Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Chloroplast Proteins: Proteins encoded by the CHLOROPLAST GENOME or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the CHOROPLASTS.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Peas: A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)DNA, Chloroplast: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.RNA, Chloroplast: Ribonucleic acid in chloroplasts having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase: A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.Thylakoids: Membranous cisternae of the CHLOROPLAST containing photosynthetic pigments, reaction centers, and the electron-transport chain. Each thylakoid consists of a flattened sac of membrane enclosing a narrow intra-thylakoid space (Lackie and Dow, Dictionary of Cell Biology, 2nd ed). Individual thylakoids are interconnected and tend to stack to form aggregates called grana. They are found in cyanobacteria and all plants.Genome, Chloroplast: The genetic complement of CHLOROPLASTS as represented in their DNA.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Chlamydomonas: A genus GREEN ALGAE in the order VOLVOCIDA. It consists of solitary biflagellated organisms common in fresh water and damp soil.Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: A species of GREEN ALGAE. Delicate, hairlike appendages arise from the flagellar surface in these organisms.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Euglena gracilis: A species of fresh-water, flagellated EUKARYOTES in the phylum EUGLENIDA.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Chloroplast Thioredoxins: A subtype of thioredoxins found primarily in CHLOROPLASTS.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Euglena: A genus of EUKARYOTES, in the phylum EUGLENIDA, found mostly in stagnant water. Characteristics include a pellicle usually marked by spiral or longitudinal striations.Photosystem II Protein Complex: A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.Algal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of algae.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Spinacia oleracea: A widely cultivated plant, native to Asia, having succulent, edible leaves eaten as a vegetable. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins: Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Light-Harvesting Protein Complexes: Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.Protein PrecursorsAmino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Genes, Chloroplast: Those nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity which are located within the CHLOROPLAST DNA.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Darkness: The absence of light.Chloroplast Proton-Translocating ATPases: Proton-translocating ATPases which produce ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE in plants. They derive energy from light-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the membranous cisternae (THYLAKOIDS) of the CHLOROPLASTS.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Ferredoxins: Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Photosystem I Protein Complex: A large multisubunit protein complex that is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to drive electron transfer reactions that result in either the reduction of NADP to NADPH or the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Chlorophyta: A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane-bound plastids containing chlorophyll a and b. They comprise the classical green algae, and represent over 7000 species that live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Photophosphorylation: The use of light to convert ADP to ATP without the concomitant reduction of dioxygen to water as occurs during OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION in MITOCHONDRIA.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Galactolipids: A group of GLYCOLIPIDS in which the sugar group is GALACTOSE. They are distinguished from GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS in lacking nitrogen. They constitute the majority of MEMBRANE LIPIDS in PLANTS.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Molecular Chaperones: A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Cytochrome b6f Complex: A protein complex that includes CYTOCHROME B6 and CYTOCHROME F. It is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE and plays an important role in process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS by transferring electrons from PLASTOQUINONE to PLASTOCYANIN or CYTOCHROME C6. The transfer of electrons is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Cytochromes f: Cytochromes f are found as components of the CYTOCHROME B6F COMPLEX. They play important role in the transfer of electrons from PHOTOSYSTEM I to PHOTOSYSTEM II.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Mesophyll Cells: Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.Diuron: A pre-emergent herbicide.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Acetabularia: A genus of green algae found in the Mediterranean and other warm seas.Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.RNA Editing: A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).Plastoquinone: Polyunsaturated side-chain quinone derivative which is an important link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.RNA, Algal: Ribonucleic acid in algae having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Fructose-Bisphosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and water to D-fructose 6-phosphate and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.11.Plastocyanin: A copper-containing plant protein that is a fundamental link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds.Group I Chaperonins: A subcategory of chaperonins found in MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and BACTERIA. Group I chaperonins form into a barrel-shaped macromolecular structure that is enclosed by a separate lid-like protein component.

Solute pores, ion channels, and metabolite transporters in the outer and inner envelope membranes of higher plant plastids. (1/207)

All plant cells contain plastids. Various reactions are located exclusively within these unique organelles, requiring the controlled exchange of a wide range of solutes, ions, and metabolites. In recent years, several proteins involved in import and/or export of these compounds have been characterized using biochemical and electrophysiological approaches, and in addition have been identified at the molecular level. Several solute channels have been identified in the outer envelope membrane. These porin-like proteins in the outer envelope membrane were formerly thought to be quite unspecific, but have now been shown to exhibit significant substrate specificity and to be highly regulated. Therefore, the inter-envelope membrane space is not as freely accessible as previously thought. Transport proteins in the inner envelope membrane have been characterized in more detail. It has been proved unequivocally that a family of proteins (including triose phosphate-/phosphoenolpyruvate-, and glucose 6-phosphate-specific transporters) permit the exchange of inorganic phosphate and phosphorylated intermediates. A new type of plastidic 2-oxoglutarate/malate transporter has been identified and represents the first carrier with 12 putative transmembrane domains, to be located in the inner envelope membrane. The plastidic ATP/ADP transporter also contains 12 putative transmembrane domains and possesses striking structural similarity to ATP/ADP transporters found in intracellular, human pathogenic bacteria.  (+info)

Identification of the pore-forming region of the outer chloroplast envelope protein OEP16. (2/207)

The chloroplast outer envelope protein OEP16 forms a cation-selective high conductance channel with permeability to amines and amino acids. The region of OEP16 directly involved in channel formation has been identified by electrophysiological analysis of a selection of reconstituted OEP16 mutants. Because analysis of these mutants depended on the use of recombinant protein, we evaluated the electrophysiological properties of OEP16 isolated directly from pea chloroplasts and of the recombinant protein produced in Escherichia coli. The results show that the basic properties like conductance, selectivity, and open probability of the channel formed by native pea OEP16 are comparable with the channel activity formed by the recombinant source of the protein. Following electrophysiological analysis of OEP16 mutants we found that point mutations and insertion of additional amino acid residues in the region of the putative helix 1 (Glu(73) to Val(91)) did not change the properties of the OEP16 channel. The only exception was a Cys(71)-->Ser mutation, which led to a loss of the CuCl(2) sensitivity of the channel. Analysis of N- and C-terminal deletion mutants of OEP16 and mutants containing defined shuffled domains indicated that the minimal continuous region of OEP16, which is able to form a channel in liposomes, lies in the first half of the protein between amino acid residues 21 and 93.  (+info)

Ontogenetic changes of potato plants during acclimation to elevated carbon dioxide. (3/207)

