Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.DNA, Chloroplast: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.Chloroplast Proteins: Proteins encoded by the CHLOROPLAST GENOME or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the CHOROPLASTS.Genome, Chloroplast: The genetic complement of CHLOROPLASTS as represented in their DNA.Proton Pumps: Integral membrane proteins that transport protons across a membrane. This transport can be linked to the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. What is referred to as proton pump inhibitors frequently is about POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE.RNA, Chloroplast: Ribonucleic acid in chloroplasts having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of CALCIUM. They differ from CALCIUM CHANNELS which allow calcium to pass through a membrane without the use of energy.Genes, Chloroplast: Those nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity which are located within the CHLOROPLAST DNA.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases: Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.Chloroplast Proton-Translocating ATPases: Proton-translocating ATPases which produce ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE in plants. They derive energy from light-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the membranous cisternae (THYLAKOIDS) of the CHLOROPLASTS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Euglena gracilis: A species of fresh-water, flagellated EUKARYOTES in the phylum EUGLENIDA.Peas: A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)Spinacia oleracea: A widely cultivated plant, native to Asia, having succulent, edible leaves eaten as a vegetable. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Thylakoids: Membranous cisternae of the CHLOROPLAST containing photosynthetic pigments, reaction centers, and the electron-transport chain. Each thylakoid consists of a flattened sac of membrane enclosing a narrow intra-thylakoid space (Lackie and Dow, Dictionary of Cell Biology, 2nd ed). Individual thylakoids are interconnected and tend to stack to form aggregates called grana. They are found in cyanobacteria and all plants.Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: A species of GREEN ALGAE. Delicate, hairlike appendages arise from the flagellar surface in these organisms.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Proton Pump Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE. They are used as ANTI-ULCER AGENTS and sometimes in place of HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS for GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Chloroplast Thioredoxins: A subtype of thioredoxins found primarily in CHLOROPLASTS.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase: A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.Chlamydomonas: A genus GREEN ALGAE in the order VOLVOCIDA. It consists of solitary biflagellated organisms common in fresh water and damp soil.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Chlorophyta: A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane-bound plastids containing chlorophyll a and b. They comprise the classical green algae, and represent over 7000 species that live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater.Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins: Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.Photophosphorylation: The use of light to convert ADP to ATP without the concomitant reduction of dioxygen to water as occurs during OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION in MITOCHONDRIA.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Photosystem II Protein Complex: A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Proton-Motive Force: Energy that is generated by the transfer of protons or electrons across an energy-transducing membrane and that can be used for chemical, osmotic, or mechanical work. Proton-motive force can be generated by a variety of phenomena including the operation of an electron transport chain, illumination of a PURPLE MEMBRANE, and the hydrolysis of ATP by a proton ATPase. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p171)Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Galactolipids: A group of GLYCOLIPIDS in which the sugar group is GALACTOSE. They are distinguished from GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS in lacking nitrogen. They constitute the majority of MEMBRANE LIPIDS in PLANTS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Euglena: A genus of EUKARYOTES, in the phylum EUGLENIDA, found mostly in stagnant water. Characteristics include a pellicle usually marked by spiral or longitudinal striations.Darkness: The absence of light.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Cytochrome b6f Complex: A protein complex that includes CYTOCHROME B6 and CYTOCHROME F. It is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE and plays an important role in process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS by transferring electrons from PLASTOQUINONE to PLASTOCYANIN or CYTOCHROME C6. The transfer of electrons is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.Algal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of algae.Light-Harvesting Protein Complexes: Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide: A carbodiimide that is used as a chemical intermediate and coupling agent in peptide synthesis. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cytochromes f: Cytochromes f are found as components of the CYTOCHROME B6F COMPLEX. They play important role in the transfer of electrons from PHOTOSYSTEM I to PHOTOSYSTEM II.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Plasma Membrane Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Calcium-transporting ATPases found on the PLASMA MEMBRANE that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM from the CYTOPLASM into the extracellular space. They play a role in maintaining a CALCIUM gradient across plasma membrane.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Cation Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Diuron: A pre-emergent herbicide.H(+)-K(+)-Exchanging ATPaseMesophyll Cells: Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Ca(2+) Mg(2+)-ATPasePhotosystem I Protein Complex: A large multisubunit protein complex that is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to drive electron transfer reactions that result in either the reduction of NADP to NADPH or the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.Plastoquinone: Polyunsaturated side-chain quinone derivative which is an important link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Acetabularia: A genus of green algae found in the Mediterranean and other warm seas.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Endopeptidase Clp: An ATP-dependent protease found in prokaryotes, CHLOROPLASTS, and MITOCHONDRIA. It is a soluble multisubunit complex that plays a role in the degradation of many abnormal proteins.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Protein PrecursorsModels, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.RNA Editing: A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Fructose-Bisphosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and water to D-fructose 6-phosphate and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.11.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Cyanobacteria: A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.RNA, Algal: Ribonucleic acid in algae having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Nigericin: A polyether antibiotic which affects ion transport and ATPase activity in mitochondria. It is produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Plastocyanin: A copper-containing plant protein that is a fundamental link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds.Group I Chaperonins: A subcategory of chaperonins found in MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and BACTERIA. Group I chaperonins form into a barrel-shaped macromolecular structure that is enclosed by a separate lid-like protein component.Bacteriorhodopsins: Rhodopsins found in the PURPLE MEMBRANE of halophilic archaea such as HALOBACTERIUM HALOBIUM. Bacteriorhodopsins function as an energy transducers, converting light energy into electrochemical energy via PROTON PUMPS.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Valinomycin: A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Ferredoxins: Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Archaeoglobus fulgidus: A species of extremely thermophilic, sulfur-reducing archaea. It grows at a maximum temperature of 95 degrees C. in marine or deep-sea geothermal areas.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Protochlorophyllide: A photo-active pigment localized in prolamellar bodies occurring within the proplastids of dark-grown bean leaves. In the process of photoconversion, the highly fluorescent protochlorophyllide is converted to chlorophyll.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Calcium-transporting ATPases that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM into the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM vesicles from the CYTOPLASM. They are primarily found in MUSCLE CELLS and play a role in the relaxation of MUSCLES.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Bryopsida: A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.Cytochrome b Group: Cytochromes (electron-transporting proteins) with protoheme (HEME B) as the prosthetic group.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.ATP Synthetase Complexes: Multisubunit enzyme complexes that synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE from energy sources such as ions traveling through channels.Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Electron Transport Complex IV: A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Vanadates: Oxyvanadium ions in various states of oxidation. They act primarily as ion transport inhibitors due to their inhibition of Na(+)-, K(+)-, and Ca(+)-ATPase transport systems. They also have insulin-like action, positive inotropic action on cardiac ventricular muscle, and other metabolic effects.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Rhodophyta: Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Thioredoxins: Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.Proteolipids: Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Molecular Chaperones: A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.Ferredoxin-NADP Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC 1.18.1.2 was formerly listed as EC 1.6.7.1 and EC 1.6.99.4.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Ribosomal Proteins: Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Phototropins: Blue-light receptors that regulate a range of physiological responses in PLANTS. Examples include: PHOTOTROPISM, light-induced stomatal opening, and CHLOROPLAST movements in response to changes in light intensity.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Bacterial Proton-Translocating ATPases: Membrane-bound proton-translocating ATPases that serve two important physiological functions in bacteria. One function is to generate ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE by utilizing the energy provided by an electrochemical gradient of protons across the cellular membrane. A second function is to counteract a loss of the transmembrane ion gradient by pumping protons at the expense of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis.DNA, Algal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of algae.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Mustard Plant: Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Creatine: An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Ascorbate Peroxidases: Peroxidases that utilize ASCORBIC ACID as an electron donor to reduce HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to WATER. The reaction results in the production of monodehydroascorbic acid and DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Cytochromes: Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)ATP-Dependent Proteases: Proteases that contain proteolytic core domains and ATPase-containing regulatory domains. They are usually comprised of large multi-subunit assemblies. The domains can occur within a single peptide chain or on distinct subunits.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Bryophyta: A division of the plant kingdom. Bryophyta contains the subdivision, Musci, which contains the classes: Andreaeopsida, BRYOPSIDA, and SPHAGNOPSIDA.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.

