An acaricide used against many organophosphate and carbamate resistant pests. It acts as an uncoupling agent and monoamine oxidase inhibitor.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.
Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.
Planning, organizing, staffing, direction, and control of libraries.
A computerized biomedical bibliographic storage and retrieval system operated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLARS stands for Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, which was first introduced in 1964 and evolved into an online system in 1971 called MEDLINE (MEDLARS Online). As other online databases were developed, MEDLARS became the name of the entire NLM information system while MEDLINE became the name of the premier database. MEDLARS was used to produce the former printed Cumulated Index Medicus, and the printed monthly Index Medicus, until that publication ceased in December 2004.
Arthritis, especially of the great toe, as a result of gout. Acute gouty arthritis often is precipitated by trauma, infection, surgery, etc. The initial attacks are usually monoarticular but later attacks are often polyarticular.
A type of inflammatory arthritis associated with PSORIASIS, often involving the axial joints and the peripheral terminal interphalangeal joints. It is characterized by the presence of HLA-B27-associated SPONDYLARTHROPATHY, and the absence of rheumatoid factor.
A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic properties used in the therapy of rheumatism and arthritis.
A chronic inflammatory condition affecting the axial joints, such as the SACROILIAC JOINT and other intervertebral or costovertebral joints. It occurs predominantly in young males and is characterized by pain and stiffness of joints (ANKYLOSIS) with inflammation at tendon insertions.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
Agents that increase uric acid excretion by the kidney (URICOSURIC AGENTS), decrease uric acid production (antihyperuricemics), or alleviate the pain and inflammation of acute attacks of gout.

Incidence of bladder cancer in a cohort of workers exposed to 4-chloro-o-toluidine while synthesising chlordimeform. (1/7)

Between 1982 and 1990 seven cases of bladder cancer were detected in a group of 49 workers who were synthesising chlordimeform from 4-chloro-o-toluidine. Latency periods ranged from 15 to 23 years. The incidence of bladder tumours in this group was significantly higher than that of the cancer registers of the former GDR, Saarland, and Denmark by factors of 89.7, 53.8, and 35.0 respectively. This provides further evidence that monocyclic aromatic amines such as 4-chloro-o-toluidine may be carcinogenic in humans.  (+info)

Octopamine and experience-dependent modulation of aggression in crickets. (2/7)

Intraspecific aggression is influenced in numerous animal groups by the previous behavioral experiences of the competitors. The underlying mechanisms are, however, mostly obscure. We present evidence that a form of experience-dependent plasticity of aggression in crickets is mediated by octopamine, the invertebrate counterpart of noradrenaline. In a forced-fight paradigm, the experience of flying maximized the aggressiveness of crickets at their first encounter and accelerated the subsequent recovery of aggressiveness of the normally submissive losers, without enhancing general excitability as evaluated from the animals' startle responses to wind stimulation. This effect is transitory and concurrent with the activation of the octopaminergic system that accompanies flight. Hemocoel injections of the octopamine agonist chlordimeform (CDM) had similar effects on aggression but also enhanced startle responses. Serotonin depletion, achieved using alpha-methyl-tryptophan, enhanced startle responses without influencing aggression, indicating that the effect of CDM on aggression is not attributable to increased general excitation. Contrasting this, aggressiveness was depressed, and the effect of flying was essentially abolished, in crickets depleted of octopamine and dopamine using alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMT). CDM restored aggressiveness in AMT-treated crickets, indicating that their depressed aggressiveness is attributable to octopamine depletion rather than to dopamine depletion or nonspecific defects. Finally, the flight effect was blocked in crickets treated with the octopamine receptor antagonist epinastine, or with the alpha-adrenoceptor and octopamine receptor antagonist phentolamine, but not with the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol. The idea that activity-specific induction of the octopaminergic system underlies other forms of experience-dependent plasticity of aggressive motivation in insects is discussed.  (+info)

Octopamine partially restores walking in hypokinetic cockroaches stung by the parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa. (3/7)

