A subtype of thioredoxins found primarily in CHLOROPLASTS.
Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
A thioredoxin subtype that is ubiquitously found in the plant kingdom. It reduces a variety of seed storage proteins and may play a role in the germination process of seeds.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.
Proteins encoded by the CHLOROPLAST GENOME or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the CHOROPLASTS.
A FLAVOPROTEIN enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of THIOREDOXINS to thioredoxin disulfide in the presence of NADP+. It was formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.5
A family of thioltransferases that contain two active site CYSTEINE residues, which either form a disulfide (oxidized form) or a dithiol (reduced form). They function as an electron carrier in the GLUTHIONE-dependent synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides by RIBONUCLEOTIDE REDUCTASES and may play a role in the deglutathionylation of protein thiols. The oxidized forms of glutaredoxins are directly reduced by the GLUTATHIONE.
The genetic complement of CHLOROPLASTS as represented in their DNA.
Ribonucleic acid in chloroplasts having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
Rare cutaneous eruption characterized by extensive KERATINOCYTE apoptosis resulting in skin detachment with mucosal involvement. It is often provoked by the use of drugs (e.g., antibiotics and anticonvulsants) or associated with PNEUMONIA, MYCOPLASMA. It is considered a continuum of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.
Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)
Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.
Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.
One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.
The application of knowledge to the food industry.
Foods and beverages prepared for use to meet specific needs such as infant foods.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)
Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.
A large multisubunit protein complex that is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to drive electron transfer reactions that result in either the reduction of NADP to NADPH or the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.
Information intended for potential users of medical and healthcare services. There is an emphasis on self-care and preventive approaches as well as information for community-wide dissemination and use.
Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions.
Differences of opinion or disagreements that may arise, for example, between health professionals and patients or their families, or against a political regime.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)
Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.
Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Diseases caused by abnormal function of the MITOCHONDRIA. They may be caused by mutations, acquired or inherited, in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes that code for mitochondrial components. They may also be the result of acquired mitochondria dysfunction due to adverse effects of drugs, infections, or other environmental causes.
A syndrome characterized by HYPERPIGMENTATION, enlarging pituitary mass, visual defects secondary to compression of the OPTIC CHIASM, and elevated serum ACTH. It is caused by the expansion of an underlying ACTH-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA that grows in the absence of feedback inhibition by adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS, usually after ADRENALECTOMY.
Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.

Chloroplast thioredoxin mutants without active-site cysteines facilitate the reduction of the regulatory disulphide bridge on the gamma-subunit of chloroplast ATP synthase. (1/37)

The activity of the chloroplast H+-ATPase (CFoCF1) is regulated by the proton electrochemical membrane potential and the reduction or the formation of the disulphide bridge on the gamma-subunit mediated by chloroplast thioredoxins (Trx). The latter regulation also applies to the water-soluble portion of CFoCF1 (CF1) and includes two successive steps, namely the binding of Trx to CF1 and the subsequent reduction or oxidation of CF1. To study this process thoroughly, a new expression system for spinach Trx-f and Trx-m was designed. In the presence of dithiothreitol (DTT) both forms of the expressed Trx could reduce the disulphide bridge on the gamma-subunit of CF1 and thus activate the ATPase. Trx mutants deficient in the internal, or both, cysteines of the active site were designed to study the details of the interaction. The Trx mutant proteins could still activate CF1-ATPase in the presence of DTT and they also increased the apparent affinity of CF1 for DTT. This implies that the binding of Trx to the CF1 gamma-subunit induces a conformational change facilitating the reduction of the disulphide bridge, and partially explains the high efficiency of Trx as a reductant in vivo.  (+info)

Mechanism of light regulation of Rubisco: a specific role for the larger Rubisco activase isoform involving reductive activation by thioredoxin-f. (2/37)

Rubisco activase is a nuclear-encoded chloroplast protein that is required for the light activation of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) in vivo. In most plants examined to date, there are two isoforms of Rubisco activase arising from alternative splicing that differ only at the carboxyl terminus. Here we demonstrate with recombinant proteins that in Arabidopsis the larger isoform has a unique role in the regulation of Rubisco activity. At physiological ratios of ADP/ATP, the 46-kDa isoform has minimal ATP hydrolysis and Rubisco activation activity in comparison with the 43-kDa isoform. Analysis of a series of carboxyl-terminal deletion and Ala substitution mutants of the 46-kDa isoform revealed that the presence of Cys residues at positions 411 and 392 were essential to preserve a low ATP hydrolysis and Rubisco activation activity in the presence of ADP. Consequently, incubation of the 46-kDa isoform with DTT and thioredoxin-f increased both activities, whereas incubations with DTT alone or with thioredoxin-m were ineffective. Thioredoxin-f and DTT had no effect on the 43-kDa isoform. However, premixing both isoforms before conducting a reduction and oxidation cycle demonstrated that the activity of both isoforms could be regulated. Reduction and oxidation also modulated the activity of native activase proteins isolated from either Arabidopsis or spinach, but not tobacco, which only has the smaller isoform. These findings suggest that in plants containing both isoforms, Rubisco activase regulates the activity of Rubisco in response to light-induced changes in both the ADP/ATP ratio and the redox potential via thioredoxin-f.  (+info)

Kinetic and mutational analyses of the regulation of phosphoribulokinase by thioredoxins. (3/37)

Despite little supportive data, differential target protein susceptibility to redox regulation by thioredoxin (Trx) f and Trx m has been invoked to account for two distinct Trxs in chloroplasts. However, this postulate has not been rigorously tested with phosphoribulokinase (PRK), a fulcrum for redox regulation of the Calvin cycle. Prerequisite to Trx studies, the activation of spinach PRK by dithiothreitol, 2-mercaptoethanol, and glutathione was examined. Contrary to prior reports, each activated PRK, but only dithiothreitol supported Trx-dependent activation. Comparative kinetics of activation of PRK showed Trx m to be more efficient than Trx f because of its 40% higher V(max) but similar S(0.5). Activations were insensitive to ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase, which may complex with PRK in vivo. To probe the basis for superiority of Trx m, we characterized site-directed mutants of Trx f, in which unique residues in conserved regions were replaced with Trx m counterparts or deleted. These changes generally resulted in V(max) enhancements, the largest (6-fold) of which occurred with T105I, reflective of substitution in a hydrophobic region that opposes the active site. Inclusive of the present study, activation kinetics of several different Trx-regulated enzymes indicate redundancy in the functions of the chloroplastic Trxs.  (+info)

Expression of thioredoxins f and m, and of their targets fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and NADP-malate dehydrogenase, in pea plants grown under normal and light/temperature stress conditions. (4/37)

Thioredoxins (Trxs) f and m, as well as their targets chloroplast fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) and NADP+-malate dehydrogenase (NADP-MDH), displayed transcriptional expression in both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic organs of pea plants (Pisum sativum L. cv. Lincoln) grown for 50 d under normal irradiance. However, whereas Trx m and both target enzymes were poorly expressed in non-photosynthetic tissues, the content of the precursor form of the Trx f-specific mRNA was high in pea roots. In contrast, the translational expression of Trx f was low in this organ. The high FBPase activity in immature seeds, and the low activity of leaves, must be related to high starch synthesis in the first, and with high sucrose formation in the second. The transcriptional expression of FBPase and NADP+-MDH, and to a lesser extent that of Trxs f and m, was inhibited under low irradiance in plants grown under both normal and high temperatures. Pea plants grown at low temperature displayed a high level of mRNAs for Trxs and their targets, especially when the growth was carried out at low light. To a lesser extent, similar behaviour was observed at the protein level. Chloroplasts of mesophyll leaf cells of pea plants grown under saturating light, or under sub-saturating continuous irradiance, showed broken envelopes, distorted structural elements and disorganized starch grains, as a consequence of a photobleaching process and high starch accumulation.  (+info)

Heterodimer formation between thioredoxin f and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase from spinach chloroplasts. (5/37)

Chloroplast fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) is activated by reduction of a regulatory disulfide through thioredoxin f (Trx f). In the course of this reduction a transient mixed disulfide is formed linking covalently Trx f with FBPase, which possesses three Cys on a loop structure, two of them forming the redox-active disulfide bridge. The goal of this study was to identify the Cys involved in the transient mixed disulfide. To stabilize this reaction intermediate, mutant proteins with modified active sites were used. We identified Cys-155 of the FBPase as the one engaged in the formation of the mixed disulfide intermediate with Cys-46 of Trx f.  (+info)

Rapeseed chloroplast thioredoxin-m. Modulation of the affinity for target proteins. (6/37)

The stroma of higher plant chloroplasts contains two thioredoxins (Trx) with different specificity for the reduction of protein disulfide bonds. Based upon electrostatic features of domains that participate in the thiol/disulfide exchange, we prepared mutants of rapeseed Trx-m bearing opposite charges at a single position and subsequently analyzed their action on the activation of rapeseed chloroplast fructose 1,6-phosphate (CFBPase). The replacement of Pro-35 with lysine and glutamic residues enhanced and impaired, respectively, the stimulation of CFBPase relative to the wild-type and the P35A mutant. Furthermore, the shielding of electrostatic interactions with high concentrations of KCl greatly increased and concurrently made indistinguishable the affinity of all variants for CFBPase. The capacity to stimulate the enzyme activity likewise was enhanced concertedly by fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and Ca(2+) but, at variance with the action of KCl, remained sensitive to charges in the side chain of mutants. These results were consistent with a mechanism in which intermolecular electrostatic interactions and intramolecular non-covalent interactions control the formation of the non-covalent complex between reduced Trx and oxidized CFBPase and, in so doing, modulate the thiol/disulfide exchange.  (+info)

Chloroplast cyclophilin is a target protein of thioredoxin. Thiol modulation of the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity. (7/37)

Chloroplast cyclophilin has been identified as a potential candidate of enzymes in chloroplasts that are regulated by thioredoxin (Motohashi, K., Kondoh, A., Stumpp, M. T., and Hisabori, T. (2001) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 98, 11224-11229). In the present study we found that the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity of cyclophilin is fully inactivated in the oxidized form. Reduction of cyclophilin by thioredoxin-m recovered the isomerase activity. Two crucial disulfide bonds were determined by disulfide-linked peptide mapping. The relevance of these cysteines for isomerase activity was confirmed by the mutagenesis studies. Because four cysteine residues in Arabidopsis thaliana cyclophilin were conserved in the isoforms from several organisms, it appears that this redox regulation must be one of the common regulation systems of cyclophilin.  (+info)