Redox regulation of the rotation of F(1)-ATP synthase. (1/54)

In F(1)-ATPase, the smallest known motor enzyme, unidirectional rotation of the central axis subunit gamma is coupled to ATP hydrolysis. In the present study, we report the redox switching of the rotation of this enzyme. For this purpose, the switch region from the gamma subunit of the redox-sensitive chloroplast F(1)-ATPase was introduced into the bacterial F(1)-ATPase. The ATPase activity of the obtained complex was increased up to 3-fold upon reduction (Bald, D., Noji, H., Stumpp, M. T., Yoshida, M. & Hisabori, T. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 12757-12762). Here, we successfully observed the modulation of rotation of gamma in this chimeric complex by changes in the redox conditions. In addition we revealed that the suppressed enzymatic activity of the oxidized F(1)-ATPase complex was characterized by more frequent long pauses in the rotation of the gamma subunit. These findings obtained by the single molecule analysis therefore provide new insights into the mechanisms of enzyme regulation.  (+info)

Toward an adequate scheme for the ATP synthase catalysis. (2/54)

The suggestions from the author's group over the past 25 years for how steps in catalysis by ATP synthase occur are reviewed. Whether rapid ATP hydrolysis requires the binding of ATP to a second site (bi-site activation) or to a second and third site (tri-site activation) is considered. Present evidence is regarded as strongly favoring bi-site activation. Presence of nucleotides at three sites during rapid ATP hydrolysis can be largely accounted for by the retention of ADP formed and/or by the rebinding of ADP formed. Menz, Leslie and Walker ((2001) FEBS Lett., 494, 11-14) recently attained an X-ray structure of a partially closed enzyme form that binds ADP better than ATP. This accomplishment and other considerations form the base for a revised reaction sequence. Three types of catalytic sites are suggested, similar to those proposed before the X-ray data became available. During net ATP synthesis a partially closed site readily binds ADP and Pi but not ATP. At a closed site, tightly bound ADP and Pi are reversibly converted to tightly bound ATP. ATP is released from a partially closed site that can readily bind ATP or ADP. ATP hydrolysis when protonmotive force is low or lacking occurs simply by reversal of all steps with the opposite rotation of the gamma subunit. Each type of site can exist in various conformations or forms as they are interconverted during a 120 degrees rotation. The conformational changes with the ATP synthase, including the vital change when bound ADP and Pi are converted to bound ATP, are correlated with those that occur in enzyme catalysis in general, as illustrated by recent studies of Rose with fumarase. The betaE structure of Walker's group is regarded as an unlikely, or only quite transient, intermediate. Other X-ray structures are regarded as closely resembling but not identical with certain forms participating in catalysis. Correlation of the suggested reaction scheme with other present information is considered.  (+info)

Properties of noncatalytic sites of thioredoxin-activated chloroplast coupling factor 1. (3/54)

Nucleotide binding properties of two vacant noncatalytic sites of thioredoxin-activated chloroplast coupling factor 1 (CF(1)) were studied. Kinetics of nucleotide binding to noncatalytic sites is described by the first-order equation that allows for two nucleotide binding sites that differ in kinetic features. Dependence of the nucleotide binding rate on nucleotide concentration suggests that tight nucleotide binding is preceded by rapid reversible binding of nucleotides. ADP binding is cooperative. The preincubation of CF(1) with Mg(2+) produces only slight effect on the rate of ADP binding and decreases the ATP binding rate. The ATP and ADP dissociation from noncatalytic sites is described by the first-order equation for similar sites with dissociation rate constants k(-2)(ADP)=1.5 x 10(-1) min(-1) and k(-2)(ATP) congruent with 10(-3) min(-1), respectively. As follows from the study, the noncatalytic sites of CF(1) are not homogeneous. One of them retains the major part of endogenous ADP after CF(1) precipitation with ammonium sulfate. Its other two sites can bind both ADP and ATP but have different kinetic parameters and different affinity for nucleotides.  (+info)

