Chloroplast Thioredoxins: A subtype of thioredoxins found primarily in CHLOROPLASTS.Thioredoxins: Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Thioredoxin h: A thioredoxin subtype that is ubiquitously found in the plant kingdom. It reduces a variety of seed storage proteins and may play a role in the germination process of seeds.DNA, Chloroplast: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.Chloroplast Proteins: Proteins encoded by the CHLOROPLAST GENOME or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the CHOROPLASTS.Thioredoxin-Disulfide Reductase: A FLAVOPROTEIN enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of THIOREDOXINS to thioredoxin disulfide in the presence of NADP+. It was formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.5Glutaredoxins: A family of thioltransferases that contain two active site CYSTEINE residues, which either form a disulfide (oxidized form) or a dithiol (reduced form). They function as an electron carrier in the GLUTHIONE-dependent synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides by RIBONUCLEOTIDE REDUCTASES and may play a role in the deglutathionylation of protein thiols. The oxidized forms of glutaredoxins are directly reduced by the GLUTATHIONE.Genome, Chloroplast: The genetic complement of CHLOROPLASTS as represented in their DNA.RNA, Chloroplast: Ribonucleic acid in chloroplasts having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Stevens-Johnson Syndrome: Rare cutaneous eruption characterized by extensive KERATINOCYTE apoptosis resulting in skin detachment with mucosal involvement. It is often provoked by the use of drugs (e.g., antibiotics and anticonvulsants) or associated with PNEUMONIA, MYCOPLASMA. It is considered a continuum of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.Portraits as Topic: Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)Societies, Scientific: Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.History of DentistryMalate Dehydrogenase (NADP+)Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)FinlandFood Technology: The application of knowledge to the food industry.Foods, Specialized: Foods and beverages prepared for use to meet specific needs such as infant foods.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Diet, Fat-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Consumer Health Information: Information intended for potential users of medical and healthcare services. There is an emphasis on self-care and preventive approaches as well as information for community-wide dissemination and use.Social Media: Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions.Dissent and Disputes: Differences of opinion or disagreements that may arise, for example, between health professionals and patients or their families, or against a political regime.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Photosystem II Protein Complex: A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.IndianaPhotosystem I Protein Complex: A large multisubunit protein complex that is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to drive electron transfer reactions that result in either the reduction of NADP to NADPH or the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Newspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)United StatesMass Media: Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.GermanyMitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Mitochondrial Diseases: Diseases caused by abnormal function of the MITOCHONDRIA. They may be caused by mutations, acquired or inherited, in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes that code for mitochondrial components. They may also be the result of acquired mitochondria dysfunction due to adverse effects of drugs, infections, or other environmental causes.MichiganNelson Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by HYPERPIGMENTATION, enlarging pituitary mass, visual defects secondary to compression of the OPTIC CHIASM, and elevated serum ACTH. It is caused by the expansion of an underlying ACTH-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA that grows in the absence of feedback inhibition by adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS, usually after ADRENALECTOMY.Hospitals, Teaching: Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.

Chloroplast thioredoxin mutants without active-site cysteines facilitate the reduction of the regulatory disulphide bridge on the gamma-subunit of chloroplast ATP synthase. (1/37)

The activity of the chloroplast H+-ATPase (CFoCF1) is regulated by the proton electrochemical membrane potential and the reduction or the formation of the disulphide bridge on the gamma-subunit mediated by chloroplast thioredoxins (Trx). The latter regulation also applies to the water-soluble portion of CFoCF1 (CF1) and includes two successive steps, namely the binding of Trx to CF1 and the subsequent reduction or oxidation of CF1. To study this process thoroughly, a new expression system for spinach Trx-f and Trx-m was designed. In the presence of dithiothreitol (DTT) both forms of the expressed Trx could reduce the disulphide bridge on the gamma-subunit of CF1 and thus activate the ATPase. Trx mutants deficient in the internal, or both, cysteines of the active site were designed to study the details of the interaction. The Trx mutant proteins could still activate CF1-ATPase in the presence of DTT and they also increased the apparent affinity of CF1 for DTT. This implies that the binding of Trx to the CF1 gamma-subunit induces a conformational change facilitating the reduction of the disulphide bridge, and partially explains the high efficiency of Trx as a reductant in vivo.  (+info)

Mechanism of light regulation of Rubisco: a specific role for the larger Rubisco activase isoform involving reductive activation by thioredoxin-f. (2/37)

Rubisco activase is a nuclear-encoded chloroplast protein that is required for the light activation of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) in vivo. In most plants examined to date, there are two isoforms of Rubisco activase arising from alternative splicing that differ only at the carboxyl terminus. Here we demonstrate with recombinant proteins that in Arabidopsis the larger isoform has a unique role in the regulation of Rubisco activity. At physiological ratios of ADP/ATP, the 46-kDa isoform has minimal ATP hydrolysis and Rubisco activation activity in comparison with the 43-kDa isoform. Analysis of a series of carboxyl-terminal deletion and Ala substitution mutants of the 46-kDa isoform revealed that the presence of Cys residues at positions 411 and 392 were essential to preserve a low ATP hydrolysis and Rubisco activation activity in the presence of ADP. Consequently, incubation of the 46-kDa isoform with DTT and thioredoxin-f increased both activities, whereas incubations with DTT alone or with thioredoxin-m were ineffective. Thioredoxin-f and DTT had no effect on the 43-kDa isoform. However, premixing both isoforms before conducting a reduction and oxidation cycle demonstrated that the activity of both isoforms could be regulated. Reduction and oxidation also modulated the activity of native activase proteins isolated from either Arabidopsis or spinach, but not tobacco, which only has the smaller isoform. These findings suggest that in plants containing both isoforms, Rubisco activase regulates the activity of Rubisco in response to light-induced changes in both the ADP/ATP ratio and the redox potential via thioredoxin-f.  (+info)