When stung by the parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa, cockroaches Periplaneta americana enter a hypokinetic state that is characterized by little, if any, spontaneous locomotor activity. In the present study we investigate the effect of an octopamine receptor agonist and an antagonist on the locomotor behavior of stung and control cockroaches. We show that in cockroaches stung by a wasp the octopamine receptor agonist chlordimeform induces a significant increase in spontaneous walking. In good agreement, in control individuals an octopamine receptor antagonist significantly reduces walking activity. Adipokinetic hormone I (AKH-I) promotes spontaneous walking in controls but does not do so in stung individuals, which suggests that the venom effect is most probably not mediated by AKH-I. Dopamine receptor agonists or antagonists had no significant effect on the spontaneous walking of stung or control cockroaches, respectively. The effect of the octopamine receptor agonist was maximal when injected into the brain, suggesting that the wasp venom interferes with octopaminergic modulation of walking initiation in central structures of the cockroach brain.  (+info)

The effect of octopaminergic compounds on the behaviour and transmission of Gyrodactylus. (4/7)

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The effects of phenelzine and other monoamine oxidase inhibitor antidepressants on brain and liver I2 imidazoline-preferring receptors. (5/7)

1. The binding of [3H]-idazoxan in the presence of 10(-6) M (-)-adrenaline was used to quantitate I2 imidazoline-preferring receptors in the rat brain and liver after chronic treatment with various irreversible and reversible monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. 2. Chronic treatment (7-14 days) with the irreversible MAO inhibitors, phenelzine (1-20 mg kg-1, i.p.), isocarboxazid (10 mg kg-1, i.p.), clorgyline (3 mg kg-1, i.p.) and tranylcypromine (10 mg kg-1, i.p.) markedly decreased (21-71%) the density of I2 imidazoline-preferring receptors in the rat brain and liver. In contrast, chronic treatment (7 days) with the reversible MAO-A inhibitors, moclobemide (1 and 10 mg kg-1, i.p.) or chlordimeform (10 mg kg-1, i.p.) or with the reversible MAO-B inhibitor Ro 16-6491 (1 and 10 mg kg-1, i.p.) did not alter the density of I2 imidazoline-preferring receptors in the rat brain and liver; except for the higher dose of Ro 16-6491 which only decreased the density of these putative receptors in the liver (38%). 3. In vitro, phenelzine, clorgyline, 3-phenylpropargylamine, tranylcypromine and chlordimeform displaced the binding of [3H]-idazoxan to brain and liver I2 imidazoline-preferring receptors from two distinct binding sites. Phenelzine, 3-phenylpropargylamine and tranylcypromine displayed moderate affinity (KiH = 0.3-6 microM) for brain and liver I2 imidazoline-preferring receptors; whereas chlordimeform displayed high affinity (KiH = 6 nM) for these receptors in the two tissues studied, Clorgyline displayed very high affinity for rat brain (KiH = 40 pM) but not for rat liver I2 imidazoline-preferring receptors (KiH = 169 nM). 4. Preincubation of cortical or liver membranes with phenelzine (10-4 M for 30 min) did not alter the total density of I2 imidazoline-preferring receptors, indicating that this irreversible MAO inhibitor does not irreversibly bind to I2 imidazoline-preferring receptors. In contrast, preincubation with 10-6 Mclorgyline reduced by 40% the Bmax of [3H]-idazoxan to brain and liver I2 imidazoline-preferring receptors.5. Chronic treatment (7 days) with the inducers of cytochrome P-450 enzymes phenobarbitone (40 or 80 mg kg-1, i.p.), 3-methylcholanthrene (20 mg kg-1, i.p.) or 2-methylimidazole (40 mg kg-1, i.p.) did not alter the binding parameters of [3H]-idazoxan to brain and liver 12 imidazoline-preferring receptors.The compound SKF 525A, a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P-450 enzymes which forms a tight but reversible complex with the haemoprotein, completely displaced with moderate affinity (KiH = 2-10 microM)the specific binding of [3H]-idazoxan to brain and liver 12 imidazoline-preferring receptors. Preincubation of total liver homogenates with 3 x 10-4 M phenelzine in the presence of 10-3 M NADH, a treatment that irreversibly inactivates the haeme group of cytochrome P-450, did not reduce the density of liver I2 imidazoline-preferring receptors. These results discounted a possible interaction of [3H]-idazoxan with the haeme group of cytochrome P-450 enzymes.6. Together the results indicate that the down-regulation of I2 imidazoline-preferring receptors is associated with an irreversible inactivation of MAO (at least in the brain) that is not related either to the affinity of the MAO inhibitors for I2 imidazoline-preferring receptors or to an irreversible binding to these putative receptors. These findings indicate a novel effect of irreversible MAO inhibitors in the brain and suggest a new target for these compounds that could be of relevance in the treatment of depression, a disease in which an increased density of brain I2 imidazoline-preferring receptors has been reported.  (+info)

