The prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class chlorpromazine's antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking DOPAMINE RECEPTORS. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup.
Compounds containing dibenzo-1,4-thiazine. Some of them are neuroactive.
A phenothiazine antipsychotic used in the management of PHYCOSES, including SCHIZOPHRENIA.
A traditional grouping of drugs said to have a soothing or calming effect on mood, thought, or behavior. Included here are the ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS (minor tranquilizers), ANTIMANIC AGENTS, and the ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS (major tranquilizers). These drugs act by different mechanisms and are used for different therapeutic purposes.
A phenothiazine used as an antipsychotic agent and as an antiemetic.
Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.
A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE but with less antipsychotic activity. It is primarily used in short-term treatment of disturbed behavior and as an antiemetic.
A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.
The prototypical tricyclic antidepressant. It has been used in major depression, dysthymia, bipolar depression, attention-deficit disorders, agoraphobia, and panic disorders. It has less sedative effect than some other members of this therapeutic group.
A phenothiazine antipsychotic used principally in the treatment of NAUSEA; VOMITING; and VERTIGO. It is more likely than CHLORPROMAZINE to cause EXTRAPYRAMIDAL DISORDERS. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p612)
An antipsychotic phenothiazine derivative with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROMAZINE.
A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)
A phenothiazine derivative with histamine H1-blocking, antimuscarinic, and sedative properties. It is used as an antiallergic, in pruritus, for motion sickness and sedation, and also in animals.
The study of the effects of drugs on mental and behavioral activity.
A diphenylbutylpiperidine that is effective as an antipsychotic agent and as an alternative to HALOPERIDOL for the suppression of vocal and motor tics in patients with Tourette syndrome. Although the precise mechanism of action is unknown, blockade of postsynaptic dopamine receptors has been postulated. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p403)
Compounds containing phenyl-1-butanone.
An N-methylated indoleamine derivative and serotonergic hallucinogen which occurs naturally and ubiquitously in several plant species including Psychotria veridis. It also occurs in trace amounts in mammalian brain, blood, and urine, and is known to act as an agonist or antagonist of certain SEROTONIN RECEPTORS.
A carbamate with hypnotic, sedative, and some muscle relaxant properties, although in therapeutic doses reduction of anxiety rather than a direct effect may be responsible for muscle relaxation. Meprobamate has been reported to have anticonvulsant actions against petit mal seizures, but not against grand mal seizures (which may be exacerbated). It is used in the treatment of ANXIETY DISORDERS, and also for the short-term management of INSOMNIA but has largely been superseded by the BENZODIAZEPINES. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p603)
An irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase types A and B that is used as an antidepressive agent. It has also been used as an antitubercular agent, but its use is limited by its toxicity.
The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.
A long-acting injectable antipsychotic agent used for chronic schizophrenia.
Compounds formed by condensation of secologanin with tryptamine resulting in a tetrahydro-beta-carboline which is processed further to a number of bioactive compounds. These are especially found in plants of the APOCYNACEAE; LOGANIACEAE; and RUBIACEAE families.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.
The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.
A tricylic dibenzodiazepine, classified as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It binds several types of central nervous system receptors, and displays a unique pharmacological profile. Clozapine is a serotonin antagonist, with strong binding to 5-HT 2A/2C receptor subtype. It also displays strong affinity to several dopaminergic receptors, but shows only weak antagonism at the dopamine D2 receptor, a receptor commonly thought to modulate neuroleptic activity. Agranulocytosis is a major adverse effect associated with administration of this agent.
An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.
A thioxanthine with effects similar to the phenothiazine antipsychotics.

Nonbehavioral selection for pawns, mutants of Paramecium aurelia with decreased excitability. (1/831)

The reversal response in Paramecium aurelia is mediated by calcium which carries the inward current during excitation. Electrophysiological studies indicate that strontium and barium can also carry the inward current. Exposure to high concentrations of barium rapidly paralyzes and later kills wild-type paramecia. Following mutagenesis with nitrosoguanidine, seven mutants which continued to swim in the ;high-barium' solution were selected. All of the mutants show decreased reversal behavior, with phenotypes ranging from extremely non-reversing (;extreme' pawns) to nearly wild-type reversal behavior (;partial' pawns). The mutations fall into three complementation groups, identical to the pwA, pwB, and pwC genes of Kunget al. (1975). All of the pwA and pwB mutants withstand longer exposure to barium, the pwB mutants surviving longer than the pwA mutants. Among mutants of each gene, survival is correlated with loss of reversal behavior. Double mutants (A-B, A-C, B-C), identified in the exautogamous progeny of crosses between ;partial' mutants, exhibited a more extreme non-reversing phenotype than either of their single-mutant (;partial' pawn) parents.---Inability to reverse could be expected from an alteration in the calcium-activated reversal mechanism or in excitation. A normal calcium-activated structure was demonstrated in all pawns by chlorpromazine treatment. In a separate report (Schein, Bennett and Katz 1976) the results of electrophysiological investigations directly demonstrate decreased excitability in all of the mutants, a decrease due to an altered calcium activation. The studies of the genetics, the survival in barium and the electro-physiology of the pawns demonstrate that the pwA and pwB genes have different effects on calcium activation.  (+info)

Effects of promazine, chlorpromazine, d-amphetamine, and pentobarbital on treadle pressing by pigeons under a signalled shock-postponement schedule. (2/831)

The effects of promazine on treadle pressing to postpone the presentation of electric shock were studied in three pigeons. The effects of chlorpromazine, d-amphetamine, and pentobarbital were studied in two of these pigeons. Each treadle press postponed electric shock for 20 sec and presentation of a preshock stimulus for 14 sec. Selected doses of both promazine and chlorpromazine increased the rates of treadle pressing in all birds. The response-rate increases produced by promazine and chlorpromazine were due to increased conditional probabilities of treadle pressing both before and during the preshock stimulus. d-Amphetamine (1 and 3 mg/kg) slightly increased responding in one of the birds, but not to the extent that promazine or chlorpromazine did. In the other bird, the 10 mg/kg dose of d-amphetamine increased shock rate but did not change response rate. Some doses of d-amphetamine increased the conditional probabilities of responding both in the absence of the preshock signal and during the preshock signal in both birds. Pentobarbital only decreased response rates and increased shock rates.  (+info)

Effect of psychotropic drugs on caudate spindle in cats. (3/831)

To ascertain whether neuroleptics act on the caudate nucleus itself, the effects of these compounds as well as other centrally acting drugs were examined in relation to caudate spindle and EEG arousal responses (sciatic nerve stimulation) in gallamine-immobilized cats. Haloperidol and chlorpromazine enhanced the caudate spindle at a dose which had no effect on the EEG arousal response. On the other hand, clozapine and a higher dose of chlorpromazine enhanced the caudate spindle, but depressed the arousal response. High frequency stimulation of the sciatic nerve suppressed the caudate spindle. Pentobarbital, biperiden and diazepam, while depressing the arousal response, caused an enhancement of the caudate spindle. Imipramine at a low dose had no effect on either response, whereas at a high dose this drug enhanced the caudate spindle with concomitant depression of the arousal response. From these results, it may be concluded that the enhancing action on the caudate spindle induced by haloperidol and a low dose of chlorpromazine is due to an increase in susceptibility of the caudate nucleus itself. In addition, it is suggested that depression of the activating system is involved in an appearance of the caudate spindle.  (+info)