Kinetic and mutational analyses of the regulation of phosphoribulokinase by thioredoxins. (3/37)

Despite little supportive data, differential target protein susceptibility to redox regulation by thioredoxin (Trx) f and Trx m has been invoked to account for two distinct Trxs in chloroplasts. However, this postulate has not been rigorously tested with phosphoribulokinase (PRK), a fulcrum for redox regulation of the Calvin cycle. Prerequisite to Trx studies, the activation of spinach PRK by dithiothreitol, 2-mercaptoethanol, and glutathione was examined. Contrary to prior reports, each activated PRK, but only dithiothreitol supported Trx-dependent activation. Comparative kinetics of activation of PRK showed Trx m to be more efficient than Trx f because of its 40% higher V(max) but similar S(0.5). Activations were insensitive to ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase, which may complex with PRK in vivo. To probe the basis for superiority of Trx m, we characterized site-directed mutants of Trx f, in which unique residues in conserved regions were replaced with Trx m counterparts or deleted. These changes generally resulted in V(max) enhancements, the largest (6-fold) of which occurred with T105I, reflective of substitution in a hydrophobic region that opposes the active site. Inclusive of the present study, activation kinetics of several different Trx-regulated enzymes indicate redundancy in the functions of the chloroplastic Trxs.  (+info)

Expression of thioredoxins f and m, and of their targets fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and NADP-malate dehydrogenase, in pea plants grown under normal and light/temperature stress conditions. (4/37)

Thioredoxins (Trxs) f and m, as well as their targets chloroplast fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) and NADP+-malate dehydrogenase (NADP-MDH), displayed transcriptional expression in both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic organs of pea plants (Pisum sativum L. cv. Lincoln) grown for 50 d under normal irradiance. However, whereas Trx m and both target enzymes were poorly expressed in non-photosynthetic tissues, the content of the precursor form of the Trx f-specific mRNA was high in pea roots. In contrast, the translational expression of Trx f was low in this organ. The high FBPase activity in immature seeds, and the low activity of leaves, must be related to high starch synthesis in the first, and with high sucrose formation in the second. The transcriptional expression of FBPase and NADP+-MDH, and to a lesser extent that of Trxs f and m, was inhibited under low irradiance in plants grown under both normal and high temperatures. Pea plants grown at low temperature displayed a high level of mRNAs for Trxs and their targets, especially when the growth was carried out at low light. To a lesser extent, similar behaviour was observed at the protein level. Chloroplasts of mesophyll leaf cells of pea plants grown under saturating light, or under sub-saturating continuous irradiance, showed broken envelopes, distorted structural elements and disorganized starch grains, as a consequence of a photobleaching process and high starch accumulation.  (+info)

Heterodimer formation between thioredoxin f and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase from spinach chloroplasts. (5/37)

Chloroplast fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) is activated by reduction of a regulatory disulfide through thioredoxin f (Trx f). In the course of this reduction a transient mixed disulfide is formed linking covalently Trx f with FBPase, which possesses three Cys on a loop structure, two of them forming the redox-active disulfide bridge. The goal of this study was to identify the Cys involved in the transient mixed disulfide. To stabilize this reaction intermediate, mutant proteins with modified active sites were used. We identified Cys-155 of the FBPase as the one engaged in the formation of the mixed disulfide intermediate with Cys-46 of Trx f.  (+info)

Rapeseed chloroplast thioredoxin-m. Modulation of the affinity for target proteins. (6/37)

The stroma of higher plant chloroplasts contains two thioredoxins (Trx) with different specificity for the reduction of protein disulfide bonds. Based upon electrostatic features of domains that participate in the thiol/disulfide exchange, we prepared mutants of rapeseed Trx-m bearing opposite charges at a single position and subsequently analyzed their action on the activation of rapeseed chloroplast fructose 1,6-phosphate (CFBPase). The replacement of Pro-35 with lysine and glutamic residues enhanced and impaired, respectively, the stimulation of CFBPase relative to the wild-type and the P35A mutant. Furthermore, the shielding of electrostatic interactions with high concentrations of KCl greatly increased and concurrently made indistinguishable the affinity of all variants for CFBPase. The capacity to stimulate the enzyme activity likewise was enhanced concertedly by fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and Ca(2+) but, at variance with the action of KCl, remained sensitive to charges in the side chain of mutants. These results were consistent with a mechanism in which intermolecular electrostatic interactions and intramolecular non-covalent interactions control the formation of the non-covalent complex between reduced Trx and oxidized CFBPase and, in so doing, modulate the thiol/disulfide exchange.  (+info)

Chloroplast cyclophilin is a target protein of thioredoxin. Thiol modulation of the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity. (7/37)

Chloroplast cyclophilin has been identified as a potential candidate of enzymes in chloroplasts that are regulated by thioredoxin (Motohashi, K., Kondoh, A., Stumpp, M. T., and Hisabori, T. (2001) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 98, 11224-11229). In the present study we found that the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity of cyclophilin is fully inactivated in the oxidized form. Reduction of cyclophilin by thioredoxin-m recovered the isomerase activity. Two crucial disulfide bonds were determined by disulfide-linked peptide mapping. The relevance of these cysteines for isomerase activity was confirmed by the mutagenesis studies. Because four cysteine residues in Arabidopsis thaliana cyclophilin were conserved in the isoforms from several organisms, it appears that this redox regulation must be one of the common regulation systems of cyclophilin.  (+info)

Poplar peroxiredoxin Q. A thioredoxin-linked chloroplast antioxidant functional in pathogen defense. (8/37)