Poplar peroxiredoxin Q. A thioredoxin-linked chloroplast antioxidant functional in pathogen defense. (8/37)

Peroxiredoxins are ubiquitous thioredoxin- or glutaredoxin-dependent peroxidases, the function of which is to destroy peroxides. Peroxiredoxin Q, one of the four plant subtypes, is a homolog of the bacterial bacterioferritin comigratory proteins. We show here that the poplar (Populus tremula x Populus tremuloides) protein acts as a monomer with an intramolecular disulfide bridge between two conserved cysteines. A wide range of electron donors and substrates was tested. Unlike type II peroxiredoxin, peroxiredoxin Q cannot use the glutaredoxin or cyclophilin isoforms tested, but various cytosolic, chloroplastic, and mitochondrial thioredoxins are efficient electron donors with no marked specificities. The redox midpoint potential of the peroxiredoxin Q catalytic disulfide is -325 mV at pH 7.0, explaining why the wild-type protein is reduced by thioredoxin but not by glutaredoxin. Additional evidence that thioredoxin serves as a donor comes from the formation of heterodimers between peroxiredoxin Q and monocysteinic mutants of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) thioredoxin m. Peroxiredoxin Q can reduce various alkyl hydroperoxides, but with a better efficiency for cumene hydroperoxide than hydrogen peroxide and tertiary butyl hydroperoxide. The use of immunolocalization and of a green fluorescence protein fusion construct indicates that the transit sequence efficiently targets peroxiredoxin Q to the chloroplasts and especially to those of the guard cells. The expression of this protein and of type II peroxiredoxin is modified in response to an infection by two races of Melampsora larici-populina, the causative agent of the poplar rust. In the case of an hypersensitive response, the peroxiredoxin expression increased, whereas it decreased during a compatible interaction.  (+info)

