Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.
Proteins encoded by the CHLOROPLAST GENOME or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the CHOROPLASTS.
The genetic complement of CHLOROPLASTS as represented in their DNA.
Ribonucleic acid in chloroplasts having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Those nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity which are located within the CHLOROPLAST DNA.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A species of fresh-water, flagellated EUKARYOTES in the phylum EUGLENIDA.
A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
A widely cultivated plant, native to Asia, having succulent, edible leaves eaten as a vegetable. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
Membranous cisternae of the CHLOROPLAST containing photosynthetic pigments, reaction centers, and the electron-transport chain. Each thylakoid consists of a flattened sac of membrane enclosing a narrow intra-thylakoid space (Lackie and Dow, Dictionary of Cell Biology, 2nd ed). Individual thylakoids are interconnected and tend to stack to form aggregates called grana. They are found in cyanobacteria and all plants.
A species of GREEN ALGAE. Delicate, hairlike appendages arise from the flagellar surface in these organisms.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
Proton-translocating ATPases which produce ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE in plants. They derive energy from light-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the membranous cisternae (THYLAKOIDS) of the CHLOROPLASTS.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A subtype of thioredoxins found primarily in CHLOROPLASTS.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus GREEN ALGAE in the order VOLVOCIDA. It consists of solitary biflagellated organisms common in fresh water and damp soil.
A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane-bound plastids containing chlorophyll a and b. They comprise the classical green algae, and represent over 7000 species that live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater.
Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.
The use of light to convert ADP to ATP without the concomitant reduction of dioxygen to water as occurs during OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION in MITOCHONDRIA.
A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
A group of GLYCOLIPIDS in which the sugar group is GALACTOSE. They are distinguished from GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS in lacking nitrogen. They constitute the majority of MEMBRANE LIPIDS in PLANTS.
A genus of EUKARYOTES, in the phylum EUGLENIDA, found mostly in stagnant water. Characteristics include a pellicle usually marked by spiral or longitudinal striations.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins found in any species of algae.
The absence of light.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.
A protein complex that includes CYTOCHROME B6 and CYTOCHROME F. It is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE and plays an important role in process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS by transferring electrons from PLASTOQUINONE to PLASTOCYANIN or CYTOCHROME C6. The transfer of electrons is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
Cytochromes f are found as components of the CYTOCHROME B6F COMPLEX. They play important role in the transfer of electrons from PHOTOSYSTEM I to PHOTOSYSTEM II.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.
A pre-emergent herbicide.
An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A large multisubunit protein complex that is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to drive electron transfer reactions that result in either the reduction of NADP to NADPH or the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.
A genus of green algae found in the Mediterranean and other warm seas.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).
Polyunsaturated side-chain quinone derivative which is an important link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Ribonucleic acid in algae having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and water to D-fructose 6-phosphate and orthophosphate. EC
A copper-containing plant protein that is a fundamental link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds.
A subcategory of chaperonins found in MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and BACTERIA. Group I chaperonins form into a barrel-shaped macromolecular structure that is enclosed by a separate lid-like protein component.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.
A photo-active pigment localized in prolamellar bodies occurring within the proplastids of dark-grown bean leaves. In the process of photoconversion, the highly fluorescent protochlorophyllide is converted to chlorophyll.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.
Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.
A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC was formerly listed as EC and EC
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Blue-light receptors that regulate a range of physiological responses in PLANTS. Examples include: PHOTOTROPISM, light-induced stomatal opening, and CHLOROPLAST movements in response to changes in light intensity.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of algae.
Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Basic functional unit of plants.
Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Cytochromes (electron-transporting proteins) with protoheme (HEME B) as the prosthetic group.
Peroxidases that utilize ASCORBIC ACID as an electron donor to reduce HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to WATER. The reaction results in the production of monodehydroascorbic acid and DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A division of the plant kingdom. Bryophyta contains the subdivision, Musci, which contains the classes: Andreaeopsida, BRYOPSIDA, and SPHAGNOPSIDA.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Multisubunit enzyme complexes that synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE from energy sources such as ions traveling through channels.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The directional growth of organisms in response to light. In plants, aerial shoots usually grow towards light. The phototropic response is thought to be controlled by auxin (= AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A plant genus of the family Pteridaceae. Members contain TRITERPENES. Some species in this genus are called maidenhair fern which is also a common name occasionally used for Lygodium (FERNS) and POLYPODIUM.

Magnesium ion-induced changes in the binding mode of adenylates to chloroplast coupling factor 1. (1/4503)

The effect of Mg2+ on the binding of adenylates to isolated chloroplast coupling factor 1 (CF1) was studied using CD spectrometry and ultrafiltration. At adenylate concentrations smaller than 100 muM, one mole of CF1 binds three moles of ATP (or ADP) regardless of the presence of Mg2+. In the presence of Mg2+, the first two ATP's bind to CF1 independently with the same binding constant of 2.5 X 10(-1) muM-1, then the third ATP binds with a much higher affinity of 10 muM-1. In the absence of Mg2+, the first ATP binds to CF1 with a binding constant of 2.5 X 10(-1) muM-1 then the other two ATP's bind less easily with the same binding constant of 4.0 X 10(-2) muM-1. The binding mode of ADP to CF1 is quite similar to that of ATP. In the presence of Mg2+, the binding constants of the first two ADP's are both 7.6 X 10(-2) muM-1, that of the third ADP being 4.0 muM-1. In the absence of Mg2+, the binding constant of the first ADP is 7.6 X 10(-2) muM-1, the constants of the other two ADP's both being 4.0 X 10(-2) muM-1. AMP caused a negligible change in CD.  (+info)

Role of a novel photosystem II-associated carbonic anhydrase in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (2/4503)

Intracellular carbonic anhydrases (CA) in aquatic photosynthetic organisms are involved in the CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM), which helps to overcome CO2 limitation in the environment. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, this CCM is initiated and maintained by the pH gradient created across the chloroplast thylakoid membranes by photosystem (PS) II-mediated electron transport. We show here that photosynthesis is stimulated by a novel, intracellular alpha-CA bound to the chloroplast thylakoids. It is associated with PSII on the lumenal side of the thylakoid membranes. We demonstrate that PSII in association with this lumenal CA operates to provide an ample flux of CO2 for carboxylation.  (+info)

The localisation of 2-carboxy-D-arabinitol 1-phosphate and inhibition of Rubisco in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (3/4503)

A recent controversial report suggests that the nocturnal inhibitor of Rubisco, 2-carboxy-D-arabinitol 1-phosphate (CAIP), does not bind to Rubisco in vivo and therefore that CA1P has no physiological relevance to photosynthetic regulation. It is now proved that a direct rapid assay can be used to distinguish between Rubisco-bound and free CA1P, as postulated in the controversial report. Application of this direct assay demonstrates that CA1P is bound to Rubisco in vivo in dark-adapted leaves. Furthermore, CA1P is shown to be in the chloroplasts of mesophyll cells. Thus, CA1P does play a physiological role in the regulation of Rubisco.  (+info)

Overexpression of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry2Aa2 protein in chloroplasts confers resistance to plants against susceptible and Bt-resistant insects. (4/4503)

Evolving levels of resistance in insects to the bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) can be dramatically reduced through the genetic engineering of chloroplasts in plants. When transgenic tobacco leaves expressing Cry2Aa2 protoxin in chloroplasts were fed to susceptible, Cry1A-resistant (20,000- to 40,000-fold) and Cry2Aa2-resistant (330- to 393-fold) tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens, cotton bollworm Helicoverpa zea, and the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua, 100% mortality was observed against all insect species and strains. Cry2Aa2 was chosen for this study because of its toxicity to many economically important insect pests, relatively low levels of cross-resistance against Cry1A-resistant insects, and its expression as a protoxin instead of a toxin because of its relatively small size (65 kDa). Southern blot analysis confirmed stable integration of cry2Aa2 into all of the chloroplast genomes (5, 000-10,000 copies per cell) of transgenic plants. Transformed tobacco leaves expressed Cry2Aa2 protoxin at levels between 2% and 3% of total soluble protein, 20- to 30-fold higher levels than current commercial nuclear transgenic plants. These results suggest that plants expressing high levels of a nonhomologous Bt protein should be able to overcome or at the very least, significantly delay, broad spectrum Bt-resistance development in the field.  (+info)

EPR spectroscopy of VO2+-ATP bound to catalytic site 3 of chloroplast F1-ATPase from Chlamydomonas reveals changes in metal ligation resulting from mutations to the phosphate-binding loop threonine (betaT168). (5/4503)

Site-directed mutations were made to the phosphate-binding loop threonine in the beta-subunit of the chloroplast F1-ATPase in Chlamydomonas (betaT168). Rates of photophosphorylation and ATPase-driven proton translocation measured in coupled thylakoids purified from betaT168D, betaT168C, and betaT168L mutants had <10% of the wild type rates, as did rates of Mg2+-ATPase activity of purified chloroplast F1-ATPase (CF1). The EPR spectra of VO2+-ATP bound to Site 3 of CF1 from wild type and mutants showed that EPR species C, formed exclusively upon activation, was altered in CF1 from each mutant in both signal intensity and in 51V hyperfine parameters that depend on the equatorial VO2+ ligands. These data provide the first direct evidence that Site 3 is a catalytic site. No significant differences between wild type and mutants were observed in EPR species B, the predominant form of the latent enzyme. Thus, the phosphate-binding loop threonine is an equatorial metal ligand in the activated conformation but not in the latent conformation of Site 3. The metal-nucleotide conformation that gives rise to species B is consistent with the Mg2+-ADP complex that becomes entrapped in a catalytic site in a manner that regulates enzymatic activity. The lack of catalytic function of CF1 with entrapped Mg2+-ADP may be explained in part by the absence of the phosphate-binding loop threonine as a metal ligand.  (+info)

The chloroplast infA gene with a functional UUG initiation codon. (6/4503)

All chloroplast genes reported so far possess ATG start codons and sometimes GTGs as an exception. Sequence alignments suggested that the chloroplast infA gene encoding initiation factor 1 in the green alga Chlorella vulgaris has TTG as a putative initiation codon. This gene was shown to be transcribed by RT-PCR analysis. The infA mRNA was translated accurately from the UUG codon in a tobacco chloroplast in vitro translation system. Mutation of the UUG codon to AUG increased translation efficiency approximately 300-fold. These results indicate that the UUG is functional for accurate translation initiation of Chlorella infA mRNA but it is an inefficient initiation codon.  (+info)

Rapid purification of membrane extrinsic F1-domain of chloroplast ATP synthase in monodisperse form suitable for 3D-crystallization. (7/4503)

A new chromatographic procedure for purification of the membrane extrinsic F1-domain of chloroplast ATP synthase is presented. The purification is achieved by a single anion exchange chromatography step. Determination of the enzyme-bound nucleotides reveals only 1 mole of ADP per complex. The purified enzyme shows a latent Ca(2+)-dependent ATPase activity of 1.0 min-1 and a Mg(2+)-dependent activity of 4.4 .min-1. Both activities are increased up to 8-10-fold after dithiothreitol activation. Analysis of the purified F1-complex by SDS/PAGE, silver staining and immunoblotting revealed that the preparation is uncontaminated by fragmented subunits or ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Gel filtration experiments indicate that the preparation is homogenous and monodisperse. In order to determine the solubility minimum of the purified F1-complex the isoelectric point of the preparation was calculated from pH mapping on ion exchange columns. In agreement with calculations based on the amino acid sequence, a slightly acidic pI of 5.7 was found. Using ammonium sulphate as a precipitant the purified CF1-complex could be crystallized by MicroBatch.  (+info)

Isolation of pigment-binding early light-inducible proteins from pea. (8/4503)

The early light-inducible proteins (ELIPs) in chloroplasts possess a high sequence homology with the chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins but differ from those proteins by their substoichiometric and transient appearance. In the present study ELIPs of pea were isolated by a two-step purification strategy: perfusion chromatography in combination with preparative isoelectric focussing. Two heterogeneous populations of ELIPs were obtained after chromatographic separation of solubilized thylakoid membranes using a weak anion exchange column. One of these populations contained ELIPs in a free form providing the first isolation of these proteins. To prove whether the isolated and pure forms of ELIP bind pigments, spectroscopic and chromatographic analysis were performed. Absorption spectra and TLC revealed the presence of chlorophyll a and lutein. Measurements of steady-state fluorescence emission spectra at 77 K exhibited a major peak at 674 nm typical for chlorophyll a bound to the protein matrix. The action spectrum of the fluorescence emission measured at 674 nm showed several peaks originating mainly from chlorophyll a. It is proposed that ELIPs are transient chlorophyll-binding proteins not involved in light-harvesting but functioning as scavengers for chlorophyll molecules during turnover of pigment-binding proteins.  (+info)

