Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
Bacteriocins elaborated by mutant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. They are protein or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same or related species.
Integral membrane proteins that transport protons across a membrane. This transport can be linked to the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. What is referred to as proton pump inhibitors frequently is about POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.
The sciences dealing with processes observable in nature.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
A formal financial agreement made between one or more physicians and a hospital to provide ambulatory alternative services to those patients who do not require hospitalization.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Multisubunit enzyme complexes that synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE from energy sources such as ions traveling through channels.
Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.
Bleeding within the SKULL that is caused by systemic HYPERTENSION, usually in association with INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Hypertensive hemorrhages are most frequent in the BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; PONS; and THALAMUS; but may also involve the CEREBRAL CORTEX, subcortical white matter, and other brain structures.
A genus of gram-positive bacteria whose spores are round to oval and covered by a sheath.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A photo-active pigment localized in prolamellar bodies occurring within the proplastids of dark-grown bean leaves. In the process of photoconversion, the highly fluorescent protochlorophyllide is converted to chlorophyll.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.
Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.
Porphyrins with four methyl, two vinyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Protoporphyrin IX occurs in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and most of the cytochromes.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A species of GREEN ALGAE. Delicate, hairlike appendages arise from the flagellar surface in these organisms.
A genus GREEN ALGAE in the order VOLVOCIDA. It consists of solitary biflagellated organisms common in fresh water and damp soil.
Proteins found in any species of algae.
Proton-translocating ATPases which produce ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE in plants. They derive energy from light-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the membranous cisternae (THYLAKOIDS) of the CHLOROPLASTS.
Membrane-bound proton-translocating ATPases that serve two important physiological functions in bacteria. One function is to generate ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE by utilizing the energy provided by an electrochemical gradient of protons across the cellular membrane. A second function is to counteract a loss of the transmembrane ion gradient by pumping protons at the expense of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis.

Redox regulation of the rotation of F(1)-ATP synthase. (1/54)

In F(1)-ATPase, the smallest known motor enzyme, unidirectional rotation of the central axis subunit gamma is coupled to ATP hydrolysis. In the present study, we report the redox switching of the rotation of this enzyme. For this purpose, the switch region from the gamma subunit of the redox-sensitive chloroplast F(1)-ATPase was introduced into the bacterial F(1)-ATPase. The ATPase activity of the obtained complex was increased up to 3-fold upon reduction (Bald, D., Noji, H., Stumpp, M. T., Yoshida, M. & Hisabori, T. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 12757-12762). Here, we successfully observed the modulation of rotation of gamma in this chimeric complex by changes in the redox conditions. In addition we revealed that the suppressed enzymatic activity of the oxidized F(1)-ATPase complex was characterized by more frequent long pauses in the rotation of the gamma subunit. These findings obtained by the single molecule analysis therefore provide new insights into the mechanisms of enzyme regulation.  (+info)

Toward an adequate scheme for the ATP synthase catalysis. (2/54)

The suggestions from the author's group over the past 25 years for how steps in catalysis by ATP synthase occur are reviewed. Whether rapid ATP hydrolysis requires the binding of ATP to a second site (bi-site activation) or to a second and third site (tri-site activation) is considered. Present evidence is regarded as strongly favoring bi-site activation. Presence of nucleotides at three sites during rapid ATP hydrolysis can be largely accounted for by the retention of ADP formed and/or by the rebinding of ADP formed. Menz, Leslie and Walker ((2001) FEBS Lett., 494, 11-14) recently attained an X-ray structure of a partially closed enzyme form that binds ADP better than ATP. This accomplishment and other considerations form the base for a revised reaction sequence. Three types of catalytic sites are suggested, similar to those proposed before the X-ray data became available. During net ATP synthesis a partially closed site readily binds ADP and Pi but not ATP. At a closed site, tightly bound ADP and Pi are reversibly converted to tightly bound ATP. ATP is released from a partially closed site that can readily bind ATP or ADP. ATP hydrolysis when protonmotive force is low or lacking occurs simply by reversal of all steps with the opposite rotation of the gamma subunit. Each type of site can exist in various conformations or forms as they are interconverted during a 120 degrees rotation. The conformational changes with the ATP synthase, including the vital change when bound ADP and Pi are converted to bound ATP, are correlated with those that occur in enzyme catalysis in general, as illustrated by recent studies of Rose with fumarase. The betaE structure of Walker's group is regarded as an unlikely, or only quite transient, intermediate. Other X-ray structures are regarded as closely resembling but not identical with certain forms participating in catalysis. Correlation of the suggested reaction scheme with other present information is considered.  (+info)

Properties of noncatalytic sites of thioredoxin-activated chloroplast coupling factor 1. (3/54)

Nucleotide binding properties of two vacant noncatalytic sites of thioredoxin-activated chloroplast coupling factor 1 (CF(1)) were studied. Kinetics of nucleotide binding to noncatalytic sites is described by the first-order equation that allows for two nucleotide binding sites that differ in kinetic features. Dependence of the nucleotide binding rate on nucleotide concentration suggests that tight nucleotide binding is preceded by rapid reversible binding of nucleotides. ADP binding is cooperative. The preincubation of CF(1) with Mg(2+) produces only slight effect on the rate of ADP binding and decreases the ATP binding rate. The ATP and ADP dissociation from noncatalytic sites is described by the first-order equation for similar sites with dissociation rate constants k(-2)(ADP)=1.5 x 10(-1) min(-1) and k(-2)(ATP) congruent with 10(-3) min(-1), respectively. As follows from the study, the noncatalytic sites of CF(1) are not homogeneous. One of them retains the major part of endogenous ADP after CF(1) precipitation with ammonium sulfate. Its other two sites can bind both ADP and ATP but have different kinetic parameters and different affinity for nucleotides.  (+info)

In vivo modulation of nonphotochemical exciton quenching (NPQ) by regulation of the chloroplast ATP synthase. (4/54)

Nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) of excitation energy, which protects higher plant photosynthetic machinery from photodamage, is triggered by acidification of the thylakoid lumen as a result of light-induced proton pumping, which also drives the synthesis of ATP. It is clear that the sensitivity of NPQ is modulated in response to changing physiological conditions, but the mechanism for this modulation has remained unclear. Evidence is presented that, in intact tobacco or Arabidopsis leaves, NPQ modulation in response to changing CO(2) levels occurs predominantly by alterations in the conductivity of the CF(O)-CF(1) ATP synthase to protons (g(H)(+)). At a given proton flux, decreasing g(H)(+) will increase transthylakoid proton motive force (pmf), thus lowering lumen pH and contributing to the activation of NPQ. It was found that an approximately 5-fold decrease in g(H)(+) could account for the majority of NPQ modulation as atmospheric CO(2) was decreased from 2,000 ppm to 0 ppm. Data are presented that g(H)(+) is kinetically controlled, rather than imposed thermodynamically by buildup of DeltaG(ATP). Further results suggest that the redox state of the ATP synthase gamma-subunit thiols is not responsible for altering g(H)(+). A working model is proposed wherein g(H)(+) is modulated by stromal metabolite levels, possibly by inorganic phosphate.  (+info)

Molecular devices of chloroplast F(1)-ATP synthase for the regulation. (5/54)

In chloroplasts, synthesis of ATP is energetically coupled with the utilization of a proton gradient formed by photosynthetic electron transport. The involved enzyme, the chloroplast ATP synthase, can potentially hydrolyze ATP when the magnitude of the transmembrane electrochemical potential difference of protons (Delta(micro)H(+)) is small, e.g. at low light intensity or in the dark. To prevent this wasteful consumption of ATP, the activity of chloroplast ATP synthase is regulated as the occasion may demand. As regulation systems Delta(micro)H(+) activation, thiol modulation, tight binding of ADP and the role of the intrinsic inhibitory subunit epsilon is well documented. In this article, we discuss recent progress in understanding of the regulation system of the chloroplast ATP synthase at the molecular level.  (+info)

Respiratory chain supercomplexes of mitochondria and bacteria. (6/54)

Respiratory chain complexes are fragments of larger structural and functional units, the respiratory chain supercomplexes or "respirasomes", which exist in bacterial and mitochondrial membranes. Supercomplexes of mitochondria and bacteria contain complexes III, IV, and complex I, with the notable exception of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which does not possess complex I. These supercomplexes often are stable to sonication but sensitive to most detergents except digitonin. In S. cerevisiae, a major component linking complexes III and IV together is cardiolipin.In Paracoccus denitrificans, complex I itself is rather detergent-sensitive and thus could not be obtained in detergent-solubilized form so far. However, it can be isolated as part of a supercomplex. Stabilization of complex I by binding to complex III was also found in human mitochondria. Further functional roles of the organization in a supercomplex are catalytic enhancement by reducing diffusion distances of substrates or, depending on the organism, channelling of the substrates quinone and cytochrome c. This makes redox reactions less dependent of midpoint potentials of substrates, and permits electron flow at low degree of substrate reduction.A dimeric state of ATP synthase seems to be specific for mitochondria. Exclusively, monomeric ATP synthase was found in Acetobacterium woodii, in P. denitrificans, and in spinach chloroplasts.  (+info)

Maize ABI4 binds coupling element1 in abscisic acid and sugar response genes. (7/54)

Significant progress has been made in elucidating the mechanism of abscisic acid (ABA)-regulated gene expression, including the characterization of an ABA-responsive element (ABRE), which is regulated by basic domain/Leu zipper transcription factors. In addition to the ABRE, a coupling element (CE1) has been demonstrated to be involved in ABA-induced expression. However, a trans factor that interacts with CE1 has yet to be characterized. We report the isolation of a seed-specific maize ABI4 homolog and demonstrate, using a PCR-based in vitro selection procedure, that the maize ABI4 protein binds to the CE-1 like sequence CACCG. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we demonstrate that recombinant ZmABI4 protein binds to the CE1 element in a number of ABA-related genes. ZmABI4 also binds to the promoter of the sugar-responsive ADH1 gene, demonstrating the ability of this protein to regulate both ABA- and sugar-regulated pathways. ZmABI4 complements Arabidopsis ABI4 function, because abi4 mutant plants transformed with the ZmABI4 gene have an ABA- and sugar-sensitive phenotype. Identification of the maize ABI4 ortholog and the demonstration of its binding to a known ABA response element provide a link between ABA-mediated kernel development and the regulation of ABA response genes.  (+info)

The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii organellar genomes respond transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally to abiotic stimuli. (8/54)