Plants display a remarkable diversity of thioredoxins (Trxs), reductases controlling the thiol redox status of proteins. The physiological function of many of them remains elusive, particularly for plastidial Trxs f and m, which are presumed based on biochemical data to regulate photosynthetic reactions and carbon metabolism. Recent reports revealed that Trxs f and m participate in vivo in the control of starch metabolism and cyclic photosynthetic electron transfer around photosystem I, respectively. To further delineate their in planta function, we compared the photosynthetic characteristics, the level and/or activity of various Trx targets and the responses to oxidative stress in transplastomic tobacco plants overexpressing either Trx f or Trx m. We found that plants overexpressing Trx m specifically exhibit altered growth, reduced chlorophyll content, impaired photosynthetic linear electron transfer and decreased pools of glutathione and ascorbate. In both transplastomic lines, activities of two
An extracardiac pumping for supplementing the circulation of blood, including the cardiac output, in a patient without any component thereof being connected to the patients heart, and method of using same. One embodiment of the extracardiac system comprises a pump implanted subcutaneously at or about the patients femoral artery in a minimally-invasive procedure, wherein the pump is powered by a battery, and means for charging the battery extracorporeally, whereby the pump draws blood through an inflow conduit fluidly coupled to the patients femoral artery via a subcutaneous anastomosis connection, and discharges blood through an outflow conduit fluidly coupled to a second peripheral artery via a subcutaneous anastomosis connection. The pump may be operated continuously or in a pulsatile fashion, synchronous with the patients heart, thereby potentially reducing the afterload of the heart. The conduits can be housed in a multi-lumen catheter and a reservoir may be provided fluidly communicating with
The redox state in chloroplasts is mainly determined through the photosynthetic activities but differs not only between day and night but also in response to varying environmental light conditions. The adaptation to these changes requires a rapid posttranslational regulation of primary metabolism and organellar gene expression. The metabolic flux and the enzyme activities of Chl biosynthesis are also posttranslationally modulated in response to varying light conditions (Ikegami et al., 2007; Stenbaek and Jensen, 2010; Czarnecki and Grimm, 2012).. It has been reported that several enzymes of Chl biosynthesis are linked to two redox systems, the ferredoxin-dependent TRX reductase and the NTRC. The ATPase activity of the Mg chelatase CHLI subunit is activated by TRXs (Ikegami et al., 2007). The TRX-dependent reduction of CHLI was also shown by AMS treatment. The presence of TRX f stimulates the in vitro Mg chelatase activity of the recombinant subunits of rice (Oryza sativa), while the deficiency ...
Gambling strategies in plants is an entirely new phenomenon. Yet pea plants show this tendency. Researchers have shown that these pod-bearing flora tend to have a certain sensitivity to risk.. Get the Free Tracker App to find WowWee Fingerlings. They can thus choose from various scenarios although to a limited extent. Choice has always been seen as something that animals possess. However, in the plant kingdom, this is the first instance of some degree of control being exercised over external circumstances by a species. The pea plants involved in the study, published in the journal Current Biology, were planted in such a way that their roots were bifurcated between two pots.. This gave them the fair choice of choosing either of the pots for nourishment purposes. The pea plants showed that they had their priorities right.. In previous studies, it had been shown that these pea plants preferred pots with more nutrients and richer soil samples. They responded to such abundance with greater growth in ...
Enzymes are extraordinary molecules that can accelerate chemical reactions by several orders of magnitude. With recent advancements in structural biology together with classical enzymology the mechanism of many enzymes has become understood at the molecular level. During the last ten years significant efforts have been invested to understand the structure and dynamics of the actual catalyst (i. e. the enzyme). There has been a tremendous development in NMR spectroscopy (both hardware and pulse programs) that have enabled detailed studies of protein dynamics. In many cases there exists a strong coupling between enzyme dynamics and function. Here I have studied the conformational dynamics and thermodynamics of three model systems: adenylate kinase (Adk), Peroxiredoxin Q (PrxQ) and the structural protein S16. By developing a novel chemical shift-based method we show that Adk binds its two substrates AMP and ATP with an extraordinarily dynamic mechanism. For both substrate-saturated states the ...
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At their most basic, most plants possess roots, stems and leaves, and most produce flowers as well. The pea plant is no exception -- it too has all of those structures -- but distinctive anatomical traits not only help the plant to compete and survive but settle it in an important economical niche.
QUESTIONS & ANSWERS: THE BASICS What are the most commonly reported benefits of TRX2®? The most common benefits reported by those who regularly take TRX2® i
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Whether snap, garden variety or oriental pod peas, there are several common pea problems which may plague the home gardener. Take a look at some of the issues affecting pea plants in the following article.
Find answers on: In pea plants, the gene for the color of the seed has two alleles. In the following Punnett square shown below, the dominant allele (Y) represents yellow and the recessive allele (y) represents green..
Legislation in the works would attempt to update the 1996 Telecommunications Act, addressing such questions as the telcos rights in entering the video market and net neutrality.
Thioredoxins: Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.
BACKGROUND: A phenotype is a visible, noticeable, and recognizable trait. An organisms genotype is his genetic make-up which is located in the nuclei of his cells. For example, the physical traits of a tall pea may be made of a dominant tall pea gene and a recessive dwarf pea gene. The phenotype of this plant will be tall, whereas the genotype will be heterozygous (i.e., a dominant and a recessive gene).. When a cross is performed upon parents that differ in only one single character (i.e., tall, short, etc.) it is termed a monohybrid cross. However, in many cases genes have more than one trait. When two sets of hereditary traits are considered it is called a dihybrid. Mendel continued his experiments with a pure (homozygous) tall, red flowering pea plant (TTRR) and crossed it with a pure dwarf, white flowering pea plant (ttrr). All the offspring will be hybrid (heterozygous) tall, red flowering (TtRr). Since the genes for height are on a different pair of chromosomes from the genes for flower ...
1BLU: Crystal structure of the 2[4Fe-4S] ferredoxin from Chromatium vinosum: evolutionary and mechanistic inferences for [3/4Fe-4S] ferredoxins.
Recombinant Human Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphatase 1, FBPase 1 (E. coli, C-6His) datasheet and description hight quality product and Backed by our Guarantee
The responses of the quantum efficiencies of photosystem (PS) II and PSI measured in vivo simultaneously with estimations of the activities and activation states of NADP-malate dehydrogenase, chloroplast fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase were used to study the relationship between electron transport and carbon metabolism. The effects of varying irradiance and CO(2) partial pressure on the relationship between the quantum efficiencies of PSI and II, and the activity of these enzymes shows that the interrelationships vary according to the limitations placed on the system. The relationship between the quantum efficiencies of PSII and PSI was linear in most situations. In response to increasing irradiance, the activity of all three enzymes increased. In the case of NADP-malate dehydrogenase this increase was well correlated with the estimated flux of electrons through PSI and PSII. The other two enzymes showed a more complex relationship with the estimated flux of
Thioredoxins (TRXs) are small (approximately 12 kD), ubiquitous oxidoreductases that mediate the dithiol-disulfide exchange of Cys residues, thereby modulating the function and stability of their target proteins (Schürmann and Buchanan, 2008). The short peptide motif WC(G/P)PC, with its two conserved Cys residues, has been characterized as the conserved redox-active site of TRXs (Jacquot et al., 1997; Buchanan and Balmer, 2005; Meyer et al., 2008). In chloroplasts, the disulfide bonds of TRXs can be reduced by ferredoxin-TRX reductase receiving the receipt of electrons from the photoreduced ferredoxin. Subsequently, the reduced TRX acts to reduce the disulfide groups of its target proteins (Dai et al., 2000, 2007; Schürmann and Buchanan, 2008). The five different classes of chloroplast TRXs have been characterized as TRX-F, TRX-M, TRX-X, TRX-Y, and TRX-Z in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The two classes of TRX-M and TRX-F consist of four and two separate members, respectively, and are ...
The word genotype was coined circa|c. 1898 by Wilhelm Ludvig Johannsen in reference to Gregor Mendels work involving pea plants (see below). The word s...
Gregor Mendel Father of Genetics Mendel began to breed garden pea plants so that he could study the inheritance of their characteristics Genetics - the branch of biology that studies heredity Heredity - the passing of characteristics from parents to offspring Traits - Characteristics that are inherited
GenBank) ChlI component of cobalt chelatase involved in B12 biosynthesis or ChlD component of cobalt chelatase involved in B12 ...
BAM12P兔多克隆抗体(ab18789)可与牛样本反应并经WB, RIA, IHC实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
Die vom FBP1-Gen kodierte Fruktose-1,6-Bisphosphatase 1 ist ein Enzym des Fruktosestoffwechsels der Leber. Mutationen führen zur autosomal rezessiven Erkrankung des Fruktose-1,6-Bisphosphatase-Mangels, der sich in Hypoglycämie und metabolischer Azidose äußert.. ...
ECCPS is based on a internationally renowned expertise in cardiopulmonary research of the Universities Giessen, Frankfurt and the Max-Planck-Institute
Thioredoxins [(PUBMED:3896121), (PUBMED:2668278), (PUBMED:7788289), (PUBMED:7788290)] are small disulphide-containing redox proteins that have been found in all the kingdoms of living organisms. Thioredoxin serves as a general protein disulphide oxidoreductase. It interacts with a broad range of proteins by a redox mechanism based on reversible oxidation of two cysteine thiol groups to a disulphide, accompanied by the transfer of two electrons and two protons. The net result is the covalent interconversion of a disulphide and a dithiol. In the NADPH-dependent protein disulphide reduction, thioredoxin reductase (TR) catalyses the reduction of oxidised thioredoxin (trx) by NADPH using FAD and its redox-active disulphide; reduced thioredoxin then directly reduces the disulphide in the substrate protein [(PUBMED:3896121)].. Thioredoxin is present in prokaryotes and eukaryotes and the sequence around the redox-active disulphide bond is well conserved. All thioredoxins contain a cis-proline located in ...
There are 2 kinds of spinach: the common, most familiar kind which is a hardy annual, and the lesser known New Zealand spinach, which is a tender annual (and
Carbon dioxide is expected to be employed as an inexpensive and potential feedstock of C1 sources for the mass production of valuable chemicals and fuel. Versatile chemical transformations of CO2, i.e. insertion of CO2 producing bicarbonate/acetate/formate, cleavage of CO2 yielding μ-CO/μ-oxo transition-meta
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Abfron \ Thioredoxin 1, Yeast, Protein \ LF-P0036 for more molecular products just contact us
An example of homozygous recessive phenotype would be a red-flowered pea plant. The white-flowered pea plant expresses the dominant...
Whitney is generally ready for harvest 50 days after sowing. It is vigorous, but also resistant to bolting. Smooth leaves are medium-green, ovular, and thick.
X-ray structure of cannabinoid-regulating enzyme confirms computational predictions of drug binding and clarifies its mechanism of action
