: lip smacking or puckering, puffing of the cheeks, rapid or worm-like movements of the tongue, uncontrolled chewing movements, or uncontrolled movements of the arms and legs. The risk of tardive dyskinesia is higher if you take this medicine for longer than 12 weeks. Treatment for longer than 12 weeks should be avoided in all but rare cases. Tell your doctor right away if you have the following symptoms while you are using this medicine: inability to move the eyes, increased blinking or spasms of the eyelid, trouble with breathing, speaking, or swallowing, uncontrolled tongue movements, uncontrolled twisting movements of the ...
Drug-induced photosensitivity refers to the development of cutaneous disease as a result of the combined effects of a chemical and light. Exposure to either the chemical or the light alone is not sufficient to induce the disease; however, when photoactivation of the chemical occurs, one or more cutaneous manifestations may arise.
Neuroleptic drugs also blocked the H2-linked adenylate cyclase; pA2 values were: chlorprothixene 7.2; chlorpromazine 6.7; ...
chlorprothixene. Taractan. clozapine. Clozaril. fluphenazine. Permitil, Prolixin. haloperidol. Haldol. loxapine. Loxitane. ...
Chlorprothixene / administration & dosage Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ...
His most commonly-used drug to treat bedwetting was the antipsychotic chlorprothixene, which was neither the standard drug of ... large-scale investigations into chlorprothixene for bedwetting were conducted, and general practitioners began to use it. His ...
Cholestatic liver disease in a pregnant woman in the 33rd week of pregnancy who received chlorpromazine and chlorprothixene has ...
Based on plasma levels, the mirtazapine dose taken was 30 to 45 mg, while plasma levels of amitriptyline and chlorprothixene ... The only drug overdose death reported while taking mirtazapine was in combination with amitriptyline and chlorprothixene in a ...
Based on plasma levels, the mirtazapine dose taken was 30 to 45 mg, while plasma levels of amitriptyline and chlorprothixene ... The only drug overdose death reported while taking mirtazapine was in combination with amitriptyline and chlorprothixene in a ...
Chlorprothixene,N0000006953, phenacemide,N0000006952, Antimony Potassium Tartrate,N0000006951, methylparaben,N0000006950, ...
Identification of chlorprothixene as a potential drug that induces apoptosis and autophagic cell death in acute myeloid ...
CHLORPROTHIXENE AND ITS SALTS. CHLORTETRACYCLINE. CHYMOTRYPSIN. CICLOPIROX AND ITS SALTS. CIMETIDINE AND ITS SALTS. CINCHOPHEN ...
Figure 5.. The BOLD signal under sedation with chlorprothixene A. Spatiotemporal evolution of the BOLD signal change from a ...
... chlorprothixene, chloral hydrate, cinnarizine, clomipramine, clonidine, clopentixol, cocaine, codeine, dextromoramide, ...
... chlorprothixene, diclofenac, doxepine, indomethacine, maprotiline, or metoclopramide, or with a chronic heroin and cocaine ...
2- And 3-fluoro derivatives of clorotepin and related compounds; 6- And 7-fluoro derivative of chlorprothixene. 1975, Vol. 40, ... Fluorinated tricyclic neuroleptics: 6,7-Difluoro derivative of chlorprothixene and 2-fluoro-3-hydroxy derivative of ...
CHLORPROTHIXENE 51165 CHLORTETRACYCLINE 51170 CHLORTHALIDONE 51175 CHLORZOXAZONE 51177 CHOLECALCIFEROL 51180 CHOLERA VACCINE ...
Chlorprothixene (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Chlorprothixene (substance). Concept Status. Published. ...
Chlorprothixene D3.494.953.704.250 D3.633.300.953.704.250 Chlorquinaldol D3.438.810.350.625.250.260 D3.633.100.810.350.625. ...
Chlorprothixene Preferred Term Term UI T007975. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID ... Chlorprothixene Preferred Concept UI. M0004207. Registry Number. 9S7OD60EWP. Related Numbers. 113-59-7. Scope Note. A ... Chlorprothixene. Tree Number(s). D02.886.952.250. D03.633.300.953.704.250. Unique ID. D002749. RDF Unique Identifier. http://id ...