AS07 239, anti-Toc159, translocon at the outer envelope membrane of chloroplasts, Toc-complex, TOC-complex, GTPase, Chloroplast protein import component Toc159, Toc 159 antibody, Q9LKR1Toc159 is located in the outer chloroplast membrane and part of of the
In this study, we showed that PI4K inhibition increased the rate of chloroplast division. Two kinds of PI4K inhibitor treatments and downregulation of PI4K expression similarly increase the number of chloroplasts, indicating that PI4P is a negative regulator of chloroplast division. Inhibition of PI4K caused an increase of chloroplast division in parallel with an increase in the amount of DRP5B localized on the surface of chloroplasts (Figures 5B and 5C). These results suggest that the binding of PI4P to PDV1 changes the interaction between PDV1 and DRP5B. Decrease of PI4P in envelope membranes probably causes increases in the binding affinity of PDV1 for DRP5B or inhibits the dissociation of DRP5B from chloroplasts. As a result, the recruitment of DRP5B to chloroplasts increases and may enhance the rate of chloroplast division. In addition, the total protein level of DRP5B was increased by the PAO treatment (Figure 5B). The increase in DRP5B recruited to chloroplasts suggests that the ...
Based on our phylogeny and character state reconstructions, there was one probable origin of short-term chloroplast retention in the last common ancestor of the Plakobranchoidea, and four independent origins of long-term retention. No species in the Oxynoacea and Limapontioidea were able to maintain photosynthetic activity, based on PAM measurements. Functional chloroplast retention was not detected in five oxynoacean species representing the basal shelled sacoglossans (Table 3). In species with no functional retention, chloroplasts are phagocytosed by digestive glandular cells and rapidly disintegrate [62, 63]. Clark and Busacca [64] concluded that Oxynoe retains chloroplasts because they were able to isolate chlorophyll from slugs, but they did not detect net fixation of CO2. We measured high ground fluorescence in oxynoaceans but very low yield values, indicating free chlorophyll but no functional chloroplasts.. Similarly, all limapontioidean species except Costasiella cf. kuroshimae had ...
The TIC and TOC complexes are translocons located in the chloroplast of a eukaryotic cell, that is, protein complexes that facilitate the transfer of proteins in and out through the chloroplasts membrane. The TIC complex (translocon on the inner chloroplast membrane) is located in the inner envelope of the chloroplast. The TOC complex (translocon on the outer chloroplast membrane) is located in the outer envelope of the chloroplast. It transports proteins that are synthesized in the cytoplasm across the chloroplasts membrane. This protein complex is functionally similar to the TOM/TIM Complex located on the outer and inner membranes of the mitochondria, in the sense that it too transports proteins across multiple membranes and into the lumen of an organelle. Both complexes (TOC/TIC) are GTPases, that is, they must both hydrolyze GTP in order to power the translocation. The chloroplast also harnesses the power of an electrochemical gradient using protons. The gradient is only used to power ...
Successful import of hundreds of nucleus-encoded proteins is essential for chloroplast biogenesis. The import of cytosolic precursor proteins relies on the Toc- (translocon at the outer chloroplast membrane) and Tic- (translocon at the inner chloroplast membrane) complexes. In |i|Arabidopsis thaliana|/i|, precursor recognition is mainly mediated by outer membrane receptors belonging to two gene families: Toc34/33 and Toc159/132/120/90. The role in import and precursor selectivity of these receptors has been intensively studied, but the function of Toc90 still remains unclear. Here, we report the ability of Toc90 to support the import of Toc159 client proteins. We show that the overexpression of Toc90 partially complements the albino knockout of Toc159 and restores photoautotrophic growth. Several lines of evidence including proteome profiling demonstrate the import and accumulation of proteins essential for chloroplast biogenesis and functionality. Infanger, Sibylle; Bischof, Sylvain;
DnaK (chloroplast stromal chaperone) antibody, AS07 270, CHLREDRAFT_154866DnaK, chloroplast stromal chaperone, heat shock protein 70, hsp70
Figure 14 Phase contrast fluorescence microscopy of Cry2A transgenic plants with transit peptide. A = DAPIblue fluorescence. B = FITC green fluorescence. C = Chloroplast auto-fluorescence red. D = Merged image of A, B and C. Yellow color is produced where green and red fluorescence occurred at the same place i.e. Cry2A inside chloroplasts.. Discussion. Chloroplast targeted expression of the Bt gene holds great potential for incorporating vital agronomic traits into plants. High Bt gene levels in chloroplasts permits plants to generate large quantities of crystal proteins. In the present study, two insecticidal genes, Cry1Ac and Cry2A, along with a chloroplast transit peptide were cloned in a PBI-121 vector and transformed into cotton variety MNH-786. Cry1Ac and Cry2A were selected because of their unique qualities, i.e., high expression levels and lack of competition for receptors among them.. The present study highlights the importance of cloning genes with transit peptides to demonstrate ...
The import of nucleus-encoded proteins into chloroplasts is mediated by translocon complexes in the envelope membranes. A component of the translocon in the outer envelope membrane, Toc34, is encoded in Arabidopsis by two homologous genes, atTOC33 and atTOC34. Whereas atTOC34 displays relatively uniform expression throughout development, atTOC33 is strongly upregulated in rapidly growing, photosynthetic tissues. To understand the reason for the existence of these two related genes, we characterized the atTOC33 knockout mutant ppi1. Immunoblotting and proteomics revealed that components of the photosynthetic apparatus are deficient in ppi1 chloroplasts and that nonphotosynthetic chloroplast proteins are unchanged or enriched slightly. Furthermore, DNA array analysis of 3292 transcripts revealed that photosynthetic genes are moderately, but specifically, downregulated in ppi1. Proteome differences in ppi1 could be correlated with protein import rates: ppi1 chloroplasts imported the ...
Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae which conduct photosynthesis. Chloroplasts are similar to mitochondria but are found only in plants. Both organelles are surrounded by a double membrane with an intermembrane space; both have their own DNA and are involved in energy metabolism; and both have reticulations, or many foldings, filling their inner spaces. Chloroplasts convert light energy from the sun into ATP through a process called photosynthesis. Chloroplasts are one of the forms a plastid may take, and are generally considered to have originated as endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. In green plants chloroplasts are surrounded by two lipid bilayer membranes, now thought to correspond to the outer and inner membranes of the ancestral cyanobacterium. The genome is considerably reduced compared to that of free-living cyanobacteria, but the parts that are still present show clear similarities. It is interesting to note that in some algae, chloroplasts seem to have ...
Chloroplasts change their position in a cell in response to environmental light conditions (Wada et al., 1993, 2003). Low-fluence rate light induces movement of chloroplasts toward the irradiated area, resulting in chloroplast accumulation at the front face of the cell (accumulation response). Conversely, under high-fluence rate light, chloroplasts move to the anticlinal wall of the cell to avoid photodamage (avoidance response; Kasahara et al., 2002). Chloroplast photorelocation movement is found in several photosynthetic plant species, including yellow and green algae, mosses, ferns, and flowering plants. In most plant species, chloroplast movement is induced by irradiation with blue light, although it is also induced by red light in some cryptogam plants (Wada et al., 1993, 2003). The flowering plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) has two types of blue-light photoreceptor, cryptochromes (cry1 and cry2) and phototropins (phot1 and phot2). Cryptochrome is a flavoprotein similar to the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The identification and localization of 33 pea chloroplast transcription initiation sites. AU - Woodbury, Neal. AU - Dobres, Michael. AU - Thompson, William F.. PY - 1989/12/1. Y1 - 1989/12/1. N2 - We have used a novel approach to produce a comprehensive transcription initiation map of the pea chloroplast genome. Sites were mapped by measuring the ability of DNA probes to protect 5′ ends of transcripts that have been capped in vitro. Using this approach, at least 33 probes appear to contain one or more transcription start sites. A more precise location of some of these sites was obtained by hybrid selecting certain of these RNAs and determining their size both before and after RNase treatment. We have found at least one initiation site in front of every chloroplast gene cluster for which appropriate clones were available. In addition, we have found initiation sites within gene clusters previously shown to be co-transcribed. In one such case, we were able to locate a ...
Toc34 is an integral protein in the outer chloroplast membrane thats anchored into it by its hydrophobic[48] C-terminal tail.[38][46] Most of the protein, however, including its large guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding domain projects out into the stroma.[46]. Toc34s job is to catch some chloroplast preproteins in the cytosol and hand them off to the rest of the TOC complex.[38] When GTP, an energy molecule similar to ATP attaches to Toc34, the protein becomes much more able to bind to many chloroplast preproteins in the cytosol.[38] The chloroplast preproteins presence causes Toc34 to break GTP into guanosine diphosphate (GDP) and inorganic phosphate. This loss of GTP makes the Toc34 protein release the chloroplast preprotein, handing it off to the next TOC protein.[38] Toc34 then releases the depleted GDP molecule, probably with the help of an unknown GDP exchange factor. A domain of Toc159 might be the exchange factor that carry out the GDP removal. The Toc34 protein can then take up ...
Chloroplasts originated from an endosymbiotic event in which a free-living cyanobacterium was engulfed by an ancestral eukaryotic host. During evolution the majority of the chloroplast genetic information was transferred to the host cell nucleus. As a consequence, proteins formerly encoded by the chloroplast genome are now translated in the cytosol and must be subsequently imported into the chloroplast. This process involves three steps: (i) cytosolic sorting procedures, (ii) binding to the designated receptor-equipped target organelle and (iii) the consecutive translocation process. During import, proteins have to overcome the two barriers of the chloroplast envelope, namely the outer envelope membrane (OEM) and the inner envelope membrane (IEM). In the majority of cases, this is facilitated by two distinct multiprotein complexes, located in the OEM and IEM, respectively, designated TOC and TIC. Plants are constantly exposed to fluctuating environmental conditions such as temperature and light ...
Christoph Benning MSU Foundation Professor; Director, Plant Research Laboratory, Michigan State University Research: Biosynthesis of lipids in photosynthetic membranes, lipid trafficking phenomena involving chloroplasts, engineering of crops and algae for biodiesel production. Lipid Assembly, Remodeling, and Transport to Build and Protect the Photosynthetic Membrane Photosynthesis sustains most life forms on earth providing food, feed, fuels, organic chemicals, and the oxygen in the atmosphere. In plants and algae, the photosynthetic membrane inside chloroplasts mediates the conversion of light into chemical energy. Specific polar lipids consisting of fatty acyl groups attached to glycerol with a polar head group are key components of the photosynthetic membrane. Fatty acid biosynthesis occurs in the chloroplasts, and polar lipids destined for the photosynthetic membrane are assembled at both chloroplast envelope membranes and the endoplasmic reticulum. Lipid precursors have to be shuttled between
Plastocyanin is a nuclear-encoded chloroplast thylakoid lumen protein that is synthesized in the cytoplasm with a large N-terminal extension (66 amino acids). Transport of plastocyanin involves two steps: import across the chloroplast envelope into the stroma, followed by transfer across the thylakoid membrane into the lumen. During transport the N-terminal extension is removed in two parts by two different processing proteases. In this study we examined the functions of the two cleaved parts, C1 and C2, in the transport pathway of plastocyanin. The results show that C1 mediates import into the chloroplast. C1 is sufficient to direct chloroplast import of mutant proteins that lack C2. It is also sufficient to direct import of a nonplastid protein and can be replaced functionally by the transit peptide of an imported stromal protein. C2 is a prerequisite for intraorganellar routing but is not required for chloroplast import. Deletions in C2 result in accumulation of intermediates in the stroma or ...
How do plant cells get rid of chloroplasts that are not working as they should? Woodson et al. describe a chloroplast quality-control pathway that allows for the selective elimination of individual chloroplasts. Damage by reactive oxygen species during photosynthesis is recognized by a ubiquitin ligase, which marks out damaged chloroplasts for degradation. The findings reveal how cells balance inherently stressful energy production with organelle turnover.. J. D. Woodson, M. S. Joens, A. B. Sinson, J. Gilkerson, P. A. Salomé, D. Weigel, J. A. Fitzpatrick, J. Chory, Ubiquitin facilitates a quality-control pathway that removes damaged chloroplasts. Science 350, 450-454 (2015). [Abstract] [Full Text] ...
During the course of NH4+ (or NO2-)-plus-alpha-oxoglutarate-dependent O2 evolution in spinach (Spinacia oleracea) chloroplasts, glutamate was continuously excreted out of the chloroplasts. Under these conditions, for each molecule of NO2- or NH4+ which disappeared, one molecule of glutamate accumulated in the medium and the concentration of glutamate in the stroma space was maintained constant. SO4(2-) (or SO3(2-) behave as inhibitors of NH4+ incorporation into glutamate by intact chloroplasts. This considerable inhibition of glutamate synthesis by SO4(2-) was correlated with a rapid decline in the stromal Pi concentration. The reloading of stromal Pi with either external Pi or PPi4- relieved SO4(2-)-induced inhibition of glutamate synthesis by intact chloroplasts. It was concluded that SO4(2-) induced a rapid efflux of stromal Pi out of the chloroplast, leading to a limitation of ATP synthesis and therefore to an arrest of ATP-dependent glutamine synthetase functioning. ...
The chloroplast is the site of photosynthesis that enabled and sustains aerobic life on Earth. Chloroplasts are relatively large organelles with a diameter of ~5 μm and width of ~2.5 μm, and so can be readily analysed by electron microscopy. Each chloroplast is enclosed by two envelope membranes, which encompass an aqueous matrix, the stroma and the thylakoids. Components of stroma include starch granules and plastoglobuli, which can be observed by electron microscopy. And the thylakoids consist of stromal thylakoid, granal thylakoid and as well as granum (a stack of thylakoids). These structure components are quite sensitive to developmental changes and environmental variations, such as drought, salinity, cold, high temperature and others. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a powerful technique for monitoring the effects of various changing parameters or treatments on the development and differentiation of these important organelles. Here we describe a reliable method for the analysis of
We present a neural network based method (ChloroP) for identifying chloroplast transit peptides and their cleavage sites. Using cross-validation, 88% of the sequences in our homology reduced training set were correctly classified as transit peptides or nontransit peptides. This performance level is well above that of the publicly available chloroplast localization predictor PSORT. Cleavage sites are predicted using a scoring matrix derived by an automatic motif-finding algorithm. Approximately 60% of the known cleavage sites in our sequence collection were predicted to within +/-2 residues from the cleavage sites given in SWISS-PROT. An analysis of 715 Arabidopsis thaliana sequences from SWISS-PROT suggests that the ChloroP method should be useful for the identification of putative transit peptides in genome-wide sequence data. The ChloroP predictor is available as a web-server at ...
Post-translational protein methylation was investigated in Pisum sativum chloroplasts. Intact pea chloroplasts were incubated with ({sup 3}H-methyl)-S-adenosylmethionine under various conditions. The chloroplasts were then separated into stromal and thylakoid fractions and analyzed for radioactivity transferred to protein. Light enhanced the magnitude of labeling in both fractions. One thylakoid polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 43 kDa was labeled only in the light. Several other thylakoid and stromal proteins were labeled in both light and dark-labeling conditions. Both base-labile methylation, carboxy-methylesters and base-stable groups, N-methylations were found. Further characterization of the methyl-transfer reactions will be presented. ...
Plant cells contain an internal clock (the circadian clock), which is able to regulate cellular processes so that they occur at the optimal time of day, causing a big increase in plant productivity. As chloroplasts are the site of photosynthesis, their function is highly dependent on the daily changes in light environment.. It is thought that chloroplasts were originally free-living organisms that were incorporated into the cells of plants very early in plant evolutionary history. A result of this is that chloroplasts have retained some of the cellular machinery required to produce proteins from their own chloroplast DNA. An essential part of this machinery are sigma factors, and in present-day plants, they are encoded for by the cells nuclear DNA.. The researchers were able to show that the production of sigma factors is controlled by the plants clock. This enables the nuclear DNA to regulate the activity of chloroplast genes, and ensure that the production of proteins essential for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chloroplasts are partially mobilized to the vacuole by autophagy. AU - Ishida, Hiroyuki. AU - Yoshimoto, Kohki. PY - 2008/10/1. Y1 - 2008/10/1. N2 - Excluding the central vacuole, chloroplasts constitute the largest compartment within the leaf cells of plants and contain approximately 80 percent of the total leaf nitrogen, mainly as proteins. Much of this nitrogen is allocated to the carbon-fixing enzyme in photosynthesis, Rubisco. During senescence, plants can mobilize nitrogen from chloroplasts in older leaves to other organs, such as developing seeds. Whereas bulk degradation of the cytosol and organelles in plants occurs by autophagy, the role of autophagy in the degradation of chloroplast proteins is still unclear. We have recently demonstrated that stroma-targeted green fluorescent protein (GFP), DsRed, and GFP-labeled Rubisco can be mobilized to the vacuole of living cells via Rubisco-containing bodies, in an ATG gene-dependent manner. Our results indicate the presence of ...
A plastid is an organelle that is commonly found in photosynthetic plants. Plastids are of different types depending on the presence of the pigment and metabolic functions. They may be chloroplasts, chromoplasts, and leucoplasts. A chloroplast is a plastid that contains high amounts of green pigment, chlorophyll. The chlorophyll pigments may be chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll c, chlorophyll d, and chrlorophyll f. Chlorophyll a is present in all chloroplasts. Other pigments that may be present (particularly in algal cells) are carotenoids and phycobilins. The chloroplast has at least three membrane systems: outer membrane, inner membrane, and thylakoid system. The thylakoids are disk-shaped structures that function as the site of photosynthesis. It is because embedded in the thylakoid membrane is the antenna complex consisting of proteins, and light-absorbing pigments, including chlorophyll (the green pigment) and carotenoids. The chlorophyll is capable of absorbing light energy for use ...
Word Scramble - English word CHLOROPLASTS: words that start with chloroplasts, words that end with chloroplasts, anagrams of chloroplasts, how to spell chloroplasts!, Words with Friends, Scrabble