Mechanisms involved in the metabotropic glutamate receptor-enhancement of NMDA-mediated motoneurone responses in frog spinal cord. (4/831)

1. The metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonist trans-(+/-)-1-amino-1,3-cyclopentanedicarboxylic acid (trans-ACPD) (10-100 microM) depolarized isolated frog spinal cord motoneurones, a process sensitive to kynurenate (1.0 mM) and tetrodotoxin (TTX) (0.783 microM). 2. In the presence of NMDA open channel blockers [Mg2+; (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine hydrogen maleate (MK801); 3,5-dimethyl-1-adamantanamine hydrochloride (memantine)] and TTX, trans-ACPD significantly potentiated NMDA-induced motoneurone depolarizations, but not alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-proprionate (AMPA)- or kainate-induced depolarizations. 3. NMDA potentiation was blocked by (RS)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG) (240 microM), but not by alpha-methyl-(2S,3S,4S)-alpha-(carboxycyclopropyl)-glycine (MCCG) (290 microM) or by alpha-methyl-(S)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-MAP4) (250 microM), and was mimicked by 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) (30 microM), but not by L(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-AP4) (100 microM). Therefore, trans-ACPD's facilitatory effects appear to involve group I mGluRs. 4. Potentiation was prevented by the G-protein decoupling agent pertussis toxin (3-6 ng ml(-1), 36 h preincubation). The protein kinase C inhibitors staurosporine (2.0 microM) and N-(2-aminoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulphonamide HCI (H9) (77 microM) did not significantly reduce enhanced NMDA responses. Protein kinase C activation with phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (5.0 microM) had no effect. 5. Intracellular Ca2+ depletion with thapsigargin (0.1 microM) (which inhibits Ca2+/ATPase), 1,2-bis(O-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetracetic acid acetyl methyl ester (BAPTA-AM) (50 microM) (which buffers elevations of [Ca2+]i), and bathing spinal cords in nominally Ca2+-free medium all reduced trans-ACPD's effects. 6. The calmodulin antagonists N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulphonamide (W7) (100 microM) and chlorpromazine (100 microM) diminished the potentiation. 7. In summary, group I mGluRs selectively facilitate NMDA-depolarization of frog motoneurones via a G-protein, a rise in [Ca2+]i from the presumed generation of phosphoinositides, binding of Ca2+ to calmodulin, and lessening of the Mg2+-produced channel block of the NMDA receptor.  (+info)

Antagonistic effects of trifluoperazine, imipramine, and chlorpromazine against acetylcholine-induced contractions in isolated rat uterus. (5/831)

AIM: To examine the effects and affinity of some phenothizines (trifluoperazine, Tri and chlorpromazine, Chl) and antidepressant (imipramine, Imi) drugs on acetylcholine (ACh)-induced uterine contraction. METHODS: Isotonic contractions of rat uterine strips were recorded. ACh was administrated to induce maximal contraction before exchange of nutrient solution. ACh was added 5 min after the testing drugs. The nutrient solution was exchanged 4 times after each agonist (ACh or other agents) to produce maximal contraction. RESULTS: Atropine (Atr, 0.029-2.9 mumol.L-1), 4-DAMP (3.6-360 nmol.L-1), pirenzepine (Pir, 0.23-23.5 mumol.L-1), and AF-DX 116 (0.7-35.6 mumol.L-1) competitively antagonized the muscular uterine concentration induced by ACh (0.068-36068 mumol.L-1). The Schild plot was linear (r = 1.00). The pKB and slopes values (95% confidence limits) were 9.28 +/- 0.12 and 1.00 +/- 0.10 to Atr, 9.06 +/- 0.10 and 1.10 +/- 0.08 to 4-DAMP, 7.03 +/- 0.15 and 0.99 +/- 0.12 to Pir, and 5.60 +/- 0.08 and 1.00 +/- 0.19 to AF-DX 116. Tri 0.01-2 mumol.L-1 (pKB = 8.39 +/- 0.04) and Imi 94-940 nmol.L-1 (pKB = 7.21 +/- 0.10) produced also a competitive antagonism of the muscular uterine contraction induced by ACh (r = 1.00), but the slope was only 0.60 +/- 0.03 to Tri or 0.83 +/- 0.16 to Imi. Chl 2.8-5.6 mumol.L-1 produced a weak antagonism on amplitude of muscular contraction induced by the cholinomimetic. CONCLUSION: The muscarinic receptors on uterus behaved as M3 subtype. Tri and Imi, but not Chl, were competitive antagonist of muscarinic receptors of uterus. Imi behaved a simple competitive antagonist at a single site on myometrium, but Tri was not a simple competitive agent at a single site.  (+info)

Chlorpromazine inhibits miniature GABAergic currents by reducing the binding and by increasing the unbinding rate of GABAA receptors. (6/831)

Recent studies have emphasized that nonequilibrium conditions of postsynaptic GABAA receptor (GABAAR) activation is a key factor in shaping the time course of IPSCs (Puia et al., 1994; Jones and Westbrook, 1995). Such nonequilibrium, resulting from extremely fast agonist time course, may affect the interaction between pharmacological agents and postsynaptic GABAARs. In the present study we found that chlorpromazine (CPZ), a widely used antipsychotic drug known to interfere with several ligand and voltage-gated channels, reduces the amplitude and accelerates the decay of miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs). A good qualitative reproduction of the effects of CPZ on mIPSCs was obtained when mIPSCs were mimicked by responses to ultrafast GABA applications to excised patches. Our experimental data and model simulations indicate that CPZ affects mIPSCs by decreasing the binding (kon) and by increasing the unbinding (koff) rates of GABAARs. Because of reduction of kon by CPZ, the binding reaction becomes rate-limiting, and agonist exposure of GABAARs during mIPSC is too short to activate the receptors to the same extent as in control conditions. The increase in unbinding rate is implicated as the mechanism underlying the acceleration of mIPSC decaying phase. The effect of CPZ on GABAAR binding rate, resulting in slower onset of GABA-evoked currents, provides a tool to estimate the speed of synaptic clearance of GABA. Moreover, the onset kinetics of recorded responses allowed the estimate the peak synaptic GABA concentration.  (+info)

Raclopride and chlorpromazine, but not clozapine, increase muscle rigidity in the rat: relationship with D2 dopamine receptor occupancy. (7/831)

The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between effects on muscle tone and D2 receptor occupancy of two typical antipsychotic drugs, raclopride and chlorpromazine, and the atypical drug, clozapine. Increased muscle tone (i.e., muscle rigidity), was measured as increases in tonic electromyographic (EMG) activity of the antagonistic muscles of the rat hind limb. D2 dopamine receptor occupancy was assessed in the striatum and substantia nigra, areas involved in the regulation of muscle tone. Raclopride and chlorpromazine produced dose-dependent increases in EMG activity associated with D2 occupancy of 68%-80% in the striatum and 67%-76% in the nigra. No significant increases in EMG were observed with clozapine which showed low D2 occupancy. The results are consistent with those from human studies showing extrapyramidal side effects were associated with striatal D2 occupancy of > 70%.  (+info)

