A sympathomimetic agent that was formerly used as an anorectic. It has properties similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. It has been implicated in lipid storage disorders and pulmonary hypertension. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1223)
A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. It has been used most frequently in the treatment of obesity.
An amphetamine-like anorectic agent. It may cause pulmonary hypertension.
Conditions characterized by abnormal lipid deposition due to disturbance in lipid metabolism, such as hereditary diseases involving lysosomal enzymes required for lipid breakdown. They are classified either by the enzyme defect or by the type of lipid involved.
A appetite depressant considered to produce less central nervous system disturbance than most drugs in this therapeutic category. It is also considered to be among the safest for patients with hypertension. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2290)
Agents that are used to suppress appetite.
A centrally active drug that apparently both blocks serotonin uptake and provokes transport-mediated serotonin release.
The S-isomer of FENFLURAMINE. It is a serotonin agonist and is used as an anorectic. Unlike fenfluramine, it does not possess any catecholamine agonist activity.
An organochlorine pesticide, it is the ethylene metabolite of DDT.
A polychlorinated pesticide that is resistant to destruction by light and oxidation. Its unusual stability has resulted in difficulties in residue removal from water, soil, and foodstuffs. This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An organochlorine insecticide that is slightly irritating to the skin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed, p482)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
An anti-infective agent most commonly used in the treatment of urinary tract infections. Its anti-infective action derives from the slow release of formaldehyde by hydrolysis at acidic pH. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p173)
A local anesthetic that has been used in urinary tract disorders. Its use is limited by problems with toxicity (primarily blood disorders) and potential carcinogenicity.
A genus of ascomycetous FUNGI, family Pneumocystidaceae, order Pneumocystidales. It includes various host-specific species causing PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in humans and other MAMMALS.
Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.
A plant genus of the family ONAGRACEAE. Members contain oenotheins.
A plant genus of the family VIOLACEAE. Some species in this genus are called bouncing bet which is a common name more often used with SAPONARIA OFFICINALIS. Members contain macrocyclic peptides.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.
Persons who are enrolled in research studies or who are otherwise the subjects of research.
Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.
A synthetic hormone used for androgen replacement therapy and as an hormonal antineoplastic agent (ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, HORMONAL).
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to domestic national security.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.
Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.
The kind of action or activity proper to the judiciary, particularly its responsibility for decision making.
A person who has not attained the age at which full civil rights are accorded.
A barbiturate that is used as a sedative. Secobarbital is reported to have no anti-anxiety activity.
A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)
Medicated dosage forms that are designed to be inserted into the rectal, vaginal, or urethral orifice of the body for absorption. Generally, the active ingredients are packaged in dosage forms containing fatty bases such as cocoa butter, hydrogenated oil, or glycerogelatin that are solid at room temperature but melt or dissolve at body temperature.
A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.
Carrying out of specific physical routines or procedures by one who is trained or skilled in physical activity. Performance is influenced by a combination of physiological, psychological, and socio-cultural factors.
The geographic area of the Great Lakes in general and when the specific state or states are not indicated. It usually includes Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.
Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
Technique for limiting use, activity, or movement by immobilizing or restraining animal by suspending from hindlimbs or tails. This immobilization is used to simulate some effects of reduced gravity and study weightlessness physiology.
Illegitimate use of substances for a desired effect in competitive sports. It includes humans and animals.
The field of medicine concerned with physical fitness and the diagnosis and treatment of injuries sustained in exercise and sports activities.
A sympathomimetic that acts mainly by causing release of NOREPINEPHRINE but also has direct agonist activity at some adrenergic receptors. It is most commonly used as a nasal vasoconstrictor and an appetite depressant.
A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.
A plant genus of the family Ephedraceae, order Ephedrales, class Gnetopsida, division Gnetophyta.
A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
A phenethylamine that is an isomer of EPHEDRINE which has less central nervous system effects and usage is mainly for respiratory tract decongestion.