Transgenic potato plants (Solanum tuberosum cv. Desiree) with an antisense repression of the chloroplastic triosephosphate translocator were compared with wild-type plants. Plants were grown in chambers with either an atmosphere with ambient (400 mu bar) or elevated (1000 mu bar) CO2. After 7 weeks, the rate of CO2 assimilation between wild-type and transgenic plants in both CO2 concentrations was identical, but the tuber yield of both plant lines was increased by about 30%, when grown in elevated CO2. One explanation is that plants respond to the elevated CO2 only at a certain growth stage. Therefore, growth of wild-type plants was analysed between the second and the seventh week. Relative growth rate and CO2 assimilation were stimulated in elevated CO2 only in the second and the third weeks. During this period, the carbohydrate content of leaves grown with elevated CO2 was lower than that of leaves grown with ambient CO2. In plants grown in elevated CO2, the rate of CO2 assimilation started to decline after 5 weeks, and accumulation of carbohydrates began after 7 weeks. From this observation it was concluded that acclimation of potato plants to elevated CO2 is the result of accelerated development rather than of carbohydrate accumulation causing down-regulation of photosynthesis. For a detailed analysis for the cause of the stimulation of growth after 2 weeks, the contents of phosphorylated intermediates of wild-type plants and transgenics were measured. Stimulation of CO2 assimilation was accompanied by changes in the contents of phosphorylated intermediates, resulting in an increase in the amount of dihydroxyacetone phosphate, the metabolite which is exported from the chloroplast into the cytosol. An increase of dihydroxyacetone phosphate was found in wild-type plants in elevated CO2 when compared with ambient CO2 and in triosephosphate translocator antisense plants in ambient CO2, but not in the transgenic plants when grown in elevated CO2. These plants were not able to increase dihydroxyacetone phosphate further to cope with the increased CO2 supply. From these changes in phosphorylated intermediates in wild-type and transgenic plants it was concluded that starch and sucrose synthesis pathways can replace each other only at moderate carbon flux rates.  (+info)

Chloroplast precursor proteins compete to form early import intermediates in isolated pea chloroplasts. (4/207)

In order to ascertain whether there is one site for the import of precursor proteins into chloroplasts or whether different precursor proteins are imported via different import machineries, chloroplasts were incubated with large quantities of the precursor of the 33 kDa subunit of the oxygen-evolving complex (pOE33) or the precursor of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding protein (pLHCP) and tested for their ability to import a wide range of other chloroplast precursor proteins. Both pOE33 and pLHCP competed for import into chloroplasts with precursors of the stromally-targeted small subunit of Rubisco (pSSu), ferredoxin NADP(+) reductase (pFNR) and porphobilinogen deaminase; the thylakoid membrane proteins LHCP and the Rieske iron-sulphur protein (pRieske protein); ferrochelatase and the gamma subunit of the ATP synthase (which are both associated with the thylakoid membrane); the thylakoid lumenal protein plastocyanin and the phosphate translocator, an integral membrane protein of the inner envelope. The concentrations of pOE33 or pLHCP required to cause half-maximal inhibition of import ranged between 0.2 and 4.9 microM. These results indicate that all of these proteins are imported into the chloroplast by a common import machinery. Incubation of chloroplasts with pOE33 inhibited the formation of early import intermediates of pSSu, pFNR and pRieske protein.  (+info)

The effect of amino acid-modifying reagents on chloroplast protein import and the formation of early import intermediates. (5/207)

In order to identify functionally important amino acid residues in the chloroplast protein import machinery, chloroplasts were preincubated with amino-acid-modifying reagents and then allowed to import or form early import intermediates with precursor proteins. Incubation of chloroplasts with N-ethyl maleimide, diethyl pyrocarbonate, phenylglyoxal, 4,4'-di-isothiocyanatostilbene 2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS), dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), and 1-ethyl- 3-dimethylaminopropylcarbodiimide (EDC) inhibited both import and formation of early import intermediates with precursor proteins by chloroplasts. This suggests that one or more of the binding components of the chloroplast protein import machinery contains functionally important solvent-exposed cysteine, histidine, arginine, and aspartate/glutamate residues, as well as functionally important lysine and aspartate/ glutamate residues in a hydrophobic environment.  (+info)

Involvement of a site-specific trans-acting factor and a common RNA-binding protein in the editing of chloroplast mRNAs: development of a chloroplast in vitro RNA editing system. (6/207)

RNA editing in higher plant chloroplasts involves C-->U conversion at approximately 30 specific sites. An in vitro system supporting accurate editing has been developed from tobacco chloroplasts. Mutational analysis of substrate mRNAs derived from tobacco chloroplast psbL and ndhB mRNAs confirmed the participation of cis-acting elements that had previously been identified in vivo. Competition analysis revealed the existence of site-specific trans-acting factors interacting with the corresponding upstream cis-elements. A chloroplast protein of 25 kDa was found to be specifically associated with the cis-element involved in psbL mRNA editing. Immunological analyses revealed that an additional factor, the chloroplast RNA-binding protein cp31, is also required for RNA editing at multiple sites. This combination of site-specific and common RNA-binding proteins recognizes editing sites in chloroplasts.  (+info)

Transcriptional repression and developmental functions of the atypical vertebrate GATA protein TRPS1. (7/207)

Known vertebrate GATA proteins contain two zinc fingers and are required in development, whereas invertebrates express a class of essential proteins containing one GATA-type zinc finger. We isolated the gene encoding TRPS1, a vertebrate protein with a single GATA-type zinc finger. TRPS1 is highly conserved between Xenopus and mammals, and the human gene is implicated in dominantly inherited tricho-rhino-phalangeal (TRP) syndromes. TRPS1 is a nuclear protein that binds GATA sequences but fails to transactivate a GATA-dependent reporter. Instead, TRPS1 potently and specifically represses transcriptional activation mediated by other GATA factors. Repression does not occur from competition for DNA binding and depends on a C-terminal region related to repressive domains found in Ikaros proteins. During mouse development, TRPS1 expression is prominent in sites showing pathology in TRP syndromes, which are thought to result from TRPS1 haploinsufficiency. We show instead that truncating mutations identified in patients encode dominant inhibitors of wild-type TRPS1 function, suggesting an alternative mechanism for the disease. TRPS1 is the first example of a GATA protein with intrinsic transcriptional repression activity and possibly a negative regulator of GATA-dependent processes in vertebrate development.  (+info)

Identification of an RNA-protein complex involved in chloroplast group II intron trans-splicing in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (8/207)

In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the psaA mRNA is assembled by a process involving trans-splicing of separate transcripts, encoded at three separate loci of the chloroplast genome. At least 14 nuclear loci and one chloroplast gene, tscA, are needed for this process. We have cloned Raa3, the first nuclear gene implicated in the splicing of intron 1. The predicted sequence of Raa3 consists of 1783 amino acids and shares a small region of homology with pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate oxidases. Raa3 is present in the soluble fraction of the chloroplast and is part of a large 1700 kDa complex, which also contains tscA RNA and the first psaA exon transcript. These partners, in association with other factors, form a chloroplast RNP particle that is required for the splicing of the first intron of psaA and which may be the counterpart of eukaryotic snRNPs involved in nuclear splicing.  (+info)