In vivo modulation of nonphotochemical exciton quenching (NPQ) by regulation of the chloroplast ATP synthase. (4/54)

Nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) of excitation energy, which protects higher plant photosynthetic machinery from photodamage, is triggered by acidification of the thylakoid lumen as a result of light-induced proton pumping, which also drives the synthesis of ATP. It is clear that the sensitivity of NPQ is modulated in response to changing physiological conditions, but the mechanism for this modulation has remained unclear. Evidence is presented that, in intact tobacco or Arabidopsis leaves, NPQ modulation in response to changing CO(2) levels occurs predominantly by alterations in the conductivity of the CF(O)-CF(1) ATP synthase to protons (g(H)(+)). At a given proton flux, decreasing g(H)(+) will increase transthylakoid proton motive force (pmf), thus lowering lumen pH and contributing to the activation of NPQ. It was found that an approximately 5-fold decrease in g(H)(+) could account for the majority of NPQ modulation as atmospheric CO(2) was decreased from 2,000 ppm to 0 ppm. Data are presented that g(H)(+) is kinetically controlled, rather than imposed thermodynamically by buildup of DeltaG(ATP). Further results suggest that the redox state of the ATP synthase gamma-subunit thiols is not responsible for altering g(H)(+). A working model is proposed wherein g(H)(+) is modulated by stromal metabolite levels, possibly by inorganic phosphate.  (+info)

Molecular devices of chloroplast F(1)-ATP synthase for the regulation. (5/54)

In chloroplasts, synthesis of ATP is energetically coupled with the utilization of a proton gradient formed by photosynthetic electron transport. The involved enzyme, the chloroplast ATP synthase, can potentially hydrolyze ATP when the magnitude of the transmembrane electrochemical potential difference of protons (Delta(micro)H(+)) is small, e.g. at low light intensity or in the dark. To prevent this wasteful consumption of ATP, the activity of chloroplast ATP synthase is regulated as the occasion may demand. As regulation systems Delta(micro)H(+) activation, thiol modulation, tight binding of ADP and the role of the intrinsic inhibitory subunit epsilon is well documented. In this article, we discuss recent progress in understanding of the regulation system of the chloroplast ATP synthase at the molecular level.  (+info)

Respiratory chain supercomplexes of mitochondria and bacteria. (6/54)

Respiratory chain complexes are fragments of larger structural and functional units, the respiratory chain supercomplexes or "respirasomes", which exist in bacterial and mitochondrial membranes. Supercomplexes of mitochondria and bacteria contain complexes III, IV, and complex I, with the notable exception of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which does not possess complex I. These supercomplexes often are stable to sonication but sensitive to most detergents except digitonin. In S. cerevisiae, a major component linking complexes III and IV together is cardiolipin.In Paracoccus denitrificans, complex I itself is rather detergent-sensitive and thus could not be obtained in detergent-solubilized form so far. However, it can be isolated as part of a supercomplex. Stabilization of complex I by binding to complex III was also found in human mitochondria. Further functional roles of the organization in a supercomplex are catalytic enhancement by reducing diffusion distances of substrates or, depending on the organism, channelling of the substrates quinone and cytochrome c. This makes redox reactions less dependent of midpoint potentials of substrates, and permits electron flow at low degree of substrate reduction.A dimeric state of ATP synthase seems to be specific for mitochondria. Exclusively, monomeric ATP synthase was found in Acetobacterium woodii, in P. denitrificans, and in spinach chloroplasts.  (+info)

Maize ABI4 binds coupling element1 in abscisic acid and sugar response genes. (7/54)

Significant progress has been made in elucidating the mechanism of abscisic acid (ABA)-regulated gene expression, including the characterization of an ABA-responsive element (ABRE), which is regulated by basic domain/Leu zipper transcription factors. In addition to the ABRE, a coupling element (CE1) has been demonstrated to be involved in ABA-induced expression. However, a trans factor that interacts with CE1 has yet to be characterized. We report the isolation of a seed-specific maize ABI4 homolog and demonstrate, using a PCR-based in vitro selection procedure, that the maize ABI4 protein binds to the CE-1 like sequence CACCG. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we demonstrate that recombinant ZmABI4 protein binds to the CE1 element in a number of ABA-related genes. ZmABI4 also binds to the promoter of the sugar-responsive ADH1 gene, demonstrating the ability of this protein to regulate both ABA- and sugar-regulated pathways. ZmABI4 complements Arabidopsis ABI4 function, because abi4 mutant plants transformed with the ZmABI4 gene have an ABA- and sugar-sensitive phenotype. Identification of the maize ABI4 ortholog and the demonstration of its binding to a known ABA response element provide a link between ABA-mediated kernel development and the regulation of ABA response genes.  (+info)

The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii organellar genomes respond transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally to abiotic stimuli. (8/54)

The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii plastid and mitochondrial transcriptomes were surveyed for changes in RNA profiles resulting from growth in 12 culture conditions representing 8 abiotic stimuli. Organellar RNA abundance exhibited marked changes during nutrient stress and exposure to UV light, as revealed by both RNA gel blot and DNA microarray analyses. Of particular note were large increases in tufA and clpP transcript abundance during nutrient limitation. Phosphate and sulfur limitation resulted in the most global, yet opposite, effects on organellar RNA abundance, changes that were dissected further using run-on transcription assays. Removal of sulfate from the culture medium, which is known to reduce photosynthesis, resulted in 2-fold to 10-fold decreases in transcription rates, which were reflected in lower RNA abundance. The decrease in transcriptional activity was completely reversible and recovered to twice the control level after sulfate replenishment. Conversely, phosphate limitation resulted in a twofold to threefold increase in RNA abundance that was found to be a post-transcriptional effect, because it could be accounted for by increased RNA stability. This finding is consistent with the known metabolic slowdown under phosphate stress. Additionally, inhibitor studies suggested that unlike those in higher plants, Chlamydomonas chloroplasts lack a nucleus-encoded plastid RNA polymerase. The apparently single type of polymerase could contribute to the rapid and genome-wide transcriptional responses observed within the chloroplast.  (+info)