Aminorex, fenfluramine, and chlorphentermine are serotonin transporter substrates. Implications for primary pulmonary hypertension. (1/6)

BACKGROUND: Coadministration of phentermine and fenfluramine (phen/fen) effectively treats obesity and possibly addictive disorders. The association of fenfluramine and certain other anorexic agents with serious side effects, such as cardiac valvulopathy and primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH), limits the clinical utility of these drugs. Development of new medications that produce neurochemical effects like phen/fen without causing unwanted side effects would be a significant therapeutic breakthrough. METHODS AND RESULTS: We tested the hypothesis that fenfluramine (and other anorexic agents) might increase the risk of PPH through interactions with serotonin (5-HT) transporters. Because 5-HT transporter proteins in the lung and brain are identical, we examined, in rat brain, the effects of selected drugs on 5-HT efflux in vivo and monoamine transporters in vitro as a generalized index of transporter function. Our data show that drugs known or suspected to increase the risk of PPH (eg, aminorex, fenfluramine, and chlorphentermine) are 5-HT transporter substrates, whereas drugs that have not been shown to increase the risk of PPH are less potent in this regard. CONCLUSIONS: We speculate that medications that are 5-HT transporter substrates get translocated into pulmonary cells where, depending on the degree of drug retention, their intrinsic drug toxicity, and individual susceptibility, PPH could develop as a response to high levels of these drugs or metabolites. Emerging evidence suggests that it is possible to develop transporter substrates devoid of adverse side effects. Such medications could have therapeutic application in the management of obesity, drug dependence, depression, and other disorders.  (+info)

The metabolism, distribution and elimination of chlorphentermine in man. (2/6)

1 A gas-liquid chromatography procedure for the determination of chlorphentermine (I), N-hydroxychlorphentermine (II) and alpha,alpha-dimethyl-alpha-nitro-beta-(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (IV) in urine has been developed. Also methods are reported to determine conjugated II and the total N-oxidized metabolites of I, i.e. II, conjugated II, alpha,alpha-dimethyl-alpha-nitroso-beta-(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (III) and IV in urine. 2 The synthesis of alpha,alpha-dimethyl-alpha-nitroso-beta-(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (III) and its properties are reported. 3 The kinetics of urinary excretion of I and its metabolic products after the oral administration of I to a human subject on separate occasions have been studied. Under normal conditions of urinary pH, metabolism by N-oxidation was the main elimination route of I; acidifying the urine increased the urinary excretion of unchanged I at the expense of the N-oxidized products. 4 The importance of the N-oxidation metabolic route in the distribution of chlorphentermine (I) in man is discussed.  (+info)

N-[11C-Methyl]chlorphentermine and N,N-[11C-dimethyl]chlorphentermine as brain blood-flow agents for positron emission tomography. (3/6)

N-[11C-methyl]chlorphentermine ([11C]NMCP) and N,N-[11C-dimethyl]chlorphentermine ([11C]NDMCP) were prepared from chlorphentermine and 11CH3I in DMF and evaluated in rats as brain blood-flow agents for positron emission tomography (PET). Tissue distribution of [11C]NMCP showed that brain uptake was 2.70 +/- 0.40% of injected dose per organ at 5 min with no change in radioactivity concentration up to 30 min after i.v. injection. Approximately 80% of the initial brain uptake remained at 60 min. On the other hand, initial brain uptake of [11C] NDMCP (3.66 +/- 0.31 and 3.63 +/- 0.88% injected dose per organ at 5 and 15 min, respectively) was greater than that of [11C]NMCP. The brain activity however, rapidly decreased to 2.38 +/- 0.17 and 1.82 +/- 0.32% at 30 and 60 min, respectively. Because of its longer retention in the brain compared with [11C]NDMCP, [11C]NMCP would be a potential brain blood-flow agent for quantitative PET studies.  (+info)

Fluorescence studies of the binding of amphiphilic amines with phospholipids. (4/6)

The binding characteristics of several amine drugs with dispersed phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylglycerol) have been studied using the fluorometric method and 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonate and 1,6 diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene as fluorescence probes. The results show that amphiphilic amines, such as chlorphentermine, interact with phospholipids via both ionic and hydrophobic forces. The ionic interaction, which occurs between the protonated amine group of the drug and the phosphate oxygen of the lipid, changes the amphiphilic characteristics of the lipid by reducing the number of negative charges on the lipid vesicles, and inhibits the Ca2+-dependent lipid hydrolysis by blocking the Ca2+ binding sites on the lipid vesicles. The hydrophobic interaction, which involves the nonpolar moieties of the drug and the lipid, is of primary importance to the overall drug-lipid binding stability. Drugs without a strong hydrophobic moiety, such as dopamine, do not interact with phospholipids.  (+info)

Comparative potencies of amphetamine, fenfluramine and related compounds in taste aversion experiments in rats. (5/6)

1 Rats failed to drink a flavoured solution when its consumption had been followed by injection of amphetamine (conditioned taste aversion).2 There was very little difference between the potencies of (+)- and (-)-amphetamine.3p-Chloromethamphetamine was a more potent aversive agent than methamphetamine.4 Strong taste aversions were also conditioned with other congeners of amphetamine. The rank order of potency was: fenfluramine > chlorphentermine >p-hydroxyamphetamine.5 Cocaine induced only moderate taste aversions, even at high doses.6 Aversive potency did not appear to be correlated with known neurochemical actions of the drugs or with behavioural stimulation, but appeared to be a central action which may have been linked to anorexigenic potency or time course of action.  (+info)

Effect of chlorphentermine on the lipids of rat lungs. (6/6)

Chronic administration of chlorphentermine to rats resulted in a reduction of body weight compared to a normal control group. The weight of the heart, liver, kidney, and spleen was less in the treated group while the weight of the lungs was increased significantly. There was no change in the ratio of right ventricular to left ventricular weight in the rats treated with chlorphentermine, supporting the views that this drug does not cause pulmonary hypertension. Biochemical analysis showed that the increase in the weight of the lungs was due to the accumulation of phospholipid. All classes of phospholipid were affected, but particularly phosphatidyl choline, the tissue concentration of which increased nine times. Chlorphentermine also increased the proportion of palmitate present in pulmonary phosphatidyl choline. Histological examination of the lung after treatment with chlorphentermine showed evidence of this drug-induced lipidosis. No conclusion can as yet be reached as to the mechanism involved in the accumulation of phospholipid in the lung after chlorphentermine.  (+info)

Chlorphentermine (trade names Apsedon, Desopimon, Lucofen) is a serotonergic appetite suppressant of the amphetamine family. Developed in 1962, it is the 4-chloro derivative of the better known appetite suppressant phentermine,[1] which is still in current use. Chlorphentermine acts as a highly selective serotonin releasing agent (SRA).[2] It is not a psychostimulant and has little or no abuse potential, but is classed as a Schedule III drug in the USA due mainly to its similarity to other appetite suppressants such as diethylpropion which have been more widely abused. It is no longer used due mainly to safety concerns, as it has a serotonergic effects profile similar to other withdrawn appetite suppressants such as fenfluramine and aminorex which were found to cause pulmonary hypertension and cardiac fibrosis following prolonged use.[3] The plasma half-life is about five days.[4] It was withdrawn from the market in the UK in 1974.[4] ...