Rault M, Gontero B, Ricard J (May 1991). "Thioredoxin activation of phosphoribulokinase in a chloroplast multi-enzyme complex ... In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, chloroplast PRK and G3PDH exist as a bi-enzyme complex of 2 molecules of dimeric PRK and 2 ... B. Buchanan, Bob (2003-11-28). "Role of Light in the Regulation of Chloroplast Enzymes". Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 31: 341-374 ... doi:10.1016/0005-2728(83)90156-1. Müller, Bruno (1972-08-01). "A Labile CO2-Fixing Enzyme Complex in Spinach Chloroplasts". ...
The enzyme ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase uses reduced ferredoxin to reduce thioredoxin from the disulfide form to the ... SBPase is bound to the stroma-facing side of the thylakoid membrane in the chloroplast in a plant. Some studies have suggested ... Finally, the reduced thioredoxin is used to reduced a cysteine-cysteine disulfide bond in SBPase to a dithiol, which converts ... Like many Calvin cycle enzymes, SBPase is activated in the presence of light through a ferredoxin/thioredoxin system. In the ...
Lemaire SD., Michelet L., Zaffagnini M., Massot V., Issakidis-Bourguet E. Thioredoxins in chloroplasts.. „Current genetics". 6 ... PLANT THIOREDOXIN SYSTEMS REVISITED.. „Annual review of plant physiology and plant molecular biology", s. 371-400, czerwiec ... Thioredoxin-mediated reversible dissociation of a stromal multiprotein complex in response to changes in light availability.. „ ... The ferredoxin/thioredoxin system of oxygenic photosynthesis.. „Antioxidants & redox signaling". 7 (10), s. 1235-74, lipiec ...
... two non-catalytic thioredoxin-like proteins that activate chloroplast transcription. Knowing the exact mechanism can be useful ... NCP activates chloroplast transcription by controlling phytochrome-dependent dual nuclear and plastidial switches New Scientist ... of the in-band photons are lost due to incomplete absorption or photons hitting components other than chloroplasts 24% of the ...
... while plants use peroxiredoxins to remove hydrogen peroxide generated in chloroplasts. The thioredoxin system contains the 12- ... kDa protein thioredoxin and its companion thioredoxin reductase. Proteins related to thioredoxin are present in all sequenced ... After being oxidized, the active thioredoxin is regenerated by the action of thioredoxin reductase, using NADPH as an electron ... Arnér ES, Holmgren A (October 2000). "Physiological functions of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase". European Journal of ...
Thioredoxin and glutathione systems[edit]. The thioredoxin system contains the 12-kDa protein thioredoxin and its companion ... Ascorbic acid is present at high levels in all parts of plants and can reach concentrations of 20 millimolar in chloroplasts.[ ... Arnér ES, Holmgren A (October 2000). "Physiological functions of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase". European Journal of ... the active thioredoxin is regenerated by the action of thioredoxin reductase, using NADPH as an electron donor.[152] ...
... and the small chains are imported to the stromal compartment of chloroplasts from the cytosol by crossing the outer chloroplast ... thioredoxin. In this manner, the activity of activase and the activation state of RuBisCO can be modulated in response to light ... The chloroplast gene rbcL, which codes for the large subunit of RuBisCO has been widely used as an appropriate locus for ... Aigner H, Wilson RH, Bracher A, Calisse L, Bhat JY, Hartl FU, Hayer-Hartl M (December 2017). "E. coli with five chloroplast ...
In chloroplasts, for example, the enzymatic reduction of disulfide bonds has been linked to the control of numerous metabolic ... The reductive signaling activity has been shown, thus far, to be carried by the ferredoxin thioredoxin system, channeling ... In this way chloroplasts adjust the activity of key processes such as the Calvin-Benson cycle, starch degradation, ATP ... Wittenberg, G.; Danon, A. (2008). "Disulfide bond formation in chloroplasts: Formation of disulfide bonds in signaling ...
"Oxidation-Reduction Properties of Chloroplast Thioredoxins, Ferredoxin:Thioredoxin Reductase, and Thioredoxin f-Regulated ... Thioredoxin, through thiol/disulfide exchange, then activates carbohydrate synthesis enzymes such as chloroplast fructose-1,6- ... Ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase EC 1.8.7.2, systematic name ferredoxin:thioredoxin disulfide oxidoreductase, is a [4Fe-4S] ... This leaves Thioredoxin inactive and allows carbohydrate breakdown to dominate metabolism. Ferredoxin-Thioredoxin Reductase is ...
Thioredoxin binds to a loop in T7 DNA polymerase to bind more strongly to the DNA. The anti-oxidant function of thioredoxin is ... However ADT2, together with FtsZ is necessary in chloroplast division and ADT5 is transported by stromules into the nucleus. In ... Upon infection with the bacteriophage T7, E. coli thioredoxin forms a complex with T7 DNA polymerase, which results in enhanced ... The E. coli anti-oxidant thioredoxin protein is another example of a moonlighting protein. ...
Lundström J, Holmgren A (June 1990). "Protein disulfide-isomerase is a substrate for thioredoxin reductase and has thioredoxin- ... In the chloroplasts of the unicellular algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii the protein disulfide-isomerase RB60 serves as a redox ... Protein disulfide-isomerase has two catalytic thioredoxin-like domains (active sites), each containing the canonical CGHC motif ... Wittenberg G, Danon A (2008). "Disulfide bond formation in chloroplasts". Plant Science. 175 (4): 459-466. doi:10.1016/j. ...
The chloroplast stroma varies from being slightly acidic in the dark to more alkaline in the light. Therefore, in the dark, ... Two extra families, one thioredoxin reductase-like (TRLF) and the other with a unique mechanism (NfnAB), has been identified. ... FNR is a soluble protein that is found both free in the chloroplast stroma and bound to the thylakoid membrane. This binding ... "Crystallization of ferredoxin-TPN reductase and its role in the photosynthetic apparatus of chloroplasts". Biochem. Z. 338: 84- ...
2-Cys peroxiredoxins are reduced by thiols such as thioredoxins, thioredoxin-like proteins, or possibly glutathione, while the ... Baier M, Dietz KJ (July 1997). "The plant 2-Cys peroxiredoxin BAS1 is a nuclear-encoded chloroplast protein: its expressional ... Pillay CS, Hofmeyr JH, Olivier BG, Snoep JL, Rohwer JM (January 2009). "Enzymes or redox couples? The kinetics of thioredoxin ... Nuclear gene expression depends on chloroplast-to-nucleus signalling and responds to photosynthetic signals, such as the ...
Another redox protein, isolated from spinach chloroplasts, was termed "chloroplast ferredoxin". The chloroplast ferredoxin is ... The fold belongs to the α+β class, with first four β-strands and two α-helices adopting a variant of the thioredoxin fold. ... originally found in chloroplast membranes, has been termed "chloroplast-type" or "plant-type" (InterPro: IPR010241). Its active ... In chloroplasts, Fe2S2 ferredoxins function as electron carriers in the photosynthetic electron transport chain and as electron ...
In the shoot the sulfate is unloaded and transported to the chloroplasts where it is reduced. The remaining sulfate in plant ... thioredoxins). Glutathione or its homologues, e.g. homoglutathione in Fabaceae; hydroxymethylglutathione in Poaceae are the ... This sulfolipid is present in plastid membranes and likely is involved in chloroplast functioning. The route of biosynthesis ... in the chloroplasts. Cysteine is the precursor or reduced sulfur donor of most other organic sulfur compounds in plants. The ...
There are two regulation systems at work when the cycle must be turned on or off: the thioredoxin/ferredoxin activation system ... These reactions occur in the stroma, the fluid-filled area of a chloroplast outside the thylakoid membranes. These reactions ... The thioredoxin/ferredoxin system activates the enzymes glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase, glyceraldehyde-3-P phosphatase, ... Ferredoxin then binds to and reduces the thioredoxin protein, which activates the cycle enzymes by severing a cystine bond ...
... and 1O2 in chloroplasts. The production of 1O2 in chloroplasts can cause reprogramming of the expression of nucleus genes ... and thioredoxin (TRX), which rely on the reducing power of NADPH to maintain their activities. Most risk factors associated ... Until recently, ETC in photosystem I (PSI) was believed to be the only source of ROS in chloroplasts. According to Huang et al ... In chloroplasts, the carboxylation and oxygenation reactions catalyzed by rubisco ensure that the functioning of the electron ...
... chloroplast - chloroplast membrane - cholecystokinin receptor - cholesterine - cholinergic receptor - chorionic gonadotropin - ... thioredoxin - Threonine - thrombin - thrombin receptor - thrombomodulin - thromboxane receptor - thylakoid - thyroid hormone ...
Gromer S, Urig S, Becker K (January 2004). "The thioredoxin system-from science to clinic". Medicinal Research Reviews. 24 (1 ... N-formylmethionine (which is often the initial amino acid of proteins in bacteria, mitochondria, and chloroplasts) is generally ... mitochondria and chloroplasts. Other amino acids are called nonstandard or non-canonical. Most of the nonstandard amino acids ...
... chloroplast proton-translocating atpases MeSH D08.811.277.040.025.325.625 - h(+)-k(+)-exchanging atpase MeSH D08.811.277.040. ... thioredoxin reductase (nadph) MeSH D08.811.682.670.550 - nitroanisole o-demethylase MeSH D08.811.682.690.416 - dioxygenases ... chloroplast proton-translocating atpases MeSH D08.811.913.696.650.150.500.750 - mitochondrial proton-translocating atpases MeSH ...
Lemaire SD., Michelet L., Zaffagnini M., Massot V., Issakidis-Bourguet E. Thioredoxins in chloroplasts.. „Current genetics". 6 ... PLANT THIOREDOXIN SYSTEMS REVISITED.. „Annual review of plant physiology and plant molecular biology", s. 371-400, czerwiec ... Thioredoxin-mediated reversible dissociation of a stromal multiprotein complex in response to changes in light availability.. „ ... The ferredoxin/thioredoxin system of oxygenic photosynthesis.. „Antioxidants & redox signaling". 7 (10), s. 1235-74, lipiec ...
In this way chloroplasts adjust the activity of key processes such as the Calvin-Benson cycle, starch degradation, ATP ... The reductive signaling activity has been shown, thus far, to be carried by the ferredoxin thioredoxin system, channeling ... In chloroplasts, for example, the enzymatic reduction of disulfide bonds has been linked to the control of numerous metabolic ... Wittenberg, G.; Danon, A. (2008). "Disulfide bond formation in chloroplasts: Formation of disulfide bonds in signaling ...
Regulation of chloroplast phosphoribulokinase by the ferredoxin/thioredoxin system. by Ricardo A. Wolosiuk et al. ... The absence of thioredoxin m1 and thioredoxin C in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 leads to oxidative stress.. Frédéric Deschoenmaeker, ... Lauri Nikkanen: DYNAMIC REGULATION OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS BY CHLOROPLAST THIOREDOXIN SYSTEMS. UNIVRSITATIS TURUENSIS, Lauri Nikkanen ... Regulation of chloroplast phosphoribulokinase by the ferredoxin/thioredoxin system.. @article{Wolosiuk1978RegulationOC, title={ ...
Chloroplast thioredoxin systems: prospects for improving photosynthesis. Lauri Nikkanen, Jouni Toivola, Manuel Guinea Diaz, ... Interaction between photosynthetic electron transport and chloroplast sinks triggers protection and signalling important for ...
Chloroplast Thioredoxins. , Chloroplasts. , Molecular Chaperones. , Plants, Genetically Modified. , Plasmids. , Plastids. , ... Thioredoxin. , Tobacco. , Chaperone. , Hybrid protein. , Serum albumin. , Article. , Biosynthesis. , Chloroplast. , Genetic ... Tobacco plastidial thioredoxins as modulators of recombinant protein production in transgenic chloroplasts. Show full item ... Given the common evolutionary heritage of chloroplasts ...[+] Thioredoxins (Trxs) are small ubiquitous disulphide proteins ...
Thioredoxin-like2/2-Cys peroxiredoxin redox cascade supports oxidative thiol modulation in chloroplasts. Keisuke Yoshida, Ayaka ... Thioredoxin-like2/2-Cys peroxiredoxin redox cascade supports oxidative thiol modulation in chloroplasts ... Thioredoxin-like2/2-Cys peroxiredoxin redox cascade supports oxidative thiol modulation in chloroplasts ... Specific chloroplast proteins are reversibly activated-inactivated during light-dark cycles by switching the reduction- ...
DTT, dithiothreitol; H2O2, hydrogen peroxide; Trx, thioredoxin.. The Redox-Sensitive Chloroplast Trehalose-6-Phosphate ... Chloroplast localization of AtTPPD. (A) Subcellular localization of AtTPPD protein in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana plants ... B) Western blot analysis of A. thaliana leaf total protein and purified chloroplast extracts from 4-week-old wild-type (Col-0) ... The redox-sensitive chloroplast trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase AtTPPD regulates salt stress tolerance.. Krasensky J1, ...
