Chloroquine: The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Parasitic Sensitivity Tests: Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Primaquine: An aminoquinoline that is given by mouth to produce a radical cure and prevent relapse of vivax and ovale malarias following treatment with a blood schizontocide. It has also been used to prevent transmission of falciparum malaria by those returning to areas where there is a potential for re-introduction of malaria. Adverse effects include anemias and GI disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeia, 30th ed, p404)Pyrimethamine: One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.Sulfadoxine: A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.Mefloquine: A phospholipid-interacting antimalarial drug (ANTIMALARIALS). It is very effective against PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM with very few side effects.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Quinine: An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Amodiaquine: A 4-aminoquinoline compound with anti-inflammatory properties.Malaria, Vivax: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM VIVAX. This form of malaria is less severe than MALARIA, FALCIPARUM, but there is a higher probability for relapses to occur. Febrile paroxysms often occur every other day.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Artemisinins: A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).Plasmodium vivax: A protozoan parasite that causes vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species is found almost everywhere malaria is endemic and is the only one that has a range extending into the temperate regions.Parasitemia: The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Proguanil: A biguanide compound which metabolizes in the body to form cycloguanil, an anti-malaria agent.Ammonium Chloride: An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Plasmodium berghei: A protozoan parasite of rodents transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles dureni.SesquiterpenesFluorenes: A family of diphenylenemethane derivatives.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Indonesia: A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.Aminoquinolines: Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more amino groups.Hydroxychloroquine: A chemotherapeutic agent that acts against erythrocytic forms of malarial parasites. Hydroxychloroquine appears to concentrate in food vacuoles of affected protozoa. It inhibits plasmodial heme polymerase. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p970)Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Cameroon: A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.QuinolinesSenegal: A republic in western Africa, southwest of MAURITANIA and east of MALI. Its capital is Dakar.Promethazine: A phenothiazine derivative with histamine H1-blocking, antimuscarinic, and sedative properties. It is used as an antiallergic, in pruritus, for motion sickness and sedation, and also in animals.Monensin: An antiprotozoal agent produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis. It exerts its effect during the development of first-generation trophozoites into first-generation schizonts within the intestinal epithelial cells. It does not interfere with hosts' development of acquired immunity to the majority of coccidial species. Monensin is a sodium and proton selective ionophore and is widely used as such in biochemical studies.Pheniramine: One of the HISTAMINE H1 ANTAGONISTS with little sedative action. It is used in treatment of hay fever, rhinitis, allergic dermatoses, and pruritus.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Community-Institutional Relations: The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Drug Information Services: Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.MinnesotaCoronavirus: A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE which causes respiratory or gastrointestinal disease in a variety of vertebrates.Coronavirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE).Coronavirus 229E, Human: A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It lacks hemagglutinin-esterase.Coronavirus, Bovine: A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting neonatal calves, presenting as acute diarrhea, and frequently leading to death.Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus: A class I viral fusion protein that forms the characteristic spikes, or peplomers, found on the viral surface that mediate virus attachment, fusion, and entry into the host cell. During virus maturation, it is cleaved into two subunits: S1, which binds to receptors in the host cell, and S2, which mediates membrane fusion.SARS Virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing atypical respiratory disease (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME) in humans. The organism is believed to have first emerged in Guangdong Province, China, in 2002. The natural host is the Chinese horseshoe bat, RHINOLOPHUS sinicus.

Coupling assembly of the E-cadherin/beta-catenin complex to efficient endoplasmic reticulum exit and basal-lateral membrane targeting of E-cadherin in polarized MDCK cells. (1/2261)

The E-cadherin/catenin complex regulates Ca++-dependent cell-cell adhesion and is localized to the basal-lateral membrane of polarized epithelial cells. Little is known about mechanisms of complex assembly or intracellular trafficking, or how these processes might ultimately regulate adhesion functions of the complex at the cell surface. The cytoplasmic domain of E-cadherin contains two putative basal-lateral sorting motifs, which are homologous to sorting signals in the low density lipoprotein receptor, but an alanine scan across tyrosine residues in these motifs did not affect the fidelity of newly synthesized E-cadherin delivery to the basal-lateral membrane of MDCK cells. Nevertheless, sorting signals are located in the cytoplasmic domain since a chimeric protein (GP2CAD1), comprising the extracellular domain of GP2 (an apical membrane protein) and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of E-cadherin, was efficiently and specifically delivered to the basal-lateral membrane. Systematic deletion and recombination of specific regions of the cytoplasmic domain of GP2CAD1 resulted in delivery of <10% of these newly synthesized proteins to both apical and basal-lateral membrane domains. Significantly, >90% of each mutant protein was retained in the ER. None of these mutants formed a strong interaction with beta-catenin, which normally occurs shortly after E-cadherin synthesis. In addition, a simple deletion mutation of E-cadherin that lacks beta-catenin binding is also localized intracellularly. Thus, beta-catenin binding to the whole cytoplasmic domain of E-cadherin correlates with efficient and targeted delivery of E-cadherin to the lateral plasma membrane. In this capacity, we suggest that beta-catenin acts as a chauffeur, to facilitate transport of E-cadherin out of the ER and the plasma membrane.  (+info)

8-Aminoquinolines active against blood stage Plasmodium falciparum in vitro inhibit hematin polymerization. (2/2261)

From the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) inventory, thirteen 8-aminoquinoline analogs of primaquine were selected for screening against a panel of seven Plasmodium falciparum clones and isolates. Six of the 13 8-aminoquinolines had average 50% inhibitory concentrations between 50 and 100 nM against these P. falciparum clones and were thus an order of magnitude more potent than primaquine. However, excluding chloroquine-resistant clones and isolates, these 8-aminoquinolines were all an order of magnitude less potent than chloroquine. None of the 8-aminoquinolines was cross resistant with either chloroquine or mefloquine. In contrast to the inactive primaquine prototype, 8 of the 13 8-aminoquinolines inhibited hematin polymerization more efficiently than did chloroquine. Although alkoxy or aryloxy substituents at position 5 uniquely endowed these 13 8-aminoquinolines with impressive schizontocidal activity, the structural specificity of inhibition of both parasite growth and hematin polymerization was low.  (+info)

Comparison of in vivo and in vitro tests of resistance in patients treated with chloroquine in Yaounde, Cameroon. (3/2261)

The usefulness of an isotopic in vitro assay in the field was evaluated by comparing its results with the therapeutic response determined by the simplified WHO in vivo test in symptomatic Cameroonian patients treated with chloroquine. Of the 117 enrolled patients, 102 (87%) completed the 14-day follow-up, and 95 isolates obtained from these patients (46 children, 49 adults) yielded an interpretable in vitro test. A total of 57 of 95 patients (60%; 28 children and 29 adults) had an adequate clinical response with negative smears (n = 46) or with an asymptomatic parasitaemia (n = 11) on day 7 and/or day 14. The geometric mean 50% inhibitory concentration of the isolates obtained from these patients was 63.3 nmol/l. Late and early treatment failure was observed in 29 (30.5%) and 9 (9.5%) patients, respectively. The geometric mean 50% inhibitory concentrations of the corresponding isolates were 173 nmol/l and 302 nmol/l. Among the patients responding with late and early treatment failure, five isolates and one isolate, respectively, yielded a discordant result (in vivo resistance and in vitro sensitivity). The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of the in vitro test to detect chloroquine-sensitive cases was 67%, 84% and 86%, respectively. There was moderate concordance between the in vitro and in vivo tests (kappa value = 0.48). The in vitro assay agrees relatively well with the therapeutic response and excludes several host factors that influence the results of the in vivo test. However, in view of some discordant results, the in vitro test cannot substitute for in vivo data on therapeutic efficacy. The only reliable definition of "resistance" in malaria parasites is based on clinical and parasitological response in symptomatic patients, and the in vivo test provides the standard method to determine drug sensitivity or resistance as well as to guide national drug policies.  (+info)

Cholesteryl ester hydrolysis in J774 macrophages occurs in the cytoplasm and lysosomes. (4/2261)