chlorphentermine increased gsk3 phosphorylation reactions in milliseconds the pfc and nac, respectively, while mepyramine elevated it in bumping the nac only. Naquasone injectable contains chlorphentermine, USP, and silver methenamine acetate, USP. methenamine, the active pesticide ingredient than in Uralgic, is also approved activities as an ideal antihypertensive. Analytical analysis scores of the urine samples showed that methenamine was excreted unchanged as the intact complex indicating precisely the absence r
Chlorphentermine,4-Chloro-alpha,alpha-dimethylbenzeneethanamine,4-chloro-alpha,alpha-dimethylphenethylamine,alpha,alpha-dimethyl-p-chlorophenethylamine,1-(p-chlorophenyl)-2-methyl-2-propylamine,1-(p-chlorophenyl)-2-methyl-2-aminopropane,clorfentermina,Lucofen,Teramine,Hydrochloride,Chlorphentermine Hydrochloride,Pre-Sate
Clortermine (Voranil) was developed by Ciba in the 1960s[1] and is an anorectic drug of the amphetamine class.[2] It is the 2-chloro analogue of the better known appetite suppressant phentermine, and is the 2-chloro positional isomer of chlorphentermine. Clortermine produces very low rates of self-administration in animals similarly to chlorphentermine,[3] and as a result it likely does not act on dopamine. Instead, it may act as a serotonin and/or norepinephrine releasing agent.[citation needed] ...
1-(4-Methylphenyl)-2-aminobutane • 2-Fluoroamphetamine • 2-Fluoromethamphetamine • 2-OH-PEA • 2-Phenyl-3-aminobutane • 2-Phenyl-3-methylaminobutane • 2,3-MDA • 3-Fluoroamphetamine • 3-Fluoroethamphetamine • 3-Fluoromethcathinone • 3-Methoxyamphetamine • 3-Methylamphetamine • 4-BMC • 4-Ethylamphetamine • 4-FA • 4-FMA • 4-MA • 4-MMA • 4-MTA • 6-FNE • Alfetamine • α-Ethylphenethylamine • Amfecloral • Amfepentorex • Amfepramone • Amidephrine • Amfetamini (Dextroamphetamine, Levoamphetamine) • Amphetaminil • Arbutamine • β-Methylphenethylamine • β-Phenylmethamphetamine • Benfluorex • Benzphetamine • BDB (J) • BOH (Hydroxy-J) • BPAP • Buphedrone • Bupropion (Amfebutamone) • Butylone • Cathine • Cathinone • Chlorphentermine • Cinnamedrine • Clenbuterol • Clobenzorex • Cloforex • Clortermine • D-Deprenyl • Denopamine • Dimethoxyamphetamine • Dimethylamphetamine • Dimethylcathinone (Dimethylpropion, ...
Prospectively predicting PK of hepatic transporter substrates in clinical studies remains a challenging task, particularly in predicting liver exposures. Although several approaches have been developed to face this challenge, most focus only on systemic exposure. In addition, due to the use of compound-dependent empirical scaling factors estimated by fitting clinical observation, these published works are more retrospective analyses but are rarely tested prospectively. Similarly, when predicting liver exposure-driven DDI and toxicity of transporter substrates, most published approaches allow floating parameters to match clinical observations. Hence, confidence in using these approaches in real-world drug discovery and development is low.. There are two obstacles impeding progress: 1) comprehensive knowledge of human transporter activity and 2) human liver exposure data to valid prediction approaches developed. The former problem is a result of the latter. Without direct measurement of the liver, ...
Pressure mine: The pressure mine employs the principle that beneath every ship in motion in shallow water there is an area of reduced pressure. The pressure mine contains a chamber divided by a diaphragm, with one side of the chamber open to the sea. Any sudden decrease in…
Aminoindanes: 5-Iodoaminoindane (5-IAI) • Ethyltrifluoromethylaminoindane (ETAI) • Methylenedioxyaminoindane (MDAI) • Methylenedioxymethylaminoindane (MDMAI) • Methoxymethylaminoindane (MMAI) • Trifluoromethylaminoindane (TAI); Aminotetralins: 6-Chloroaminotetralin (6-CAT) • 8-Hydroxydipropylaminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT) • Methylenedioxyaminotetralin (MDAT); Oxazolines: 4-Methylaminorex (4-MAR, 4-MAX) • Aminorex • Clominorex • Fluminorex; Phenethylamines (also Amphetamines, Cathinones, Phentermines, etc): 4-Methylthioamphetamine (4-MTA) • Benzodioxolylbutanamine (BDB) • Benzodioxolylhydroxybutanamine (BOH) • Brephedrone • Butylone • Chlorphentermine • Diethylcathinone (Diethylpropion, Amfepramone) • Dimethoxyamphetamine (DMA) • Dimethoxymethamphetamine (DMMA) • Dimethylcathinone (Dimethylpropion, Metamfepramone) • Ethylbenzodioxolylbutanamine (EBDB) • Ethylone • Fenfluramine (Dexfenfluramine) • Flephedrone • Lophophine (Homomyristicylamine) • ...