The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii plastid and mitochondrial transcriptomes were surveyed for changes in RNA profiles resulting from growth in 12 culture conditions representing 8 abiotic stimuli. Organellar RNA abundance exhibited marked changes during nutrient stress and exposure to UV light, as revealed by both RNA gel blot and DNA microarray analyses. Of particular note were large increases in tufA and clpP transcript abundance during nutrient limitation. Phosphate and sulfur limitation resulted in the most global, yet opposite, effects on organellar RNA abundance, changes that were dissected further using run-on transcription assays. Removal of sulfate from the culture medium, which is known to reduce photosynthesis, resulted in 2-fold to 10-fold decreases in transcription rates, which were reflected in lower RNA abundance. The decrease in transcriptional activity was completely reversible and recovered to twice the control level after sulfate replenishment. Conversely, phosphate limitation resulted in a twofold to threefold increase in RNA abundance that was found to be a post-transcriptional effect, because it could be accounted for by increased RNA stability. This finding is consistent with the known metabolic slowdown under phosphate stress. Additionally, inhibitor studies suggested that unlike those in higher plants, Chlamydomonas chloroplasts lack a nucleus-encoded plastid RNA polymerase. The apparently single type of polymerase could contribute to the rapid and genome-wide transcriptional responses observed within the chloroplast.  (+info)