quantification of AtpB, ATP synthase, AS03-030, Anti-AtpB, ATP Synthase, Beta subunit of ATP synthase polyclonal antibody, Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplastic ATP synthase subunit beta AtCg00480 and Arabidopsis thaliana mitochondrial ATP synthase subunit
Membrane-bound proton-translocating ATPases that serve two important physiological functions in bacteria. One function is to generate ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE by utilizing the energy provided by an electrochemical gradient of protons across the cellular membrane. A second function is to counteract a loss of the transmembrane ion gradient by pumping protons at the expense of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis ...
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In Millennium Pharmaceuticals v. Sandoz, the Federal Circuit reversed the district courts holding of obviousness of certain claims of Millennium-owned U.S. Patent No. 6,713,446 (the...
Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Calcium-Transporting ATPases/*biosynthesis/chemistry/genetics, Cell Membrane/enzymology, Cloning; Molecular, Humans, Models; Molecular, Molecular Sequence Data, Phylogeny, Plants/*enzymology, Plants; Genetically Modified/enzymology, Plants; Toxic, Protein Conformation, Proton-Translocating ATPases/*biosynthesis/chemistry/genetics, Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis/chemistry/metabolism, Tobacco, Vacuoles/enzymology ...
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Sardinian languages wiki: Sardinian (sardu, limba sarda, lingua sarda) or Sard is the primary indigenous Romance language spoken on most of the island of Sardinia (Italy). Among the Romance languages, it is considered one of the closest genealogical descendants, if not the closest
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Im trying to find out how to describe the structure of a chromoplast for a biochemistry lab. Ive found plenty of information on chloroplasts, and I would assume their structure would be similar to that of a chromoplast, just with different pigments. However, I havent been able to find any information to back that up. Most pages simply describe the function of a chromoplast, and though Ive asked a few tutors, none of them seem to know how a chromoplast is structured ...
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Marc Marí-DellOlmo, Mercè Gotsens, Laia Palència, Bo Burström, Diana Corman, Giuseppe Costa, Patrick Deboosere, Èlia Díez, Felicitas Domínguez-Berjón, Dagmar Dzúrová, Ana Gandarillas, Rasmus Hoffmann, Katalin Kovács, Pekka Martikainen, Moreno Demaria, Hynek Pikhart, Maica Rodríguez-Sanz, Marc Saez, Paula Santana, Cornelia Schwierz, Lasse Tarkiainen, Carme Borrell ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of Tentoxin on the Activation and on the Catalytic Reaction of Reconstituted H+-Atpase From Chloroplasts. AU - Fromme, Petra. AU - Dahse, Ingo. AU - Gräber, Peter. PY - 1992/4/1. Y1 - 1992/4/1. N2 - The proton-translocating ATPase from chloroplasts, CF0F1, was isolated, purified and reconstitutedinto asolectin liposomes. The effect of the energy transfer inhibitor, tentoxin, on different functions of the enzyme was investigated. Tentoxin does not inhibit the nucleotide release during energization by a pH Δψ jump, i.e. the activation of the enzyme is not influenced. ATP synthesis driven by a pH Δψ T jump and multi-site ATP hydrolysis are completely inhibited by tentoxin, whereas uni-site ATP hydrolysis is not influenced.. AB - The proton-translocating ATPase from chloroplasts, CF0F1, was isolated, purified and reconstitutedinto asolectin liposomes. The effect of the energy transfer inhibitor, tentoxin, on different functions of the enzyme was investigated. Tentoxin ...
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CAD Models - Copyright and Disclaimers The CAD Model drawings, dimensions and materials in this file download ("Information") are provided for you to use free of charge by Manufacturers and remain the property of the relevant Manufacturer. You agree that the Information as provided here through an intermediary may not be error-free, accurate or up-to-date and that it is not advice. The Manufacturers disclaim all warranties (including implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose) and are not liable for any damages arising from your use of or your inability to use the Information downloaded from this website. THE VERIFICATION OF THE RESULTS OF YOUR USE OF THE INFORMATION IN YOUR OWN ENGINEERING AND PRODUCT ENVIRONMENT IS AT YOUR OWN RISK. The Manufacturers liability to you will not exceed $500. The Manufacturers reserve the right to change this Information at any time without notice ...
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The KT-link is the first FT2232 JTAG debugger with support for new SWD and SWV JTAG protocols. The libswd project is adding support for SWD to OpenOCD and urJTAG, and the KT-link will be the first supported programmer. Bus Blaster v2+ supports SWD only! Bus Blaster v2+ does not support SWV because one required pin is used to program the CPLD ...
The batteries in everything from computers to future electric cars might be improved by adding a compound containing boron and fluorine
According to this study, over the next five years the Lithium ion Battery Electrolyte market will register a 6.2% CAGR in terms of revenue, the global market size will reach US$ 1813.4 million by 2024, from US$ 1424.3 million in 2019. In particular, this report presents the global market share (sales and revenue) of key companies in Lithium ion Battery Electrolyte business, shared in Chapter 3. This report presents a comprehensive overview, market shares, and growth opportunities of Lithium ion Battery Electrolyte market by product type, application, key manufacturers and key regions and countries. Browse the complete report and table of contents @ https://www.decisiondatabases.com/ip/41889-lithium-ion-battery-electrolyte-market-analysis-report ...
Chemical looping systems for fossil energy conversions by Liang-Shih Fan; 1 edition; First published in 2010; Subjects: Engineering, Combustion, Chemical engineering, Fossil fuels, Energy conversion, Fluidized-bed combustion