Chloroplast. Endosome. Peroxisome. ER. Golgi apparatus. Nucleus. Mitochondrion. Manual annotation. Automatic computational ... IPR005746. Thioredoxin. IPR036249. Thioredoxin-like_sf. IPR017937. Thioredoxin_CS. IPR013766. Thioredoxin_domain. ... IPR005746. Thioredoxin. IPR036249. Thioredoxin-like_sf. IPR017937. Thioredoxin_CS. IPR013766. Thioredoxin_domain. ... Thioredoxin F-type, chloroplastic. ,p>This subsection of the PTM / Processing section describes the extent of a transit ...
Regulation of cyclic electron flow by chloroplast NADPH-dependent thioredoxin system (2018) Nikkanen L, Toivola J, Trotta A, ... Photoinhibition of photosystem I in Nephrolepis falciformis depends on reactive oxygen species generated in the chloroplast ... Interaction between photosynthetic electron transport and chloroplast sinks triggers protection and signalling important for ...
... redox homeostasis and antioxidant mechanisms in the chloroplast. ... Plants display a remarkable diversity of thioredoxins (Trxs), ... Plants display a remarkable diversity of thioredoxins (Trxs), reductases controlling the thiol redox status of proteins. The ... 2008). Abnormal chloroplast development and growth inhibition in rice thioredoxin m knock-down plants. Plant Physiol. 148, 808- ... 2009). Chloroplast NADPH-thioredoxin reductase interacts with photoperiodic development in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 149, ...
Chloroplast NADPH-thioredoxin reductase interacts with photoperiodic development in Arabidopsis.. Lepistö A, Kangasjärvi S, ...
In addition, thioredoxin revealed a stronger preference for an oxidized target. These results explain the reason for selective ... In addition, thioredoxin revealed a stronger preference for an oxidized target. These results explain the reason for selective ... The binding rates of thioredoxin to its targets were very different depending on the use of reducing equivalents by the targets ... The binding rates of thioredoxin to its targets were very different depending on the use of reducing equivalents by the targets ...
2003) Chloroplast cyclophilin is a target protein of thioredoxin. Thiol modulation of the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase ... 2001) Comprehensive survey of proteins targeted by chloroplast thioredoxin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98, 11224- 11229. ... 2000) Decreased thioredoxin and increased thioredoxin reductase levels in Alzheimers disease brain. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 28 ... 2009) Identification of thioredoxin targeted proteins using thioredoxin single cysteine mutant-immobilized resin. Methods Mol. ...
Puthiyaveetil, S. (2011). A mechanism for regulation of chloroplast LHC II kinase by plastoquinol and thioredoxin. FEBS Letters ... We study how chloroplast two-component systems, a novel bacterial-type signal transduction family in chloroplasts, couple ... In plants and green algae, the chloroplast two-component system has been rewired in evolution to give it novel and surprising ... High-fluence blue and white light trigger the transcription of the plant chloroplast psbD gene, encoding the D2 reaction center ...
Thioredoxins represent ubiquitous small proteins acting as redox regulators of diverse metabolic and developmental processes in ... Lemaire SD, Michelet L, Zaffagnini M et al (2007) Thioredoxins in chloroplasts. Curr Genet 51:343-365PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Rey P, Pruvot G, Becuwe N et al (1998) A novel thioredoxin-like protein located in the chloroplast is induced by water deficit ... Cloning of thioredoxin h reductase and characterization of the thioredoxin reductase-thioredoxin h system from wheat. Biochem J ...
Chloroplast f and m Thioredoxins Discovered in Nonphotosynthetic Tissues. 5. Science expands Science Signaling, featuring ...
Chloroplast f and m Thioredoxins Discovered in Nonphotosynthetic Tissues. 10. 200 journals join in theme issues on poverty and ...
Chloroplast f and m Thioredoxins Discovered in Nonphotosynthetic Tissues. 9. Natural product discovery by Cleveland medical ...
Lemaire SD., Michelet L., Zaffagnini M., Massot V., Issakidis-Bourguet E. Thioredoxins in chloroplasts.. „Current genetics". 6 ... PLANT THIOREDOXIN SYSTEMS REVISITED.. „Annual review of plant physiology and plant molecular biology", s. 371-400, czerwiec ... Thioredoxin-mediated reversible dissociation of a stromal multiprotein complex in response to changes in light availability.. „ ... The ferredoxin/thioredoxin system of oxygenic photosynthesis.. „Antioxidants & redox signaling". 7 (10), s. 1235-74, lipiec ...
Rault M, Gontero B, Ricard J (May 1991). "Thioredoxin activation of phosphoribulokinase in a chloroplast multi-enzyme complex ... In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, chloroplast PRK and G3PDH exist as a bi-enzyme complex of 2 molecules of dimeric PRK and 2 ... B. Buchanan, Bob (2003-11-28). "Role of Light in the Regulation of Chloroplast Enzymes". Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 31: 341-374 ... doi:10.1016/0005-2728(83)90156-1. Müller, Bruno (1972-08-01). "A Labile CO2-Fixing Enzyme Complex in Spinach Chloroplasts". ...
2015) Thioredoxin selectivity for thiol-based redox regulation of target proteins in chloroplasts. J Biol Chem 290: 14278-14288 ... 2003) Chloroplast cyclophilin is a target protein of thioredoxin: thiol modulation of the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase ... 2014) Activity assays of mammalian thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase: fluorescent disulfide substrates, mechanisms, and use ... NADPH-DEPENDENT THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE A (NTRA), NADPH-DEPENDENT THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE B (NTRB), and the glutathione ...
"Oxidation-Reduction Properties of Chloroplast Thioredoxins, Ferredoxin:Thioredoxin Reductase, and Thioredoxin f-Regulated ... Thioredoxin, through thiol/disulfide exchange, then activates carbohydrate synthesis enzymes such as chloroplast fructose-1,6- ... Ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase EC 1.8.7.2, systematic name ferredoxin:thioredoxin disulfide oxidoreductase, is a [4Fe-4S] ... This leaves Thioredoxin inactive and allows carbohydrate breakdown to dominate metabolism. Ferredoxin-Thioredoxin Reductase is ...
Chloroplast thioredoxin systems dynamically regulate photosynthesis in plants Biochem J (April,2019) ... The Biogenesis of Chloroplasts: Protein Synthesis by Isolated Chloroplasts R. JOHN ELLIS R. JOHN ELLIS ... R. JOHN ELLIS; The Biogenesis of Chloroplasts: Protein Synthesis by Isolated Chloroplasts. Biochem Soc Trans 1 April 1974; 2 (2 ... Protein import into chloroplasts and its regulation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system Biochem Soc Trans (January,2020) ...
For instance, chloroplast function is central for plant growth and survival, and the performance of chloroplasts is tightly ... chloroplast morphology and proteomic composition posed in Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplasts after a single or repetitive heat ... of the protein translocation process as judged from the analysis of mutants of the two receptor units of the chloroplast ... Evidence for a role of chloroplastic m-type thioredoxins in the biogenesis of photosystem II in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. ...
The chloroplast 2-cysteine peroxiredoxin functions as thioredoxin oxidase in redox regulation of chloroplast metabolism Mohamad ... The chloroplast 2-cysteine peroxiredoxin is central player and missing link in the chloroplast thiol-disulfide redox regulatory ...
The chloroplast 2-cysteine peroxiredoxin functions as thioredoxin oxidase in redox regulation of chloroplast metabolism Mohamad ... The chloroplast 2-cysteine peroxiredoxin is central player and missing link in the chloroplast thiol-disulfide redox regulatory ... Thioredoxin shapes the C. elegans sensory response to Pseudomonas produced nitric oxide Yingsong Hao et al. ... Thioredoxin-1 distinctly promotes NF-κB target DNA binding and NLRP3 inflammasome activation independently of Txnip Jonathan ...
Heterologous complementation of yeast reveals a new putative function for chloroplast m-type thioredoxin. Plant J. 25, 127-135. ... thioredoxins, ascorbate peroxidase, fibrillins, and Ohp1 and Ohp2); 8, new chloroplast proteins without obvious function; 9, ... New Chloroplast Proteins. Twenty-six new proteins with a predicted cTP without known function were identified, with 24 of them ... Monde, R.A., Schuster, G., and Stern, D.B. (2000). Processing and degradation of chloroplast mRNA. Biochimie 82, 573-582. ...
2009 Chloroplast NADPH-thioredoxin reductase interacts with photoperiodic development in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 149, 1261- ... 2011 A chloroplast envelope-bound PHD transcription factor mediates chloroplast signals to the nucleus. Nat. Commun. 2, 477. ( ... 2012 Chloroplast-mediated activation of plant immune signalling in Arabidopsis. Nat. Commun. 3, 926. (doi:10.1038/ncomms1926). ... 2. Chloroplasts are targets for regulatory signals by both the defender and the invader in plant immunity. Plants can sense the ...
Recently published a paper in PNAS entitled "Proteomics gives insight into the regulatory function of chloroplast thioredoxins ... Antonius Koller On Using Proteomics to Study Chloroplast Proteins. Jan 13, 2003 ...
1997) Kinetics and thioredoxin specificity of thiol modulation of the chloroplast H+-ATPase. J Biol Chem 272:16924-16927. ... 1992) Biosynthesis of active spinach-chloroplast thioredoxin f in transformed E. coli. Plant Mol Biol 20:301-306. ... 1999) Regulation of chloroplast enzyme activities by thioredoxins: activation or relief from inhibition? Trends Plant Sci 4:136 ... Arabidopsis chloroplasts contain two TRX f isoforms (Sato et al., 1997). We have not yet shown which of these is the preferred ...
Thioredoxin activation of phosphoribulokinase in a bi-enzyme complex from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplasts. J. Biol. Chem ... Komine, Y., L. Kwong, M.C. Anguera, G. Schuster and D.B. Stern (2000). Polyadenylation of three classes of chloroplast RNA in ... Majeran, W., F.A. Wollman and O. Vallon (2000). Evidence for a role of CIpP in the degradation of the chloroplast cytochrome ... Chang, C.H. and M. Wu (2000). The effects of transcription and RNA processing on the initiation of chloroplast DNA replication ...
  • Trx and the NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) form a protein reductive system that plays essential roles in the clearance of elevated reactive oxygen species, the repair of oxidatively modified proteins, and the restoration of cellular redox homeostasis. (mcponline.org)
  • Arscott LD, Gromer S, Schirmer RH et al (1997) The mechanism of thioredoxin reductase from human placenta is similar to the mechanisms of lipoamide dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase and is distinct from the mechanism of thioredoxin reductase from Escherichia coli. (springer.com)
  • Ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase EC 1.8.7.2, systematic name ferredoxin:thioredoxin disulfide oxidoreductase, is a [4Fe-4S] protein that plays an important role in the ferredoxin/thioredoxin regulatory chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • It catalyzes the following reaction: 2 reduced ferredoxin + thioredoxin disulfide ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 2 oxidized ferredoxin + thioredoxin thiols + 2 H+ Ferredoxin-Thioredoxin reductase (FTR) converts an electron signal (photoreduced ferredoxin) to a thiol signal (reduced thioredoxin), regulating enzymes by reduction of specific disulfide groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Major groups of oxygen-producing, photosynthetic organisms such as cyanobacteria, algae, C4, C3, and crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants use Ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase for carbon fixation regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ferredoxin-Thioredoxin Reductase is an α-β heterodimer of approximately 30 kDa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some proteins components (ferredoxin and ferredoxin-NADP^+ oxido-reductase) of electron transport system in non-photosynthetic plastids were biochemically compared with those in chloroplast. (nii.ac.jp)
  • This system has been traditionally considered to be supported only by ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase (FTR)/thioredoxin (Trx) redox cascade. (titech.ac.jp)
  • They show that NADPH-Trx reductase C (NTRC), a unique redox mediator harboring both a NADPH-Trx reductase domain and a Trx domain, plays a distinct role in regulating chloroplast functions and discuss how the cooperative functions of the two redox pathways maintain plant viability. (titech.ac.jp)