Peroxiredoxins are ubiquitous thioredoxin- or glutaredoxin-dependent peroxidases, the function of which is to destroy peroxides. Peroxiredoxin Q, one of the four plant subtypes, is a homolog of the bacterial bacterioferritin comigratory proteins. We show here that the poplar (Populus tremula x Populus tremuloides) protein acts as a monomer with an intramolecular disulfide bridge between two conserved cysteines. A wide range of electron donors and substrates was tested. Unlike type II peroxiredoxin, peroxiredoxin Q cannot use the glutaredoxin or cyclophilin isoforms tested, but various cytosolic, chloroplastic, and mitochondrial thioredoxins are efficient electron donors with no marked specificities. The redox midpoint potential of the peroxiredoxin Q catalytic disulfide is -325 mV at pH 7.0, explaining why the wild-type protein is reduced by thioredoxin but not by glutaredoxin. Additional evidence that thioredoxin serves as a donor comes from the formation of heterodimers between peroxiredoxin Q and monocysteinic mutants of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) thioredoxin m. Peroxiredoxin Q can reduce various alkyl hydroperoxides, but with a better efficiency for cumene hydroperoxide than hydrogen peroxide and tertiary butyl hydroperoxide. The use of immunolocalization and of a green fluorescence protein fusion construct indicates that the transit sequence efficiently targets peroxiredoxin Q to the chloroplasts and especially to those of the guard cells. The expression of this protein and of type II peroxiredoxin is modified in response to an infection by two races of Melampsora larici-populina, the causative agent of the poplar rust. In the case of an hypersensitive response, the peroxiredoxin expression increased, whereas it decreased during a compatible interaction.  (+info)