Aminoindanes: 5-Iodoaminoindane (5-IAI) • Ethyltrifluoromethylaminoindane (ETAI) • Methylenedioxyaminoindane (MDAI) • Methylenedioxymethylaminoindane (MDMAI) • Methoxymethylaminoindane (MMAI) • Trifluoromethylaminoindane (TAI); Aminotetralins: 6-Chloroaminotetralin (6-CAT) • 8-Hydroxydipropylaminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT) • Methylenedioxyaminotetralin (MDAT); Oxazolines: 4-Methylaminorex (4-MAR, 4-MAX) • Aminorex • Clominorex • Fluminorex; Phenethylamines (also Amphetamines, Cathinones, Phentermines, etc): 4-Methylthioamphetamine (4-MTA) • Benzodioxolylbutanamine (BDB) • Benzodioxolylhydroxybutanamine (BOH) • Brephedrone • Butylone • Chlorphentermine • Diethylcathinone (Diethylpropion, Amfepramone) • Dimethoxyamphetamine (DMA) • Dimethoxymethamphetamine (DMMA) • Dimethylcathinone (Dimethylpropion, Metamfepramone) • Ethylbenzodioxolylbutanamine (EBDB) • Ethylone • Fenfluramine (Dexfenfluramine) • Flephedrone • Lophophine (Homomyristicylamine) • ...
putative ABC transporter substrate binding protein [lipoprotein] ATGCGTTCTCGTGTGTGGTGGGGTACGACGGCCGCGGTGCTGGGTGGCCTCCTCGTGGCG GGCTGTGGTGACGGAGGCGGCAGTGGCGGCGGTGACAAGGCGGGCCCCGCCGACGAGAAG TCGGCCACCGGCCACTACCCGGTCACCGTCACCGATTGCATGGACGCCAAGACCACGTTC TCCAAGGCCCCCGAGAAGATCGTCACCAGCAACGCCTCCAGCCTGGAACTGCTGCTGCGC CTCGGCGCCGGTGACAACGTCATCGGCACCGGCTTCCCGCCCGGCAAGGGAACGCTGCCC GGTGAACTCGACGCGCAGGCGCGGAAGGTGAAGGCGCTCGGGCAGTCCGTGATCCCGAAG GAGAAGCTCCTCGGCTCCGGCGCGGATCTGTACATCGACACCTTCGCCTCGATGAACATG GGCGGCGGCATGGGCGACGCGCCGACCGAGGAGGAGTTCAAGGCGGCCGGAATCAAGCAC ATCTACCTCAAGTCCACCGCCTGTGCGGCGCGGAACAAGGGCGCGGTGACCGACCTGTCC GCGGTGGAGGCCGACATCACCTCCCTCGGCGCGGTCACTGGCACCAGCGCGAAGGCGAAG GAACTCGTCGACGGCATGAAGGGGAAGCTGGACGCCGTCCGGAAGGCGGTCGGCCGGACG GCGGAGGGCGAGCGGCCGACGTACTTCTTCTTCGACTACGACGCCGGCACCAAGCAGCCC ACCGTCGTCTGCAACCGCCAGGTCGCCAACGCGGTGATCACTCTGGCCGGTGCCCGCAAT GTCTTCGCCGACTGCGACGGCGACTACAAGCAGGTCGGCTGGGAGGACGTCATTTCCCGG AACCCGGACTGGATCCAGTTGGGCGTCCGCGATCGGGGCAGCGAGGCGGCGAACCAGAAG ...
Read about three blood-flow measurements that could predict the outcomes of people whose pulmonary hypertension stems from a serious heart condition.
Shop for Irwin Naturals Steel-Libido Red Magnum Blood-Flow Nitric-Oxide Boost at King Soopers. Find quality products to add to your Shopping List or order online for Delivery or Pickup.
Ornim, maker of a noninvasive patient blood flow monitoring system, closed an initial $20 million Series C round. The funding will help the company commercialize its product in Asia, as well as in the U.S.
A graphical method of analysis applicable to ligands that bind reversibly to receptors or enzymes requiring the simultaneous measurement of plasma and tissue radioactivities for multiple times after the injection of a radiolabeled tracer is presented. It is shown that there is a time t after which a …
EMUAID works with the bodys natural resources to reduce pain & inflammation. The unique combination of ingredients stimulate blood-flow to rapidly repair damaged, irritated skin conditions while simultaneously fighting bacterial viral & fungal infections
From Admin: The article reports a novel optical Blood-flow sensor used for measuring velocity of blood flow below skin, which is based on the principle of Droppler shift. The sensor is an integrated module with laser diode and photodiode [more...] ...
