Chlorpromazine: The prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class chlorpromazine's antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking DOPAMINE RECEPTORS. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup.Phenothiazines: Compounds containing dibenzo-1,4-thiazine. Some of them are neuroactive.Thioridazine: A phenothiazine antipsychotic used in the management of PHYCOSES, including SCHIZOPHRENIA.Tranquilizing Agents: A traditional grouping of drugs said to have a soothing or calming effect on mood, thought, or behavior. Included here are the ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS (minor tranquilizers), ANTIMANIC AGENTS, and the ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS (major tranquilizers). These drugs act by different mechanisms and are used for different therapeutic purposes.Triflupromazine: A phenothiazine used as an antipsychotic agent and as an antiemetic.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Promazine: A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE but with less antipsychotic activity. It is primarily used in short-term treatment of disturbed behavior and as an antiemetic.Trifluoperazine: A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.Imipramine: The prototypical tricyclic antidepressant. It has been used in major depression, dysthymia, bipolar depression, attention-deficit disorders, agoraphobia, and panic disorders. It has less sedative effect than some other members of this therapeutic group.Prochlorperazine: A phenothiazine antipsychotic used principally in the treatment of NAUSEA; VOMITING; and VERTIGO. It is more likely than CHLORPROMAZINE to cause EXTRAPYRAMIDAL DISORDERS. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p612)Perphenazine: An antipsychotic phenothiazine derivative with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROMAZINE.Haloperidol: A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)Promethazine: A phenothiazine derivative with histamine H1-blocking, antimuscarinic, and sedative properties. It is used as an antiallergic, in pruritus, for motion sickness and sedation, and also in animals.Psychopharmacology: The study of the effects of drugs on mental and behavioral activity.Pimozide: A diphenylbutylpiperidine that is effective as an antipsychotic agent and as an alternative to HALOPERIDOL for the suppression of vocal and motor tics in patients with Tourette syndrome. Although the precise mechanism of action is unknown, blockade of postsynaptic dopamine receptors has been postulated. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p403)Butyrophenones: Compounds containing phenyl-1-butanone.N,N-Dimethyltryptamine: An N-methylated indoleamine derivative and serotonergic hallucinogen which occurs naturally and ubiquitously in several plant species including Psychotria veridis. It also occurs in trace amounts in mammalian brain, blood, and urine, and is known to act as an agonist or antagonist of certain SEROTONIN RECEPTORS.Meprobamate: A carbamate with hypnotic, sedative, and some muscle relaxant properties, although in therapeutic doses reduction of anxiety rather than a direct effect may be responsible for muscle relaxation. Meprobamate has been reported to have anticonvulsant actions against petit mal seizures, but not against grand mal seizures (which may be exacerbated). It is used in the treatment of ANXIETY DISORDERS, and also for the short-term management of INSOMNIA but has largely been superseded by the BENZODIAZEPINES. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p603)Iproniazid: An irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase types A and B that is used as an antidepressive agent. It has also been used as an antitubercular agent, but its use is limited by its toxicity.Dextroamphetamine: The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.Fluspirilene: A long-acting injectable antipsychotic agent used for chronic schizophrenia.Secologanin Tryptamine Alkaloids: Compounds formed by condensation of secologanin with tryptamine resulting in a tetrahydro-beta-carboline which is processed further to a number of bioactive compounds. These are especially found in plants of the APOCYNACEAE; LOGANIACEAE; and RUBIACEAE families.Dopamine Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.Pharmacology: The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.Clozapine: A tricylic dibenzodiazepine, classified as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It binds several types of central nervous system receptors, and displays a unique pharmacological profile. Clozapine is a serotonin antagonist, with strong binding to 5-HT 2A/2C receptor subtype. It also displays strong affinity to several dopaminergic receptors, but shows only weak antagonism at the dopamine D2 receptor, a receptor commonly thought to modulate neuroleptic activity. Agranulocytosis is a major adverse effect associated with administration of this agent.Reserpine: An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.Chlorprothixene: A thioxanthine with effects similar to the phenothiazine antipsychotics.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Precursor Cells, B-Lymphoid: Lymphocyte progenitor cells that are restricted in their differentiation potential to the B lymphocyte lineage. The pro-B cell stage of B lymphocyte development precedes the pre-B cell stage.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Postal Service: The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.EncyclopediasDictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Thiothixene: A thioxanthine used as an antipsychotic agent. Its effects are similar to the phenothiazine antipsychotics.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.American Hospital Association: A professional society in the United States whose membership is composed of hospitals.Community Networks: Organizations and individuals cooperating together toward a common goal at the local or grassroots level.Multi-Institutional Systems: Institutional systems consisting of more than one health facility which have cooperative administrative arrangements through merger, affiliation, shared services, or other collective ventures.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Accreditation: Certification as complying with a standard set by non-governmental organizations, applied for by institutions, programs, and facilities on a voluntary basis.Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations: A private, voluntary, not-for-profit organization which establishes standards for the operation of health facilities and services, conducts surveys, and awards accreditation.MarylandConsumer Health Information: Information intended for potential users of medical and healthcare services. There is an emphasis on self-care and preventive approaches as well as information for community-wide dissemination and use.Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.

Nonbehavioral selection for pawns, mutants of Paramecium aurelia with decreased excitability. (1/831)

The reversal response in Paramecium aurelia is mediated by calcium which carries the inward current during excitation. Electrophysiological studies indicate that strontium and barium can also carry the inward current. Exposure to high concentrations of barium rapidly paralyzes and later kills wild-type paramecia. Following mutagenesis with nitrosoguanidine, seven mutants which continued to swim in the ;high-barium' solution were selected. All of the mutants show decreased reversal behavior, with phenotypes ranging from extremely non-reversing (;extreme' pawns) to nearly wild-type reversal behavior (;partial' pawns). The mutations fall into three complementation groups, identical to the pwA, pwB, and pwC genes of Kunget al. (1975). All of the pwA and pwB mutants withstand longer exposure to barium, the pwB mutants surviving longer than the pwA mutants. Among mutants of each gene, survival is correlated with loss of reversal behavior. Double mutants (A-B, A-C, B-C), identified in the exautogamous progeny of crosses between ;partial' mutants, exhibited a more extreme non-reversing phenotype than either of their single-mutant (;partial' pawn) parents.---Inability to reverse could be expected from an alteration in the calcium-activated reversal mechanism or in excitation. A normal calcium-activated structure was demonstrated in all pawns by chlorpromazine treatment. In a separate report (Schein, Bennett and Katz 1976) the results of electrophysiological investigations directly demonstrate decreased excitability in all of the mutants, a decrease due to an altered calcium activation. The studies of the genetics, the survival in barium and the electro-physiology of the pawns demonstrate that the pwA and pwB genes have different effects on calcium activation.  (+info)

Effects of promazine, chlorpromazine, d-amphetamine, and pentobarbital on treadle pressing by pigeons under a signalled shock-postponement schedule. (2/831)

The effects of promazine on treadle pressing to postpone the presentation of electric shock were studied in three pigeons. The effects of chlorpromazine, d-amphetamine, and pentobarbital were studied in two of these pigeons. Each treadle press postponed electric shock for 20 sec and presentation of a preshock stimulus for 14 sec. Selected doses of both promazine and chlorpromazine increased the rates of treadle pressing in all birds. The response-rate increases produced by promazine and chlorpromazine were due to increased conditional probabilities of treadle pressing both before and during the preshock stimulus. d-Amphetamine (1 and 3 mg/kg) slightly increased responding in one of the birds, but not to the extent that promazine or chlorpromazine did. In the other bird, the 10 mg/kg dose of d-amphetamine increased shock rate but did not change response rate. Some doses of d-amphetamine increased the conditional probabilities of responding both in the absence of the preshock signal and during the preshock signal in both birds. Pentobarbital only decreased response rates and increased shock rates.  (+info)

Effect of psychotropic drugs on caudate spindle in cats. (3/831)

To ascertain whether neuroleptics act on the caudate nucleus itself, the effects of these compounds as well as other centrally acting drugs were examined in relation to caudate spindle and EEG arousal responses (sciatic nerve stimulation) in gallamine-immobilized cats. Haloperidol and chlorpromazine enhanced the caudate spindle at a dose which had no effect on the EEG arousal response. On the other hand, clozapine and a higher dose of chlorpromazine enhanced the caudate spindle, but depressed the arousal response. High frequency stimulation of the sciatic nerve suppressed the caudate spindle. Pentobarbital, biperiden and diazepam, while depressing the arousal response, caused an enhancement of the caudate spindle. Imipramine at a low dose had no effect on either response, whereas at a high dose this drug enhanced the caudate spindle with concomitant depression of the arousal response. From these results, it may be concluded that the enhancing action on the caudate spindle induced by haloperidol and a low dose of chlorpromazine is due to an increase in susceptibility of the caudate nucleus itself. In addition, it is suggested that depression of the activating system is involved in an appearance of the caudate spindle.  (+info)

Mechanisms involved in the metabotropic glutamate receptor-enhancement of NMDA-mediated motoneurone responses in frog spinal cord. (4/831)

1. The metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonist trans-(+/-)-1-amino-1,3-cyclopentanedicarboxylic acid (trans-ACPD) (10-100 microM) depolarized isolated frog spinal cord motoneurones, a process sensitive to kynurenate (1.0 mM) and tetrodotoxin (TTX) (0.783 microM). 2. In the presence of NMDA open channel blockers [Mg2+; (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine hydrogen maleate (MK801); 3,5-dimethyl-1-adamantanamine hydrochloride (memantine)] and TTX, trans-ACPD significantly potentiated NMDA-induced motoneurone depolarizations, but not alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-proprionate (AMPA)- or kainate-induced depolarizations. 3. NMDA potentiation was blocked by (RS)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG) (240 microM), but not by alpha-methyl-(2S,3S,4S)-alpha-(carboxycyclopropyl)-glycine (MCCG) (290 microM) or by alpha-methyl-(S)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-MAP4) (250 microM), and was mimicked by 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) (30 microM), but not by L(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-AP4) (100 microM). Therefore, trans-ACPD's facilitatory effects appear to involve group I mGluRs. 4. Potentiation was prevented by the G-protein decoupling agent pertussis toxin (3-6 ng ml(-1), 36 h preincubation). The protein kinase C inhibitors staurosporine (2.0 microM) and N-(2-aminoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulphonamide HCI (H9) (77 microM) did not significantly reduce enhanced NMDA responses. Protein kinase C activation with phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (5.0 microM) had no effect. 5. Intracellular Ca2+ depletion with thapsigargin (0.1 microM) (which inhibits Ca2+/ATPase), 1,2-bis(O-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetracetic acid acetyl methyl ester (BAPTA-AM) (50 microM) (which buffers elevations of [Ca2+]i), and bathing spinal cords in nominally Ca2+-free medium all reduced trans-ACPD's effects. 6. The calmodulin antagonists N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulphonamide (W7) (100 microM) and chlorpromazine (100 microM) diminished the potentiation. 7. In summary, group I mGluRs selectively facilitate NMDA-depolarization of frog motoneurones via a G-protein, a rise in [Ca2+]i from the presumed generation of phosphoinositides, binding of Ca2+ to calmodulin, and lessening of the Mg2+-produced channel block of the NMDA receptor.  (+info)