A specific point mutant at position 1 of the influenza hemagglutinin fusion peptide displays a hemifusion phenotype. (8/831)

We showed previously that substitution of the first residue of the influenza hemagglutinin (HA) fusion peptide Gly1 with Glu abolishes fusion activity. In the present study we asked whether this striking phenotype was due to the charge or side-chain volume of the substituted Glu. To do this we generated and characterized six mutants with substitutions at position 1: Gly1 to Ala, Ser, Val, Glu, Gln, or Lys. We found the following. All mutants were expressed at the cell surface, could be cleaved from the precursor (HA0) to the fusion permissive form (HA1-S-S-HA2), bound antibodies against the major antigenic site, bound red blood cells, and changed conformation at low pH. Only Gly, Ala, and Ser supported lipid mixing during fusion with red blood cells. Only Gly and Ala supported content mixing. Ser HA, therefore, displayed a hemifusion phenotype. The hemifusion phenotype of Ser HA was confirmed by electrophysiological studies. Our findings indicate that the first residue of the HA fusion peptide must be small (e.g., Gly, Ala, or Ser) to promote lipid mixing and must be small and apolar (e.g., Gly or Ala) to support both lipid and content mixing. The finding that Val HA displays no fusion activity underscores the idea that hydrophobicity is not the sole factor dictating fusion peptide function. The surprising finding that Ser HA displays hemifusion suggests that the HA ectodomain functions not only in the first stage of fusion, lipid mixing, but also, either directly or indirectly, in the second stage of fusion, content mixing.  (+info)

Chlorpromazine is a type of antipsychotic medication, also known as a phenothiazine. It works by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, which helps to reduce the symptoms of psychosis such as hallucinations, delusions, and disordered thinking. Chlorpromazine is used to treat various mental health conditions including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and severe behavioral problems in children. It may also be used for the short-term management of severe anxiety or agitation, and to control nausea and vomiting.

Like all medications, chlorpromazine can have side effects, which can include drowsiness, dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, weight gain, and sexual dysfunction. More serious side effects may include neurological symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, or abnormal movements, as well as cardiovascular problems such as low blood pressure or irregular heart rhythms. It is important for patients to be monitored closely by their healthcare provider while taking chlorpromazine, and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Phenothiazines are a class of heterocyclic organic compounds that contain a phenothiazine nucleus, which consists of a pair of benzene rings fused to a thiazine ring. They have been widely used in medicine as antipsychotic drugs for the treatment of various mental disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

Phenothiazines work by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, which helps to reduce the symptoms of psychosis such as hallucinations, delusions, and disordered thinking. They also have sedative and antiemetic (anti-nausea) effects. However, they can cause a range of side effects including extrapyramidal symptoms (involuntary muscle movements), tardive dyskinesia (irreversible movement disorder), and neuroleptic malignant syndrome (a rare but potentially fatal reaction to antipsychotic drugs).

Examples of phenothiazine drugs include chlorpromazine, thioridazine, and promethazine. While they have been largely replaced by newer atypical antipsychotics, phenothiazines are still used in some cases due to their lower cost and effectiveness in treating certain symptoms.

Thioridazine is an antipsychotic medication that belongs to the class of phenothiazines. It works by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, which helps to reduce psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, and disordered thought processes. Thioridazine is used to treat schizophrenia and other mental disorders associated with anxiety, agitation, or hostility.

It's important to note that thioridazine has been associated with serious side effects, including prolongation of the QT interval on the electrocardiogram (ECG), which can lead to potentially fatal arrhythmias. Therefore, its use is generally reserved for patients who have not responded to other antipsychotic medications or who cannot tolerate them. Thioridazine has been withdrawn from the market in many countries due to these safety concerns.

Tranquilizing agents, also known as major tranquilizers or antipsychotic drugs, are a class of medications used primarily to manage psychosis, including schizophrenia, and other mental health disorders. These agents work by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, which helps reduce the symptoms of psychosis such as hallucinations, delusions, and disordered thinking.

Tranquilizing agents can be further divided into two categories: first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) and second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs). FGAs, also known as typical antipsychotics, were developed earlier and have a higher risk of side effects such as extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), which include involuntary movements, stiffness, and tremors. SGAs, also known as atypical antipsychotics, were developed more recently and have a lower risk of EPS but may have other side effects such as weight gain and metabolic issues.

It's important to note that tranquilizing agents should only be prescribed and monitored by a qualified healthcare professional, as they can have significant risks and benefits.

Triflupromazine is an antipsychotic medication that belongs to the class of phenothiazines. It works by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, which helps to reduce psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions, and hostility.

The medical definition of Triflupromazine is:

A trifluoromethyl phenothiazine antipsychotic drug, with sedative and hypotensive effects. It is used in the management of chronic schizophrenia, agitated states, and severe behavior problems in children. Its side effects include extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), such as tremors, rigidity, and akathisia, as well as anticholinergic effects like dry mouth and constipation. It may also cause orthostatic hypotension, drowsiness, and weight gain.

Antipsychotic agents are a class of medications used to manage and treat psychosis, which includes symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, paranoia, disordered thought processes, and agitated behavior. These drugs work by blocking the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that is believed to play a role in the development of psychotic symptoms. Antipsychotics can be broadly divided into two categories: first-generation antipsychotics (also known as typical antipsychotics) and second-generation antipsychotics (also known as atypical antipsychotics).

First-generation antipsychotics, such as chlorpromazine, haloperidol, and fluphenazine, were developed in the 1950s and have been widely used for several decades. They are generally effective in reducing positive symptoms of psychosis (such as hallucinations and delusions) but can cause significant side effects, including extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), such as rigidity, tremors, and involuntary movements, as well as weight gain, sedation, and orthostatic hypotension.

Second-generation antipsychotics, such as clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, and aripiprazole, were developed more recently and are considered to have a more favorable side effect profile than first-generation antipsychotics. They are generally effective in reducing both positive and negative symptoms of psychosis (such as apathy, anhedonia, and social withdrawal) and cause fewer EPS. However, they can still cause significant weight gain, metabolic disturbances, and sedation.

Antipsychotic agents are used to treat various psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder with psychotic features, delusional disorder, and other conditions that involve psychosis or agitation. They can be administered orally, intramuscularly, or via long-acting injectable formulations. The choice of antipsychotic agent depends on the individual patient's needs, preferences, and response to treatment, as well as the potential for side effects. Regular monitoring of patients taking antipsychotics is essential to ensure their safety and effectiveness.

Promazine is a type of medication known as a phenothiazine antipsychotic. It works by blocking the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that is involved in emotion and thought. Promazine is primarily used to treat schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, as well as to manage agitation and anxiety in certain medical conditions. It may also be used for its sedative effects in the management of insomnia or related sleep disturbances.

Promazine was first synthesized in the 1940s and has been used in clinical practice since then. It is available in various forms, including tablets and injectable solutions, and is typically administered two to four times a day. Common side effects of promazine include dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, dizziness, and orthostatic hypotension (a sudden drop in blood pressure upon standing). Less commonly, it can cause extrapyramidal symptoms, such as tremors, rigidity, and akathisia (restlessness and inability to sit still).