Chemistry, biological activity, and uses of formamidine pesticides. (6/7)

The formamidines, a relatively new group of acaricide-insecticides, are novel both in their range of biological activities and in their mode of action, which is presently unknown. This paper is a review of the historical development, properties, structures, uses, and chemistry of this group of pesticides, with particular emphasis on chlordimeform (Galecron or Fundal), N'-4-chloro-o-tolyl-N,N-dimethylformamidine, and amitraz, 1,3=di-(2,4-dimethylphenylimino)-2-methyl-2-azapropane. Their biological activity and uses are defined by their toxicity to spider mites, ticks, and certain insects, and they are particularly effective against juvenile and resistant forms of these organisms. A significant, but poorly understood feature of their field effectiveness is their breadth of toxic action which includes direct lethality, excitant-repellant behavioral effects, and chemosterilization. They are generally of low hazard for nontarget species with the significant exception of predaceous mites. Several aspects of the chemistry of these compounds are considered, including structure--activity relations, synthetic pathways, isomerism and configuration, and their chemical and environmental stability. A significant feature of the metabolism and toxicity of these agents is the possible activation of chlordimeform by N-demethylation in vivo. Strong evidence for this has been presented with the cattle tick, but recent results discussed here suggest that in other species, i.e., mice, German cockroaches or black cutworm eggs, N-demethylation is neither a strong activation nor a detoxication reaction.  (+info)

Biochemical and physiological effects of chlordimeform. (7/7)

Chlordimeform is a relatively new acaricide/insecticide, whose mode of action we have investigated. It appears to interfere with amine-mediated control of nervous and endocrine systems in a variety of ways. Specifically, chlordimeform causes a build-up of the amines 5-hydroxytryptamine and to a lesser extent norepinephrine in the rat brain in vivo, antagonizes the in vivo action of reserpine in the rat (reserpine depletes amine stores in the CNS), inhibits monoamine oxidase from rat liver in vitro, and causes hypotension in rabbits. In the American cockroach it directly stimulates the heart in situ, acts synergistically with tryptamine in vivo, inhibits amine-N-acetyltransferase from cockroach head in vitro, causes accumulation of indolamines in cockroaches in vivo, and blocks the stimulation of adenylate cyclase by octopamine in the cockroach CNS in situ. It also inhibits tryptamine metabolism in whole mites in vitro.  (+info)