The relationship of cholesteryl ester hydrolysis to the physical state of the cholesteryl ester in J774 murine macrophages was explored in cells induced to store cholesteryl esters either in anisotropic (ordered) inclusions or isotropic (liquid) inclusions. In contrast to other cell systems, the rate of cholesteryl ester hydrolysis was faster in cells containing anisotropic inclusions than in cells containing isotropic inclusions. Two contributing factors were identified. Kinetic analyses of the rates of hydrolysis are consistent with a substrate competition by co-deposited triglyceride in cells with isotropic inclusions. In addition, hydrolysis of cholesteryl esters in cells with anisotropic droplets is mediated by both cytoplasmic and lysosomal lipolytic enzymes, as shown by using the lysosomotropic agent, chloroquine, and an inhibitor of neutral cholesteryl ester hydrolase, umbelliferyl diethylphosphate. In cells containing anisotropic inclusions, hydrolysis was partially inhibited by incubation in media containing either chloroquine or umbelliferyl diethylphosphate. Together, chloroquine and umbelliferyl diethylphosphate completely inhibited hydrolysis. However, when cells containing isotropic inclusions were incubated with umbelliferyl diethylphosphate, cholesteryl ester hydrolysis was completely inhibited, but chloroquine had no effect. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated a primarily lysosomal location for lipid droplets in cells with anisotropic droplets and both non-lysosomal and lysosomal populations of lipid droplets in cells with isotropic droplets. These results support the conclusion that there is a lysosomal component to the hydrolysis of stored cholesteryl esters in foam cells.  (+info)

Characterization of the culture filtrate-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response induced by Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination in H-2b mice. (5/2261)

Although CD8+ T cells are supposed to play an important role in protective immunity to mycobacteria, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses in this infection remain poorly characterized. We previously demonstrated that bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) immunization of H-2b mice induced CTL able to recognize and kill macrophages incubated with proteins from mycobacterial culture supernatant [culture filtrate (CF) antigens]. In the present study, we have further characterized the lytic activity of these CTL and the processing pathway used for the presentation of CF proteins. We show that they use the degranulation pathway (secretion of perforins and granzymes) as the main lytic mechanism of cytotoxicity and also secrete IFN-gamma upon incubation with CF-pulsed macrophages. The in vitro presentation of CF proteins to CTL required a processing step inhibited in the cold but insensitive to Brefeldin A. Transporter-associated protein (TAP)-2-deficient RMA-S cells were efficiently recognized and killed by CF-specific CTL, demonstrating the lack of TAP requirement for this presentation. However, recognition of target cells by CTL was abolished when carried out in the presence of chloroquine. These results indicate that a non-classical MHC class I-processing pathway allows the recognition of a CF protein by CTL in BCG-vaccinated H-2b mice.  (+info)

Sortilin/neurotensin receptor-3 binds and mediates degradation of lipoprotein lipase. (6/2261)

Lipoprotein lipase and the receptor-associated protein (RAP) bind to overlapping sites on the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein/alpha2-macroglobulin receptor (LRP). We have investigated if lipoprotein lipase interacts with the RAP binding but structurally distinct receptor sortilin/neurotensin receptor-3. We show, by chemical cross-linking and surface plasmon resonance analysis, that soluble sortilin binds lipoprotein lipase with an affinity similar to that of LRP. The binding was inhibited by heparin and RAP and by the newly discovered sortilin ligand neurotensin. In 35S-labeled 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with the cross-linker dithiobis(succinimidyl propionate), lipoprotein lipase-containing complexes were isolated by anti-sortilin antibodies. To elucidate function in cells, sortilin-negative Chinese hamster ovary cells were transfected with full-length sortilin and shown to express about 8% of the receptors on the cell surface. These cells degraded 125I-labeled lipoprotein lipase much faster than the wild-type cells. The degradation was inhibited by unlabeled lipoprotein lipase, indicating a saturable pathway, and by RAP and heparin. Moreover, inhibition by the weak base chloroquine suggested that degradation occurs in an acidic vesicle compartment. The results demonstrate that sortilin is a multifunctional receptor that binds lipoprotein lipase and, when expressed on the cell surface, mediates its endocytosis and degradation.  (+info)

Chinese hamster ovary cells require the coexpression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein and cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase for the assembly and secretion of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. (7/2261)

Due to the absence of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells lack the ability to translocate apoB into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum, causing apoB to be rapidly degraded by an N-acetyl-leucyl-leucyl-norleucinal-inhibitable process. The goal of this study was to examine if expression of MTP, whose genetic deletion is responsible for the human recessive disorder abetalipoproteinemia, would recapitulate the lipoprotein assembly pathway in CHO cells. Unexpectedly, expression of MTP mRNA and protein in CHO cells did not allow apoB-containing lipoproteins to be assembled and secreted by CHO cells expressing apoB53. Although expression of MTP in cells allowed apoB to completely enter the endoplasmic reticulum, it was degraded by a proteolytic process that was inhibited by dithiothreitol (1 mM) and chloroquine (100 microM), but resistant to N-acetyl-leucyl-leucyl-norleucinal. In marked contrast, coexpression of the liver-specific gene product cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase with MTP resulted in levels of MTP lipid transfer activity that were similar to those in mouse liver and allowed intact apoB53 to be secreted as a lipoprotein particle. These data suggest that, although MTP-facilitated lipid transport is not required for apoB translocation, it is required for the secretion of apoB-containing lipoproteins. We propose that, in CHO cells, MTP plays two roles in the assembly and secretion of apoB-containing lipoproteins: 1) it acts as a chaperone that facilitates apoB53 translocation, and 2) its lipid transfer activity allows apoB-containing lipoproteins to be assembled and secreted. Our results suggest that the phenotype of the cell (e.g. expression of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase by the liver) may profoundly influence the metabolic relationships determining how apoB is processed into lipoproteins and/or degraded.  (+info)

Non-viral neuronal gene delivery mediated by the HC fragment of tetanus toxin. (8/2261)

Many inherited neurological diseases and cancers could potentially benefit from efficient targeted gene delivery to neurons of the central nervous system. The nontoxic fragment C (HC) of tetanus toxin retains the specific nerve cell binding and transport properties of tetanus holotoxin. The HC fragment has previously been used to promote the uptake of attached proteins such as horseradish peroxidase, beta-galactosidase and superoxide dismutase into neuronal cells in vitro and in vivo. We report the use of purified recombinant HC fragment produced in yeast and covalently bound to polylysine [poly(K)] to enable binding of DNA. We demonstrate that when used to transfect cells, this construct results in nonviral gene delivery and marker gene expression in vitro in N18 RE 105 cells (a neuroblastoma x glioma mouse/rat hybrid cell line) and F98 (a glioma cell line). Transfection was dependent on HC and was neuronal cell type specific. HC may prove a useful targeting ligand for future neuronal gene therapy.  (+info)