Numerous studies show ramifications of abscisic acid solution (ABA) about nuclear genes encoding chloroplast-localized proteins. It repressed transcription from the chloroplast phage-type T0070907 and bacteria-type RNA polymerases and reduced transcript degrees of most looked into chloroplast genes significantly. ABA didnt repress the transcription of and some other genes as well as increased mRNA amounts under certain circumstances. The ABA results on chloroplast transcription had been even more pronounced in basal vs. apical leaf sections and improved by light. Simultaneous software of cytokinin (22 μM 6-benzyladenine) reduced the ABA results on chloroplast gene manifestation. These data show that ABA impacts the manifestation of chloroplast genes differentially and factors to a job of ABA in the rules and coordination of the actions of nuclear and chloroplast genes coding for protein with features in photosynthesis. (L.) nucleus-encoded plastid RNA polymerase (NEP) plastid-encoded plastid ...
In this study, we produced selective images of photosystems in plant chloroplasts in situ. We used a spectroimaging microscope, equipped with a near-infrared (NIR) laser that provided light at wavelengths mainly between 800 and 830 nm, to analyze chlorophyll autofluorescence spectra and images from chloroplasts in leaves of Zea mays at room temperature. Femtosecond laser excitation of chloroplasts in mesophyll cells revealed a spectral shape that was attributable to PSII and its antenna in the centers of grana spots. We found that a continuous wave emitted by the NIR laser at a wavelength as long as 820 nm induced chlorophyll autofluorescence with a high contribution from PSI through a one-photon absorption mechanism. A spectral shape attributable to PSI and its antenna was thus obtained using continuous wave laser excitation of chloroplasts in bundle sheath cells. These highly pure spectra of photosystems were utilized for spectral decomposition at every intrachloroplast space to show ...
Chloroplasts are organelles that take light energy and convert it into chemical energy. A chloroplast has a double membrane, the inner and outer membranes. The inner thylakoid membrane traps the light energy. Inside the inner membrane are stacks of grana, and surrounding the grana is a fluid known as stroma. Chloroplasts, which are contained in chlorophyll, contain the green pigment chlorophyll, which traps light energy and make leaves and stems green. The chemical energy that is captured by the chloroplasts is stored in sugar molecules until they are broke down. ...
Chloroplasts have been discovered to be fierce transformers, warriors. Yes, like Bumble Bee and Optimus Prime. Unless you had an unorthodox elementary education in science, you learned about the innocent chloroplast. To refresh your memory, chloroplasts are organelles of plant cells and conduct photosynthesis for the plant. In their everyday life, chloroplasts are a cornerstone…
Berkeley - As biologists try to tease out the finer details of the green plant family tree, one key may lie in the cellular organelle - the chloroplast - that makes green plants green. As the photosynthetic factory of the plant cell, the chloroplast contains its own complement of genes distinct from the comparably sized mitochondrial genome in the energy center of the cell or the much larger genome in the cell nucleus. The chloroplast genome can be more informative in some ways than the complete nuclear genome, and easier to analyze than plant mitochondrial DNA, said Brent Mishler, professor of integrative biology at the University of California, Berkeley, and director of the Jepson and University Herbaria. Mishler is one of nine principal investigators on a new project, supported by $3 million over five years from the National Science Foundation, to isolate and sequence chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes from 50 to 100 representative plants, drawing on the expertise of the U.S. Department ...
The locations of polymorphic sites between chloroplast genomes of 93-11 and PA64S were documented according to the nucleotide order of the 93-11 chloroplast DNA sequence. The oblique line (/) separates the corresponding variations of codons and amino acids in the involved genes between 93-11 and PA64S. Genes were annotated according to the published chloroplast genome (Hiratsuka, et al., 1989). The gene symbols in this table are as follows: ORF, open reading frame; rsp16, ribosomal protein S16; psbk, PSII K protein; rpoC2, RNA polymerase β′-subunit-2; atpA, ATPase α-subunit; rbcL, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit; rp120, ribosomal protein L20; psbB, PSII 47-kD protein; rp116, ribosomal protein L16; rps3, ribosomal protein S3; and ndhF, NADH dehydrogenase ND5. ...
Showed a moderately decreased synthesis rate for the chloroplast-encoded proteins, which may account for the accumulation of photosynthetic proteins (Figure
Introduction. How ATP is produced in both the chloroplast and mitochondria Introduction: Living organisms use it as a free-energy donor to supply free energy for three major purposes: muscular contraction and other cellular movements, the active transport of molecules and ions, and the synthesis of proteins. ATP is not a long-term storage form of energy - is an immediate donor of energy. Most ATP is consumed within a minute ofbeing produced. The turnover of ATP is very high . ATP Generation in Mitochondria and Chloroplasts: ATP generation is driven by the electrochemical gradient of protons (the proton motive force) that exists in both mitochondria and chloroplasts. However, the mechanisms in each organelle are different when compared in detail, as will be considered later. In both chloroplasts and mitochondria the driving force behind ATP synthesis is the proton motive force that exists between two cellular compartments. This force is produced by the electrochemical gradient for H+ across the ...
(figure) Figure 1.7 A mature and functional chloroplast in an immature leaf of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) with an extensive network of photosynthetic membranes (thylakoids), parts of which are appressed into moderate granal stacks, and suspended in a gel-like matrix (stroma).The chloroplast contains a pair of starch grains (S) encapsulated in a doub
Plant cotyledons are a tissue that is particularly active in plastid gene expression in order to develop functional chloroplasts from pro-plastids, the plastid precursor stage in plant embryos. Cotyledons, therefore, represent a material being ideal for the study of composition, function and regulation of protein complexes involved in plastid gene expression. Here, we present a pilot study that uses heparin-Sepharose and phospho-cellulose chromatography in combination with isoelectric focussing and denaturing SDS gel electrophoresis (two-dimensional gel electrophoresis) for investigating the nucleotide binding proteome of mustard chloroplasts purified from cotyledons. We describe the technical requirements for a highly resolved biochemical purification of several hundreds of protein spots obtained from such samples. Subsequent mass spectrometry of peptides isolated out of cut spots that had been treated with trypsin identified 58 different proteins within 180 distinct spots. Our analyses indicate a high
A two-membrane system, or envelope, surrounds plastids. Because of the integration of chloroplast metabolism within the plant cell, the envelope is the site of many specific transport activities. However, only a few proteins involved in the processes of transport across the chloroplast envelope have been identified already at the molecular level. To discover new envelope transporters, we developed a subcellular proteomic approach, which is aimed to identify the most hydrophobic envelope proteins. This strategy combined the use of highly purified and characterized membrane fractions, extraction of the hydrophobic proteins with organic solvents, SDS/PAGE separation, and tandem mass spectrometry analysis. To process the large amount of MS/MS data, a blast-based program was developed for searching in protein, expressed sequence tag, and genomic plant databases. Among the 54 identified proteins, 27 were new envelope proteins, with most of them bearing multiple α-helical transmembrane regions and being very
TY - JOUR. T1 - MECHANISM OF ORIENTATION AND LINEAR DICHROISM OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC PARTICLES IN ELECTRIC FIELDS. T2 - CHLOROPLASTS AND CHLOROPHYLL‐PROTEIN COMPLEXES. AU - Gagliano, A. G.. AU - Geacintov, N. E.. AU - Breton, J.. PY - 1986/5. Y1 - 1986/5. N2 - Abstract- The mechanisms of orientation in pulsed and alternating electric fields of thylakoids (derived from the sonication of spinach chloroplasts) and of light‐harvesting chlorophyll a/b‐protein complexes (CPII) were investigated by utilizing linear dichroism techniques. Comparisons of the linear dichroism spectra of thylakoids and CPII particles suggest that the latter are oriented with their directions of largest electronic polarizabilities (and thus probably their largest dimensions) within the thylakoid membrane planes. At low electric field strengths (, 12 V cm−1), and at low frequencies of alternating electric fields (, 0.25 Hz), thylakoid membranes tend to align with their normals parallel to the direction of the applied ...
Electron microscopy shows the chloroplast to consist of an envelope enclosing a complex of membranes, the thylakoid system often joined or stacked into grana; the lipid membranes, contrast with the background when stained with lipophilic electron dense osmium. The space between the envelope and thylakoid membranes is the chloroplast stroma. The envelope is composed of two membranes each about 5.6 nm thick separated by the intra envelope space (10 nm) with areas of high electron density which are possibly contact points between the membranes; they may be involved in transport, i.e., of proteins between cytosol and stroma. The membranes are lipid bilayers, of galactosyl glycerides and phosphatidyl choline, containing carotenoids but no chlorophyll.. The stroma contains indistinct granules and particles, mainly of proteins; the enzyme ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) is the major soluble protein and may crystallize in unfavorable conditions such as water stress or air pollution. Other ...
Heterologous regulatory elements and flanking sequences have been used in chloroplast transformation of several crop species, but their roles and mechanisms have not yet been investigated. Nucleotide sequence identity in the photosystem II protein D1 (psbA) upstream region is 59% across all taxa; si …
In higher plants, chloroplasts are the site for the photosynthetic reactions, converting solar energy to chemical energy. Within the chloroplast the thylakoid membrane network encloses the soluble lumen compartment. Until recently the knowledge of the lumen composition and function was limited, but a more profound understanding of the thylakoid lumen content is gradually emerging. The discovery that the thylakoid lumen contains numerous enzymes, besides the already known proteins directly involved or associated with the photosynthetic reactions, have changed the view on this compartment.. The first part of the thesis the lumen proteome maps of Arabidopsis and spinach were resolved. These two proteome maps showed good correlation and the same protein groups were represented in the two proteomes. Thirty eight proteins were identified and in combination with an in silico prediction for the proteome it was estimated that at least 80 different proteins are lumen located.. The second part was to ...
Author: Hristou, Athina et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2019; Title: Ribosome-associated chloroplast SRP54 enables efficient co-translational membrane insertion of key photosynthetic proteins
The PGR5 (PROTON GRADIENT REGULATION 5) gene that is required for PSI cyclic electron transport in Arabidopsis was knocked down in rice (Oryza sativa). In three PGR5 knockdown (KD) lines, the PGR5 protein level was reduced to 5-8% of that in the wild type, resulting in a 50% reduction in PGRL1 (PGR5-LIKE PHOTOSYNTHETIC PHENOTYPE 1) protein levels. In ruptured chloroplasts, ferredoxin-dependent plastoquinone reduction activity was partially impaired; the phenotype was mimicked by addition of antimycin A to wild-type chloroplasts. As occurred in the Arabidopsis pgr5 mutant, non-photochemical quenching of Chl fluorescence (NPQ) induction was impaired in the leaves, but the electron transport rate (ETR) was only mildly affected at high light intensity. The P700+ level was reduced even at low light intensity, suggesting that the PGR5 function was severely disturbed as in the Arabidopsis pgr5 mutant and that the other alternative routes of electrons could not compensate the stromal redox balance. The ...
Chloroplast has different shapes and structures. Its diameter is about 4 - 6 μm. It appears heterogenous structure under light microscope. It has small granule like structure called Grana. These grana are embedded in the matrix. The chloroplast shows three main components under electron microscope. These are Envelop, Stroma, Thylakoid and Granum.. The Envelop: the envelop is the outer covering of the chloroplast. It formed inner membrane extends inward, at some places, the inner membrane is in continuous with the thylakoids. This contact is used for transfer of material into and out of the chloroplast to cytosol. Inner membrane also contains small amounts of carotenoids.. Stroma: Stroma is the fluid that surrounds the thylakoids. It covers most of the volume of the chloroplast. It is gel like substance. It contains about 50% of the chloroplast proteins. It contains proteins, some ribosomes and small circular DNA. Calvin Cycle or dark reaction takes place in stroma. The Carbon Dioxide is fixed ...
Harsman, A.; Schock, A.; Hemmis, B.; Wahl, V.; Jeshen, I.; Bartsch, P.; Schlereth, A.; Pertl-Obermeyer, H.; Goetze, T.A.; Soll, J. et al.; Philippar, K.; Wagner, R.: OEP40, a regulated glucose-permeable β-barrel solute channel in the chloroplast outer envelope membrane. Journal of Biological Chemistry 291 (34), S. 17848 - 17860 (2016 ...
Two cytoplasmic organelles responsible for the production of energy are the mitochondria (present in nearly all eukaryotic cells) and chloroplasts (present only in photosynthetic organisms). Both contain small, circular DNA molecules that constitute the nonnuclear portion of a eukaryotic genome. These organelles are descended from formerly free-living bacteria that took up residence in the first eukaryotes.. The human mitochondrial genome contains 16,569 base pairs specifying 13 protein products and 24 RNA products. In both lower eukaryotes and especially plants, larger mitochondrial genomes are present. In extreme cases, mitochondrial genomes may be several hundred thousand or millions of base pairs. Chloroplast genomes contain between 100 and 200 kilobases. It is thought that each was once larger, but over time their genes have been moved to the nucleus.. ...
The data presented here suggest that 3′ end processing may be required for translation of atpB and rbcLmRNAs in Chlamydomonas chloroplasts. Unprocessed atpB transcripts, defined as those that do not accumulate as an abundant size class of approximately 2 kb, were only present in nonpolysomal fractions. Processed mRNAs were present in both polysomal and nonpolysomal fractions. Since the 3′ ends of most chloroplast transcripts are generated from longer pre-mRNAs by exo- and/or endonucleolytic mechanisms (17, 36, 37, 44, 47), this 3′ processing apparatus may interact with or signal the translational machinery.. Our ability to detect a heterogeneous collection of putative processing intermediates or incorrectly processed transcripts for atpBand rbcL suggests that these molecules are relatively stable in the chloroplast. When they were analyzed by RNase protection, it was possible to detect partially processed transcripts in theChlamydomonas chloroplast petD-trnR region (29), and in certain ...
Chloroplast glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is composed of two different subunits, GAPA and GAPB, which are encoded in the nucleus by two related genes of eubacterial origin. In the present work the genes encoding chloroplast GAPA and GAPB from pea have been cloned and sequenced. The gene for GAPB is split by eight introns. Two introns interrupt the region encoding the transit peptide and six are found within the region encoding the mature subunit, four of which are in identical or similar positions relative to genes for cytosolic GAPDH of eukaryotic organisms. As opposed to this, the gene encoding pea GAPA has only two introns in the region encoding the mature subunit. These findings strongly support the intron early hypothesis and suggest that the low number of introns in the gene for chloroplast GAPA is due to differential loss of introns during the streamlining period of the chloroplast genome following the GAPB/GAPA separation. We deduce from this that eubacteria and ...
Phototropins are UVA/blue-light receptors involved in controlling the light-dependent physiological responses which serve to optimize the photosynthetic activity of plants and promote growth. The phototropin-induced phosphoinositide (PI) metabolism has been shown to be essential for stomatal opening and phototropism. However, the role of PIs in phototropin-induced chloroplast movements remains poorly understood. The aim of this work is to determine which PI species are involved in the control of chloroplast movements in Arabidopsis and the nature of their involvement. We present the effects of the inactivation of phospholipase C (PLC), PI3-kinase (PI3K) and PI4-kinase (PI4K) on chloroplast relocations in Arabidopsis. The inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphospahte [PI(4,5)P2]-PLC pathway, using neomycin and U73122, suppressed the phot2-mediated chloroplast accumulation and avoidance responses, without affecting movement responses controlled by phot1. On the other hand, PI3K and PI4K ...
Photosynthetic development in any plant requires the intracellular co-ordination of chloroplast and nuclear gene expression programs. In this report, we investigate the role of a nuclear gene in photosynthetic development by examining C4 photosynthetic differentiation in a yellow mutant of maize (Zea mays L.). The plastids undifferentiated (pun) mutation disrupts plastid biogenesis in both bundle sheath and mesophyll cells, at an early developmental stage and in a light-independent manner. Chloroplast thylakoids are disrupted in the mutant and both membrane-associated and soluble chloroplast-encoded proteins accumulate at much reduced levels. The observed plastid morphology is consistent with a general defect in chloroplast biogenesis that is most likely exerted at the post-translational level. Despite aberrant chloroplast development, nuclear photosynthetic genes are expressed normally in pun mutants. Thus, neither functional chloroplasts nor the Pun gene product are required to establish nuclear
In leaves and intact chloroplasts, oxidation and reduction have been shown previously to regulate the ATPase activity of thylakoids. Illumination of spinach chloroplast thylakoids in the presence of dithiothreitol, which activates the ability of thylakoids to catalyze sustained ATP hydrolysis in the dark, causes increased incorporation of N-ethylmaleimide into the gamma subunit of coupling factor 1 (CF1). A disulfide bond in the gamma subunit is reduced during activation. The residues involved in this disulfide bond are the same as those in the disulfide linkage reduced during dithiothreitol activation of soluble CF1. The disulfide and dithiol forms of the gamma subunit may be separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. N-Ethylmaleimide is preferentially incorporated in the dark into the reduced form of the gamma subunit of CF1 in thylakoids previously exposed to dithiothreitol. Only a subpopulation of the CF1 in thylakoids is susceptible to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The level of stromal ATP regulates translation of the D1 protein in isolated chloroplasts. AU - Kuroda, Hiroshi. AU - Inagaki, Noritoshi. AU - Satoh, Kimiyuki. PY - 1992/1/1. Y1 - 1992/1/1. N2 - The synthesis of the D1 subunit of the reaction center of photosystem II is light-dependent in isolated chloroplasts. The mechanism of the regulation by light was analyzed using spinach chloroplasts. The light-regulated synthesis of the D1 protein was prevented by the addition of atrazine and the dependence on the concentration of atrazine of the inhibition was practically identical with that of the inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport in photosystem II, as measured by the photoreduction of 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol. Inhibitors of photosynthetic phosphorylation, such as phloridzin, nigericin and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, also inhibited the light-dependent synthesis of the D1 protein. Determination of the levels of ATP in chloroplasts and the rates of ...