quantification of AtpB, ATP synthase, AS03-030, Anti-AtpB, ATP Synthase, Beta subunit of ATP synthase polyclonal antibody, Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplastic ATP synthase subunit beta AtCg00480 and Arabidopsis thaliana mitochondrial ATP synthase subunit
ATP synthases (ATPases) are enzymes that produce ATP and control the pH in the cell or cellular compartments. While highly conserved over different species, ATPases are structurally well-characterised but the existence and functional significance of many post-translational modifications (PTMs) is not well understood. We combined a range of mass spectrometric techniques to unravel the location and extent of PTMs in the chloroplast ATP synthase (cATPase) purified from spinach leaves. We identified multiple phosphorylation and acetylation sites and found that both modifications stabilise binding of ε and δ subunits. Comparing cross-linking of naturally modified cATPase with the in vitro deacetylated enzyme revealed a major conformational change in the ε subunit in accord with extended and folded forms of the subunit. Locating modified residues within the catalytic head we found that phosphorylated and acetylated residues are primarily on α/β and β/α interfaces respectively. By aligning along
Membrane-bound proton-translocating ATPases that serve two important physiological functions in bacteria. One function is to generate ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE by utilizing the energy provided by an electrochemical gradient of protons across the cellular membrane. A second function is to counteract a loss of the transmembrane ion gradient by pumping protons at the expense of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , PAA \ PetriDish 100x15 mm \ PAA10100X for more molecular products just contact us
In Millennium Pharmaceuticals v. Sandoz, the Federal Circuit reversed the district courts holding of obviousness of certain claims of Millennium-owned U.S. Patent No. 6,713,446 (the...
Re: [PATCH v6 06/13] pwm: add support for sl28cpld PWM controller 2020-07-25 23:18 ` [PATCH v6 06/13] pwm: add support for sl28cpld PWM controller Michael Walle @ 2020-07-27 7:30 ` Thierry Reding 2020-07-28 7:43 ` Uwe Kleine-König 1 sibling, 0 replies; 35+ messages in thread From: Thierry Reding @ 2020-07-27 7:30 UTC (permalink / raw) To: Michael Walle Cc: linux-gpio, devicetree, linux-kernel, linux-hwmon, linux-pwm, linux-watchdog, linux-arm-kernel, Linus Walleij, Bartosz Golaszewski, Rob Herring, Jean Delvare, Guenter Roeck, Lee Jones, Uwe Kleine-König, Wim Van Sebroeck, Shawn Guo, Li Yang, Thomas Gleixner, Jason Cooper, Marc Zyngier, Mark Brown, Greg Kroah-Hartman, Andy Shevchenko, Catalin Marinas, Will Deacon, Pavel Machek [-- Attachment #1: Type: text/plain, Size: 11852 bytes --] On Sun, Jul 26, 2020 at 01:18:27AM +0200, Michael Walle wrote: , Add support for the PWM controller of the sl28cpld board management , controller. This is part of a multi-function device driver. , , The ...
Re: [PATCH v6 06/13] pwm: add support for sl28cpld PWM controller 2020-07-25 23:18 ` [PATCH v6 06/13] pwm: add support for sl28cpld PWM controller Michael Walle @ 2020-07-27 7:30 ` Thierry Reding 2020-07-28 7:43 ` Uwe Kleine-König 1 sibling, 0 replies; 35+ messages in thread From: Thierry Reding @ 2020-07-27 7:30 UTC (permalink / raw) To: Michael Walle Cc: linux-gpio, devicetree, linux-kernel, linux-hwmon, linux-pwm, linux-watchdog, linux-arm-kernel, Linus Walleij, Bartosz Golaszewski, Rob Herring, Jean Delvare, Guenter Roeck, Lee Jones, Uwe Kleine-König, Wim Van Sebroeck, Shawn Guo, Li Yang, Thomas Gleixner, Jason Cooper, Marc Zyngier, Mark Brown, Greg Kroah-Hartman, Andy Shevchenko, Catalin Marinas, Will Deacon, Pavel Machek [-- Attachment #1: Type: text/plain, Size: 11852 bytes --] On Sun, Jul 26, 2020 at 01:18:27AM +0200, Michael Walle wrote: , Add support for the PWM controller of the sl28cpld board management , controller. This is part of a multi-function device driver. , , The ...
Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Calcium-Transporting ATPases/*biosynthesis/chemistry/genetics, Cell Membrane/enzymology, Cloning; Molecular, Humans, Models; Molecular, Molecular Sequence Data, Phylogeny, Plants/*enzymology, Plants; Genetically Modified/enzymology, Plants; Toxic, Protein Conformation, Proton-Translocating ATPases/*biosynthesis/chemistry/genetics, Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis/chemistry/metabolism, Tobacco, Vacuoles/enzymology ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , PAA \ Wide Mouth Bottle, Amber 30 ml \ PAA57030X for more molecular products just contact us
Sardinian languages wiki: Sardinian (sardu, limba sarda, lingua sarda) or Sard is the primary indigenous Romance language spoken on most of the island of Sardinia (Italy). Among the Romance languages, it is considered one of the closest genealogical descendants, if not the closest
PA28 Activator gamma Subunit/PSME3 RNAi available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our PA28 Activator gamma Subunit/PSME3 RNAi catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The OPR Protein MTHI1 Controls the Expression of Two Different Subunits of ATP Synthase CFo in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. AU - Ozawa, Shin Ichiro. AU - Cavaiuolo, Marina. AU - Jarrige, Domitille. AU - Kuras, Richard. AU - Rutgers, Mark. AU - Eberhard, Stephan. AU - Drapier, Dominique. AU - Wollman, Francis André. AU - Choquet, Yves. PY - 2020/4/1. Y1 - 2020/4/1. N2 - In the green alga Chlamydomonas (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii), chloroplast gene expression is tightly regulated posttranscriptionally by gene-specific trans-acting protein factors. Here, we report the identification of the octotricopeptide repeat protein MTHI1, which is critical for the biogenesis of chloroplast ATP synthase oligomycin-sensitive chloroplast coupling factor. Unlike most trans-acting factors characterized so far in Chlamydomonas, which control the expression of a single gene, MTHI1 targets two distinct transcripts: it is required for the accumulation and translation of atpH mRNA, encoding a subunit of ...
Im trying to find out how to describe the structure of a chromoplast for a biochemistry lab. Ive found plenty of information on chloroplasts, and I would assume their structure would be similar to that of a chromoplast, just with different pigments. However, I havent been able to find any information to back that up. Most pages simply describe the function of a chromoplast, and though Ive asked a few tutors, none of them seem to know how a chromoplast is structured ...
The Wahl® Bravura Li+ Cord/Cordless Clipper uses the Lithium Ion battery to give you 90 minutes of use before needing to recharge. Now available in 3 colors: Purple, Pink and Gunmetal.
Chargex® 24V 150AH Lithium Ion Battery Specifications Model CX24150 Group Size N/A Nominal Voltage 25.6V Charge Voltage 29.2V Max Charge / Discharge Current 150A (amps) Cold Cranking Amps 1500A (amps) Length 17" ...
Save 10% ($16.99) today when you shop RevZilla for your BikeMaster Lithium Ion Battery DLFP-14ZS! Free Shipping, Lowest Price Guaranteed & Top of the Line Expert Service.
A free platform for explaining your research in plain language, and managing how you communicate around it - so you can understand how best to increase its impact.
UltraFire 14500 1200mAh 3.7V Rechargeable Li-ion Battery-Blue. General Brand Ultrafire Model 3.7V 1200 Quantity 2 pieces Material Lithium ion
Marc Marí-DellOlmo, Mercè Gotsens, Laia Palència, Bo Burström, Diana Corman, Giuseppe Costa, Patrick Deboosere, Èlia Díez, Felicitas Domínguez-Berjón, Dagmar Dzúrová, Ana Gandarillas, Rasmus Hoffmann, Katalin Kovács, Pekka Martikainen, Moreno Demaria, Hynek Pikhart, Maica Rodríguez-Sanz, Marc Saez, Paula Santana, Cornelia Schwierz, Lasse Tarkiainen, Carme Borrell ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of Tentoxin on the Activation and on the Catalytic Reaction of Reconstituted H+-Atpase From Chloroplasts. AU - Fromme, Petra. AU - Dahse, Ingo. AU - Gräber, Peter. PY - 1992/4/1. Y1 - 1992/4/1. N2 - The proton-translocating ATPase from chloroplasts, CF0F1, was isolated, purified and reconstitutedinto asolectin liposomes. The effect of the energy transfer inhibitor, tentoxin, on different functions of the enzyme was investigated. Tentoxin does not inhibit the nucleotide release during energization by a pH Δψ jump, i.e. the activation of the enzyme is not influenced. ATP synthesis driven by a pH Δψ T jump and multi-site ATP hydrolysis are completely inhibited by tentoxin, whereas uni-site ATP hydrolysis is not influenced.. AB - The proton-translocating ATPase from chloroplasts, CF0F1, was isolated, purified and reconstitutedinto asolectin liposomes. The effect of the energy transfer inhibitor, tentoxin, on different functions of the enzyme was investigated. Tentoxin ...
Page 6 - House of Batteries manufactures custom lithium ion/polymer batteries & battery pack assemblies for all applications. Contact us at 800-432-3385 for custom lithium battery packs.
Page 8 - House of Batteries manufactures custom lithium ion/polymer batteries & battery pack assemblies for all applications. Contact us at 800-432-3385 for custom lithium battery packs.
CAD Models - Copyright and Disclaimers The CAD Model drawings, dimensions and materials in this file download (Information) are provided for you to use free of charge by Manufacturers and remain the property of the relevant Manufacturer. You agree that the Information as provided here through an intermediary may not be error-free, accurate or up-to-date and that it is not advice. The Manufacturers disclaim all warranties (including implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose) and are not liable for any damages arising from your use of or your inability to use the Information downloaded from this website. THE VERIFICATION OF THE RESULTS OF YOUR USE OF THE INFORMATION IN YOUR OWN ENGINEERING AND PRODUCT ENVIRONMENT IS AT YOUR OWN RISK. The Manufacturers liability to you will not exceed $500. The Manufacturers reserve the right to change this Information at any time without notice ...
One of the components found in a lithium ion battery that is typically responsible for mishaps is the electrolyte. In the following article…
No gas. No cords. No problem. The 40V MAX* lithium ion battery system gives you the power & performance you need to get the job done.
SIMPOWER : Panasonic 18V Lithium Ion 4.2Ah Hammer Drill & Impact Driver Dual Voltage (7950 + 75A1), EYC208LS2G57 [EYC208LS2G57] - ...
Inorganic Photo-sensitized Transparent Conductive Oxide (TCO) Nanocomposite Thin Films for Photovoltaic (PV) Energy Conversion - Volume 1211 - Cary G. Allen, Grace H. Shih, B.G. Potter
The KT-link is the first FT2232 JTAG debugger with support for new SWD and SWV JTAG protocols. The libswd project is adding support for SWD to OpenOCD and urJTAG, and the KT-link will be the first supported programmer. Bus Blaster v2+ supports SWD only! Bus Blaster v2+ does not support SWV because one required pin is used to program the CPLD ...
The batteries in everything from computers to future electric cars might be improved by adding a compound containing boron and fluorine
Lithium nirvana chords, lithium in water supply el paso, batterie lithium ion 30ah, duracell lithium metal batteries msds, lithium ion polymer battery 3.7 v 1200mah, lg lithium ion battery 3.7 v 1000mah lgip-580a, cr2032 3v lithium cell button battery, panasonic cr123 cr123a 3v lithium battery x 12 batteries
According to this study, over the next five years the Lithium ion Battery Electrolyte market will register a 6.2% CAGR in terms of revenue, the global market size will reach US$ 1813.4 million by 2024, from US$ 1424.3 million in 2019. In particular, this report presents the global market share (sales and revenue) of key companies in Lithium ion Battery Electrolyte business, shared in Chapter 3. This report presents a comprehensive overview, market shares, and growth opportunities of Lithium ion Battery Electrolyte market by product type, application, key manufacturers and key regions and countries. Browse the complete report and table of contents @ https://www.decisiondatabases.com/ip/41889-lithium-ion-battery-electrolyte-market-analysis-report ...
Chemical looping systems for fossil energy conversions by Liang-Shih Fan; 1 edition; First published in 2010; Subjects: Engineering, Combustion, Chemical engineering, Fossil fuels, Energy conversion, Fluidized-bed combustion
The DCGG571M1 20V MAX* Lithium Ion Grease Gun has a powerful motor for pushing 5 oz per min of high-flow applications. Features a variable speed trigger for precision, bright LED lights for working in dark spaces, and an anti-debris filter to protect the pump mechanism from dirt and contamination.
This textbook gives a thorough treatment of engineering thermodynamics with applications to classical and modern energy conversion devices. Some emphasis lies on the description of irreversible proc
Data collected on standard Li-ion cells confirms a change in kinetic behavior as Li-ion cells cycle. The data shows distinct regions through out the cycle life of the cell. The data suggests that the net coulombic output as well as the relative state-of-charge maintained throughout the cells use is as important as total cycles and calendar time when considering cell aging. The data provides a valuable base for both improved charge routines and safety analysis.
InvestorChannels Covid-19 Stocks Watchlist Update video includes the Top 5 Performers of the Day, and a performance review of the […]. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mitochondrial ATP synthase activity is impaired by suppressed O-GlcNAcylation in Alzheimers disease. AU - Cha, Moon Yong. AU - Cho, Hyun Jin. AU - Kim, Chaeyoung. AU - Jung, Yang Ouk. AU - Kang, Min Jueng. AU - Murray, Melissa E.. AU - Hong, Hyun Seok. AU - Choi, Young Joo. AU - Choi, Heesun. AU - Kim, Dong Kyu. AU - Choi, Hyunjung. AU - Kim, Jisoo. AU - Dickson, Dennis W.. AU - Song, Hyun Kyu. AU - Cho, Jin Won. AU - Yi, Eugene C.. AU - Kim, Jungsu. AU - Jin, Seok Min. AU - Mook-Jung, Inhee. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - Glycosylation with O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is one of the protein glycosylations affecting various intracellular events. However, the role of O-GlcNAcylation in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimers disease (AD) is poorly understood. Mitochondrial adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) synthase is a multiprotein complex that synthesizes ATP from ADP and Pi. Here, we found that ATP synthase subunit a (ATP5A) was O-GlcNAcylated at Thr432 and ...