For Sale on 1stdibs - Pair of Mid-Century Murano glass lamps with gored bodies and bullicante pattern. The blown glass has gold dust throughout and sit on onyx and brushed
Plants medium-sized, pale green or yellowish brown, in dense tufts. Stems prostrate, irregularly branched, branches ascending; in stem cross section epidermal cells large, thin-walled. Leaves dense, erect-spreading, radially arranged, rarely complanate, 1.2-1.8 mm long, concave, ovate at base, gradually acuminate, distinctly decurrent at base, sometimes slightly plicate when dry; margins serrulate above the midleaf; costae double, short, or indistinct; leaf cells narrowly rhomboidal, 2-4 rows of cells at decurrent bases, hyaline or reddish, thin-walled, rectangular. Autoicous. Perichaetial leaves erect. Setae 12-17 mm long; capsules 1.5-2.0 mm long, nearly erect or suberect; peristome pale yellowish brown; cilia 1-2. Spores 11-15 µm in diameter, minutely papillose or nearly smooth. ...
Flowers: Bell-shaped to funnelform, erect, 4-5 cm long, 4 cm in diameter, on lateral areoles close to the stem apex, and the segments of the perianth are pale mauve, pink or white. Pericarpel and floral tube green, with dense, narrow, spine-tipped brownish scales approximatively 1 cm long , sparsely hairy in their axils. Stamens in several rows, incurred, with no separate throat-circle. Stigmas 6 mm long, pale green. Flower-buds very hairy ...
The colors of the cozy cabin even add to the winter interest. I might have lost track of the flow at some point. It isnt jarring enough to spin me to action though. Painting is a tedious process. The front porch may appear patriotic, but beneath it all my queer flag is flying. I have all the colors of the rainbow in there. Blue doors and decks, a haint aint blue spruce pine pale green basement patio ceiling, a pale yellow window and eave trim, red columns and girders, white windows and purple wire baskets with shiny silver balls ...
Description: Erect shrub or small tree to 6 m high; new growth pinkish brown. Leaves narrow-oblanceolate, often with one side straighter than the other, 5-10 cm long, 6-11 mm wide, apex ± acute, margins often recurved, pale green; midrib, intramarginal vein and lateral veins distinct. Spikes 3-5 cm long, c. 60 mm diam. Petals densely hairy on the undersurface. Filaments crimson, c. 25 mm long; anthers red-brown. Capsules 7-8 mm diam., often deflexed, orifice sunken. ...
Theres a whore on the bed. Shes sleeping right now and the light from the corner window just traces her shoulder across the pale green plaster of the...
This rectangular pale green glass bottle has a hand finished cork top and is embossed on the front with the words "Dr. Porter/ New York ...
This Egyptian amulet takes the form of a rabbit with longish ears, and its body in profile. A small hole has been drilled from one side of the head to the other below the ears. The image appears to have been carved out of a pale green stone, possibly ...
LM-400 is a preserved, 30% BSA solution free of caprylate with added albumin polymers for increased avidity. LM-400 is a clear, pale green to amber brown, sterile- filtered solution processed under condition to minimize microbial contamination and sodium and chloride concentrations. LM-400 undergoes additional testing to demonstrate each lot is free of viral contamination ...
As autumns rusty fingers start painting their way, Across the pale green landscape of a dying summers day, My lengthening shadow, grows impatient to be free, Looking over my shoulder, and theres nobody, following me, And theres nobody, following me Doesnt quite scan as a poem, but these were the opening words of a song…
Bouquets of lovely flowers provide a lovely decorative theme to this pale green and seaweed color ceramic dish. Made in Japan, this medium-size piece is a stylish way to serve and enjoy a variety of dipping sauces, dressings and flavor-infused oils. It also provides a welcome display for Asian-inspired |b||a href=11264.html|appetizers|/a||/b| like edamame and eggrolls, or Western-style snacks like sliced vegetables, crackers, cheeses and chips. |br||br| The outside of each glossy ceramic piece features a smooth pale green solid glaze. Its darker seaweed green interior is enhanced by several bunches of beautifully detailed flowers of numerous shapes and sizes; small clusters of light and dark-colored blossoms are arranged alongside big blooms with slender elongated petals. A delicate layer of black lines its outer rim-a perfect complement to its elegant motif. |br||br| |b||a href=nlnov04.html|Flowers|/a||/b| are a beloved and classic theme used to decorate many Japanese ceramic wares, textiles,
Chloroplasts originated from an endosymbiotic event in which a free-living cyanobacterium was engulfed by an ancestral eukaryotic host. During evolution the majority of the chloroplast genetic information was transferred to the host cell nucleus. As a consequence, proteins formerly encoded by the chloroplast genome are now translated in the cytosol and must be subsequently imported into the chloroplast. This process involves three steps: (i) cytosolic sorting procedures, (ii) binding to the designated receptor-equipped target organelle and (iii) the consecutive translocation process. During import, proteins have to overcome the two barriers of the chloroplast envelope, namely the outer envelope membrane (OEM) and the inner envelope membrane (IEM). In the majority of cases, this is facilitated by two distinct multiprotein complexes, located in the OEM and IEM, respectively, designated TOC and TIC. Plants are constantly exposed to fluctuating environmental conditions such as temperature and light ...
These larvae, which are not usually attended by ants, seem to prefer several species in the family Acanthaceae, such as Hygrophila angustifolia and Ruellia tuberosa, but they have also been observed on the legume Desmodium scorpiurus (Fabaceae). They feed initially on the flowers and then on the young fruits. Mature larvae 7 mm long, body colour tends to match the host food, usually pale green with a conspicuous dark red line as well as some other markings: head pale yellow brown. Adult male lilac, outer margin a broad brown band, narrow on hind wing; female dull brown may have a bluish tinge; lower surface pale green with some rings and small brown-black spots.. ...
Description from Flora of China. Rhizome long, ligneous. Culms densely tufted, usually 1 or 2 borne in a leaf axil, 3-15 cm tall, subfiliform, rather soft, compressed triquetrous, smooth. Leaves equaling or longer than culm, flat, 1-5.5 mm wide, soft, glabrous, with dark brown persistent leaf sheaths. Involucral bracts sheathlike, blade setiform. Spikes 1-5, androgynous, remote, ovate or ovate-oblong, 2-5 mm, ca. 3.5 mm thick, densely many flowered; male part of spike shorter than or nearly equaling female part, slightly thin. Female glumes white or pale green, ovate, 1.2-1.5 mm, papery, 1-costate and laterally few veined, margins narrowly membranous, apex rounded or obtuse. Utricles pale green, longer than glume, ovate-elliptic, compressed trigonous, 2-2.5 mm, papery, loosely pubescent and ciliate, distinctly 2-veined laterally and thinly few veined, base cuneate, nearly estipitate, apex attenuate into an indistinct short beak, orifice obliquely truncate. Nutlets dark brown at maturity, ...
Immature scutella of barley were transformed with cDNA coding for a 13-li-poxygenase of barley (LOX-100) via particle bombardment. Regenerated plants were tested by PAT-assay, Western-analysis and PCR-screening. Immunocytochemical assay of T0 plants showed expression of the LOX cDNA both in the chloroplasts and in the cytosol, depending on the presence of the chloroplast signal peptide sequences in the cDNA. A few transgenic plants containing higher amounts of LOX-derived products have been found. These are the candidates for further analysis concerning pathogen resistance ...