No published study on the carcinogenicity of chlordimeform was available.. para-Chloro-ortho-toluidine, a metabolite of chlordimeform, was tested for carcinogenicity in two strains of mice and two strains of rats by oral administration in the diet. It was carcinogenic in both strains of mice, producing haemangiosarcomas. The studies in rats were not indicative of a carcinogenic effect, but certain limitations in their design were noted.. Chlordimeform is metabolized to a number of compounds, including para-chloro-ortho-toluidine, which has been identified in the urine of several animal species and of humans.. The available data were inadequate to evaluate the teratogenicity of chlordimeform to experimental animals.. Chlordimeform was negative in tests for DNA damage or mutagenicity in several cellular systems. No data were available, however, with regard to its mutagenicity in mammals, and no overall evaluation of the mutagenicity of chlordimeform could be made. ...
chlordimeform definition: Noun (uncountable) 1. An acaricide active mainly against the motile forms of mites and ticks and against eggs and early instars of some Lepidoptera insects; it is no longer widely used....
Chlordimeform (N(4-chloro-o-tolyl)-N, N-dimethylformamidine; CDM) is a formamidine insecticide/acaricide whose major active metabolite is its N-monomethyl analog, desmethylchlordimeform, (DCDM). While their pesticidal action in invertebrates appears to be related to activation of octopamine receptors, their mechanism of action in mammals has not been established. Because of similarities between octopamine and adrenergic receptors and suggestions of CDM and DCDM action on adrenoceptors, the in vitro interactions of CDM and DCDM with adrenoceptors were studied. In mouse brain membrane preparations CDM inhibited the binding of [3H]-clonidine to alpha2- adrenoceptors and of [3H]-WB4101 to alpha1-adrenoceptors with IC50 values of 18.2 and 87 μM, respectively. DCDM was a much more potent inhibitor, with IC50 values toward alpha2−, and alpha1-adrenoceptors of 44 nM and 1 μM, respectively. Both compounds were only weak inhibitors of the binding of [3H]-dihydroalprenolol to beta-adrenoceptors and of [3H]
The DoD has nukes, nerve gas, anthrax, agent orange, napalm, etc., and people are worried that they can remote control beetles?. If you want to be a hippy, fine, but there is no need to be patently irrational about it.. As for the sentiment that this is cruel, I dont think the beetle minds, seeing as its nervous system is not complex enough to permit any sort of thought beyond direct physical response to stimuli.. For comparison, the wasp Ampulex Compressa stings a cockroach so as to briefly paralyze it, then again so as disable the escape reflex, and then steers the roach to its nest where it lays eggs on, which hatch, penetrate the roach, and devour it alive as the larvae gestate. That seems a much crueler fate for the beetle, but I dont see anyone launching an extermination campaign against Ampulex Compressa. Of course, maybe that is that is because Ampulex Compressa is not a convenient political target.. ...
2,4,5-T, aldrin, binapacryl, captafol, chlordane, chlordimeform, chlorobenzilate, DDT, DNOC and its salts, ethylene dichloride, ethylene oxide 1,2-dibromoethane (EDB), dieldrin, dinoseb, fluoroacetamide, HCH, heptachlor, hexachlorobenzene, lindane, mercury compounds, monocrotophos, parathion, pentachlorophenol, toxaphene and tributyl tin, plus certain formulations of methamidophos, methyl-parathion, and phosphamidon, as well as dustable-powder formulations containing a combination of benomyl at or above 7 percent, carbofuran at or above 10 percent and thiram at or above 15 percent that are listed as severely hazardous pesticide formulations ...
A compelling demonstration of the command function of the insect brain for the total behavioral system of the insect is the effect of focused injection of neurotransmitter agonists and antagonists to the region of the central complex (CX) of the insect brain. The parasitoid jewel wasp Ampulex compressa uses its ovipositor to inject venom containing GABA and octopamine antagonists into the CX of its cockroach prey (72, 73). The venom is not paralytic: the cockroach is still able to perform many basic actions. Rather, the pharmacological lesion to the central protocerebrum containing the CX disrupts the cockroachs behavioral program, rendering it entirely passive so that it will not struggle as the wasp leads the cockroach by the antennae into its burrow. The effect of Ampulex venom on the cockroach brain is thus to eliminate the capacity of the roach to organize and initiate behavior (73). This example shows that the central brain structures are key for the initiation and direction of movement ...
On the Loom, Carl Zimmer presents a fascinating story about the Ampulex Compressa, a parasitic wasp who basically performs brain surgery on her victim to provide for a food source for her off-spring.. Lets explore this example of Intelligent Design. Is it specified? Yes, the wasp performs what seems to be brain surgeon when carefully injecting a particular part of the brain with toxins.. Is it Complex? Yes, science is so far ignorance about how Ampulex manages to do these. ...
All information about Phenelzine MAOI in our blog. Find out if Phenelzine can be taken for anxiety. Read about Phenelzine Interactions and side effects at AnxietyAlliance.org.