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Abstract: Effects of single and repeated injections of lysosomotropic agent chloroquine on lysosomal proteolytic activity and physico-chemical properties of rat liver lysosomes have been studied. Chloroquine was administered intraperitoneally to rats at a dose of 30 mg/kg of body mass. Osmotic properties, lysosomal enzymes activity and functional state of the system of mononuclear phagocytes were estimated. No alterations of colloid carbon clearance followed by a single dose of chloroquine administration were noted. Distinct alterations in osmotic properties, weak labilization of lysosomes and an increase in acid hydrolases activity were similar after single and/or repeated chloroquine administrations, whereas activation of cysteine proteinases and cathepsin D were most pronounced. Chloroquine accumulation by rat liver cells proved to be similar, but the drug excretion was longer after repeated injections. The lysosomal disorders noted were similar to those symptoms of lysosomal storage disease ...
Genotyping of the chloroquine-resistance biomarker pfcrt (Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene) suggests that, in the absence of chloroquine pressure, Plasmodium falciparum parasites in Malawi have reverted to chloroquine sensitivity. However, malaria infections in Africa are commonly polyclonal, and standard PCRs cannot detect minority genotypes if present in &lt;20% of the parasites in an individual host. We have developed a multiple site-specific heteroduplex tracking assay (MSS-HTA) that can detect pfcrt 76T mutant parasites consisting of as little as 1% of the parasite population. In clinical samples, no pfcrt 76T was detected in 87 pregnant Malawian women by standard PCR. However, 22 (25%) contained minority-variant resistant genotypes detected by the MSS-HTA. These results were confirmed by subcloning and sequencing. This finding suggests that the chloroquine-resistant genotype remains common in Malawians and that PCR-undetectable drug-resistant genotypes may be
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Resistance-conferring PfCRT isoforms (which harbor mutation K76T and are distinguished by 3-8 additional mutations) are believed to confer resistance to the 4-amino quinoline drug chloroquine (CQ) by transporting CQ away from the drugs digestive vacuole (DV) - localized heme target. One theory then is that variable CQ transport catalyzed by different mutant PfCRTs are responsible for the range of CQ sensitivities now found for P. falciparum around the globe. Alternatively, additional mutations in drug- selected parasites may complement PfCRT in conferring a range of resistance phenotypes. In this thesis, I further optimize a convenient method for screening for CQ transport mediated by PfCRT, involving heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. I use this method and other techniques to quantify activity for all currently known naturally occurring PfCRT isoforms. My results show that chlorquine resistance (CQR) in isolates expressing certain PfCRT isoforms likely depends upon additional ...
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Thesis (Ph.D.)--Georgetown University, 2009.; Includes bibliographical references.; Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format. Malaria caused by the Apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium falciparum is an alarming health problem due to increasing incidence of deaths and growing resistance to antimalarial drugs such as chloroquine. Chloroquine resistance in P. falciparum is primarily determined by PfCRT (P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter), a transmembrane protein localized to the digestive vacuolar membrane of the parasite. Bioinformatic studies by Fidock et al. (2000) and Martin & Kirk (2004) suggested that PfCRT belongs to the drug/metabolite transporter superfamily but its mode of action has not yet been fully established. In order to elucidate the role of PfCRT in chloroquine resistance, chloroquine binding and transport were analyzed using membrane preparations from yeast Pichia pastoris expressing PfCRT, as well as proteoliposomes harboring purified protein.; Chloroquine binding was ...
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Summary and Conclusions 1. Weekly administration of suppressive doses (0.5 gm.) of chloroquine diphosphate, without recourse to antimosquito measures, not only effectively controlled malaria in the village of Saideh, Lebanon, but reduced the splenic index from 59 to 6, and the average size of enlarged spleens (AES) from 1.9 to 0.12, within an average treatment period of 26 weeks. 2. The splenic index decreased only from 70 to 50 during the corresponding period of eight months when effective malaria control was established for the neighboring village of Amik by means of D.D.T. residual spray. 3. Chloroquine diphosphate can be administered in weekly suppressive doses for at least seven months without undesirable side-effects, even in pregnancy, and is recommended for the treatment of splenomegaly due to chronic malaria. 4. It is concluded that malaria eradication within a single season will be facilitated by the combined operation of mass suppressive medication with chloroquine diphosphate and
Abstract. Resistance to chloroquine is a public health problem worldwide. Polymorphisms of the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) and P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1) genes have been linked to chloroquine resistance. Although the K76T mutation in the pfcrt gene has been shown to be a key determinant in chloroquine resistance, evidence suggests that the pfmdr1 gene could modulate the level of chloroquine resistance. However, few studies of field isolates could identify the interactive role of these two genes in chloroquine resistance. Thus, we evaluated the influence of pfcrt and pfmdr1 polymorphisms on in vitro chloroquine sensitivity in 89 adapted isolates of P. falciparum from Thailand. We found that 87 of 89 isolates contained the CVIET haplotype of the pfcrt gene. Two additional mutations in the pfcrt gene were identified, i.e., K6Q and H97L. For the pfmdr1 polymorphisms, the 184F allele was common in the parasites isolated along the ...
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Chloroquine diphosphate is also included - following treatment with this compound, normal autophagic flux is disrupt. The study, Increased Muscleblind levels by chloroquine treatment improve. 5 days ago · Chloroquine is a prescription product and should always be taken under medical supervision. Cited by: 1 Publish Year: 2018 Author: Baoxing Jia, Yanan Xue, Xiaoyu Yan, Jiuling Li, Yao Wu, Rui Guo, Juanjuan Zhang, Lichao Zhang, Yapin Chloroquine in Cancer Therapy: A Double-Edged Sword of https://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/73/1/3 Jan 01, 2013 · The use of chloroquine in combination with other chemotherapeutic reagents may enhance cancer treatment (8, 29), but normal cells also use autophagy to maintain homeostasis, and inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine may sensitize not only cancer cells, but also normal organs to … Cited by: 387 Publish Year: 2013 Author: Tomonori Kimura, Yoshitsugu Takabatake, Atsushi Takahashi, Yoshitaka Isaka Chloroquine for research , Cell-culture tested , ...
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This lack of a requirement for scientific evidence in anti-doping is troubling for several reasons. The apparent volume of distribution (V/F) of metformin following single oral doses of metformin hydrochloride tablets 850 mg averaged 654 ± 358 L. 5 to 1 mL per 2-cm lesion). Side-effects chloroquine weak base uncommon when routine low doses are used. IC 50 was >10-fold higher than that for the control standard virus. • Froudarakis ME, Klimathianaki M, Pougounias M. Know all of the medicines chloroquine nightmares you or your family member takes. The drugs that are subject to the wa. In many cases, the ingredients used to alter herbal pills come from Asia, particularly China, where the sexual enhancers are cooked up in labs at the beginning of a winding supply chain. This condition may result in shortness of breath with exertion or sometimes at rest also. Lactating mothers are also discouraged to use this drug because it goes chloroquine resistance malaria prevalence the breastmilk. Enter the ...
BioAssay record AID 157870 submitted by ChEMBL: Growth inhibition of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum K1 by [3H]hypoxanthine uptake.
BioAssay record AID 723630 submitted by ChEMBL: Antiplasmodial activity against erythrocyte form of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum Dd2 by parasite lactate dehydrogenase assay.
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The kinetics of internalization, sequestration and metabolic degradation of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF)-receptor complex were studied in rat thoracic aortic smooth-muscle (RTASM) cells. These parameters were directly determined by measuring 125I-ANF binding to total, intracellular and cell-surface receptors. Pretreatment of cells with the lysosomotropic agent chloroquine and the energy depleter dinitrophenol led to an increase in the intracellular 125I-ANF radioactivity. After 60 min incubation at 37 degrees C, cell-associated 125I-ANF radioactivity fell rapidly in chloroquine-treated cells (, 85%) compared with the controls (, 45%). 125I-ANF radioactivity increased to a peak of 65% of the initial level within 15 min in chloroquine-treated cells compared with only 22% in the control cells. During the initial incubation period at 37 degrees C, chloroquine inhibited the release of both intact and degraded 125I-ANF in a time-dependent manner. However, at later incubation times, the effect of ...