  • Amino acid sequence of spinach ferredoxin:thioredoxin reductase catalytic subunit and identification of thiol groups constituting a redox-active disulfide and a [4Fe-4S] cluster. (genome.jp)
  • The function and properties of the iron-sulfur center in spinach ferredoxin: thioredoxin reductase: a new biological role for iron-sulfur clusters. (genome.jp)
  • GF BM hmmbuild HMM.ann SEED.ann #=GF SM hmmsearch -Z 26740544 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq #=GF TP Domain #=GF WK Ferredoxin-thioredoxin_reductase #=GF RN [1] #=GF RM 10649999 #=GF RT Redox signaling in chloroplasts: cleavage of disulfides by an #=GF RT iron-sulfur cluster. (genome.jp)
  • The proteins required for this reaction are a flavoprotien with a molecular weight of approximately 185,000 which is functionally similar to thioredoxin reductase (NADPH), EC 1.6.4.5, and another protein (Protein I) whose function in the reaction is unknown. (meta.org)
  • In addition, the ribonucleotide reductase active in the Euglena NADPH-thioredoxin reductase system is more complex than the protein reported in a previous publication [(1974) j. (meta.org)
  • In addition, we also measured the midpoint redox potentials of Fd and Fdx2 and determined the kinetic parameters of their reactions with several ferredoxin-interacting proteins, namely nitrite reductase, Fd:NADP + oxidoreductase, and Fd:thioredoxin reductase. (ttu.edu)
  • Biochemical analyses confirmed that RCBL lacks thioredoxin reductase activity. (duke.edu)
  • The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE. (curehunter.com)
  • Chloroplast NADPH-thioredoxin reductase (NTRC) belongs to the thioredoxin systems that control crucial metabolic and regulatory pathways in plants. (elsewindoww2.icu)
  • Wiseman RL, Chin KT, Haynes CM, Stanhill A, Xu CF, Roguev A, Krogan NJ, Neubert TA, Ron D. Thioredoxin-related Protein 32 is an arsenite-regulated Thiol Reductase of the proteasome 19 S particle. (umassmed.edu)
  • Thioredoxins (Trxs) are small ubiquitous disulphide proteins widely known to enhance expression and solubility of recombinant proteins in microbial expression systems. (upv.es)
  • Plants display a remarkable diversity of thioredoxins (Trxs), reductases controlling the thiol redox status of proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • In order to more thoroughly characterize these interactions between thioredoxin and its target proteins, a mutant version of thioredoxin that lacked the second cysteine was synthesized and interactions were monitored by surface plasmon resonance. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thioredoxins (Trxs) 1 are a class of antioxidant proteins that mediate the reduction of specific disulfide bonds and S -nitrosothiols within oxidized proteins. (mcponline.org)
  • Thioredoxins represent ubiquitous small proteins acting as redox regulators of diverse metabolic and developmental processes in almost all organisms. (springer.com)
  • Arsova B, Hoja U, Wimmelbacher M et al (2010) Plastidial thioredoxin z interacts with two fructokinase-like proteins in a thiol-dependent manner: evidence for an essential role in chloroplast development in Arabidopsis and Nicotiana benthamiana. (springer.com)
  • Twenty-seven new proteins without known function but with predicted chloroplast transit peptides were identified, of which 17 (63%) are integral membrane proteins. (plantcell.org)
  • Plastid genome phylogeny and a model of amino acid substitution for proteins encoded by chloroplast DNA. (bio.net)
  • Thioredoxins are ubiquitous proteins that serve as reducing agents and general protein disulfide reductases. (rcsb.org)
  • Thioredoxin-2 (Trx-2) from Anabaena resembles chloroplast type-f thioredoxin in its activities and the two proteins may be evolutionarily related. (rcsb.org)
  • ii) They interact with proteins such as glutaredoxins, thioredoxins, and cyclophilins as reductants, but also non-dithioldisulphide exchange proteins. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • This analysis revealed that proteins with important roles in maintaining redox balance and protein folding, such as the thioredoxin Asp f 29 and the protein disulphide PdiA, underwent substantial thiol modification under hypoxia. (elsevier.com)
  • Conversely, the information in a professional journal at publication is typically a few months old, Stumpp MT, Hisabori T (2001) Comprehensive survey of proteins tar- geted by chloroplast thioredoxin. (forextrading-madeeasy.com)
  • NCP and its paralog RCB are non-catalytic thioredoxin-like proteins that diverged in seed plants to adopt nonredundant functions in phytochrome signaling. (escholarship.org)
  • Functional analysis of the Chloroplast GrpE (CGE) proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana Plant Physiology And Biochemistry, 139, 293-306. (unam.mx)
  • Proteomic analysis of chloroplast biogenesis (clb) mutants uncovers novel proteins potentially involved in the development of Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplasts Journal of Proteomics, 111, 148-164. (unam.mx)
  • Investigating the subcellular localization of the Arabidopsis thaliana TPP family members, we identified AtTPPD as a chloroplast-localized enzyme. (nih.gov)
  • We examined the changes in photosynthesis, chloroplast morphology and proteomic composition posed in Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplasts after a single or repetitive heat stress treatment over a period of two weeks. (mdpi.com)
  • Here, we identified a novel thioredoxin DCC1 in determining the capacity of shoot regeneration among Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) natural variation. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Here, we determined the degree of functional overlap between the two transcription factor families in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ), characterizing their ability to regulate chloroplast biogenesis both alone and in concert. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Light-signalling pathways leading to the coordinated expression of HEMA1 and Lhcb during chloroplast development in Arabidopsis thaliana. (springer.com)
  • Chloroplasts of Arabidopsis thaliana homozygous for the ch-1 locus lack chlorophyll b, lack stable LHCPII and have stacked thylakoids. (springer.com)
  • In Arabidopsis, two types of MGDG synthases, Type A (AtMGD1) and Type B (AtMGD2, AtMGD3), were identified and their distinct functions in chloroplasts have been unveiled. (springer.com)
  • In the green fluorescence analysis of SlMSRB1- overexpressed Arabidopsis, signal corresponding to SlMSRB1 was merely detected in chloroplast, suggesting that tomato MSRB1 is a chloroplastial localization protein. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To test the specificity and redundancy of RAP2.4 transcription factors in the regulation of genes for chloroplast peroxidases, we compared the DNA-binding sites of the transcription factors in tertiary structure models, analyzed transcription factor and target gene regulation by qRT-PCR in RAP2.4, 2-Cys peroxiredoxin and ascorbate peroxidase T-DNA insertion lines and RAP2.4 overexpressing lines of Arabidopsis thaliana and performed promoter binding studies. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Fluorescently-tagged RCBL shows dual-localization to chloroplasts and nuclei in both tobacco and Arabidopsis. (duke.edu)
  • Functional analysis of the Arabidopsis thaliana CHLOROPLAST BIOGENESIS 19 pentatricopeptide repeat editing protein New Phytologist, 208, 430-441. (unam.mx)
  • The ancestral symbiont sensor kinase CSK links photosynthesis with gene expression in chloroplasts. (purdue.edu)
  • Chloroplast two-component systems: evolution of the link between photosynthesis and gene expression. (purdue.edu)
  • The chloroplast 2-cysteine peroxiredoxin is central player and missing link in the chloroplast thiol-disulfide redox regulatory network, and participates in oxidative inactivation of reductively activated enzymes in photosynthesis. (elifesciences.org)
  • Besides photosynthesis, chloroplasts host key steps in the biosynthesis of amino acids, stress hormones and secondary metabolites, which have a great impact on resistance against pathogens and insect herbivores. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Analysis of Affymetrix expression array data revealed that high leaf sucrose lines grown in abiotic-stress-prone environments had high expression levels of a number of genes in the leaf involved in the sucrose synthetic pathway and photosynthesis, such as Calvin cycle genes, antioxidant genes involved in chloroplast H2O2 removal and genes involved in energy dissipation. (deepdyve.com)
  • To preserve the integrity and efficiency of photosynthesis, chloroplasts have evolved multiple adaptive strategies to changes in light environments. (titech.ac.jp)
  • Regulation of CO2 assimilation in oxygenic photosynthesis: the ferredoxin/thioredoxin system. (genome.jp)
  • Besides these general properties, the chloroplast Prx have acquired specific roles in the context of photosynthesis. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Phytochromes initiate chloroplast biogenesis by activating genes encoding the photosynthetic apparatus, including photosynthesis-associated plastid-encoded genes (PhAPGs). (escholarship.org)
  • Light is essential for photosynthesis, but an excess, in combination with the unavoidable presence of atmospheric oxygen inside the chloroplast, leads to excessive reactive oxygen species production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In plants, chloroplasts are the organelles that capture sunlight energy and store it as chemical energy to be used in photosynthesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In chloroplasts, RCBL is required for transcription of plastid-encoded photosynthesis genes. (duke.edu)
  • Thioredoxins (Trxs) are ubiquitous and evolutionarily conserved enzymes of ca . 12 kDa catalyzing the reduction of disulfide bonds through a redox-active dithiol CxxC motif ( Arnér and Holmgren, 2000 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Thioredoxin is a critical protein that mediates the transfer of reducing equivalents in vivo and regulates redox sensitive enzymes in several cases. (frontiersin.org)
  • The binding rates of thioredoxin to its targets were very different depending on the use of reducing equivalents by the targets: the enzymes whose activity was controlled by reduction or oxidation of a cysteine pair(s) in the molecule and the enzymes that used reducing equivalents provided by thioredoxin for their catalysis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Specifically, the Ferredoxin-Thioredoxin system controls enzymes in the Calvin Cycle and Pentose phosphate pathway - allowing plants to balance carbohydrate synthesis and degradation based on the availability of light. (wikipedia.org)
  • A.Partial purification and properties of enzymes involved in the processing of a chloroplast import protein from Chlamydomonas reinhardii. (bio.net)
  • Cyanobacteria, such as Anabaena, contain two thioredoxins that exhibit very different activities with target enzymes and share little sequence similarity. (rcsb.org)
  • The illumination-dependent activation of at least seven different chloroplast enzymes involves the reversible thiol/disulfide exchange between thioredoxin and the photosynthetic enzyme. (usda.gov)
  • The thermodynamics of the thiol/disulfide exchange between thioredoxin and the regulatory sulfhydryl groups of the various light-regulated chloroplast enzymes explains the differential responses among the various thioredoxin-regulated enzymes to the effects of chilling in the light (Hutchison et al. (usda.gov)
  • Because most of the genes encoding the lipid-synthesizing enzymes have been identified in this decade, significant progress delineating the physiological functions and regulatory mechanisms of lipid biosynthesis in chloroplasts has been achieved. (springer.com)
  • The reduced thioredoxins generated by the enzyme activate the Calvin cycle enzymes EC 3.1.3.11 (fructose-bisphosphatase), EC 3.1.3.37 (sedoheptulose-bisphosphatase) and EC 2.7.1.19 (phosphoribulokinase) as well as other chloroplast enzymes by disulfide reduction. (genome.jp)
  • Antioxidant enzymes detoxify ROS, dissipate excess energy and regenerate the electron acceptors NADP + and thioredoxin. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In planta analysis of 2CPA promoter regulation [ 11 ] demonstrated that nuclear transcription of chloroplast antioxidant enzymes responds to chloroplast signals. (beds.ac.uk)