Antagonistic effects of trifluoperazine, imipramine, and chlorpromazine against acetylcholine-induced contractions in isolated rat uterus. (5/831)

AIM: To examine the effects and affinity of some phenothizines (trifluoperazine, Tri and chlorpromazine, Chl) and antidepressant (imipramine, Imi) drugs on acetylcholine (ACh)-induced uterine contraction. METHODS: Isotonic contractions of rat uterine strips were recorded. ACh was administrated to induce maximal contraction before exchange of nutrient solution. ACh was added 5 min after the testing drugs. The nutrient solution was exchanged 4 times after each agonist (ACh or other agents) to produce maximal contraction. RESULTS: Atropine (Atr, 0.029-2.9 mumol.L-1), 4-DAMP (3.6-360 nmol.L-1), pirenzepine (Pir, 0.23-23.5 mumol.L-1), and AF-DX 116 (0.7-35.6 mumol.L-1) competitively antagonized the muscular uterine concentration induced by ACh (0.068-36068 mumol.L-1). The Schild plot was linear (r = 1.00). The pKB and slopes values (95% confidence limits) were 9.28 +/- 0.12 and 1.00 +/- 0.10 to Atr, 9.06 +/- 0.10 and 1.10 +/- 0.08 to 4-DAMP, 7.03 +/- 0.15 and 0.99 +/- 0.12 to Pir, and 5.60 +/- 0.08 and 1.00 +/- 0.19 to AF-DX 116. Tri 0.01-2 mumol.L-1 (pKB = 8.39 +/- 0.04) and Imi 94-940 nmol.L-1 (pKB = 7.21 +/- 0.10) produced also a competitive antagonism of the muscular uterine contraction induced by ACh (r = 1.00), but the slope was only 0.60 +/- 0.03 to Tri or 0.83 +/- 0.16 to Imi. Chl 2.8-5.6 mumol.L-1 produced a weak antagonism on amplitude of muscular contraction induced by the cholinomimetic. CONCLUSION: The muscarinic receptors on uterus behaved as M3 subtype. Tri and Imi, but not Chl, were competitive antagonist of muscarinic receptors of uterus. Imi behaved a simple competitive antagonist at a single site on myometrium, but Tri was not a simple competitive agent at a single site.  (+info)

Chlorpromazine inhibits miniature GABAergic currents by reducing the binding and by increasing the unbinding rate of GABAA receptors. (6/831)

Recent studies have emphasized that nonequilibrium conditions of postsynaptic GABAA receptor (GABAAR) activation is a key factor in shaping the time course of IPSCs (Puia et al., 1994; Jones and Westbrook, 1995). Such nonequilibrium, resulting from extremely fast agonist time course, may affect the interaction between pharmacological agents and postsynaptic GABAARs. In the present study we found that chlorpromazine (CPZ), a widely used antipsychotic drug known to interfere with several ligand and voltage-gated channels, reduces the amplitude and accelerates the decay of miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs). A good qualitative reproduction of the effects of CPZ on mIPSCs was obtained when mIPSCs were mimicked by responses to ultrafast GABA applications to excised patches. Our experimental data and model simulations indicate that CPZ affects mIPSCs by decreasing the binding (kon) and by increasing the unbinding (koff) rates of GABAARs. Because of reduction of kon by CPZ, the binding reaction becomes rate-limiting, and agonist exposure of GABAARs during mIPSC is too short to activate the receptors to the same extent as in control conditions. The increase in unbinding rate is implicated as the mechanism underlying the acceleration of mIPSC decaying phase. The effect of CPZ on GABAAR binding rate, resulting in slower onset of GABA-evoked currents, provides a tool to estimate the speed of synaptic clearance of GABA. Moreover, the onset kinetics of recorded responses allowed the estimate the peak synaptic GABA concentration.  (+info)

Raclopride and chlorpromazine, but not clozapine, increase muscle rigidity in the rat: relationship with D2 dopamine receptor occupancy. (7/831)

The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between effects on muscle tone and D2 receptor occupancy of two typical antipsychotic drugs, raclopride and chlorpromazine, and the atypical drug, clozapine. Increased muscle tone (i.e., muscle rigidity), was measured as increases in tonic electromyographic (EMG) activity of the antagonistic muscles of the rat hind limb. D2 dopamine receptor occupancy was assessed in the striatum and substantia nigra, areas involved in the regulation of muscle tone. Raclopride and chlorpromazine produced dose-dependent increases in EMG activity associated with D2 occupancy of 68%-80% in the striatum and 67%-76% in the nigra. No significant increases in EMG were observed with clozapine which showed low D2 occupancy. The results are consistent with those from human studies showing extrapyramidal side effects were associated with striatal D2 occupancy of > 70%.  (+info)

A specific point mutant at position 1 of the influenza hemagglutinin fusion peptide displays a hemifusion phenotype. (8/831)

We showed previously that substitution of the first residue of the influenza hemagglutinin (HA) fusion peptide Gly1 with Glu abolishes fusion activity. In the present study we asked whether this striking phenotype was due to the charge or side-chain volume of the substituted Glu. To do this we generated and characterized six mutants with substitutions at position 1: Gly1 to Ala, Ser, Val, Glu, Gln, or Lys. We found the following. All mutants were expressed at the cell surface, could be cleaved from the precursor (HA0) to the fusion permissive form (HA1-S-S-HA2), bound antibodies against the major antigenic site, bound red blood cells, and changed conformation at low pH. Only Gly, Ala, and Ser supported lipid mixing during fusion with red blood cells. Only Gly and Ala supported content mixing. Ser HA, therefore, displayed a hemifusion phenotype. The hemifusion phenotype of Ser HA was confirmed by electrophysiological studies. Our findings indicate that the first residue of the HA fusion peptide must be small (e.g., Gly, Ala, or Ser) to promote lipid mixing and must be small and apolar (e.g., Gly or Ala) to support both lipid and content mixing. The finding that Val HA displays no fusion activity underscores the idea that hydrophobicity is not the sole factor dictating fusion peptide function. The surprising finding that Ser HA displays hemifusion suggests that the HA ectodomain functions not only in the first stage of fusion, lipid mixing, but also, either directly or indirectly, in the second stage of fusion, content mixing.  (+info)