It is important to note that promazine and other phenothiazine antipsychotics have been largely replaced by newer, atypical antipsychotic medications due to their greater efficacy and lower risk of extrapyramidal side effects. However, promazine may still be used in certain cases where its specific properties are desired or when other treatments have failed. As with any medication, it should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider, who can monitor for potential adverse effects and adjust the dosage as needed.

Trifluoperazine is an antipsychotic medication that belongs to the class of drugs called phenothiazines. It works by blocking the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain, and helps to reduce symptoms of schizophrenia such as hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and disordered thought. Trifluoperazine may also be used to manage anxiety or agitation in certain medical conditions. It is available in the form of tablets for oral administration. As with any medication, trifluoperazine should be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider due to potential side effects and risks associated with its use.

Imipramine is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) medication that is primarily used to treat depression. It works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and norepinephrine, in the brain. Imipramine has been found to be effective in treating various types of depression, including major depressive disorder, dysthymia, and depression that is resistant to other treatments.

In addition to its antidepressant effects, imipramine is also used off-label for the treatment of several other conditions, such as anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), enuresis (bedwetting), and chronic pain.

Imipramine was first synthesized in the 1950s and has been widely used since then. It is available in various forms, including immediate-release tablets, extended-release capsules, and liquid solutions. As with all medications, imipramine can have side effects, which may include dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, dizziness, and sedation. In rare cases, it can cause more serious side effects, such as cardiac arrhythmias or seizures.

It is important to use imipramine under the close supervision of a healthcare provider, as dosages may need to be adjusted based on individual patient needs and responses to treatment. Additionally, imipramine should not be stopped abruptly, as doing so can lead to withdrawal symptoms or a recurrence of depression.

Prochlorperazine is an antipsychotic drug, specifically a phenothiazine derivative. It works by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, which helps to reduce psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions, and also has antiemetic (anti-nausea and vomiting) effects.

Prochlorperazine is used to treat various conditions, including:

* Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders
* Nausea and vomiting, including motion sickness and postoperative nausea and vomiting
* Severe anxiety or agitation
* Tension headaches

The drug can be administered orally, intramuscularly, or rectally, depending on the formulation. Common side effects of prochlorperazine include drowsiness, dry mouth, blurred vision, and constipation. More serious side effects can include neurological symptoms such as tardive dyskinesia (involuntary movements), neuroleptic malignant syndrome (a life-threatening condition characterized by fever, muscle rigidity, and autonomic dysfunction), and seizures. Prochlorperazine should be used with caution in elderly patients, those with a history of seizures or cardiovascular disease, and those taking other medications that may interact with it.

Perphenazine is an antipsychotic medication that belongs to the class of phenothiazines. It works by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, which helps to reduce psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, and disordered thinking. Perphenazine is used to treat various mental disorders, including schizophrenia, psychotic disorders, and severe agitation or aggression in people with developmental disabilities. It may also be used for the short-term treatment of severe anxiety or depression that does not respond to other treatments.

Perphenazine can cause side effects such as drowsiness, dizziness, restlessness, dry mouth, constipation, and weight gain. More serious side effects may include neurological symptoms such as tremors, stiffness, and uncontrolled muscle movements, which may indicate a condition called tardive dyskinesia. Perphenazine can also cause cardiovascular side effects such as low blood pressure, irregular heartbeat, and increased heart rate. It is important to monitor patients taking perphenazine for these and other potential side effects.

It's worth noting that the use of antipsychotic medications like perphenazine should be based on a thorough evaluation of the patient's symptoms, medical history, and other factors. The decision to prescribe this medication should be made carefully, taking into account its benefits and risks, as well as any alternative treatment options.

Haloperidol is an antipsychotic medication, which is primarily used to treat schizophrenia and symptoms of psychosis, such as delusions, hallucinations, paranoia, or disordered thought. It may also be used to manage Tourette's disorder, tics, agitation, aggression, and hyperactivity in children with developmental disorders.

Haloperidol works by blocking the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain, which helps to regulate mood and behavior. It is available in various forms, including tablets, liquid, and injectable solutions. The medication can cause side effects such as drowsiness, restlessness, muscle stiffness, and uncontrolled movements. In rare cases, it may also lead to more serious neurological side effects.

As with any medication, haloperidol should be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider, who will consider the individual's medical history, current medications, and other factors before prescribing it.

Promethazine is an antihistamine and phenothiazine derivative, which is commonly used for its sedative, anti-emetic (prevents vomiting), and anti-allergic properties. It works by blocking the action of histamine, a substance in the body that causes allergic symptoms, and by blocking the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps transmit signals.

Promethazine is used to treat various conditions such as allergies, motion sickness, nausea and vomiting, and as a sedative before and after surgery or medical procedures. It may also be used for its calming effects in children with certain behavioral disorders.

Like all medications, promethazine can have side effects, including drowsiness, dry mouth, blurred vision, and dizziness. More serious side effects may include seizures, irregular heartbeat, and difficulty breathing. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking promethazine and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Psychopharmacology is a branch of psychopharmacology that deals with the study of the effects of drugs on mood, thinking, and behavior. It involves researching how various substances interact with the brain and nervous system to produce changes in perception, cognition, consciousness, and emotion. This field also includes the development and testing of medications used to treat mental disorders, as well as the study of the potential misuse and abuse of drugs. Psychopharmacologists may work in academia, research institutions, or the pharmaceutical industry, and they often collaborate with other healthcare professionals, such as psychiatrists and neurologists, to develop and implement treatment plans for patients.

Pimozide is an antipsychotic medication that is primarily used to treat chronic tics and Tourette's disorder. It works by blocking the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that is involved in regulating movement and mood. By blocking dopamine receptors, pimozide helps to reduce the severity and frequency of tics and other symptoms associated with these conditions.

Pimozide may also be used off-label for the treatment of other conditions, such as severe behavioral problems in children with developmental disabilities. It is important to note that pimozide can have serious side effects, including cardiac arrhythmias and neurological symptoms, and should only be prescribed by a healthcare professional who is experienced in managing its use.

As with all medications, it's essential to follow the dosage instructions carefully and to report any unusual or concerning symptoms to your healthcare provider promptly.

Butyrophenones are a group of synthetic antipsychotic drugs that are primarily used to treat symptoms of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. They act as dopamine receptor antagonists, which means they block the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain associated with mood, motivation, and pleasure.

Some examples of butyrophenones include haloperidol, droperidol, and benperidol. These drugs are known for their potent antipsychotic effects and can also be used to manage agitation, aggression, and other behavioral disturbances in patients with various psychiatric and neurological disorders.

In addition to their antipsychotic properties, butyrophenones have been used off-label for their sedative and analgesic effects. However, they are associated with a range of side effects, including extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), such as involuntary muscle spasms and tremors, as well as other neurological and cardiovascular adverse reactions. Therefore, their use is typically reserved for cases where other treatments have been ineffective or contraindicated.

N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is a powerful psychedelic compound that occurs naturally in some plants and animals. It is a derivative of tryptamine, a type of organic compound that is similar in structure to the neurotransmitter serotonin. DMT is known for its ability to produce intense, short-lasting psychedelic experiences when ingested or smoked.