Immature scutella of barley were transformed with cDNA coding for a 13-li-poxygenase of barley (LOX-100) via particle bombardment. Regenerated plants were tested by PAT-assay, Western-analysis and PCR-screening. Immunocytochemical assay of T0 plants showed expression of the LOX cDNA both in the chloroplasts and in the cytosol, depending on the presence of the chloroplast signal peptide sequences in the cDNA. A few transgenic plants containing higher amounts of LOX-derived products have been found. These are the candidates for further analysis concerning pathogen resistance ...
In actuality, because chard is grown in temperate zones, is widespread worldwide, and can be found several varieties, including the crisp chard, sporting dark green leaves, white stalk and a taste that resembles the spinach, chard stalks that features large white and green leaves, Japanese and Swiss chard leaves and closed juxtaposed with yellowish at the base and core and pale green on the edges.In Portugal the chard is available for consumption between October and June. ...
15. Dicranoloma (Ren.) Ren., Rev. Bryol. Lichenol. 28: 85. 1901; Leucoloma subg. Dicranoloma Ren., Prodr. Fl. Bryol. Madagascar 61. 1898. 锦叶藓属 Plants small to robust, pale green to yellowish green or golden brown, in dense tufts. Stems simple or branched, often tomentose; central strand present or absent. Leaves often falcate-secund, ovate-lanceolate, often gradually narrowed from a broader, somewhat auriculate base to nearly setaceous apex; margins plane, bordered by one to several rows of thick-walled, elongate, linear cells, often serrulate to serrate in the upper half; costa slender, percurrent to excurrent, often with lamellae or dentate wings at back in the upper part of leaves; upper cells irregularly rhomboidal to linear, smooth; lower cells elongate, frequently with a few rows of hyaline, very narrow cells at the basal margins; alar cells conspicuous, brownish. Dioicous. Setae erect, short to elongate, smooth, solitary or clustered; capsules cylindric, erect or arcuate, smooth ...
... , one of the prettiest of vegetables, are not to everyones taste, although they may develop added allure due to their cost after recent shortages. Even if you do like them, you can get heartily sick of them in a glut.. After 2013s three varieties, I cut it back to one in 2014, just two plants, then none after that, at the request of my family, who are not courgette fans. Two plants are quite enough to supply an average household.. Im a fan of Cavili (pale green with a creamy flesh) because it is parthenocarpic - it has the ability to set fruit without pollination.. It manages to perform even when weather conditions are dull and chilly - more often than not in NE England.. ...
|div id=full-description| |p class=description| Boasting magnificent, savoyed, purple-red leaves edged and veined pale green, Mustard Red Giant is a vigorous growing broad leaf variety. Commonly found in mesclun mixes, the leaves are slightly te
im 38+3 with bubba number 2. several weeks ago i think i started to loose my plug, it was pinky/brown and i lost a little bit over a couple of days, then nothing. but for the past few days i have lost some snotty looking stuff that is pale green (sorry tmi) when i wipe after going loo, does this sound like more plug coming away? its only a small amount and i dont get it every time i go to the loo ...
Many bacterial species have a capacity to respond to antimicrobial processes and assaults by the production of any number of virulence factors (above; blue circles). Pathology that is due to bacterial infection is generally the result of the interaction between these factors and the host cells. There is also a very clear understanding that within a clonal population of bacterial cells there are a variety of cell types (phenotypic variants). This may include the Small Colony Variants (SCVs - above; pale green circles), persister cells (above; dark green circles) and biofilm cells (above; gold circles). These cell types are quasi-dormant, they have limited expression of virulence factors and immune mediators and they have low metabolic activity and growth. There are inherently tolerant of antibiotics. They are very hard to clear from the site of infection and are the basis for chronic and relapsing infections. Compounded with this is that often within the body there are pre-existing bacteria or ...
Leaf:Alternate, simple, deciduous, elliptical, ovate, or obovate, 1/2 to 1 1/2 inches long, margins finely toothed; pale green and slightly glaucous above and paler below, red to purple in the fall ...
The triad and dyad ions in the case of these metals exhibit remarkable differences of colour. Thus chromous ions are blue, chromic, green ; basic ferric ions are orange-yellow, ferrous, pale green; ma...
LM-150 is a preserved, 30% nominal BSA solution produced with a low salt content and processed with high monomer content by inhibiting albumin polymer formation. LM-150 is a pale green to amber, sterile- filtered solution processed under aseptic conditions to minimize microbial contamination ...
ACTIVITY LEVEL: Steady VOCAL: Quiet CHARACTER TYPE: Shy, Independent MEDICAL BEHAVIOR: 6/5/17- Observed Behavior - tense/nervous ENRICHMENT NOTES: 6/6/17 Crouched in den, no response to voice or door opening. Moved slowly within den to avoid being touched. Stuck nose out to sniff treats after door closed, didnt eat. 6/7/17 In den, no response to voice or door opening. Held still when den was rotated to front. Flinched briefly when first touched, then held completely immobile, no other response. EVALUATION: Cage Condition: No change Reaction to assessor: Lil Debbie remains tense posture during the approach. Reaction to cage door opening: Lil Debbie remains alert with normal shape eyes, ears erect and forward with body flat down on the bedding. Reaction to touch: Lil Debbie allows the touch, while she stiffen up in place with no interest during the interaction. BEHAVIOR SUMMARY: Lil Debbie tolerates attention and petting, but may be fearful or stressed in the shelter. We recommend that this cat ...
Evolution of Chloroplast J Proteins. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Chloroplast outer membrane proteins with β-barrel-shaped transmembrane domains are sorted to the chloroplasts by amino-terminal transit peptides and/or intrinsic targeting information, but in both cases the proteins use the general import apparatus that also serves proteins destined for the interior compartments of the chloroplast. ...
I am a general contractor and have done numerous thru-the-wall installations of window units over the years. I am wanting to install a ptac unit in my office--with heat pump and resistance heat. I have been reading thru the forum on ptac units and I find a lot of the pros with differing and often conflicting recommendations over issues with noise levels and reliability. I dont seem to find any consensus on what would be the best brand to recommend. In my research I found the Hybrid ACW
Lil Uzi, Yeah yeah You know Im savage 40 Glock posted on the block My shorty pop when that forty stop You a cold rat informing cops And all we do is
Vlastn strach se stal osudn m australsk mu nudistovi, kter se sna il podp lit n co, o em si myslel, e je hn zdo ivotu nebezpe n ho pavouka. Z chran i ho odvezli do nemocnice s pop leninami na skoro dvaceti procentech t la.
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Quality fresh flowers by Interflora florists in Default. Hand Delivering beautiful flowers and bouquets across Default and the UK with same day delivery.
Quality fresh flowers by Interflora florists in Default. Hand Delivering beautiful flowers and bouquets across Default and the UK with same day delivery.