Chlorprothixene Preferred Term Term UI T007975. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID ... Chlorprothixene Preferred Concept UI. M0004207. Registry Number. 9S7OD60EWP. Related Numbers. 113-59-7. Scope Note. A ... Chlorprothixene. Tree Number(s). D02.886.952.250. D03.633.300.953.704.250. Unique ID. D002749. RDF Unique Identifier. http://id ...
Figure 1. Locomotion assay to identify drugs that rescue the scn1Lab mutant epilepsy phenotype. a, Schematic of the phenotype-based screening process. Chemical libraries can be coded and aliquoted in small volumes (75 µL) into individual wells containing one mutant fish. The 96-well microplate is arranged so that six fish are tested per drug; with one row of six fish maintained as an internal control (red circles) on each plate. b, Representative images for WT and scn1Lab mutant zebrafish larvae at 5 dpf. Note the morphological similarity but darker pigmentation in mutant larvae. c, Box plot of mean velocity (in millimeters per second) for two consecutive recordings of mutant larvae in embryo media. Experiments were performed by first placing the mutant larvae in embryo media and obtaining a baseline locomotion response; embryo media was then replaced with new embryo media (to mimic the procedure used for test compounds), and a second locomotion response was obtained. The percentage change in ...
Typical antipsychotics (e.g., acetophenazine, chlorpromazine, chlorprothixene, fluphenazine, loxapine, pimozide). *Vortioxetine ...
Chlorprothixene - Preferred Concept UI. M0004207. Scope note. A thioxanthine with effects similar to the phenothiazine ...
  • Chlorprothixene is structurally related to chlorpromazine, with which it shares, in principle, all side effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorprothixene, sold under the brand name Truxal among others, is a typical antipsychotic of the thioxanthene group. (wikipedia.org)
  • For this reason, chlorprothixene has sometimes been described instead as an atypical antipsychotic. (wikipedia.org)
  • His most commonly-used drug to treat bedwetting was the antipsychotic chlorprothixene, which was neither the standard drug of choice among child psychiatrists, nor was it supported by contemporary evidence. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Chlorprothixene is sold mainly under the brand name Truxal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Direct immersion solid-phase microextraction has been optimized and applied to the simultaneous determination of the neutral and basic pharmaceuticals: caffeine, carbamazepine, clomipramine, chlorprothixene and clotrimazole at low concentrations in municipal wastewater. (degruyter.com)
  • The high values of distribution coefficient (K fs ) in PDMS/water and PA/water systems (log K fs between 3.05 and 4.23) indicates the very high applicability of these stationary phases for determination of carbamazepine, clomipramine, chlorprothixene and clotrimazole in water samples. (degruyter.com)
  • Chlorprothixene may increase the plasma-level of concomitantly given lithium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorprothixene, methotrimeprazine, and piperacetazine were the three most potent FDA-approved drugs with anti-SARS-CoV-2 activities. (c19early.org)
  • Taractan (chlorprothixene) is a small molecule pharmaceutical. (pharmakb.com)
  • Chlorprothixene was first approved as Taractan on 1982-01-01. (pharmakb.com)
  • citation needed] Chlorprothixene was the first of the thioxanthene antipsychotics to be synthesized. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, like most antipsychotics, chlorprothixene has antiemetic effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • 14. Identification of chlorprothixene as a potential drug that induces apoptosis and autophagic cell death in acute myeloid leukemia cells. (nih.gov)
  • The virtual screening methodology proved highly successful, as 13 of 23 top drugs tested selectively inhibited histamine-induced calcium release with the best being chlorprothixene (IC(50) 1 nM). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Chlorprothixene has a strong sedative activity with a high incidence of anticholinergic side effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • in the 1960s, large-scale investigations into chlorprothixene for bedwetting were conducted, and general practitioners began to use it. (wikipedia.org)