A centrally acting muscle relaxant. Its mode of action is unknown. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1203)
A centrally acting muscle relaxant with a short duration of action.
Adverse cutaneous reactions caused by ingestion, parenteral use, or local application of a drug. These may assume various morphologic patterns and produce various types of lesions.
A group of disorders having a benign course but exhibiting clinical and histological features suggestive of malignant lymphoma. Pseudolymphoma is characterized by a benign infiltration of lymphoid cells or histiocytes which microscopically resembles a malignant lymphoma. (From Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 26th ed)
Rare skin eruption characterized by acute formation of pustules filled with NEUTROPHILS, fever, and peripheral blood LEUKOCYTOSIS. Most cases are associated with the use of antibiotics (e.g., BETA-LACTAMS).
Diseases in which skin eruptions or rashes are a prominent manifestation. Classically, six such diseases were described with similar rashes; they were numbered in the order in which they were reported. Only the fourth (Duke's disease), fifth (ERYTHEMA INFECTIOSUM), and sixth (EXANTHEMA SUBITUM) numeric designations survive as occasional synonyms in current terminology.
This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.
Skin diseases characterized by local or general distributions of blisters. They are classified according to the site and mode of blister formation. Lesions can appear spontaneously or be precipitated by infection, trauma, or sunlight. Etiologies include immunologic and genetic factors. (From Scientific American Medicine, 1990)
'Skin diseases' is a broad term for various conditions affecting the skin, including inflammatory disorders, infections, benign and malignant tumors, congenital abnormalities, and degenerative diseases, which can cause symptoms such as rashes, discoloration, eruptions, lesions, itching, or pain.

Optimization of chlorphenesin emulgel formulation. (1/5)

This study was conducted to develop an emulgel formulation of chlorphenesin (CHL) using 2 types of gelling agents: hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) and Carbopol 934. The influence of the type of the gelling agent and the concentration of both the oil phase and emulsifying agent on the drug release from the prepared emulgels was investigated using a 2(3) factorial design. The prepared emulgels were evaluated for their physical appearance, rheological behavior, drug release, antifungal activity, and stability. Commercially available CHL topical powder was used for comparison. All the prepared emulgels showed acceptable physical properties concerning color, homogeneity, consistency, spreadability, and pH value. They also exhibited higher drug release and antifungal activity than the CHL powder. It was found that the emulsifying agent concentration had the most pronounced effect on the drug release from the emulgels followed by the oil phase concentration and finally the type of the gelling agent. The drug release from all the emulgels was found to follow diffusion-controlled mechanism. Rheological studies revealed that the CHL emulgels exhibited a shear-thinning behavior with thixotropy. Stability studies showed that the physical appearance, rheological properties, drug release, and antifungal activity in all the prepared emulgels remained unchanged upon storage for 3 months. As a general conclusion, it was suggested that the CHL emulgel formulation prepared with HPMC with the oil phase concentration in its low level and emulsifying agent concentration in its high level was the formula of choice since it showed the highest drug release and antifungal activity.  (+info)

Production of chlorphenesin galactoside by whole cells of beta-galactosidase-containing Escherichia coli. (2/5)

We investigated the transgalactosylation reaction of chlorphenesin (CPN) using beta-galactosidase (beta-gal)-containing Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells, in which galactose from lactose was transferred to CPN. The optimal CPN concentration for CPN galactoside (CPN-G) synthesis was observed at 40 mM under the conditions that lactose and beta-gal (as E. coli cells) were 400 g/l and 4.8 U/ml, respectively, and the pH and temperature were 7.0 and 40oC, respectively. The time-course profile of CPN-G synthesis under these optimal conditions showed that CPN-G synthesis from 40 mM CPN reached a maximum of about 27 mM at 12 h. This value corresponded to an about 67% conversion of CPN to CPN-G, which was 4.47-5.36-fold higher than values in previous reports. In addition, we demonstrated by thin-layer chromatography to detect the sugar moiety that galactose was mainly transferred from lactose to CPN. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that CPN-G and CPN-GG (CPN galactoside, which accepted two galactose molecules) were definitively identified as the synthesized products using beta-gal-containing E. coli cells. In particular, because we did not use purified beta-gal, our beta-gal-containing E. coli cells might be practical and cost-effective for enzymatically synthesizing CPN-G. It is expected that the use of beta-gal-containing E. coli will be extended to galactose derivatization of other drugs to improve their functionality.  (+info)