Chloroquine (CQ) or hydroxychloroquine [4]. The results suggest a labilizing effect of chloroquine …. A similar activation can be induced in the liver by glucagon treatment in vivo [l] or by amino acid. Levigate with a small amount of glycerin or distilled water. Jul 17, 2019 · Chloroquine is a lysosomal lumen alkalizer and a lysosomal autophagy inhibitor that impairs lysosomal functions. Chloroquine is. Chloroquine is a member of quinolone family and is a weak intercalating agent. As a result, cells are not able chloroquine lysosomal acidification to proceed with endocytosis, exosome release and phagolysosomal fusion in an orderly manner. D.-M. This accumulation leads to inhibition of lysosomal enzymes that require an acidic pH, and prevents fusion of endosomes and lysosomes 4. Chloroquine is a lysosomotropic agent that prevents endosomal acidification 1. CHQ has, however, since accrued a plethora of uses in the treatment and amelioration of several other diseases and conditions because of ...
Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum at the Tanganyika Planting Company sugar estate, Moshi, Tanzania / by T. K. Mutabingwa, V. A. E. G. Kilimali and W. L. ...
Each subject was dosed with valacyclovir oral suspension, chloroquine trade name in pakistan 20 mg/kg 3 times daily for 5 days! Temporary vertigo can occur when the solutions being used are not at body temperature or if the solutions contain lidocaine? Isolation lopinavir and ritonavir tablet uses La Victoria of a new subspecies, Bartonella vinsonii subsp! As nobody else know such detailed about my difficulty! This particular medication is the generic equivalent of Simplicef 200 mg Tablets? If you are suffering from a medical condition you should seek immediate medical attention! Once Christian buying chloroquine online you work up to nightly use you wont really need to use anything else unless you want to! During the controlled trials in patients with RLS, chloroquine trade name in pakistan somnolence/sedation was reported in 20% of patients treated with 600 mg of gabapentin enacarbil per day compared with 6% of patients receiving placebo? Both lopinavir kosten Bandar-e Būshehr YAG and argon ...
Chloroquine works best when you take it on a regular schedule. For example, if you are to take it once a week to prevent malaria, it is best to take it on the same day each week. Or if you are to take two doses a day, one dose may be taken with breakfast and the other with the evening meal. Make sure that you do not miss any doses. If you have any questions about this, check with your health care professional.. If you miss a dose of chloroquine, take it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not double doses.. DOSAGE The dosage of chloroquine phosphate is often expressed in terms of equivalent chloroquine base. Each 500 mg tablet of ARALEN contains the equivalent of 300 mg chloroquine base. In infants and children the dosage is preferably calculated by body weight ...
Chloroquine works best when you take it on a regular schedule. For example, if you are to take it once a week to prevent malaria, it is best to take it on the same day each week. Or if you are to take two doses a day, one dose may be taken with breakfast and the other with the evening meal. Make sure that you do not miss any doses. If you have any questions about this, check with your health care professional.. If you miss a dose of chloroquine, take it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not double doses.. DOSAGE The dosage of chloroquine phosphate is often expressed in terms of equivalent chloroquine base. Each 500 mg tablet of ARALEN contains the equivalent of 300 mg chloroquine base. In infants and children the dosage is preferably calculated by body weight ...
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Chloroquine: The mechanism of plasmodicidal action of chloroquine is not completely certain. Like other quinoline derivatives, it is thought to inhibit heme polymerase activity. This results in accumulation of free heme, which is toxic to the parasites. nside red blood cells, the malarial parasite must degrade hemoglobin to acquire essential amino acids, which the parasite requires to construct its own protein and for energy metabolism. Digestion is carried out in a vacuole of the parasite cell. During this process, the parasite produces the toxic and soluble molecule heme. The heme moiety consists of a porphyrin ring called Fe(II)-protoporphyrin IX (FP). To avoid destruction by this molecule, the parasite biocrystallizes heme to form hemozoin, a non-toxic molecule. Hemozoin collects in the digestive vacuole as insoluble crystals. Chloroquine enters the red blood cell, inhabiting parasite cell, and digestive vacuole by simple diffusion. Chloroquine then becomes protonated (to CQ2+), as the ...
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A chloroquine dose of 600 mg base (= 1,000 mg salt) should be given initially, followed by 300 mg base (= 500 mg salt) at 6, 24, and 48 hours after the initial dose for a total chloroquine dose of 1,500 mg base (=2,500 mg salt) Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency-May cause hemolytic anemia in patients with this condition. Excretion of chloroquine is quite slow,but is increased by acidification of the urine G6PD deficiency is an inherited disease (passed on from previous generations), and cannot be caught by being in contact with someone else. chloroquine g6pd Relapsing and increasingly frequent recrudescent infections cause repeated symptomatic illnesses, worsening the risk of anaemia and severe and fatal disease [ 5, 6 ] Chloroquine is used to prevent and treat malaria. DRUGS TO AVOID IN G6PD DEFICIENCY DEFINITE RISK OF HAEMOLYSIS POSSIBLE RISK OF HAEMOLYSIS Pharmacological Class • Chloroquine & derivatives • Proguanil • Pyrimethamine • Quinidine • Quinine Refer to ...
Buy Aralen is used for treating and suppressing acute attacks of certain strains of malaria and a certain type of parasitic infection (extraintestinal amebiasis).. Aralen (Chloroquine Phosphate 250/500mg) $0.46 pill - Antiparasitic @ Achat Medicament En Suisse En ligne - Sans Ordonnance. Acheter Medicament Sans Ordonnance en ligne en Suisse, en France, en Belgique.
Drugs may be covered by multiple patents or regulatory protections. All trademarks and applicant names are the property of their respective owners or licensors. Although great care is taken in the proper and correct provision of this service, thinkBiotech LLC does not accept any responsibility for possible consequences of errors or omissions in the provided data. The data presented herein is for information purposes only. There is no warranty that the data contained herein is error free. thinkBiotech performs no independent verifification of facts as provided by public sources nor are attempts made to provide legal or investing advice. Any reliance on data provided herein is done solely at the discretion of the user. Users of this service are advised to seek professional advice and independent confirmation before considering acting on any of the provided information. thinkBiotech LLC reserves the right to amend, extend or withdraw any part or all of the offered service without notice. ...
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A Phoenix-area man has died and his wife was in critical condition after the couple took chloroquine phosphate, an additive used to clean fish tanks that is also found in an anti-malaria medication thats been touted by President Donald Trump as a treatment for COVID-19.
A Phoenix-area man has died and his wife was in critical condition after the couple took chloroquine phosphate, an additive used to clean fish tanks that is also found in an anti-malaria medication thats been touted by President Donald Trump as a treatment for COVID-19.
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This study follows the observation that chloroquine-resistant malaria may have returned to Malawi, 10 years after its use was eliminated. There is growing consensus that combination chemotherapy should be the rule in malaria treatment to deter the development of drug resistance and possibly also decrease malaria transmission. As sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) failure rates increase, the reintroduction of chloroquine in Malawi in combination with highly effective rapidly acting drugs such as artesunate and chlorproguanil-dapsone should be considered, and would likely extend the useful life span of each of the drugs. In preparation for a longitudinal clinical trial of chloroquine alone and SP in combination with other drugs, a preliminary trial will be conducted to compare the anti-malarial efficacy of chloroquine versus SP, the standard treatment in Malawi. This is a randomized, open-label clinical trial to compare the antimalarial efficacy of chloroquine versus SP among children with ...
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Vathsala, PG and Pramanik, A and Dhanasekaran, S and Devi, Usha C and Pillai, CR and Subbarao, SK and Ghosh, SK and Tiwari, SN and Sathyanarayan, TS and Deshpande, PR and Mishra, GC and Ranjit, MR and Dash, AP and Rangarajan, PN and Padmanaban, G (2004) Widespread occurrence of the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (Pfcrt) gene haplotype SVMNT in P. falciparum malaria in India. In: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 70 (3). pp. 256-259. Varadharajan, S and Dhanasekaran, S and Bonday, ZQ and Rangarajan, PN and Padmanaban, G (2002) Involvement of d-aminolaevulinate synthase encoded by the parasite gene in de novo haem synthesis by Plasmodium falciparum. In: Biochem. J., 367 (2). pp. 321-327. Bonday, ZQ and Dhanasekaran, S and Rangarajan, PN and Padmanaban, G (2000) Import of host $\delta$-aminolevulinate dehydratase into the malarial parasite: Identification of a new drug target. In: Nature Medicine, 6 (8). pp. 898-903. ...