The digger wasp species Ampulex compressa produces its venom in two branched gland tubules. They terminate in a short common duct, which is bifurcated at its proximal end. One leg is linked with the venom reservoir, the other one extends to the ductus venatus. Each venom gland tubule possesses, over its entire length, a cuticle-lined central duct. Around this duct densely packed class 3 gland unit ...
The digger wasp species Ampulex compressa produces its venom in two branched gland tubules. They terminate in a short common duct, which is bifurcated at its proximal end. One leg is linked with the venom reservoir, the other one extends to the ductus venatus. Each venom gland tubule possesses, over its entire length, a cuticle-lined central duct. Around this duct densely packed class 3 gland unit ...
We used COX-2-deficient mice to investigate the role of COX-2 in the mechanisms of liver I/R injury. Our data demonstrate that COX-2−/− mice, compared with their WT counterparts, were significantly less susceptible to liver I/R reperfusion injury. COX-2−/− mice showed reduced sGPT and sGOT levels after I/R injury, which indicate that liver damage was reduced in these mice as compared with WT controls. Inflammatory processes are mediated by multiple molecular mechanisms, and COX-2 is a major inflammatory mediator (44). Our observation that the lack of COX-2 confers a protective role in liver I/R injury is supported by our own celecoxib studies, in which selective COX-2 inhibition ameliorated mouse liver I/R injury. This observation is also supported by other publications, in which COX-2 inhibition was beneficial in rat liver I/R injury (22, 23).. Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL play an important role in inhibition of apoptotic cell death and are essential for maintenance of major organ systems (49). ...
Phenelzine - Get up-to-date information on Phenelzine side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about Phenelzine
In a well-documented example of external parasite control, an emerald cockroach wasp (Ampulex compressa) enslaves a much larger cockroach (Periplaneta americana). The wasp injects a neurotoxin into the cockroachs brain. This toxin kills off the roachs ability to control its own movement but doesnt paralyze it entirely. The wasp is then able to grasp the roachs antenna and lead it into a nest before laying an egg in the live cockroachs body ...
Some neurons in Aplysia have receptors which are much more sensitive to octopamine than any other structurally related compound. Most such receptors mediate a hyperpolarizing conductance increase to K(+). These responses when considered with the octopamine content of whole ganglia and single neurons strongly suggest that octopamine is a neurotransmitter in Aplysia.
Take this medicine by mouth with a glass of water. Follow the directions on the prescription label. Take your medicine at regular intervals. Do not take your medicine more often than directed. Do not stop taking this medicine suddenly except upon the advice of your doctor. Stopping this medicine too quickly may cause serious side effects or your condition may worsen ...
Upon pathogen infection, the nervous system regulates innate immunity to confer coordinated protection to the host. However, the precise mechanisms of such regulation remain unclear. Previous studies have demonstrated that OCTR-1, a putative G protein-coupled receptor for catecholamine, functions in the sensory neurons designated ASH to suppress innate immune responses in Caenorhabditis elegans. It is unknown what molecules act as OCTR-1 ligands in the neural immune regulatory circuit. Here we identify neurotransmitter octopamine (OA) as an endogenous ligand for OCTR-1 in immune regulation and show that the OA-producing RIC neurons function in the OCTR-1 neural circuit to suppress innate immunity. RIC neurons are deactivated in the presence of pathogens but transiently activated by nonpathogenic bacteria. Our data support a model whereby an octopaminergic immunoinhibitory pathway is tonically active under normal conditions to maintain immunological homeostasis or suppress unwanted innate ...
Nardil tablets contain the active ingredient phenelzine, which is a type of antidepressant known as a monoamine oxidase inihibitor (MAOI).
Phenelzine may interact with many different medicines, including other antidepressants and medications to help decrease blood pressure. A major concer
Taking the antidepressant and antianxiety medication phenelzine (Nardil) along with the prescription pain medication Vicodin (hydrocodone and acetamin
I am sorry, this may be a little long. I have a fatty liver - I am overweight predominantly due to eating and drinking too much and not shifting my bum as much as I should. I am in my mid 50s and have a bad back and a bad hip which means I can no longer get around as much due to the pain - I know the first thing my GP will say is lose weight, so it is a vicious circle. I used to be lovely and slim and only have myself to blame. My BMI is high 30s. I start a diet - I am their greatest