Effect of chlorphenesin on localized hemolysis in gel assay. (3/5)

Chlorphenesin, a simple glycerol ether, when added to Jerne plates greatly reduced the number of hemolytic plaques. This effect appeared to be related to dose, and was clearly demonstrable with antibody-forming spleen cells from mice that had been immunized either with sheep red blood cells or with penicillin G conjugated with Keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Chlorphenesin did not affect the antigen, destroy complement, or interfere with the interaction of complement and the antigen-antibody complexes. Incubation of spleen cell suspensions with chlorphenesin prior to plating was more effective in reducing the number of plaques than was addition of the substance to the plates. It may act by reducing the ability of antibodies to react with antigens or by affecting the release of antibodies from the spleen cells.  (+info)

Effect of a muscle relaxant, chlorphenesin carbamate, on the spinal neurons of rats. (4/5)

The effects of chlorphenesin carbamate (CPC) and mephenesin on spinal neurons were investigated in spinal rats. CPC (50 mg/kg i.v.) inhibited the mono-(MSR) and poly-synaptic reflex (PSR), the latter being more susceptible than the former to CPC depression. Mephenesin also inhibited MSR and PSR, though the effects were short in duration. CPC had no effect on the dorsal root potential evoked by the stimulation of the dorsal root, while mephenesin reduced the dorsal root-dorsal root reflex. The excitability of motoneuron was reduced by the administration of CPC or mephenesin. The excitability of primary afferent terminal was unchanged by CPC, while it was inhibited by mephenesin. Neither CPC nor mephenesin influenced the field potential evoked by the dorsal root stimulation. Both CPC and mephenesin had no effect on the synaptic recovery. These results suggest that both CPC and mephenesin inhibit the firing of motoneurons by stabilizing the neuronal membrane, while mephenesin additionally suppresses the dorsal root reflex and the excitability of the primary afferent terminal. These inhibitory actions of CPC on spinal activities may contribute, at least partly, to its muscle relaxing action.  (+info)

The action of chlorphenesin carbamate on the frog spinal cord. (5/5)

Studies were carried out to elucidate the mechanism of action of chlorphenesin carbamate (CPC) and to compare the effect of the drug with that of mephenesin on the isolated bullfrog spinal cord. Ventral and dorsal root potentials were recorded by means of the sucrose-gap method. CPC caused marked hyperpolarizations and depressed spontaneous activities in both of the primary afferent terminals (PAT) and motoneurons (MN). These hyperpolarizations were observed even in high-Mg2+ and Ca2+-free Ringer's solution, suggesting that CPC has direct actions on PAT and MN. Various reflex potentials (dorsal and ventral root potentials elicited by stimulating dorsal and ventral root, respectively) tended to be depressed by CPC as well as by mephenesin. Excitatory amino acids (L-aspartic acid and L-glutamic acid) caused marked depolarizations in PAT and MN, and increased the firing rate in MN. CPC did not modify the depolarization but abolished the motoneuron firing induced by these amino acids. However, mephenesin reduced both the depolarization and the motoneuron firing. The dorsal and ventral root potentials evoked by tetanic stimulation (40 Hz) of the dorsal root were depressed by the drugs. These results indicate that CPC has an apparent depressing action on the spinal neuron, and this action may be ascribed to the slight hyperpolarization and/or the prolongation of refractory period.  (+info)

Chlorphenesin is a muscle relaxant and anti-inflammatory agent that is primarily used in topical creams, gels, and solutions for the relief of minor aches and pains due to strains, sprains, and bruises. It works by blocking the nerve impulses that cause muscle spasms.

Chlorphenesin can also be found in some oral medications as an antimicrobial agent, used to treat infections caused by certain bacteria.

It is important to note that chlorphenesin can have side effects, including skin irritation, stinging, redness, or swelling at the application site. If taken orally, it may cause dizziness, drowsiness, or upset stomach. It should be used with caution and under the direction of a healthcare professional.

Mephenesin is a muscle relaxant that has been used in the past to treat various conditions such as spasticity and muscle pain. It works by blocking nerve impulses that are sent to the muscles, which helps to reduce muscle tension and spasms. However, mephenesin is not commonly used today due to its potential for abuse and the availability of safer and more effective muscle relaxants.