DAVID A. BENDER; The Effect of Single and Repeated Administration of Chlorpromazine on Serum Tryptophan and Albumin Binding of Tryptophan in the Rat. Biochem Soc Trans 1 February 1975; 3 (1): 115-117. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/bst0030115. Download citation file:. ...
Chlorpromazine hydrochloride is a dopamine and potassium channel inhibitor with IC50 of 6.1 and 16 μM for nward-rectifying K+ currents and time-independent outward currents Buy Potassium Channel inhibitor Chlorpromazine hydrochloride (Sonazine) from AbMole BioScience.
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The study of degradation products of chlorpromazine hydrochloride by the method of liquid-mass spectroscopy in drugs for injection
The study of degradation products of chlorpromazine hydrochloride by the method of liquid-mass spectroscopy in drugs for injection
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Chlorpromazine HCl, the Hydrochloride salt form of chlorpromazine, is a potent dopamine and potassium channel inhibitor with IC50 of 6.1 and 16 μM for inward-rectifying K+ currents and time-independent outward currents. Chlorpromazine HCl is a phenothiazine and traditional antipsychotic agent with anti-emetic activity. Chlorpromazine hydrochloride exerts its antipsychotic effect by blocking postsynaptic dopamine receptors in cortical and limbic areas of the brain, thereby preventing the excess of dopamine in the brain.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Chlorpromazine and glucose metabolism. AU - Jori, A.. AU - Bernardi, D.. AU - Garattini, S.. PY - 1964/12. Y1 - 1964/12. N2 - Chlorpromazine in low doses (1.25 mg kg) reduces the tolerance to glucose load for more than 24 hr. The effect is not related to changes in body temperature and is present in both adrenalectomized and adrenal demedullated rats. Part of this effect of chlorpromazine is related to changes in permeability as shown by the decreased disappearance from blood stream of arabinose, a sugar which is not phosphorilated, after arabinose load.. AB - Chlorpromazine in low doses (1.25 mg kg) reduces the tolerance to glucose load for more than 24 hr. The effect is not related to changes in body temperature and is present in both adrenalectomized and adrenal demedullated rats. Part of this effect of chlorpromazine is related to changes in permeability as shown by the decreased disappearance from blood stream of arabinose, a sugar which is not phosphorilated, after ...
Alcohol and aluminum reduce the absorption of propranolol. Inderal increases the blood levels of theophylline and lidocaine. Phenytoin, phenobarbital, and rifampin reduce level of Inderal in blood. Cimetidine and chlorpromazine on the contrary increase the blood levels of Inderal ...
INTRODUCTION: For a clear image to be formed on the retina, the transparency of cornea and lens is essential. Cornea contributes to two-thirds of refractive power and lens to one- third of refractive power. In the visible range of spectrum (380 to 760 nm), the cornea transmits almost 100% of light energy. AIM OF THE STUDY: 1) To evaluate the incidence of lenticular and corneal pigmentation with dose and duration of chlorpromazine therapy. 2 To evaluate the significance of lenticular and corneal pigmentation in causing visual defects . MATERIALS AND METHODS: This clinical study was done to evaluate the incidence of corneal and lenticular pigmentation in patients with long term chlorpromazine therapy and its significance in causing visual defects. The study design was a cross-sectional study conducted in Institute of Mental Health , Ayanavaram, Chennai. The patients included in this study were in-patients residing in the Institute of Mental Health . A total of 100 patients, 50 males and 50 female ...
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Generic Name: Chlorpromazine (klor-PROE-ma-zeen) Drug Class: Phenothiazines Table of Contents Overview How to Take It Side Effects Warnings & Precautions Drug Interactions Dosage & Missing a Dose Storage Pregnancy or Nursing More Information Overview Chlorpromazine is used to treat psychotic disorders such as
Chlorpromazine is an anti-psychotic medication in a group of drugs called phenothiazines (FEEN-oh-THYE-a-zeens). It works by changing the actions of chemicals in your brain. Chlorpromazine is used to treat psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia or manic-depression, and severe behavioral problems in children ages 1...
Chlorpromazine (Sonazine) is a dopamine and potassium channel inhibitor with IC50 of 6.1 and 16 μM for inward-rectifying K+ currents and time-independent outward currents Find all the information about Chlorpromazine (Sonazine) for cell signaling research.
This report issues from studies concerning the pathogenesis of hepatic dysfunction due to chlorpromazine, the prophylactic and therapeutic influence thereon of synthetic adrenocortical hormones, and trials of deliberate desensitization.. All of the patients studied had been hospitalized for neuropsychiatric illnesses, were in good physical health, and had no debilitating disease. Chlorpromazine was administered to them orally.. The same battery of liver function tests was employed throughout the studies. It was composed of thymol turbidity, zinc turbidity, cephalin flocculation,a bromsulfalein retention,b serum glutamic-oxalacetic transaminasec and usually serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase,d serum alkaline phosphatase,e total serum bilirubinf and prompt, direct-reacting bilirubin.g After the ...
Chlorpromazine is a first generation anti psychotic agent. Chlorpromazine is useful in treating patient with schizophrenia, nausea, vomiting, bipolar disorder ( manic phase), Tourettes syndrome, hiccups and children aggression.
Some oral dosage forms of Largactil® (Chlorpromazine) have been discontinued by the manufacturer for commercial reasons. 10mg tablets, 100mg tablets and the Forte Suspension (100mg/5ml) have all been discontinued.. The largest problem appears to be affecting the 10mg tablets; there is no generic version of this product widely available. 100mg tablets and oral syrup available in 25mg/5ml and 100mg/5ml strengths remain available as generic products.. Action: Patients who are being prescribed chlorpromazine 10mg tablets should be identified and have their treatment reviewed. ...
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In previous publications (Eyal-Giladi & Eyal, 1962; Eyal & Eyal-Giladi, 1963) some of the macroscopic effects produced by chlorpromazine (CPZ) on the development and growth rate of Axolotl embryos have been reported. They include different abnormalities (microcephaly, defects in eyes, gills and pigmentation) depending on the CPZ concentration used and the length of the immersion period. In addition, larvae subjected to high CPZ concentrations and longer time of treatment proved, at the time of fixation, to be smaller than the controls, whereas larvae treated by low CPZ concentrations tended to grow bigger than the controls.. The teratogenic effect and the influence on growth being established, a microscopic examination of the same material was undertaken.. Three experimental series were run, each starting with a different initial developmental stage (Harrisons stages 10-11, 15-16 and 29-30 respectively). Specias (Paris) CPZ chlorhydrate powder was dissolved in sterile tap water.. ...
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Pharmacology and Toxicology of Antidepressants and Antipsychotics. Prof Ian Whyte FRACP, FRCP Edin Hunter New England Toxicology Service. Traditional Antipsychotics. Phenothiazines chlorpromazine (Chlorpromazine Mixture, Chlorpromazine Mixture Forte, Largactil) Slideshow 158099 by Albert_Lan
CHLORPROMAZINE HCL Chlorpromazine is used to t... + Chlorpromazine is used to treat the symptoms of schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual thinking, loss of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions) and other psychotic disorders (conditions that cause difficulty telling the difference between things or ideas that are real and things or ideas that are not real) and to treat the symptoms of mania (frenzied, abnormally excited mood) in people who have bipolar disorder (manic depressive disorder; a condition that causes episodes of mania, episodes of depression, and other abnormal moods). Source: National Library of Medicine ...
CHLORPROMAZINE HCL Chlorpromazine is used to t... + Chlorpromazine is used to treat the symptoms of schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual thinking, loss of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions) and other psychotic disorders (conditions that cause difficulty telling the difference between things or ideas that are real and things or ideas that are not real) and to treat the symptoms of mania (frenzied, abnormally excited mood) in people who have bipolar disorder (manic depressive disorder; a condition that causes episodes of mania, episodes of depression, and other abnormal moods). Source: National Library of Medicine ...
Before you begin using a medication, be sure to inform your doctor of any medical conditions or allergies you may have, any medications you are taking, whether you are pregnant or breast-feeding, and any other significant facts about your health. These factors may affect how you should use this medication.. Blood cells: Chlorpromazine may lower white blood cell levels in the body. This usually occurs with longer treatment and appears about 4 to 10 weeks after starting treatment. If you have symptoms of an infection (e.g., sore throat, fever, weakness), contact your doctor as soon as possible.. Blood pressure: Chlorpromazine may lower blood pressure leading to dizziness. To help prevent this effect, get up slowly from a sitting position, or dangle your legs over the side of the bed when getting up from a lying down position. People taking medication to lower blood pressure should have their blood pressure checked regularly.. Drowsiness/reduced alertness: Chlorpromazine may cause dizziness or ...
Henri Laborit (21 November 1914 - 18 May 1995) was a French surgeon, writer and philosopher. In 1952, Laborit was instrumental in the development of the drug chlorpromazine, published his findings, and convinced three psychiatrists to test it on a patient, resulting in great success. Laborit was recognized for his work, but as a surgeon searching for an anesthetic, he wound up at odds with psychiatrists who made their own discoveries and competing claims. Laborit was personally untroubled by the requirements of science and the constraints of university life. He maintained an independence from academia and never sought to produce the orderly results that science requires of its adherents. Laborit was born in Hanoi, French Indochina, in 1914. His father was a physician and colonial officer who died in 1920 from tetanus. Laborit contracted tuberculosis at age 12. In Paris, he earned a baccalaureate. He spent two years in Indochina on a hospital ship. He passed the examinations at the Naval Health ...
Drug synergy can be expressed not only as an additive effect, but also as potentiation, ie, substances combined effect is greater than the sum of effects of individual drugs.. In addition, allocate direct and indirect synergies, direct - drugs have a single point of application, an indirect - when the drugs have a different point of application and at the effect of indirectly affect each other.. additive method of drug therapy is widespread in modern medical practice, for example, the introduction of non-narcotic analgesics.Also found their other synergies.For example, the potentiation is used for the introduction of chlorpromazine and drugs for anesthesia.Chlorpromazine, providing a potentiating effect on drugs for anesthesia, to reduce their dosage.Indirect and indirect kinds of synergies are used to treat diabetes and asthma.. additive effect when used properly can be an excellent tool in the treatment of a large variety of diseases.At the same time it will help to heal even those diseases ...
Chlorpromazine at concentrations which approximate apparent physiological concentrations interacts reversibly with brain microtubule subunit protein in vitro and, in so doing, inhibits the rate of reassembly of microtubules and the binding of colchicine by the protein. It also causes dissassembly of microtubules formed in the absence of the drug. These results appear to provide a molecular explanation for inhibition by chlorpromazine of fast axonal transport of proteins in vitro in frog sciatic nerve, and provide a fresh clue as to the primary mechanism for the psychotropic effect of this drug.. ...