Beginning in midlife, heart disease leads to subtle blood-flow problems in the brain that develop insidiously, gradually damaging neurons and contributing to cognitive decline. Knowledge of clinically silent blood-flow problems in the brain has led to the “healthy heart, healthy mind” hypothesis that preventing or treating heart disease also may help prevent age-associated cognitive decline.
It is a prodrug to chlorphentermine. 3,4-Dichloroamphetamine Cericlamine Chlorphentermine Clortermine Etolorex ...
... produces very low rates of self-administration in animals similarly to chlorphentermine,[3] and as a result it ...
... ("3,4-MDPEA" or just "MDPEA"), also known as homopiperonylamine, is a substituted phenethylamine formed by adding a methylenedioxy group to phenethylamine. It is structurally similar to MDA, but without the methyl group at the alpha position. According to Alexander Shulgin in his book PiHKAL, MDPEA appears to be biologically inactive. This is likely because of extensive first-pass metabolism by the enzyme monoamine oxidase. However, if MDPEA were either used in high enough of doses (e.g., 1-2 grams), or in combination with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), it is probable that it would become sufficiently active, though it would likely have a relatively short duration of action. This idea is similar in concept to the use of selective MAOA inhibitors and selective MAOB inhibitors in augmentation of dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and phenethylamine (PEA), respectively. ...
Amphetamines (e.g., chlorphentermine, cloforex, dexfenfluramine, fenfluramine, levofenfluramine, norfenfluramine). *BW-723C86. ...
... (also known as 3-FMC) is a chemical compound of the phenethylamine, amphetamine, and cathinone classes that has been sold online as a designer drug.[1][2] It is a structural isomer of flephedrone (4-fluoromethcathinone). 3-Fluoroisomethcathinone is produced as a by-product when 3-FMC is synthesized, the activity of this compound is unknown.[3] ...
... emerged as a new legal high in the United Kingdom only months after the ban of similar drug mephedrone (which was also a cathinone derivative). Until July 2010 the substance was not controlled by the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 and was therefore not illegal for someone to possess. The Medicines Act prevented naphyrone from being sold for human consumption, and therefore it was sometimes sold as 'pond cleaner' or as another substance not normally consumed by humans. In response to this emerging trend of new designer drugs, Home Office Minister James Brokenshire said, "action to address the issue of emerging legal highs coming on to the market is a priority for the government."[12][unreliable source?] A study by researchers at Liverpool John Moores University found that only one out of ten products labelled as "NRG-1" actually contained naphyrone when they were subjected to laboratory analysis. Compounds found in products labelled NRG-1 included MDPV, flephedrone, mephedrone, butylone and ...
... is a synthetic form of the isolated major active metabolite of venlafaxine, and is categorized as a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI). When most normal metabolizers take venlafaxine, approximately 70% of the dose is metabolized into desvenlafaxine, so the effects of the two drugs are expected to be very similar.[5] It works by blocking the "reuptake" transporters for key neurotransmitters affecting mood, thereby leaving more active neurotransmitters in the synapse. The neurotransmitters affected are serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). It is approximately 10 times more potent at inhibiting serotonin uptake than norepinephrine uptake.[6]. ...
3,4-Methylenedioxy-N,N-dimethylamphetamine (MDDM) is a lesser-known psychedelic drug. It is also the N,N-dimethyl analog of 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA). MDDM was first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin. In his book PiHKAL (Phenethylamines i Have Known And Loved), the dosage is unspecified and the duration unknown. MDDM produces only mild effects that are not well characterized in PiHKAL. Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of MDDM. This compound is however occasionally encountered as an impurity in 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) which has been synthesized by methylation of MDA using methylating reagents such as methyl iodide. An excess of reagent or a reaction temperature that is too high results in some double methylation of the amine nitrogen, yielding MDDM as well as MDMA. The presence of MDDM as an impurity can thus reveal which synthetic route was used to manufacture seized samples of MDMA. ...
Amphetamines (e.g., chlorphentermine, cloforex, dexfenfluramine, fenfluramine, levofenfluramine, norfenfluramine). *BW-723C86. ...
Amphetamines (e.g., chlorphentermine, cloforex, dexfenfluramine, fenfluramine, levofenfluramine, norfenfluramine). *BW-723C86. ...
Djaldetti Ruth; Giladi Nir; Hassin-Baer Sharon; Shabtai Hertzel; Melamed Eldad (November-December 2003). "Pharmacokinetics of Etilevodopa Compared to Levodopa in Patient's With Parkinson's Disease: An Open-label, Randomized, Crossover Study". Clinical Neuropharmacology. 26 (6): 322-326. doi:10.1097/00002826-200311000-00012. PMID 14646613 ...
... (2-FA) is a stimulant drug from the amphetamine family which has been sold as a designer drug.[1] 2-Fluoroamphetamine differs from 3- and 4-fluoroamphetamine in the position of the fluorine atom on the aromatic ring, making them positional isomers of one another. The replacement of a hydrogen atom with a fluorine atom in certain compounds to facilitate passage through the blood-brain barrier, as is desirable in central nervous system pharmaceutical agents, is a common practice due to the corresponding increase in lipophilicity granted by the substitute.[2][3] ...