To protect structures from short duration shock load in various engineering applications, a novel energy conversion mechanism with concept design is proposed. Different from conventional methods with cellular solid/structure dissipating input translational kinetic energy to plastic strain energy with large compressive deformation, the proposed approach converts part of incident translational kinetic energy to rotational kinetic energy, which is not detrimental to the protected structure. The mechanism of energy conversion is analyzed and formulated, with key factors governing the conversion efficiency identified and discussed, which sheds light on alternative approach for short duration load mitigation.
The Electrochemical Energy Conversion Section is focused on the development and in-depth understanding of materials, processes and devices for the conversion of renewable energy into electricity or chemical energy carriers. Especially in the context of a sustainable energy system utilizing hydrogen as an energy carrier and its electrochemical energy conversion is of particular importance.
This paper introduces the principle and configuration of an auto urine analysis system. The system employs an ARM-LPC2214 as CPU and a color linear-CCD as sensor. A CPLD is used to produce pulses for the CCD and for other circuits in the system. The CPLD is programmed through Verilog HDL language. The sick is determined according to the color change of test strips. Principle of color test circuit and design of software for identifying color data are also described. The software uses the principle of CIE Colorimetry to identify the color. Experiments show that test speed is fast and the result is precise. This system is suitable for the situations in which a large number of samples are to be treated ...
China textile printing and dyeing industrial nations . In recent years due to the flat screen printing machine to adapt to the low-volume, multi-species, low cost of system and network spend precision
With a production of about 144,000 tonnes Grana Padano is the most important Italian cheese. Grana Padano is produced throughout Northern Italy.
Solid nanoporous electolyte developed at ORNL could solve many of the safety concerns associated with current lithium-ion technology.
Stanford researchers have developed a sodium-based battery that can store the same amount of energy as a lithium ion battery, at substantially lower cost.
... bacterial proton-translocating atpases MeSH D12.776.157.530.450.250.875.500.500 - chloroplast proton-translocating atpases MeSH ... mitochondrial proton-translocating atpases MeSH D12.776.157.530.450.250.875.500.875 - vacuolar proton-translocating atpases ... proton-translocating atpases MeSH D12.776.157.530.450.250.875.500.249 - ... transporting atpase MeSH D12.776.157.530.450.250.750 - na(+)-k(+)-exchanging atpase MeSH D12.776.157.530.450.250.812 - organic ...
... bacterial proton-translocating atpases MeSH D08.811.277.040.025.325.500 - chloroplast proton-translocating atpases MeSH D08.811 ... bacterial proton-translocating atpases MeSH D08.811.913.696.650.150.500.500 - chloroplast proton-translocating atpases MeSH ... mitochondrial proton-translocating atpases MeSH D08.811.913.696.650.150.500.875 - vacuolar proton-translocating atpases MeSH ... mitochondrial proton-translocating atpases MeSH D08.811.277.040.025.325.875 - vacuolar proton-translocating atpases MeSH ...
V-type proton ATPase (or V-ATPase) translocate protons into intracellular organelles other than mitochondria and chloroplasts, ... P-type ATPases are not evolutionary related to V- and F-type ATPases. P-type proton ATPase (or plasma membrane H+ -ATPase) is ... V-type ATPases are evolutionary related to F-type ATPases. F-type proton ATPase (or F-ATPase) typically operates as an ATP ... doi:10.1016/0968-0004(87)90071-5. Goffeau A, Slayman CW (December 1981). "The proton-translocating ATPase of the fungal plasma ...
Cytochrome c oxidases from bacteria and mitochondria Proton or sodium translocating F-type and V-type ATPases P-type calcium ... outer membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts, or can be secreted as pore-forming toxins. All beta-barrel transmembrane ... proton glutamate symporter) Monovalent cation/proton antiporter (Sodium/proton antiporter 1 NhaA) Neurotransmitter sodium ... ATPase (five different conformations) Calcium ATPase regulators phospholamban and sarcolipin ABC transporters General secretory ...
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) driven proton pumps (also referred to as proton ATPases or H+ -ATPases) are proton pumps driven by ... In the process, it binds four protons from the inner aqueous phase to make water and in addition translocates four protons ... CF1 ATP ligase of chloroplasts correspond to the human FOF1 ATP synthase in plants. Proton pumping pyrophosphatase (also ... ATP itself powers this transport in the plasma membrane proton ATPase and in the ATPase proton pumps of other cellular ...
Proton ATPase. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) driven proton pumps (also referred to as proton ATPases or H+. -ATPases) are proton ... In the process, it binds four protons from the inner aqueous phase to make water and in addition translocates four protons ... CF1 ATP ligase of chloroplasts correspond to the human FOF1 ATP synthase in plants. ... V-type proton ATPase[edit]. Main article: V-ATPase. The V-type proton ATPase is a multisubunit enzyme of the V-type. It is ...
... or Na+-translocating F-type ATPase, V-type ATPase and A-type ATPase superfamily 3.A.3 The P-type ATPase Superfamily 3.A.4 The ... family 3.D.2 The Proton-translocating Transhydrogenase (PTH) Family 3.D.3 The Proton-translocating Quinol:Cytochrome c ... Family 3.A.9 The Chloroplast Envelope Protein Translocase (CEPT or Tic-Toc) Family 3.A.10 H+, Na+-translocating Pyrophosphatase ... Superfamily 3.D.4 Proton-translocating Cytochrome Oxidase (COX) Superfamily 3.D.5 The Na+-translocating NADH:Quinone ...
In mitochondria and chloroplasts, proton gradients are used to generate a chemiosmotic potential that is also known as a proton ... which translocates four protons from the mitochondrial matrix to the IMS: NADH + H + + UQ + 4 H + ⏟ m a t r i x ⟶ NAD + + UQH 2 ... An example of active transport of ions is the Na+-K+-ATPase (NKA). NKA catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP into ADP and an ... The way bacteriorhodopsin generates a proton gradient in Archaea is through a proton pump. The proton pump relies on proton ...
It is through the action of ion pumps that cells are able to regulate pH via the pumping of protons. In contrast to ion pumps, ... The energy source can be ATP, as is the case for the Na+-K+ ATPase. Alternatively, the energy source can be another chemical ... The nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplasts have two lipid bilayers, while other sub-cellular structures are surrounded by a ... translocate bacterial signal molecules to host or target cells to carry out multiple processes in favour of the secreting ...
F1FO-ATPases) in mitochondria, chloroplasts and bacterial plasma membranes are the prime producers of ATP, using the proton ... Proton or sodium translocating F- and V-type ATPases UMich Orientation of Proteins in Membranes families/superfamily-22 - ... A-ATPases (A1AO-ATPases) are found in Archaea and function like F-ATPases P-ATPases (E1E2-ATPases) are found in bacteria, fungi ... And another example is the hydrogen potassium ATPase (H+/K+ATPase or gastric proton pump) that acidifies the contents of the ...
P-type ATPase ; ( "P" related to phosphorylation), such as : Na+/K+-ATPase Plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase Proton pump F-type ... ATPase; ("F" related to factor), including: mitochondrial ATP synthase, chloroplast ATP synthase1 3.B: Decarboxylation-driven ... meaning they do not internally translocate, nor require ATP to function. The substrate is taken in one side of the gated ... CFTR V-type ATPase ; ( "V" related to vacuolar ). ...
Proton and Sodium translocating F-type, V-type and A-type ATPases in OPM database The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1997 to Paul D. ... Chloroplast Electron transfer chain Flavoprotein Mitochondrion Oxidative phosphorylation P-ATPase Proton pump Rotating ... However, whereas the F-ATP synthase generates ATP by utilising a proton gradient, the V-ATPase generates a proton gradient at ... Bacterial F-ATPases can occasionally operate in reverse, turning them into an ATPase. Some bacteria have no F-ATPase, using an ...
Vacuolar-ATPases are responsible for transport of protons, while the counter transport of chloride ions is performed by ClC-7 ... The nascent peptide chains are translocated into the rough endoplasmic reticulum, where they are modified. Lysosomal soluble ... "A novel protein RLS1 with NB-ARM domains is involved in chloroplast degradation during leaf senescence in rice". Molecular ... The lysosome maintains its pH differential by pumping in protons (H+ ions) from the cytosol across the membrane via proton ...
... and in chloroplast thylakoid membranes. It uses a proton gradient to drive ATP synthesis by allowing the passive flux of ... laterally transferred Na+-translocating form of the bacterial F-type membrane ATPase". Bioinformatics. 26 (12): 1473-6. doi: ... Together with V-ATPases and A-ATPases, F-ATPases belong to superfamily of related rotary ATPases. F-ATPase consists of two ... F-ATPase, also known as F-Type ATPase, is an ATPase/synthase found in bacterial plasma membranes, in mitochondrial inner ...
Electron and proton cycling are very complex but as a net result only one proton is translocated across the membrane per ... In all cases, however, a proton motive force is generated and used to drive ATP production via an ATPase. Most photosynthetic ... Because chloroplasts were derived from a lineage of the Cyanobacteria, the general principles of metabolism in these ... allowing for a greater number of protons to be translocated across the membrane. Sulfur-oxidizing organisms generate reducing ...
"The cellular biology of proton-motive force generation by V-ATPases". J. Exp. Biol. 203 (Pt 1): 89-95. doi:10.1242/jeb.203.1.89 ... Inversely, chloroplasts operate mainly on ΔpH. However, they also require a small membrane potential for the kinetics of ATP ... Becher B, Müller V (1994). "Delta mu Na+ drives the synthesis of ATP via an delta mu Na(+)-translocating F1F0-ATP synthase in ... Both the direct pumping of protons and the consumption of matrix protons in the reduction of oxygen contribute to the proton ...
"The cellular biology of proton-motive force generation by V-ATPases". J. Exp. Biol. 203 (Pt 1): 89-95. PMID 10600677. Archived ... Inversely, chloroplasts operate mainly on ΔpH. However, they also require a small membrane potential for the kinetics of ATP ... "Delta mu Na+ drives the synthesis of ATP via an delta mu Na(+)-translocating F1F0-ATP synthase in membrane vesicles of the ... Both the direct pumping of protons and the consumption of matrix protons in the reduction of oxygen contribute to the proton ...
"The cellular biology of proton-motive force generation by V-ATPases". J. Exp. Biol. 203 (Pt 1): 89-95. PMID 10600677. മൂലതാളിൽ ... "The H+/ATP coupling ratio of the ATP synthase from thiol-modulated chloroplasts and two cyanobacterial strains is four". FEBS ... "Delta mu Na+ drives the synthesis of ATP via an delta mu Na(+)-translocating F1F0-ATP synthase in membrane vesicles of the ... Ionophores that disrupt the proton gradient by carrying protons across a membrane. This ionophore uncouples proton pumping from ...
... is similar to that in mitochondria except that light energy is used to pump protons across a membrane to produce a proton- ... Some of the ATP produced in the chloroplasts is consumed in the Calvin cycle, which produces triose sugars. The total quantity ... Abrahams, J.; Leslie, A.; Lutter, R.; Walker, J. (1994). "Structure at 2.8 Å resolution of F1-ATPase from bovine heart ... which is translocated to the mitochondrial matrix. Another malate dehydrogenase-catalyzed reaction occurs in the opposite ...
... is similar to that in mitochondria except that light energy is used to pump protons across a membrane to produce a proton- ... ATP synthase then ensues exactly as in oxidative phosphorylation.[21] Some of the ATP produced in the chloroplasts is consumed ... Abrahams, J.; Leslie, A.; Lutter, R.; Walker, J. (1994). "Structure at 2.8 Å resolution of F1-ATPase from bovine heart ... which is translocated to the mitochondrial matrix. Another malate dehydrogenase-catalyzed reaction occurs in the opposite ...
Nelson N, Perzov N, Cohen A, Hagai K, Padler V, Nelson H. The cellular biology of proton-motive force generation by V-ATPases ... a b Becher B, Müller V. Delta mu Na+ drives the synthesis of ATP via a delta mu Na(+)-translocating F1F0-ATP synthase in ... The H+/ATP coupling ratio of the ATP synthase from thiol-modulated chloroplasts and two cyanobacterial strains is four. „FEBS ... a b c d Schultz B, Chan S. Structures and proton-pumping strategies of mitochondrial respiratory enzymes. „Annu Rev Biophys ...
"The cellular biology of proton-motive force generation by V-ATPases". 《J. Exp. Biol.》 203 (Pt 1): 89-95. PMID 10600677. 30 ... "The H+/ATP coupling ratio of the ATP synthase from thiol-modulated chloroplasts and two cyanobacterial strains is four". 《FEBS ... "Delta mu Na+ drives the synthesis of ATP via an delta mu Na(+)-translocating F1F0-ATP synthase in membrane vesicles of the ... H+(양성자)의 움직임은 막을 가로질러 전기화학적인 기울기를 만들어 내는데, 이것은 종종 양성자 구동력(PMF,proton-motive force)라고 불린다. 양성자 구동력은 H+의 농도 차이(양성자 기울기, ΔpH)로 인한 ...
This process is known as proton leak or mitochondrial uncoupling and is due to the facilitated diffusion of protons into the ... The proteins employed in mtDNA repair are encoded by nuclear genes, and are translocated to the mitochondria. The DNA repair ... NCBI Jukes TH, Osawa S (December 1990). "The genetic code in mitochondria and chloroplasts". Experientia. 46 (11-12): 1117-1126 ... ATPases in rat submandibular acinar cells". Cell Calcium. 43 (5): 469-481. doi:10.1016/j.ceca.2007.08.001. PMID 17889347. ...
Baik pemompaan proton secara langsung maupun konsumsi proton matriks pada reduksi oksigen berkontribusi kepada gradien proton. ... Müller V (2004). "An exceptional variability in the motor of archaeal A1A0 ATPases: from multimeric to monomeric rotors ... "The H+/ATP coupling ratio of the ATP synthase from thiol-modulated chloroplasts and two cyanobacterial strains is four". FEBS ... "Delta mu Na+ drives the synthesis of ATP via a delta mu Na(+)-translocating F1F0-ATP synthase in membrane vesicles of the ...