Background At present, plant molecular systematics and DNA barcoding techniques rely heavily on the use of chloroplast gene sequences. Because of the relatively low evolutionary rates of chloroplast genes, there are very few choices suitable for molecular studies on angiosperms at low taxonomic levels, and for DNA barcoding of species. Methodology/Principal Findings We scanned the entire chloroplast genomes of 12 genera to search for highly variable regions. The sequence data of 9 genera were from GenBank and 3 genera were of our own. We identified nearly 5% of the most variable loci from all variable loci in the chloroplast genomes of each genus, and then selected 23 loci that were present in at least three genera. The 23 loci included 4 coding regions, 2 introns, and 17 intergenic spacers. Of the 23 loci, the most variable (in order from highest variability to lowest) were intergenic regions ycf1-a, trnK, rpl32-trnL, and trnH-psbA, followed by trnSUGA-trnGUCC, petA-psbJ, rps16-trnQ, ndhC-trnV, ycf1
In recent years there has been extensive experimental evidence indicating that the nuclear expression of certain genes , in particular those that encode chloroplast proteins is subject to regulation by signals of retrograde plastid origin . This can be done both at the level of transcription and translation of mRNA . Certain plastid origin signals could be identified - these include metabolic precursor of chlorophyll plastochinonu redox state , thioredoxin and glutathione and phosphoenolpyruvate translocator located in the chloroplast inner envelope membrane . Identity plastid other signals , e.g., regulating cell differentiation and morphogenesis leaf remains unexplained . Signaling plastids - nucleus signaling and dependent on the light remain in a fairly complicated relationships , in some cases, are used for different transduction pathways , in others some of the same . Retrograde signaling is likely to be an important part of global regulatory networks that control metabolism and growth of ...
CONIFER CHLOROPLAST GENOMES (NEARLY) SEQUENCED ????? To date a number of chloroplast genomes have been sequenced. A few years ago there were plans to sequence the entire chloroplast genome from a conifer. Has anybody got any news about what has been done to date in this regard? Id appreciate any information. peter sibbald at EMBL-Heidelberg.DE ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characteristics of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase degradation by lysates of mechanically isolated chloroplasts from wheat leaves. AU - Miyadai, Kenji. AU - Mae, Tadahiko. AU - Makino, Amane. AU - Ojima, Kunihiko. PY - 1990/4. Y1 - 1990/4. N2 - The lysate from intact chloroplasts mechanically isolated from primary leaves of 9 day old seedlings of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var Aoba) was incubated in the pH range of 5.5 to 8.5 at 37°C for 5 hours. Proteolytic activity against ribulose-1.5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco, EC was estimated by disappearance of the large subunit of Rubisco or the appearance of its degradation products. Although the activity in lysates was weak, the products were detected by applying Western blotting. The degradation products were similar to those obtained when Rubisco was incubated with the lysate of vacuoles isolated from like leaves. Although some of the products were similar to those from vacuole lysates, ...
Photosynthetic organisms transform light energy into chemical potential, thereby providing the energy sources for nearly all life on Earth. The light reactions of oxygenic photosynthesis take place in thylakoids, a membrane system highly specialized for light energy capture, photosynthetic electron transfer reactions, and adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) production (1). In plants, thylakoids are located in the chloroplast, an organelle of cyanobacterial origin. Two envelope membranes separate the chloroplast stroma, which is the aqueous phase surrounding the thylakoids, from the cytoplasm (2).. Photosynthetic electron transport generates highly reactive intermediates, which, in functional thylakoid membranes, are rapidly converted into more-stable intermediates to minimize production of unwanted byproducts, such as reactive oxygen species. Defects in thylakoid biogenesis have detrimental effects on plant viability (3, 4). The biogenesis of functional thylakoids requires the concerted interplay ...
A 2.4 kb region of theEuglena gracilis chloroplast genome containing the genespsbT, psbH andpsbN was characterized. The mRNAs transcribed frompsbB, psbT, p
1. Stern, D. B., Goldschmidt-Clermont, M., and Hanson, M. R. (2010) Chloroplast RNA metabolism. Annual Rev Plant Biol 61, 125-155.. 2. Reed, M. L., and Hanson, M. R. (1997) A heterologous maize rpoB editing site is recognized by transgenic tobacco chloroplasts. Mol Cell Biol 17, 6948-6952.. 3. Reed, M. L., Lyi, S. M., and Hanson, M. R. (2001) Edited transcripts compete with unedited mRNAs for trans-acting editing factors in higher plant chloroplasts. Gene 272, 165-171.. 4. Reed, M. L., Peeters, N. M., and Hanson, M. R. (2001) A single alteration 20 nt 5 to an editing target inhibits chloroplast RNA editing in vivo. Nucleic Acids Res 29, 1507-1513.. 5. Hegeman, C. E., Hayes, M. L., and Hanson, M. R. (2005) Substrate and cofactor requirements for RNA editing of chloroplast transcripts in Arabidopsis in vitro. Plant Journal 42, 124-132.. 6. Heller, W. P., Hayes, M. L., and Hanson, M. R. (2008) Cross-competition in editing of chloroplast RNA transcripts in vitro implicates sharing of trans-factors ...
Physical and gene map of the green alga Nephroselmis chloroplast genome, showing the typical structural arrangement found in land plants. Genes located on the inside of the map are transcribed counterclockwise, and genes on the outside are transcribed clockwise. The inner circle shows where the Small Single-Copy region (SSC), Large Single Copy region (LSC) and Inverted Repeats (IR), are located. The thick lines on the actual map are the IRs. Figure from Turmel et al. (1999). © 1999 National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. The B copy (IR-B) of the inverted repeat is the copy that is missing in legume taxa in the IRLC.. ...
Species of Bryopsidales form ecologically important components of seaweed communities worldwide. These siphonous macroalgae are composed of a single giant tubular cell containing millions of nuclei and chloroplasts, and harbor diverse bacterial communities. Little is known about the diversity of chloroplast genomes (cpDNAs) in this group, and about the possible consequences of intracellular bacteria on…
Ferredoxin-NADP+-oxidoreductase (FNR) is a FAD-containg enzyme found both in the chloroplasts and non-photosynthetic plastids of higher plants. In chloroplasts, FNR has a well-defined role in linear electron flow, and in the root plastids, FNR is needed for nitrogen metabolism. In Arabidopsis thaliana, FNR is encoded by a gene family: At1g30510 and At4g05390 encode the root isozyme of FNR and At5g66190 and At1g20020 encode the leaf/chloroplast isozyme, which share a high degree of homology. Since FNR is a crucial determinant for the acclimation of the photosynthetic machinery, we have recently focused on resolving the specific physiological roles of the two distinct chloroplast-targeted FNR isoforms using the Arabidopsis fnr knock-out mutants (Lintala et al. 2007; 2009; 2012). We have also resolved the binding partner and the physiological significance of FNR shuttling within the chloroplast (Benz et al. 2009; 2010; Lintala et al.2014), and established differential drought stress -induced ...
Plastid-to-nucleus retrograde signaling coordinates nuclear gene expression with chloroplast function and is essential for the photoautotrophic life-style of plants. Three retrograde signals have been described, but little is known of their signaling pathways. We show here that GUN1, a chloroplast-localized pentatricopeptide-repeat protein, and ABI4, an Apetala 2 (AP2)-type transcription factor, are common to all three pathways. ABI4 binds the promoter of a retrograde-regulated gene through a conserved motif found in close proximity to a light-regulatory element. We propose a model in which multiple indicators of aberrant plastid function in Arabidopsis are integrated upstream of GUN1 within plastids, which leads to ABI4-mediated repression of nuclear-encoded genes. |P /|
What is a plastid Cell | Process of Photosynthesis | Chloroplasts, chromoplast, leucoplasts & Other Plastids. Learn more about [email protected]
Kelly, A. A.; Kalisch, B.; Hoelzl, G.; Schulze, S.; Thiele, J.; Melzer, M.; Roston, R. L.; Benning, C.; Doermann, P.: Synthesis and transfer of galactolipids in the chloroplast envelope membranes of Arabidopsis thaliana. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 113 (38), S. 10714 - 10719 (2016 ...
Biology. Physical Sciences. Science and Industry. M.Sc. Bio Technology: Chloroplast Engineering in Orissa. M.Sc. Bio Technology: Chloroplast Engineering. The University at Jyoti Vihar provides Post-Graduate education in Twenty-seven subjects through Twenty Post-Graduate Departments. The University Post-Graduate Departments offer one-year study Programme
Studte, Carsten (2012): Characterization of the membrane protein Prat1 in the inner envelope of chloroplasts. Dissertation, LMU München: Faculty of Biology ...
Houben, E., Nilsson, R., de Gier, J.W., Brunner, J., Hoffman, N.E. and van Wijk, K.J. (1999) Reconstitution of co-translational targeting of polytopic membrane proteins to the thylakoids in a homologous chloroplast translation system. In: NATO advanced research workshop. The Chloroplast; From Molecular Biology to Biotechnology. (Dr. J. Argyroudi-Akoyunoglou and H. Senger, eds.), 327- ...
FtsH is an evolutionary conserved membrane-bound metalloprotease complex. While in most prokaryotes FtsH is encoded by a single gene, multiple FtsH genes are found in eukaryotes. Genetic and biochemical data suggest that the Arabidopsis chloroplast FtsH is a hetero-hexamer. This raises the question why photosynthetic organisms require a heteromeric complex, whereas in most bacteria a homomeric one is sufficient. To gain structural information of the possible complexes, the Arabidopsis FtsH2 (type B) and FtsH5 (type A) were modeled. An in silico study with mixed models of FtsH2/5 suggests that heteromeric hexamer structure with ratio of 4∶2 is more likely to exists. Specifically, calculation of the buried surface area at the interfaces between neighboring subunits revealed that a hetero-complex should be thermodynamically more stable than a homo-hexamer, due to the presence of additional hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions. To biochemically assess this model, we generated Arabidopsis transgenic
Unknown protein; FUNCTIONS IN: molecular_function unknown; INVOLVED IN: biological_process unknown; LOCATED IN: chloroplast thylakoid membrane, chloroplast thylakoid lumen, chloroplast; EXPRESSED IN: 22 plant structures; EXPRESSED DURING: 13 growth /.../; Has 38 Blast hits to 38 proteins in 13 species: Archae - 0; Bacteria - 0; Metazoa - 0; Fungi - 0; Plants - 38; Viruses - 0; Other Eukaryotes - 0 (source: NCBI BLink ...
Figure 1: Model of dual function of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. In this project, we aim at elucidating the precise molecular working mode of this regulatory principle involving metabolic control of gene expression. By following molecular, genetical, and biochemical approaches in C. reinhardtii, we use in vivo and in vitro techniques to characterize both the RNA binding and the enzymatic forms of DLA2 which appears to shuttle between different protein sub-complexes. A special focus is on the dynamics and composition of these complexes and the role of acetate/acetyl-CoA for balancing both functions of DLA2. This work is complemented by related analyses in cyanobacteria and higher plants, to test for an evolutionary conservation of such a regulatory switch.. A second project is based on recent work from our group that has shown that in C. reinhardtii the translation of the psbD mRNA encoding the D2 protein of PSII is redox-regulated via a single disulphide bridge between the trans-acting ...
Extranuclear inheritance or cytoplasmic inheritance is the transmission of genes that occur outside the nucleus. It is found in most eukaryotes and is commonly known to occur in cytoplasmic organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts or from cellular parasites like viruses or bacteria. Mitochondria are organelles which function to transform energy as a result of cellular respiration. Chloroplasts are organelles which function to produce sugars via photosynthesis in plants and algae. The genes located in mitochondria and chloroplasts are very important for proper cellular function, yet the genomes replicate independently of the DNA located in the nucleus, which is typically arranged in chromosomes that only replicate one time preceding cellular division. The extranuclear genomes of mitochondria and chloroplasts however replicate independently of cell division. They replicate in response to a cells increasing energy needs which adjust during that cells lifespan. Since they replicate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nucleotide sequence of the chloroplast 16S rRNA gene from pea (Pisum sativum L.). AU - Cerutti, H.. AU - Jagendorf, A. T.. PY - 1991/7/1. Y1 - 1991/7/1. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1007/BF00036812. DO - 10.1007/BF00036812. M3 - Article. C2 - 1868211. AN - SCOPUS:0026196725. VL - 17. SP - 125. EP - 126. JO - Plant Molecular Biology. JF - Plant Molecular Biology. SN - 0167-4412. IS - 1. ER - ...
Molecular phyl葉緑体rbcL遺伝子に基づく蘚類ギボウシゴケ目の分子系統学的研究ogeny of the Grimmiales (Musci) based on chloroplast rbcL sequences, Hikobia, 14巻, 1号, pp.55-pp. ...
The subspecies of Physaria kingii (S. Watson) OKane and Al-Shehbaz (Brassicaceae) have historically been a difficult group to delimit taxonomically based on morphology, geography, and ecology. The taxa have been moved between genera as well among varieties, subspecies, and full species many times over. This study addressed the systematics relationships of the subspecies of P. kingii using a combination of molecular (both nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequences), morphological, geographical, and ecological data. Three non-coding DNA regions were chosen: the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA and the chloroplast rps intron and the chloroplast ndhC-trnV intergenic spacer. Eighty-seven aligned sequences in total were selected and networks were constructed using SplitsTree for exploratory data analyses to identify any genealogical discordance for each of the regions in addition to a combined chloroplast region. With the prior knowledge of possible hybridization among P. k. subsp
Postglacial migration is a major factor responsible for the patterns of genetic variation we see in natural populations. Fossil pollen data indicate that early postglacial colonists such as oak, were able to take both western and eastern migration routes into Britain. Analysis at a finer level is now permitted by the use of modern molecular techniques. A 13-bp duplication in the chloroplast tRNALeul intron occurs in natural populations of East Anglian oaks, but is not found in other parts of Britain or from mainland Europe. The distribution of this marker suggests that the mutation occurred either in southern England, or during migration from the mainland, and became fixed in a source population from which East Anglia was colonized. Planting of non-native trees for roadside boundaries and in the grounds of old houses and estates, explains the absence of the marker from some East Anglian oaks.. ...
Plants need sunlight to feed and grow. Without light, the photosynthesis, the reaction by which the plant chloroplasts convert atmospheric CO2 and water into sugars and oxygen, cannot take place.
if you inject a chloroplast into an animal cell it will go through autophagocytosis because the cell iterprets it like foreign. in order for a chloroplast to function it must be in a plant cell because some genes, during evolution some genes were transfered between the chloroplast genome and the nucleus. However that would not happen as the cell would probably treat a foreign chloroplast or a foreign nucleus as foreign and digest it. Another possibility is for the cell to undergo apoptosis. Unfortunaly, i dont enough biology to answer such a complex question. Sorry ...
In this study we report the development of primers to amplify polymorphic chloroplast simple sequence repeats in the genus Hordeum, which includes cultivated barley (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare) and its wild progenitor H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum. Polymorphic products were amplified in a wide range of Hordeum spp. and intraspecific variation was detected in both cultivated and wild barley. A decrease in cytoplasmic diversity was observed between sspp. spontaneum and vulgare as well as between ssp. vulgare landraces and cultivars, which is characteristic of domestication processes in many crop species. We also observed possible evidence for reticulate evolution of H. brachyantherum polyploids, with apparent multiple cytoplasmic introgressions during successive polyploidization events. ...
This chloroplast is a magnified example of the cell organelle of photosynthesis.Whole or partial reproductions of plants and cells allow students to learn to identify and study the structures. Enlarged photosynthetic organisms and cellular components are highly detailed for concise understanding. Mounted on sturdy bases, models are protected against damage if dropped. The botany models are great for lab station activities or for a classroom display. The replicas serve as instant, indoor references for species from enormous trees to the smallest flower seeds.
Read Expression and import of an active cellulase from a thermophilic bacterium into the chloroplast both in vitro and in vivo, Plant Molecular Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Get this from a library! Photosynthetic adaptation : chloroplast to landscape. [William K Smith; Thomas Craig Vogelmann; Christa Critchley;] -- The impact of global change on sources, sinks, and sequestration of carbon and, ultimately, on future changes in plant distribution and biodiversity patterns depends upon the capacity of plants for ...
After our first demonstration of the early alteration of the chloroplast morphology with the use of both Confocal Microscopy and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and the discussion of the biological mechanisms, we develop here the optical part of this work and underline the merits of full field OCT for plant studies.
She mynolt eh chloroplast. Tad ry-akin ayns killagyn lossreeyn as eukaryota elley ta co-haaghey sollysh. Tad goaill bree jeh soilshey ny greiney, as jannoo ymmyd jeh dy yannoo co-vreneenyn tashtey bree; ATP as NADPH. Eisht, tad jannoo ymmyd jehn stoo shen dy ghoaill daa-ocseed charboan as troggal carbey-hydraad marish[1].. Ta bun Greagish ec y fockle: chloros (glass, geayney) as plast, (cummey, red). She sorçh dy phlastaid tayn.. ...
Photosynthesis takes place on specialized membranes, made up of proteins and lipids, in the chloroplasts of plant cells. LMU researchers have now discovered an unexpected link between the processes of lipid and protein biosynthesis.. The process of photosynthesis is a fundamental part of Earths biosphere. In plants and algae, the photosynthetic machinery is located in chloroplasts, intracellular compartments that have their own genetic machinery. The protein complexes required for photosynthesis are embedded in a lipid bilayer, forming specialized membranes called thylakoids. Thylakoid proteins and lipids are synthesized in the chloroplast but, as Professor Jörg Nickelsen of LMUs Biozentrum points out: So far, we know very little about how the two biosynthetic pathways are linked to allow for the coordinated assembly of thylakoids.. This is because the two pathways have traditionally been studied independently of each other. However, Nickelsen and his team have now identified a protein that ...
Chloroplast genome[edit]. The plastome of Arabidopsis thaliana is a 154,478 bp long DNA molecule,[31] a size typically ... Chloroplast genome map of Arabidopsis thaliana.[31][32] Introns are in grey. Some genes consist of 5′ and 3′ portions. Strand 1 ... A. thaliana was used extensively in the study of the genetic basis of phototropism, chloroplast alignment, and stomatal ... "Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplast, complete genome - NCBI accession number NC_000932.1". National Center for Biotechnology ...
Chloroplast targeting peptide[edit]. The N-terminal chloroplast targeting peptide (cpTP) allows for the protein to be imported ... In chloroplasts, signal peptides target proteins to the thylakoids. Mitochondrial targeting peptide[edit]. The N-terminal ... mitochondria and chloroplasts, the modified version N-formylmethionine, fMet). However, some proteins are modified ... into the chloroplast. N-terminal modifications[edit]. Protein N-termini can be modified co - or posttranslationally. ...