Difluoromethylenedioxyamphetamine (DiFMDA) is a substituted derivative of 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), which was developed by Daniel Trachsel and coworkers, along with the corresponding fluorinated derivatives of MDMA, MDEA, BDB and MBDB, with the aim of finding a non-neurotoxic drug able to be used as a less harmful substitute for entactogenic drugs such as MDMA. Since a major route of the normal metabolism of these compounds is scission of the methylenedioxy ring, producing neurotoxic metabolites such as alpha-methyldopamine, it was hoped that the difluoromethylenedioxy bioisostere would show increased metabolic stability and less toxicity.[1][2] These compounds have not yet been tested in animals to verify whether they show similar pharmacological activity to the non-fluorinated parent compounds, although in vitro binding studies show DFMDA to have a SERT affinity in between that of MDA and MDMA.[3] However, there is known to be a lack of bulk tolerance at this position of the ...
... (MDMP), or 3,4-methylenedioxy-α,α,N-trimethylphenethylamine, is a lesser-known psychedelic drug. MDMP was first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin. In his book PiHKAL (Phenethylamines i Have Known And Loved), the minimum dosage is listed as 110 mg, and the duration is listed as approximately 6 hours. MDMP produces few to no effects, and is slightly similar to MDMA. Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of MDMP. ...
... (MDMEO, MDMEOA, or MDMeOA) is a lesser-known psychedelic drug and a substituted amphetamine. It is also the N-methoxy analogue of MDA. MDMEO was first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin. In his book PiHKAL (Phenethylamines i Have Known And Loved), the minimum dosage is listed as 180 mg. MDMEO may be found as white crystals. It produces few to no effects. Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of MDMEO. ...
Amphetamines (e.g., chlorphentermine, cloforex, dexfenfluramine, fenfluramine, levofenfluramine, norfenfluramine). *BW-723C86. ...
N,α-Diethylphenylethylamine (N,α-DEPEA, 2-ethylamino-1-phenylbutane, EAPB) is a close chemical analog of methamphetamine which has been sold as a designer drug.[1][2][3] It was originally patented by Knoll Pharma as one of several analogs for pharmaceutical applications. In animals models these analogs showed properties of cognitive enhancement and increased pain tolerance.[4] Nevertheless, this class of compounds was never developed into a medicine. N,α-DEPEA has not been studied in humans, but experts such as Pieter Cohen of Harvard Medical School expect it to be less potent than methamphetamine, but greater than ephedrine.[5] ...
... (MDPPP) is a stimulant designer drug. It was sold in Germany in the late 1990s and early 2000s as an ingredient in imitation ecstasy (MDMA) pills.[1] It shares a similar chemical structure with α-PPP and MDPV,[2][3][4] and has been shown to have reinforcing effects in rats.[5] ...
... is a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI) under development by Jazz Pharmaceuticals for the treatment of excessive sleepiness associated with narcolepsy and sleep apnea. It is derived from phenylalanine and its chemical name is (R)-2-amino-3-phenylpropylcarbamate hydrochloride.[1] The drug was discovered by a subsidiary of SK Group, which licensed rights outside of 11 countries in Asia to Aerial Pharma in 2011.[2] Aerial ran two Phase II trials of the drug in narcolepsy[3] before selling the license to solriamfetol to Jazz in 2014; Jazz paid Aerial $125 million up front and will pay Aerial and SK up to $272 million in milestone payments, and will pay double digit royalties to SK.[2][4] Solriamfetol had also been tested in animal models of depression, but as of 2017 that work had not been advanced to clinical trials.[5] During development it has been called SKL-N05, ADX-N05, ARL-N05, and JZP-110.[6] In March 2018 the FDA accepted SK's and Jazz' NDA for use of ...
Amphetamines (e.g., chlorphentermine, cloforex, dexfenfluramine, fenfluramine, levofenfluramine, norfenfluramine). *BW-723C86. ...
... , also known as diethylpropion, is a stimulant drug of the phenethylamine, amphetamine, and cathinone classes that is used as an appetite suppressant.[2][3] It is used in the short-term management of obesity, along with dietary and lifestyle changes.[2] Amfepramone is most closely chemically related to the antidepressant and smoking cessation aid bupropion (previously called amfebutamone), which has also been developed as a weight-loss medicine when in a combination product with naltrexone.[4] ...
Amphetamines (e.g., chlorphentermine, cloforex, dexfenfluramine, fenfluramine, levofenfluramine, norfenfluramine). *BW-723C86. ...
... (6-Cl-MDMA, 2-Cl-4,5-MDMA) is a derivative of the amphetamine drug MDMA, which has been identified both in seized "Ecstasy" tablets and in urine samples from drug users.[1][2] It is thought most likely to be an impurity from synthesis and its pharmacological properties have not been established, however it has been banned in several countries. ...
... (INN), also known as 2-methylamphetamine, is a stimulant drug of the amphetamine class. In animal drug discrimination tests it substituted for dextroamphetamine more closely than either 3- or 4-methylamphetamine, although with only around 1/10 the potency of dextroamphetamine itself.[1] ...
... (Gewodin, Gewolen) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) of the pyrazolone series which is available over-the-counter in some countries such as Taiwan.[1][2][3] It has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic effects.[1][2] Famprofazone has been known to produce methamphetamine as an active metabolite, with 15-20% of an oral dose being converted to it.[4][5] As a result, famprofazone has occasionally been implicated in causing positives on drug tests for amphetamines.[3] ...