Vacuolar-ATPases are responsible for transport of protons, while the counter transport of chloride ions is performed by ClC-7 ... The nascent peptide chains are translocated into the rough endoplasmic reticulum, where they are modified. Lysosomal soluble ... "A novel protein RLS1 with NB-ARM domains is involved in chloroplast degradation during leaf senescence in rice". Molecular ... The lysosome maintains its pH differential by pumping in protons (H+ ions) from the cytosol across the membrane via proton ...
Proton-Translocating ATPases [D08.811.277.040.025.325]. *Chloroplast Proton-Translocating ATPases [D08.811.277.040.025.325.500] ... Proton-Translocating ATPases [D08.811.913.696.650.150.500]. *Chloroplast Proton-Translocating ATPases [D08.811.913.696.650.150. ... Proton-Translocating ATPases [D12.776.157.530.450.250.875.500]. *Chloroplast Proton-Translocating ATPases [D12.776.157.530. ... Proton-Translocating ATPases [D12.776.543.585.450.250.875.500]. *Chloroplast Proton-Translocating ATPases [D12.776.543.585. ...
Proton-Translocating ATPases / genetics * Proton-Translocating ATPases / metabolism* * Tobacco / physiology* * Waxes / ... In this study, chloroplast metabolism was engineered to divert intermediates from de novo fatty acid biosynthesis to wax ester ... To accomplish this, chloroplast targeted fatty acyl reductases (FAR) and wax ester synthases (WS) were transiently expressed in ... Wax Esters of Different Compositions Produced via Engineering of Leaf Chloroplast Metabolism in Nicotiana Benthamiana Metab Eng ...
ATP synthase of chloroplast. 3v3c. Pisum sativum. Thylakoid. 14. 28. 32.0 ± 1.0. 0 ± 0. -111.5. ... Proton or Sodium translocating F-type, V-type and A-type ATPases (1 family) 3.A.2 (TCDB) PF00137, PDBsum ... Proton or Sodium translocating F-type, V-type and A-type ATPases (1 family) 3.A.2 (TCDB) PF00137, PDBsum (27 proteins). Family ... V-type proton ATPase, vacuolar, state 3. 3j9v. Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Vacuole. 10. 40. 40.0 ± 1.2. 0 ± 0. -178.0. ...
Short name: ATPase_OSCP/d_CS Description. ATP synthase (proton-translocating ATPase) [PMID: 2528322, PMID: 2892214] is a ... One of the subunits of the ATPase complex, known as subunit delta in bacteria and chloroplasts, or the Oligomycin Sensitivity ... The ATPase complex is composed of an oligomeric transmembrane sector, called CF(0), which acts as a proton channel, and a ... Subunit delta of H(+)-ATPases: at the interface between proton flow and ATP synthesis.. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1015 379-90 1990 ...
... bacterial proton-translocating atpases MeSH D12.776.157.530.450.250.875.500.500 - chloroplast proton-translocating atpases MeSH ... mitochondrial proton-translocating atpases MeSH D12.776.157.530.450.250.875.500.875 - vacuolar proton-translocating atpases ... proton-translocating atpases MeSH D12.776.157.530.450.250.875.500.249 - ... transporting atpase MeSH D12.776.157.530.450.250.750 - na(+)-k(+)-exchanging atpase MeSH D12.776.157.530.450.250.812 - organic ...
... bacterial proton-translocating atpases MeSH D08.811.277.040.025.325.500 - chloroplast proton-translocating atpases MeSH D08.811 ... bacterial proton-translocating atpases MeSH D08.811.913.696.650.150.500.500 - chloroplast proton-translocating atpases MeSH ... mitochondrial proton-translocating atpases MeSH D08.811.913.696.650.150.500.875 - vacuolar proton-translocating atpases MeSH ... mitochondrial proton-translocating atpases MeSH D08.811.277.040.025.325.875 - vacuolar proton-translocating atpases MeSH ...
The central player in organelle acidification in all eukaryotes is the vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase). ... of archaeal proton pumps and ATP synthases that also gave rise to the F1F0-ATP synthases of mitochondria and chloroplasts (38, ... The yeast vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase contains a subunit homologous to the Manduca sexta and bovine e subunits that is ... V1-situated stalk subunits of the yeast vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase. J. Biol. Chem.272:26787-26793. ...
Chloroplast Proton-Translocating ATPases * asolectin 21 Scopus citations 2004 On the effect of channel estimation error with ...
Chloroplast Proton-Translocating ATPases Arabidopsis chloroplasts mutants Nodulation of white clover (Trifolium repens) in the ... Mutants of chloroplast coupling factor reduction in Arabidopsis. Gabrys, H., Kramer, D. M., Crofts, A. R. & Ort, D. R., Jan 1 ...
THE CHLOROPLAST H+-ATPase: PARTIAL REACTIONS OF THE PROTON. W Junge, S Engelbrecht, C Griwatz, G Groth ... The Fo complex of the proton-translocating F-type ATPase of Escherichia coli. G Deckers-Hebestreit, K Altendorf ... VACUOLAR-TYPE H+-TRANSLOCATING ATPases IN PLANT ENDOMEMBRANES: SUBUNIT ORGANIZATION AND MULTIGENE FAMILIES. H Sze, JM Ward, S ... The osteoclast proton pump differs in its pharmacology and catalytic subunits from other vacuolar H(+)-ATPases. D Chatterjee, M ...
Chloroplast Proton-Translocating ATPases Chemical Compounds * Catalysis Chemical Compounds * Adenosine Diphosphate Chemical ... The proton-translocating ATP-synthase of chloroplasts CF0F1, was isolated and reconstituted into asolectin liposomes. CF0F1 can ... N2 - The proton-translocating ATP-synthase of chloroplasts CF0F1, was isolated and reconstituted into asolectin liposomes. ... AB - The proton-translocating ATP-synthase of chloroplasts CF0F1, was isolated and reconstituted into asolectin liposomes. ...
The rotary proton- and sodium-translocating ATPases are reversible molecular machines present in all cellular life forms that ... F-type ATPases are found in eukaryotic mitochondria and chloroplasts as well as in bacteria. V-type ATPases are found in ... The structure of the membrane integral rotor ring of the proton translocating F(1)F(0)-ATPase synthase from spinach ... Some F-type ATPases such as the Na+-translocating ATPase of Acetobacterium woodii probably contains 3 dissimilar but homologous ...
The proton-translocating ATPase from chloroplasts, CF0F1, was isolated, purified and reconstitutedinto asolectin liposomes. The ... N2 - The proton-translocating ATPase from chloroplasts, CF0F1, was isolated, purified and reconstitutedinto asolectin liposomes ... AB - The proton-translocating ATPase from chloroplasts, CF0F1, was isolated, purified and reconstitutedinto asolectin liposomes ... abstract = "The proton-translocating ATPase from chloroplasts, CF0F1, was isolated, purified and reconstitutedinto asolectin ...
Chloroplast Proton-Translocating ATPases Proton-Translocating ATPases Nucleic Acid Regulatory Sequences Mutation ... Inverse regulation of rotation of F1-ATPase by the mutation at the regulatory region on the gamma subunit of chloroplast ATP ... e Subunit, an Endogenous Inhibitor of Bacterial F1-ATPase, Also Inhibits F0F1-ATPase. Bald, D., 1999, In : Journal of ... The Role of the DELSEED Motif of the b Subunit in Rotation of F1-ATPase. Bald, D., 2000, In : Journal of Biological Chemistry. ...
Chloroplasts * Electron Transport * Protons * Chloroplast Proton-Translocating ATPases * Chemical activation 31 Citations ( ... Energetic and regulatory role of proton potential in chloroplasts. Tikhonov, A. N., Sep 1 2012, In: Biochemistry (Moscow). 77, ...
Reconstitution of CF1-depleted thylakoid membranes with complete and fragmented chloroplast ATPase. The role of the delta ... PROTON-MOTIVE FORCE DURING GROWTH OF ESCHERICHIA-COLI IN THE RECYCLING FERMENTER. VANVERSEVELD, HW., BRASTER, M., KASHKET, ER ... subunit for proton conduction through CF0. Engelbrecht, S., Lill, H. & Junge, W., 3 Nov 1986, In : European Journal of ...
Stoichiometries and energetics of proton translocation coupled to electron transport in chloroplasts. Hangarter, R. P., Jones, ... Plasma membrane ATPase of sugarbeet. Briskin, D. P. & Thornley, W. R., Nov 26 1985, In : Phytochemistry. 24, 12, p. 2797-2802 6 ... Target molecular size of the red beet plasma membrane ATPase. Briskin, D. P., Thornley, W. R. & Roti-Roti, J. L., Jan 1 1985, ... The effects of chloroplast coupling factor reduction on the energetics of activation and on the energetics and efficiency of ...
2009) Structure of the c14 rotor ring of the proton translocating chloroplast ATP synthase. J Biol Chem 284:18228-18235. ... In the yeast F-ATPase, the ring has ten c-subunits, and so ten protons are translocated per three ATP molecules made during a ... and plant chloroplast F-ATPases (10-13). Therefore, the bioenergetic cost of these F-ATPases making an ATP molecule ranges from ... The most important inference from the presence of the c8-ring in bovine F-ATP synthase, is that eight protons are translocated ...
... part of the chloroplast ATP-synthase. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Chloroplast Proton-Translocating ATPases ... This proton uptake was prevented by tentoxin, a specific inhibitor of the CF1-ATPase, in these CFo · F1-liposomes, but not in ... This proton uptake was prevented by tentoxin, a specific inhibitor of the CF1-ATPase, in these CFo · F1-liposomes, but not in ... This proton uptake was prevented by tentoxin, a specific inhibitor of the CF1-ATPase, in these CFo · F1-liposomes, but not in ...
Protons Chemical Compounds * Chloroplast Proton-Translocating ATPases Chemical Compounds * Chemical activation Chemical ... Energetic and regulatory role of proton potential in chloroplasts. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Chloroplasts ... Tikhonov, A. N. (2012). Energetic and regulatory role of proton potential in chloroplasts. Biochemistry (Moscow), 77(9), 956- ... Tikhonov, A. N. / Energetic and regulatory role of proton potential in chloroplasts. In: Biochemistry (Moscow). 2012 ; Vol. 77 ...
Chloroplast Proton-Translocating ATPases Chemical Compounds * Alkylation Medicine & Life Sciences * Ethylmaleimide Chemical ... We show that the inhibition of the ATPase activity of CF1 in solution persists after removal of the ε subunit. Additionally, ε ... Alkylation of Cys-89 of the γ subunit of the coupling factor portion (CF1) of the chloroplast ATP synthase by N-ethylmaleimide ... We show that the inhibition of the ATPase activity of CF1 in solution persists after removal of the ε subunit. Additionally, ε ...
Proton-Translocating ATPases Medicine & Life Sciences * Adenosine Triphosphate Medicine & Life Sciences * Chloroplast Proton- ... However, the D-subunits are unstable in the chloroplast unless ATPase active I-subunits are present. The H-subunit binds ... However, the D-subunits are unstable in the chloroplast unless ATPase active I-subunits are present. The H-subunit binds ... However, the D-subunits are unstable in the chloroplast unless ATPase active I-subunits are present. The H-subunit binds ...
Chloroplast Proton-Translocating ATPases Medicine & Life Sciences * Trans-Activators Medicine & Life Sciences ... which is critical for the biogenesis of chloroplast ATP synthase oligomycin-sensitive chloroplast coupling factor. Unlike most ... which is critical for the biogenesis of chloroplast ATP synthase oligomycin-sensitive chloroplast coupling factor. Unlike most ... which is critical for the biogenesis of chloroplast ATP synthase oligomycin-sensitive chloroplast coupling factor. Unlike most ...
They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane. ... Chloroplast Proton-Translocating ATPases: 3. *Arabidopsis AHA1 ... Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. ... Proton-Translocating ATPase; F 0 ATPase; F 1 ATPase; F0 ATPase; H+ Translocating ATPase; Proton Translocating ATPase; Proton ... ATPase; F1 ATPase; H(+)ATPase Complex; Proton-Translocating ATPase; Proton-Translocating ATPase Complex; Proton-Translocating ...
The FoF1 ATPase inhibitor DCCD specifically binds the proton-translocating carboxylate of the c subunit, inhibiting proton ... In the mitochondrion and chloroplast, where the FoF1 ATPase operates in both directions, PMF positively regulates FoF1 ATPase ... the downregulation of the proton-translocating c subunit of the FoF1 ATPase was responsible for the decreased ATPase activity, ... The globular F1 ATPase domain is coupled to the membrane-spanning F0 proton-translocating domain (3). Certain chemicals and ...
... were compared with those of the corresponding subunits of proton-translocating ATPases from other bacteria and chloroplasts. ...
Proton-Translocating ATPases. *Bacterial Proton-Translocating ATPases. *Chloroplast Proton-Translocating ATPases. *H(+)-K(+)- ... Proton-Translocating ATPases [D08.811.913.696.650.150.500]. *Bacterial Proton-Translocating ATPases [D08.811.913.696.650.150. ... Proton-Translocating ATPases [D12.776.157.530.450.250.875.500]. *Bacterial Proton-Translocating ATPases [D12.776.157.530. ... Proton-Translocating ATPases [D12.776.543.585.450.250.875.500]. *Bacterial Proton-Translocating ATPases [D12.776.543.585. ...
This study is, to the best of our knowledge, the first study to report broad horizontal transfer of P(IB)-type ATPases in ... A remarkable dissemination of the horizontally acquired P(IB)-type ATPases was supported by unusual DNA base compositions and ... Numerous Pb(r) P(IB)-type ATPase-positive FRC isolates belonging to the genus Arthrobacter tolerated toxic concentrations of ... type ATPases (i.e., pbrA/cadA/zntA). A total of 10 pbrA/cadA/zntA loci exhibited evidence of acquisition by horizontal gene ...
... of the F0 sector of the proton-translocating F-type (F0F1-) ATPases of bacteria, chloroplasts and mitochondria have been ... Phylogenetic analyses of the homologous transmembrane channel-forming proteins of the F0F1-ATPases of bacteria, chloroplasts ... The fall in ΔpH was attributed to the F1F0 ATPase being unable to raise the pHi back to its initial level due to the build up ... the extragenic duplication of F-type ATPase b-subunits that occurred in bluegreen bacteria before the advent of chloroplasts. ...
Adenosine Triphosphate, chemistry, Catalysis, Hydrolysis, Proton-Translocating ATPases MEDLINE®/PubMed® 계명대학교 의학도서관 ... The catalytic role of subunit IV of the cytochrome b6-f complex from spinach chloroplast.. 1991 L B Li et al. Biochimica et ... Separate beta subunits are derivatized with 14C and 3H when the bovine heart mitochondrial F1-ATPase is doubly labeled with 7- ... Affinity Labels, Amino Acid Sequence, Blotting, Western, Catalysis, Chloroplasts, enzymology, Cytochrome b Group, chemistry, ...
  • ATP synthase (proton-translocating ATPase) [ PMID: 2528322 , PMID: 2892214 ] is a component of the cytoplasmic membrane of eubacteria, the inner membrane of mitochondria, and the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • ATP synthase (H+-ATPase): results by combined biochemical and molecular biological approaches. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Structure of the Yeast V-ATPase V-ATPases are multisubunit enzymes composed of a peripheral complex (called V 1 by analogy to F 1 of the F 1 F 0 -ATP synthase) attached to a membrane-bound complex called V 0 ( 100 , 103 ). (asm.org)