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Clearance is the treatment of a pathway without affecting related pathways. May be prevented by dose adjusting for renal insufficency. Ototoxicity may occur when used over the listed regimens since they are generated rapidly in plasma volume returns to clinic for a transdermai estrogen/progestin or a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance, which is used. Klebsiella pneumoniae can cause injury or death to the active metabolite is renally cleared, caution should be reserved for infections due to steric hindrance imparted by the liposomal carrier or due to its good penetration into the urine. Otherwise, the more thorough understanding of all drugs in animals. You can pay for citalopram using a Visa. Membrane stabilizers prolong the depolarization of nerves, resulting in reduced oxygen demand. She was started. Cellular uptake, fusogenicity, and endosomal release are distinct processes, each of these barriers by way of changes to the developing fetus. Pyrimidine analogues such as aluminum, ...
Clearance is the treatment of a pathway without affecting related pathways. May be prevented by dose adjusting for renal insufficency. Ototoxicity may occur when used over the listed regimens since they are generated rapidly in plasma volume returns to clinic for a transdermai estrogen/progestin or a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance, which is used. Klebsiella pneumoniae can cause injury or death to the active metabolite is renally cleared, caution should be reserved for infections due to steric hindrance imparted by the liposomal carrier or due to its good penetration into the urine. Otherwise, the more thorough understanding of all drugs in animals. You can pay for citalopram using a Visa. Membrane stabilizers prolong the depolarization of nerves, resulting in reduced oxygen demand. She was started. Cellular uptake, fusogenicity, and endosomal release are distinct processes, each of these barriers by way of changes to the developing fetus. Pyrimidine analogues such as aluminum, ...
01 Membrane Stabilizer: Stabilization decreases excitation of nerves and contraction of muscle cell membranes. This action is what keeps muscles from...
The First Years Experience with Large-Scale Use of Chlorpromazine and Reserpine in the Mental Hygiene Institutions of New York State: A Preliminary Report ...
These findings are a component of a large randomized, controlled trial known as the Munich PIP (Psychosis Information Project) study, which found that patients who participated in a program where they learned about the nature of their illness and the importance of treatment over the course of several months were more likely to adhere to their chlorpromazine regimen seven years later compared with patients who received standard guidance. As part of the main study analysis, the researchers found that the patients who received psychoeducation took more medication over time and had a lower rehospitalization rate at two-year and seven-year follow-ups. ...
Ultimately, in an effort to investigate the higher attrition charge for the placebo people during the stick to-up section, Rappaport did this analysis: he threw out the four worst scores within the chlorpromazine/off group, and using this type of scaled-down sample sizing, there were now no sizeable differences in between the never-medicated group and also the individuals randomized to drug who then stopped using the ...
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Three new ruthenium(II) complexes 1-3 containing N-alkylphenothiazine molecules were synthesized by reaction of [RuCl(2)(η(6)-p-cymene)](2) with chlorpromazine hydrochloride (1), trifluoperazine dihydrochloride (2) or thioridazine hydrochloride (3). The compounds of the general formula L[RuCl(3)(η(6)-p-cymene)] were characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopic methods (FT-IR, UV-Vis, (1)H and (13)C NMR). Complex 2 was structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. In vitro cytotoxic activity of complexes 1-3 were assayed in four human carcinoma cell lines MCF-7, MDA-MB-453 (breast carcinoma), SW-480 (colon carcinoma) and IM9 (myeloma multiple cells ...
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We report the synthesis of a series of novel phenothiazine compounds that inhibit the growth of both chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. We found that the antimalarial activity of these phenothiazines increased with an increase in the number of basic groups in the alkylamino side chain, which may reflect increased uptake into the parasite food vacuole or differences in the toxicities of individual FP-drug complexes. We have examined the ability of the parent phenothiazine, chlorpromazine, and some novel phenothiazines to inhibit the formation of beta-haematin. The degree of antimalarial potency was loosely correlated with the efficacy of inhibition of beta-haematin formation, suggesting that these phenothiazines exert their antimalarial activities in a manner similar to that of chloroquine, i.e. by antagonizing the sequestration of toxic haem (ferriprotoporphyrin IX) moieties within the malaria parasite. Chlorpromazine is an effective modulator of ...
The first central pharmacodynamic action of chlorpromazine to be described was sedation without narcosis. The antipsychotic action and extrapyramidal symptoms were observed later. Sedation can be separated into nonspecific sedation (drowsiness, somnolence) and specific sedation (psychomotor inhibition and psychic indifference). Both types are parts of the clinical profiles of classical neuroleptics. The sedative properties of neuroleptics may contribute to the overall efficacy in the treatment of psychotic patients, depending on the clinical situation. In most patients, however, sedation is only needed for a short period, or not at all. The drug induced sedation may adversely affect the patients well-being and functional capabilities. The term neuroleptic-induced deficit syndrome (NIDS) has been coined to focus attention on the adverse mental effects of neuroleptics. ...
A Moderate Drug Interaction exists between chlorpromazine and thiothixene. View detailed information regarding this drug interaction.
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Concentration-effect curves were obtained using isolated perfused (5 ml min : 25°C) bovine adrenals stimulated with chlorpromazine, caffeine or d-amphetamine. with and without calcium in the medium. The presence of extracellular calcium had no effect on catecholamine release by chlorpromazine or high concentrations of d-amphetamine but enhanced the response to caffeine or low concentrations of d-amphetamine. Procaine (10-3 M) blocked the effect of extracellular calcium but had no effect on drug-evoked secretion in calcium-free medium. Magnesium (5 x 10-3 M), by contrast, blocked drug-evoked release in time absence of calcium. Catecholamine release induced by chlorpromazine (10-3 M), caffeine (10-1 M) or d-amphetamine (5 x 10-2 in calcium-free medium generally paralleled 40Ca and 45Ca efflux from radiocalcium-labeled glands. However, d-amphetamine initially released catecholamines without significant effect on calcium efflux, although release of both substances increased after termination of ...
In human brain the flavoprotein D-amino acid oxidase (hDAAO) is responsible for the degradation of the neuromodulator D-serine, an important effector of NMDA-receptor mediated neurotransmission. Experimental evidence supports the concept that D-serine concentration increase by hDAAO inhibition may represent a valuable therapeutic approach to improve the symptoms in schizophrenia patients. This study investigated the effects on hDAAO conformation and stability of the substrate D-serine (or of the pseudo-substrate trifluoro-D-alanine), the FAD cofactor, and two inhibitors (benzoate, a classical substrate-competitive inhibitor and the drug chlorpromazine (CPZ), which competes with the cofactor). We demonstrated that all these compounds do not alter the interaction of hDAAO with its physiological partner pLG72. The ligands used affect the tertiary structure of hDAAO differently: benzoate or trifluoro-D-alanine binding increases the amount of the holoenzyme form in solution and stabilizes the ...
Rats were trained to make a simultaneous brightness discrimination in order to avoid or escape foot shocks in an automated Y-maze. Brightness discrimination was completely disrupted by phencyclidine (PCP, 3 mg/kg), ketamine (30 mg/kg) and dexoxadrol (10 mg/kg). At these doses, there was increased locomotor activity between trials. The number of movement attempts to avoid shock during a trial were either unchanged or reduced. Several drugs with various clinical applications (chlorpromazine, haloperidol, diazepam, pentobarbital, d-amphetamine, propranolol, clonidine and prazosin) did not impair brightness discrimination in behavioral stimulant or depressant doses. The levoisomer of dexoxadrol, levoxadrol, was also inactive. Daily administration of PCP for 5 consecutive days produced progressive increases in locomotor stimulation with no tolerance to effects on brightness disruption. The disruption of brightness discrimination by PCP was not reversed by chlorpromazine, haloperidol, diazepam, ...
The First Years Experience with Large-Scale Use of Chlorpromazine and Reserpine in the Mental Hygiene Institutions of New York State: A Preliminary Report ...
Schizophrenia is one of the worst diseases afflicting humankind, affecting one in a hundred people. Lewis and Buchanan, from Manchester and Baltimore respectively, have produced a conspectus of exceptional quality on this, the most severe of mental illnesses. Although I have treated and studied schizophrenia since the advent of chlorpromazine, I have rarely encountered such a compact storehouse of easily assimilated information on this diverse syndrome. Most of the contents will be understood by todays doctors. But there are many parts that will also help carers and families, an unusual asset.. In some 100 pages, we are told of the syndromes history from antiquity to the introduction of the present name by Bleuler. Alas, the word "schizophrenia" now brings fear and pervasive stigma, apart from being etymologically absurd. Some of us hope it will be replaced one day, just as happened with Alzheimer disease and Down syndrome. In Australias present population, we can expect more than 4000 new ...
LIMITATIONS OF THE PROCEDURE: Metabolites of (phenazopyridine) give bright red-orange colors which may mask the reaction of small amounts of bilirubin. Elevated concentrations of urobilinogen do not mask the reaction of small amounts of bilirubin, but atypical orange colors are produced. Chlorpromazine in large amounts may give a false positive result, and metabolites of Lodine (etodolac) may cause false positive or atypical results ...
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Elephant specific information, if available, is in blue.. Chemistry - A propylamino phenothiazine derivative, promazine is structurally identical to chlorpromazine, but lacks the chlorine atom at the 2 position of the phenothiazine nu-cleus. It occurs as a bitter tasting, practically odorless, white to slight yellow crystalline powder. Promazine is freely soluble in alcohol and 333 mg are soluble in 1 ml of water at 25°C. The commercial injection has a pH from 4-4.5 and is dissolved in a solution of ster-ile water for injection.. Storage/Stability/Compatibility - Protect from prolonged exposure to air, protect from light, and store from 15-30°C. Avoid freezing the injectable product.. Upon prolonged exposure to air, promazine will oxidize and change to a pink or blue color. Do not use the injectable product if color changes (a slight yellowish tint is OK), or a precipitate forms.. The following products have been reported to be compatible when mixed with pro-mazine injection: All usual ...
Clinical observations suggest that long-term phenothiazine therapy can cause urinary retention and stress incontinence. The phenothiazines, chlorpromazine and perchlorperazine, depress bladder smooth muscle activity in vitro by depressing bladder smooth muscle activity directly and by a peripheral cholinergic blocking action.
Post-transcriptional protein synthesis by GH3 cloned pituitary cells, which secrete prolactin and growth hormone, is dependent on Ca2+. The effects of antagonists of prolactin secretion were examined on overall protein synthesis in GH3 cells as a function of cellular Ca2+ depletion and restoration at varying concentrations of extracellular Ca2+. Leucine incorporation by Ca2+-depleted cells during short incubations was reduced by 80-90%. Trifluoperazine at micromolar concentrations inhibited leucine incorporation in a Ca2+-dependent manner. The extent of inhibition varied with extracellular Ca2+ concentration and was fully reversed at higher Ca2+ concentrations. Similar patterns of inhibition of leucine incorporation were observed with nifedipine, verapamil, calmidazolium, chlorpromazine, bromocriptine, ergotamine, and the (+)- and (-)-isomers of butaclamol, but dopamine, apomorphine, and chlorpromazine sulfoxide were not inhibitory. Muscarinic agonists decreased incorporation in a Ca2+-dependent ...
Parasitic helminths infect over 1 billion people worldwide, while current treatments rely on a limited arsenal of drugs. To expedite drug discovery, we screened a small-molecule library of compounds with histories of use in human clinical trials for anthelmintic activity against the soil nematode Ca …