MDCPM, or 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-cyclopropylmethylamphetamine, is a lesser-known psychedelic drug. It is the N-cyclopropyl derivative of MDMA. MDCPM was first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin; it is also one of the compounds delineated in a patent by Horrom in 1972.[1] In his book PiHKAL (Phenethylamines i Have Known And Loved), the minimum dosage is listed as 10 mg, and the duration unknown. MDCPM produces few to no effects. Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of MDCPM. ...
... (T1AM) is an endogenous thyronamine. T1AM is a high-affinity ligand for the trace amine-associated receptor TAAR1 (TAR1, TA1), a recently discovered G protein-coupled receptor.[1][2] T1AM is the most potent endogenous TAAR1 agonist yet discovered.[3] Activation of TAAR1 by T1AM results in the production of large amounts of cAMP. This effect is coupled with decreased body temperature and cardiac output.[4] Wu et al. have pointed out that this relationship is not typical of the endocrine system, indicating that TAAR1 activity may not be coupled to G-proteins in some tissues, or that T1AM may interact with other receptor subtypes.[3] T1AM may be part of a signaling pathway to modulate cardiac function, as the compound can induce negative inotropic effects and decrease cardiac output.[5] ...
N-Ethyl-1,3-benzodioxolylpentanamine (EBDP; Ethyl-K; 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethyl-α-propylphenethylamine) is a psychoactive drug and member of the phenethylamine chemical class which acts as an entactogen, psychedelic, and stimulant. It is the N-ethyl analog of 1,3-benzodioxolylpentanamine (BDP; K). Ethyl-K was first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin. In his book PiHKAL ("Phenethylamines i Have Known And Loved"), the minimum dosage is listed as 40 mg and the duration is unknown.[1][2] Very little is known about the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, effects, and toxicity of Ethyl-K. ...
... , also known as α-ethylphenethylamine, Butanphenamine, B or AEPEA,[1] is a stimulant drug of the phenethylamine class. It is a higher homologue of amphetamine, differing from amphetamine's molecular structure only by the substitution of the methyl group at the alpha position of the side chain with an ethyl group. Compared to amphetamine, phenylisobutylamine has strongly reduced dopaminergic effects, and instead acts as a selective norepinephrine releasing agent.[citation needed] The dextroisomer of phenylisobutylamine partially substitutes for dextroamphetamine in rats.[1] A number of derivatives of phenylisobutylamine are known, including BDB, MBDB, EBDB, butylone (bk-MBDB), eutylone (bk-EBDB), Ariadne (α-Et-DOM), 4-CAB, and 4-MAB. "Phenylisobutylamine" is in fact a chemical misnomer because isobutylamine itself contains a branched chain. The correct name after this style for this class of compound would be "phenylsecbutylamine". ...
Chlorphentermine (trade names Apsedon, Desopimon, Lucofen) is a serotonergic appetite suppressant of the amphetamine family. ... Chlorphentermine acts as a highly selective serotonin releasing agent (SRA).[2] It is not a psychostimulant and has little or ... Gylys, JA; Hart, JJ; Warren, MR (Sep 1962). "Chlorphentermine, a new anorectic agent". Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental ... Rothman, RB; Ayestas, MA; Dersch, CM; Baumann, MH (Aug 1999). "Aminorex, fenfluramine, and chlorphentermine are serotonin ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Chlorphentermine may decrease the sedative activities of Alcaftadine.. Approved. Alfentanil. Chlorphentermine may increase the ... Chlorphentermine may decrease the sedative activities of Azatadine.. Approved. Azelastine. Chlorphentermine may decrease the ... Chlorphentermine may decrease the sedative activities of Doxylamine.. Approved, Vet Approved. DPDPE. Chlorphentermine may ... Chlorphentermine may decrease the sedative activities of Ethopropazine.. Approved. Ethosuximide. Chlorphentermine can cause a ...
N-[11C-Methyl]chlorphentermine and N,N-[11C-dimethyl]chlorphentermine as brain blood-flow agents for positron emission ... N-[11C-Methyl]chlorphentermine and N,N-[11C-dimethyl]chlorphentermine as brain blood-flow agents for positron emission ... N-[11C-Methyl]chlorphentermine and N,N-[11C-dimethyl]chlorphentermine as brain blood-flow agents for positron emission ...
... ,4-Chloro-alpha,alpha-dimethylbenzeneethanamine,4-chloro-alpha,alpha-dimethylphenethylamine,alpha,alpha- ...
Chlorphentermine itself is a relatively weak stimulant with little abuse potential, but is classed as a Schedule 3 drug in the ... Chlorphentermine, a new anorectic agent. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 1962 Sep;137:365-73. ,/ref> ... Aminorex, fenfluramine, and chlorphentermine are serotonin transporter substrates. Implications for primary pulmonary ... Drugbox, ,IUPAC_name = ,small>4-chloro-α,α-dimethylphenethylamine,/small> , image=Chlorphentermine.png , width= 150 , CAS_ ...
Chlorphentermine Suppresses the Phosphatidylinositol Pathway in Concanavalin A-Activated Mouse Splenic Lymphocytes *Leonard J. ...
Clortermine produces very low rates of self-administration in animals similarly to chlorphentermine,[3] and as a result it ...