We present a neural network based method (ChloroP) for identifying chloroplast transit peptides and their cleavage sites. Using cross-validation, 88% of the sequences in our homology reduced training set were correctly classified as transit peptides or nontransit peptides. This performance level is well above that of the publicly available chloroplast localization predictor PSORT. Cleavage sites are predicted using a scoring matrix derived by an automatic motif-finding algorithm. Approximately 60% of the known cleavage sites in our sequence collection were predicted to within +/-2 residues from the cleavage sites given in SWISS-PROT. An analysis of 715 Arabidopsis thaliana sequences from SWISS-PROT suggests that the ChloroP method should be useful for the identification of putative transit peptides in genome-wide sequence data. The ChloroP predictor is available as a web-server at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/ChloroP/.. ...
Most chloroplast proteins (cp proteins) are nucleus-encoded, synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes as precursor proteins containing a presequence (cTP), and post-translationally imported via the Tic/Toc complex into the organelle, where the cTP is removed. Only a few unambiguous instances of cp proteins that do not require cTPs (non-canonical cp proteins) have been reported so far. However, the survey of data from large-scale proteomic studies presented here suggests that the fraction of such proteins in the total cp proteome might be as large as approximately 30%. To explore this discrepancy, we chose a representative set of 28 putative non-canonical cp proteins, and used in vitro import and Red Fluorescent Protein (RFP)-fusion assays to determine their sub-cellular destinations. Four proteins, including embryo defective 1211, glycolate oxidase 2, protein disulfide isomerase-like protein (PDII), and a putative glutathione S-transferase, could be unambiguously assigned to the chloroplast. Several ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Hellebores are widely grown in gardens for decorative purposes. They are particularly valued by gardeners for their winter and early spring flowering period; the plants are surprisingly frost-resistant and many are evergreen. Also of value is their shade tolerance. Many species of hellebore have green or greenish-purple flowers and are of limited garden value, although Corsican hellebore (H. argutifolius), a robust plant with pale green, cup-shaped flowers and attractive leathery foliage, is widely grown. So is the stinking hellebore or setterwort (H. foetidus), which has drooping clusters of small, pale green, bell-shaped flowers, often edged with maroon, which contrasts with its dark evergreen foliage ...
Plants solitary or forming small colonies of rosettes, caulescent or rarely acaulescent, distinctly arborescent, mostly few-branched, 1.2-4.5 m; rosettes usually large, symmetrical or asymmetrical. Stems 1-7 per colony, erect, thick, 1-1.5(-2.5) m. Leaf blade pale green, linear, widest near middle, 25-95 × 0.2-1.3 cm, flexible, margins entire, curled, filiferous, whitish, apex tapering to short spine. Inflorescences mostly paniculate, sometimes distally racemose, arising beyond rosettes, mostly narrowly ovoid to ovoid, 7-15 × 2.5-6.5 dm; branches 0.7-3.5 dm; bracts erect; peduncle sometimes scapelike, 1-2 m, 2.5-5.5 cm diam. Flowers pendent; perianth campanulate or globose; tepals distinct, creamy white, often tinged green or pink, narrow to broadly elliptic or ovate, 3.2-5.7 × 1.3-3.2 cm; filaments 1.5-2.5(-3.2) cm, pubescent; anthers (2-)2.5-4.8 mm; pistil 2-3.2 × 0.6-1 cm; style white or pale green, 6-11 mm; stigmas lobed. Fruits erect, capsular, dehiscent, oblong-cylindric, symmetrical ...
Med sit nasale flow er Atlanta-rapperen, Lil Yachty - selvudnævnt "King of Teens" - blevet et viralt hit, som kun breder sig længere og længere ud. Nu er det også nået til Danmark, og den 4. marts rammer han Rust med en natkoncert.. Lil Yachty kalder sin musik "bubblegum trap" med sin blanding af autotune og 808 beats, der ofte er spillet på klaver. Lil Yachtys karriere er gået ligeså stærkt, som antallet af afspilninger på SoundCloud, og den 19 årige rapper har vakt musikbranchens interesse.. Det hele startede, da Lil Yachty gik i highschool, gruppen The Yacht Club blev en realitet, og som senere skulle blive til hiphopgruppen Sailing Team. Herefter startede Lil Yachty på universitetet, hvor han endte med at låse sig inde og kun bruge tiden på musik. Hans inspiration var musikere som Andre 3000, Soulja Boy og Lil B, der brød med normerne. Han fandt hurtigt ud af, at musikken var vejen frem og universitet var en saga blot. Han gik sammen med produceren Burberry Perry og rapperen ...
The most noticeable difference between green and red cabbage is the color of the leaves. Green cabbage leaves are broad and pale green in color, and red cabbage leaves are fan-like and deep...
Westonseeds.com Chicory Green Grumolo - Chicory that produces abundant broad leaves, ruffled and wavy, pale green coloured, forming a ball like head lettuce, quite compact, very heavy. Sow at different intervals to extend the harvest season. Prized for being easily preserved and its delightful texture and flavour. Seeds/ package 2000-2500 Untreated Sowing instructions: Sow
A big lush green non-spiky thistle from the mountain woods of central Europe. The flowers appear on tall upright stems in late summer/autumn and are relatively small and white but held among pale green bracts which makes them rather striking ...
Lyall Watson - Supernature. Sensitivity to an annual cycle has obvious advantages. It helps an organism predict seasonal changes in its environment and to make the necessary allowances for them. A bird that spends its winters in the constant conditions of the tropics could use this sense to tell it when the time had come to return north for nesting.......... The tiny pale green plant lice, or aphids, that spend their summers busily plunging their mouth parts into plants and sucking out the juices, reproduce during the long days by a process of virgin birth in which no males are involved. But when there is less than 14 hours of daylight, as autumn approaches, they start reproducing sexually and lay eggs that last the winter. Many other animals change their appearance, rather than their habits, and adopt winter plumage. Dull brown summer weasels turn in to resplendent white winter ones that can find concealment in the snow. …..... In constant darkness fruit flies emerge from their pupae shortly ...
A herbaceous plant that grows wild in Europe, North America and Australia, closely related to the curly endive. It is grown for its curly, bitter-tasing, pale green leaves, that can be eaten raw in salads or cooked like vegetables. Chicory leaves are also commonly used individually as boats to hold dips or salsas.. ...
Plump, pale green pods avg. three seeds per pod. Eating quality is as good as Butterbeans. Compact plants avg. 2 and have a concentrated set which allows for hand ...
A perennial glabrous tendril climber grows over large trees. Leaves simple, alternate, broad, ovate, acute, and pale green colored. Tendrils arises form leaf axils. Flowers small whitish arises from axils. Fruits large, oblong, and yellowish green colored ...