Mephenesin is a carbamate derivative and acts as a central nervous system depressant. It has sedative and hypnotic effects, which can make it useful in managing anxiety and promoting sleep. However, mephenesin can also cause respiratory depression, especially when used in high doses or in combination with other central nervous system depressants.

Mephenesin is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and injectable solutions. It is important to follow the prescribed dosage carefully and to avoid using mephenesin with alcohol or other drugs that can cause drowsiness or respiratory depression. Side effects of mephenesin may include dizziness, headache, nausea, vomiting, and skin rash. In rare cases, mephenesin can cause more serious side effects such as seizures, coma, and death.

A "drug eruption" is a general term used to describe an adverse skin reaction that occurs as a result of taking a medication. These reactions can vary in severity and appearance, and may include symptoms such as rash, hives, itching, redness, blistering, or peeling of the skin. In some cases, drug eruptions can also cause systemic symptoms such as fever, fatigue, or joint pain.

The exact mechanism by which drugs cause eruptions is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve an abnormal immune response to the medication. There are many different types of drug eruptions, including morphilliform rashes, urticaria (hives), fixed drug eruptions, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN), which is a severe and potentially life-threatening reaction.

If you suspect that you are experiencing a drug eruption, it is important to seek medical attention promptly. Your healthcare provider can help determine the cause of the reaction and recommend appropriate treatment. In some cases, it may be necessary to discontinue the medication causing the reaction and switch to an alternative therapy.

Pseudolymphoma is a term used to describe a benign reactive lymphoid hyperplasia that mimics the clinical and histopathological features of malignant lymphomas. It is also known as pseudolymphomatous cutis or reactive lymphoid hyperplasia.

Pseudolymphoma can occur in various organs, but it is most commonly found in the skin. It is usually caused by a localized immune response to an antigenic stimulus such as insect bites, tattoos, radiation therapy, or certain medications. The condition presents as a solitary or multiple nodular lesions that may resemble lymphoma both clinically and histologically.

Histologically, pseudolymphoma is characterized by a dense infiltrate of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and other immune cells, which can mimic the appearance of malignant lymphoma. However, unlike malignant lymphomas, pseudolymphomas lack cytological atypia, mitotic activity, and clonal proliferation of lymphoid cells.

Pseudolymphoma is usually a self-limiting condition that resolves spontaneously or with the removal of the antigenic stimulus. However, in some cases, it may persist or recur, requiring further evaluation and treatment to exclude malignant lymphoma.

Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis (AGEP) is a severe cutaneous adverse reaction that typically occurs within 48 hours after the initiation of medication. It is characterized by the rapid development of widespread sterile pustules on an erythematous and edematous base, often accompanied by systemic symptoms such as fever and neutrophilia.

The most common triggers for AGEP are antibiotics (such as beta-lactams, macrolides, and fluoroquinolones), antifungals, and calcium channel blockers. The diagnosis of AGEP is based on clinical presentation, histopathological findings, and the exclusion of other causes of pustular eruptions.

The management of AGEP includes immediate discontinuation of the offending medication, supportive care, and sometimes systemic corticosteroids. The prognosis is generally good with most patients recovering within 2 weeks, although recurrences may occur upon re-exposure to the causative agent.

An exanthem is a skin eruption or rash that often occurs as a symptom of various diseases, such as infectious illnesses. It can appear in different forms, including maculopapular (consisting of both macules and papules), vesicular (small fluid-filled blisters), petechial (small purple or red spots caused by bleeding under the skin), or erythematous (reddened). The rash can be localized to certain areas of the body or generalized, covering large parts or the entire body. Exanthems are usually accompanied by other symptoms related to the underlying disease, such as fever, cough, or muscle aches.

Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination is an antibiotic medication used to treat various bacterial infections. It contains two active ingredients: trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, which work together to inhibit the growth of bacteria by interfering with their ability to synthesize folic acid, a vital component for their survival.

Trimethoprim is a bacteriostatic agent that inhibits dihydrofolate reductase, an enzyme needed for bacterial growth, while sulfamethoxazole is a bacteriostatic sulfonamide that inhibits the synthesis of tetrahydrofolate by blocking the action of the enzyme bacterial dihydropteroate synthase. The combination of these two agents produces a synergistic effect, increasing the overall antibacterial activity of the medication.

Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is commonly used to treat urinary tract infections, middle ear infections, bronchitis, traveler's diarrhea, and pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), a severe lung infection that can occur in people with weakened immune systems. It is also used as a prophylactic treatment to prevent PCP in individuals with HIV/AIDS or other conditions that compromise the immune system.

As with any medication, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination can have side effects and potential risks, including allergic reactions, skin rashes, gastrointestinal symptoms, and blood disorders. It is essential to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully and report any adverse reactions promptly.

Vesiculobullous skin diseases are a group of disorders characterized by the formation of blisters (vesicles) and bullae (larger blisters) on the skin. These blisters form when there is a separation between the epidermis (outer layer of the skin) and the dermis (layer beneath the epidermis) due to damage in the area where they join, known as the dermo-epidermal junction.

There are several types of vesiculobullous diseases, each with its own specific causes and symptoms. Some of the most common types include:

1. Pemphigus vulgaris: an autoimmune disorder where the immune system mistakenly attacks proteins that help to hold the skin together, causing blisters to form.
2. Bullous pemphigoid: another autoimmune disorder, but in this case, the immune system attacks a different set of proteins, leading to large blisters and inflammation.
3. Dermatitis herpetiformis: a skin condition associated with celiac disease, where gluten ingestion triggers an immune response that leads to the formation of itchy blisters.
4. Pemphigoid gestationis: a rare autoimmune disorder that occurs during pregnancy and causes blisters on the abdomen and other parts of the body.
5. Epidermolysis bullosa: a group of inherited disorders where there is a fragile skin structure, leading to blistering and wound formation after minor trauma or friction.

Treatment for vesiculobullous diseases depends on the specific diagnosis and may include topical or systemic medications, such as corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, or antibiotics, as well as wound care and prevention of infection.

Skin diseases, also known as dermatological conditions, refer to any medical condition that affects the skin, which is the largest organ of the human body. These diseases can affect the skin's function, appearance, or overall health. They can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, allergies, environmental factors, and aging.

Skin diseases can present in many different forms, such as rashes, blisters, sores, discolorations, growths, or changes in texture. Some common examples of skin diseases include acne, eczema, psoriasis, dermatitis, fungal infections, viral infections, bacterial infections, and skin cancer.

The symptoms and severity of skin diseases can vary widely depending on the specific condition and individual factors. Some skin diseases are mild and can be treated with over-the-counter medications or topical creams, while others may require more intensive treatments such as prescription medications, light therapy, or even surgery.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any unusual or persistent changes in your skin, as some skin diseases can be serious or indicative of other underlying health conditions. A dermatologist is a medical doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of skin diseases.