The biogenic amine octopamine plays a critical role in the regulation of many physiological processes in insects. Octopamine transmits its action through a set of specific G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), namely octopamine receptors. Here, we report on a β-adrenergic-like octopamine receptor gene (BdOctβR1) from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), a destructive agricultural pest that occurs in North America and the Asia-Pacific region. As indicated by RT-qPCR, BdOctβR1 was highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and Malpighian tubules (MT) in the adult flies, suggesting it may undertake important roles in neural signaling in the CNS as well as physiological functions in the MT of this fly. Furthermore, its ligand specificities were tested in a heterologous expression system where BdOctβR1 was expressed in HEK-293 cells. Based on cyclic AMP response assays, we found that BdOctβR1 could be activated by octopamine in a concentration-dependent manner, confirming that
Phenelzine is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) that works by increasing the levels of certain chemicals in the brain. Phenelzine is used to treat symptoms of depression that may include feelings of sadness, fear, anxiety, or worry about physical health (hypochondria). This medication is usually given after other...
NARDIL medication page for healthcare professionals to search for scientific information on Pfizer medications. Also find the prescibing information, announcements, resources, and channels to connect with Pfizer Medical Information.
Here are 14 realistic (non-diet) methods to detox your liver I have described in their Top 14 Foods That Cleanse the Liver. if you follow this you will get success
The role of cyclic AMP in the octopaminergic modulation of the dorsal longitudinal flight muscles of the locust Schistocerca gregaria has been investigated. Several techniques have been used to elevate cyclic AMP levels in this tissue by mechanisms that bypass the receptor activation stage. These include the use of phosphodiesterase inhibitors to block the metabolism of cyclic nucleotides, the use of forskolin, the diterpene activator of adenylate cyclase, and the direct application of permeable and phosphodiesterase-resistant analogues of cyclic AMP. All these approaches can be shown to mimic the modulatory effects of octopamine on the flight muscle. Surprisingly, the phosphodiesterase inhibitors used were not able to potentiate the actions of octopamine on this preparation. Octopamine increases cyclic AMP levels in a similar fashion in all five motor units of this muscle, an effect that is selectively blocked by phentolamine, an α-adrenergic blocking agent that blocks octopamine receptors in ...
Phenelzine is a non-selective and irreversible inhibitor of the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO). It inhibits both of the respective isoforms of MAO, MAO-A and MAO-B, and does so almost equally, with slight preference for the former. By inhibiting MAO, phenelzine prevents the breakdown of the monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, melatonin, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine, as well as the trace amine neuromodulators such as phenethylamine, tyramine, octopamine, and tryptamine. This leads to an increase in the extracellular concentrations of these neurochemicals and therefore an alteration in neurochemistry and neurotransmission. This action is thought to be the primary mediator in phenelzines therapeutic benefits. Phenelzine and its metabolites also inhibit at least two other enzymes to a lesser extent, of which are alanine transaminase (ALA-T),[21] and γ-Aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T),[22] the latter of which is not caused by phenelzine itself, but by a phenelzine metabolite ...
order Pregabalin online uk The next revolutionary gaming app? Maybe someday. But to the emerald wasp, this grisly battle is a routine part of its everyday life.. For decades, scientists have tried to understand the complex and gruesome relationship between the parasitic emerald wasp (Ampulex compressa) and its much larger victim, the common household cockroach (Periplaneta americana).. At first glance, this parasite-prey relationship seems much like any other: the female wasp stings the cockroach, lays an egg on its abdomen, and once hatched, the hungry larva feeds on the cockroach. However, while most parasitic insects tend to paralyse their victims with a venomous sting, the emerald wasp instead does something a lot more interesting - it manipulates the cockroachs behavior, essentially transforming it into a zombie slave.. With two stings the cockroach is left with the ability to walk, but is entirely robbed of the power to initiate its own movement. The wasp, now tired after administering ...
The biogenic amine octopamine is a neuromodulatory transmitter in insects that plays an important role in a variety of behavioral contexts (e.g. Mentel et al, 2003). We address the functional role of octopaminergic neurons (ONs) in the locust motor system combining experimental and modeling approaches. A well described network of motor neurons reliably generates rhythmic locomotory patterns and a parallel small-sized network of ONs connects to this motor network, the connectivity of which has been described in detail (Field et al., 2008). Amongst the latter, octopaminergic unpaired median neurons, with either dorsal or ventral cell bodies (DUM or VUM neurons, respectively) are clustered along the midline of the thoracic and abdominal ganglia. Both networks receive top-down input from central areas of the suboesophageal ganglion and the brain, and are activated in parallel with high synchrony (Burrows & Pflüger, 1995; Duch & Pflüger, 1999). Previous results (Bräunig & Pflüger, 2001) suggest ...