She didnt like me to have the tv on those nights. No matter how low I had the volume, she heard it from the next room and it frightened her. She would hear it as people murmuring threatening things. But I needed the tv, the rhythm of the voices, to fall asleep. One night she spent two hours, until well after midnight, with her apartment door open, sitting in the doorway trying to sort her laundry to leave it for pick-up.. Another night, I sat helplessly while she obsessed over her keys. She was trying to identify them, making incomprehensible marks on a piece of paper. Nothing distracted her from this task. I had a knitting project with me and I remember working on it those nights, I have a lot of knitting projects that carry the memory and energies of traumatic events. That one was a kind of fine, fuzzy pale green yarn - I think it was an alpaca lace shawl. I never finished it, it was such a painful reminder of those nights. I bound it off, unfinished. Its a big swatch, a gauge sample of ...
I enjoyed yesterdays moth macros, as well. Interesting to see that this particular guy was resting with his wings up, a pose that is usually ( but not always) exhibited by butterflies and helps tell the two species apart. I have learned long ago that there are no hard fast rules in nature. I have only one moth in my collection and that is a luna moth- its HUGE with a wingspan of 4.5 and beautiful pale green in color. I found it one day laying in the field where I walk. It was perfect, like it had just died in mid flight. Of course I had to take it home; OK, maybe I am just a little nutty ...
Description: Annual with trailing, angular stems with stiff bristly hairs on the ridges. Leaves with lamina broad-ovate to ± triangular, 3-6 cm long, 2-5 cm wide, cordate at base, margins toothed, upper surface scabrous and on veins below; petiole 8-12 cm long, with spreading hairs. Flowers 1-4, on stalks 7-12 mm long. Fruit ellipsoid, 4-6 cm long, pale green to yellow when ripe, densely covered with soft bristles; stalk 10-20 mm long. ...
Andy Bettancourt leaned his elbows back on the top step of the porch and straightened out his long legs, his heels idly scraping the concrete path that ran up to the three front steps of his pale green painted duplex. It was early evening and he should have been getting ready for his usual Saturday night poker game with his buddies. He didnt mind missing though, in fact hed been thinking of dipping out before his daughter had called to say she was dropping by.. Dropping by. "Hmm" hed grunted to himself as he replaced the receiver in the cradle. It was a fair way to drop by at short notice. Mind you, he thought, that was Jersey for you, you could get out but it would always keep calling you back. He knew his girl though and she had sounded a little off. He shrugged to himself; maybe he was imagining it, hed soon see. Shed never been any good at hiding things from him, from her mother yes, much to Carlas annoyance. He smiled at the memory of his wife being indignant that she didnt have a ...
Cahill McCrea arrived at the table just then with their drinks and a fresh mug of beer for himself. Eleanors smile lingered as she looked up to thank him, and found his eyes on her. He held the look as he dropped into a chair. The shadows cast across his face lifted for the first time, and she stared into eyes of pale green framed by thick black lashes. Lashes that dark and that dense should have overwhelmed the soft color, but Eleanor felt certain nothing could overwhelm the vibrancy of those eyes.. With a slight smile fanning lines at their corners, his eyes seemed friendly and calm, like the ocean on a peaceful day. And like the ocean, she thought with unaccustomed fancifulness, these eyes could change in an instant to something powerful, intense and frightening.. She shook her head free of such thoughts.. "I think that wonderful rose sweater-dress from the boutique would have been perfect for tonight," Valerie continued.. Eleanor pulled her attention back to the topic Val had pursued while ...
When you are diagnosed schizophrenic, its like being told you are officially evil. That is the idea we have of schizophrenia. When you sit across the table from the psychiatrist - in the low chair, in the pale green room; both to make you feel "more relaxed" - and he says those words, your heart stops for a minute, in the way it does when the car goes over the cliff, or a child goes missing. It is the worst of all possible words; the worst of all possible worlds. You hang, for a moment, in silence. And when the ringing in your ears stops, and you tune in, again, to the man, he is saying, "…and Im afraid your symptoms will be pushing people…. ...
Colorless with very pale green tinge.|br/|Rounded rim folded out and down; straight side to body, tapering downwards then curving slightly outward; tall, integral, tubular foot ring, made by folding with deep creease on interior; almost flat bottom with thickened dome and pontil scar at center
This analysis shows rainfall totals across southern India from September 29 to October 5, 2009. The heaviest rainfall appears in blue and the lightest rainfall appears in pale green. Rain extends from the Arabian Sea to the Bay of Bengal.
Evergreen, coniferous shrub. This dwarf cultivar has foliage that appears both mature and juvenile. It is pale green in color. Foliage in winter is often b
Chloroplast - Cellular components are the complex biomolecules and structures of which cells, and thus living organisms, are composed.
After introducing the world to the Futsal Shuffle dance, Lil Uzi Vert has finally dropped the corresponding single,Futsal Shuffle 2020.
Hi everyone, Im thread crashing! I just wanted to say a big congrats and best of luck to everyone for their BFP!! I was an ivfer due March but my lil boy was born 15/2. i hope everyone stays safe and enjoys this marvelous time!!
Figure 14 Phase contrast fluorescence microscopy of Cry2A transgenic plants with transit peptide. A = DAPIblue fluorescence. B = FITC green fluorescence. C = Chloroplast auto-fluorescence red. D = Merged image of A, B and C. Yellow color is produced where green and red fluorescence occurred at the same place i.e. Cry2A inside chloroplasts.. Discussion. Chloroplast targeted expression of the Bt gene holds great potential for incorporating vital agronomic traits into plants. High Bt gene levels in chloroplasts permits plants to generate large quantities of crystal proteins. In the present study, two insecticidal genes, Cry1Ac and Cry2A, along with a chloroplast transit peptide were cloned in a PBI-121 vector and transformed into cotton variety MNH-786. Cry1Ac and Cry2A were selected because of their unique qualities, i.e., high expression levels and lack of competition for receptors among them.. The present study highlights the importance of cloning genes with transit peptides to demonstrate ...
In recent years there has been extensive experimental evidence indicating that the nuclear expression of certain genes , in particular those that encode chloroplast proteins is subject to regulation by signals of retrograde plastid origin . This can be done both at the level of transcription and translation of mRNA . Certain plastid origin signals could be identified - these include metabolic precursor of chlorophyll plastochinonu redox state , thioredoxin and glutathione and phosphoenolpyruvate translocator located in the chloroplast inner envelope membrane . Identity plastid other signals , e.g., regulating cell differentiation and morphogenesis leaf remains unexplained . Signaling plastids - nucleus signaling and dependent on the light remain in a fairly complicated relationships , in some cases, are used for different transduction pathways , in others some of the same . Retrograde signaling is likely to be an important part of global regulatory networks that control metabolism and growth of ...