DMT is classified as a Schedule I controlled substance in the United States and is illegal to possess or distribute. It is also known by various street names, including "DMT," "N,N-DMT," "dimitri," and "businessman's trip."

In medical contexts, DMT is not typically used as a therapeutic agent due to its strong psychoactive effects and lack of proven therapeutic benefits. However, it has been the subject of some research into its potential uses in treating mental health conditions such as depression and anxiety. It is important to note that the use of DMT for any purpose carries significant risks and should only be undertaken under the supervision of a qualified medical professional.

Meprobamate is a carbamate derivative and acts as a central nervous system depressant. It is primarily used as an anti-anxiety agent, although it also has muscle relaxant properties. Meprobamate works by enhancing the activity of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a neurotransmitter that inhibits nerve transmission in the brain, thereby producing a calming effect.

It is important to note that meprobamate has a potential for abuse and dependence, and its use is associated with several side effects, including dizziness, drowsiness, and impaired coordination. Therefore, it should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Iproniazid is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) drug that was initially used as an antitubercular agent but later found to have antidepressant properties. It works by blocking the breakdown of certain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and dopamine, in the brain which helps to elevate mood and improve symptoms of depression. However, its use is limited due to the risk of serious side effects, including hypertensive crisis and serotonin syndrome, when taken with certain foods or other medications.

Dextroamphetamine is a central nervous system stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. It works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, in the brain. Dextroamphetamine is available as a prescription medication and is sold under various brand names, including Adderall and Dexedrine. It is important to use this medication only as directed by a healthcare professional, as it can have potentially serious side effects if used improperly.

Fluspirilene is an antipsychotic medication that belongs to the diphenylbutylpiperidine class. It works by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, which helps to reduce psychosis, agitation, and hostility in people with schizophrenia. Fluspirilene has a long duration of action, with its effects lasting up to several weeks after a single injection.

Here is the medical definition of Fluspirilene:

Fluspirilene: A diphenylbutylpiperidine antipsychotic drug used in the treatment of chronic schizophrenia. It has a long duration of action, with therapeutic effects persisting for up to 4 weeks after a single injection. Fluspirilene works by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, which helps to reduce psychosis, agitation, and hostility. Common side effects include extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), such as tremors, rigidity, and akathisia, as well as weight gain, sedation, and sexual dysfunction. Fluspirilene is available in the form of a depot injection for intramuscular use.

Secologanin tryptamine alkaloids are a type of alkaloid compound that is derived from the combination of secologanin (a metabolite found in certain plants) and tryptamine (an organic compound that is a building block for several neurotransmitters). These alkaloids have been identified in various plant species, including those in the genera *Psychotria* and *Uncaria*, and are known to exhibit a range of pharmacological activities. Some examples of secologanin tryptamine alkaloids include ajmalicine, reserpine, and yohimbine, which have been used in traditional medicine for their sedative, antihypertensive, and aphrodisiac properties, respectively. However, it is important to note that these compounds can also have toxic effects and should only be used under the guidance of a medical professional.

Dopamine antagonists are a class of drugs that block the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain associated with various functions including movement, motivation, and emotion. These drugs work by binding to dopamine receptors and preventing dopamine from attaching to them, which can help to reduce the symptoms of certain medical conditions such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

There are several types of dopamine antagonists, including:

1. Typical antipsychotics: These drugs are primarily used to treat psychosis, including schizophrenia and delusional disorders. Examples include haloperidol, chlorpromazine, and fluphenazine.
2. Atypical antipsychotics: These drugs are also used to treat psychosis but have fewer side effects than typical antipsychotics. They may also be used to treat bipolar disorder and depression. Examples include risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine.
3. Antiemetics: These drugs are used to treat nausea and vomiting. Examples include metoclopramide and prochlorperazine.
4. Dopamine agonists: While not technically dopamine antagonists, these drugs work by stimulating dopamine receptors and can be used to treat conditions such as Parkinson's disease. However, they can also have the opposite effect and block dopamine receptors in high doses, making them functionally similar to dopamine antagonists.

Common side effects of dopamine antagonists include sedation, weight gain, and movement disorders such as tardive dyskinesia. It's important to use these drugs under the close supervision of a healthcare provider to monitor for side effects and adjust the dosage as needed.

Pharmacology is the branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drugs, their actions, and their uses. It involves understanding how drugs interact with biological systems to produce desired effects, as well as any adverse or unwanted effects. This includes studying the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs (often referred to as ADME), the receptors and biochemical pathways that drugs affect, and the therapeutic benefits and risks of drug use. Pharmacologists may also be involved in the development and testing of new medications.

Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic medication that is primarily used to treat schizophrenia in patients who have not responded to other antipsychotic treatments. It is also used off-label for the treatment of severe aggression, suicidal ideation, and self-injurious behavior in individuals with developmental disorders.

Clozapine works by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, particularly the D4 receptor, which is thought to be involved in the development of schizophrenia. It also has a strong affinity for serotonin receptors, which contributes to its unique therapeutic profile.

Clozapine is considered a medication of last resort due to its potential side effects, which can include agranulocytosis (a severe decrease in white blood cell count), myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle), seizures, orthostatic hypotension (low blood pressure upon standing), and weight gain. Because of these risks, patients taking clozapine must undergo regular monitoring of their blood counts and other vital signs.

Despite its potential side effects, clozapine is often effective in treating treatment-resistant schizophrenia and has been shown to reduce the risk of suicide in some patients. It is available in tablet and orally disintegrating tablet formulations.

Reserpine is an alkaloid derived from the Rauwolfia serpentina plant, which has been used in traditional medicine for its sedative and hypotensive effects. In modern medicine, reserpine is primarily used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) due to its ability to lower both systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

Reserpine works by depleting catecholamines, including norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine, from nerve terminals in the sympathetic nervous system. This leads to a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance and heart rate, ultimately resulting in reduced blood pressure.

Reserpine is available in various forms, such as tablets or capsules, and is typically administered orally. Common side effects include nasal congestion, dizziness, sedation, and gastrointestinal disturbances like diarrhea and nausea. Long-term use of reserpine may also lead to depression in some individuals. Due to its potential for causing depression, other antihypertensive medications are often preferred over reserpine when possible.

Chlorprothixene is a type of antipsychotic medication that is primarily used to treat chronic schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. It belongs to a class of drugs known as phenothiazines, which work by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain. This helps to reduce the symptoms of psychosis, such as hallucinations, delusions, and disordered thinking.

Chlorprothixene is available in tablet and injectable forms, and its typical starting dose for adults ranges from 10 to 25 milligrams per day. The dosage may be gradually increased over time based on the individual's response to treatment. Common side effects of chlorprothixene include drowsiness, dizziness, dry mouth, constipation, and weight gain.