Chloroplasts none in algae and plants Organization usually single cells single cells, colonies, higher multicellular organisms ... Mitochondria and Chloroplasts: generate energy for the cell. Mitochondria are self-replicating organelles that occur in various ... Chloroplasts can only be found in plants and algae, and they capture the sun's energy to make carbohydrates through ... Some (such as the nucleus and golgi apparatus) are typically solitary, while others (such as mitochondria, chloroplasts, ...
ChloroplastsEdit. Many heterokonts are algae with chloroplasts surrounded by four membranes, which are counted from the ... However, fucoxanthin-containing chloroplasts are also found among the haptophytes. These two groups may have a common ancestry ... The chloroplasts characteristically contain chlorophyll a and chlorophyll c, and usually the accessory pigment fucoxanthin, ... The second membrane presents a barrier between the lumen of the cER and the primary endosymbiont or chloroplast, which ...
... which ultimately became chloroplasts in algae and later in plants. However, while chloroplasts of the higher plants, ... Chloroplasts (from the Greek chloros for green, and plastes for "the one who forms"[31]) are organelles that conduct ... A chloroplast is a type of organelle known as a plastid, characterized by its two membranes and a high concentration of ... Despite this, chloroplasts can be found in an extremely wide set of organisms, some not even directly related to each other-a ...
Instead, chloroplast genes encoded in chloroplast DNA are found on numerous 2-3 kbp minicircles, analogous to plasmids. Most ... have chloroplasts. The Amphidinium chloroplast genome is unusual in not having a single contiguous circular genome. ... Clade C3 chloroplast genome. Minicircle-derived transcripts can be processed in ways not typical of eukaryotes, including the ... There are reports of minicircles that do not have known transcripts, like in the Amphidinium carterae chloroplast genome, ...
Mitochondria were found to be most closely related to the α-purple subdivision of Gram negative bacteria and chloroplasts were ... Hsp10 and hsp60 are present in all eubacteria and organelles of eukaryotes (mitochondria and chloroplasts), but not in ... and chloroplasts. Any two hsp60 amino acid sequences share at least 40% similarity, with 18-20% of differences coming from ... support the current endosymbiosis model of the origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts. ...
2014). "The chloroplast view of the evolution of polyploid wheat". New Phytologist. 204 (3): 704-714. doi:10.1111/nph.12931. ...
Gillham, Nicholas W. (14 January 2014). "Chloroplasts and Mitochondria". In Reeve, Eric C.R. (ed.). Encyclopedia of Genetics. ... The descent of mitochondria from bacteria and of chloroplasts from cyanobacteria was experimentally demonstrated in 1978 by ... Margulis, L (2005). "Hans Ris (1914-2004). Genophore, chromosomes and the bacterial origin of chloroplasts". International ... Schwartz, R.; Dayhoff, M. (1978). "Origins of prokaryotes, eukaryotes, mitochondria, and chloroplasts". Science. 199 (4327): ...
Therefore, chloroplasts may be photosynthetic bacteria that adapted to life inside plant cells. Like mitochondria, chloroplasts ... A typical plant cell contains about 10 to 100 chloroplasts. The chloroplast is enclosed by a membrane. This membrane is ... An even closer form of symbiosis may explain the origin of chloroplasts. Chloroplasts have many similarities with ... Mollusc/algal chloroplast symbiosis". Plant Physiology. 123 (1): 29-38. doi:10.1104/pp.123.1.29. PMC 1539252. PMID 10806222.. ...
"Chloroplast Replication and Chloroplast DNA Synthesis in Spinach Leaves" (PDF). Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological ... Chloroplasts and cyanobacteria contain the blue-green pigment chlorophyll a.[77] Chlorophyll a (as well as its plant and green ... The Chloroplast. Plant Cell Monographs. 13. CiteSeerX doi:10.1007/978-3-540-68696-5_1. ISBN 978-3-540-68692-7. ... have unique organelles known as chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are thought to be descended from cyanobacteria that formed ...
The ribosomes found in chloroplasts and mitochondria of eukaryotes also consist of large and small subunits bound together with ...
Using a variety of molecular techniques, including immuno-electron microscopy, intermolecular chemical cross-linking, and X-ray crystallography, the location of the 5S rRNA within the large ribosomal subunit has been determined to great precision. In bacteria and archaea, the large ribosomal subunit (LSU) itself is composed of two RNA moieties, the 5S rRNA and another larger RNA known as 23S rRNA, along with numerous associated proteins.[3] In eukaryotes, the LSU contains 5S, 5.8S, and 28S rRNAs and even more proteins.[12][13] The structure of LSU in 3-dimensions shows one relatively smooth surface and the opposite surface having three projections, notably the L1 protuberance, the central protuberance (CP), and the L7/L12 stalk. The L1 protuberance and L7/L12 stalk are arranged laterally surrounding CP. The 5S rRNA is located in the CP and participates in formation and structure of this projection. The other major constituents of the central protuberance include the 23S rRNA (or alternatively ...
The ribosome of E. coli has about 22 proteins in the small subunit (labelled S1 to S22) and 33 proteins in the large subunit (somewhat counter-intuitively called L1 to L36). All of them are different with three exceptions: one protein is found in both subunits (S20 and L26), L7 and L12 are acetylated and methylated forms of the same protein, and L8 is a complex of L7/L12 and L10. In addition, L31 is known to exist in two forms, the full length at 7.9 kilodaltons (kDa) and fragmented at 7.0 kDa. This is why the number of proteins in a ribosome is of 56. Except for S1 (with a molecular weight of 61.2 kDa), the other proteins range in weight between 4.4 and 29.7 kDa.[9]. Recent 'de novo' proteomics experiments where the authors characterized in vivo ribosome-assembly intermediates and associated assembly factors from wild-type Escherichia coli cells using a general quantitative mass spectrometry (qMS) approach have confirmed the presence of all the known small and large subunit components and have ...
The shape of the small subunit can be subdivided into two large segments, the head and the body. Characteristic features of the body include the left and right feet, the shoulder and the platform. The head features a pointed protrusion reminiscent of a bird's beak. The mRNA binds in the cleft between the head and the body, and there are three binding sites for tRNA, the A-site, P-site and E-site (see article on protein translation for details). The core of the 40S subunit is formed by the 18S ribosomal RNA (abbreviated 18S rRNA), which is homologous to the prokaryotic 16S rRNA. This rRNA core is decorated with dozens of proteins. In the figure "Crystal Structure of the Eukaryotic 40S Ribosomal Subunit from T. thermophila", the ribosomal RNA core is represented as a grey tube and expansion segments are shown in red. Proteins which have homologs in eukaryotes, archaea and bacteria are shown as blue ribbons. Proteins shared only between eukaryotes and archaea are shown as orange ribbons and ...
ISBN 978-0-00-220212-1. Possingham, J.V.; Rose, R.J. (May 18, 1976). "Chloroplast Replication and Chloroplast DNA Synthesis in ... have unique organelles known as chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are thought to be descended from cyanobacteria that formed ... Chloroplasts and cyanobacteria contain the blue-green pigment chlorophyll a. Chlorophyll a (as well as its plant and green ... Chloroplasts are inherited through the male parent in gymnosperms but often through the female parent in flowering plants. A ...
Stellate chloroplasts also exist. The tubes rise in groups from the center. It thalli grow as clusters which carry cylindrical ...
Daniel I. Arnon demonstrates in the laboratory the chemical function of photosynthesis in chloroplasts. Heinz Sielmann makes ... Arnon, Daniel I.; Allen, Mary B.; Whatley, F. R. (1954). "Photosynthesis by Isolated Chloroplasts". Nature. 174 (4426): 394-6. ...
The algae contain chloroplasts that are similar in structure to cyanobacteria. Chloroplasts contain circular DNA like that in ... "Algae: Protists with Chloroplasts". "Research on microalgae". Wageningen UR. 2009. Archived from the ... Diatoms and brown algae are examples of algae with secondary chloroplasts derived from an endosymbiotic red alga. Algae exhibit ... However, the exact origin of the chloroplasts is different among separate lineages of algae, reflecting their acquisition ...
Blair, G. E.; Ellis, R. J. (1973). "Protein synthesis in chloroplasts. I. Light-driven synthesis of the large subunit of ... Highfield, P. E.; Ellis, R. J. (1978). "Synthesis and transport of the small subunit of chloroplast ribulose bisphosphate ... Barraclough, R.; Ellis, R. J. (1980). "Protein synthesis in chloroplasts IX. Assembly of newly-synthesised large subunits into ... 1973: First identification of a product of protein synthesis by chloroplast ribosomes. 1978: First demonstration of in vitro ...
Atkins, K.A. & Dodd, A.N. (2014). "Circadian Regulation of Chloroplasts". Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 21: 43-50. doi: ...
Member species possess chloroplasts. Reñé, Albert; de Salas, Miguel; Camp, Jordi; Balagué, Vanessa; Garcés, Esther (September ...
When the chloroplast runs low on ATP for the Calvin cycle, NADPH will accumulate and the plant may shift from noncyclic to ... This creates a gradient, making H+ ions flow back into the stroma of the chloroplast, providing the energy for the regeneration ... discovered photophosphorylation in vitro in isolated chloroplasts with the help of P32. His first review on the early research ... The concentration of NADPH in the chloroplast may help regulate which pathway electrons take through the light reactions. ...
Despite this, chloroplasts can be found in an extremely wide set of organisms, some not even directly related to each other-a ... A chloroplast is a type of organelle known as a plastid, characterized by its two membranes and a high concentration of ... Chloroplasts cannot be made by the plant cell and must be inherited by each daughter cell during cell division. Most ... Chloroplasts, like mitochondria, contain their own DNA, which is thought to be inherited from their ancestor-a photosynthetic ...
... chloroplast." National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. (retrieved 23 Oct 2011) v t e. ...
"Picea glauca chloroplast, complete genome". 3 December 2015.. Cite journal requires ,journal=. (help). ... The nuclear,[50] mitochondrial[51][52] and chloroplast[53] genomes of British Columbia interior spruce have been sequenced. The ... Aðalsteinn Sigurgeirsson & Alfred E. Szmidt (1993). "Phylogenetic and biogeographic implications of chloroplast DNA variation ...
Rhodoplasts: the red chloroplasts found in red algae. *Muroplasts (also known as cyanoplasts or cyanelles): the chloroplasts of ... Proplastids and young chloroplasts commonly divide by binary fission, but more mature chloroplasts also have this capacity. ... Chloroplasts: green plastids for photosynthesis. Etioplasts are the precursors of chloroplasts. * ... Red algae contain rhodoplasts, which are red chloroplasts that allow them to photosynthesize to a depth of up to 268 m.[5] The ...
... s may also be important for the opening of stomata[citation needed] and the movement of chloroplasts. Phototropins ... DeBlasio SL, Luesse DL, Hangarter RP (September 2005). "A plant-specific protein essential for blue-light-induced chloroplast ... "Chloroplast movement". Annu Rev Plant Biol. 54: 455-68. doi:10.1146/annurev.arplant.54.031902.135023. PMID 14502999. ... Phototropins have been shown to impact the movement of chloroplast inside the cell. In addition phototropins mediate the first ...
Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Walter P (2002). "Energy Conversion: Mitochondria and Chloroplasts". ... which uses their energy to pump protons across the thylakoid membrane in the chloroplast. These protons move back through the ...
Most chloroplasts in plant cells, and all chloroplasts in algae arise from chloroplast division.[168] Picture references,[141][ ... Almost all chloroplasts in a cell divide, rather than a small group of rapidly dividing chloroplasts.[170] Chloroplasts have no ... Some chloroplasts contain a structure called the chloroplast peripheral reticulum.[108] It is often found in the chloroplasts ... Hoober, J. K. (1984). Chloroplasts. Plenum: New York. *^ a b c d e f g h i j Biology 8th Edition Campbell & Reece. Benjamin ...
Some chloroplasts contain a structure called the chloroplast peripheral reticulum. It is often found in the chloroplasts of C4 ... Almost all chloroplasts in a cell divide, rather than a small group of rapidly dividing chloroplasts. Chloroplasts have no ... All chloroplasts have at least three membrane systems-the outer chloroplast membrane, the inner chloroplast membrane, and the ... Most dinophyte chloroplasts are secondary red algal derived chloroplasts. Many other dinophytes have lost the chloroplast ( ...
... a histone-like chloroplast protein (HC) coded by the chloroplast DNA that tightly packs each chloroplast DNA ring into a ... Most chloroplasts have their entire chloroplast genome combined into a single large ring, though those of dinophyte algae are a ... Chloroplast DNA has long been thought to have a circular structure, but some evidence suggests that chloroplast DNA more ... Protein synthesis within chloroplasts relies on an RNA polymerase coded by the chloroplasts own genome, which is related to ...
chloroplast (plural chloroplasts) *(cytology) An organelle found in the cells of green plants, and in photosynthetic algae, ... Retrieved from "" ...
For centuries, farmers have been genetically modifying their plants without even knowing it. Thats the message from German scientists who found that grafting, a common technique used to fuse parts of two plants together, causes the two halves to swap genes with each other. Grafting can involve fusing the stem of one plant (the scion) to the roots of another (the stock), or a dormant bud to another stem. There are many reasons for this - sometimes its the most cost-effective way of cultivating the scion, sometimes the stock has properties that the scion lacks including hardiness or… ...
Chris Taylor at Catalogue of Organisms has an absolutely stunning review of the origin of chloroplasts in eukaryotes. Its so ... Chris Taylor at Catalogue of Organisms has an absolutely stunning review of the origin of chloroplasts in eukaryotes. Its so ...
Science News was founded in 1921 as an independent, nonprofit source of accurate information on the latest news of science, medicine and technology. Today, our mission remains the same: to empower people to evaluate the news and the world around them. It is published by Society for Science & the Public, a nonprofit 501(c)(3) membership organization dedicated to public engagement in scientific research and education.. ...
Plants let chloroplasts know the time. Investigating the effect of different wavelengths of light Antony Dodd/University of ... As chloroplasts are the site of photosynthesis, their function is highly dependent on the daily changes in light environment. ... Circadian Control of Chloroplast Transcription by a Nuclear-Encoded Timing Signal by Noordally, Z., Ishii, K., Atkins, K., ... A result of this is that chloroplasts have retained some of the cellular machinery required to produce proteins from their own ...
Structure of plant chloroplast genome. Martin F. Wojciechowski Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window ... The complete chloroplast DNA sequence of the green alga Nephroselmis olivacea: Insights into the architecture of ancestral ... Physical and gene map of the green alga Nephroselmis chloroplast genome, showing the typical structural arrangement found in ... chloroplast genomes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 96: 10248-10253. ...
Chloroplasts are a type of plastid found in algae and plants. These organelles contain chlorophyll and, in higher plants, ... For instance, the alga Spirogyra has very pretty helical ribbon-shaped chloroplasts. However, the chloroplasts of higher plants ... Inside a chloroplast, one finds a colorless gel called the stroma. The stroma is very similar to the matrix fluid of ... Sometimes, chloroplasts can lose their chlorophyll and they then become chromoplasts. References: Introductory Plant Biology by ...
This study provides new insights into the relationship between oxidative stress and plant aging, and points out chloroplasts as ... The results indicate that the oxidative stress associated with the aging in plants accumulates progressively in chloroplasts, ... Plant aging increases oxidative stress in chloroplasts.. Munné-Bosch S1, Alegre L. ... Enhanced formation of malondialdehyde in leaves (2.7-fold) and chloroplasts (2.8-fold), decreased photosynthetic activity (25 ...
Adam Z (1996) Protein stability and degradation in chloroplasts. Plant Mol Biol 32: 773-783PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Liu X-Q and Jagendorf AT (1984) ATP dependent proteolysis in pea chloroplasts. FEBS Lett 166: 248-252CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Andersson B and Aro E-M (1997) Proteolytic activities and proteases of plant chloroplasts. Physiol Plant 100: 780-793CrossRef ... Matile P (1992) Chloroplast senescence. In Baker N and Thomas H (eds) Crop Photosynthesis: Spatial and Temporal Determinants pp ...
On the prokaryotic nature of red algal chloroplasts. L Bonen and W F Doolittle ... The sequences of oligonucleotides released by T1 ribonuclease digestion of 32-P-labeled 16S (chloroplast) and 18S (cytoplasmic ... These data provide a measure of the evolutionary distance separating existing chloroplasts from contemporary bacteria and blue- ... There is extensive sequence homology between the Porphyridium chloroplast 16S ribosomal RNA and each of the prokaryotic 16S ...
Chloroplasts are food producers only found in the cells of a plants and a select number of... ... Animal cells do not have chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are food producers only found in the cells of a plants and a select number ... Chloroplasts take the light energy given off by the sun and convert it into sugars, which are used by the cells to help the ... Chloroplasts are just one main part of the process known as photosynthesis. ...
... Christine D. Chase ctdc at GNV.IFAS.UFL.EDU Wed Oct 13 18:23:19 EST 1999 *Previous message: CUR list ...
Researchers now know which protein triggers light-harvesting plant chloroplasts to turn into cell defenders when a pathogen ... Plants swap chloroplasts via grafts. Science News Online, February 2, 2012.. J. Netting. Gene found for chloroplast movement. ... The chloroplasts grew tentacle-like projections called stromules that occasionally linked to other chloroplasts, possibly to ... The team suspected that a protein called chloroplast unusual positioning 1, or CHUP1, plays a role in rallying chloroplasts for ...
Photosynthesis takes place inside of chloroplasts, which are inside plant cells. Photosynthesis is the process by which plants ... Photosynthesis takes place inside of chloroplasts, which are inside plant cells. Photosynthesis is the process by which plants ... Thylakoids are disc-like shapes that trap the sunlight for this purpose, which are stacked inside chloroplasts. The thylakoids ...
This process is carried out in specialized organelles called chloroplasts. ... Since, like mitochondria, chloroplasts possess their own genomes (DNA), the stroma contains chloroplast DNA and special ... Chloroplasts are one of several different types of plastids, plant cell organelles that are involved in energy storage and the ... The ellipsoid-shaped chloroplast is enclosed in a double membrane and the area between the two layers that make up the membrane ...
... Date: Mon Jan 14 06:34:12 2008. Posted By: Eli Hestermann, Assistant Professor ... She said that sucrose is used as an osmotic stabilizer so that the chloroplast doesnt disintegrate. In other words, the buffer ...
cytochrome f (chloroplast) [Goodenia filiformis] cytochrome f (chloroplast) [Goodenia filiformis]. gi,917545576,gb,AKZ30916.1, ...
... Zhu Congju medp4076 at Tue Jun 25 04:02:15 EST 1996 *Previous message: ...
Cartoon Schematic of Electron Flow in Chloroplasts (image). DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory ...
Chloroplasts are flat discs usually two to ten micrometers (μm) in diameter and one micrometer thick. The chloroplast has a two ... The fluid within the chloroplast is called the stroma. Although most of the chloroplasts proteins are encoded by genes ... in which a eukaryotic cell engulfed a second eukaryotic cell containing chloroplasts, forming chloroplasts with three or four ... The term chloroplast is derived from the Greek words chloros which means "green" and plast which means "form" ( in biological ...