The TIC and TOC complexes are translocons located in the chloroplast of a eukaryotic cell, that is, protein complexes that facilitate the transfer of proteins in and out through the chloroplasts membrane. The TIC complex (translocon on the inner chloroplast membrane) is located in the inner envelope of the chloroplast. The TOC complex (translocon on the outer chloroplast membrane) is located in the outer envelope of the chloroplast. It transports proteins that are synthesized in the cytoplasm across the chloroplasts membrane. This protein complex is functionally similar to the TOM/TIM Complex located on the outer and inner membranes of the mitochondria, in the sense that it too transports proteins across multiple membranes and into the lumen of an organelle. Both complexes (TOC/TIC) are GTPases, that is, they must both hydrolyze GTP in order to power the translocation. The chloroplast also harnesses the power of an electrochemical gradient using protons. The gradient is only used to power ...
The assembly of the photosynthetic apparatus requires the translocation of numerous proteins from the cytosol, initially into the stroma and thereafter into or across the thylakoid membrane. Recent studies have shown that proteins are transported into this membrane by a variety of mechanisms, some of which are derived from a cyanobacterial-type ancestor, whereas others have evolved in response to the more complex transport pathway used by cytosolically synthesized chloroplast proteins. It is now apparent that some of the targeting pathways are used exclusively by hydrophobic thylakoid membrane proteins; here we review recent progress in our understanding of the biogenesis of this important class of protein.. ...
Reverse-Genetic Studies on the In Vivo Role of the Putative Arabidopsis Orthologue of Toc12, a New Component of the Chloroplast Protein Import Apparatus. Universities UK Overseas Research Students (ORS) Award to Mr Jocelyn B dard (2002-2005) ...
Now that your tomatoes are planted and growing, what do you do when the aphids show up? They are quite small, pale green insects. They tend to congregate on the new growth. There are a few options. My preference is to collect the new leaves that are infested with the aphids. Put them in a blender and add water. Blend it up well and let it set over night. Then run it through a fine strainer and spray it on your tomatoes. The idea is that there are a few sick aphids and by blending the mix, you will spread the sickness to the rest of the aphids. You will be spreading the disease that is particular to that insect.. You can also wash them off the plant with a blast of water. But they reproduce so quickly, that youll have to do this more than once.. I have not had aphids for several years now. I suspect that a certain amount of that is because the organic matter continues to rise, probably due to the leaf mulch that we use every year with our heirloom seed The healthier your soil is, the more your ...
Shrub to small tree up to 6 m or more tall. Trunk one or more arising from ground, covered in somewhat corky bark. Branches stout, spreading, rather brittle, initially densely clad in fine white to buff tomentum becoming glabrescent with age. Petiole stout, grooved, 80-100 mm long. Leaves leathery, 50-250(-300) X 50-20(-30) mm, dark green to pale green above, undersides clad in fine, appressed vivid white hairs, broad- to ovate-oblong, obtuse to subacute, obliquely cordate to truncate at base, margins distantly dentately lobed to sinuate. Inflorescence a much branched panicle. Capitula 5 mm diam., numerous, without ligules (discoid). Involucral bracts 3 mm long, narrow-oblong to narrow spathulate, margins scarious except at base. Florets 10-12, yellow. Seeds (cypsela) narrowly oblong-elliptic to oblong elliptic, 1-1.8 mm long, ribs 6, rounded, broad. Pappus 2-3 mm, buff-yellow, scabrid.. ...
It grows with a stem to 100 cm long with lanceolate leaves. The flowers are up to 5 cm in diameter, usually single at the ends of the stem. The sepals have 5 narrow teeth much longer than the petals. It has 10 stamens.[1] It has slender pink flowers. It is a stiffly erect plant up to 1 metre (3 feet 3 inches) tall and covered with fine hairs. Its few branches are each tipped with a single deep pink to purple flower. The flowers are scentless, are 25-50 millimetres (0.98-1.97 inches) across and are produced in the summer months - May to September in the northern hemisphere, November to March in the southern hemisphere.. Each petal bears two or three discontinuous black lines. The five narrow pointed sepals exceed the petals and are joined at the base to form a rigid tube with 10 ribs. Leaves are pale green, opposite, narrowly lanceolate, held nearly erect against stem and are 45-145 mm (1.8-5.7 in) long. Seeds are produced in a many-seeded capsule. It can be found in fields, roadsides, railway ...
Well, my eye color changes constantly, so itd be more like what color would you like your eyes to stop on? Id like brown eyes. My eyes change from pale green, GREEN green, blue, blue green, and then green with an inner rim of brown. But do I ever get just brown? No ...
Excellent quality Frech filet bean, with 5 to 6 inch long, dark green pods with pale green streaks. Beans are dark brown and purple mottled. A gourmet treat. Matures in 48 days. This group of beans is a favorite for the home garden and can be grown just about anywhere because they have a relatively short growing
Im going to go ahead and make a prediction: I think Three Trees is going to be big. The Emeryville, California-based company makes a variety of non-dairy nut-based milks, including an unusual pale green pistachio milk. We tried the whole lineup of flavors.
Torrent for Lil Lody - Da Street Bible 01 Lil Lody - Intro [Prod. By Kb Beatz & Lil Lody] 02 Lil Lody - Never Goin Back [Prod. By Jimmy Newtr
Import of chloroplast Omp85 homologs in vitro. (A) Chloroplasts isolated from pea seedlings were incubated with radiolabeled proteins indicated at left in the i
... Definition Chloroplast is an organelle unique to plant cells that contains chlorophyll, which is what makes plants green and is responsible for enabling photosynthesis to occur, so that plants can convert sunlight into chemical energy. It is a type of organelle known as a plastid, characterized by
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At the risk of becoming our dream sub-blog All Based News All The Time, heres Lil Bs latest mixtape, released through XXL in honor of his place among their 2011 Freshman class. "Illusions of Grandeur" was a Red Flame: Devil Music standout, and its pitched-down, blown-out remix here is mind boggling. Ostensibly one of his more "hip hop" sounding mixtapes, with production help from 9th Wonder, were secretly most excited about the Toto "Africa" beat, and most openly disappointed that "Baby, Baby" is not a Bieber sample. Download: Lil Bs Illusions of Grandeur Mixtape (via XXL). Tracklist ...
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Chris Taylor at Catalogue of Organisms has an absolutely stunning review of the origin of chloroplasts in eukaryotes. Its so good I thought it was from Elio Schaechters blog Small Things Considered when it first popped up in my reader - higher praise there is not.
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Shouts to Tapemasters Inc once again! Track list and download link after the jump! 1. (00:00:57) Lil Wayne - Welcome Back 2. (00:06:53) Lil Wayne - Dedication 3 feat. Mack Mane, Willie The Kid, Gudda Gudda 3. (00:01:02) Lil Wayne - What Else Is The To Do 4. (00:04:00) Lil Wayne - Dick Pleaser feat. Jae Millz 5. (00:02:48) Lil Wayne - Aint I feat. Jae Millz 6. (00:01:41) Lil Wayne - You Love Me You Hate Me 7. (00:03:57) Lil Wayne - Bang Bang feat. Jae Millz, Gudda Gudda 8. (00:04:08) Lil Wayne - The Other Side feat. La The Darkman, Jae Millz, Gudda Gudda 9. (00:04:32) Lil Wayne - My Weezy feat. Shanell, Lil Twist & Tyga 10. (00:00:50) Lil Wayne - A Dedication 11. (00:04:58) Lil Wayne - Shes A Ryder feat. Gudda Gudda 12. (00:03:11) Lil Wayne - Still I Rise feat. Nicki Manaj 13. (00:03:10) Lil Wayne - Magic feat. Gudda Gudda 14. (00:02:01) Lil Wayne - Dos & Donts Of Young Money 15. (00:04:38) Lil Wayne - Whoever You Like feat. Jae Millz & Gudda ... ...