  • The proton-translocating ATP-synthase of chloroplasts CF 0 F 1 , was isolated and reconstituted into asolectin liposomes. (elsevier.com)
  • Fromme, P & Gräber, P 1990, ' Activation/inactivation and uni-site catalysis by the reconstituted ATP-synthase from chloroplasts ', BBA - Bioenergetics , vol. 1016, no. 1, pp. 29-42. (elsevier.com)
  • The putative proton binding site at the conserved carboxylate E61 in the chloroplast ATP synthase differs from the sodium binding site in Ilyobacter . (tcdb.org)
  • Almost all ATP in respiring cells is made by the membrane bound enzyme F-ATPase (F-ATP synthase). (pnas.org)
  • The ATP synthase from chloroplasts, CF o · F 1 , was reconstituted into liposomes, from which most of CF 1 was removed by a short treatment with guanidinium chloride. (elsevier.com)
  • On analyzing the energy and structural features of ATP synthase of chloroplasts, we conclude that the energy stored as the concentration component of the proton potential ?pH is sufficient to sustain ATP synthesis. (edu.kz)
  • The mechanisms of pH-dependent regulation of electron transport in chloroplasts (photo-synthetic control of electron transport, enhancement of non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll excitation in the light-harvesting antenna, light-induced activation of the Calvin-Benson cycle reactions, activation of ATP synthase) are considered briefly. (edu.kz)
  • Alkylation of Cys-89 of the γ subunit of the coupling factor portion (CF 1 ) of the chloroplast ATP synthase by N-ethylmaleimide was previously shown to inhibit ATP synthesis and hydrolysis. (researchwithnj.com)
  • Here, we report the identification of the octotricopeptide repeat protein MTHI1, which is critical for the biogenesis of chloroplast ATP synthase oligomycin-sensitive chloroplast coupling factor. (elsevier.com)
  • I will discuss here the F-type ATPases (also called ATP synthase). (evolutionnews.org)
  • The principle of ATP synthase is to facilitate the flow of protons down their concentration gradient from the inner membrane space to the matrix, using the energy released in the process to create ATP. (evolutionnews.org)
  • This enzyme helps to establish a transmembrane difference of proton electrochemical potential that the ATP synthase then uses to synthesize ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ATP synthase of mitochondria and chloroplasts is an anabolic enzyme that harnesses the energy of a transmembrane proton gradient as an energy source for adding an inorganic phosphate group to a molecule of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to form a molecule of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wikidoc.org)
  • ATP synthase can also function in reverse, that is, use energy released by ATP hydrolysis to pump protons against their thermodynamic gradient. (wikidoc.org)
  • The most important distinction is that when being in conducting state, a membrane channel does not require conformational changes for proton translocation, while FO portion of ATP synthase does. (davidson.edu)
  • The proton-translocating region of ATP synthase is formed by subunit a and c-subunit oligomer. (davidson.edu)
  • Sucrose-phosphate synthase was selected for modification to see if the interaction between the chloroplast and the rest of the plant could be modified to increase yield. (medicinalplantsarchive.us)
  • Both the electron transport chain and the ATP synthase are embedded in a membrane, and energy is transferred from electron transport chain to the ATP synthase by movements of protons across this membrane, in a process called chemiosmosis . (wikipedia.org)
  • ATP synthase releases this stored energy by completing the circuit and allowing protons to flow down the electrochemical gradient, back to the N-side of the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • In case of mitochondrial F o F 1 -ATP synthase a proton motive force (PMF) comprising a concentration difference of protons across the membrane (ΔpH) plus an electric membrane potential (ΔΨ) is required for ATP synthesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • This mechanism would allow the Bacillus PS3 ATP synthase to run in reverse, establishing a proton motive force by ATP hydrolysis, when the ATP concentration is sufficient to do so without depleting the cell's supply of ATP. (elifesciences.org)
  • One of the subunits of the ATPase complex, known as subunit delta in bacteria and chloroplasts, or the Oligomycin Sensitivity Conferral Protein (OSCP) in mitochondria, seems to be part of the stalk that links CF(0) to CF(1). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The different delta/OSCP subunits are proteins of approximately 200 amino-acid residues - once the transit peptide has been removed in the chloroplast and mitochondrial forms - which show only moderate sequence homology. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • A single stator stalk containing subunits C, E, G, and H is shown, but recent electron microscopy evidence suggests that there may be two peripheral stalks in the closely related Neurospora crassa V-ATPase ( 152 ). (asm.org)
  • Evolution and isoforms of V-ATPase subunits. (biologists.org)
  • The osteoclast proton pump differs in its pharmacology and catalytic subunits from other vacuolar H(+)-ATPases. (biologists.org)
  • All such systems are multisubunit complexes with at least 3 dissimilar subunits embedded as a complex in the membrane (F 0 , a:b:c = 1:2:~12) and (usually) at least 5 dissimilar subunits attached to F 0 (F 1 , α:β:γ:δ:ε = 3:3:1:1:1 for F-type ATPases). (tcdb.org)
  • The rotor (which consists of the c, ε and γ subunits) is believed to rotate relative to the stator in response to either ATP hydrolysis by F 1 or proton transport through F 0 . (tcdb.org)
  • The proton-motive force is coupled mechanically to ATP synthesis by the rotation at about 100 times per second of the central stalk and an attached ring of c-subunits in the membrane domain. (pnas.org)
  • In fungi, eubacteria, and plant chloroplasts, ring sizes of c 10 -c 15 subunits have been observed, implying that these enzymes need 3.3-5 protons to make each ATP, but until now no higher eukaryote has been examined. (pnas.org)
  • As the sequences of c-subunits are identical throughout almost all vertebrates and are highly conserved in invertebrates, their F-ATPases probably contain c 8 -rings also. (pnas.org)
  • As succeeding c-subunits become protonated, each neutralized carboxylate reaches an environment in subunit a where it reionises, releasing the proton into the mitochondrial matrix ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • According to current models based on structures, the number of translocated protons for generation of each 360° rotation is the same as the number of c-subunits in the ring, as each c-subunit carries a carboxylate involved in protonation and deprotonation events. (pnas.org)
  • These results indicate that the bacterial TF 1 -part binds to the eukaryotic CF o -part of four subunits forming a functional CF o · TF 1 -ATPase. (elsevier.com)
  • However, the D-subunits are unstable in the chloroplast unless ATPase active I-subunits are present. (edu.au)
  • modestum ATPase were compared with those of the corresponding subunits of proton-translocating ATPases from other bacteria and chloroplasts. (courtfield.tk)
  • Separate beta subunits are derivatized with 14C and 3H when the bovine heart mitochondrial F1-ATPase is doubly labeled with 7-chloro-4-nitro[14C]benzofurazan and. (naver.com)
  • In contrast, loss of Pkr1, an ER protein that promotes posttranslocation assembly of Vph1 with V-ATPase subunits, further exacerbates hph1 Δ hph2 Δ phenotypes, suggesting that Hph1 and Hph2 function independently of Pkr1-mediated V-ATPase assembly. (asm.org)
  • The a, b and c-subunits of F-type ATPases are homologues to the B, A and c- (or K-) subunits of V-type and A-type ATPases, respectively. (davidson.edu)
  • Additionally, the yeast v-type ATPase has 3 dissimilar c-subunits: Vma3(c), Vmal1(c) and Vma6(c), and three subunits, Vma13(H), Vma5(c) and Vma10(G) which are not found in either the A- or F-type ATPases. (davidson.edu)
  • All of the yeast vacurlar ATPase subunits have an equivalent subunit in the V-type ATPases of clathrin-coated vesicles of higher eukaryotes (Walker 1990). (davidson.edu)
  • The binding site of Abeta(1-42) is localized in the """"gap"""" between the α- and β-subunits of Na,K-ATPase, disrupting the enzyme functionality by preventing the subunits from shifting towards each other. (tcdb.org)
  • Homologous subunits are found in mitochondria and chloroplasts. (asm.org)
  • Chloroplasts and a few bacteria, such as Paracoccus denitrificans , possess two different but homologous copies of subunit b , named subunits b and b' ( Walker, 2013 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Each 360° rotation produces three ATP molecules, and requires the translocation of one proton per glutamate by each c-subunit in the ring. (pnas.org)
  • Trumpower BL and Gennis RB (1994) Energy transduction by cytochrome complexes in mitochondrial and bacterial respiration: the enzymology of coupling electron transfer reactions to trans‐membrane proton translocation. (els.net)
  • A long α-helix in SecA is important for coupling of ATPase activity to protein translocation ( Mori and Ito, 2006 ). (tcdb.org)
  • S. Papa and M. Lorusso, The cytochrome chain of mitochondria: Electron transfer reactions and transmembrane proton translocation, in: "Biomembranes" R. M. Burton and F. Carcalho Guerra eds. (springer.com)
  • S. Papa, Molecular mechanism of proton translocation by the cytochrome system and the ATPase of mitochondria. (springer.com)
  • S. Papa, M. Lorusso and F. Guerrieri, Mechanism of respiration driven proton translocation in the inner mitochondrial membrane. (springer.com)
  • Analysis of proton translocation associated with oxidation of endogenous ubiquinol, Biochim. (springer.com)
  • Analysis of proton translocation associated to oxido-reductions of the oxygenterminal respiratory carriers, Biochim. (springer.com)
  • S. Papa, Mechanism of active proton translocation of cytochrome systems, in: "Membranes and Transport" A. N. Martonosi ed. (springer.com)
  • G. Von Jagow, W. D. Engel and H. Schägger, On the mechanism of proton translocation linked to electron transfer at energy conversion site 2, in: "Vectorial Reactions in Electron and Ion Transport in Mitochondria and Bacteria", F. Palmieri, E. Quagliariello, N. Siliprandi, E. C. Slater, eds. (springer.com)
  • S. Papa, M. Lorusso, D. Boffoli and E. Bellomo, Redox-linked proton translocation in the b-c1 complex from beef-heart mitochondria reconstituted into phospholipid vesicles. (springer.com)
  • M. Lorusso, D. Gatti, M. Marzo and S. Papa, Effect of papain digestion on redox linked proton translocation in b-c1 complex of beef-heart reconstituted into liposomes, FEBS Lett. (springer.com)
  • We propose that Hph1 and Hph2 aid Sec63/Sec62-mediated translocation of specific proteins, including factors that promote efficient biogenesis of V-ATPase, to support yeast cell survival during environmental stress. (asm.org)
  • However, the term "proton channels" is often used for certain regions in the membrane proteins that are involved in proton translocation (e.g. proton channels in the cytochrome oxidase, or proton entrance channel in bacteriorhodopsin). (davidson.edu)
  • There are two certain aminoacid residues that are critically important for proton translocation. (davidson.edu)
  • The minimal set of proteins constituting a functional translocase complex comprises SecA, SecY, SecE and SecG, which mediate the ATP‐ and proton motive force‐dependent translocation across the membrane ( Schatz and Dobberstein, 1996 ). (embopress.org)
  • Genetic and biochemical investigations have shown that the SecYEG complex is the integral part of the general protein translocation apparatus and that this complex is required for all proteins to be translocated into the periplasm of E.coli . (embopress.org)
  • In general, translocation from the cytosol requires three key steps: (1) substrate recognition and targeting to the destination membrane, while maintaining the substrate in a translocation-competent state (2) translocation across or integration into that membrane, which usually requires energy expenditure in the form of GTP, ATP or proton motive force and (3) release, folding and maturation of the protein substrate. (springer.com)
  • Both processes utilize 'energytransducing' membranes, and various associated metalloprotein enzyme complexes and components, to couple vectorial electron transport to transmembrane proton translocation. (notatek.pl)
  • First, energy-transducing membranes form vesicles that separate aqueous phases inside and outside and resist passive ion or proton diffusion but not redox-mediated or enzymecatalysed translocation. (notatek.pl)
  • ATP synthases are the oligomeric molecular machines that couple ATP hydrolysis with proton translocation across the energy-transducing membranes in mitochondria, chloroplasts, and bacteria. (agscientific.com)
  • It is discussed that they build a module for electron transfer coupled to proton translocation. (labome.org)
  • In prokaryotes, the drive for translocation comes from ATP hydrolysis by the cytosolic motor-protein SecA, in concert with the proton motive force (PMF). (elifesciences.org)
  • The structures reveal the path of transmembrane proton translocation and provide a model for understanding decades of biochemical analysis interrogating the roles of specific residues in the enzyme. (elifesciences.org)
  • V-ATPases are evolutionary descendants of a family of archaeal proton pumps and ATP synthases that also gave rise to the F 1 F 0 -ATP synthases of mitochondria and chloroplasts ( 38 , 43 , 91 ). (asm.org)
  • F-type ATPases are found in eukaryotic mitochondria and chloroplasts as well as in bacteria. (tcdb.org)
  • [5] Beta-barrel proteins are so far found only in outer membranes of gram-negative bacteria , cell walls of gram-positive bacteria , outer membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts , or can be secreted as pore-forming toxins . (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins are found only in outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria, cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria, and outer membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts. (chemeurope.com)
  • For one thing, in eukaryotes, the process takes place within the cell's mitochondria (or chloroplasts), whereas, in bacteria (which lack mitochondria and chloroplasts), the process takes place in the cell's plasma membrane. (evolutionnews.org)