Chloroplast metabolism (WP1.1). Chloroplasts are the plant cell organelles containing chlorophyll. By means of photosynthesis ... Finally, chloroplasts can be used to harvest organic Vitamin E and K, which are best known for their antioxidant properties in ... The products of these genes may act on the positioning of chloroplasts but also on the orientation of the plant towards the ... Furthermore, chloroplasts have exceptional potential for the biosynthesis of pharmaceutical molecules, such as insulin for ...
What is chloroplast stroma. ?. The chloroplast stroma is the space enclosed by the inner membrane. This space is filled with a ... What does chloroplast produce during photosynthesis. ?. Chloroplast is the primary site of photosynthesis, which produces sugar ...
The chloroplast-to-nucleus signaling that depends on the GUN genes is also activated when the biogenesis of chloroplasts and ... Lincomycin blocks chloroplast biogenesis by inhibiting chloroplast translation (2).. GUN1 is associated with a number of ... 4) make a strong case that RNA editing in chloroplasts contributes to a type of chloroplast-to-nucleus signaling defined by the ... Thus, chloroplast dysfunction appears to activate this type of chloroplast-to-nucleus signaling (2). ...
... chloroplast to landscape. [William K Smith; Thomas Craig Vogelmann; Christa Critchley;] -- The impact of global change on ... Chloroplast to leaf / Neil R. Baker [and others] --. PART 4. CO₂ CAPTURE --. Chloroplast to leaf / John R. Evans [and others ... Photosynthetic adaptation : chloroplast to landscape. Author:. William K Smith; Thomas Craig Vogelmann; Christa Critchley. ... Chloroplast to leaf / Thomas D. Sharkey [and others] --. Leaf to landscape / David S. Ellsworth [and others] --. PART 6. ...
Chloroplasts are green because they contain the chlorophyll pigment. The word chloroplast (χλωροπλάστης) is derived from the ... Chloroplast. Chloroplasts (English pronunciation: /ˈklɒrəplæsts/) are organelles found in plant cells and other eukaryotic ... Chloroplasts capture light energy to conserve free energy in the form of ATP and reduce NADP to NADPH through a complex set of ... Researchers map daffodils chloroplast genome for the first time. Gardeners might end up never planting the wrong bulb again ...
PTK phosphorylates the chloroplast RNA polymerase PEP-A, inhibiting its activity and suppressing chloroplast gene expression. ... led to a higher ration of GSH to oxidized glutathione in chloroplasts and enhanced transcription rates for all chloroplast ... Chloroplasts are the energy-producing, photosynthesizing organelles of plants. These organelles have their own genome, which is ... GSH, in turn, may reduce PTK, inhibiting the enzyme activity and allowing the chloroplast RNA polymerase activity to increase, ...
... the chloroplasts in the mesophyll cells of the leaf are able to increase or decrease their exposure to light by accumulating at ... Wada M (2013) Chloroplast movement. Plant Sci 210:177-182. doi: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2013.05.016 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Phototropin Arabidopsis Chloroplast movements Microplate reader This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check ... In response to low or high intensities of light, the chloroplasts in the mesophyll cells of the leaf are able to increase or ...
  • A chloroplast is a type of organelle known as a plastid , characterized by its two membranes and a high concentration of chlorophyll . (
  • The first definitive description of a chloroplast ( Chlorophyllkörnen , "grain of chlorophyll") was given by Hugo von Mohl in 1837 as discrete bodies within the green plant cell. (
  • [13] On the thylakoid membranes are photosynthetic pigments , including chlorophyll a . [14] Phycobilins are also common cyanobacterial pigments, usually organized into hemispherical phycobilisomes attached to the outside of the thylakoid membranes (phycobilins are not shared with all chloroplasts though). (
  • Sometimes, chloroplasts can lose their chlorophyll and they then become chromoplast s. (
  • Chloroplasts are minute flattened granules, usually occurring in great numbers in the cytoplasm near the cell wall, and consist of a colorless ground substance saturated with chlorophyll pigments. (
  • Chloroplasts /ˈklɔːrəˌplæsts, -plɑːsts/ are organelles that conduct photosynthesis, where the photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll captures the energy from sunlight, converts it, and stores it in the energy-storage molecules ATP and NADPH while freeing oxygen from water in plant and algal cells. (
  • Enhanced formation of malondialdehyde in leaves (2.7-fold) and chloroplasts (2.8-fold), decreased photosynthetic activity (25%), and lower chlorophyll (ca. 20%) and chloroplastic antioxidant defense levels (ca. 25%-85%) were observed in 7-year-old plants, when compared with 1- and 3-year-old plants. (
  • Yellow-to-red colored chromoplasts manufacture carotenoids, and the green colored chloroplasts contain the pigments chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, which are able to absorb the light energy needed for photosynthesis to occur. (
  • Utilizing chlorophyll and water , chloroplasts capture light energy from the sun to produce the free energy stored in ATP and NADPH through a process called photosynthesis. (
  • Chloroplasts are the plant cell organelles containing chlorophyll. (
  • Indeed, when chloroplast biogenesis is blocked in light-grown seedlings, PhANGs are expressed at lower levels than are observed in dark-grown seedlings, which contain etioplasts-an intermediate in chloroplast biogenesis that accumulates in the absence of light-dependent gene expression and chlorophyll biosynthesis. (
  • Chloroplasts are green because they contain the chlorophyll pigment. (
  • The main components of chloroplasts are the membranes, chlorophyll and other pigments, grana and stroma. (
  • They observed that those seedlings whose chloroplasts had a high carotenoid and chlorophyll concentration elongated significantly when they were in the shade of others, or, in other words, activated the SAS. (
  • Chlorophyll, a green pigment found in chloroplasts, is an important part of the light-dependent reactions. (
  • A chloroplast is a plastid that contains high amounts of green pigment, chlorophyll . (
  • Chlorophyll a is present in all chloroplasts. (
  • The high amounts of chlorophyll give chloroplast a green color, making it easily recognizable from the other plastids. (
  • Physical and gene map of the green alga Nephroselmis chloroplast genome, showing the typical structural arrangement found in land plants. (
  • The first complete chloroplast genome sequences were published in 1986, Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) by Sugiura and colleagues and Marchantia polymorpha (liverwort) by Ozeki et al. (
  • Most chloroplasts have their entire chloroplast genome combined into a single large ring, though those of dinophyte algae are a notable exception-their genome is broken up into about forty small plasmids, each 2,000-10,000 base pairs long. (
  • It is possible that the inverted repeats help stabilize the rest of the chloroplast genome, as chloroplast DNAs which have lost some of the inverted repeat segments tend to get rearranged more. (
  • The chloroplast genome is considerably reduced compared to that of free-living cyanobacteria, but the parts that are still present show clear similarities. (
  • Gardeners might end up never planting the wrong bulb again after the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) and Reading University successfully mapped a daffodil's chloroplast genome for the first time. (
  • Adapted from Krishnan NM, Rao BJ's paper "A comparative approach to elucidate chloroplast genome replication. (
  • We used chloroplast simple sequence repeats (cpSSRs) to examine whether there is any variation present in the chloroplast genome of Pinus torreyana (Parry ex Carrière) that may previously not have been detected using RFLPs. (
  • This lack of biological variation in the chloroplast genome of P. torreyana allowed us to estimate the mutation rates at cpSSR loci as between 3.2 × 10 -5 and 7.9 × 10 -5 . (
  • This estimate is lower than published mutation rates at nuclear SSR loci but higher than substitution rates elsewhere in the chloroplast genome. (
  • W eber and W ong 1993 ) but to date there have been no figures published for mutation rates at simple repeat loci in the chloroplast genome-indeed, to date no SSR mutation rates for any plant genomes have been published. (
  • During evolution, several chloroplast-encoded genes transferred to the host's nuclear genome. (
  • Identification of the "A" genome of finger millet using chloroplast DNA. (
  • Phylogeographic and population genetic screens of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) provide insights into seedbased gene flow in angiosperms, yet studies are frequently hampered by the low mutation rate of this genome. (
  • Chloroplast (cp) genome sequences have been proven to be an informative and valuable source of cp DNA markers for genetic diversity evaluation. (
  • As the photosynthetic factory of the plant cell, the chloroplast contains its own complement of genes distinct from the comparably sized mitochondrial genome in the energy center of the cell or the much larger genome in the cell nucleus. (
  • The chloroplast genome can be more informative in some ways than the complete nuclear genome, and easier to analyze than plant mitochondrial DNA," said Brent Mishler, professor of integrative biology at the University of California, Berkeley, and director of the Jepson and University Herbaria. (
  • But with organelles, either mitochondria or chloroplasts, we can pull out this bit of DNA that is physically separate from the nuclear genome and get this collection of homologous genes. (
  • MF in 93-11 is about twice as high as that of PA64S or Nipponbare-G chloroplast genome. (
  • Genes were annotated according to the published chloroplast genome ( Hiratsuka, et al. (
  • Second, a genome-wide analysis of chloroplast transcript accumulation in cp31a mutants detected a virtually complete loss of the chloroplast ndhF mRNA and lesser reductions for specific other mRNAs. (
  • This work suggests the usefulness of chloroplast genome markers to provide information on haplotype distributions that could help to identify further geographical areas for grapevine varietal evolution. (
  • During the transition from endosymbiont to organelle most of the cyanobacterial genes were transferred to the nuclear genome of the host cell, resulting in a chloroplast with a much reduced genome that requires massive import of gene products (proteins) back to the organelle. (
  • Chloroplasts, like mitochondria , contain their own DNA , which is thought to be inherited from their ancestor-a photosynthetic cyanobacterium that was engulfed by an early eukaryotic cell. (
  • Many researchers think they evolved millions of years ago when the first eukaryote s developed from single-celled organisms that engulfed but did not digest a single-celled photosynthetic organism (the precursor to the chloroplast was probably something like a cyanobacterium ). (
  • These data provide a measure of the evolutionary distance separating existing chloroplasts from contemporary bacteria and blue-green algae, and are discussed in terms of the hypothesis that these organelles evolved from endosymbiotic photosynthetic prokaryotes. (
  • But when the gene was active, chloroplasts shut off their photosynthetic machinery and formed a defensive onslaught , the researchers report January 9 at (
  • They look as if they're going back to their ancestral origins when they were free-living microbes," Bozkurt says, referring to the theory that chloroplasts were once photosynthetic bacteria that were captured millions of years ago by the common ancestor of plants and algae. (
  • All photosynthetic reactions in the plant or algal cell occur in this organelle, and thus the chloroplast is the origin of all of the food (sugar) used by the other organelles of the plant or algae. (
  • Chloroplasts develop from nonphotosynthetic proplastids during the development of photosynthetic organs such as cotyledons and leaves. (
  • In an invitro transcription assay, preincubation of PEP-A with PTK inhibits expression of both photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic chloroplast genes. (
  • Chloroplasts are one of the most important components of a plant because the entire photosynthetic process takes place in them. (
  • The CRAG researchers pharmacologically reduced the concentration of photosynthetic pigments in the chloroplasts, and measured the variation in their length when the plantlets were exposed to conditions that simulate plant shade. (
  • During evolution, chloroplasts were formed from photosynthetic bacteria that were incorporated into other cells, which eventually gave rise to the plants. (
  • The photosynthetic activity and surface structure of chloroplast and 'thylakoid membranes using SPM techniques and CLSM has been investigated. (
  • In chloroplasts, photosynthetic electron transport generates a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane which then drives ATP synthesis via ATP synthase. (
  • Most renewable carbon is fixed by photosynthetic organisms through their chloroplasts. (
  • Chloroplast photorelocation movement is one such photomovement response, and is found not only in most green plants, but also in some red algae and photosynthetic stramenopiles. (
  • Chloroplast photorelocation movement (hereafter, chloroplast movement) is found in a broad range of plant and algal species including chlorophyte and charophyte green algae and land plants (Viridiplantae: Chlorophyta and Streptophyta), red algae (Rhodophyta), and photosynthetic stramenopiles ( Senn, 1908 ). (
  • Photosynthetic electron transport regulates chloroplast gene transcription through the action of a bacterial-type sensor kinase known as chloroplast sensor kinase (CSK). (
  • Although chloroplast genomes are miniscule by eukaryotic standards, they encode some of the core proteins of the photosynthetic machinery [ 6 , 7 ]. (
  • Increased global transcription of chloroplast genes in high light enables chloroplasts to keep up with an increased demand for components of the photosynthetic machinery as the rate of photosynthesis increases. (
  • Deletion of the Chlamydomonas chloroplast atpB 3′ IR in strain Δ26 results in reduced accumulation of atpB transcripts and the chloroplast ATPase β-subunit, leading to weakly photosynthetic growth. (
  • When the 3′ IR of the chloroplast atpB gene was deleted in strain Δ26, atpB mRNA became heterogeneous and unstable, and the resulting decrease in protein accumulation limited photosynthetic growth ( 48 ). (
  • Insights into the architecture of ancestral chloroplast genomes. (
  • From genomes that probably originally contained over 3000 genes only about 130 genes remain in the chloroplasts of contemporary plants. (
  • Similar inverted repeats exist in the genomes of cyanobacteria and the other two chloroplast lineages (glaucophyta and rhodophyceæ), suggesting that they predate the chloroplast, though some chloroplast DNAs like those of peas and a few red algae have since lost the inverted repeats. (
  • Since, like mitochondria, chloroplasts possess their own genomes (DNA), the stroma contains chloroplast DNA and special ribosomes and RNAs as well. (
  • In flowering plants, RNA editing converts cytidines to uridines in the RNAs transcribed from the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes ( 3 ). (
  • 4 ) make a strong case that RNA editing in chloroplasts contributes to a type of chloroplast-to-nucleus signaling defined by the genomes uncoupled ( gun ) mutants in Arabidopsis . (
  • Genetic relationships between chloroplast genomes were studied to trace the evolutionary history of the species. (
  • Twenty-five chloroplast genomes were sequenced, and 1127 plant accessions were genotyped, representing 13 Triticum and Aegilops species. (
  • Aegilops speltoides is the closest relative of the diploid donor of the chloroplast (cytoplasm), as well as the B and G genomes to Timopheevi and Emmer lineages. (
  • The biologists will compare chloroplast genomes, as well as mitochondrial genomes and nuclear genes, along with morphological characteristics to determine plant relationships among the more ancient plant groups such as the mosses, algae and ferns. (
  • Only about 15 green plant chloroplast genomes have been sequenced, and even fewer mitochondrial genomes - about 10 - so our project will be a big step forward. (
  • Comparisons of intravarietal and intersubspecific SNPs in rice chloroplast genomes. (
  • The locations of polymorphic sites between chloroplast genomes of 93-11 and PA64S were documented according to the nucleotide order of the 93-11 chloroplast DNA sequence. (
  • The past decade has witnessed an explosion of our knowledge on the structure, coding capacity and evolution of the genomes of the two DNA-containing cell organelles in plants: chloroplasts (plastids) and mitochondria. (
  • As evidence of their bacterial origin, chloroplasts contain functional genomes, which are nevertheless greatly reduced in coding capacity when compared with the genomes of free-living cyanobacteria [ 3 - 5 ]. (
  • A result of this is that chloroplasts have retained some of the cellular machinery required to produce proteins from their own chloroplast DNA. (
  • This enables the nuclear DNA to regulate the activity of chloroplast genes, and ensure that the production of proteins essential for photosynthesis is co-ordinated with daylight. (
  • Some of its proteins were then synthesized in the cytoplasm of the host cell, and imported back into the chloroplast (formerly the cyanobacterium). (
  • One consequence of this distribution of genetic material is that many of the multisubunit protein complexes that are central to energy metabolism are composed of proteins encoded by nuclear genes and either chloroplast genes (photosynthesis) or mitochondrial genes (respiration). (
  • gun mutant screens have yielded a large number of mutant alleles of genes that encode a plastidic pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein named GUN1, a blue-light receptor named cryptochrome 1 (cry1), and proteins that contribute to tetrapyrrole metabolism (GUN2, GUN3, GUN4, GUN5, and GUN6), which occurs in chloroplasts and nonphotosynthetic plastids. (
  • Kodama Y, Suetsugu N, Kong SG, Wada M (2010) Two interacting coiled-coil proteins, WEB1 and PMI2, maintain the chloroplast photorelocation movement velocity in Arabidopsis. (
  • They have the own DNA and ribosomes, and produce their own proteins-the Chloroplast knows what needs to be done, and does it! (
  • It also contains ribosomes , although most of its proteins are encoded by genes contained in the host cell nucleus, with the protein products transported to the chloroplast. (
  • Thus, in modern plant and algal cells, many nuclear-encoded chloroplast proteins synthesized in the cytosol of the cell must be imported across both the outer and inner chloroplast membranes in a process that requires energy. (
  • In 2013, Osaka University researchers headed by Masato Nakai discovered and characterized a huge novel transport channel (TIC) in the inner chloroplast membrane through which proteins were transported ( Science , 339, 571--574. (
  • This understanding could aid biotechnological improvements in the efficiency of crop photosynthesis, or the development of plants and algae as factories that manufacture or store proteins in their chloroplasts. (
  • We found a signaling pathway, which senses the Cu that is available to the chloroplast and which mediates the down-regulation of non-essential nuclear-encoded Cu-proteins under Cu limitation. (
  • Most chloroplast proteins (cp proteins) are nucleus-encoded, synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes as precursor proteins containing a presequence (cTP), and post-translationally imported via the Tic/Toc complex into the organelle, where the cTP is removed. (
  • Four proteins, including embryo defective 1211, glycolate oxidase 2, protein disulfide isomerase-like protein (PDII), and a putative glutathione S-transferase, could be unambiguously assigned to the chloroplast. (
  • Several others ('potential cp proteins') were found to be imported into chloroplasts in vitro, but failed to localize to the organelle when RFP was fused to their C-terminal ends. (
  • A similar process operates in the importing of proteins into the chloroplast. (
  • In this study, a main effort was specifically made for the annotation of proteins from the chloroplast envelope, the site of interaction between plastids and the rest of the cell. (
  • Thus, nearly 500 proteins (about 1323 proteins identified in the chloroplast) were identified in the envelope while they correspond to (in mass) only 1-2% of the chloroplast proteins. (
  • The chloroplast contains densely stacked arrays of light-harvesting proteins ideal for harnessing solar energy. (
  • Over time, the photoactive proteins within the chloroplast become photodamaged due to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. (
  • Chloroplast ribonucleoproteins (cpRNPs) are nuclear-encoded, highly abundant, and light-regulated RNA binding proteins. (