Metabolic syndrome is one of the most common disorders in industrialized countries. It consists of abnormal serum lipids, glucose intolerance, elevated blood pressure, and central obesity in the setting of insulin resistance. The syndrome substantially increases the risk of developing diabetes and vascular disease, but there is no clear unifying approach to treat this disorder. In animals, activation of the protein ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) using the antimalarial drug chloroquine improves features of metabolic syndrome and decreases atherosclerosis, a build-up of fatty plaque within arteries. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of long-term treatment with low doses of chloroquine on atherosclerosis in people with metabolic syndrome.. At a baseline study visit, participants will undergo an ultrasound of the neck to evaluate carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and MRI to evaluate plaque composition. In addition, blood will be collected for laboratory testing and ...
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Parasitological response. In the chloroquine treatment, 77% of infections in the Merca area showed RII/RIII responses, 12% showed the RI response, and only one showed the S response. The remaining six patients gave positive results on day 7 with low parasitaemia (mean = 292 asexual parasites/ml; 95% confidence interval (CI): 153 - 559) but negative results on day 14 in what was classified as a late S response. Of the six adults, two showed S/RI responses and four showed the RII response. In Gabiley, 35% of the infections exhibited RII/RIII responses, and 18% and 22% showed RI and S responses respectively. The parasitological responses of the remaining 12 subjects were unclassifiable, these patients having received alternative medication before day 3 because of deterioration in their clinical condition. There was no difference in parasitological response between children and adults in the Gabiley area. In the Merca group there were too few adults for a meaningful analysis to be made. Among the ...
If these reactions are especially bothersome, check with your doctor.. Certain medicines should not be used at or around the time of eating food or eating certain types of food since interactions may occur. Using alcohol or tobacco with certain medicines may also cause interactions to occur. Discuss with your healthcare professional the use of your medicine with food, alcohol, or tobacco.. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of chloroquine in pregnant women. Usage of chloroquine during pregnancy should be avoided except in the suppression or treatment of malaria when in the judgment of the physician the benefit outweighs the potential risk to the fetus.. SIDE EFFECTS. Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention. When chloroquine is used for short periods of time, side effects usually are rare. However, when it is used ...
If these reactions are especially bothersome, check with your doctor.. Certain medicines should not be used at or around the time of eating food or eating certain types of food since interactions may occur. Using alcohol or tobacco with certain medicines may also cause interactions to occur. Discuss with your healthcare professional the use of your medicine with food, alcohol, or tobacco.. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of chloroquine in pregnant women. Usage of chloroquine during pregnancy should be avoided except in the suppression or treatment of malaria when in the judgment of the physician the benefit outweighs the potential risk to the fetus.. SIDE EFFECTS. Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention. When chloroquine is used for short periods of time, side effects usually are rare. However, when it is used ...
Are Chloroquine Side Effects Putting Your Health at Risk? | Feb 25, 2018 Check these Chloroquine side effect reports: A 31-year-old male patient was diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus, treated with CHLOROQUINE and reported systemic lupus erythematosus,psychomotor retardation,feelings of worthlessness. Dosage: . Patient was hospitalized.
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Chloroquine works best when you take it on a regular schedule. For example, if you are to take it once a week to prevent malaria, it is best to take it on the same day each week. Or if you are to take two doses a day, one dose may be taken with breakfast and the other with the evening meal. Make sure that you do not miss any doses. If you have any questions about this, check with your health care professional.. If you miss a dose of chloroquine, take it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not double doses.. DOSAGE The dosage of chloroquine phosphate is often expressed in terms of equivalent chloroquine base. Each 500 mg tablet of ARALEN contains the equivalent of 300 mg chloroquine base. In infants and children the dosage is preferably calculated by body weight ...
Chloroquine works best when you take it on a regular schedule. For example, if you are to take it once a week to prevent malaria, it is best to take it on the same day each week. Or if you are to take two doses a day, one dose may be taken with breakfast and the other with the evening meal. Make sure that you do not miss any doses. If you have any questions about this, check with your health care professional.. If you miss a dose of chloroquine, take it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not double doses.. DOSAGE The dosage of chloroquine phosphate is often expressed in terms of equivalent chloroquine base. Each 500 mg tablet of ARALEN contains the equivalent of 300 mg chloroquine base. In infants and children the dosage is preferably calculated by body weight ...
Hello all, I just also reviewed this 1/17/2017 article regarding GBM and Chloroquine (https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/01/170117084050.htm) and there seems to be some efficacy with Chloroquine use in BRAF mutation positive GBM. In our case the BRAF mutation was not detected and Im wondering if CQ would still have a place in our cocktail in the absence of this mutation ...
A new series of pyrazole based quinoline were synthesized and evaluated for antimalarial and antibacterial activity. The rationale behind the synthesis of new series of quinolino pyrazoles (4a-4e) and (4a-4e) is in order to discover a new molecule which leads to dual anti-malarial-antimicrobial agents. The synthesized novel compounds were screened for their anti-malarial activity using Vero cell line (C1008; Monkey kidney fibroblast) against Plasmodium falciparum (3D7 strain) with the Chloroquine diphosphate and SI was measured by using IC50 and CC50 of compound. The results revealed that compounds 4c, 4e, 4a and 4e showed higher efficacies and potencies for anti-malarial activity comparable to the reference standard Chloroquine diphosphate. Additionally, the synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against two gram positive, gram negative and antifungal strain. Four compounds 4c, 4e, 4a and 4dshowed considerable broad spectrum activity against all the ...
She is using those insights to give a new lease of life to chloroquine, the wonder drug against malaria first discovered in the 1950s.. For more than half a century chloroquine saved hundreds of millions of lives, but now chloroquine-resistant malaria strains have become common in developing countries.. Rowena is working to understand what happened. The single-celled malaria parasite enters our bodies when we are bitten by an infected mosquito.. It eventually invades and plunders our red blood cells, consuming the haemoglobin contained within.. The digestion of haemoglobin, which takes place in the parasites stomach compartment, releases the iron-containing, nonprotein component, haem.. Free haem is toxic to the parasite, which responds by converting it to a harmless crystal. Chloroquine works by blocking the formation of these crystals.. Ten years ago researchers discovered that just a few small changes in a protein PfCRT were enough to give the parasite resistance to chloroquine. But they did ...
Zaidi AU, McDonough JS, Klocke BJ, Latham CB, Korsmeyer SJ, Flavell RA, Schmidt RE, Roth KA. Chloroquine-induced neuronal cell death is p53 and Bcl-2 family-dependent but caspase-independent ...
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A new study by University of Kentucky Markey Cancer Center researchers shows that chloroquine - a drug currently used to treat malaria - may be useful in treating patients with metastatic cancers.. Published in Cell Reports, the study showed that chloroquine induced the secretion of the tumor suppressor protein Par-4 in both mouse models and in cancer patients in a clinical trial. Secreted Par-4 is essential for tumor cell death and the inhibition of tumor metastasis.. Chloroquine induces Par-4 secretion via the classical secretory pathway that requires activation of p53 (a mutation of the p53 protein, or disturbances in the pathways that signal to p53, is common in many cancers). Mechanistically, p53 directly induces Rab8b, a GTPase essential for vesicle transport of Par-4 to the plasma membrane prior to secretion. The studys findings indicate that chloroquine induces p53- and Rab8b-dependent Par-4 secretion from normal cells for Par-4-dependent inhibition of metastatic tumor growth.. The ...