  • Energy for the synthesis of ATP from ADP and phosphate is provided by the transmembrane proton-motive-force across the inner membrane, generated by respiration. (pnas.org)
  • The turning of the rotor is impelled by protons, driven across the inner membrane into the mitochondrial matrix by the transmembrane proton-motive force. (pnas.org)
  • The translocase in E. coli consists of three integral inner membrane proteins, SecYEG, and the cytoplasmic ATPase, SecA. (tcdb.org)
  • The protons are pumped from the mitochondrial matrix, through the inner membrane and into the intermembrane space. (davidson.edu)
  • Closely related ATP synthases are found in the plasma membrane of eubacteria, the inner membrane of mitochondria, and the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts. (asm.org)
  • Complexes I, III and IV serve as proton pumps, transporting protons from the matrix into the intermembrane space. (evolutionnews.org)
  • Consistently, pld α 1 mutants showed altered level of TIC40 (a major regulator of protein import into chloroplast), differential accumulation of photosynthetic protein complexes and changed chloroplast sizes as revealed by immunoblotting, blue-native electrophoresis, and microscopic analyses, respectively. (frontiersin.org)
  • H + and Na + translocating complexes exist. (asm.org)
  • The PMF is generated by sequential redox processes and associated proton pumping of the enzyme complexes I to IV of the respiratory chain across the inner mitochondrial membrane. (frontiersin.org)
  • Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthases are multi-subunit protein complexes that use an electrochemical proton motive force across a membrane to make the cell's supply of ATP from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi). (elifesciences.org)
  • The yeast V-ATPase has become the major model system for the study of eukaryotic V-ATPases, and current knowledge of the structure, assembly, and regulation of this enzyme will be discussed, along with its functions in yeast. (asm.org)
  • therefore, the bioenergetic cost to the enzyme is 3.3 protons per ATP ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • This suggested a role for the F o F 1 ATPase enzyme complex, which converts the energy of ATP hydrolysis to PMF. (asm.org)
  • Inhibition of the F o F 1 ATPase enzyme complex by N ′- N ′-1,3-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide increased ATP levels in ATR − but not in ATR + cells, where ATPase activity was already low. (asm.org)
  • These proteins include chaperones, transcriptional regulators ( 13 ), the glutamic acid decarboxylase system, and the F o F 1 ATPase enzyme complex ( 10 , 31 ). (asm.org)
  • In contrast to the chloroplast localization of AOS proteins in the CYP74A subfamily, GFP fusion data indicates that the petunia CYP74C9 enzyme is in the tonoplast. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The number of protons translocated per ATP (H + /ATP ratio) is an important parameter for the mechanism of the enzyme and for energy transduction in cells. (pnas.org)
  • is the key enzyme involved in the biochemical process known as oxidative phosphorylation, which is very closely coupled to the electron transport chain since the electrochemical proton gradient that is produced by electron transport supplies the energy necessary for the production of the ATP from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and a phosphate group. (evolutionnews.org)
  • The cytochrome b 6 f complex (EC 1.10.99.1) (also called plastoquinol-plastocyanin reductase) is an enzyme related to Complex III but found in the thylakoid membrane in chloroplasts of plants, cyanobacteria, and green algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme employs the energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate polypeptides through the SecY channel in concert with the proton motive force (PMF). (edwinvanbloois.com)
  • This enzyme works when a proton moves down the concentration gradient, giving the enzyme a spinning motion. (wikidoc.org)
  • Interaction of Na,K-ATPase with exogenous Abeta(1-42) leads to a pronounced decrease of the enzyme transport and hydrolytic activities and Src-kinase activation in neuroblastoma cells SH-SY5Y. (tcdb.org)
  • In the F-ATPase in the inner membranes of mitochondria, the energy of the transmembrane proton-motive-force, generated by respiration, is coupled mechanically to the synthesis of ATP from ADP and phosphate in its membrane extrinsic catalytic domain by rotating the asymmetrical central stalk in a clockwise direction (as viewed from the membrane) at about 100 times per second ( 1 - 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Mechanisms of generation of the transmembrane difference of electrochemical potentials of hydrogen ions (δμH + ) in the chloroplast thylakoid membranes are considered. (edu.kz)
  • The decreased proton motive force (PMF) of ATR + cells increased their resistance to nisin, the action of which is enhanced by energized membranes. (asm.org)
  • They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. (rush.edu)
  • These membranes are extremely proton impermeable and enable these organisms to survive under conditions that the extracellular pH is up to 4 units below that of the cytoplasm [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • F-ATPases (F1F0-ATPases) in mitochondria , chloroplasts and bacterial plasma membranes are the prime producers of ATP, using the proton gradient generated by oxidative phosphorylation (mitochondria) or photosynthesis (chloroplasts). (wikidoc.org)
  • P-ATPases (E1E2-ATPases) are found in bacteria and in eukaryotic plasma membranes and organelles, and function to transport a variety of different ions across membranes. (wikidoc.org)
  • P-ATPases (sometime known as E1-E2 ATPases) are found in bacteria and in a number of eukaryotic plasma membranes and organelles. (wikidoc.org)
  • The recruitment of the small GTPase Arf6 and ARNO from cytosol to endosomal membranes is driven by V-ATPase-dependent intra-endosomal acidification. (genes2cognition.org)
  • Figure 2b shows a typical chloroplast bounded by an outer and inner envelope surrounding the energytransducing thylakoid membranes. (notatek.pl)
  • V-ATPases of the plasma membrane. (biologists.org)
  • The plasma membrane H + -ATPase (PM H + -ATPase) extrudes H + from the cell to generate a proton motive force with a membrane potential of -120 to -160 mV (negative inside) and a pH gradient of 1.5 to 2 units (acid outside). (plantcell.org)
  • A key function of the PM H + -ATPase is to generate a proton electrochemical gradient, thereby providing the driving force for the uptake and efflux of ions and metabolites across the plasma membrane. (plantcell.org)
  • The plant plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase: structure, function and regulation. (naver.com)
  • The only V-ATPase which had been found in the plasma membrane of cells was that of the vertebrate urinary bladder ( Al Awqati, 1978 ). (biologists.org)
  • F o F 1 -ATP synthases are working in the plasma membrane of bacteria or in small organelles inside of eukaryotes, i.e., the thylakoid membrane in chloroplasts or the inner mitochondrial membrane. (frontiersin.org)
  • SUMMARY All eukaryotic cells contain multiple acidic organelles, and V-ATPases are central players in organelle acidification. (asm.org)
  • The Saccharomyces cerevisiae V-ATPase has emerged as an important model for V-ATPase structure and function in all eukaryotic cells. (asm.org)
  • Although archaeal and bacterial V-ATPases show remarkable versatility, exhibiting the ability to transport Na + or H + , and to synthesize or hydrolyze ATP in different contexts ( 60 , 91 ), eukaryotic V-ATPases are dedicated proton pumps in vivo. (asm.org)
  • In fungi and most other eukaryotic cells, their primary role is ATP-driven transport of protons from the cytosol into acidic organelles. (asm.org)
  • Eukaryotic V-ATPases appear to have relinquished some of the versatility of their bacterial precursors, but they are still associated with an amazing range of cellular functions and regulated at many different levels. (asm.org)
  • All eukaryotic F-type ATPases pump 3-4 H + out of mitochondria, or into thylakoids of chloroplasts, per ATP hydrolyzed. (tcdb.org)
  • Atomic model for the membrane-embedded VO motor of a eukaryotic V-ATPase. (sickkids.ca)
  • Typical eukaryotic mitochondrion and chloroplast. (els.net)
  • V-ATPases (V1V0-ATPases) are primarily found in eukaryotic vacuoles, catalysing ATP hydrolysis to transport solutes and lower pH in organelles. (wikidoc.org)
  • To accomplish this, chloroplast targeted fatty acyl reductases (FAR) and wax ester synthases (WS) were transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. (nih.gov)
  • F 0 F 1 -ATP synthases use the free energy derived from a transmembrane proton transport to synthesize ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate. (pnas.org)
  • Cells of all life kingdoms use H + -ATP synthases to produce the cellular energy carrier ATP from the energy of a transmembrane electrochemical potential difference of protons built up and maintained by proton transport mechanisms, such as the oxidative electron transport in mitochondria or the photoinduced electron transport in chloroplasts ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • In this work, we tested both assumptions by measuring in parallel the H + /ATP ratio of the isolated and reconstituted H + -ATP synthases from yeast mitochondria and from spinach chloroplasts. (pnas.org)
  • The epsilon subunit of bacterial and chloroplast F(o)F(1)-ATP synthases modulates their ATP hydrolysis activity. (cam.ac.uk)
  • ATP synthases produce ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate with energy from a transmembrane proton motive force. (elifesciences.org)
  • The transmembrane electrochemical gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane (the matrix side now has a net negative charge) creates a proton motive force that drives the process of ATP synthesis. (evolutionnews.org)
  • The proton motive Q‐cycle. (els.net)
  • Light energy is also used to generate a proton motive force (PMF) across the thylakoid membrane. (tankonyvtar.hu)
  • The export of the TMAO reductase is driven mainly by the proton motive force, whereas sodium azide exhibits a limited effect on the export. (embopress.org)
  • The movement of protons creates an electrochemical gradient across the membrane, which is often called the proton-motive force . (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleotide sequence of forex kbpauk ru jurik dll coding for dicyclohexylcarbodiimide-binding protein and the alpha subunit of proton-translocating ATPase of Escherichia coli. (retzepti.ru)
  • Energization of sodium absorption by the H(+)-ATPase pump in mitochondria-rich cells of frog skin. (biologists.org)
  • Bacterial F-type ATPases pump 3-4 H + and/or Na + (depending on the system) out of the cell per ATP hydrolyzed. (tcdb.org)
  • V-type ATPases may pump 2-3 H + per ATP hydrolyzed, and these enzymes cannot catalyze pmf-driven ATP synthesis. (tcdb.org)
  • V-type ATPases facilitate the acidification of intracellular organelles, and use the energy from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis to pump protons into cells and organelles ( Beyenbach and Wieczorek, 2006 ). (evolutionnews.org)
  • A proton pump is an integral membrane protein pump that builds up a proton gradient across a biological membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of a proton pump that is not electrogenic, is the proton/potassium pump of the gastric mucosa which catalyzes a balanced exchange of protons and potassium ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cell respiration , the proton pump uses energy to transport protons from the matrix of the mitochondrion to the inter-membrane space. (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] It is an active pump that generates a proton concentration gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane because there are more protons outside the matrix than inside. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proton pump does not create energy, but forms a gradient that stores energy for later use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complex I (EC 1.6.5.3) (also referred to as NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase or, especially in the context of the human protein, NADH dehydrogenase) is a proton pump driven by electron transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complex III ((EC 1.10.2.2)) (also referred to as cytochrome b c 1 or the coenzyme Q : cytochrome c - oxidoreductase) is a proton pump driven by electron transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • This proton pump is driven by electron transport and catalyzes the transfer of electrons from plastoquinol to plastocyanin. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1] "Molecular cloning and sequence of cDNA encoding the pyrophosphate-energized vacuolar membrane proton pump of Arabidopsis thaliana. (tcdb.org)
  • Finbow ME and Harrison MA (1997) The vacuolar H+‐ATPase: a universal proton pump of prokaryotes. (els.net)
  • Another example is the hydrogen potassium ATPase (H + /K + ATPase or gastric proton pump) that acidifies the contents of the stomach. (wikidoc.org)
  • So the latter is a typical example of a proton transporter (the ability to operate as a pump is further confirming it - no channel can do that). (davidson.edu)
  • Today it appears to be established that the cation pump is a two-component system of a H + -transporting V-ATPase and a cation/nH + antiporter. (biologists.org)
  • Thus the molecular correlate of the midgut alkali metal pump emerged as an electrogenic H + -transporting V-ATPase that energizes K + /H + antiport in the same membrane. (biologists.org)
  • Using the pH gradient established by the vacuolar proton pump, VMAT2, and VAChT translocate monoamines and acetylcholine, respectively, from the cytosol into the lumen. (amazonaws.com)
  • Catalytic activities of FAR and WS were also expressed as a fusion protein and determined functionally equivalent to the expression of individual enzymes for wax ester synthesis in chloroplasts. (nih.gov)
  • The ATPase complex is composed of an oligomeric transmembrane sector, called CF(0), which acts as a proton channel, and a catalytic core, termed coupling factor CF(1). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Fromme, P , Dahse, I & Gräber, P 1992, ' Effect of Tentoxin on the Activation and on the Catalytic Reaction of Reconstituted H + -Atpase From Chloroplasts ', Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung - Section C Journal of Biosciences , vol. 47, no. 3-4, pp. 239-244. (elsevier.com)