  • However, the precise molecular mechanisms regulating nuclear expression of chloroplast antioxidant enzymes in green tissues in a redox-dependent manner are still elusive. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Mutants screened for low expression of the nuclear encoded chloroplast 2CPA ( rimb-mutants ) differentiated transcriptional regulation of chloroplast antioxidant enzymes from typical responses to ROS accumulation, such as the induction of lipoxygenase-2 (Lox2), ascorbate peroxidase-2 (Apx2), BAP1 and Fer1 [ 18 ] [Heiber et al. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In contrast, expression of most chloroplast antioxidant enzymes is induced up to a certain stress level, but decreased in response to severe oxidative stress conditions, such as application of high concentrations of H 2 O 2 [ 4 , 9 , 19 ] [Heiber et al. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Evidence for function of the ferredoxin/thioredoxin system in the reductive activation of target enzymes of isolated intact chloroplasts. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Chloroplast FBPase and SBPase are thioredoxin-linked enzymes with similar architecture but different evolutionary histories. (uni-freiburg.de)
  • In this acclimatory response the photosynthetic electron transport provides a feedback regulatory signal that controls the expression of the nuclear-encoded photosystem II (PS II) antenna genes and the chloroplast-encoded photosystem I (PS I) reaction center genes. (purdue.edu)
  • ChIP-seq analysis of GNC identified PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR and brassinosteroid activity genes as targets whose repression by GNC facilitates chloroplast biogenesis. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Such master controllers would serve as switches to coordinately control the expression of suites of genes involved in the development of the chloroplast. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Levels of transcripts of endogenous chloroplast genes were affected by DCMU and DTT in the same direction as levels of GUS transcripts. (uio.no)
  • Chloroplast ROS signals induced RAP2.4b and RAP2.4d expression, but these two transcription factor genes are (in contrast to RAP2.4a) insensitive to low 2CP availability, and their expression decreased in APx knockout lines. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The degradation of PIFs not only inhibits the elongation of hypocotyl but also promotes chloroplast development by activating photosynthetic genes. (duke.edu)
  • Changes in chloroplast redox signalling pathways and reactive oxygen species metabolism also mediate local and systemic signals, which modulate plant resistance to light stress and disease. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Our results define key regulatory features of the GNC and GLK transcription factor families that contribute to the control of chloroplast biogenesis and photosynthetic activity, including areas of independence and cross talk. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Two families of nuclear transcription factors-the GATA NITRATE-INDUCIBLE CARBON-METABOLISM-INVOLVED (GNC) and GOLDEN TWO-LIKE (GLK) families-have been implicated in the direct, positive regulation of chloroplast biogenesis and thus are candidates for such master controllers. (plantphysiol.org)
  • While nuclear NCP mediates the degradation of two repressors of chloroplast biogenesis, PIF1 and PIF3, NCP in plastids promotes the assembly of the PEP complex for PhAPG transcription. (escholarship.org)
  • To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a forward genetic screen for tall-and-albino mutants, which identified a novel phytochrome signaling component named Regulator-for-Chloroplast-Biogenesis-by-Light (RCBL). (duke.edu)
  • To determine the evolutionary history of RCBL, I acquired the homologous sequences of RCBL and its paralog, REGULATOR-FOR-CHLOROPLAST-BIOGENESIS (RCB), from the available genomes and transcriptomes of a wide range of land plants. (duke.edu)
  • Since RCBL is involved in both phy signal transduction and chloroplast biogenesis, I examined whether RCBL is dual-localized to the nucleus and chloroplasts. (duke.edu)
  • Data for a comparative proteomic analysis of chloroplast biogenesis (clb) mutants Data in Brief, 1, 15-18. (unam.mx)
  • The activity of different AtTPP isoforms, located in the cytosol, nucleus, and chloroplasts, can be redox regulated, suggesting that the trehalose metabolism might relay the redox status of different cellular compartments to regulate diverse biological processes such as stress responses. (nih.gov)
  • This chapter provides an overview on the complexity of the thioredoxin family in higher plants and discusses its role in integrating metabolism, stress responses, development, and gene expression. (springer.com)
  • Thioredoxin-Interacting Protein binds directly to fructose transporters and regulates fructose metabolism, both acutely and chronically. (elifesciences.org)
  • Two families of nuclear transcription factors, the GATA NITRATE-INDUCIBLE CARBON-METABOLISM-INVOLVED (GNC) and GOLDEN TWO-LIKE (GLK) families, have been implicated in directly and positively regulating chloroplast development. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Although most generally known for their ability to convert light energy into chemical energy to sustain plant growth ( Waters and Langdale, 2009 ), chloroplasts also play a pivotal role in plant metabolism, being involved in the biosynthesis of amino acids, fatty acids, and phytohormones ( Neuhaus and Emes, 2000 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • FTR, as part of a greater Ferredoxin-Thioredoxin system, allows plants to change their metabolism based on light intensity. (wikipedia.org)
  • This leaves Thioredoxin inactive and allows carbohydrate breakdown to dominate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycolate metabolism in algal chloroplasts: inhibition by salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM). (bio.net)
  • Ferredoxin (Fd) is the major iron-containing protein in photosynthetic organisms and is central to reductive metabolism in the chloroplast. (ttu.edu)
  • The responses of the quantum efficiencies of photosystem (PS) II and PSI measured in vivo simultaneously with estimations of the activities and activation states of NADP-malate dehydrogenase, chloroplast fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase were used to study the relationship between electron transport and carbon metabolism. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These Trxs are reduced by the ferredoxin/thioredoxin system ( Wolosiuk and Buchanan, 1977 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Peroxiredoxins (Prxs), thioredoxins (Trxs), and NADPH-thioredoxin reductases (NTRs) constitute central elements of the thioldisulfide redox regulatory network of plant cells. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • However, this defective chloroplast phenotype of rcbl cannot be rescued by knocking out PIFs, suggesting RCBL plays a PIF-independent role in chloroplast development. (duke.edu)
  • Taken together, this study revealed a previously uncharacterized early phytochrome signaling component which plays a critical role in chloroplast development, and demonstrated a mechanistic link between the nucleus and plastids during the initiation of photomorphogenesis. (duke.edu)
  • PEPCase could be readily inactivated under mild oxidative conditions and reactivated efficiently by thioredoxin mediated reduction. (science20.com)
  • FTR is unique among thioredoxin reductases because it uses an Fe-S cluster cofactor rather than flavoproteins to reduce disulfide bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The thiol-based redox regulation system is important for controlling chloroplast functions in response to light signal. (titech.ac.jp)
  • The redox-sensitive transcription factor RAP2.4a mediates chloroplast-to-nucleus redox signaling and controls induction of the three most prominent chloroplast peroxidases, namely 2-Cys peroxiredoxin A (2CPA) and thylakoid- and stromal ascorbate peroxidase (tAPx and sAPx). (beds.ac.uk)
  • Thioredoxin (Trx) is a small, ubiquitous protein that contains a pair of redox-sensitive cysteine residues within its catalytic domain. (frontiersin.org)
  • Based on the profoundly different phenotypes found in chloroplasts compared to proplastids and plastids from nonphotosynthetic tissues, the existence of chloroplast-specific "master controllers" has been proposed ( López-Juez, 2007 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Regulation of chloroplast phosphoribulokinase by the ferredoxin/thioredoxin system. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A mechanism for regulation of chloroplast LHC II kinase by plastoquinol and thioredoxin. (purdue.edu)
  • Oxidation-reduction signalling components in regulatory pathways of state transitions and photosystem stoichiometry adjustment in chloroplasts. (purdue.edu)
  • 9. Redundancy and crosstalk within the thioredoxin and glutathione pathways: a new development in plants. (elsevier.com)
  • Diacylglycerol (DAG), a common precursor of the glycolipids, is produced by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathways but the detailed mechanism of DAG supply to chloroplasts remains ambiguous. (springer.com)
  • Overall, the results suggest that each ferredoxin isoform has substrate specificity and that the presence of multiple ferredoxin isoforms allows for the allocation of reducing power to specific metabolic pathways in the chloroplast under various growth conditions. (ttu.edu)
  • Thioredoxin activation of phosphoribulokinase in a bi-enzyme complex from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplasts. (bio.net)
  • Recently published a paper in PNAS entitled "Proteomics gives insight into the regulatory function of chloroplast thioredoxins. (genomeweb.com)
  • However, emerging genomics and proteomics data indicate that chloroplasts have a complex redox network, not a simple one-directional cascade. (titech.ac.jp)
  • In addition, thioredoxin provides reducing equivalents to oxidoreductases such as peroxiredoxin. (frontiersin.org)
  • Shows high activity towards the chloroplast 2-Cys peroxiredoxin A, and poor activity towards the chloroplast NADP-malate dehydrogenase. (gifu-u.ac.jp)
  • Evolutionary rewiring: a modified prokaryotic gene regulatory pathway in chloroplasts. (purdue.edu)
  • Thus, our study uncovers a novel regulatory mechanism by which thioredoxin-dependent redox modification regulates de novo shoot initiation via the modulation of ROS homeostasis and provides new insights into improving the capacity of plant regeneration. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In this review, we elaborate on the role of chloroplasts as a central metabolic and regulatory hub, which largely specifies the extent and quality of defensive measures in plant cells. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The results suggest a regulatory role of redox state in degradation of chloroplast transcripts in Chlamydomonas. (uio.no)
  • In plants and green algae, the chloroplast two-component system has been rewired in evolution to give it novel and surprising signaling and functional properties. (purdue.edu)
  • Chloroplasts in green algae and higher plants contain photosynthetic thylakoid membranes with four multisubunit protein complexes (photosystem I [PSI], photosystem II [PSII], ATP synthase, and cytochrome b6f complexes), each with multiple cofactors. (plantcell.org)
  • DCC1 was expressed mainly in the inner tissues of the callus and encoded a functional thioredoxin that was localized in the mitochondria. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Thioredoxin- linked activation of the chloroplast and cytosolic forms of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii glutamine synthetase. (bio.net)
  • Group I introns interrupt the chloroplast psaB and psbC and the mitochondrial rrnL gene in Chlamydomonas. (bio.net)
  • Tools for chloroplast transformation in Chlamydomonas: expression vectors and a new dominant selectable marker. (bio.net)
  • The effects of transcription and RNA processing on the initiation of chloroplast DNA replication in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (bio.net)
  • Structural and functional characterization of a transcription-enhancing sequence element in the rbcL gene of the Chlamydomonas chloroplast genome. (uio.no)
  • Isolation and characterization of a thioredoxin-dependent peroxidase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (uio.no)
  • Specific sequence elements in the 5' untranslated regions of rbcL and atpB gene mRNAs stabilize transcripts in the chloroplast of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (uio.no)
  • The redox state regulates RNA degradation in the chloroplast of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (uio.no)