Naquasone injectable contains chlorphentermine, USP, and silver methenamine acetate, USP. methenamine, the active pesticide ... chlorphentermine increased gsk3 phosphorylation reactions in milliseconds the pfc and nac, respectively, while mepyramine ... chlorphentermine increased gsk3 phosphorylation reactions in milliseconds the pfc and nac, respectively, while mepyramine ... Naquasone injectable contains chlorphentermine, USP, and silver methenamine acetate, USP. methenamine, the active pesticide ...
3) Chlorphentermine;. (4) Clortermine;. (5) Phendimetrazine.. (b) Depressants. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in ...
Chlorphentermine molecule ball.png 2 000 × 1 387; 445 kB. *. Chlorphentermine molecule spacefill.png 2 000 × 1 461; 495 kB. ...
4. Chlorphentermine.. 5. Clortermine.. 6. Lysergic acid.. 7. Lysergic acid amide.. 8. Methyprylon. ...
3) Chlorphentermine. 1645 (4) Clortermine. 1647 (5) Phendimetrazine. 1615 (c) Depressants. Unless specifically excepted or ...
4. Chlorphentermine.. 5. Clortermine.. 6. Lysergic acid.. 7. Lysergic acid amide.. 8. Methyprylon. ...
2. Chlorphentermine.. 3. Clortermine.. 4. Repealed by Session Laws 1987, c. 412, s. 10. ...
5. Chlorphentermine.. 6. Clortermine.. 7. Embutramide.. 8. Lysergic acid.. 9. Lysergic acid amide. ...
Phendimetrazine functions as a prodrug to phenmetrazine; approximately 30 percent of an oral dose is converted into it. Phendimetrazine can essentially be thought of as an extended-release formulation of phenmetrazine with less potential for abuse. Phenmetrazine acts as a norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agent (NDRA).[2] Its structure incorporates the backbone of methamphetamine, a potent CNS stimulant. While the addition of an N-methyl group to amphetamine significantly increases its potency and bioavailability, methylation of phendimetrazine renders the compound virtually inactive. Metabolization by demethylases produces a steady, continuous activation of the drug in the body, both lowering abuse potential and allowing for once-daily administration.[citation needed] ...
3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-propargylamphetamine (MDPL) is a lesser-known psychedelic drug and a substituted amphetamine. MDPL was first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin. In his book PiHKAL (Phenethylamines i Have Known And Loved), the minimum dosage is listed as 150 mg, and the duration unknown.[1] MDPL causes few to no effects. Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of MDPL. ...
b) Chlorphentermine (c) Clortermine (d) Mazindol (e) Phendimetrazine. (4) Nalorphine. (5) Any material, compound, mixture, or ...
3) Chlorphentermine 1645. (4) Chlortermine 1647. (5) Phendimetrazine 1615. (f) Anabolic steroids 4000 ...
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Chlorphentermine. 4-Chloro-α-methylamphetamine. 2 para-Fluoromethamphetamine (PFMA, 4-FMA). 4-Fluoro-N-methylamphetamine. 2 ...
It is a prodrug to chlorphentermine. 3,4-Dichloroamphetamine Cericlamine Chlorphentermine Clortermine Etolorex ...
Chlorphentermine. Chlorphentermine may decrease the sedative activities of Pemirolast.. Illicit, Withdrawn. Dextroamphetamine. ...
The electronic Irish Statute Book (eISB) comprises the Acts of the Oireachtas (Parliament), Statutory Instruments, Legislation Directory, Constitution and a limited number of pre-1922 Acts.
This updated edition in the long standing series provides the latest information on many individual drugs, including the most complete coverage of their adverse reactions and interactions.
Chlorphentermine (C10H14ClN). *(-)-Norephedrine (C9H13NO) ...
4. Chlorphentermine.. 5. Clortermine.. 6. Lysergic acid.. 7. Lysergic acid amide.. 8. Methyprylon. ...
  • Clortermine produces very low rates of self-administration in animals similarly to chlorphentermine, [3] and as a result it likely does not act on dopamine . (wikipedia.org)
  • 3,4-Dichloroamphetamine Cericlamine Chlorphentermine Clortermine Etolorex Methylenedioxyphentermine Phentermine Swiss Pharmaceutical Society (2000). (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorphentermine (trade names Apsedon , Desopimon , Lucofen ) is a serotonergic appetite suppressant of the amphetamine family. (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] It is the 2- chloro analogue of the better known appetite suppressant phentermine , and is the 2- chloro positional isomer of chlorphentermine . (wikipedia.org)
  • The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorphentermine is combined with Amphetamine. (drugbank.ca)
  • Amphetamine [note 1] (contracted from a lpha ‑ m ethyl ph en et hyl amine ) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy , and obesity . (infogalactic.com)
  • Multinucleation in alveolar macrophages from rats treated with chlorphentermine. (cdc.gov)
  • Aminorex, fenfluramine, and chlorphentermine are serotonin transporter substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetazolamide may decrease the excretion rate of Chlorphentermine which could result in a higher serum level. (drugbank.ca)
  • Chlorphentermine is a relatively weak stimulant with little abuse potential. (drugbank.ca)
  • Chlorphentermine itself is a relatively weak stimulant with little abuse potential, but is classed as a Schedule 3 drug in the USA due mainly to its similarity to other appetite suppressants such as [[diethylpropion]] which have been more widely abused. (wikidoc.org)