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This textbook gives a thorough treatment of engineering thermodynamics with applications to classical and modern energy conversion devices. Some emphasis lies on the description of irreversible proc
Data collected on standard Li-ion cells confirms a change in kinetic behavior as Li-ion cells cycle. The data shows distinct regions through out the cycle life of the cell. The data suggests that the net coulombic output as well as the relative state-of-charge maintained throughout the cells use is as important as total cycles and calendar time when considering cell aging. The data provides a valuable base for both improved charge routines and safety analysis.
To protect structures from short duration shock load in various engineering applications, a novel energy conversion mechanism with concept design is proposed. Different from conventional methods with cellular solid/structure dissipating input translational kinetic energy to plastic strain energy with large compressive deformation, the proposed approach converts part of incident translational kinetic energy to rotational kinetic energy, which is not detrimental to the protected structure. The mechanism of energy conversion is analyzed and formulated, with key factors governing the conversion efficiency identified and discussed, which sheds light on alternative approach for short duration load mitigation.
This paper introduces the principle and configuration of an auto urine analysis system. The system employs an ARM-LPC2214 as CPU and a color linear-CCD as sensor. A CPLD is used to produce pulses for the CCD and for other circuits in the system. The CPLD is programmed through Verilog HDL language. The sick is determined according to the color change of test strips. Principle of color test circuit and design of software for identifying color data are also described. The software uses the principle of CIE Colorimetry to identify the color. Experiments show that test speed is fast and the result is precise. This system is suitable for the situations in which a large number of samples are to be treated ...
Stanford researchers have developed a sodium-based battery that can store the same amount of energy as a lithium ion battery, at substantially lower cost.
... bacterial proton-translocating atpases MeSH D12.776.157.530.450.250.875.500.500 -- chloroplast proton-translocating atpases ... mitochondrial proton-translocating atpases MeSH D12.776.157.530.450.250.875.500.875 -- vacuolar proton-translocating atpases ... proton-translocating atpases MeSH D12.776.157.530.450.250.875.500.249 -- ... transporting atpase MeSH D12.776.157.530.450.250.750 -- na(+)-k(+)-exchanging atpase MeSH D12.776.157.530.450.250.812 -- ...
... bacterial proton-translocating atpases MeSH D08.811.913.696.650.150.500.500 --- chloroplast proton-translocating atpases MeSH ... bacterial proton-translocating atpases MeSH D08.811.277.040.025.325.500 --- chloroplast proton-translocating atpases MeSH ... mitochondrial proton-translocating atpases MeSH D08.811.913.696.650.150.500.875 --- vacuolar proton-translocating atpases MeSH ... mitochondrial proton-translocating atpases MeSH D08.811.277.040.025.325.875 --- vacuolar proton-translocating atpases MeSH ...
V-type proton ATPase (or V-ATPase) translocate protons into intracellular organelles other than mitochondria and chloroplasts, ... P-type ATPases are not evolutionary related to V- and F-type ATPases. P-type proton ATPase (or plasma membrane H+ -ATPase) is ... V-type ATPases are evolutionary related to F-type ATPases. F-type proton ATPase (or F-ATPase) typically operates as an ATP ... doi:10.1016/0968-0004(87)90071-5. Goffeau A, Slayman CW (December 1981). "The proton-translocating ATPase of the fungal plasma ...
... from bacteria and mitochondria Proton or sodium translocating F-type and V-type ATPases [6] P-type calcium ATPase (five ... and outer membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts. All beta-barrel transmembrane proteins have simplest up-and-down topology ... proton glutamate symporter) [13] Monovalent cation/proton antiporter (Sodium/proton antiporter 1 NhaA) [14] Neurotransmitter ... Light-harvesting complexes from bacteria and chloroplasts [3] Transmembrane cytochrome b-like proteins [4]: coenzyme Q - ...
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) driven proton pumps (also referred to as proton ATPases or H+ -ATPases) are proton pumps driven by ... In the process, it binds four protons from the inner aqueous phase to make water and in addition translocates four protons ... CF1 ATP ligase of chloroplasts correspond to the human FOF1 ATP synthase in plants. Proton pumping pyrophosphatase (also ... ATP itself powers this transport in the plasma membrane proton ATPase and in the ATPase proton pumps of other cellular ...
Proton ATPase. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) driven proton pumps (also referred to as proton ATPases or H+. -ATPases) are proton ... In the process, it binds four protons from the inner aqueous phase to make water and in addition translocates four protons ... CF1 ATP ligase of chloroplasts correspond to the human FOF1 ATP synthase in plants. ... V-type proton ATPase[edit]. Main article: V-ATPase. The V-type proton ATPase is a multisubunit enzyme of the V-type. It is ...
... or Na+-translocating F-type ATPase, V-type ATPase and A-type ATPase superfamily 3.A.3 The P-type ATPase Superfamily 3.A.4 The ... family 3.D.2 The Proton-translocating Transhydrogenase (PTH) Family 3.D.3 The Proton-translocating Quinol:Cytochrome c ... Family 3.A.9 The Chloroplast Envelope Protein Translocase (CEPT or Tic-Toc) Family 3.A.10 H+, Na+-translocating Pyrophosphatase ... Superfamily 3.D.4 Proton-translocating Cytochrome Oxidase (COX) Superfamily 3.D.5 The Na+-translocating NADH:Quinone ...
In mitochondria and chloroplasts, proton gradients are used to generate a chemiosmotic potential that is also known as a proton ... which translocates four protons from the mitochondrial matrix to the IMS: N A D H + H + + U Q + 4 H + ( m a t r i x ) ⟶ N A D ... An example of active transport of ions is the Na+-K+-ATPase (NKA). NKA catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP into ADP and an ... The way bacteriorhodopsin generates a proton gradient in Archaea is through a proton pump. The proton pump relies on proton ...