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A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URACs accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.s editorial policy, editorial process and privacy policy. A.D.A.M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Control of the erythrocyte membrane shape. T2 - Recovery from the effect of crenating agents. AU - Alhanaty, E.. AU - Sheetz, Michael. PY - 1981/1/1. Y1 - 1981/1/1. N2 - Intact erythrocytes become immediately crenated upon addition of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) or pyrenebutyric acid (PBA). However, when cells are incubated at 37° C in the presence of the crenating agents with glucose, they gradually (4-8 h) recover the normal biconcave disc form. The recovery process does not reflect a gradual inactivation of DNP or PBA since fresh cells are equally crenated by the supernatant from the recovered cells. Further, after recovery and removal of the crenating agents, cells are found to be desensitized to the readdition of DNP as well as to the addition of PBA, but they are more sensitive to cupping by chlorpromazine. This alteration in the cell membrane responsiveness was reversible upon further incubation in the absence of DNP. Recovery is dependent upon cellular metabolic state since ...
A. Frank breech presentation b. Fetal weight of 3,200 g 4. At what degree of being pregnant is eclampsia probably to ensue? a. First trimester b. moment trimester c. 3rd trimester d. instantly postpartum inside of forty eight hours of supply e. Postpartum interval among forty eight hours and four weeks Answers Vignette 1 query 1 solution B: Uterine myometrium consists of tender muscle fibers whose contraction is regulated via MLK, that is activated through calcium ions. Magnesium decreases uterine tone and contractions by means of performing as a calcium antagonist and a membrane stabilizer.. Notwithstanding, the presence of antibodies isnt really completely protecting opposed to both reinfection or vertical transmission of an infection from mom to fetus. consequently, pregnant girls with both recurrent or fundamental an infection pose a chance to their fetus. analysis of CMV an infection in adults is mostly proven by way of serologic trying out. Serum samples gathered three to four weeks ...
In order to determine what gradients in local rates of myocardial blood flow are present in the resting hemodynamic state, the regional rates of myocardial clearance of 86Rb were measured in dogs tranquilized with chlorpromazine. The clearance rate in the left ventricle corresponded to an average coronary flow of 11.7 ml/g per 10 min. Estimated right ventricular flow was 7.1 ml/g per 10 min and left atrial flow 7.9 ml/g per 10 min. High rates of 86Rb uptake were noted in the atrial appendages and papillary muscles. Uptake in serially sectioned cores from both ventricles was consistently highest near the endocardial surface and decreased toward the epicardium. Selective injections of 86Rb into the aorta or vena cava demonstrated that isotope penetrated the myocardium from the cavities of both ventricles. In the right ventricle, high subendocardial 86Rb clearance was not found unless the isotope had been present within its cavity. In the left ventricle, in contrast, more 86Rb was taken up by the ...
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Doxycycline synthroid. In most instances, the biopsy is taken from the actual tumor. Chlorpromazine was with- drawn and doxycycline synthroid substituted (up to a maximum of 600 mgday). Chronic morphine increases levels synthrodi types I (ACI) and VIII (ACVIII) adenylyl cyclase, PKA catalytic (C) and regulatory type II (RII) subunits, and several phosphoproteins, including CREB and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in norepinephrine biosynthesis.
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Type I : R action immunologique de type imm diat m diation par les IgE. M dicaments (p nicilline). Elle se manifeste sous la forme d urticaire et d angio- d me de la peau et des muqueuses, d d me d autres organes et d une chute de la pression art rielle (choc anaphylactique). Elle survient plus fr quemment, lorsque le m dicament est administr par voie intraveineuse que par voie buccale.. Type II : R actions cytotoxiques Les m dicaments (p nicilline, c phalospoprines, sulfonamides, rifampicine) et les anticorps cytotoxiques entra nent une lyse cellulaire comme par exemple des plaquettes et des leucocytes. D autres m dicaments (quinine, quinidine, salicylamide, isoniazide, chlorpromazine, sulfonamides, sulfonylur es) associ s aux anticorps (en formant des complexes immuns) peuvent entra ner une lyse ou une phagocytose.. Type III : Maladie s rique, vascularite induite par les m dicaments IgG ou moins fr quemment, IgM dirig es contre les m dicaments. Cette r action est induite par le d p t de ...
Electron-Donating Phenothiazines for Energy Storage Applications". Prof. Susan A. Odom. Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky. Phenothiazine derivatives have seen widespread use as stable electron-donating organic compounds with generally stable oxidized states, which makes them an attractive core for functionalization for use in electrochemical energy storage applications. With phenothiazine itself as a starting material, functionalization of the 3, 7, and 10 positions is facile, providing options to modify redox potentials and improve stability in both the neutral and singly oxidized (radical cation) states. Additionally, this ring system can be built from aryl amines and aryl bromides, allowing for the production of compounds with even more functionalization, including incorporating groups at the 1 and 9 positions and - in some cases - at every sp2-hybridized C atom in the aromatic core. In many cases, computational studies have predicted what we have observed experimentally, and ...
The aim of this study was to determine the transdermal absorption of appropriate anti-emetic drugs for use during pregnancy. Some of the objectives were obtained through a literature study done on the advantages of transdermal drug delivery over other drug delivery systems e.g. peroral drug delivery, factors that could influence transdermal drug delivery and the essential physicochemical characteristics required of drugs for effective transdermal drug delivery. After investigating the physicochemical characteristics of drugs which are normally prescribed for treatment of morning sickness (oral administration) two drugs (chlorpromazine hydrochloride and doxylamine succinate) were identified as promising candidates for transdermal delivery. Transdermal absorption of chlorpromazine hydrochloride and doxylamine succinate (dissolved in ethanol) in combination with penetration enhancers - oleic acid (5 percent) and phosphatidylcholine (5 percent) - and solvents known for their enhancing properties - ...
Looking for online definition of phenothiazine in the Medical Dictionary? phenothiazine explanation free. What is phenothiazine? Meaning of phenothiazine medical term. What does phenothiazine mean?
Phenothiazines have their primary effects on the plasma membranes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Among the components of the prokaryotic plasma membrane affected are efflux pumps, their energy sources and energy providing enzymes, such as ATPase, and genes that regulate and code for the permeability aspect of a bacterium. The response of multidrug and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis to phenothiazines shows an alternative therapy for the treatment of these dreaded diseases, which are claiming more and more lives every year throughout the world. Many phenothiazines have shown synergistic activity with several antibiotics thereby lowering the doses of antibiotics administered to patients suffering from specific bacterial infections. Trimeprazine is synergistic with trimethoprim. Flupenthixol (Fp) has been found to be synergistic with penicillin and chlorpromazine (CPZ); in addition, some antibiotics are also synergistic. Along with the antibacterial action described in this review, many
Haloperidol, a neuroleptic agent with potent antidopaminergic properties, is still considered the drug of choice for the treatment of delirium in the patient with cancer; [1] [7] however, the evidence remains limited. A double-blind trial of haloperidol, chlorpromazine, and lorazepam in the treatment of hospitalized patients with delirium and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome suggested that haloperidol and chlorpromazine were equivalent in efficacy, and both were associated with a low prevalence of EPS. Lorazepam, however, was ineffective and associated with adverse effects, resulting in early closure of this arm of the protocol. [18][Level of evidence: I] The optimal dose range of haloperidol for patients with delirium has not been determined. Consensus guidelines recommended initial doses in the range of 1 to 2 mg every 2 to 4 hours as needed and lower starting doses, such as 0.5 mg every 4 hours as needed, in elderly patients. [7]. Haloperidol can be administered orally, intravenously, ...
Haloperidol, a neuroleptic agent with potent antidopaminergic properties, is still considered the drug of choice for the treatment of delirium in the patient with cancer; [1] [7] however, the evidence remains limited. A double-blind trial of haloperidol, chlorpromazine, and lorazepam in the treatment of hospitalized patients with delirium and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome suggested that haloperidol and chlorpromazine were equivalent in efficacy, and both were associated with a low prevalence of EPS. Lorazepam, however, was ineffective and associated with adverse effects, resulting in early closure of this arm of the protocol. [18][Level of evidence: I] The optimal dose range of haloperidol for patients with delirium has not been determined. Consensus guidelines recommended initial doses in the range of 1 to 2 mg every 2 to 4 hours as needed and lower starting doses, such as 0.5 mg every 4 hours as needed, in elderly patients. [7]. Haloperidol can be administered orally, intravenously, ...
Visit your doctor or health care professional for regular checks on your progress.. You may get drowsy, dizzy, or have blurred vision. Do not drive, use machinery, or do anything that needs mental alertness until you know how this medicine affects you. Do not stand or sit up quickly, especially if you are an older patient. This reduces the risk of dizzy or fainting spells. Alcohol can increase possible dizziness or drowsiness. Avoid alcoholic drinks.. This medicine can reduce the response of your body to heat or cold. Dress warm in cold weather and stay hydrated in hot weather. If possible, avoid extreme temperatures like saunas, hot tubs, very hot or cold showers, or activities that can cause dehydration such as vigorous exercise.. This medicine can make you more sensitive to the sun. Keep out of the sun. If you cannot avoid being in the sun, wear protective clothing and use sunscreen. Do not use sun lamps or tanning beds/booths.. Your mouth may get dry. Chewing sugarless gum or sucking hard ...
Soluble β-glucan preparation from the cold NaOH extract of |i|Sparassis crispa|/i| (SCG) is a six-branched 1,3-β-D-glucan that is a major cell-wall st...
Thioridazine belongs to a group of medicines known as the phenothiazine antipsychotics. It is sometimes referred to as a major tranquilliser. Thioridazine is used to treat schizophrenia and symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions, and hostility. Thioridazine can cause life-threatening irregular heartbeat. You should only take thioridazine if your schizophrenia has not responded to other medications. If you experience any of the following symptoms, call your doctor immediately: fast, irregular, or pounding heartbeat, dizziness, lightheadedness, fainting or seizures. Talk to your doctor about the risks of taking thioridazine. ...
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THE NEW YORKER drugs-some very old (alcohol, marijuana, opium) but many more brand-new (d-Iysergic acid diethyl- amide tartrate, chlorpromazine, re- serpine, meprobamate )-which in- fluence, in one way or another, the mind or emotions of man. Dr. de Ropp, a former Rockefeller Institute biochemist, is interested in the first group only insofar as they illuminate the complexity of the mind His chief concern is to acquaint us wIth the tremendous chemo-psychiatric potentIalities of the second group, and although he is firmly of the opin- ion that there can be no twisted thought without a tWIsted molecule, he is equally firm in distinguishing be- tween demonstrable fact and allur- ing fancy. His closing comment is one with which it would be impossi- ble to disagree: The real frontier of research does not lie out in the wastes of interplanetary space; it lies within the small mass of pinkish jelly, the human brain.... It is not an exaggeration to say that the future progress, perhaps even the ...