It is important to note that chlorprothixene can have serious side effects, including tardive dyskinesia (involuntary muscle movements), neuroleptic malignant syndrome (a rare but potentially fatal reaction to antipsychotic medication), and agranulocytosis (a severe decrease in white blood cell count). As with any medication, chlorprothixene should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

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Chlorpromazine includes the following list of adverse effects (serious adverse effects appear in bold): Sedation (cf. " ... "CHLORPROMAZINE HYDROCHLORIDE tablet, film coated [Sandoz Inc]". DailyMed. Sandoz Inc. October 2011. Retrieved 8 December 2013 ... "Chlorpromazine Hydrochloride 100mg/5ml Oral Syrup - Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC)". electronic Medicines Compendium ... "CHLORPROMAZINE HYDROCHLORIDE injection [West-ward Pharmaceutical Corp.]". DailyMed. West-ward Pharmaceutical Corp. June 2012. ...
Chlorpromazine • Chlorprothixene • Droperidol • Flupentixol • Fluphenazine • Fluspirilene • Haloperidol • Loxapine • ...
"Chlorpromazine - MeSH". NCBI. 16 October 2018. Retrieved 16 October 2018. "Imipramine - MeSH". NCBI. 16 October 2018. Retrieved ... Morphine is the prototype of opioid analgesics Propranolol is the prototype of the beta blockers Chlorpromazine is the ... and itself a derivative of chlorpromazine Diazepam is the prototype of the benzodiazepine Diphenhydramine (Benadryl) is the ...
Whitfield, A. G. (1955). "Chlorpromazine Jaundice". British Medical Journal. 1 (4916): 784-785. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.4916.784-a. ...
In the mid-1950s the first typical antipsychotic, chlorpromazine, was introduced, followed in the 1970s by the first atypical ... Turner T (January 2007). "Chlorpromazine: unlocking psychosis". BMJ. 334 Suppl 1 (suppl): s7. doi:10.1136/bmj.39034.609074.94. ...
For example, the discovery of chlorpromazine's effectiveness in treating schizophrenia in 1952 revolutionized treatment of the ... "Chlorpromazine: unlocking psychosis". BMJ. 334 (Suppl 1): s7. doi:10.1136/bmj.39034.609074.94. PMID 17204765. Cade JF ( ...
Turner T (January 2007). "Chlorpromazine: unlocking psychosis". BMJ. 334 (Suppl 1): s7. doi:10.1136/bmj.39034.609074.94. PMID ... changed dramatically in the mid-1950s with the development and introduction of the first antipsychotic chlorpromazine. Others ...
Chlorpromazine Serotonin syndrome; excessive serotonergic activity due usually to combined use of serotonergic drugs (e.g. ...
Chlorpromazine was first discovered. From the 1970s, when selective compounds appeared, development accelerated even more. ...
The placebo subjects demonstrated fewer reactions of humor but more than the chlorpromazine subjects. Criticism of the theory ... In the Schachter & Wheeler (1962) study the subjects were injected with epinephrine, chlorpromazine, or a placebo ( ... SCHACHTER S; WHEELER L (1962). "Epinephrine, chlorpromazine, and amusement". Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. 65 (2 ... Schachter, S.; Wheeler, L. (1962). "Epinephrine, chlorpromazine, and amusement". Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. 65 ...
Chlorpromazine, introduced in 1951, was seen as "more effective than any of the old drugs, including morphine," and "for ... Complications of Chlorpromazine Therapy (1956) The Benzodiazepines (1970) The Current Status of Lithium Therapy: Report of the ... With his particular interest in psychopharmacology, he was an early proponent of the use of chlorpromazine in the treatment of ... In 1955, Cohen presented his paper, Complications of Chlorpromazine Therapy, at the 111th annual meeting of the American ...
Chlorpromazine has H1, M1, and α1 receptor antagonist activity. This causes sedation, anticholinergic effects, as well as ... Henri Laborit was first using chlorpromazine to treat the anxiety of patients prior to surgery. He noted the so-called " ... Due to the chemical similarity of imipramine to chlorpromazine, this agent also functions as a H1, M1, and α1 receptor ... Rosenbloom, M (2002). "Chlorpromazine and the psychopharmacologic revolution". JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical ...
... is roughly ten times as potent as chlorpromazine at the dopamine-2 (D2) receptor; thus perphenazine is considered ... Rees L (August 1960). "Chlorpromazine and allied phenothiazine derivatives". British Medical Journal. 2 (5197): 522-5. doi: ... perphenazine shares in general all allergic and toxic side-effects of chlorpromazine. A 2015 systematic review of the data on ... name in Europe is Decentan pointing to the fact that perphenazine is approximately 10-times more potent than chlorpromazine. ...
814-. ISBN 978-1-4757-2085-3. Zare M, Bazrafshan A (March 2017). "Chlorpromazine versus metiapine for schizophrenia". The ... randomized controlled trial of metiapine versus chlorpromazine for the treatment of schizophrenia, though the authors ...
... chlorpromazine, clozapine, etc.) Hypnotics (zolpidem, zopiclone, chloral hydrate, eszopiclone, etc.) Muscle relaxants (baclofen ...
It was introduced in 1954, two years after chlorpromazine. The first total synthesis was accomplished by R. B. Woodward in 1958 ... A review found that in persons with schizophrenia, reserpine and chlorpromazine had similar rates of adverse effects, but that ... Nur S, Adams CE (April 2016). "Chlorpromazine versus reserpine for schizophrenia". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews ... reserpine was less effective than chlorpromazine for improving a person's global state. Reserpine is recommended as an ...
113-. ISBN 978-1-4612-0469-5. Moncrieff, Joanna (2013). "Chlorpromazine: The First Wonder Drug". The Bitterest Pills. Palgrave ...
36-. ISBN 978-3-527-63212-1. Moncrieff, Joanna (2013). "Chlorpromazine: The First Wonder Drug". The Bitterest Pills. Palgrave ... Chlorodiphenhydramine Chlorpheniramine Chlorpromazine (low-potency typical antipsychotic, also used as an antiemetic) ...
... is analogous to chlorpromazine; both of these agents antagonize dopaminergic D2 receptors in various pathways ...
Effect of acetylcholine, chlorpromazine and azacyclonol". The Biochemical Journal. 88 (1): 45-52. PMC 1203845. PMID 16749027. ...
... after 20 days treatment with chlorpromazine and barbiturates. Although it had severe side effects, chlorpromazine "helped ... Laborit was the first to recognize the potential psychiatric uses of chlorpromazine. The science of anesthesiology was new ... In 1952, Laborit was instrumental in the development of the drug chlorpromazine, published his findings, and convinced three ... Ban, Thomas A. (August 3, 2007). "Fifty Years Chlorpromazine: A Historical Perspective". Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment ...
In 1951 Paul Charpentier synthesized chlorpromazine an antipsychotic. There are numbers of practitioners who have influenced ... Ban, Thomas A (August 2007). "Fifty years chlorpromazine: a historical perspective". Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment. 3 ...
Promethazine and chlorpromazine, were derived from fenethazine. Fenethazine, in turn, was derived from phenbenzamine. Elks J ( ...
Chlorpromazine, Fluphenazine, Loxapine, Thioridazine, etc.) Atypicals (Clozapine, Olanzapine, Quetiapine, Risperidone, ...
Geller V, Gorzaltsan I, Shleifer T, Belmaker RH, Bersudsky Y (December 2005). "Clotiapine compared with chlorpromazine in ... Van Wyk AJ, Marais GF (August 1971). "Chlorpromazine, clotiapine and thioridazine--a comparative clinical trial on Bantu ...
... chlorpromazine). Discovery of the cause of Down syndrome (chromosome 21 trisomy) by Jérôme Lejeune in 1958-1959 (syndrome first ... "History of the discovery and clinical introduction of chlorpromazine". Annals of Clinical Psychiatry. 17 (3): 113-35. doi: ...
... chlorpromazine (SMD: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.34-0.76), iloperidone (SMD: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.49-0.74), clozapine (SMD: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.31- ...
Chlorpromazine is an inhibitor of lysosomal lipase. A genome wide survey suggests that lysosomal lipase A (located at ...