It is through the action of ion pumps that cells are able to regulate pH via the pumping of protons. In contrast to ion pumps, ... The energy source can be ATP, as is the case for the Na+-K+ ATPase. Alternatively, the energy source can be another chemical ... The nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplasts have two lipid bilayers, while other sub-cellular structures are surrounded by a ... translocate bacterial signal molecules to host or target cells to carry out multiple processes in favour of the secreting ...
F1FO-ATPases) in mitochondria, chloroplasts and bacterial plasma membranes are the prime producers of ATP, using the proton ... Proton or sodium translocating F- and V-type ATPases UMich Orientation of Proteins in Membranes families/superfamily-22 - ... A-ATPases (A1AO-ATPases) are found in Archaea and function like F-ATPases P-ATPases (E1E2-ATPases) are found in bacteria, fungi ... And another example is the hydrogen potassium ATPase (H+/K+ATPase or gastric proton pump) that acidifies the contents of the ...
Vacuolar H+-ATPases are responsible for transport of protons, while the counter transport of chloride ions is performed by ClC- ... The nascent peptide chains are translocated into the rough endoplasmic reticulum, where they are modified. Upon exiting the ... "A novel protein RLS1 with NB-ARM domains is involved in chloroplast degradation during leaf senescence in rice". Molecular ... The lysosome maintains its pH differential by pumping in protons (H+ ions) from the cytosol across the membrane via proton ...
P-type ATPase ; ( "P" related to phosphorylation), such as : Na+/K+-ATPase Plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase Proton pump F-type ... ATPase; ("F" related to factor), including: mitochondrial ATP synthase, chloroplast ATP synthase1 3.B: Decarboxylation-driven ... meaning they do not internally translocate, nor require ATP to function. The substrate is taken in one side of the gated ... CFTR V-type ATPase ; ( "V" related to vacuolar ). ...
Electron and proton cycling are very complex but as a net result only one proton is translocated across the membrane per ... In all cases, however, a proton motive force is generated and used to drive ATP production via an ATPase. Most photosynthetic ... Because chloroplasts were derived from a lineage of the Cyanobacteria, the general principles of metabolism in these ... allowing for a greater number of protons to be translocated across the membrane. Sulfur-oxidizing organisms generate reducing ...
"The cellular biology of proton-motive force generation by V-ATPases". J. Exp. Biol. 203 (Pt 1): 89-95. PMID 10600677. ... Inversely, chloroplasts operate mainly on ΔpH. However, they also require a small membrane potential for the kinetics of ATP ... Becher B, Müller V (1994). "Delta mu Na+ drives the synthesis of ATP via an delta mu Na(+)-translocating F1F0-ATP synthase in ... Both the direct pumping of protons and the consumption of matrix protons in the reduction of oxygen contribute to the proton ...
... is similar to that in mitochondria except that light energy is used to pump protons across a membrane to produce a proton- ... Some of the ATP produced in the chloroplasts is consumed in the Calvin cycle, which produces triose sugars. The total quantity ... ISBN 978-0-471-19350-0. Abrahams, J.; Leslie, A.; Lutter, R.; Walker, J. (1994). "Structure at 2.8 Å resolution of F1-ATPase ... which is translocated to the mitochondrial matrix. Another malate dehydrogenase-catalyzed reaction occurs in the opposite ...
Proton and Sodium translocating F-type, V-type and A-type ATPases in OPM database The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1997 to Paul D. ... Chloroplast Electron transfer chain Flavoprotein Mitochondrion Oxidative phosphorylation P-ATPase Proton pump Rotating ... However, whereas the F-ATP synthase generates ATP by utilising a proton gradient, the V-ATPase generates a proton gradient at ... However, in chloroplasts, the proton motive force is generated not by respiratory electron transport chain but by primary ...
... is similar to that in mitochondria except that light energy is used to pump protons across a membrane to produce a proton- ... ATP synthase then ensues exactly as in oxidative phosphorylation.[21] Some of the ATP produced in the chloroplasts is consumed ... Abrahams, J.; Leslie, A.; Lutter, R.; Walker, J. (1994). "Structure at 2.8 Å resolution of F1-ATPase from bovine heart ... which is translocated to the mitochondrial matrix. Another malate dehydrogenase-catalyzed reaction occurs in the opposite ...
Nelson N, Perzov N, Cohen A, Hagai K, Padler V, Nelson H. The cellular biology of proton-motive force generation by V-ATPases ... a b Becher B, Müller V. Delta mu Na+ drives the synthesis of ATP via a delta mu Na(+)-translocating F1F0-ATP synthase in ... The H+/ATP coupling ratio of the ATP synthase from thiol-modulated chloroplasts and two cyanobacterial strains is four. „FEBS ... a b c d Schultz B, Chan S. Structures and proton-pumping strategies of mitochondrial respiratory enzymes. „Annu Rev Biophys ...
Baik pemompaan proton secara langsung maupun konsumsi proton matriks pada reduksi oksigen berkontribusi kepada gradien proton. ... Müller V (2004). "An exceptional variability in the motor of archaeal A1A0 ATPases: from multimeric to monomeric rotors ... "The H+/ATP coupling ratio of the ATP synthase from thiol-modulated chloroplasts and two cyanobacterial strains is four". FEBS ... "Delta mu Na+ drives the synthesis of ATP via a delta mu Na(+)-translocating F1F0-ATP synthase in membrane vesicles of the ...
"The cellular biology of proton-motive force generation by V-ATPases". J. Exp. Biol. 203 (Pt 1): 89-95. PMID 10600677. Archived ... Inversely, chloroplasts operate mainly on ΔpH. However, they also require a small membrane potential for the kinetics of ATP ... "Delta mu Na+ drives the synthesis of ATP via an delta mu Na(+)-translocating F1F0-ATP synthase in membrane vesicles of the ... Both the direct pumping of protons and the consumption of matrix protons in the reduction of oxygen contribute to the proton ...