  • The catalytic domain of the F-ATPase in mitochondria protrudes into the matrix of the organelle, and is attached to the membrane domain by central and peripheral stalks. (pnas.org)
  • The catalytic role of subunit IV of the cytochrome b6-f complex from spinach chloroplast. (naver.com)
  • The passage of protons causes rotation of a rotor subcomplex, inducing conformational change in the catalytic F 1 region to produce ATP ( Walker, 2013 ) while a peripheral stalk subcomplex holds the F 1 region stationary relative to the spinning rotor during catalysis. (elifesciences.org)
  • A proposed structure and subunit composition for the yeast V-ATPase is shown in Fig. 1 . (asm.org)
  • Subunit composition and structural model of the yeast V-ATPase. (asm.org)
  • Molecular genetics of the yeast vacuolar H(+)-ATPase. (biologists.org)
  • Mutations in the yeast vacuolar ATPase result in the mislocalization of vacuolar proteins. (biologists.org)
  • We measured in parallel the H + /ATP ratios at equilibrium of purified F 0 F 1 s from yeast mitochondria (c/β = 3.3) and from spinach chloroplasts (c/β = 4.7). (pnas.org)
  • 7] "Heterologous expression of plant vacuolar pyrophosphatase in yeast demonstrates sufficiency of the substrate-binding subunit for proton transport. (tcdb.org)
  • ATP-dependent proton uptake was restored with these CF o -liposomes even better by the addition of the bacterial TF 1 - than of the related CF 1 -part. (elsevier.com)
  • Bacterial Proton-Translocating ATPases" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Bacterial Proton-Translocating ATPases" by people in this website by year, and whether "Bacterial Proton-Translocating ATPases" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (umassmed.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Bacterial Proton-Translocating ATPases" by people in Profiles. (umassmed.edu)
  • Molecular basis for the binding and modulation of V-ATPase by a bacterial effector protein. (sickkids.ca)
  • Comparisons to the c(11)-rotor ring of the sodium translocating ATPase from Ilyobacter tartaricus show that the conserved carboxylates involved in proton or sodium transport, respectively, are 10.6-10.8 A apart in both c-ring rotors. (tcdb.org)
  • An important example is the sodium-potassium exchanger (or Na + /K + ATPase ), which establishes the ionic concentration balance that maintains the cell potential . (wikidoc.org)
  • We conclude that ATP utilization by magnesium chelatase is solely connected to the I-subunit and suggest that a contaminating E. coli protein, which binds to aggregates of the H-subunit, caused the previously reported ATPase activity of the H-subunit. (edu.au)
  • In the green alga Chlamydomonas (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii), chloroplast gene expression is tightly regulated posttranscriptionally by gene-specific trans-acting protein factors. (elsevier.com)
  • They proposed that the two-helix finger of SecA moves a polypeptide chain into the SecY channel with the tyrosine providing the major contact with the substrate, a mechanism analogous to that suggested for hexameric protein-translocating ATPases. (tcdb.org)
  • V-ATPase interacts with ARNO and Arf6 in early endosomes and regulates the protein degradative pathway. (genes2cognition.org)
  • The membrane spanning component changes configuration with the aid of chemical energy input (often through the use of an associated ATPase protein), thus translocating the chemical from one side of the membrane to the other. (wikidoc.org)
  • The Na/K-ATPase is an important signal transducer that not only interacts and regulates protein kinases, but also functions as a scaffold ( Li and Xie, 2009 ). (tcdb.org)
  • Many of these proteins, including those regulating chloroplast protein import and protein folding, share common functions in chloroplast biogenesis and leaf variegation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Taking together, PLDα1 appears as a protein integrating cytosolic and plastidic protein translations, plastid protein degradation, and protein import into chloroplast in order to regulate chloroplast biogenesis in Arabidopsis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Not only is the structure of V-ATPases highly conserved among eukaryotes, but there are also many regulatory mechanisms that are similar between fungi and higher eukaryotes. (asm.org)
  • After tracing the discovery of the V-ATPase as the energizer of K + /nH + antiport in the larval midgut of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta we show that research on the tobacco hornworm V-ATPase delivered important findings that emerged to be of general significance for our knowledge of V-ATPases, which are ubiquitous and highly conserved proton pumps. (biologists.org)
  • and growth defects similar to those of mutants lacking V-ATPase activity. (asm.org)
  • Role of the gamma subunit of chloroplast coupling factor 1 in the light-dependent activation of photophosphorylation and ATPase activity by dithiothreitol. (cam.ac.uk)
  • This review discusses current knowledge of the structure, function, and regulation of the V-ATPase in S. cerevisiae and also examines the relationship between biosynthesis and transport of V-ATPase and compartment-specific regulation of acidification. (asm.org)
  • The central player in organelle acidification in all eukaryotes is the vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase). (asm.org)
  • Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments. (sickkids.ca)
  • These data demonstrate the crucial role of early endosomal acidification and V-ATPase/ARNO/Arf6 interactions in the regulation of the endocytic degradative pathway. (genes2cognition.org)
  • Cell metabolism requires transmembrane proton and electrochemical gradients to synthesize adenosine 5′‐triphosphate (ATP), translocate ions, proteins and metabolites and regulate other vital activities. (els.net)
  • Uncouplers equilibrate protons and/or hydroxyl ions across the membrane and dissipate the pmf. (els.net)
  • Unlike animals, which use Na + ions, plants use protons almost exclusively as the coupling ion ( Figure 1 ). (plantcell.org)
  • There are different types of ATPases, which can differ in function (ATP synthesis and/or hydrolysis), structure (F-, V- and A-ATPases contain rotary motors) and in the type of ions they transport. (wikidoc.org)
  • P-ATPases function to transport a variety of different compounds, including ions and phospholipids, across a membrane using ATP hydrolysis for energy. (wikidoc.org)
  • One function is to generate ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE by utilizing the energy provided by an electrochemical gradient of protons across the cellular membrane. (umassmed.edu)
  • A second function is to counteract a loss of the transmembrane ion gradient by pumping protons at the expense of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis. (umassmed.edu)
  • The F-type ATPase discussed here is unique inasmuch as it, rather than hydrolysing ATP, actively synthesizes it using the energy from the flow of protons down an electrochemical gradient. (evolutionnews.org)
  • The combined transmembrane gradient of protons and charges created by proton pumps is called an electrochemical gradient . (wikipedia.org)
  • It has two components: a difference in proton concentration (a H + gradient, Δ pH ) and a difference in electric potential , with the N-side having a negative charge. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both fractions were dominated by the H-subunit, but the ATPase activity was only found in the high-molecular-mass fraction and magnesium chelatase activity was only associated with the low-molecular-mass fraction. (edu.au)
  • These genetic findings have been paralleled by the discovery of DNA of high molecular weight in chloroplasts and mitochondria. (retzepti.ru)
  • Boyer J (1997) The ATPase - a splendid molecular machine. (els.net)
  • Yasuda R, Noji H, Kinosita Jr K and Yoshida M (1998) F‐1 ATPase is a highly efficient molecular motor that rotates with discrete 120° steps. (els.net)
  • Mitchell P (1974) A chemiosmotic molecular mechanism for proton‐translocating adenosine triphosphatases. (els.net)
  • Molecular aspects of higher plant P-type Ca(2+)-ATPases. (naver.com)
  • They derive energy from light-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the membranous cisternae (THYLAKOIDS) of the CHLOROPLASTS. (sickkids.ca)
  • ATP synthesis is driven forward when protons are conducted through the F 0 from the p‐side to F 1 on the n‐side. (els.net)
  • 2016 showed that monomeric Abeta(1-42) forms a tight (Kd of 3 mμM), enthalpy-driven equimolar complex with alpha1beta1 Na,K-ATPase. (tcdb.org)
  • [2] In practice, this is like a simple electric circuit , with a current of protons being driven from the negative N-side of the membrane to the positive P-side by the proton-pumping enzymes of the electron transport chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is powered by SecA which is a conserved ATPase that is present in the cytosol of bacteria and the stroma of chloroplasts (1,2). (edwinvanbloois.com)
  • Peroxidases - Peroxidases include enzymes that typically break down hydrogen peroxide, removing it from chloroplast and cytosol among others in plants. (microscopemaster.com)
  • abstract = "The proton-translocating ATPase from chloroplasts, CF0F1, was isolated, purified and reconstitutedinto asolectin liposomes. (elsevier.com)
  • In leaves and intact chloroplasts, oxidation and reduction have been shown previously to regulate the ATPase activity of thylakoids. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Illumination of spinach chloroplast thylakoids in the presence of dithiothreitol, which activates the ability of thylakoids to catalyze sustained ATP hydrolysis in the dark, causes increased incorporation of N-ethylmaleimide into the gamma subunit of coupling factor 1 (CF1). (cam.ac.uk)
  • Photophosphorylation by intact chloroplasts lysed in assay mixtures is also activated in comparison to that by washed thylakoids. (cam.ac.uk)
  • sec71 Δ cells exhibit similar phenotypes, indicating that Hph1/Hph2 and the Sec63/Sec62 complex function during V-ATPase biogenesis. (asm.org)
  • Structure, function and regulation of the coated vesicle V-ATPase. (biologists.org)
  • These data suggest that regulation of F o F 1 ATPase plays an important role in the acid tolerance response of L. monocytogenes and in its induced resistance to nisin. (asm.org)
  • This review highlights the similarities and differences between the structures and modes of regulation of the two H + -pumping ATPases and points out future challenges in the functional analysis of these proteins. (plantcell.org)
  • Structure, function and regulation of the plant vacuolar H(+)-translocating ATPase. (naver.com)
  • They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane. (curehunter.com)
  • The vacuolar H(+)-ATPase--one of the most fundamental ion pumps in nature. (biologists.org)
  • This article is about biochemical proton pumps. (wikipedia.org)
  • During evolution, proton pumps have arisen independently on multiple occasions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, not only throughout nature but also within single cells, different proton pumps that are evolutionarily unrelated can be found. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proton pumps are divided into different major classes of pumps that utilize different sources of energy, have different polypeptide compositions and evolutionary origins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to mitochondria (see Mackenzie and McIntosh, 1999 , in this issue) and chloroplasts, there are three distinct pumps in plants that generate proton electrochemical gradients ( Figure 1 ). (plantcell.org)
  • Besides exchangers, other categories of transmembrane ATPase include co-transporters and pumps (however, some exchangers are also pumps). (wikidoc.org)
  • The result was rather baffling because, at that time, V-ATPases were known to be proton pumps of intracellular organelles. (biologists.org)
  • All pigments active in photosynthesis are found in the chloroplast. (tankonyvtar.hu)
  • A-type ATPases are found in archaea. (tcdb.org)
  • A-ATPases (A1A0-ATPases) are found in Archaea and function like F-ATPases. (wikidoc.org)
  • Subsequently, these proteins are translocated across the membrane by the Sec complex, while membrane proteins are inserted into the bilayer. (edwinvanbloois.com)
  • In all organisms proteins are translocated post-translationally, although its importance appears to be species-dependent. (edwinvanbloois.com)
  • For example, in the Gram-negative bacterium E. coli about 27% of its proteome comprises proteins that are probably transported in a post-translational fashion outside of the cytoplasm (9), while in mammals the vast majority of proteins are translocated co-translationally (1). (edwinvanbloois.com)
  • Many proteins are translocated through the SecY channel in bacteria and archaea and through the related Sec61 channel in eukaryotes. (tcdb.org)
  • Vacuolar ATPase of Neurospora crassa: electron microscopy, gene characterization and gene inactivation/mutation. (biologists.org)
  • The F 0 complex is a proton channel and is embedded within the mitochondrial membrane. (evolutionnews.org)
  • The top horizontal bars of (a) and (b) show for each connected H + translocating complex (large red arrows) and the integrated (top right). (els.net)
  • We show that the inhibition of the ATPase activity of CF 1 in solution persists after removal of the ε subunit. (researchwithnj.com)
  • Alkylation of the thiol groups exposed by reduction of the disulfide bond protects ATPase activity from inhibition by oxidants. (cam.ac.uk)
  • 2016 ). E960 on the Na + -K + -ATPase and F28 on phospholemman (PLM) are critical for phospholemman (PLM) inhibition, but there is at least one additional site that is important for tethering PLM to the ATPase. (tcdb.org)
  • Structure and function of V-ATPases in endocytic and secretory organelles. (biologists.org)
  • The review focuses on the energetic and regulatory role of proton potential in the activity of chloroplasts, the light energy-converting organelles of plant cells. (edu.kz)
  • Transmembrane ATPases harness the chemical potential energy of ATP, because they perform mechanical work: they transport solutes in a direction opposite to their thermodynamically preferred direction of movement-that is, from the side of the membrane where they are in low concentration to the side where they are in high concentration. (wikidoc.org)