  • Taken together, the specificity and combinatorial aspects of cpRNP functions uncovered suggest that these chloroplast proteins are functional equivalents of nucleocytosolic hnRNPs. (
  • Using immunofluorescence microscopy and expression of green fluorescent protein fusion proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana , we demonstrate here that FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 localize to coaligned rings at the chloroplast midpoint. (
  • however, chloroplast- and mitochondria- encoded proteins conserve the patterns of Archaea and Bacteria, in agreement with their phylogenetic origin. (
  • Based on current knowledge about gene transference from the chloroplast to the nucleus, we report a strong correlation between the rate of disorder of transferred and nuclear-encoded proteins, even for polypeptides that play functional roles back in the chloroplast. (
  • All proteins studied within this thesis are localized in the chloroplast, the organelle that originated from cyanobacteria, in which plants and algae convert the energy from sunlight into carbohydrates in the process called photosynthesis. (
  • The majority of these proteins are translated in the cytosol as pre-proteins containing targeting information that directs them to a translocon complex in the chloroplast envelope, the Toc-Tic system, through which these proteins are transported. (
  • Since chloroplasts lack N-glycosylation machinery, we propose that a route for chloroplast proteins that require endomembrane-specific post-translational modifications for their functionality exists as a complement to the Toc-Tic system. (
  • It's particularly fascinating that the process we identified makes use of genes that pre-date modern land plants and originates from the bacteria that gave rise to chloroplasts. (
  • The products of these genes may act on the positioning of chloroplasts but also on the orientation of the plant towards the light. (
  • The mutant alleles from this screen uncouple the expression of photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes (PhANGs) from chloroplast function. (
  • The chloroplast-to-nucleus signaling that depends on the GUN genes is also activated when the biogenesis of chloroplasts and etioplasts is not blocked but their activities are attenuated. (
  • Exposure of mustard plants to high-intensity light (HL) led to a higher ration of GSH to oxidized glutathione in chloroplasts and enhanced transcription rates for all chloroplast genes tested compared with those in plants grown under light conditions optimal for growth (GL). (
  • This regulatory system supports a proposal for the selection pressure behind the evolutionary stasis of chloroplast genes. (
  • Chloroplast genes retain prokaryotic genetic organization, and are transcribed from bacterial-type gene promoters by a eubacterial multisubunit RNA polymerase known as the plastid-encoded polymerase (PEP) [ 10 - 12 ]. (
  • As its name indicates, all subunits of the PEP, except its sigma factor subunit, are products of chloroplast genes. (
  • The sigma factor subunit of the PEP recognizes the bacterial-type gene promoters of chloroplast genes. (
  • Some chloroplasts also contain a second, phage-type single-subunit RNA polymerase known as the nuclear encoded polymerase (NEP), which transcribes DNA from distinct promoter elements found in some chloroplast genes [ 10 , 16 ]. (
  • Transcriptional regulation in plant chloroplasts was thought to occur only during their early development, when there is a global increase in transcription of chloroplast genes. (
  • This view, however, has to be abandoned in the light of a series of experiments showing robust transcriptional regulation of genes in mature plant chloroplasts [ 19 - 21 ]. (
  • The first such experiment was a demonstration that chloroplast genes respond to increasing light intensity by increasing their rate of transcription [ 19 , 22 ]. (
  • First, analysis of cp31a and cp31a/cp31b double mutants uncovers that these 2 paralogous genes participate nonredundantly in a combinatorial fashion in processing a subset of chloroplast editing sites in vivo. (
  • Chloroplast genes are often organized into operons and gene clusters, which are transcribed into precursor transcripts that undergo complex processing events including splicing and intercistronic cleavages (reviewed in references 35 and 49 ). (
  • The ability to introduce altered genes into the chloroplast of the green alga C. reinhardtii presented the opportunity to test the in vitro results in an in vivo context. (
  • Inside a chloroplast, one finds a colorless gel called the stroma . (
  • In primitive red algae, the chloroplast DNA nucleoids are clustered in the center of a chloroplast, while in green plants and green algae, the nucleoids are dispersed throughout the stroma. (
  • Enclosed by the chloroplast membrane is the stroma , a semi-fluid material that contains dissolved enzymes and comprises most of the chloroplast's volume. (
  • The fluid within the chloroplast is called the stroma . (
  • The chloroplast stroma is the space enclosed by the inner membrane. (
  • Inside, a chloroplast is filled with a fluid called stroma. (
  • The material within the chloroplast is called the stroma, corresponding to the cytosol of the original bacterium, and contains one or more molecules of small circular DNA. (
  • The stroma is a gel-like substance that surrounds the thylakoid membranes in each chloroplast. (
  • Targets for Cu delivery in plant chloroplasts are plastocyanin in the thylakoids and Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD) in the stroma. (
  • The inner membrane separates the narrow intermembrane space from the aqueous interior of the chloroplast, called the stroma. (
  • The second part of photosynthesis-the Calvin cycle-is light-independent and takes place in the stroma of the chloroplast. (
  • 1183 words - 5 pages Each chloroplast has two outer membranes, which encloses a semi-fluid interior called the stroma. (
  • The AT_Chloro database was established achieving nearly 500 analyzes of highly purified fractions of the three major subcompartments of the chloroplast (envelope, stroma and thylakoids). (
  • Biswal B (1997) Chloroplast metabolism during leaf greening and degreening. (
  • In eukaryotes, this essential metabolism is performed by chloroplasts and mitochondria. (
  • Changes in chloroplast redox signalling pathways and reactive oxygen species metabolism also mediate local and systemic signals, which modulate plant resistance to light stress and disease. (
  • Figure 2: : Subcellular metabolism of terpene compounds in the chloroplast deduced from the semi-quantitative proteomic data. (
  • Here, we demonstrate that null mutants of the cpRNP family member CP31A exhibit highly specific and diverse defects in chloroplast RNA metabolism. (
  • Chloroplasts are crucial specialized structures within a cell that generate energy and produce storage- and cell metabolism-related molecules that underpin cell growth. (
  • The number of chloroplasts per cell varies from one, in unicellular algae, up to 100 in plants like Arabidopsis and wheat . (
  • Trojan A, Gabrys H (1996) Chloroplast distribution in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) depends on light conditions during growth. (
  • Sakai T, Kagawa T, Kasahara M, Swartz TE, Christie JM, Briggs WR, Wada M, Okada K (2001) Arabidopsis nph1 and npl1: blue light receptors that mediate both phototropism and chloroplast relocation. (
  • Kagawa T, Wada M (2000) Blue light-induced chloroplast relocation in Arabidopsis thaliana as analyzed by microbeam irradiation. (
  • DeBlasio SL, Mullen JL, Luesse DR, Hangarter RP (2003) Phytochrome modulation of blue light-induced chloroplast movements in Arabidopsis. (
  • We examined the changes in photosynthesis, chloroplast morphology and proteomic composition posed in Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplasts after a single or repetitive heat stress treatment over a period of two weeks. (
  • These data were then structured in AT_Chloro, a database specific of the chloroplast from Arabidopsis thaliana . (
  • Through molecular genetic analysis using Arabidopsis thaliana , many molecular factors that regulate chloroplast photorelocation were identified. (
  • In chloroplasts of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana , as many as six sigma factors are found [ 13 - 15 ]. (
  • Chloroplast-to-Nucleus Signaling Regulates MicroRNA Biogenesis in Arabidopsis. (
  • In Arabidopsis thaliana , leaf mesophyll cells ultimately contain over 100 chloroplasts, compared with 14 proplastids in meristematic cells ( Pyke and Leech 1992 ). (
  • Our data show that FtsH11 has an influence on the structure and function of chloroplasts of Arabidopsis plants grown under continuous light along with protein import into the same. (
  • We have identified a protein in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana , CAH1, that is trafficked via the endomembrane system (ER/Golgi apparatus) to the chloroplast instead of using the Toc-Tic machinery. (
  • Vi visar också att muterade växter som inte kan uttrycka genen som kodar för CAH1 uppvisar lägre upptag av CO 2 , samt ackumulerar mindre stärkelse än vildtypplantor, vilket antyder att CAH1 har en viktig funktion för den fotosyntetiska förmågan hos Arabidopsis. (
  • The two innermost lipid-bilayer membranes that surround all chloroplasts correspond to the outer and inner membranes of the ancestral cyanobacterium's gram negative cell wall, and not the phagosomal membrane from the host, which was probably lost. (
  • In green plants, chloroplasts are surrounded by two lipid-bilayer membranes . (
  • A chloroplast has two membranes, separated by a thin inter-membrane space. (
  • There are three types of membranes in chloroplasts: the outer membrane, the inner membrane and the thylakoid membranes. (
  • The effect of DMSO (dimethyl sulphoxide) on electron transport in chloroplast membranes has been studied. (
  • Although division of bacteria requires cell wall peptidoglycan synthesis at the division septum as well as constriction of the cytoplasmic membrane, division of chloroplasts, which lack the peptidoglycan wall, requires the constriction and severing of two envelope membranes. (
  • Adam Z (1996) Protein stability and degradation in chloroplasts. (
  • Though chloroplast DNA is not associated with true histones, in red algae, a histone-like chloroplast protein (HC) coded by the chloroplast DNA that tightly packs each chloroplast DNA ring into a nucleoid has been found. (
  • CALL TO ARMS When attacked by a funguslike microbe (magenta), plants activate a protein that marshals chloroplasts (yellow) as a defensive army. (
  • The team suspected that a protein called chloroplast unusual positioning 1, or CHUP1, plays a role in rallying chloroplasts for defense. (
  • The protein is better known for helping move chloroplasts to where light enters the cell and then attaching the organelles to the cell membrane there. (
  • The Benning lab has identified a rhomboid-like protein that may help plant chloroplasts tune their lipid production. (
  • Now, in The Plant Cell , this same team has collaborated with other Japanese researchers to report the identification of the elusive protein transport motor that is essential for chloroplast formation. (
  • These findings revolutionize the molecular model of chloroplast protein import, and help us understand the evolution of plant and algal chloroplasts," explains Nakai. (
  • Localization experiments show that both transporters function in chloroplasts and that the PAA1 protein is in the chloroplast periphery. (
  • It is proposed that cTPs may be designed to interact with a succession of different chaperones on the chloroplast protein-import pathway. (
  • Moreover, the extent of thylakoid membrane formation is directly correlated to the amount of Vipp1 protein available in the chloroplast. (
  • Moreover, the physiological capacity and its adjustment are dependent on the efficiency of the protein translocation process as judged from the analysis of mutants of the two receptor units of the chloroplast translocon, TOC64, and TOC33. (
  • Studte, Carsten (2012): Characterization of the membrane protein Prat1 in the inner envelope of chloroplasts. (
  • The photosystems are the functional units of photosynthesis where the initial light-driven electron transfer reactions take place [ 8 , 9 ], and their major protein subunits are always chloroplast-encoded [ 6 , 7 ]. (
  • We show here that GUN1, a chloroplast-localized pentatricopeptide-repeat protein, and ABI4, an Apetala 2 (AP2)-type transcription factor, are common to all three pathways. (
  • Previous studies have revealed that inhibiting TOR (target of rapamycin), a highly conserved protein kinase, represses nuclear rRNA transcription in many eukaryotes, and hence Associate Professor Sousuke Imamura and colleagues hypothesized that TOR regulates rRNA transcription in chloroplasts and mitochondria. (
  • When RNA molecules containing the IR sequences were incubated in spinach chloroplast protein extracts, they were correctly processed at their 3′ ends and the products were stable for several hours. (
  • Among the events that accompanied the evolution of chloroplasts from their endosymbiotic ancestors was the host cell recruitment of the prokaryotic cell division protein FtsZ to function in chloroplast division. (
  • Perturbation in the level of either protein in transgenic plants is accompanied by plastid division defects and assembly of FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 into filaments and filament networks not observed in wild-type, suggesting that previously described FtsZ-containing cytoskeletal-like networks in chloroplasts may be artifacts of FtsZ overexpression. (
  • Further study of CAH1 will not only be important to reveal its role in photosynthesis, but characterization of this novel protein pathway to the chloroplast can also shed light on how the plant cell evolved and clarify the purpose of keeping several chloroplast import pathways working in parallel. (
  • [12] Like chloroplasts, they have thylakoids within. (
  • Both chloroplasts and cyanobacteria have a double membrane, DNA , ribosomes , and thylakoids . (
  • Thylakoids are disc-like shapes that trap the sunlight for this purpose, which are stacked inside chloroplasts. (
  • Inside chloroplasts are special stacks of pancake-shaped structures called thylakoids (Greek thylakos = sack or pouch). (
  • This model of a chloroplast shows the stacked thylakoids. (
  • Mitochondria and chloroplasts differ from other cellular compartments by their endosymbiotic origin, their semiautonomous genetic systems, their role in energy transduction, and their complex biology. (
  • The 2020 Gordon Research Conference on Mitochondria and Chloroplasts will bring together established scientists and young researchers to present and discuss emerging aspects of organelle biology. (
  • Each session of the GRC on Mitochondria and Chloroplasts will be introduced by an expert Discussion Leader who will provide a general overview to integrate the research communities and stimulate conceptual discussions. (
  • This GRC will be held in conjunction with the "Mitochondria and Chloroplasts (GRS)" Gordon Research Seminar (GRS). (
  • Plants have both mitochondria and chloroplasts. (
  • Both mitochondria and chloroplasts convert one form of energy into another form that cells can use. (
  • In 1960, at the International Congress of Cell Biology, I reported these observations, which strongly supported the old idea of endosymbiotic origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts. (
  • 754 words - 4 pages must be imported into mitochondria and chloroplasts. (
  • Chloroplasts carry out a number of other functions, including fatty acid synthesis , much amino acid synthesis, and the immune response in plants. (
  • [5] Chloroplasts are only found in plants , algae , [11] and the amoeboid Paulinella chromatophora . (
  • It is thought that chloroplasts were originally free-living organisms that were incorporated into the cells of plants very early in plant evolutionary history. (
  • Chloroplasts are a type of plastid found in algae and plants. (
  • However, the chloroplasts of higher plants tend to look the same. (
  • This study provides new insights into the relationship between oxidative stress and plant aging, and points out chloroplasts as one of the target organelles of age-associated oxidative stress in plants. (
  • This study shows that from a certain age, oxidative stress increases progressively in chloroplasts as plants age, whereas photosynthesis is reduced. (
  • The results indicate that the oxidative stress associated with the aging in plants accumulates progressively in chloroplasts, and that the contribution of oxidative stress to aging increases as plants age. (
  • Chloroplasts are food producers only found in the cells of a plants and a select number of protists. (
  • mostly those of land plants and green algae-glaucophytes, red algae, and other algae groups are extremely underrepresented, potentially introducing some bias in views of "typical" chloroplast DNA structure and content. (
  • It's possible, he says, that these responses are vestiges of chloroplasts' primitive defense system that plants have co-opted for their own immunity. (
  • All of the green structures in plants, including stems and unripened fruit, contain chloroplasts, but the majority of photosynthesis activity in most plants occurs in the leaves. (
  • Most of the sugars created in the chloroplast are converted by the plants into starch , which is stored in the plastids. (
  • When light-grown plants are treated with inhibitors or harbor mutant alleles that block chloroplast biogenesis at a stage resembling proplastids, the expression-usually the transcription-of PhANGs is severely down-regulated. (
  • Chloroplasts are the energy-producing, photosynthesizing organelles of plants. (
  • [5] Since then, hundreds of chloroplast DNAs from various species have been sequenced , but they are mostly those of land plants and green algae - glaucophytes , red algae , and other algae groups are extremely underrepresented, potentially introducing some bias in views of "typical" chloroplast DNA structure and content. (
  • Chloroplasts are found in many parts of plants, but are mainly found in the mesophyll tissue of leaves, where photosynthesis takes place. (
  • Chloroplasts absorb light and use it in conjunction with water and carbon dioxide to produce sugars, the raw material for energy and biomass production in all green plants and the animals that depend on them, directly or indirectly, for food. (
  • [2] In that they derive from an endosymbiotic event, chloroplasts are similar to mitochondria but chloroplasts are found only in plants and protista . (
  • A chloroplast is a type of structure, called an organelle, that is found in plants and is where photosynthesis occurs. (
  • Expression of Pst_12806 in plants reduces electron transport rate, photosynthesis, and production of chloroplast-derived ROS. (
  • Although its fundamental role in plants is still the photosynthesis, the results of this work support the idea that chloroplasts also participate in the adjustment of the plant morphological development to light. (
  • Next to Cu/ZnSOD, plants have a FeSOD in the chloroplast. (
  • Green algae and plants, including green stems and unripe fruit, harbor chloroplasts-the vital organelles where photosynthesis takes place. (
  • In plants, the highest density of chloroplasts is found in the mesophyll cells of leaves. (
  • Chloroplasts are metabolically versatile organelles that carry out fundamental functions in determining appropriate immune reactions in plants. (
  • This review highlights the central role of chloroplasts in the signalling crosstalk that essentially determines the outcome of plant-pathogen interactions in plants. (
  • Chloroplasts are tiny factories inside the cells of plants. (
  • How did plants get chloroplasts? (
  • His studies of the structure of genetic material led him to be the first modern scientist to document the similarity, if not identity, between the nucleoids of cyanobacteria (then called "primitive plants", "Cyanophyceae", "cyanophytes" or "blue-green algae") and those of the chloroplasts of algae (e.g. (
  • Berkeley - As biologists try to tease out the finer details of the green plant family tree, one key may lie in the cellular organelle - the chloroplast - that makes green plants green. (
  • Finally, understanding the metabolic processes of the chloroplast is essential if one wants to analyze the impact of environmental change on plants. (
  • In land plants, chloroplast movement is dependent on specialized actin filaments, chloroplast-actin filaments (cp-actin filaments). (
  • In this Perspective, we discuss the evolutionary history of the molecular mechanism for chloroplast photorelocation movement in green plants in view of cp-actin filaments. (
  • In most land plants, where cells have many small chloroplasts, the chloroplasts move toward weak light to capture light efficiently (the accumulation response), and they move away from strong light to reduce photodamage (the avoidance response). (