Vacuolar-ATPases are responsible for transport of protons, while the counter transport of chloride ions is performed by ClC-7 ... The nascent peptide chains are translocated into the rough endoplasmic reticulum, where they are modified. Lysosomal soluble ... "A novel protein RLS1 with NB-ARM domains is involved in chloroplast degradation during leaf senescence in rice". Molecular ... The lysosome maintains its pH differential by pumping in protons (H+ ions) from the cytosol across the membrane via proton ...
They mediate phototropism, chloroplast movement, leaf expansion, and stomatal opening of higher plants in response to BL. In ... Phosphorylation of both Vfphots and H+-ATPase showed similar sensitivity to BL and were similarly suppressed by protein kinase ... They mediate phototropism, chloroplast movement, leaf expansion, and stomatal opening of higher plants in response to BL. In ... They mediate phototropism, chloroplast movement, leaf expansion, and stomatal opening of higher plants in response to BL. In ...
ATP synthase of chloroplast. 3v3c. Pisum sativum. Thylakoid. 14. 28. 32.0 ± 1.0. 0 ± 0. -111.5. ... Proton or Sodium translocating F-type, V-type and A-type ATPases (1 family) 3.A.2 (TCDB) PF00137, PDBsum ... Proton or Sodium translocating F-type, V-type and A-type ATPases (1 family) 3.A.2 (TCDB) PF00137, PDBsum (27 proteins). Family ... V-type proton ATPase, vacuolar, state 3. 3j9v. Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Vacuole. 10. 40. 40.0 ± 1.2. 0 ± 0. -178.0. ...
Short name: ATPase_OSCP/d_CS Description. ATP synthase (proton-translocating ATPase) [PMID: 2528322, PMID: 2892214] is a ... One of the subunits of the ATPase complex, known as subunit delta in bacteria and chloroplasts, or the Oligomycin Sensitivity ... The ATPase complex is composed of an oligomeric transmembrane sector, called CF(0), which acts as a proton channel, and a ... Subunit delta of H(+)-ATPases: at the interface between proton flow and ATP synthesis.. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1015 379-90 1990 ...
The central player in organelle acidification in all eukaryotes is the vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase). ... of archaeal proton pumps and ATP synthases that also gave rise to the F1F0-ATP synthases of mitochondria and chloroplasts (38, ... The yeast vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase contains a subunit homologous to the Manduca sexta and bovine e subunits that is ... V1-situated stalk subunits of the yeast vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase. J. Biol. Chem.272:26787-26793. ...
... bacterial proton-translocating atpases MeSH D12.776.157.530.450.250.875.500.500 -- chloroplast proton-translocating atpases ... mitochondrial proton-translocating atpases MeSH D12.776.157.530.450.250.875.500.875 -- vacuolar proton-translocating atpases ... proton-translocating atpases MeSH D12.776.157.530.450.250.875.500.249 -- ... transporting atpase MeSH D12.776.157.530.450.250.750 -- na(+)-k(+)-exchanging atpase MeSH D12.776.157.530.450.250.812 -- ...
... bacterial proton-translocating atpases MeSH D08.811.913.696.650.150.500.500 --- chloroplast proton-translocating atpases MeSH ... bacterial proton-translocating atpases MeSH D08.811.277.040.025.325.500 --- chloroplast proton-translocating atpases MeSH ... mitochondrial proton-translocating atpases MeSH D08.811.913.696.650.150.500.875 --- vacuolar proton-translocating atpases MeSH ... mitochondrial proton-translocating atpases MeSH D08.811.277.040.025.325.875 --- vacuolar proton-translocating atpases MeSH ...
Chloroplast Proton-Translocating ATPases Arabidopsis chloroplasts mutants Nodulation of white clover (Trifolium repens) in the ... Mutants of chloroplast coupling factor reduction in Arabidopsis. Gabrys, H., Kramer, D. M., Crofts, A. R. & Ort, D. R., Jan 1 ...
The rotary proton- and sodium-translocating ATPases are reversible molecular machines present in all cellular life forms that ... F-type ATPases are found in eukaryotic mitochondria and chloroplasts as well as in bacteria. V-type ATPases are found in ... The structure of the membrane integral rotor ring of the proton translocating F(1)F(0)-ATPase synthase from spinach ... Some F-type ATPases such as the Na+-translocating ATPase of Acetobacterium woodii probably contains 3 dissimilar but homologous ...
2009) Structure of the c14 rotor ring of the proton translocating chloroplast ATP synthase. J Biol Chem 284:18228-18235. ... In the yeast F-ATPase, the ring has ten c-subunits, and so ten protons are translocated per three ATP molecules made during a ... and plant chloroplast F-ATPases (10-13). Therefore, the bioenergetic cost of these F-ATPases making an ATP molecule ranges from ... The most important inference from the presence of the c8-ring in bovine F-ATP synthase, is that eight protons are translocated ...
Chloroplast Proton-Translocating ATPases Proton-Translocating ATPases Nucleic Acid Regulatory Sequences Mutation ... Inverse regulation of rotation of F1-ATPase by the mutation at the regulatory region on the gamma subunit of chloroplast ATP ... e Subunit, an Endogenous Inhibitor of Bacterial F1-ATPase, Also Inhibits F0F1-ATPase. Bald, D., 1999, In : Journal of ... The Role of the DELSEED Motif of the b Subunit in Rotation of F1-ATPase. Bald, D., 2000, In : Journal of Biological Chemistry. ...
The proton-translocating ATPase from chloroplasts, CF0F1, was isolated, purified and reconstitutedinto asolectin liposomes. The ... N2 - The proton-translocating ATPase from chloroplasts, CF0F1, was isolated, purified and reconstitutedinto asolectin liposomes ... AB - The proton-translocating ATPase from chloroplasts, CF0F1, was isolated, purified and reconstitutedinto asolectin liposomes ... abstract = "The proton-translocating ATPase from chloroplasts, CF0F1, was isolated, purified and reconstitutedinto asolectin ...
Reconstitution of CF1-depleted thylakoid membranes with complete and fragmented chloroplast ATPase. The role of the delta ... PROTON-MOTIVE FORCE DURING GROWTH OF ESCHERICHIA-COLI IN THE RECYCLING FERMENTER. VANVERSEVELD, HW., BRASTER, M., KASHKET, ER ... subunit for proton conduction through CF0. Engelbrecht, S., Lill, H. & Junge, W., 3 Nov 1986, In : European Journal of ...