The team was seeking to improve on diphenhydramine; the same line on medical chemistry led to the creation of chlorpromazine. ... and with chlorpromazine and phenobarbital as Vegetamin. The recreational drug lean, also known as purple drank among other ...
Chlorpromazine does also act as a FIASMA (functional inhibitor of acid sphingomyelinase). Chlorpromazine is an antagonist to H1 ... "Chlorpromazine". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine.[dead link] "Chlorpromazine hydrochloride". Drug ... In Germany, chlorpromazine still carries label indications for insomnia, severe pruritus, and preanesthesia. Chlorpromazine and ... Antacids slow chlorpromazine absorption. Lithium and chronic treatment with barbiturates can increase chlorpromazine clearance ...
Chlorpromazine: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Chlorpromazine comes as a tablet to take by mouth. Chlorpromazine is usually taken two to four times a day. When chlorpromazine ... Continue to take chlorpromazine even if you feel well. Do not stop taking chlorpromazine without talking to your doctor. Your ... Before taking chlorpromazine,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to chlorpromazine; other phenothiazines ...
CHLORPROMAZINE HYDROCHLORIDE tablet, film coated. To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste it into your RSS ... CHLORPROMAZINE HYDROCHLORIDE tablet, film coated. Under Review - Editing is pending for RxNorm. If in scope, these drugs will ... Instead, start chlorpromazine at low doses and increase as needed.. Use with caution in persons who will be exposed to extreme ... When chlorpromazine is used with cancer chemotherapeutic drugs, vomiting as a sign of the toxicity of these agents may be ...
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potent synthetic tranquilizing drug that acts selectively upon the higher centers in the brain as a depressant of the central nervous system; used in the treatment of persons…
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By K Ichimura and K Ohmachi, Published on 01/01/71
Cirrhosis is defined histologically as a diffuse hepatic process characterized by fibrosis and the conversion of normal liver architecture into structurally abnormal nodules. The progression of liver injury to cirrhosis may occur over weeks to years.
Cirrhosis is defined histologically as a diffuse hepatic process characterized by fibrosis and the conversion of normal liver architecture into structurally abnormal nodules. The progression of liver injury to cirrhosis may occur over weeks to years.
Drugs Used-Generic Names Neuroleptics-Major Tranquilizers • Haloperidol • Aripiprazole • Asenapine • Chlorpromazine •Olanzapine ...
  • Chlorpromazine (CPZ), marketed under the brand names Thorazine and Largactil among others, is an antipsychotic medication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Formerly marketed as Thorazine , Chlorpromazine is a phenothiazine antipsychotic that is used as a treatment for the symptoms of schizophernia and manic episodes in patients with bipolar disorder . (bad-drug.net)
  • Thorazine is an oral tablet containing the active ingredient called Chlorpromazine. (mydrugcenter.com)
  • Before taking Thorazine or the Chlorpromazine generic, read all the instructions and paper work that given to you by your pharmacist. (mydrugcenter.com)
  • Thorazine or the Chlorpromazine generic may contain medical and non medical ingredients that could cause an allergic reaction. (mydrugcenter.com)
  • How much do Thorazine (Chlorpromazine) tablets cost? (iufro.org)
  • Do not stop taking chlorpromazine without talking to your doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Stop taking chlorpromazine and get medical attention if you lose control of your facial muscles or tongue, begin to drool, your arms or legs start twitching, you experience tremors, or experience a seizure. (bad-drug.net)
  • If you begin to feel agitated, restless, or jittery, stop taking chlorpromazine and talk to your doctor. (bad-drug.net)
  • If it is impossible to stop taking chlorpromazine during pregnancy, minimal maintenance doses are used, with temporary cancellation for the period of childbirth in order to prevent atropine-like effects in newborns. (iufro.org)
  • Chlorpromazine is an antipsychotic drug. (minddisorders.com)
  • In vitro studies have established the classic antipsychotic drug chlorpromazine (CPZ) as an effective antiviral agent against various viruses, including corona viruses [1]. (fortunepublish.com)
  • Although chlorpromazine (CPZ) is an antipsychotic drug widely used in clinical practice for a long time, its mechanism of action has not been entirely defined. (qxmd.com)
  • Chlorpromazine hydrochloride, a dimethylamine derivative of phenothiazine, has a chemical formula of 2-chloro-10-[3-(dimethylamino) propyl] phenothiazine monohydrochloride. (nih.gov)
  • Chlorpromazine is a United States Food and Drug Administration-approved phenothiazine widely used as a psychotropic in clinical practice. (oncotarget.com)
  • In a 2013 comparison of fifteen antipsychotics in schizophrenia, chlorpromazine demonstrated mild-standard effectiveness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies have shown that older adults with dementia (a brain disorder that affects the ability to remember, think clearly, communicate, and perform daily activities and that may cause changes in mood and personality) who take antipsychotics (medications for mental illness) such as chlorpromazine have an increased chance of death during treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Chlorpromazine is in a class of medications called conventional antipsychotics. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Alternatively, chlorpromazine equivalent (CPZeq) is a traditional method that has been used to indicate the dose of antipsychotics for decades. (jneuropsychiatry.org)
  • Chlorpromazine is in the typical antipsychotic class, and, chemically, is one of the phenothiazines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorpromazine and other phenothiazines have been demonstrated to possess antimicrobial properties, but are not currently used for this purpose except for a very small number of cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorpromazine hydrochloride, USP occurs as white to almost white crystalline powder. (nih.gov)
  • Each film coated tablet for oral administration contains 10 mg, 25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg, or 200 mg of chlorpromazine hydrochloride, USP. (nih.gov)
  • When taken as directed, the Chlorpromazine dosage works by blocking an assortment of receptors in your brain, dopamine receptors in particular. (mydrugcenter.com)
  • 1992 trialed daily doses of chlorpromazine, reversing chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium chabaudi isolates in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorpromazine is used in the treatment of both acute and chronic psychoses, including schizophrenia and the manic phase of bipolar disorder, as well as amphetamine-induced psychosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2014 systematic review carried out by Cochrane included 55 trials that compared the effectiveness of chlorpromazine versus placebo for the treatment of schizophrenia. (wikipedia.org)
  • They called for further research on the subject, as chlorpromazine is a cheap benchmark drug and one of the most used treatments for schizophrenia worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you are taking chlorpromazine to treat schizophrenia or another psychotic disorder, chlorpromazine may control your symptoms but will not cure your condition. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Study of the differential behavioral effects of reserpine, chlorpromazine and a combination of these drugs in chronic schizophrenics. (cambridge.org)
  • Other substances that were used by children and youth surveyed in Sierra Leone, included benzodiazepines such as diazepam, chlorpromazine and different inhalants, while 3.7% were injecting drugs. (who.int)
  • The capacity of intramuscular (i.m.) chlorpromazine and 6 of its metabolites to increase plasma prolactin levels in male rats was compared. (northwestern.edu)