Chloroquine has long been used in the treatment or prevention of malaria from Plasmodium vivax, P. malariae, excluding the malaria parasite Plasmodium
Chloroquine has long been used in the treatment or prevention of malaria from Plasmodium vivax, P. malariae, excluding the malaria parasite Plasmodium
Chloroquine has long been used in the treatment or prevention of malaria from Plasmodium vivax, P. malariae, excluding the malaria parasite Plasmodium
Chloroquine has long been used in the treatment or prevention of malaria from Plasmodium vivax, P. malariae, excluding the malaria parasite Plasmodium
Chloroquine has long been used in the treatment or prevention of malaria from Plasmodium vivax, P. malariae, excluding the malaria parasite Plasmodium
Chloroquine molecular weight 319.89 chloroquine diphosphate molecular weight 515.9 is a white, crystalline, bitter-tasting powder. It is easily soluble in
Available by prescription, chloroquine is an antimalarial drug that can also be used to treat amebiasis. This eMedTV segment takes a closer look at this medication, including safety precautions, dosing guidelines, and what to discuss with your doctor.
Available by prescription, chloroquine is an antimalarial drug that can also be used to treat amebiasis. This eMedTV segment takes a closer look at this medication, including safety precautions, dosing guidelines, and what to discuss with your doctor.
Chloroquine is the generic form of the brand-name prescription medicine Aralen, which is used to prevent and treat malaria - a mosquito-borne disease
Chloroquine is an anti-malaria medicine that works by interfering with the growth of parasites in the red blood cells of the human
Methods: In a prospective controlled randomized trial, 18 patients with GBM underwent standard treatment with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy; nine received an additional 150-mg dose of chloroquine daily starting 1 day after surgery and continued through the observation period. Nine matched patients were included as controls. Neuroimaging studies and clinical response were periodically compared. The follow-up period ranged from 24 to 50 months. Survival time was defined as the main outcome measure. ...
ARALEN (Chloroquine) drug information & product resources from MPR including dosage information, educational materials, & patient assistance.
ARALEN (Chloroquine) drug information & product resources from MPR including dosage information, educational materials, & patient assistance.
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The negative results obtained in the only available study in rats given chloroquine by oral administration did not form an adequate basis on which to make an evaluation of the carcinogenicity of this compound.. N.B. - The Working Group was aware of an on-going carcinogenicity study in mice (IARC, 1976 ...
Low pH in tumours counteracts the desired effect of the drug chloroquine, according to a new study from Karolinska Institutet. The results, which are published in the scientific journal Autophagy, might explain possible lack of efficacy of chloroquine in clinical studies.
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The CH2Cl2-MeOH (1:1) extract of the aerial parts of Sphaeranthus bullatus, an annual herb native to tropical East Africa, showed activity against chloroquine sensitive D6 (IC50 9.7 μg/mL) and chloroquine resistant W2 (IC50 15.0 μg/mL) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Seventeen secondary metabolites were isolated from the extract through conventional chromatographic techniques and identified using various spectroscopic methods. The compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antiplasmodial, antileishmanial and anticancer activities revealing activity of four carvotacetone derivatives, namely 3-acetoxy-7-hydroxy-5-tigloyloxycarvotacetone (1), 3,7-dihydroxy-5-tigloyloxycarvotacetone (2), 3-acetoxy-5,7-dihydroxycarvotacetone (3) and 3,5,7- ...
During the pathogenic blood phase of the complex life cycle Plasmodium spends ,99.9% of its life cycle inside host cells. This obligate intracellular niche in an extreme environment (i.e. terminally differentiated erythrocytes) requires metabolic adaptations, which until to date form the basis for antimalarial chemotherapy. This is exemplified by the drug chloroquine that inhibits non-toxic (hostderived) hemoglobin degradation in the parasite food vacuole. In this research area four projects examine the strict dependence of the parasite on external nutrient supply, ranging from ions to complex lipids. ...
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ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) was extensively used in agriculture pest control and is still used for indoor residual spraying to control malaria. The lipophylicity of DDT and its breakdown product dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethylene (DDE) dictates that they associate with membranes, lipids and hydrophobic proteins in the biological environment. Their poor degradable nature causes DDT and DDE to persist for decades in the environment and in individuals who are or were in contact with the pesticide. In many countries the synchronised resistance of the mosquito vector to insecticides and the malaria parasite towards antimalarial drugs led to a drastic rise in malaria cases and to malaria epidemics. This study assesses the influence of low level exposure of DDT and DDE on chloroquine (CQ) resistance of the dire human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. The in vitro activity of p,p-DDT and p,p-DDE towards blood stages of chloroquine sensitive (CQS) P. falciparum D10 ...
Background: Evidence for decreasing chloroquine (CQ) efficacy against Plasmodium vivax has been reported from many endemic countries in the world. In Ethiopia, P. vivax accounts for 40% of all malaria cases and CQ is the first-line drug for vivax malaria. Mutations in multidrug resistance 1 (pvmdr-1) and K10 insertion in the pvcrt-o genes have been identified as possible molecular markers of CQ-resistance (CQR) in P. vivax. Despite reports of CQ treatment failures, no data are currently available on the prevalence of molecular markers of P. vivax resistance in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of mutations in the pvmdr-1 and K10 insertion in the pvcrt-o genes. Methods: A total of 36 P. vivax clinical isolates were collected from West Arsi district in Ethiopia. Sequencing was used to analyse polymorphisms of the pvcrt-o and pvmdr-1 genes. Results: Sequencing results of the pvmdr-1 fragment showed the presence of two non-synonymous mutations at positions 976 and ...
From chloroquine to artemisinin-based combination therapy: the Sudanese experience. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Studies were carried out to determine the antiplasmodial activity of crude n-hexane and ethanolic seed extracts of Moringa oleifera using cold extraction method. Twenty-four albino mice (Mus musculus) induced intraperitoneally with chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei strain were divided into 4 groups and treated at three concentrations viz: 50, 100 and 200 ml/kg. Positive control was set up with chloroquine diphosphate while negative control was set up with olive oil. The mice models were treated for 72 h. For the ethanolic extract, a parasite inhibition rate of 61% was observed at concentration 50 ml/kg, 65% at concentration 100 ml/kg and 100% at concentration 200 ml/kg in day 3 after treatment. In n-hexane extract of the seeds of M. oleifera, plasmodial inhibition rate of 61% was observed at concentration 50 ml/kg, 70% at concentration 100 ml/kg and 97% at concentration 200 ml/kg after treatment for 72 h. A 100% inhibition rate was observed for mice treated with 25 mg/kg of standard ...
Between March 1990 and June 1992, a study was carried out in Equatorial Guinea on the in vitro response of Plasmodium falciparum to different antimalarial drugs. Field work for the study was conducted both in the countrys island region as well as on the mainland, and resistant isolates were found to exhibit interregional differences. On the island of Bioko, 204 tests were performed with 16% (11 of 69) resistant to chloroquine, 9% (4 of 46) resistant to quinine, 14% (6 of 43) resistant to a combination of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, and 6.5% (3 of 46) resistant to amodiaquine. In the mainland area of Bata, the same antimalarial drugs and mefloquine were tested with the following results: 9% (5 of 58) resistant to chloroquine; 2% (1 of 58) resistant to amodiaquine, and 3% (2 of 58) resistant to a combination of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine. No isolates resistant to quinine or mefloquine were found. Effective concentrations (EC50, EC90, and EC99) and regression lines (log dose/response) for each ...
Contents Editorial: The challenge of dengue vaccine development and introduction Jacqueline L. Deen Does increased general schooling protect against HIV infection? A study in four African cities Judith R. Glynn, Michel Caraël, Anne Buvé, Séverin Anagonou Léopold Zekeng, Maina Kahindo,Rosemary Musonda Pregnancy interval and delivery outcome among HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative women in Kisumu, Kenya Anna M. Eijk, Kevin M. De Cock, John G. Ayisi, Daniel H. Rosen Juliana A. Otieno, Bernard L. Nahlen, Richard W. Steketee Epidemiological and entomological surveillance of the co-circulation of DEN-1, DEN-2 and DEN-4 viruses in French Guiana Florence Fouque, Romuald Garinci, Pascal Gaborit The efficacy of chloroquine, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and a combination of both for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in an area of low transmission in western Uganda Richard Ndyomugyenyi, Pascal Magnussen, Siân Clarke Addition of artesunate to chloroquine for treatment of ...