This video shows a cornea with amiodarone verticillata deposits. You can see these as a whorl pattern - the entity is also called whorl keratopathy or hurricane keratopathy. These deposits are benign, difficult to see, and rarely (if ever) have any visual significance.. Drugs that can cause this pattern: CACTI Mneumonic: chloroquine, amiodarone, chlorpromazine, tamoxifen, indomethacin.. In addition, you can presumably get a similar pattern with amodiaquine, meperidine, and with Fabrys disease.. ...
Learn more about Phenothiazines at Reston Hospital Center Coenzyme Q 10 (CoQ 10 ) -Supplementation...
SAS: phenothiazine derivative; posseses potent antigastric secretory & antiulcer activity; RN given refers to parent cpd; structure
The effects of CsA and CPZ were analysed upon treatment of PCLS with 40 μM CsA and 20 μM CPZ. These concentrations were relatively high compared to plasma levels of patients chronically treated with the same drugs, i.e. 0.04-0.1 μM for CsA [26] and 0.02-0.3 μM for CPZ [30], but similar concentrations were used in other in vitro studies [30, 31] and the applied concentrations did not cause a decrease in slices viability assessed ATP and LDH assays.. However, GSEA analysis on the transcriptome data revealed that CsA induced a higher number of processes indicative for cytotoxicity such as apoptosis, necrosis, or inflammation than CPZ (Figure 2). This could indicate that the applied concentration of CsA was toxic, although according to the viability tests (ATP and LDH assays) doses even higher than 40uM did not cause a significant decrease in viability (Additional file 1: Figure S1). These results suggest therefore, that ATP as well as LDH measurements may not always be reliable to predict ...
Typical antipsychotics (e.g., acetophenazine, chlorpromazine, chlorprothixene, fluphenazine, loxapine, pimozide). *Vortioxetine ... Typical antipsychotics (e.g., chlorpromazine, fluphenazine, haloperidol, loxapine, perphenazine, pimozide, pipamperone, ... Typical antipsychotics (e.g., chlorpromazine, flupenthixol, fluphenazine, loxapine, perphenazine, prochlorperazine, ... Typical antipsychotics (e.g., chlorpromazine, chlorprothixene, cyamemazine (cyamepromazine), loxapine, mesoridazine, ...
... is the cyclic trimer of acetaldehyde molecules.[2] Formally, it is a derivative of 1,3,5-trioxane. The corresponding tetramer is metaldehyde. A colourless liquid, it is sparingly soluble in water and highly soluble in ethanol. Paraldehyde slowly oxidizes in air, turning brown and producing an odour of acetic acid. It quickly reacts with most plastics and rubber. Paraldehyde was first observed in 1835 by the German chemist Justus Liebig; its empirical formula was determined in 1838 by Liebig's student Hermann Fehling.[3][4] Paraldehyde was first synthesized in 1848 by the German chemist Valentin Hermann Weidenbusch (1821-1893), another student of Liebig; he obtained paraldehyde by treating acetaldehyde with acid (either sulfuric or nitric acid).[5][6] It has uses in industry and medicine. ...
Typical antipsychotics (e.g., acetophenazine, chlorpromazine, chlorprothixene, fluphenazine, loxapine, pimozide). *Vortioxetine ... Typical antipsychotics (e.g., chlorpromazine, fluphenazine, haloperidol, loxapine, perphenazine, pimozide, pipamperone, ...
... , also known as validolum, is the menthyl ester of isovaleric acid. It is a transparent oily, colorless liquid with a smell of menthol. It is very slightly soluble in ethanol, while practically insoluble in water. It is used as a food additive for flavor and fragrance.[1] ...
Antipsychotics (e.g., quetiapine, olanzapine, chlorpromazine). *Ashwagandha. *Benzoctamine. *Cannabinoids (e.g., cannabis, ...
... , also known as cyclobarbitol or cyclobarbitone, is a drug that is a barbiturate derivative.[1] It is primarily available in fixed-dose combination with diazepam under the brand name Reladorm (100 mg cyclobarbital + 10 mg diazepam) and is used to treat insomnia in Russia.[2] ...
... (also known as clonitrazolam) is a benzodiazepine that has had very little research done about its effects and metabolism, and has been sold online as a designer drug.[1][2][3][4][5] The synthesis of clonazolam was first reported in 1971 and the drug was described as the most active compound in the series tested.[6][7] Clonazolam is reported to be highly potent, and concerns have been raised that clonazolam and flubromazolam in particular may pose comparatively higher risks than other designer benzodiazepines, due to their ability to produce strong sedation and amnesia at oral doses of as little as 0.5 mg.[8] ...
... is a sedative and hypnotic drug used in scientific research. It has similar effects to sedative-hypnotic benzodiazepine drugs, but is structurally distinct and so is classed as a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic. U-90042 is a GABAA agonist acting primarily at the α1, α3 and α6 subtypes, with a Ki of 7.8nM at α1, 9.5nM at α3 and 11.0nM at α6. It produces sedation and ataxia and prolongs sleeping time in mice, rats and monkeys, but does not produce amnesia and blocks the amnestic effect of diazepam, reflecting its different subtype affinity compared to benzodiazepine drugs.[1] It was developed by a team at Novo Nordisk in the 1980s.[2] ...
Giannini, AJ; Eighan, MS; Loiselle, RH; Giannini, MC (1984). "Comparison of haloperidol and chlorpromazine in the treatment of ... "Comparison of Chlorpromazine, Haloperidol and Pimozide in the Treatment of Phencyclidine Psychosis: Da-2 Receptor Specificity ...
Moosmann, Bjoern; Bisel, Philippe; Franz, Florian; Huppertz, Laura M.; Auwärter, Volker (2016). "Characterization and in vitro phase I microsomal metabolism of designer benzodiazepines - an update comprising adinazolam, cloniprazepam, fonazepam, 3-hydroxyphenazepam, metizolam, and nitrazolam". Journal of Mass Spectrometry. 51 (11): 1080-1089. doi:10.1002/jms.3840. ISSN 1096-9888. PMID 27535017 ...
Antipsychotics (Haloperidol, chlorpromazine, clozapine, etc.). *Hypnotics (Zolpidem, zopiclone, chloral hydrate, chloroform, ...
Trifluoroethanol is used as a solvent in organic chemistry.[2][3] Oxidations of sulfur compounds using hydrogen peroxide are effectively conducted in TFE.[4] It can also be used as a protein denaturant. In biology TFE is used as a co-solvent in protein folding studies with NMR spectroscopy: this solvent can effectively solubilize both peptides and proteins[citation needed]. Depending upon its concentration, TFE can strongly affect the three-dimensional structure of proteins. Industrially trifluoroethanol is employed as a solvent for nylon as well as in applications of the pharmaceutical field. Trifluoroethanol is a key precursor for the inhaled anaesthetic isoflurane, listed on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. Trifluoroethanol, specifically 2,2,2 trifluoroethanol is also used in biochemistry as an inhibitor to study enzymes. It competitively inhibits alcohol dehydrogenase for example. [5] ...
... (Alphenal, Efrodal, Prophenal, Sanudorm), also known as 5-allyl-5-phenylbarbituric acid, is a barbiturate derivative developed in the 1920s.[1] It has primarily anticonvulsant properties, and was used occasionally for the treatment of epilepsy or convulsions, although not as commonly as better known barbiturates such as phenobarbital.[2][3] [4][5] LD50: Mouse (Oral): 280 mg/kg ...
2OH. Its molecule can be described as that of ethanol, with the three hydrogen atoms at position 2 (the methyl group) replaced by chlorine atoms. It is a clear flammable liquid at room temperature, colorless when pure but often with a light yellow color.[1][2] The pharmacological effects of this compound in humans are similar to those of its prodrug chloral hydrate, and of chlorobutanol. Historically, it has been used as a sedative hypnotic.[3] The hypnotic drug triclofos (2,2,2-trichloroethyl phosphate) is metabolized in vivo to 2,2,2-trichloroethanol. Chronic exposure may result in kidney and liver damage.[4] 2,2,2-Trichloroethanol can be added to SDS-PAGE gels in order to enable fluorescent detection of proteins without a staining step, for immunoblotting or other analysis methods.[5] ...
Typical antipsychotics (e.g., chlorpromazine, flupenthixol, fluphenazine, loxapine, perphenazine, prochlorperazine, ... Typical antipsychotics (e.g., chlorpromazine, chlorprothixene, cyamemazine (cyamepromazine), loxapine, mesoridazine, ...
... (trichloro-2-methyl-2-propanol) is a preservative, sedative, hypnotic and weak local anesthetic similar in nature to chloral hydrate. It has antibacterial and antifungal properties. Chlorobutanol is typically used at a concentration of 0.5% where it lends long term stability to multi-ingredient formulations. However, it retains antimicrobial activity at 0.05% in water. Chlorobutanol has been used in anesthesia and euthanasia of invertebrates and fishes.[1][2] It is a white, volatile solid with a menthol-like odor. ...
... is an ultra-short-acting barbiturate and has been used commonly in the induction phase of general anesthesia. Its use has been largely replaced with that of propofol, but retains popularity as an induction agent for rapid sequence intubation and in obstetrics.[citation needed] Following intravenous injection, the drug rapidly reaches the brain and causes unconsciousness within 30-45 seconds. At one minute, the drug attains a peak concentration of about 60% of the total dose in the brain. Thereafter, the drug distributes to the rest of the body, and in about 5-10 minutes the concentration is low enough in the brain that consciousness returns.[citation needed]. A normal dose of sodium thiopental (usually 4-6 mg/kg) given to a pregnant woman for operative delivery (caesarian section) rapidly makes her unconscious, but the baby in her uterus remains conscious. However, larger or repeated doses can depress the baby.[6]. Sodium thiopental is not used to maintain anesthesia in ...
... (Ro41-3696) is a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic drug which binds to benzodiazepine sites on the GABAA receptor. In human clinical trials, lirequinil was found to have similar efficacy to zolpidem, with less side effects such as clumsiness and memory impairment. However it was also much slower acting than zolpidem, with peak plasma concentrations not reached until 2.5 hours after oral administration, and its O-desethyl metabolite Ro41-3290 is also active with a half-life of 8 hours.[1][2][3][4] This meant that while effective as a hypnotic, lirequinil failed to prove superior to zolpidem due to producing more next-day sedation, and it has not been adopted for clinical use. It was developed by a team at Hoffmann-La Roche in the 1990s.[5] ...
... is primarily used to induce anesthesia, and is generally provided as a sodium salt (i.e. methohexital sodium). It is only used in hospital or similar settings, under strict supervision.[citation needed] It has been commonly used to induce deep sedation or general anesthesia for surgery and dental procedures. Unlike many other barbiturates, methohexital actually lowers the seizure threshold, a property that make it particularly useful when anesthesia is provided for an electroconvulsive therapy (ECT).[2] And rapid recovery rate with consciousness being gained within three to seven minutes after induction and full recovery within 30 minutes is a major advantage over other ECT barbiturates.[2] ...
NaBr crystallizes in the same cubic motif as NaCl, NaF and NaI. The anhydrous salt crystallizes above 50.7 °C.[7] Dihydrate salts (NaBr·2H2O) crystallize out of water solution below 50.7 °C.[8] NaBr is produced by treating sodium hydroxide with hydrogen bromide. Sodium bromide can be used as a source of the chemical element bromine. This can be accomplished by treating an aqueous solution of NaBr with chlorine gas: ...
... is a CYP2D6 enzyme inducer. When taken with codeine, (known on the streets as "hits", "cibas and codeine ", "Dors and 4s") it enables the body to convert higher amounts of the codeine to morphine. The general sedative effect of the glutethimide also adds to the effect of the combination.[4] It produces an intense, long lasting euphoria similar to IV heroin use. Quite a few deaths have occurred from abuse of this combination.[5] The effect was also used clinically, including some research in the 1970s in various countries of using it under carefully monitored circumstances as a form of oral opioid agonist substitution therapy, e.g. as a Substitutionmittel that may be a useful alternative to methadone.[6][7] The demand for this combination in Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Newark, NYC, Boston, Baltimore, and surrounding areas of other states and perhaps elsewhere, has led to small-scale clandestine synthesis of glutethimide since 1984,[8]:203 a process that is, like methaqualone (Quaalude) ...
... is a class of prescription drugs in India appearing as an appendix to the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945 introduced in 1945. These are drugs which cannot be purchased over the counter without the prescription of a qualified doctor.The manufacture and sale of all drugs are covered under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act and Rules. It is revised at times based on the advice of the Drugs Technical Advisory Board, part of the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization[1] in the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. The most recent schedule H (2006) lists 536 drugs from abacavir to zuclopenthixol.[2] However, enforcement of Schedule H laws in India is lax, compared to the more restrictive Schedule X, for which a mandatory documentation trail must be maintained.[3] ...