Plants display a remarkable diversity of thioredoxins (Trxs), reductases controlling the thiol redox status of proteins. The physiological function of many of them remains elusive, particularly for plastidial Trxs f and m, which are presumed based on biochemical data to regulate photosynthetic reactions and carbon metabolism. Recent reports revealed that Trxs f and m participate in vivo in the control of starch metabolism and cyclic photosynthetic electron transfer around photosystem I, respectively. To further delineate their in planta function, we compared the photosynthetic characteristics, the level and/or activity of various Trx targets and the responses to oxidative stress in transplastomic tobacco plants overexpressing either Trx f or Trx m. We found that plants overexpressing Trx m specifically exhibit altered growth, reduced chlorophyll content, impaired photosynthetic linear electron transfer and decreased pools of glutathione and ascorbate. In both transplastomic lines, activities of two
An extracardiac pumping for supplementing the circulation of blood, including the cardiac output, in a patient without any component thereof being connected to the patients heart, and method of using same. One embodiment of the extracardiac system comprises a pump implanted subcutaneously at or about the patients femoral artery in a minimally-invasive procedure, wherein the pump is powered by a battery, and means for charging the battery extracorporeally, whereby the pump draws blood through an inflow conduit fluidly coupled to the patients femoral artery via a subcutaneous anastomosis connection, and discharges blood through an outflow conduit fluidly coupled to a second peripheral artery via a subcutaneous anastomosis connection. The pump may be operated continuously or in a pulsatile fashion, synchronous with the patients heart, thereby potentially reducing the afterload of the heart. The conduits can be housed in a multi-lumen catheter and a reservoir may be provided fluidly communicating with
The redox state in chloroplasts is mainly determined through the photosynthetic activities but differs not only between day and night but also in response to varying environmental light conditions. The adaptation to these changes requires a rapid posttranslational regulation of primary metabolism and organellar gene expression. The metabolic flux and the enzyme activities of Chl biosynthesis are also posttranslationally modulated in response to varying light conditions (Ikegami et al., 2007; Stenbaek and Jensen, 2010; Czarnecki and Grimm, 2012).. It has been reported that several enzymes of Chl biosynthesis are linked to two redox systems, the ferredoxin-dependent TRX reductase and the NTRC. The ATPase activity of the Mg chelatase CHLI subunit is activated by TRXs (Ikegami et al., 2007). The TRX-dependent reduction of CHLI was also shown by AMS treatment. The presence of TRX f stimulates the in vitro Mg chelatase activity of the recombinant subunits of rice (Oryza sativa), while the deficiency ...
Gambling strategies in plants is an entirely new phenomenon. Yet pea plants show this tendency. Researchers have shown that these pod-bearing flora tend to have a certain sensitivity to risk.. Get the Free Tracker App to find WowWee Fingerlings. They can thus choose from various scenarios although to a limited extent. Choice has always been seen as something that animals possess. However, in the plant kingdom, this is the first instance of some degree of control being exercised over external circumstances by a species. The pea plants involved in the study, published in the journal Current Biology, were planted in such a way that their roots were bifurcated between two pots.. This gave them the fair choice of choosing either of the pots for nourishment purposes. The pea plants showed that they had their priorities right.. In previous studies, it had been shown that these pea plants preferred pots with more nutrients and richer soil samples. They responded to such abundance with greater growth in ...
Enzymes are extraordinary molecules that can accelerate chemical reactions by several orders of magnitude. With recent advancements in structural biology together with classical enzymology the mechanism of many enzymes has become understood at the molecular level. During the last ten years significant efforts have been invested to understand the structure and dynamics of the actual catalyst (i. e. the enzyme). There has been a tremendous development in NMR spectroscopy (both hardware and pulse programs) that have enabled detailed studies of protein dynamics. In many cases there exists a strong coupling between enzyme dynamics and function. Here I have studied the conformational dynamics and thermodynamics of three model systems: adenylate kinase (Adk), Peroxiredoxin Q (PrxQ) and the structural protein S16. By developing a novel chemical shift-based method we show that Adk binds its two substrates AMP and ATP with an extraordinarily dynamic mechanism. For both substrate-saturated states the ...
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At their most basic, most plants possess roots, stems and leaves, and most produce flowers as well. The pea plant is no exception -- it too has all of those structures -- but distinctive anatomical traits not only help the plant to compete and survive but settle it in an important economical niche.
QUESTIONS & ANSWERS: THE BASICS What are the most commonly reported benefits of TRX2®? The most common benefits reported by those who regularly take TRX2® i
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Whether snap, garden variety or oriental pod peas, there are several common pea problems which may plague the home gardener. Take a look at some of the issues affecting pea plants in the following article.
Legislation in the works would attempt to update the 1996 Telecommunications Act, addressing such questions as the telcos rights in entering the video market and net neutrality.
Thioredoxins: Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.
BACKGROUND: A phenotype is a visible, noticeable, and recognizable trait. An organisms genotype is his genetic make-up which is located in the nuclei of his cells. For example, the physical traits of a tall pea may be made of a dominant tall pea gene and a recessive dwarf pea gene. The phenotype of this plant will be tall, whereas the genotype will be heterozygous (i.e., a dominant and a recessive gene).. When a cross is performed upon parents that differ in only one single character (i.e., tall, short, etc.) it is termed a monohybrid cross. However, in many cases genes have more than one trait. When two sets of hereditary traits are considered it is called a dihybrid. Mendel continued his experiments with a pure (homozygous) tall, red flowering pea plant (TTRR) and crossed it with a pure dwarf, white flowering pea plant (ttrr). All the offspring will be hybrid (heterozygous) tall, red flowering (TtRr). Since the genes for height are on a different pair of chromosomes from the genes for flower ...