Chlorphenesin carbamate is no longer used for this purpose in most developed nations due to the availability of much safer ... A related chemical, chlorphenesin (C9H11ClO3) without the carbamate group, is used as a preservative in products such as ... Chlorphenesin carbamate (Maolate, Musil) is a centrally acting muscle relaxant used to treat muscle pain and spasms. ... Kurachi M, Aihara H (September 1984). "Effect of a muscle relaxant, chlorphenesin carbamate, on the spinal neurons of rats". ...
CHLORPHENESIN. Concerns: Allergies/immunotoxicity (moderate), Use restrictions (moderate), Persistence and bioaccumulation ( ... Chlorphenesin, Steareth-2, Ethylhexyl Stearate, Disodium EDTA, Propylene Glycol, Neopentyl Glycol Diheptanoate, Bisabolol, ...
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Chlorphenesin supplier cas 104-29-0. Ten years of chemical industry. Factory direct sales, experienced. 24 hours service. Free ... Compared with various other chemicals, chlorphenesin is used at a lower focus in cosmetics. The optimum usage of chlorphenesin ... Chlorphenesin is a secure, reliable and also broad-spectrum antifungal preservative. It has killing effect on a lot of Gram- ... Chlorphenesin is used to relieve skeletal muscle mass discomfort. Glycerin in which the hydrogen of one key hydroxyl group is ...
Chlorphenesin. For more information on this medication choose from the list of selections below. ...
Adverse reactions to medications are common and often manifest as a cutaneous eruption. Drug-induced cutaneous disorders frequently display a characteristic clinical morphology such as morbilliform exanthem, urticaria, hypersensitivity syndrome, pseudolymphoma, photosensitivity, pigmentary changes, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, ...
CHLORPHENESIN , BUTYLENE GLYCOL , PARFUM (FRAGRANCE) , ARGININE , CARBOMER , ACRYLATES/C10-30 ALKYL ACRYLATE CROSSPOLYMER , ...
CHLORPHENESIN • PARFUM / FRAGRANCE. (CODE F.I.L.: B269040/1) ...
CHLORPHENESIN • LINALOOL • GERANIOL • LIMONENE • CITRONELLOL • BENZYL ALCOHOL • BENZYL BENZOATE • PARFUM / FRAGRANCE (F.I.L. ...
Sharomix Amplify AM25 (Coast Southwest/Sharon-Laboratories Ltd.) (Phenoxyethanol, chlorphenesin, caprylyl glycol, ...
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CHLORPHENESIN; LINALOOL; GERANIOL; CITRONELLOL; SODIUM BENZOATE; LIMONENE; ALOE BARBADENSIS LEAF JUICE POWDER; ALPHA-ISOMETHYL ...
Chlorphenesin. *Citric acid. *Citrus aurantium amara (bitter orange) flower water. *Fragance (parfum) ... Ingredients: Xanthan gum Butylene glycol Chlorphenesin Citric ...
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Chlorphenesin. Benzoic Acid. Butylene Glycol. Sorbic Acid. Caprylyl Glycol. Carbomer. Disodium EDTA ... Chlorphenesin. Benzoic Acid. Butylene Glycol. Sorbic Acid. Caprylyl Glycol. Carbomer. Disodium EDTA ...
CHLORPHENESIN • ETHYLHEXYLGLYCERIN • BOSWELLIA SERRATA GUM • CYMBOPOGON SCHOENANTHUS OIL • CITRAL • CITRIC ACID • POTASSIUM ...
Chlorphenesin, Potassium Sorbate, Tetrasodium Edta, Tin Oxide. May Contain (+/-): Titanium Dioxide (Ci 77891), Iron Oxides (Ci ... Chlorphenesin, Potassium Sorbate, Tetrasodium Edta, Tin Oxide. May Contain (+/-): Titanium Dioxide (Ci 77891), Iron Oxides (Ci ... Chlorphenesin, Potassium Sorbate, Tetrasodium Edta, Tin Oxide. May Contain (+/-): Titanium Dioxide (Ci 77891), Iron Oxides (Ci ... Chlorphenesin, Potassium Sorbate, Tetrasodium Edta, Tin Oxide. May Contain (+/-): Titanium Dioxide (Ci 77891), Iron Oxides (Ci ...
Chlorphenesin, C13-14 Isoparaffin, Sodium Hydroxide, Laureth-7, *As the sodium salt ...
Chlorphenesin, Potassium Sorbate, Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Butter, Polysorbate 60, Aminomethyl Propanol, Disodium EDTA, ...
Chlorphenesin, Dipotassium Glycyrrhizate, Butylene Glycol, Disodium Edta, Calcium Lactate, 1,2-Hexanediol, Tartrazine (CI 19140 ...
Chlorphenesin, Phenoxyethanol, Titanium Dioxide (Ci 77891), Iron Oxides (Ci 77492, Ci 77491, Ci 77499). *Ingredient lists and ... Chlorphenesin, Phenoxyethanol, Titanium Dioxide (Ci 77891), Iron Oxides (Ci 77492, Ci 77491, Ci 77499). ... Chlorphenesin, Phenoxyethanol, Titanium Dioxide (Ci 77891), Iron Oxides (Ci 77492, Ci 77491, Ci 77499). ...
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CHLORPHENESIN. MAY CONTAIN/PEUT CONTENIR (+/-): IRON OXIDES (CI 77491, CI 77492, CI 77499), MICA, RED 7 LAKE (CI 15850), ... CHLORPHENESIN. MAY CONTAIN/PEUT CONTENIR (+/-): IRON OXIDES (CI 77491, CI 77492, CI 77499), MICA, RED 7 LAKE (CI 15850), ... CHLORPHENESIN. MAY CONTAIN/PEUT CONTENIR (+/-): IRON OXIDES (CI 77491, CI 77492, CI 77499), MICA, TITANIUM DIOXIDE (CI 77891). ...
Chlorphenesin, Dimethylmethoxy Chromanyl Palmitate, Allantoin ...
Silica, Mica, Trimethylsiloxysilicate/Dimethicone, Dimethicone, Boron Nitride, Polyethylene, Nylon 12, Chlorphenesin, Potassium ...

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