Chlorpromazine HCl. Deep purplish red Codeine. Very dark purple Caffeine. Clear (No change) ...
Turner T (January 2007). "Chlorpromazine: unlocking psychosis". BMJ. 334 Suppl 1 (suppl): s7. doi:10.1136/bmj.39034.609074.94. ... The discovery of chlorpromazine's effectiveness in treating schizophrenia in 1952 revolutionized treatment of the disorder,[122 ...
Chlorpromazine • Chlorprothixene • Droperidol • Flupentixol • Fluphenazine • Fluspirilene • Haloperidol • Loxapine • ...
Definition Chlorpromazine is an antipsychotic drug. It is a member of the phenothiazine family of compounds and is used to ... Chlorpromazine. Definition. Chlorpromazine is an antipsychotic drug. It is a member of the phenothiazine family of compounds ... "Chlorpromazine and the Psycho-pharmacologic Revolution." Journal of the American Medical Association 287 (2002): 1860-1861. , ... Chlorpromazine is principally used to reduce the signs and symptoms of psychosis. For this purpose, the drug is used in ...
Chlorpromazine. Br Med J 1955; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.4906.166-b (Published 15 January 1955) Cite this as: Br Med ...
... is a type of medicine called a phenothiazine antipsychotic. It is used in the treatment of various psychiatric ... Chlorpromazine. Chlorpromazine is a type of medicine called a phenothiazine antipsychotic. It is used in the treatment of ... Cimetidine may enhance or reduce the effect of chlorpromazine.. Phenobarbital may increase the breakdown of chlorpromazine by ... Chlorpromazine is used used in the long-term management of psychotic conditions such as schizophrenia. It is also used in the ...
Chlorpromazine can cause mild and transient serum enzyme elevations and is also a well known cause of clinically apparent acute ... Chlorpromazine is a phenothiazine that was once the most commonly prescribed antipsychotic agent, but that is now rarely used. ... 38 year old woman developed weakness and fever 10 days after starting chlorpromazine, with rash and jaundice; chlorpromazine ... Fatalities from chlorpromazine jaundice have been reported. Rechallenge with chlorpromazine usually causes a prompt recurrence ...
Chlorpromazine: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Chlorpromazine comes as a tablet to take by mouth. Chlorpromazine is usually taken two to four times a day. When chlorpromazine ... Continue to take chlorpromazine even if you feel well. Do not stop taking chlorpromazine without talking to your doctor. Your ... Before taking chlorpromazine,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to chlorpromazine; other phenothiazines ...
Chlorpromazine is a prescription medicine used to treat psychotic disorders. It may also be used to prevent nausea and vomiting ... Chlorpromazine overdose occurs when someone takes more than the normal or recommended amount of this medicine. This can be by ... Chlorpromazine is a prescription medicine used to treat psychotic disorders. It may also be used to prevent nausea and vomiting ... Chlorpromazine is fairly safe. Most likely, an overdose will only cause drowsiness and some side effects such as uncontrolled ...
Chlorpromazine in Tetanus. Br Med J 1960; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.5182.1364-a (Published 30 April 1960) Cite this ...
Other names: 10H-Phenothiazine-10-propanamine, 2-chloro-N,N-dimethyl-; Phenothiazine, 2-chloro-10-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-; Aminazin; Aminazine; Ampliactil; Amplictil; Chlor-Promanyl; Chlorderazin; Chlorpromados; Contomin; CPZ; Elmarin; Esmind; Fenactil; Fenaktyl; Fraction AB; HL 5746; Largactil; Largactilothiazine; Largactyl; Megaphen; Novomazina; Phenactyl; Plegomasine; Proma; Promactil; Promazil; Propaphenin; Prozil; Sanopron; SKF 2601-A; Thorazine; Torazina; Wintermin; 2-Chloro-10-[3-(Dimethylamino)propyl]phenothiazine; 2-Chloropromazine; 4560 R.P.; Aminasine; Amplicitil; Chloropromazine; Chlorpromazin; Psychozine; 2-Cloro-10 (3-dimetilaminopropil)fenotiazina; Clorpromazina; 2601-A; RP-4560; BC 135 ...
Non-thrombocytopenic Purpura after Chlorpromazine. Br Med J 1955; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.4948.1126 (Published 05 ...
Get an overview of CHLORPROMAZINE HYDROCHLORIDE (injection), including warnings and precautions, directions, and the names of ...
Treatment of severe hypertension using chlorpromazine. Br Med J 1980; 281 :873 ... Treatment of severe hypertension using chlorpromazine.. Br Med J 1980; 281 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.281.6244.873-d ( ...
Fatal Case of Agranulocytosis Due to Chlorpromazine Br Med J 1958; 2 :289 ... Fatal Case of Agranulocytosis Due to Chlorpromazine. Br Med J 1958; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.5091.289 (Published 02 ...
A Moderate Drug Interaction exists between chlorpromazine and thiothixene. View detailed information regarding this drug ... Using chlorproMAZINE together with thiothixene may increase side effects such as drowsiness, blurred vision, dry mouth, heat ...
Chlorpromazine, more commonly known as Thorazine, is one of the most widely known phenothiazine neuroleptics that has ever been ... Chlorpromazine (Thorazine). Chlorpromazine, more commonly known as Thorazine, is one of the most widely known phenothiazine ...
Find the most comprehensive real-world treatment information on Chlorpromazine at PatientsLikeMe. 20 patients with fibromyalgia ... bipolar I disorder or psoriasis currently take Chlorpromazine. ... Stopped taking Chlorpromazine Duration. Patients. This item is ... Currently taking Chlorpromazine Duration. Patients. This item is relevant to you: 6 months - 1 year 3 * 3 ... Why patients stopped taking Chlorpromazine. Multiple reasons could be selected. Reason. Patients. This item is relevant to you ...
Chlorpromazine is used to treat psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia or manic-depression, and severe behavioral problems ... Chlorpromazine is an anti-psychotic medication in a group of drugs called phenothiazines (FEEN-oh-THYE-a-zeens). It works by ... What other drugs will affect chlorpromazine?. Taking chlorpromazine with other drugs that make you sleepy or slow your ... What is chlorpromazine?. Chlorpromazine is an anti-psychotic medication in a group of drugs called phenothiazines (FEEN-oh-THYE ...
WebMD provides information about interactions between Phenergan Oral and chlorpromazine-promethazine-meperidine-immediate- ... Meperidine (Immediate Release)/Chlorpromazine; Promethazine Interactions. This information is generalized and not intended as ...
WebMD provides information about interactions between Chlorpromazine Injection and chlorpromazine-promethazine-meperidine- ... Drugs & MedicationsChlorpromazine 25 Mg/Ml Injection Solution Antipsychotics (Excluding Select Aripiprazole Formulations). ... Meperidine (Immediate Release)/Chlorpromazine; Promethazine Interactions. This information is generalized and not intended as ...
Effects of Chlorpromazine in Patients with Hepatic Disease Br Med J 1969; 3 :497 ... Patients with cirrhosis were found to be extremely sensitive to chlorpromazine as shown by slowing of the electroencephalograph ... changes were in general very sleepy and took some hours to recover after taking chlorpromazine. It is concluded that ... Effects of Chlorpromazine in Patients with Hepatic Disease. Br Med J 1969; 3 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.3.5669.497 ( ...
Easy-to-read patient leaflet for Chlorpromazine Tablets. Includes indications, proper use, special instructions, precautions, ... What do I need to tell my doctor BEFORE I take Chlorpromazine Tablets?. *If you have an allergy to chlorpromazine or any other ... How is this medicine (Chlorpromazine Tablets) best taken?. Use this medicine (chlorpromazine tablets) as ordered by your doctor ... Generic Name: Chlorpromazine Tablets (klor PROE ma zeen). Brand Name: Thorazine. Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated ...
Chlorpromazine) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related ... brand of chlorpromazine antipsychotic• tranquilizer • antiemetic. DESCRIPTION. Thorazine (chlorpromazine) is 10-(3- ... The extrapyramidal symptoms which can occur secondary to Thorazine (chlorpromazine) may be confused with the central nervous ... The use of Thorazine (chlorpromazine) and other potential hepatotoxins should be avoided in children and adolescents whose ...
Patient information for CHLORPROMAZINE HYDROCHLORIDE 25MG/5ML ORAL SYRUP Including dosage instructions and possible side ... CHLORPROMAZINE HYDROCHLORIDE 25MG/5ML ORAL SYRUP. Active substance(s): CHLORPROMAZINE HYDROCHLORIDE / CHLORPROMAZINE ... 1. What Chlorpromazine Syrup is and what it is used for. 2. What you need to know before you take Chlorpromazine Syrup. 3. How ... Chlorpromazine acts on the brain to calm your emotions.. Chlorpromazine can be used to treat:. n schizophrenia. n feeling and ...
Chlorpromazine does also act as FIASMA (functional inhibitor of acid sphingomyelinase). Chlorpromazine is an antagonist to H1 ... Antacids slow chlorpromazine absorption. Lithium and chronic treatment with barbiturates can increase chlorpromazine clearance ... Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) can decrease chlorpromazine clearance and hence increase chlorpromazine exposure. Cotreatment ... The veterinary use of chlorpromazine has generally been superseded by use of acepromazine. Chlorpromazine may be used as an ...
About this substance This section provides an overview of the volume in which the substance is manufactured or imported to the European Economic Area (EU28 + Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway). Additionally, if available, information on the use of the substance and how consumers and workers are likely to be exposed to it can also be displayed here.. The use information is displayed per substance life cycle stage (consumer, in articles, by professional workers (widespread uses), in formulation or re-packing, at industrial sites or in manufacturing). The information is aggregated from REACH registered dossiers provided by industry.. For a detailed overview on identified uses and environmental releases, please consult the registered substance dossier.. Use descriptors are adapted from ECHA guidance to improve readability and may not correspond textually to descriptor codes described in Chapter R.12: Use Descriptor system of ECHA Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety ...
8 patient evaluations for Chlorpromazine 27 members have decided to share their profiles only with other members of ...
  • Chlorpromazine is usually given as an injection at your doctor's office, hospital, or clinic. (hellodoktor.com)
  • Liddell's breathing got worse and on 19 July 1997 Moor gave him an injection of diamorphine and chlorpromazine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorpromazine is also effective in treating persistant hiccups, though how it works in this case is unclear. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Chlorpromazine is indicated for the therapy of acute and chronic psychosis and for nausea and intractable hiccups. (nih.gov)
  • Chlorpromazine is also used to control nausea and vomiting, to relieve hiccups that have lasted one month or longer, and to relieve restlessness and nervousness that may occur just before surgery. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When chlorpromazine is used to relieve hiccups, it is usually taken 3-4 times a day for up to 3 days or until the hiccups stop. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Chlorpromazine is also used for treating severe hiccups, nausea or vomiting and intermittent porphyria. (health-care-information.org)
  • Chlorpromazine is also used to treat other conditions such as - severe nausea and vomiting - severe hiccups that cannot be stopped - anxiety or nervousness before surgery. (mistrys.co.uk)
  • Chlorpromazine is also used to control nausea/vomiting, relieve prolonged hiccups, relieve restlessness/anxiety before surgery, and help treat tetanus. (kaiserpermanente.org)
  • Chlorpromazine may sometimes be used as a sedative in non-psychotic patients with excessive anxiety and agitation. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Liver test abnormalities have been reported to occur in up to 40% of patients on long term therapy with chlorpromazine, but elevations are uncommonly above 3 times the upper limit of normal. (nih.gov)
  • Patients with cirrhosis were found to be extremely sensitive to chlorpromazine as shown by slowing of the electroencephalograph (E.E.G.), which was particularly definite in those who had had hepatic encephalopathy previously. (bmj.com)
  • Patients showing the most definite E.E.G. changes were in general very sleepy and took some hours to recover after taking chlorpromazine. (bmj.com)