1BLU: Crystal structure of the 2[4Fe-4S] ferredoxin from Chromatium vinosum: evolutionary and mechanistic inferences for [3/4Fe-4S] ferredoxins.
Recombinant Human Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphatase 1, FBPase 1 (E. coli, C-6His) datasheet and description hight quality product and Backed by our Guarantee
The responses of the quantum efficiencies of photosystem (PS) II and PSI measured in vivo simultaneously with estimations of the activities and activation states of NADP-malate dehydrogenase, chloroplast fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase were used to study the relationship between electron transport and carbon metabolism. The effects of varying irradiance and CO(2) partial pressure on the relationship between the quantum efficiencies of PSI and II, and the activity of these enzymes shows that the interrelationships vary according to the limitations placed on the system. The relationship between the quantum efficiencies of PSII and PSI was linear in most situations. In response to increasing irradiance, the activity of all three enzymes increased. In the case of NADP-malate dehydrogenase this increase was well correlated with the estimated flux of electrons through PSI and PSII. The other two enzymes showed a more complex relationship with the estimated flux of
Thioredoxins (TRXs) are small (approximately 12 kD), ubiquitous oxidoreductases that mediate the dithiol-disulfide exchange of Cys residues, thereby modulating the function and stability of their target proteins (Schürmann and Buchanan, 2008). The short peptide motif WC(G/P)PC, with its two conserved Cys residues, has been characterized as the conserved redox-active site of TRXs (Jacquot et al., 1997; Buchanan and Balmer, 2005; Meyer et al., 2008). In chloroplasts, the disulfide bonds of TRXs can be reduced by ferredoxin-TRX reductase receiving the receipt of electrons from the photoreduced ferredoxin. Subsequently, the reduced TRX acts to reduce the disulfide groups of its target proteins (Dai et al., 2000, 2007; Schürmann and Buchanan, 2008). The five different classes of chloroplast TRXs have been characterized as TRX-F, TRX-M, TRX-X, TRX-Y, and TRX-Z in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The two classes of TRX-M and TRX-F consist of four and two separate members, respectively, and are ...
The word genotype was coined circa|c. 1898 by Wilhelm Ludvig Johannsen in reference to Gregor Mendels work involving pea plants (see below). The word s...
GenBank) ChlI component of cobalt chelatase involved in B12 biosynthesis or ChlD component of cobalt chelatase involved in B12 ...
BAM12P兔多克隆抗体(ab18789)可与牛样本反应并经WB, RIA, IHC实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
The Thioredoxin Assay is a thioredoxin ELISA that can measure soluble human thioredoxin protein in serum, EDTA-plasma, urine or cell culture
The Thioredoxin Assay is a thioredoxin ELISA that can measure soluble human thioredoxin protein in serum, EDTA-plasma, urine or cell culture
Die vom FBP1-Gen kodierte Fruktose-1,6-Bisphosphatase 1 ist ein Enzym des Fruktosestoffwechsels der Leber. Mutationen führen zur autosomal rezessiven Erkrankung des Fruktose-1,6-Bisphosphatase-Mangels, der sich in Hypoglycämie und metabolischer Azidose äußert.. ...
ECCPS is based on a internationally renowned expertise in cardiopulmonary research of the Universities Giessen, Frankfurt and the Max-Planck-Institute
Thioredoxins [(PUBMED:3896121), (PUBMED:2668278), (PUBMED:7788289), (PUBMED:7788290)] are small disulphide-containing redox proteins that have been found in all the kingdoms of living organisms. Thioredoxin serves as a general protein disulphide oxidoreductase. It interacts with a broad range of proteins by a redox mechanism based on reversible oxidation of two cysteine thiol groups to a disulphide, accompanied by the transfer of two electrons and two protons. The net result is the covalent interconversion of a disulphide and a dithiol. In the NADPH-dependent protein disulphide reduction, thioredoxin reductase (TR) catalyses the reduction of oxidised thioredoxin (trx) by NADPH using FAD and its redox-active disulphide; reduced thioredoxin then directly reduces the disulphide in the substrate protein [(PUBMED:3896121)].. Thioredoxin is present in prokaryotes and eukaryotes and the sequence around the redox-active disulphide bond is well conserved. All thioredoxins contain a cis-proline located in ...
There are 2 kinds of spinach: the common, most familiar kind which is a hardy annual, and the lesser known New Zealand spinach, which is a tender annual (and
Carbon dioxide is expected to be employed as an inexpensive and potential feedstock of C1 sources for the mass production of valuable chemicals and fuel. Versatile chemical transformations of CO2, i.e. insertion of CO2 producing bicarbonate/acetate/formate, cleavage of CO2 yielding μ-CO/μ-oxo transition-meta
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An example of homozygous recessive phenotype would be a red-flowered pea plant. The white-flowered pea plant expresses the dominant...
Whitney is generally ready for harvest 50 days after sowing. It is vigorous, but also resistant to bolting. Smooth leaves are medium-green, ovular, and thick.
X-ray structure of cannabinoid-regulating enzyme confirms computational predictions of drug binding and clarifies its mechanism of action
Lemaire SD., Michelet L., Zaffagnini M., Massot V., Issakidis-Bourguet E. Thioredoxins in chloroplasts.. „Current genetics". 6 ... PLANT THIOREDOXIN SYSTEMS REVISITED.. „Annual review of plant physiology and plant molecular biology", s. 371-400, czerwiec ... Thioredoxin-mediated reversible dissociation of a stromal multiprotein complex in response to changes in light availability.. „ ... The ferredoxin/thioredoxin system of oxygenic photosynthesis.. „Antioxidants & redox signaling". 7 (10), s. 1235-74, lipiec ...
The enzyme ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase uses reduced ferredoxin to reduce thioredoxin from the disulfide form to the ... SBPase is bound to the stroma-facing side of the thylakoid membrane in the chloroplast in a plant. Some studies have suggested ... Finally, the reduced thioredoxin is used to reduced a cysteine-cysteine disulfide bond in SBPase to a dithiol, which converts ... Like many Calvin cycle enzymes, SBPase is activated in the presence of light through a ferredoxin/thioredoxin system. In the ...
Thioredoxin and glutathione systems[edit]. The thioredoxin system contains the 12-kDa protein thioredoxin and its companion ... Ascorbic acid is present at high levels in all parts of plants and can reach concentrations of 20 millimolar in chloroplasts.[ ... Arnér ES, Holmgren A (October 2000). "Physiological functions of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase". European Journal of ... the active thioredoxin is regenerated by the action of thioredoxin reductase, using NADPH as an electron donor.[152] ...