Tikhonov, A. N. (2012). Energetic and regulatory role of proton potential in chloroplasts. Biochemistry (Moscow), 77(9), 956- ... Tikhonov, A. N. / Energetic and regulatory role of proton potential in chloroplasts. In: Biochemistry (Moscow). 2012 ; Vol. 77 ... Tikhonov, AN 2012, Energetic and regulatory role of proton potential in chloroplasts, Biochemistry (Moscow), vol. 77, no. 9, ... The review focuses on the energetic and regulatory role of proton potential in the activity of chloroplasts, the light energy- ...
Chloroplast Proton-Translocating ATPases Structural analysis Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide Phospholipids Population 10 Citations ( ... Structural analysis of the isolated chloroplast coupling factor and the N,N-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide binding proteolipid. ...
Chloroplast Proton-Translocating ATPases Valinomycin Proteins Membrane Potentials Keywords. *ATP synthesis. *Bacteriorhodopsin ... N2 - The correlation between the rate of ATP synthesis and light-induced proton flux was investigated in proteoliposomes ... AB - The correlation between the rate of ATP synthesis and light-induced proton flux was investigated in proteoliposomes ... abstract = "The correlation between the rate of ATP synthesis and light-induced proton flux was investigated in proteoliposomes ...
The FoF1 ATPase inhibitor DCCD specifically binds the proton-translocating carboxylate of the c subunit, inhibiting proton ... In the mitochondrion and chloroplast, where the FoF1 ATPase operates in both directions, PMF positively regulates FoF1 ATPase ... the downregulation of the proton-translocating c subunit of the FoF1 ATPase was responsible for the decreased ATPase activity, ... The globular F1 ATPase domain is coupled to the membrane-spanning F0 proton-translocating domain (3). Certain chemicals and ...
They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane. ... Chloroplast Proton-Translocating ATPases: 3. *Arabidopsis AHA1 ... Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. ... Proton-Translocating ATPase; F 0 ATPase; F 1 ATPase; F0 ATPase; H+ Translocating ATPase; Proton Translocating ATPase; Proton ... ATPase; F1 ATPase; H(+)ATPase Complex; Proton-Translocating ATPase; Proton-Translocating ATPase Complex; Proton-Translocating ...
Proton-Translocating ATPases. *Bacterial Proton-Translocating ATPases. *Chloroplast Proton-Translocating ATPases. *H(+)-K(+)- ... Proton-Translocating ATPases [D08.811.913.696.650.150.500]. *Bacterial Proton-Translocating ATPases [D08.811.913.696.650.150. ... Proton-Translocating ATPases [D12.776.157.530.450.250.875.500]. *Bacterial Proton-Translocating ATPases [D12.776.157.530. ... Proton-Translocating ATPases [D12.776.543.585.450.250.875.500]. *Bacterial Proton-Translocating ATPases [D12.776.543.585. ...
Adenosine Triphosphate, chemistry, Catalysis, Hydrolysis, Proton-Translocating ATPases MEDLINE®/PubMed® 계명대학교 의학도서관 ... The catalytic role of subunit IV of the cytochrome b6-f complex from spinach chloroplast.. 1991 L B Li et al. Biochimica et ... Separate beta subunits are derivatized with 14C and 3H when the bovine heart mitochondrial F1-ATPase is doubly labeled with 7- ... Affinity Labels, Amino Acid Sequence, Blotting, Western, Catalysis, Chloroplasts, enzymology, Cytochrome b Group, chemistry, ...
This study is, to the best of our knowledge, the first study to report broad horizontal transfer of P(IB)-type ATPases in ... A remarkable dissemination of the horizontally acquired P(IB)-type ATPases was supported by unusual DNA base compositions and ... Numerous Pb(r) P(IB)-type ATPase-positive FRC isolates belonging to the genus Arthrobacter tolerated toxic concentrations of ... type ATPases (i.e., pbrA/cadA/zntA). A total of 10 pbrA/cadA/zntA loci exhibited evidence of acquisition by horizontal gene ...
... kbpauk ru jurik dll coding for dicyclohexylcarbodiimide-binding protein and the alpha subunit of proton-translocating ATPase of ... These genetic findings have been paralleled by the discovery of DNA of high molecular weight in chloroplasts and mitochondria. ... Quantitative measurements of proton motive force and motility in Bacillus subtilis. This residue lies within a hettie nel forex ...
Chloroplast Proton-Translocating ATPases D12.776.543.983.249 D12.776.543.930.249 Chloroquine D3.438.810.50.180 D3.633.100.810. ... Proton-Coupled Folate Transporter D12.776.157.530.937.618 D12.776.543.585.937.735 Proton-Motive Force G2.149.767.710 G2.765 ... G2.842.750.710 G3.295.770 G3.495.335.770 Protons G1.249.765 G1.249.660.500 Protoporphyrins D3.549.909.500.725 D3.633.400.909. ...
D1.632.750.740.225 Chloroplast Proton-Translocating ATPases D12.776.183.750.500 D12.776.543.983.249 D12.776.765.199.750.374 ... E1.370.225.875.220.115 Bacterial Proton-Translocating ATPases D12.776.97.130 Bacterial Typing Techniques E1.370.225.875.150.125 ... D12.776.543.585.475.500 Mitochondrial Proton-Translocating ATPases D12.776.543.585.475.625 D12.776.575.750.625 Mitotic Index ... Chloroplast Thioredoxins D12.776.183.186 D12.776.765.199.186 Chorionic Villi Sampling E1.450.230.100.150 E1.370.225.500.384.100 ...
Chloroplast Proteins D12.776.183 Chloroplast Proton-Translocating ATPases D12.776.183.750.500 Chloroplast Thioredoxins D12.776. ... Chloroplast D13.444.735.476 RNA, Double-Stranded G2.111.570.790.486.775 G2.111.570.820.486.775 RNA-Binding Protein EWS D12.776. ... Protons D1.435.550 D1.268.406.750 D1.362.340.750 Protoporphyria, Erythropoietic C16.320.565.708.400.812 C17.800.849.617.400.812 ...
I. Characterization of proton pumping and ATPase activity. Giannini, J. L., Holt, J. S. & Briskin, D. P., Sep 1988, In : ... Unstable genes affecting chloroplast development in soybean. Chandlee, J. M. & Vodkin, L. O., 1989, In : Developmental Genetics ... Fluoride effects on the plasma membrane ATPase of sugarbeet. Giannini, J. L., Pushnik, J. C., Briskin, D. P. & Miller, G. W., ... Modification of an essential arginine residue associated with the plasma membrane ATPase of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) storage ...