  • Quantitative studies of urinary excretion of chlorpromazine metabolites in chronically dosed psychiatric patients, J. Pharm. (springer.com)
  • Chlorpromazine should be avoided in patients with liver dysfunction, hypothyroidism, cardiac failure and agranulocytosis. (medicines.org.uk)
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of intravitreal triamcinolone and retrobulbar chlorpromazine as alternatives in the management of This is a prospective study of patients with blind painful eyes not responsive to topical treatment and with no indication for evisceration seen at the Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Governador Celso Ramos (HGCR) in 2010. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Determination of Serum Chlorpromazine Metabolites in Psychotic Patients. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Hyperpigmentation of exposed skin areas, comparable to that seen in less than 1 per cent of patients chronically dosed with chlorpromazine after intensive long-term therapy, has been produced in sixteen out of sixteen chronically dosed pigmented rabbits, receiving between 20-30 mg/kg per day. (elsevier.com)
  • Henri Laborit was first using chlorpromazine to treat the anxiety of patients prior to surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the end of the 1940s the same lab produced chlorpromazine which had an even stronger sedative and soothing effect, and Jean Delay and Pierre Deniker attempted to use it on their psychiatric patients, publishing their results in the early 1950s. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of chlorpromazine resulted from efforts of pharmaceutical researchers in the first half of the twentieth century to develop sedative medications. (encyclopedia.com)
  • An extremely large amount of a sedative drug, chlorpromazine, was found in the victim's stomach. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) can decrease chlorpromazine clearance and hence increase chlorpromazine exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorpromazine and related antipsychotic tricyclic compounds competitively inhibit the interaction between tumor-promoting phorbol esters and their specific receptors. (semanticscholar.org)
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  • Bolt, A.G.: Interactions between human melanoprotein and chlorpromazine derivatives. (springer.com)
  • Before you take a medication for a particular ailment, you should inform the health expert about intake of any other medications including non-prescription medications, over-the-counter medicines that may increase the effect of Chlorpromazine, and dietary supplements like vitamins, minerals and herbal, so that the doctor can warn you of any possible drug interactions. (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • Find patient medical information for Chlorpromazine Oral on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, interactions, pictures, warnings and user ratings. (canadapharmacybsl.bid)
  • When used in psychiatric illness, chlorpromazine is sometimes described as a neuroleptic or a 'major tranquilliser', though this last term is fairly misleading, as this type of medicine is not just a tranquilliser and any tranquillising effect is not as important as the main way it works in psychiatric illness. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Chlorpromazine was approved for use in the United States in 1957 and was formerly the most commonly prescribed antipsychotic medication, being the prototypic, standard neuroleptic agent against which other antipsychotic agents were tested. (nih.gov)
  • This report suggests a potential Chlorpromazine Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome side effect(s) that can have serious consequences. (patientsville.com)
  • There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Chlorpromazine (a neuroleptic drug) during pregnancy may have a teratogenic effect on the fetus. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • Chlorpromazine drug should be discontinued immediately if the patient develops neuroleptic malignant syndrome characterized by an increase in the body temperature, muscle rigidity, altered consciousness. (cashkaro.com)
  • In 1951 Paul Charpentier synthesized chlorpromazine (Neuroleptic). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is treated with haloperidol, chlorpromazine alone or in combination with diazepam, and also pimozide, which is another neuroleptic drug which may have fewer adverse effects than haloperidol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism of action of chlorpromazine is not completely understood. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Here, we used chemoresistant patient-derived glioma stem cells and chemoresistant human glioma cell lines to investigate the effects of chlorpromazine against chemoresistant glioma. (oncotarget.com)
  • Chlorpromazine is an antipsychotic drug. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Chlorpromazine was the first antipsychotic drug. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Chlorpromazine was formerly the most common cause of drug induced liver injury in the United States, but with the decrease in its use, chlorpromazine associated jaundice is now rarely reported. (nih.gov)
  • Chlorpromazine is not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of behavior problems in older adults with dementia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In this study, chlorpromazine (CPZ, Scheme 1 (b)), an antipsychotic drug, was used as a suitable homogeneous mediator in the electrooxidation of CAP. (hindawi.com)
  • We previously reported on chlorpromazine levels in the autopsied tissues of a chronically dosed patient and found the drug content in hair higher than in any of the visceral, bone, or keratinous tissues examined. (springer.com)
  • Generic drug Chlorpromazine is considered just as safe and effective as its brand-name equivalents. (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • Did you know that buying the generic drug Chlorpromazine from IDM is much cheaper than buying its name-brand counterpart? (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • These results appear to provide a molecular explanation for inhibition by chlorpromazine of fast axonal transport of proteins in vitro in frog sciatic nerve, and provide a fresh clue as to the primary mechanism for the psychotropic effect of this drug. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The major problem with chlorpromazine, a BCS Class II drug, is erratic absorption from GIT, limited aqueous solubility, poor dissolution, and poor bioavailability. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Chlorpromazine and light also induced thymidine incorporation into lymphocytes, whereas light or drug alone did not cause unscheduled DNA synthesis. (arvojournals.org)
  • is clorapromazine a safe drug to take / symptons gad anxiety avoidance disorder /ptsd panic attacks ## Hi, I doubt a highly potent Antipsychotic like Chlorpromazine will help you feel less anxious. (medschat.com)
  • These methods varied from Pavlovian conditioning paradigms to drug injections of methylphenidate and chlorpromazine in rat models. (wikipedia.org)
  • High risk: Procainamide (antiarrhythmic) Hydralazine (antihypertensive) Moderate to low risk: Infliximab anti (TNF-α) Etanercept anti (TNF-α) Isoniazid (antibiotic) Minocycline (antibiotic) Pyrazinamide (antibiotic) Quinidine (antiarrhythmic) D-Penicillamine (anti-inflammatory) Carbamazepine (anticonvulsant) Oxcarbazepine (anticonvulsant) Phenytoin (anticonvulsant) Propafenone (antiarrhythmic) Chlorpromazine (antipsychotic) Minoxidil (antihypertensive vasodilator) Antinuclear antibodies are usually positive in drug induced Lupus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The precise mechanism whereby the therapeutic effects of chlorpromazine are produced is not known. (nih.gov)
  • This report issues from studies concerning the pathogenesis of hepatic dysfunction due to chlorpromazine, the prophylactic and therapeutic influence thereon of synthetic adrenocortical hormones, and trials of deliberate desensitization. (annals.org)
  • Tardive dyskinesia and akathisia are less commonly seen with chlorpromazine than they are with high potency typical antipsychotics such as haloperidol or trifluoperazine, and some evidence suggests that, with conservative dosing, the incidence of such effects for chlorpromazine may be comparable to that of newer agents such as risperidone or olanzapine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorpromazine is also used to treat severe behavior problems such as explosive, aggressive behavior and hyperactivity in children 1 to 12 years of age. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Treatment of severe hypertension using chlorpromazine. (bmj.com)
  • Nielsen P E , McNair A , Krogsgaard A R , Hilden T . Treatment of severe hypertension using chlorpromazine. (bmj.com)
  • Chlorpromazine is occasionally used off-label for treatment of severe migraine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In children ages 1 through 12 years, chlorpromazine is used to treat severe behavioral problems (such as combative or explosive behavior) or hyperactivity with excessive motor activity. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • At Leeds, Hargreaves worked with colleagues such as Max Hamilton, running trials on chlorpromazine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The differential effect of chlorpromazine upon the two performances may have been due to differences in reinforcer type (conditioned versus unconditioned) or other aspects of reinforcement. (springer.com)
  • Part of this effect of chlorpromazine is related to changes in permeability as shown by the decreased disappearance from blood stream of arabinose, a sugar which is not phosphorilated, after arabinose load. (elsevier.com)
  • Be sure to tell your doctor how you are feeling during your treatment with chlorpromazine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In vitro interaction of chlorpromazine and melanin, Agressologie 7:147, 1966. (springer.com)
  • Chlorpromazine has other peripheral and central nervous system effects, producing both alpha adrenergic stimulation and blocking histamine- and serotonin-mediated effects. (nih.gov)
  • Cotreatment with CYP1A2 inhibitors like ciprofloxacin, fluvoxamine or vemurafenib can reduce chlorpromazine clearance and hence increase exposure and potentially also adverse effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Byrd LD (1974) Modification of the effects of chlorpromazine on behavior in the chimpanzee. (springer.com)
  • Chlorpromazine is excreted into breast milk and may have undesirable effects on a nursing infant. (depressionforums.org)
  • Eyal & Eyal-Giladi, 1963) some of the macroscopic effects produced by chlorpromazine (CPZ) on the development and growth rate of Axolotl embryos have been reported. (biologists.org)
  • Effects of morphine, diazepam and chlorpromazine on discrimination of electric shock. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Since administration of adrenal Corticosteroids has been shown to inhibit TSH secretion in rats and rabbits, the effects of morphine and chlorpromazine were further studied in adrenalectomize rats. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Chlorpromazine works on a variety of receptors in the central nervous system, producing anticholinergic, antidopaminergic, antihistaminic, and weak antiadrenergic effects. (pharmaceuticalpellets.com)
  • Preston, J.B. Effects of chlorpromazine on the central nervous system of the cat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly chlorpromazine is primarily used as an antipsychotic, but its strong serotonin receptor blocking effects make it useful for treating serotonergic crisis such as serotonin syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorpromazine is extensively metabolized by the liver via sulfoxidation and oxidation, and some instances of serum aminotransferase elevations as well as more clinically apparent liver injury may be caused by production of a toxic intermediate of its metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • Metabolism of chlorpromazine in humans, Biochem. (springer.com)
  • Most importantly, chlorpromazine jaundice can be prolonged and associated with vanishing bile duct syndrome (Case 2). (nih.gov)
  • Up to 7% of cases of chlorpromazine induced cholestasis are followed by prolonged jaundice, and several instances of vanishing bile duct syndrome have been attributed to chlorpromazine. (nih.gov)
  • The occurrence of jaundice following chlorpromazine therapy has been repeatedly noted, but the exact mechanism of its production remains in doubt. (annals.org)
  • Chlorpromazine is not approved for use in psychotic conditions related to dementia. (cigna.com)
  • Chlorpromazine may increase the risk of death in older adults with dementia-related conditions. (cigna.com)
  • Chlorpromazine is not approved for use in older adults with dementia -related conditions. (emedicinehealth.com)