In chloroplasts, for example, the enzymatic reduction of disulfide bonds has been linked to the control of numerous metabolic ... The reductive signaling activity has been shown, thus far, to be carried by the ferredoxin thioredoxin system, channeling ... In this way chloroplasts adjust the activity of key processes such as the Calvin-Benson cycle, starch degradation, ATP ... Wittenberg, G.; Danon, A. (2008). "Disulfide bond formation in chloroplasts: Formation of disulfide bonds in signaling ...
Thioredoxin binds to a loop in T7 DNA polymerase to bind more strongly to the DNA. The anti-oxidant function of thioredoxin is ... However ADT2, together with FtsZ is necessary in chloroplast division and ADT5 is transported by stromules into the nucleus. In ... Upon infection with the bacteriophage T7, E. coli thioredoxin forms a complex with T7 DNA polymerase, which results in enhanced ... The E. coli anti-oxidant thioredoxin protein is another example of a moonlighting protein. ...
"Oxidation-Reduction Properties of Chloroplast Thioredoxins, Ferredoxin:Thioredoxin Reductase, and Thioredoxin f-Regulated ... Thioredoxin, through thiol/disulfide exchange, then activates carbohydrate synthesis enzymes such as chloroplast fructose-1,6- ... Ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase EC 1.8.7.2, systematic name ferredoxin:thioredoxin disulfide oxidoreductase, is a [4Fe-4S] ... This leaves Thioredoxin inactive and allows carbohydrate breakdown to dominate metabolism. Ferredoxin-Thioredoxin Reductase is ...
Lundström J, Holmgren A (Jun 1990). "Protein disulfide-isomerase is a substrate for thioredoxin reductase and has thioredoxin- ... In the chloroplasts of the unicellular algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii the protein disulfide-isomerase RB60 serves as a redox ... Protein disulfide-isomerase has two catalytic thioredoxin-like domains (active sites), each containing the canonical CGHC motif ... Wittenberg G, Danon A (2008). "Disulfide bond formation in chloroplasts". Plant Science. 175 (4): 459-466. doi:10.1016/j. ...
2-Cys peroxiredoxins are reduced by thiols such as thioredoxins, thioredoxin-like proteins, or possibly glutathione, while the ... Baier M, Dietz KJ (July 1997). "The plant 2-Cys peroxiredoxin BAS1 is a nuclear-encoded chloroplast protein: its expressional ... Peroxiredoxin uses thioredoxin (Trx) to recharge after reducing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the following reactions: Prx( ... Pillay CS, Hofmeyr JH, Olivier BG, Snoep JL, Rohwer JM (January 2009). "Enzymes or redox couples? The kinetics of thioredoxin ...
Another redox protein, isolated from spinach chloroplasts, was termed "chloroplast ferredoxin". The chloroplast ferredoxin is ... The fold belongs to the α+β class, with first four β-strands and two α-helices adopting a variant of the thioredoxin fold. ... originally found in chloroplast membranes, has been termed "chloroplast-type" or "plant-type". Its active center is a [Fe2S2] ... In chloroplasts, Fe2S2 ferredoxins function as electron carriers in the photosynthetic electron transport chain and as electron ...
In the shoot the sulfate is unloaded and transported to the chloroplasts where it is reduced. The remaining sulfate in plant ... thioredoxins). Glutathione or its homologues, e.g. homoglutathione in Fabaceae; hydroxymethylglutathione in Poaceae are the ... This sulfolipid is present in plastid membranes and likely is involved in chloroplast functioning. The route of biosynthesis ... in the chloroplasts. Cysteine is the precursor or reduced sulfur donor of most other organic sulfur compounds in plants. The ...
The resulting damage caused by singlet oxygen reduces the photosynthetic efficiency of chloroplasts. In plants exposed to ... and thioredoxin (TRX), which rely on the reducing power of NADPH to maintain their activities. Most risk factors associated ... Various substances such as carotenoids, tocopherols and plastoquinones contained in chloroplasts quench singlet oxygen and ...
There are two regulation systems at work when the cycle must be turned on or off: the thioredoxin/ferredoxin activation system ... These reactions occur in the stroma, the fluid-filled area of a chloroplast outside the thylakoid membranes. These reactions ... The thioredoxin/ferredoxin system activates the enzymes glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase, glyceraldehyde-3-P phosphatase, ... Ferredoxin then binds to and reduces the thioredoxin protein, which activates the cycle enzymes by severing a cystine bond ...
... chloroplast - chloroplast membrane - cholecystokinin receptor - cholesterine - cholinergic receptor - chorionic gonadotropin - ... thioredoxin - Threonine - thrombin - thrombin receptor - thrombomodulin - thromboxane receptor - thylakoid - thyroid hormone ...
Gromer S, Urig S, Becker K (January 2004). "The thioredoxin system-from science to clinic". Medicinal Research Reviews. 24 (1 ... N-formylmethionine (which is often the initial amino acid of proteins in bacteria, mitochondria, and chloroplasts) is generally ... mitochondria and chloroplasts. Other amino acids are called non-standard or non-canonical. Most of the non-standard amino acids ...
... chloroplast proton-translocating atpases MeSH D08.811.277.040.025.325.625 --- h(+)-k(+)-exchanging atpase MeSH D08.811.277.040. ... thioredoxin reductase (nadph) MeSH D08.811.682.670.550 --- nitroanisole o-demethylase MeSH D08.811.682.690.416 --- dioxygenases ... chloroplast proton-translocating atpases MeSH D08.811.913.696.650.150.500.750 --- mitochondrial proton-translocating atpases ...
Lemaire SD., Michelet L., Zaffagnini M., Massot V., Issakidis-Bourguet E. Thioredoxins in chloroplasts.. „Current genetics". 6 ... PLANT THIOREDOXIN SYSTEMS REVISITED.. „Annual review of plant physiology and plant molecular biology", s. 371-400, czerwiec ... Thioredoxin-mediated reversible dissociation of a stromal multiprotein complex in response to changes in light availability.. „ ... The ferredoxin/thioredoxin system of oxygenic photosynthesis.. „Antioxidants & redox signaling". 7 (10), s. 1235-74, lipiec ...
In this way chloroplasts adjust the activity of key processes such as the Calvin-Benson cycle, starch degradation, ATP ... The reductive signaling activity has been shown, thus far, to be carried by the ferredoxin thioredoxin system, channeling ... In chloroplasts, for example, the enzymatic reduction of disulfide bonds has been linked to the control of numerous metabolic ... Wittenberg, G.; Danon, A. (2008). "Disulfide bond formation in chloroplasts: Formation of disulfide bonds in signaling ...
Regulation of chloroplast phosphoribulokinase by the ferredoxin/thioredoxin system. by Ricardo A. Wolosiuk et al. ... The absence of thioredoxin m1 and thioredoxin C in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 leads to oxidative stress.. Frédéric Deschoenmaeker, ... Lauri Nikkanen: DYNAMIC REGULATION OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS BY CHLOROPLAST THIOREDOXIN SYSTEMS. UNIVRSITATIS TURUENSIS, Lauri Nikkanen ... Regulation of chloroplast phosphoribulokinase by the ferredoxin/thioredoxin system.. @article{Wolosiuk1978RegulationOC, title={ ...