GREEN CA (1994) . Heterogeneity in distribution of fixed chromosomal inversions in ancenstor and decendant species in two groups of mosquitoes: series Myzomyia and Neocellia of Anopheles (Cellia). In Speciation and the Recognition Concept:theory and application, D.M. Lambert and H.G. Spencer, eds. Pp 225-237, John Hopkins Press, London. DEACON HE, FREESE JA, SHARP BL (1994). Drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the eastern Transvaal. S A M J 84(7); 394-395. FREESE JA, SHARP BL, ROSSOUW EJ, GOUWS E, FAY SA, MARKUS MB (1994). The in vitro sensitivity of southern African isolates of Plasmodium falciparum to amodiaquine, chloroquine, mefloquine, quinine and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine. S Afr J Sci 90(7); 417-420. MNZAVA AE, MUTINGA MJ, STAAK C (1994) . Host blood meals and chromosomal inversion polymorphism in Anopheles arabiensis in the Baringo district of Kenya. J Am Mosq Cntrl Ass 10(4); 507-510. SATHAR MA, SIMJEE AE, WITTENBERG DF, FERNANDES-COSTA, FJTD, SONI PM, SHARP BL, MILLER NM, ...
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 3.2 billion people are at risk of malaria worldwide, with a total of 214 million malaria cases reported in 2015 [1]. Malaria is endemic in 13 districts of Bangladesh and approximately 80% of all cases are reported from the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) on the south-eastern border with Myanmar [2]. More than 90% of all malaria cases are attributable to Plasmodium falciparum, with almost all other malaria cases are caused by Plasmodium vivax and mixed infections of both species [3]. Very few cases of Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale are reported from the CHT [4]. Rainy season (June-August) is considered as the peak transmission season of malaria in CHT [5]. A number of Anopheles spp. were found to be responsible for malaria transmission in CHT among those Anopheles jeyporiensis, An. maculatus, Anopheles vagus and Anopheles nivipes might be playing important roles [6-8].. Bangladesh adopted the artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) ...
Chloroquine[edit]. The introduction of cinchona into therapeutics was due to the discovery of its efficacy in malaria. In 1921 ... Rarely, when patients of amoebic liver abscess are vomiting, injection chloroquine can be used in a dose of 0.3-0.6 G. base in ... Systemic amoebicidal drugs include emetine, dehydroemetine, chloroquine diphosphate, metronidazole, and tinidazole. Emetine[ ... When parenteral emetine is combined with oral chloroquine or two courses of emetine are given, the relapse rate can be brought ...
Savarine(proguanil/chloroquine). *Synagis (palivizumab). *Fluenz/FluMist (Quadrivalent Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine) ...
chloroquine (anti-malarial). Suppression of IL-1, induce apoptosis of inflammatory cells and decrease chemotaxis. unknown. ...
For use only in combination with chloroquine *^ For the treatment of 1st and 2nd stage human African trypanosomiasis due to ...
"Chloroquine". Drugs.com. Retrieved 1 June 2016. "Fluoxetine Hydrochloride". Drugs.com. Retrieved 1 June 2016. Verma, S.; ...
In a clinical study of treatment where response was observed after oral chloroquine was given for three days, and at 24 hours ... knowlesi responds well to treatment with chloroquine and primaquine. ... "Clinical and parasitological response to oral chloroquine and primaquine in uncomplicated human Plasmodium knowlesi infections ...
September 2005). "Effects of quinine, quinidine, and chloroquine on alpha9alpha10 nicotinic cholinergic receptors". Molecular ... This includes the treatment of malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum that is resistant to chloroquine when artesunate is not ... chloroquine. This model involves the inhibition of hemozoin biocrystallization in Heme Detoxification pathway, which ... such as chloroquine, that have fewer side effects largely replaced it.[57] ...
The unit eventually discovered chloroquine. In 1946 he commenced work at Johns Hopkins University Medical School, and was ...
628-9. Bush A, Sheppard MN, Warner JO (1992). "Chloroquine in idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis". Arch Dis Child. 67 (5): 625- ... Zaki M, Al Saleh Q, Al Mutari G (1995). "Effectiveness of chloroquine therapy in idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis". Pediatric ...
Low doses of antimalarials can be used.[27] Orally ingested chloroquine is completely absorbed in the gut and is preferentially ... Chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and venesection are typically employed in the management strategy.[34] ... Scholnick, Perry L.; Epstein, John; Marver, Harvey S. (1973). "The Molecular Basis of the Action of Chloroquine in Porphyria ... Chloroquine treatment can induce porphyria attacks within the first couple of months of treatment due to the mass mobilization ...
Drugs including finasteride, etizolam (and benzodiazepines), chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, oestrogen, penicillin and ...
Examples include amodiaquine, chloroquine, and hydroxychloroquine. Amodiaquine Chloroquine Hydroxychloroquine Bray PG, Hawley ...
It is specifically inhibited by chloroquine. Mutations in this gene cause biotin-responsive basal ganglia disease (BBGD); a ... "Discovering thiamine transporters as targets of chloroquine using a novel functional genomics strategy". PLoS Genet. 8 (11): ...
The effect of chloroquine is not clear. It does not appear to help acute disease, but tentative evidence indicates it might ...
Chloroquine Amodiaquine Pamaquine Mefloquine Drugs.com: Quinacrine. Retrieved on August 24, 2009. Toubi E, Kessel A, Rosner I, ... The product was one of the first synthetic substitutes for quinine although later superseded by chloroquine. In addition it has ... It is related to chloroquine and mefloquine. The main uses of mepacrine are as an antiprotozoal, antirheumatic and an ... doi:10.1111/j.1365-2141.1995.tb03315.x. Baird JK (2011). "Resistance to chloroquine unhinges vivax malaria therapeutics". ...
This MDA comprised 300 mg chloroquine base and 45 mg pyrimethamine weekly for nine weeks. An additional 300 mg chloroquine and ... It was then decided to mix the remaining stock of pyrimethaminized salt with chloroquine powder. The chloroquine base content ... Circumstantial evidence linked the use of medicated salts to the emergence of chloroquine resistance in the 1980s: Chloroquine ... Chloroquine resistance was first observed in 1962 in the area with the lowest relative uptake of chloroquinized salt. In the ...
For use only in combination with chloroquine. To be used for the treatment of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infection. To be ... Artesunate/mefloquine Chloroquine Doxycycline Mefloquine Primaquine Quinine Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine Chloroquine Doxycycline ...
Baird, J. K. (7 March 2011). "Resistance to Chloroquine Unhinges Vivax Malaria Therapeutics". Antimicrobial Agents and ...
Malarone has applications for treating chloroquine-resistant malaria. A standard tablet of Malarone contains 100 mg of ...
In areas where chloroquine remains effective: chloroquine 300 mg once weekly, and proguanil 200 mg once daily (started one week ... Chloroquine may be used where the parasite is still sensitive. However, due to resistance one of three medications: mefloquine ... Chloroquine, proguanil, mefloquine, and doxycycline are suppressive prophylactics. This means that they are only effective at ... American troops, on capturing Tunisia during the Second World War, acquired, then altered the drugs to produce Chloroquine. The ...
Sullivan DJ, Gluzman IY, Russell DG, Goldberg DE (October 1996). "On the molecular mechanism of chloroquine's antimalarial ... The best-understood examples of such hematin biocrystallization inhibitors are quinoline drugs such as chloroquine and ... such as chloroquine and mefloquine, are thought to kill malaria parasites by inhibiting haemozoin biocrystallization. Black- ...
The patient was treated with dehydroemetine and chloroquine. After treatment they noticed the patient's complement fixation ...
It is postulated that H. sabdariffa interacts with diclofenac, chloroquine and acetaminophen by altering the pharmacokinetics. ... Significant reduction in chloroquine bioavailability following coadministration with the Sudanese beverages Aradaib, Karkadi ... was found to reduce chloroquine bioavailability.[37] However, no statistically significant changes were observed in the ...
When used with chloroquine the combination will treat mild chloroquine resistant malaria. It is taken by mouth. Side effects ... It is often used together with chloroquine or atovaquone. ... particularly in areas where chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum ...
"Pathway-specific inhibition of primaquine metabolism by chloroquine/quinine". Malaria Journal. 15: 466. doi:10.1186/s12936-016- ...
The side effects of amodiaquine are generally minor to moderate and are similar to those of chloroquine. Rarely liver problems ... Amodiaquine is a 4-aminoquinoline compound related to chloroquine. Amodiaquine was first made in 1948. It is on the World ... Amodiaquine has also been found to work against chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum strains of malaria. There have been reports ... "Revised recommendations for preventing malaria in travelers to areas with chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum". MMWR. ...