  • In plants and algae, photosynthesis takes place in cytoplasmic organelles known as chloroplasts. (
  • Plastid-to-nucleus retrograde signaling coordinates nuclear gene expression with chloroplast function and is essential for the photoautotrophic life-style of plants. (
  • In higher plants, two nuclear-encoded forms of FtsZ, FtsZ1 and FtsZ2, play essential and functionally distinct roles in chloroplast division, but whether this involves ring formation at the division site has not been determined previously. (
  • [9] This origin of chloroplasts was first suggested by the Russian biologist Konstantin Mereschkowski in 1905 [10] after Andreas Schimper observed in 1883 that chloroplasts closely resemble cyanobacteria . (
  • Cyanobacteria are considered the ancestors of chloroplasts. (
  • Both the chloroplast and cyanobacterium depicted are idealized versions (the chloroplast is that of a higher plant )-a lot of diversity exists among chloroplasts and cyanobacteria. (
  • Chloroplasts are considered endosymbiotic Cyanobacteria. (
  • The theorized origin of chloroplasts-developed through a mutually-beneficial symbiotic relationship between a cyanobacteria and a prokaryote -reflects a view, advocated by Lynn Margulis, that life developed more through cooperation than through competition. (
  • Chloroplasts are generally considered to have originated as endosymbiotic cyanobacteria . (
  • This was first suggested by Mereschkowsky in 1905 [1] after an observation by Schimper in 1883 that chloroplasts closely resemble cyanobacteria. (
  • Aseeva, Elena (2005): Vipp1 structure and function in cyanobacteria and chloroplasts. (
  • Chloroplasts originated from free-living cyanobacteria, which established an endosymbiotic relationship with a eukaryotic host cell around 1.2 billion years ago [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • With one exception (the amoeboid Paulinella chromatophora ), all chloroplasts can probably be traced back to a single endosymbiotic event , when a cyanobacterium was engulfed by the eukaryote. (
  • Despite this, chloroplasts can be found in an extremely wide set of organisms, some not even directly related to each other-a consequence of many secondary and even tertiary endosymbiotic events . (
  • The chloroplast import motor was derived from the membrane-bound protease of an endosymbiotic cyanobacterial-like ancestor. (
  • Chloroplasts are one of several different types of plastids , plant cell organelles that are involved in energy storage and the synthesis of metabolic materials. (
  • Chloroplasts are members of a class of organelles known as plastids. (
  • Invasion triggered a cascade of molecular signals that prompted CHUP1 to mobilize chloroplasts. (
  • Kong SG, Wada M (2014) Recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanism of chloroplast photorelocation movement. (
  • In this study, molecular phylogeny of 35 generally accepted genera in Maleae is established using 15 chloroplast regions. (
  • Organismal lineages and the presence of molecular factors for chloroplast photorelocation movement. (
  • The outer membrane surrounds the chloroplast and allows molecules to move into and out of the organelle without discretion. (
  • In particular, we will examine the chloroplast, the organelle where photosynthesis as well as other relevant metabolic routes take place. (
  • This chloroplast is a magnified example of the cell organelle of photosynthesis. (
  • Among the strategies of quantitative proteomic analyzes that have been developed, the AMT (Accurate Mass Tags and time) method (see the thematic letter on the Analyse protéomique ) and the so-called Spectral count method allowed these researchers to establish the first AMT database for a specific organelle of the plant cell, the chloroplast. (
  • The chloroplast is the organelle within a plant cell where photosynthesis takes place. (
  • In experiments, when researchers silenced the gene for CHUP1, chloroplasts mostly didn't respond to an infection. (
  • PTK phosphorylates the chloroplast RNA polymerase PEP-A, inhibiting its activity and suppressing chloroplast gene expression. (
  • GSH, in turn, may reduce PTK, inhibiting the enzyme activity and allowing the chloroplast RNA polymerase activity to increase, leading to increased chloroplast gene expression. (
  • Chloroplast DNA Interactive gene map of chloroplast DNA from Nicotiana tabacum . (
  • Thus, photosynthesis in the chloroplasts is altered in a progressive manner, generating retrograde signals that travel from the chloroplast to the nucleus to change gene expression and attenuate plant elongation. (
  • In the core Maleae including 31 genera, chloroplast gene data support that the four Malus -related genera should better be merged into one genus and the six Sorbus -related genera would be classified into two genera, whereas all Photinia -related genera should be accepted as distinct genera. (
  • Even though chloroplasts contain an elaborate transcriptional machinery capable of regulatory control, the principal mode of gene regulation in chloroplasts has long been considered to be post-transcriptional [ 17 , 18 ]. (
  • They found that this inhibition increased the expression of a nuclear-encoded chloroplast gene, CmRSH4b, which encodes a homolog of the signal molecule guanosine 3? (
  • Chris Taylor at Catalogue of Organisms has an absolutely stunning review of the origin of chloroplasts in eukaryotes. (
  • Algae generally have only one or two chloroplasts per cell, but higher plant s can have more than a hundred per cell. (
  • Chloroplasts are organelles (compartments) found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis . (
  • As the source of all photosynthesis, the chloroplast serves a larger purpose by providing food for the entire plant or algae, and by extension for those organisms that consume these autotrophs. (
  • It is interesting to note that in some algae (such as the heterokonts and other protists such as Euglenozoa and Cercozoa), chloroplasts seem to have arisen through a secondary event of endosymbiosis , in which a eukaryotic cell engulfed a second eukaryotic cell containing chloroplasts, forming chloroplasts with three or four membrane layers. (
  • Other living organisms such as algae also have cells that contain chloroplasts. (
  • Electron microscopic analysis showed a striking resemblance between chloroplast structure and cell organization of blue-green algae. (
  • Blue light is the most effective means of inducing chloroplast movement though red light is also effective in some ferns, mosses, and green algae (for review, see Suetsugu and Wada, 2007 ). (
  • The CSK-SIG1 system represents a novel, rewired chloroplast-signalling pathway created by evolutionary tinkering. (
  • The ellipsoid-shaped chloroplast is enclosed in a double membrane and the area between the two layers that make up the membrane is called the intermembrane space . (
  • A double membrane surrounds chloroplasts. (
  • Chloroplast haplotypes were often shared by species or subspecies within major lineages and between the lineages, indicating the contribution of introgression to the evolution and domestication of polyploid wheats. (
  • The chloroplast trnL intron and trnL-F intergenic spacer regions were sequenced and the sequences were used to design primers to amplify the microsatellites present within each region. (
  • J. Provan, W. Powell and P. M. Hollingsworth, "Chloroplast Microsatellites: New Tools for Studies in Plant Ecology and Evolution," Trends in Ecology and Evolution, Vol. 16, No. 3, 2001, pp. 142-147. (
  • In this work, eight universal chloroplast microsatellites are used to assess genetic relationships among varieties selected as representatives of four distinct geographical groups from Middle-East to Western European regions. (
  • Next, we will investigate metabolic interactions of the chloroplast with other cellular compartments, such as mitochondria and cytoplasm. (
  • Researchers at the Cell & Plant Physiology Laboratory and at the EDyP team developed an innovative proteomics strategy targeting various highly-purified chloroplast compartments. (
  • There is extensive sequence homology between the Porphyridium chloroplast 16S ribosomal RNA and each of the prokaryotic 16S ribosomal RNAs, but little homology between the Porphyridium cytoplasmic 18S ribosomal RNA and any of the 16S species. (
  • Chloroplast (ct) DNA sequence analysis using restriction fragment pattern was used to examine the phylogenetic relationships between E. coracana subsp. (
  • Sequence of mature phosphoglycerate kinase from spinach chloroplasts. (
  • The 10th row is the published chloroplast sequence of Nipponbare-H from GenBank. (
  • In this study we report the development of primers to amplify polymorphic chloroplast simple sequence repeats in the genus Hordeum , which includes cultivated barley ( H. vulgare ssp. (
  • A general characteristic of the 3′ untranslated regions of chloroplast mRNAs is an inverted repeat (IR) sequence that can fold into a stem-loop structure. (
  • The effect of dimethyl sulphoxide on electron transport in chloroplasts. (
  • It has been found that concentrations of DMSO up to 20% (v/v) do not inhibit electron transport in freshly isolated chloroplasts, but that higher concentrations start to cause inhibition. (
  • However, in chloroplasts that have been aged for 8 to 24 hours by storage at 4 degrees C, the addition of DMSO at concentrations up to 20% causes stimulation of electron transport. (
  • Interference of electron transport inhibitors with desaturation of monogalactosyl diacylglycerol in intact chloroplasts. (
  • The effects of electron transport inhibitors on chloroplast lipid-linked desaturation were therefore investigated. (
  • Chloroplasts have their own DNA, often abbreviated as cpDNA. (
  • The mechanism for chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) replication has not been conclusively determined, but two main models have been proposed. (
  • We show that screening universal chloroplast amplicons for length polymorphism provides an accurate and efficient method for identifying cpDNA variation. (
  • Chloroplasts have their own DNA and it is called chloroplast DNA or cpDNA. (
  • Length polymorphism scanning is an efficient approach for revealing chloroplast DNA variation. (
  • Chloroplasts (English pronunciation: /ˈklɒrəplæsts/) are organelles found in plant cells and other eukaryotic organisms that conduct photosynthesis. (
  • Chloroplasts appear only in eukaryokic organisms, which are primarily non-animal. (
  • Both chloroplasts and mitochondria originated more than a billion years ago, when bacteria colonized early single-celled organisms, establishing a symbiotic relationship that has allowed plant cells to get energy from sunlight and both plant and animal cells to produce energy efficiently. (
  • Mitochondrion and chloroplast are two organelles that are very important to organisms. (
  • Chloroplasts are the site of photosynthesis, the process which most organisms, including humans, rely on directly or indirectly for their source of organic compounds and energy. (
  • Chloroplasts were once free-living bacteria! (
  • Both chloroplasts and bacteria divide by binary fission, in which a division furrow forms at the midpoint and then constricts until the two daughter cells or chloroplasts separate. (
  • Damage by reactive oxygen species during photosynthesis is recognized by a ubiquitin ligase, which marks out damaged chloroplasts for degradation. (
  • Eventually, the larger organism developed into the eukaryotic cell, the smaller organism into the chloroplast. (
  • They found that TOR modulates the transcription of chloroplast rRNA, as well as that of nuclear and mitochondrial rRNA, in a model unicellular red alga, Cyanidioschyzon merolae . (
  • a green pigment found in small organelles called chloroplasts. (
  • Berg R, Koniger M, Schjeide BM, Dikmak G, Kohler S, Harris GC (2006) A simple low-cost microcontroller-based photometric instrument for monitoring chloroplast movement. (
  • Mouse fibroblasts (L cells) in suspension culture incorporated isolated chloroplasts of spinach and African violets and isolated mitochondria of chicken liver. (
  • Like mitochondria , chloroplasts contain their own genetic material (DNA) and they are believed to have evolved in a similar fashion. (
  • The gun mutant screen was the first forward genetic screen developed that specifically interrogates chloroplast-to-nucleus signaling. (
  • Previous studies on morphological ( H aller 1986 ), isozyme ( L edig and C onkle 1983 ), and chloroplast restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) ( W aters and S chaal 1991 ) variation in P. torreyana have shown that there is very little genetic variation present in the species. (
  • Further genetic and biochemical analyses demonstrated that the formation of CmRSH4b-dependent ppGpp in chloroplasts is an important regulator of chloroplast rRNA transcription. (
  • By using a microplate reader, quantitative measurements of chloroplast accumulation or avoidance can be monitored over time, for multiple samples with relatively little hands-on time. (
  • Singlet oxygen accumulation marks severely stressed chloroplasts for degradation. (
  • In general, chloroplasts move toward weak light to maximally capture photosynthetically active radiation (the chloroplast accumulation response), and they move away from strong light to avoid photodamage (the avoidance response). (
  • The process causes modifications in mitochondrial cristae, condensation of the nucleus, shrinkage of chloroplasts and extensive alteration of thylakoid structure. (
  • Thus, the coordination of nuclear and chloroplast (or mitochondrial) activities requires the anterograde flow of information from the nucleus and retrograde signaling back to the nucleus. (
  • In response to low or high intensities of light, the chloroplasts in the mesophyll cells of the leaf are able to increase or decrease their exposure to light by accumulating at the upper and lower sides or along the side walls of the cell respectively. (
  • As plant cells mature, they enlarge and differentiate, and during this process the chloroplasts in the mesophyll cells of the leaf undergo several additional rounds of replication. (
  • Parts of a plant that contain these chloroplasts can carry out photosynthesis because they can absorb the light energy for the reaction. (
  • The outer membrane faces the cytoplasm of the plant cell on one side and the intermembrane space of the chloroplast on the other. (
  • Interacts (via C-terminus) with PDV2 (via C-terminus) in the chloroplast intermembrane space. (
  • Photosynthesis occurs in a plant's chloroplast structures. (
  • The numerous green bodies are chloroplasts, where the process of photosynthesis occurs. (
  • Being the place where photosynthesis occurs, chloroplasts perform many other functions such as the synthesis of fatty acids, lipids, amino acids, vitamins, etc. (
  • The chloroplast has a two membrane envelope termed the inner membrane and outer membrane , respectively. (
  • The chloroplast is contained by an envelope that consists of an inner and an outer phospholipid membrane. (
  • The inner membrane is located underneath the outer and is more discriminatory about what it allows in and out of the chloroplast. (
  • The chloroplast has at least three membrane systems: outer membrane, inner membrane, and thylakoid system. (
  • Chloroplasts are highly dynamic-they circulate and are moved around within plant cells, and occasionally pinch in two to reproduce. (
  • Plant cells communicate information about the time of day to their chloroplasts, the part of their cells that underpins all agricultural productivity on Earth, researchers at the University of Bristol have demonstrated in a study published today in Science. (
  • However, chloroplasts are also involved in creating amino acid s and fatty acid s for their cells. (
  • Do animal cells have chloroplasts? (
  • Chloroplasts take the light energy given off by the sun and convert it into sugars, which are used by the cells to help the plant stay healthy and grow. (
  • Photosynthesis takes place inside of chloroplasts, which are inside plant cells. (
  • Plant cells are remarkable in that they have two organelles specialized for energy production: chloroplasts, which create energy via photosynthesis, and mitochondria, which generate energy through respiration, a particularly important process when light is unavailable. (
  • Chloroplast has a unmatched foreign policy plan: The chloroplast exports oxygen, which all cells need to survive. (
  • Chloroplast Signaling within, between and beyond Cells. (
  • How do plant cells get rid of chloroplasts that are not working as they should? (
  • Green chloroplasts were followed for five cell generations or 5 days, at which time hybrid cells were greatly outnumbered by nongreen progeny cells. (
  • The ingested chloroplasts retained their structural integrity as determined by electron microscopy of organelles and hybrid cells and by analysis of photochemical activity and DNA in chloroplasts reisolated from cells after 1 or 2 days in culture. (
  • In this review, we elaborate on the role of chloroplasts as a central metabolic and regulatory hub, which largely specifies the extent and quality of defensive measures in plant cells. (
  • Chloroplasts entered a symbiotic (Greek syn = together, and bios = life) relationship with another cell, which eventually led to the plant cells we have today. (
  • While chloroplast is found in plant cells only, mitochondrion is found in both animal and plant cells. (
  • Chloroplasts can be found only in plant cells and some protists. (
  • Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) have found that eukaryotic and bacterial growth regulation systems of independent origins are connected to the control of chloroplast rRNA transcription in a primitive red alga. (
  • indicating that bacterial cell and chloroplast division are evolutionarily and mechanistically related. (
  • Nonetheless, there are a number of prokaryotic traits that chloroplasts continue to exhibit. (
  • This process occurs in almost all plant species and is carried out in specialized organelles known as chloroplasts. (
  • Confocal microscopy verifies that the mechanism of remedial ROS scavenging by the dNC occurs external to the isolated chloroplast. (
  • In gun mutants, when chloroplast biogenesis is blocked, PhANG expression is significantly up-regulated relative to the wild type because of abnormal chloroplast-to-nucleus signaling. (
  • Thus, chloroplast dysfunction appears to activate this type of chloroplast-to-nucleus signaling ( 2 ). (
  • Increases in the levels of GUN6 (also known as ferrochelatase 1) activate chloroplast-to-nucleus signaling, probably by increasing heme biosynthesis. (
  • cry1 can accumulate in either the cytosol or the nucleus and up-regulates or down-regulates PhANG expression depending on factors that influence cellular conditions, such as chloroplast function. (
  • Our study reveals a chloroplast-to-nucleus signaling mechanism that favors miRNA biogenesis under heat and possibly other environmental perturbations. (
  • It appeared that the PspA-like domain of Vipp1 is responsible for both complex formation and localisation of Vipp1 at the inner envelope of chloroplasts while the C-terminal domain is not involved in these processes. (
  • Right so Chloroplast a. release a high energy electron when they recieve light energy from pigments. (
  • Biswal UC and Biswal B (1988) Ultrastructural modifications and biochemical changes during senescence of chloroplasts. (
  • After biomass has been produced and characterized (biochemical composition), chloroplasts will be isolated to analyse the metabolic processes inside. (
  • The sequences of oligonucleotides released by T1 ribonuclease digestion of 32-P-labeled 16S (chloroplast) and 18S (cytoplasmic) ribosomal RNAs from a marine species of Porphyridium (Rhodophyta) have been determined. (
  • Although we know that retrograde signals from chloroplasts (i.e., chloroplast signals) influence numerous chloroplastic and extrachloroplastic processes, we still have major gaps in our knowledge of this type of signaling ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • Isolated intact chloroplasts are able to desaturate fatty acids in newly synthesized monogalactosyl diacylglycerol. (
  • These studies focus on several model systems ranging from LB films of chI a to intact chloroplasts. (
  • But how does TOR regulate chloroplast rRNA transcription in a cell? (
  • We characterized eight polymorphic microsatellite markers for sickleweed that included six nuclear and two chloroplast markers. (
  • S. Piya and M. Nepal, "Characterization of Nuclear and Chloroplast Microsatellite Markers for Falcaria vulgaris (Apiaceae)," American Journal of Plant Sciences , Vol. 4 No. 3, 2013, pp. 590-595. (
  • Many nucleoids can be found in each chloroplast. (
  • cpRNPs have been found associated with mRNAs present in chloroplasts and have been regarded as nonspecific stabilizers of chloroplast transcripts. (