  • Talk to the doctor who prescribed this medication if you, a family member, or someone you care for has dementia and is taking chlorpromazine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Switch medication from Chlorpromazine to Sulpiride . (psychiatrienet.nl)
  • We are your home for CHLORPROMAZINE and other meds. (rxbrandmeds.net)
  • We offer meds like CHLORPROMAZINE via our online partner because many of these meds like CHLORPROMAZINE are very expensive and many people can't afford CHLORPROMAZINE. (rxbrandmeds.net)
  • Chlorpromazine is also used to control nausea and vomiting, to relieve hiccups that have lasted one month or longer, and to relieve restlessness and nervousness that may occur just before surgery. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When chlorpromazine is used to relieve nervousness before surgery, it is usually taken 2-3 hours before surgery. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Chlorpromazine comes as a tablet to take by mouth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Chlorpromazine is an oral tablet taken between two and four times daily, variable on the condition to be treated. (bad-drug.net)
  • Errorless discrimination learning in the pigeon: Effects of chlorpromazine and imipramine. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the first study, rats received chlorpromazine (50533) doses up to 4mg/kg or triadimefon (43121433) doses up to 300mg/kg and motor activity counts were determined. (cdc.gov)
  • Chlorpromazine is not FDA approved to treat dementia in elderly patients. (bad-drug.net)
  • For this reason, Chlorpromazine is not approved for use in treating psychotic dementia in elderly people. (dangerousdrugs.com)
  • Patients under chlorpromazine showed a global improvement in symptoms and functioning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptoms of delirium in hospitalized AIDS patients have been effectively treated with low doses of chlorpromazine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorpromazine is also used to treat acute intermittent porphyria (condition in which certain natural substances build up in the body and cause stomach pain, changes in thinking and behavior, and other symptoms). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Chlorpromazin (Chlorpromazine) is used to treat psychotic disorders and symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions, and hostility. (comprar-medicina.com)
  • Signs of a severe allergic reaction to chlorpromazine can include hives or rashes, swelling, and having a difficult time breathing or swallowing. (bad-drug.net)
  • Chlorpromazine in the treatment of mental illness. (cambridge.org)
  • Chlorpromazine is occasionally used off-label for treatment of severe migraine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorpromazine is also used to treat severe behavior problems such as explosive, aggressive behavior and hyperactivity in children 1 to 12 years of age. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In this study an ethanol extract of Turnera ulmifolia L. and chlorpromazine were tested for their antimicrobial activity alone or in combination with aminoglycosides against an MRSA strain. (springer.com)
  • If any side effects of Chlorpromazine become unmanageable speak with your doctor or pharmacist for help in managing any side effects. (mydrugcenter.com)
  • Your pharmacist may know of alternate uses for Chlorpromazin (Chlorpromazine). (comprar-medicina.com)
  • Your doctor may change or stop the dosage of other medications while you take Chlorpromazine. (bad-drug.net)
  • Make sure you take it at the same time each day to create a routine for yourself and to ensure an even spread of the Chlorpromazine dosage in your system. (mydrugcenter.com)
  • Chlorpromazine may cause complications in newborn children when taken during the latter part of a pregnancy. (bad-drug.net)
  • Chlorpromazine has also been used in porphyria and as part of tetanus treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • There appears to be a dose-dependent risk for seizures with chlorpromazine treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorpromazine is not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of behavior problems in older adults with dementia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Be sure to tell your doctor how you are feeling during your treatment with chlorpromazine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Toward the beginning of your Chlorpromazine treatment, you may easily become dizzy, lightheaded, or faint. (bad-drug.net)
  • Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup. (pharmaoffer.com)
  • In orthotopic mouse brain tumor models, chlorpromazine treatment significantly increased the median overall survival of mice harboring chemoresistant tumors. (oncotarget.com)
  • Get deep discounts without leaving your house when you buy discount Chlorpromazin (Chlorpromazine) directly from an international pharmacy! (comprar-medicina.com)
  • Save yourself the embarrassment of buying CHLORPROMAZINE at your local pharmacy, and simply order online CHLORPROMAZINE in the dose that you require. (rxbrandmeds.net)
  • When chlorpromazine is used to relieve hiccups, it is usually taken 3-4 times a day for up to 3 days or until the hiccups stop. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In the first study, all laboratories reported significant, dose dependent decreases in motor activity with chlorpromazine exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Prolonged withdrawal of chlorpromazine in chronic patients. (cambridge.org)
  • Chlorpromazine is an antagonist of several insect monoamine receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorpromazine is also used along with other medications to treat tetanus (a serious infection that may cause tightening of the muscles, especially the jaw muscle). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Tell your doctor about all the medications, vitamins, and supplements you are currently taking or plan to take while you are on Chlorpromazine. (bad-drug.net)
  • The precise mechanism whereby the therapeutic effects of chlorpromazine are produced is not known. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we used chemoresistant patient-derived glioma stem cells and chemoresistant human glioma cell lines to investigate the effects of chlorpromazine against chemoresistant glioma. (oncotarget.com)
  • Similarly, a potentiating effect of chlorpromazine on kanamycin, gentamicin and neomycin, indicating the involvement of an efflux system in the resistance to these aminoglycosides. (springer.com)
  • When chlorpromazine is used to control nausea and vomiting, it is usually taken every 4-6 hours as needed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Compared to the placebo group, patients under chlorpromazine experienced less relapse during 6 months to 2 years follow-up. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxidative stress induced by chlorpromazine in patients treated and acutely poisoned with the drug. (qxmd.com)
  • Ophthalmological findings in patients on long-term chlorpromazine therapy. (cambridge.org)
  • 8-Hydroxychlorpromazine, 7-methoxychlorpromazine, 7, 8-dihydroxychlorpromazine and chlorpromazine sulfoxide had no effect even after 25 mg/kg i.m. (northwestern.edu)
  • Mellaril or chlorpromazine by mouth or, in case of very marked LSD effect, by 50 mg. (erowid.org)
  • The capacity to increase rat plasma proclactin correlates highly with other methods of determining potential antipsychotic activity of chlorpromazine and its derivatives. (northwestern.edu)
  • Recently, experimental evidence revealed the anti-proliferative activity of chlorpromazine against colon and brain tumors. (oncotarget.com)
  • Mechanistically, chlorpromazine inhibited cytochrome c oxidase (CcO, complex IV) activity from chemoresistant but not chemosensitive cells, without affecting other mitochondrial complexes. (oncotarget.com)
  • In this study, chlorpromazine induced cell cycle arrest selectively in glioma cells expressing COX4-1, and computer-simulated docking studies indicated that chlorpromazine binds more tightly to CcO expressing COX4-1 than to CcO expressing COX4-2. (oncotarget.com)
  • Taking Chlorpromazine may cause you to have difficulty urinating, make you constipated, and decrease your sexual ability. (bad-drug.net)