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1985) The sensitivity of Amsler grid testing in early chloroquine retinopathy. Trans Ophthalmol Soc UK 104:204-207, . ... 1985) Comparison of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine use and the development of retinal toxicity. J Rheumatol 12:692-694, . ... 1974) Ring maculopathies mimicking chloroquine retinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol 78:204-210, . ... Seven patients developed corneal drug deposits which cleared on stopping or reducing the dose of hydroxy-chloroquine. ...
Chloroquine Adults: 300 mg base (500 mg salt), once/week.. Children: 5 mg/kg base (8.3 mg/kg salt) (maximum is adult dose), ...
Chloroquine: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Before using chloroquine phosphate,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to chloroquine phosphate, chloroquine ... Chloroquine phosphate is used to prevent and treat malaria. It is also used to treat amebiasis. Chloroquine phosphate is in a ... Chloroquine phosphate can cause serious vision problems. If you experience any changes in vision, stop taking chloroquine ...
Chloroquine is not associated with serum enzyme elevations and is an extremely rare cause of clinically apparent acute liver ... Chloroquine is an aminoquinoline used for the prevention and therapy of malaria. It is also effective in extraintestinal ... Chloroquine poisoning. South Med J 1974; 67: 1031-5. [PubMed: 4851012]. (Analysis of 27 cases of fatal overdose of chloroquine ... Therapeutic use of chloroquine. (Review)].[Arch Ital Sci Med Trop Parassi...]. [Therapeutic use of chloroquine. (Review)].. De ...
Chloroquine is an antimalarial medicine that has various other uses, for example treating the autoimmune diseases rheumatoid ... What is chloroquine used for?. *Preventing malaria. (Chloroquine can be bought from pharmacies without a prescription for this ... How does chloroquine work in other conditions?. Chloroquine is also active against other types of protozoa, including one ... How do I take chloroquine?. *Chloroquine tablets should be taken with a drink of water, either with or after food. If necessary ...
Chloroquine. Chloroquine was previously used both for the prevention and treatment of malaria. It was also used for the ... Chloroquine is no longer available in Australia. It is still used in other countries and information from the United States ... Chloroquine is generally well tolerated but not suitable for people with epilepsy or existing eye disease. Minor side effects ... Like primaquine, chloroquine can cause red blood cell problems in people who lack the glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD) ...
chloroquine synonyms, chloroquine pronunciation, chloroquine translation, English dictionary definition of chloroquine. n. A ... Related to chloroquine: hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine phosphate. chlo·ro·quine. (klôr′ə-kwīn′, -kwēn′). n.. A drug, C18H26ClN ... Chloroquine - definition of chloroquine by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/chloroquine ... chloroquine. (ˈklɔːrəʊˌkwiːn) or chloroquin. n. (Pharmacology) a synthetic drug administered orally to treat malaria. Formula: ...
Chloroquine Resistance Modulated in Vitro by Expression Levels of the Plasmodium falciparum Chloroquine Resistance Transporter ... On the molecular mechanism of chloroquines antimalarial action. D J Sullivan Jr, I Y Gluzman, D G Russell, and D E Goldberg ... Cellular Uptake of Chloroquine Is Dependent on Binding to Ferriprotoporphyrin IX and Is Independent of NHE Activity in ... Chloroquine is thought to exert its antimalarial effect by preventing the polymerization of toxic heme released during ...
Learn about the potential side effects of chloroquine. Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and ... Applies to chloroquine: oral tablet. Along with its needed effects, chloroquine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not ... Aralen (chloroquine)." Sanofi Winthrop Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY. 39. Benbadis SR, Vanness PC "Chloroquine and ... Get emergency help immediately if any of the following symptoms of overdose occur while taking chloroquine: ...
Drug information provided by: Micromedex. Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention. When this medicine is used for short periods of time, side effects usually are rare. However, when it is used for a long time and/or in high doses, side effects are more likely to occur and may be serious. ...
19 Therapeutics Accelerator is funding clinical trials to investigate if anti-malarial drugs hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine ... Both hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine have been approved as safe and effective drugs to treat malaria. But no large-scale ... Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine have been approved as safe and effective drugs to treat malaria. When taken, they accumulate ... Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine have been safely used in millions of people, including children. While there have been ...
Find information on Chloroquine (Aralen) in Daviss Drug Guide including dosage, side effects, interactions, nursing ... chloroquine is a topic covered in the Daviss Drug Guide. To view the entire topic, please sign in or purchase a subscription. ... "Chloroquine." Daviss Drug Guide, 16th ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2019. Washington Manual, www.unboundmedicine.com/ ... washingtonmanual/view/Davis-Drug-Guide/51147/all/chloroquine. Quiring C, Sanoski CA, Vallerand AH. Chloroquine. Daviss Drug ...
Find patient medical information for Chloroquine Injection on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, interactions, ... What should I know regarding pregnancy, nursing and administering Chloroquine Hcl Solution to children or the elderly? ...
Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine belong to the quinolone family. They are related drugs with similar clinical indications for ... The mechanism of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine toxicity is not well understood. Chloroquine has an affinity for pigmented ... encoded search term (Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine Toxicity) and Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine Toxicity What to Read ... STUDIES ON THE PHARMACOLOGY OF CHLOROQUINE. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE TREATMENT OF CHLOROQUINE RETINOPATHY. Arch Ophthalmol. 1963 ...
Chloroquine official prescribing information for healthcare professionals. Includes: indications, dosage, adverse reactions, ... How is Chloroquine Supplied. Tablets containing 500 mg Chloroquine phosphate USP, equivalent to 300 mg of Chloroquine base ... Chloroquine is very rapidly and completely absorbed after ingestion. Toxic doses of Chloroquine can be fatal. As little as 1 g ... Excretion of Chloroquine is quite slow, but is increased by acidification of the urine. Chloroquine is deposited in the tissues ...
"Many Americans have read studies and heard media reports about this drug chloroquine, which is an anti-malarial drug. Its ... Most recently a French study that included use of a chloroquine variant called hydroxychloroquine found that it performed ... Numerous clinical studies have been conducted globally regarding the performance of chloroquine and remdesivir since the ... FDA testing coronavirus treatments, including chloroquine, plasma from recovered COVID-19 patients. ...
"DailyMed - CHLOROQUINE- chloroquine phosphate tablet CHLOROQUINE- chloroquine phosphate tablet, coated". dailymed.nlm.nih.gov. ... Amebic Hepatic Abscesses~treatment at eMedicine "DailyMed - CHLOROQUINE- chloroquine phosphate tablet CHLOROQUINE- chloroquine ... Chloroquine-resistant cells efflux chloroquine at 40 times the rate of chloroquine-sensitive cells; the related mutations trace ... Chloroquine binds to heme (or FP) to form the FP-chloroquine complex; this complex is highly toxic to the cell and disrupts ...
A promessa do chloroquine e do hydroxychloroquine. Na ausência de uma vacina ou de um agente terapêutico novo, umas drogas ... O Chloroquine sobre no μM 30 era significativamente tóxico às pilhas em 48 horas. Hydroxychloroquine mostrou a toxicidade ... Por exemplo, o fígado e os tipos intestinais da pilha têm a grande sensibilidade ao chloroquine mas ao pulmão e ao intestino ao ... Isto mostrou que as concentrações as mais altas de chloroquine resultaram da acumulação da droga no fígado e no pulmão, em 3 ...
Find the most comprehensive real-world treatment information on Chloroquine at PatientsLikeMe. 9 patients with fibromyalgia, ... bipolar I disorder or psoriasis currently take Chloroquine. ... Currently taking Chloroquine Duration. Patients. This item is ... Stopped taking Chloroquine Duration. Patients. This item is relevant to you: Less than 1 month 2 * 2 ... Why patients stopped taking Chloroquine. Multiple reasons could be selected. Reason. Patients. This item is relevant to you: ...
CHLOROQUINE. VOL.: 13 (1977) (p. 47) CAS No.: 54-05-7. Chem. Abstr. Name: N4-(7-Chloro-4-quinolinyl)-N1, N1-diethyl-1,4- ... The negative results obtained in the only available study in rats given chloroquine by oral administration did not form an ...
Chloroquine can act as a macrophage-preconditioning agent. ... Chloroquine, an age-old malaria treatment has been found to ... Chloroquine to improve site-specific drug delivery. Chloroquine, a 70-year-old malaria drug can block immune cells in the liver ... Chloroquine to aid lung cancer treatment. In this study, mice models received injections of chloroquine, followed by an ... Chloroquine was invented in the 1940s for the prevention and treatment of malaria. Since it mildly suppresses the immune system ...
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