  • A Chlamydomonas chloroplast transformant, designated MU7, carrying a chimeric [rbcL promoter:GUS:psaB 3' end] gene whose transcripts have been found previously to be unstable in light (half-life of 20 min in light as opposed to a half-life of 5 h in the dark) was used to study the role of electron transport and of redox state in degradation of chloroplast transcripts in the light. (uio.no)
  • The reduced thioredoxin reduces acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and activates the enzyme. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The decrease of kcat/Km of the NADPH-dependent reaction in Ser188 mutants resembles the behaviour of AB-GAPDH inhibited by oxidized thioredoxin, as confirmed by steady-state kinetic analysis of native enzyme. (rcsb.org)
  • Rap2.4a controls the transcript abundance of the prominent chloroplast antioxidant enzyme through binding to the CGCG core of a CE3-like element. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Encodes a member of the thioredoxin family protein. (gifu-u.ac.jp)
  • encodes a chloroplast thioredoxin similar to prokaryotic thioredoxins. (gifu-u.ac.jp)
  • Experiments were planed by focussing on 1) regulation in cyclic electron transport system, 2) regulation of photon cupturation by two photosystems, 3) balance between NADP photoreduction and photophosphorylation, 4) partitioning of electrons from reduced ferredoxin to electron requiring system, such as NADP reduction, reductive assimilation of nitrogen, sulfur and carbon, ferredoxin-dependent thioredoxin system. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Chloroplast glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) of higher plants uses both NADP(H) and NAD(H) as coenzyme and consists of one (GapA) or two types of subunits (GapA, GapB). (rcsb.org)
  • Previous crystallographic studies on spinach chloroplast A4-GAPDH complexed with NADP or NAD showed that residues Thr33 and Ser188 are involved in NADP over NAD selectivity by interacting with the 2'-phosphate group of NADP. (rcsb.org)
  • Through a dithiol-disulfide exchange reaction, the reduced form of thioredoxin preferentially interacts with the oxidized forms of targets, which are immediately released after this reaction is complete. (frontiersin.org)
  • These results explain the reason for selective association of thioredoxin with oxidized targets for reduction, whereas immediate dissociation from a reduced target when the dithiol-disulfide exchange reaction is complete. (frontiersin.org)
  • One side of the cluster center contains redox-active disulfide bonds that reduce Thioredoxin while the opposite docks with reduced Ferredoxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Next, the nucleophilic Cys-57, encouraged by an adjacent Histidine residue, attacks a disulfide bridge on Thioredoxin, creating a hetero-disulfide Thioredoxin intermediate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lastly, a newly docked Ferredoxin molecule delivers the final electron to the FeS center, reducing it to its original 2+ state, reforming the Cys-87, Cys-57 disulfide, and fully reducing thioredoxin to two thiols. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disulfide bond formation between RNA binding domains is used to regulate mRNA binding activity of the chloroplast poly(A)-binding protein. (bio.net)
  • It forms a mixed disulfide with thioredoxin on one side, and docks ferredoxin on the other side, enabling two one-electron transfers. (genome.jp)
  • Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. (curehunter.com)
  • We study how chloroplast two-component systems, a novel bacterial-type signal transduction family in chloroplasts, couple photosynthetic electron transport to PS I reaction center gene transcription. (purdue.edu)
  • High-fluence blue and white light trigger the transcription of the plant chloroplast psbD gene, encoding the D2 reaction center protein of PS II. (purdue.edu)
  • Chloroplast Transcription, In David Stern (ed. (uio.no)
  • NCP activates chloroplast transcription by controlling phytochrome-dependent dual nuclear and plastidial switches. (escholarship.org)
  • Within the transcription factor family, RAP2.4a has a unique function as a general transcriptional activator of chloroplast peroxidase activity. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Thioredoxin 1 (Trx1) is a key redox modulator that is functionally conserved across a wide range of species, including plants, bacteria, and mammals. (mcponline.org)
  • The thioredoxin-1 (Trx1) system promotes inflammation by positively regulating both NLRP3 inflammasome responses, by detoxifying excessive ROS independently of Txnip and NF-κB binding to target DNA. (elifesciences.org)
  • The thioredoxin-dependent peroxidase activity can be measured in crude plant extracts and contributes significantly to the overall H2O2 detoxification capacity. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Reduces hydrogen peroxide and alkyl hydroperoxides with reducing equivalents provided through the thioredoxin or glutaredoxin system. (string-db.org)
  • Scientists at Tokyo Tech have identified two redox cascades that cooperatively regulate chloroplast function and contribute to plant survival. (titech.ac.jp)
  • In this cutting-edge study, Yoshida and Hisabori have identified another pathway that works differently but collaboratively with FTR/Trx to regulate chloroplast functions. (titech.ac.jp)
  • The scientists employed NTRC-affinity chromatography and biochemical methods to identify molecules targeted by NTRC in spinach chloroplasts. (titech.ac.jp)
  • These breakthrough findings indicate that cooperative redox regulation by the highly organized network comprising FTR/Trx and NTRC (shown in Figure 1) is essential for chloroplast functional activity and plant survival in varying environmental conditions. (titech.ac.jp)
  • NTRC links built-in thioredoxin to light and sucrose in regulating starch synthesis in chloroplasts and amyloplasts. (mpg.de)
  • This will help to understand why plants harbor the most versatile thioredoxin system among all organisms. (springer.com)
  • In addition, SlMSRB1 exhibited no activity in thioredoxin dependent system or the substitution of cysteine at position 181 in the DTT-dependent reduction system. (biomedsearch.com)
  • EN] This article presents a microbiological system composed of a " BT" bioassay (Beta-lactams and Tetracyclines) and a " QS" bioassay (Quinolones and Sulfonamides). (upv.es)
  • Redox-cycling of anthracyclines by thioredoxin system: increased superoxide generation and DNA damage. (umassmed.edu)
  • They prompt us to propose that the m type is involved in key processes linking photosynthetic activity, redox homeostasis and antioxidant mechanisms in the chloroplast. (frontiersin.org)
  • The regulation of the chloroplast antioxidant capacity depends on nuclear gene expression. (beds.ac.uk)
  • However, the mechanisms by which phytochrome signaling initiates chloroplast development remain elusive. (duke.edu)
  • The main challenge in determining these mechanisms has been that previous genetic screens have been unable to distinguish mutants involved in plastidial gene regulation from mutants of essential components of chloroplast functionality (Chen et al. (duke.edu)
  • The redox-sensitive chloroplast trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase AtTPPD regulates salt stress tolerance. (nih.gov)
  • Link between light and fattyacid synthesis : thioredoxin-linked reductive activation of plastidic acetyl-CoA carboxylase' Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A.94. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Since their discovery in plants around 40 years ago, the number of thioredoxin family members as well as the knowledge about their distinct functions are still increasing and under investigation. (springer.com)
  • Chloroplasts are metabolically versatile organelles that carry out fundamental functions in determining appropriate immune reactions in plants. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • This review highlights the central role of chloroplasts in the signalling crosstalk that essentially determines the outcome of plant-pathogen interactions in plants. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Chloroplasts are one of the defining features of plants. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The chloroplasts of vascular plants develop from a nonphotosynthetic progenitor, the proplastid, which is maintained in meristematic cells ( Waters and Langdale, 2009 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • For instance, chloroplast function is central for plant growth and survival, and the performance of chloroplasts is tightly linked to the general status of the cell and vice versa. (mdpi.com)
  • Chloroplasts are metabolically versatile organelles that mediate key functions in the photochemical utilization of light, sensing and signalling of environmental stresses as well as elicitation and propagation of immune reactions against plant pathogens. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Chloroplast as a central component in plant immunity. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Fundamental questions regarding how chloroplasts develop from proplastids remain poorly understood despite their central importance to plant life. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Plant and algal TxlAs are nuclear-encoded and have an additional N-terminal domain that targets them to the chloroplast. (unt.edu)
  • Peroxiredoxins and NADPH-Dependent Thioredoxin Systems in the Model Legume Lotus japonicus", PLANT PHYSIOLOGY , vol. 156, 2011, pp. 1535-1547. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Chloroplast to nucleus communication triggered by accumulation of Mg-protoporphyrin IX. (springer.com)
  • Thus, the photosynthesizing chloroplast functions as a conditional source of important redox and ROS information, which is exploited to tune processes both inside the chloroplast and, following retrograde release or processing, in the cytosol and nucleus. (nih.gov)
  • PhAPGs are transcribed by a bacterial-type RNA polymerase (PEP), but how phytochromes in the nucleus activate chloroplast gene expression remains enigmatic. (escholarship.org)
  • The chloroplast localization of OsFKBP16-3-GFP was confirmed through the transient expression of OsFKBP16-3 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. (mdpi.com)
  • The appearance of a yellow color in transgenic cross sections, while absent in the control, through phase contrast microscopy indicated chloroplast localization of the target protein. (conicyt.cl)
  • Proplastids are colorless and contain limited amounts of internal membranes but can differentiate into a variety of plastid types with specialized activities, such as amyloplasts in the roots for starch storage, leucoplasts for lipid storage, chromoplasts for pigment accumulation, etioplasts in dark-grown shoots, and chloroplasts in light-grown shoots. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Phytoene desaturase is localized exclusively in the chloroplast and up-regulated at the mRNA level during accumulation of secondary carotenoids in Haematococcus pluvialis (Volvocales, Chlorophyceae). (bio.net)
  • EN] Tomato debris can be used as the soil amendment to reduce agricultural residue accumulation problems and increase soil fertility. (upv.es)
  • Ballicora MA, Frueauf JB, Fu Y et al (2000) Activation of the potato tuber ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase by thioredoxin. (springer.com)
  • Moreover, the physiological capacity and its adjustment are dependent on the efficiency of the protein translocation process as judged from the analysis of mutants of the two receptor units of the chloroplast translocon, TOC64, and TOC33. (mdpi.com)
  • We hypothesized that these tall-and-albino mutants define uncharacterized components of phytochrome signaling required for chloroplast development. (duke.edu)
  • Regulation mechanism of the electron transport in chloroplast and the related plastids was investigated by the group including three American scientists who was experts in each field. (nii.ac.jp)
  • There were isoenzymes or isoproteins differently expressed in chloroplast and non-photosynthetic plastids, which can differently function in the various electron transport systems in plastids. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Translational regulations as specific traits of chloroplast gene expression. (bio.net)
  • Gene expression analysis in RAP2.4 knockout lines revealed that RAP2.4a is the only one supporting 2CPA and chloroplast APx expression. (beds.ac.uk)
  • We performed the functional analysis of these ferredoxins by localizing Fd, Fdx2, Fdx3, and Fdx6 to the chloroplast by using isoform-specific antibodies and monitoring the pattern of gene expression by iron and copper nutrition, nitrogen source, and hydrogen peroxide stress. (ttu.edu)