Chloroplast thioredoxin systems: prospects for improving photosynthesis. Lauri Nikkanen, Jouni Toivola, Manuel Guinea Diaz, ... Interaction between photosynthetic electron transport and chloroplast sinks triggers protection and signalling important for ...
Chloroplast Thioredoxins. , Chloroplasts. , Molecular Chaperones. , Plants, Genetically Modified. , Plasmids. , Plastids. , ... Thioredoxin. , Tobacco. , Chaperone. , Hybrid protein. , Serum albumin. , Article. , Biosynthesis. , Chloroplast. , Genetic ... Tobacco plastidial thioredoxins as modulators of recombinant protein production in transgenic chloroplasts. Show full item ... Given the common evolutionary heritage of chloroplasts ...[+] Thioredoxins (Trxs) are small ubiquitous disulphide proteins ...
DTT, dithiothreitol; H2O2, hydrogen peroxide; Trx, thioredoxin.. The Redox-Sensitive Chloroplast Trehalose-6-Phosphate ... Chloroplast localization of AtTPPD. (A) Subcellular localization of AtTPPD protein in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana plants ... B) Western blot analysis of A. thaliana leaf total protein and purified chloroplast extracts from 4-week-old wild-type (Col-0) ... The redox-sensitive chloroplast trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase AtTPPD regulates salt stress tolerance.. Krasensky J1, ...
Thioredoxin-like2/2-Cys peroxiredoxin redox cascade supports oxidative thiol modulation in chloroplasts. Keisuke Yoshida, Ayaka ... Thioredoxin-like2/2-Cys peroxiredoxin redox cascade supports oxidative thiol modulation in chloroplasts ... Thioredoxin-like2/2-Cys peroxiredoxin redox cascade supports oxidative thiol modulation in chloroplasts ... Specific chloroplast proteins are reversibly activated-inactivated during light-dark cycles by switching the reduction- ...
Dynamic regulation of photosynthesis by chloroplast thioredoxin systems (2018) Nikkanen. Lauri. (G5 Doctoral dissertation ( ... Dynamic regulation of photosynthesis by chloroplast thioredoxin systems (2018) Nikkanen. Lauri. (G5 Doctoral dissertation ( ...
Chloroplast. Endosome. Peroxisome. ER. Golgi apparatus. Nucleus. Mitochondrion. Manual annotation. Automatic computational ... IPR005746. Thioredoxin. IPR036249. Thioredoxin-like_sf. IPR017937. Thioredoxin_CS. IPR013766. Thioredoxin_domain. ... IPR005746. Thioredoxin. IPR036249. Thioredoxin-like_sf. IPR017937. Thioredoxin_CS. IPR013766. Thioredoxin_domain. ... Thioredoxin F-type, chloroplastic. ,p>This subsection of the PTM / Processing section describes the extent of a transit ...
Regulation of cyclic electron flow by chloroplast NADPH-dependent thioredoxin system (2018) Nikkanen L, Toivola J, Trotta A, ... Photoinhibition of photosystem I in Nephrolepis falciformis depends on reactive oxygen species generated in the chloroplast ... Interaction between photosynthetic electron transport and chloroplast sinks triggers protection and signalling important for ...
... redox homeostasis and antioxidant mechanisms in the chloroplast. ... Plants display a remarkable diversity of thioredoxins (Trxs), ... Plants display a remarkable diversity of thioredoxins (Trxs), reductases controlling the thiol redox status of proteins. The ... 2008). Abnormal chloroplast development and growth inhibition in rice thioredoxin m knock-down plants. Plant Physiol. 148, 808- ... 2009). Chloroplast NADPH-thioredoxin reductase interacts with photoperiodic development in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 149, ...
Chloroplast NADPH-thioredoxin reductase interacts with photoperiodic development in Arabidopsis.. Lepistö A, Kangasjärvi S, ...
In addition, thioredoxin revealed a stronger preference for an oxidized target. These results explain the reason for selective ... In addition, thioredoxin revealed a stronger preference for an oxidized target. These results explain the reason for selective ... The binding rates of thioredoxin to its targets were very different depending on the use of reducing equivalents by the targets ... The binding rates of thioredoxin to its targets were very different depending on the use of reducing equivalents by the targets ...
2003) Chloroplast cyclophilin is a target protein of thioredoxin. Thiol modulation of the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase ... 2001) Comprehensive survey of proteins targeted by chloroplast thioredoxin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98, 11224- 11229. ... 2000) Decreased thioredoxin and increased thioredoxin reductase levels in Alzheimers disease brain. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 28 ... 2009) Identification of thioredoxin targeted proteins using thioredoxin single cysteine mutant-immobilized resin. Methods Mol. ...
Puthiyaveetil, S. (2011). A mechanism for regulation of chloroplast LHC II kinase by plastoquinol and thioredoxin. FEBS Letters ... We study how chloroplast two-component systems, a novel bacterial-type signal transduction family in chloroplasts, couple ... In plants and green algae, the chloroplast two-component system has been rewired in evolution to give it novel and surprising ... High-fluence blue and white light trigger the transcription of the plant chloroplast psbD gene, encoding the D2 reaction center ...
Thioredoxin isoforms are present in most organisms and mitochondria have a separate thioredoxin system. Plants have chloroplast ... Thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase and NADPH, the thioredoxin system, is ubiquitous from Archea to man. Thioredoxins, with a ... Physiological functions of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase.. Arnér ES1, Holmgren A. ... thioredoxins, which via ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase regulates photosynthetic enzymes by light. Thioredoxins are critical ...
Thioredoxins represent ubiquitous small proteins acting as redox regulators of diverse metabolic and developmental processes in ... Lemaire SD, Michelet L, Zaffagnini M et al (2007) Thioredoxins in chloroplasts. Curr Genet 51:343-365PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Rey P, Pruvot G, Becuwe N et al (1998) A novel thioredoxin-like protein located in the chloroplast is induced by water deficit ... Cloning of thioredoxin h reductase and characterization of the thioredoxin reductase-thioredoxin h system from wheat. Biochem J ...
Chloroplast f and m Thioredoxins Discovered in Nonphotosynthetic Tissues. 5. Science expands Science Signaling, featuring ...
Chloroplast f and m Thioredoxins Discovered in Nonphotosynthetic Tissues. 10. 200 journals join in theme issues on poverty and ...
Chloroplast f and m Thioredoxins Discovered in Nonphotosynthetic Tissues. 9. Natural product discovery by Cleveland medical ...
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Chloroplast f and m Thioredoxins Discovered in Nonphotosynthetic Tissues. 2. Researchers successfully simulate photosynthesis ...
Chloroplast f and m Thioredoxins Discovered in Nonphotosynthetic Tissues. 6. Liquid crystal phases of tiny DNA molecules point ...