The biogenic amine octopamine is a neuromodulatory transmitter in insects that plays an important role in a variety of behavioral contexts (e.g. Mentel et al, 2003). We address the functional role of octopaminergic neurons (ONs) in the locust motor system combining experimental and modeling approaches. A well described network of motor neurons reliably generates rhythmic locomotory patterns and a parallel small-sized network of ONs connects to this motor network, the connectivity of which has been described in detail (Field et al., 2008). Amongst the latter, octopaminergic unpaired median neurons, with either dorsal or ventral cell bodies (DUM or VUM neurons, respectively) are clustered along the midline of the thoracic and abdominal ganglia. Both networks receive top-down input from central areas of the suboesophageal ganglion and the brain, and are activated in parallel with high synchrony (Burrows & Pflüger, 1995; Duch & Pflüger, 1999). Previous results (Bräunig & Pflüger, 2001) suggest ...
2016 Phenelzine (CAS 51-71-8) Industry Market Report is a market research report available at US $2800 for a Single User PDF License from RnR Market Research Reports Library.
Porosomes are the universal secretory machinery in cells, where membrane-bound secretory vesicles transiently dock and fuse to release intravesicular contents to the outside of the cell during cell secretion. Studies using atomic force microscopy, el
Abstract As a result of screening a large number of essential oils from Israeli aromatic plants and their biologically active constituents, we isolated two oils with high activity ..
but they also sent me down stairs via the wheel chair to have an ultrasound on I thought my liver - I still dont know if she took that for sure, she kept trying to take my gal bladders picture - I know a couple of years ago it a one small stones, but was told not to worry, I know she was doing her job but my tummy area had about all the fun for one day I could take ...
After suffering a liver injury from Metronidazole, I have shifted to Tinidazole. My liver still pains slightly but I hope it will get better on its own. I resumed CAP from August 2019 onwards and have continued since then. In January 2020 I shifted to Tinidazole.It has been more than Six months that I am on CAP but the tightness on left side of chest and inside the heart appears to be the same. Given the condition of my liver I dont even want to shift to a stronger protocol. Sometimes I feel I should consult a cardiologist. Any suggestions?. ...
Chlorphenamidine * Ciba 8514 * Ciba - C85l4 * N,N-Dimethyl-N-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenyl)formamidine * ENT 27335 * ENT 27567 * EP ...
Fenitrothion, trichlorfon, and chlorphenamidine. Alphamethrin. Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki. Tebufenozide. 1972. 10,000. 0. ...
Chlorphenamidine negatively correlated with OF resistance in a strain of two spotted spider mite. J. Econ. Entomol. 62:44-47. ...
Report of Schering AG, Dr Ko/So, 17.10.67 Schering AG (1967a) Ruckstandsuntersuchungen chlorphenamidine III Mitteilung 1967. ...
Chlorphenamidine - Preferred Concept UI. M0004188. Scope note. An acaricide used against many organophosphate and carbamate ...
Chlorphenamidine. General subdivision. toxicity. --. adverse effects.. 650 02 - SUBJECT ADDED ENTRY--TOPICAL TERM. ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Octopaminergic system orchestrates combat and mating behaviors: A potential regulator of alternative male mating tactics in an armed beetle. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Chlorphenamidine ; Ovulation ; Toxicity ; Pesticides ; LH ; Oocytes ; Hamsters ; Dose-response relationships ; Biological ...
Chlorphenamidine--toxicity--adverse effects.. Environmental exposure.. Occupational exposure. National Library of Medicine Call ...
16) Chlordimeform ( Chlorphenamidine 살충제) : CASRN 19044-88-3. 17) Clofentezine ( 살충제 ) : CASRN 74115-24-5 ...
Chlorphenamidine / Eating Limits: Animals Language: English Journal: Iran. J. Vet. Res. Year: 2009 ... Chlorphenamidine / Eating Limits: Animals Language: English Journal: Iran. J. Vet. Res. Year: 2009 ...
Combination of three therapies may potentiate the detoxication for chlorphenamidine.,/p,. Subject(s). Adult , Antioxidants , ... p,,b,OBJECTIVE,/b,To verify the effects of treatment with blood transfusion and scopolamine on severe chlorphenamidine ... Effects of treatment with redox agent, blood transfusion and scopolamine on 200 patients with severe chlorphenamidine poisoning ... Blood Transfusion , Chlorphenamidine , Poisoning , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Insecticides , Poisoning , ...
Combination of three therapies may potentiate the detoxication for chlorphenamidine. Databases used included CINAHL, Cochrane ...
Derivatives of oxoacids RnE(=O)OH in which the hydroxy group is replaced by an amino group and the oxo group is replaced by =NR. Amidines include carboxamidines, sulfinamidines and phosphinamidines ...
Chlorphenamidine. Guanidines. Stilbamidines. Search for this term in our Faculty Database. View this term at the NCBI website ...
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Chlorphenamidine Medicine & Life Sciences 18% * formamidine Medicine & Life Sciences 18% View full fingerprint ...

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