Lemaire SD., Michelet L., Zaffagnini M., Massot V., Issakidis-Bourguet E. Thioredoxins in chloroplasts.. „Current genetics". 6 ... PLANT THIOREDOXIN SYSTEMS REVISITED.. „Annual review of plant physiology and plant molecular biology", s. 371-400, czerwiec ... Thioredoxin-mediated reversible dissociation of a stromal multiprotein complex in response to changes in light availability.. „ ... The ferredoxin/thioredoxin system of oxygenic photosynthesis.. „Antioxidants & redox signaling". 7 (10), s. 1235-74, lipiec ...
The chloroplast 2-cysteine peroxiredoxin functions as thioredoxin oxidase in redox regulation of chloroplast metabolism Mohamad ... The chloroplast 2-cysteine peroxiredoxin is central player and missing link in the chloroplast thiol-disulfide redox regulatory ... Thioredoxin shapes the C. elegans sensory response to Pseudomonas produced nitric oxide Yingsong Hao et al. ... Thioredoxin-1 distinctly promotes NF-κB target DNA binding and NLRP3 inflammasome activation independently of Txnip Jonathan ...
The chloroplast 2-cysteine peroxiredoxin functions as thioredoxin oxidase in redox regulation of chloroplast metabolism. ...
2015) Thioredoxin selectivity for thiol-based redox regulation of target proteins in chloroplasts. J Biol Chem 290: 14278-14288 ... 2003) Chloroplast cyclophilin is a target protein of thioredoxin: thiol modulation of the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase ... 2014) Activity assays of mammalian thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase: fluorescent disulfide substrates, mechanisms, and use ... NADPH-DEPENDENT THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE A (NTRA), NADPH-DEPENDENT THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE B (NTRB), and the glutathione ...
  • ChIP-seq analysis of GNC identified PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR and brassinosteroid activity genes as targets whose repression by GNC facilitates chloroplast biogenesis. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Such master controllers would serve as switches to coordinately control the expression of suites of genes involved in the development of the chloroplast. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Furthermore, it appears that AtWRKY40 and AtWRKY63 are particularly involved in regulating the expression of genes responding commonly to both mitochondrial and chloroplast dysfunction but not of genes responding to either mitochondrial or chloroplast perturbation. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Many chloroplast-encoded genes were lost or transferred to the nucleus soon after endosymbiosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, the genes encoded in chloroplast genomes are insufficient to regulate their complicated gene expression, and so the chloroplast gene expression machinery includes various nucleus-encoded regulatory components. (frontiersin.org)
  • Transcription of chloroplast genes depends on the nucleus-encoded RNA polymerase (NEP) and the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP) (He et al. (springer.com)
  • 2017 ). During chloroplast development, NEP preferentially transcribes plastid housekeeping genes, such as those encoding the PEP apparatus, rRNA, and tRNA, and the overall transcriptional and translational activities in the chloroplast dramatically increase (Hajdukiewicz et al. (springer.com)
  • 1997 ). Later in chloroplast development, NEP becomes less important and chloroplast genes are transcribed by PEP (De Santis-MacIossek et al. (springer.com)
  • The cytosolic mammalian thioredoxin, lack of which is embryonically lethal, has numerous functions in defense against oxidative stress, control of growth and apoptosis, but is also secreted and has co-cytokine and chemokine activities. (nih.gov)
  • PEPCase could be readily inactivated under mild oxidative conditions and reactivated efficiently by thioredoxin mediated reduction. (science20.com)
  • These results suggest that NADK2 may be a chloroplast NAD kinase and play a vital role in chlorophyll synthesis and chloroplast protection against oxidative damage. (deepdyve.com)
  • In contrast, thioredoxin reductases of higher eukaryotes are larger (112-130 kDa), selenium-dependent dimeric flavoproteins with a broad substrate specificity that also reduce nondisulfide substrates such as hydroperoxides, vitamin C or selenite. (nih.gov)
  • FTR is unique among thioredoxin reductases because it uses an Fe-S cluster cofactor rather than flavoproteins to reduce disulfide bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on the profoundly different phenotypes found in chloroplasts compared to proplastids and plastids from nonphotosynthetic tissues, the existence of chloroplast-specific "master controllers" has been proposed ( López-Juez, 2007 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • The activity of different AtTPP isoforms, located in the cytosol, nucleus, and chloroplasts, can be redox regulated, suggesting that the trehalose metabolism might relay the redox status of different cellular compartments to regulate diverse biological processes such as stress responses. (nih.gov)
  • Two families of nuclear transcription factors, the GATA NITRATE-INDUCIBLE CARBON-METABOLISM-INVOLVED (GNC) and GOLDEN TWO-LIKE (GLK) families, have been implicated in directly and positively regulating chloroplast development. (plantphysiol.org)
  • This leaves Thioredoxin inactive and allows carbohydrate breakdown to dominate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycolate metabolism in algal chloroplasts: inhibition by salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM). (bio.net)
  • Proplastids are colorless and contain limited amounts of internal membranes but can differentiate into a variety of plastid types with specialized activities, such as amyloplasts in the roots for starch storage, leucoplasts for lipid storage, chromoplasts for pigment accumulation, etioplasts in dark-grown shoots, and chloroplasts in light-grown shoots. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In the present work, NtAQP1 levels were increased up to 16-fold in the chloroplast membranes alone by the overexpression of NtAQP1 from the plastid genome. (deepdyve.com)
  • The development of chloroplasts from proplastids involves plastid replication and activation of plastid DNA synthesis, chloroplast genetic system "build-up", and synthesis and assembly of the photosynthetic apparatus. (springer.com)
  • 2005 ). Plastid and chloroplast development are affected by NEP and PEP throughout plant growth (Qiu et al. (springer.com)
  • Baumgartner BJ, Rapp JC and Mullet J (1989) Plastid transcrip-tion activity and DNA copy number increase early in barley chloroplast development. (springer.com)
  • Plant chloroplasts are semiautonomous cell organelles of endosymbiotic origin that emerged from a cyanobacteria-like ancestor ( Lopez-Juez and Pyke, 2005 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Phytoene desaturase is localized exclusively in the chloroplast and up-regulated at the mRNA level during accumulation of secondary carotenoids in Haematococcus pluvialis (Volvocales, Chlorophyceae). (bio.net)