The potato leafhopper is considered an important pest of Irish potatoes and is known to feed on nearly 200 other kinds of plants. Feeding by this leafhooper on potatoes causes curling, stunting, and dwarfing, accompanied by a yellowing, browning, or blighting of the foliage known as hopperburn or tipburn. The injection of saliva into the plant during feeding produces a physiological disturbance with disease-like manifestations.. The adult is pale green, somewhat wedge-shaped, about one-eighth inch long, with small white spots on the head. Adults are very active, jumping or flying when disturbed. Females deposit slender white eggs within the stems and larger veins of the leaves. Hatching occurs in six to nine days during the summer, and the pale green nymphs molt five times before they become fully grown and transform to winged adults. The period from egg to adult is about three weeks during warm weather; several overlapping generations develop each season. The potato leafhopper has not been ...
Successful import of hundreds of nucleus-encoded proteins is essential for chloroplast biogenesis. The import of cytosolic precursor proteins relies on the Toc- (translocon at the outer chloroplast membrane) and Tic- (translocon at the inner chloroplast membrane) complexes. In |i|Arabidopsis thaliana|/i|, precursor recognition is mainly mediated by outer membrane receptors belonging to two gene families: Toc34/33 and Toc159/132/120/90. The role in import and precursor selectivity of these receptors has been intensively studied, but the function of Toc90 still remains unclear. Here, we report the ability of Toc90 to support the import of Toc159 client proteins. We show that the overexpression of Toc90 partially complements the albino knockout of Toc159 and restores photoautotrophic growth. Several lines of evidence including proteome profiling demonstrate the import and accumulation of proteins essential for chloroplast biogenesis and functionality. Infanger, Sibylle; Bischof, Sylvain;
A two-membrane system, or envelope, surrounds plastids. Because of the integration of chloroplast metabolism within the plant cell, the envelope is the site of many specific transport activities. However, only a few proteins involved in the processes of transport across the chloroplast envelope have been identified already at the molecular level. To discover new envelope transporters, we developed a subcellular proteomic approach, which is aimed to identify the most hydrophobic envelope proteins. This strategy combined the use of highly purified and characterized membrane fractions, extraction of the hydrophobic proteins with organic solvents, SDS/PAGE separation, and tandem mass spectrometry analysis. To process the large amount of MS/MS data, a blast-based program was developed for searching in protein, expressed sequence tag, and genomic plant databases. Among the 54 identified proteins, 27 were new envelope proteins, with most of them bearing multiple α-helical transmembrane regions and being very
Plant cells contain an internal clock (the circadian clock), which is able to regulate cellular processes so that they occur at the optimal time of day, causing a big increase in plant productivity. As chloroplasts are the site of photosynthesis, their function is highly dependent on the daily changes in light environment.. It is thought that chloroplasts were originally free-living organisms that were incorporated into the cells of plants very early in plant evolutionary history. A result of this is that chloroplasts have retained some of the cellular machinery required to produce proteins from their own chloroplast DNA. An essential part of this machinery are sigma factors, and in present-day plants, they are encoded for by the cells nuclear DNA.. The researchers were able to show that the production of sigma factors is controlled by the plants clock. This enables the nuclear DNA to regulate the activity of chloroplast genes, and ensure that the production of proteins essential for ...
Word Scramble - English word CHLOROPLASTS: words that start with chloroplasts, words that end with chloroplasts, anagrams of chloroplasts, how to spell chloroplasts!, Words with Friends, Scrabble
Chloroplasts are organelles that take light energy and convert it into chemical energy. A chloroplast has a double membrane, the inner and outer membranes. The inner thylakoid membrane traps the light energy. Inside the inner membrane are stacks of grana, and surrounding the grana is a fluid known as stroma. Chloroplasts, which are contained in chlorophyll, contain the green pigment chlorophyll, which traps light energy and make leaves and stems green. The chemical energy that is captured by the chloroplasts is stored in sugar molecules until they are broke down. ...
Chloroplast has different shapes and structures. Its diameter is about 4 - 6 μm. It appears heterogenous structure under light microscope. It has small granule like structure called Grana. These grana are embedded in the matrix. The chloroplast shows three main components under electron microscope. These are Envelop, Stroma, Thylakoid and Granum.. The Envelop: the envelop is the outer covering of the chloroplast. It formed inner membrane extends inward, at some places, the inner membrane is in continuous with the thylakoids. This contact is used for transfer of material into and out of the chloroplast to cytosol. Inner membrane also contains small amounts of carotenoids.. Stroma: Stroma is the fluid that surrounds the thylakoids. It covers most of the volume of the chloroplast. It is gel like substance. It contains about 50% of the chloroplast proteins. It contains proteins, some ribosomes and small circular DNA. Calvin Cycle or dark reaction takes place in stroma. The Carbon Dioxide is fixed ...
Biochemical mutagenesis - alteration or removal of specific domains within a biological structure -followed by functional analysis, gives insight into structure-function relationships. We describe the analysis of the signal recognition particle, a ribonucleoprotein known to be required for the entry of most proteins into the secretory pathway, as an example of the strength of this approach.. ...
For some reason the leaves on my chilli plants have turned a sorry pale green. Some have yellow speackles on them. Does anyone know why this would happen? Its indoors on my window sil. How many hours of direct sunlight does it get per day? David
Iris atrofusca, Baker (I. atropurpurea var. atrofusca, Baker. I. haynei, Mallett). Lvs. pale green, 1 ft. long: st. 1 ft. long, hidden by the sheathing inner lvs.: limb dark purple-brown; outer segms. obovate, 3 in. long, with a dark spot on the throat; inner segms. larger and broader; style-branches very convex; crests large. Palestine. B.M. 7379. Gn. 48, p. 8; 50:332 and p. 333. Gt. 42, p. 488; suppl. pi. Gn. W. 24:399. J.H. 111.48:361. G.M. 47:258. ...
Chamomile or Camomile is the common name for several daisy-like plants of the family Asteraceae. It is an annual herb found in southern Europe and northern Asia. It grows along roadsides and fields. The plant produces a round, furrowed, and branched stem which grows one to two feet in height. The leaves are pale green,…
Terrestrial or hemiepiphytic; stem appressed-climbing, 2--3 m long, thick, leaf scars conspicuous, 1.2--1.7 cm long, 2--2.5 cm wide; internodes smooth, to weakly pruinose, 3--6 cm long, 4--7 cm diam., about as long as broad, green to olive-green, epidermis drying smooth, semiglossy, light yellow-brown (B & K Yellow-Red 9/10), cracking with age, fissured transversely, sometimes with minute cracks perpendicular to axis; roots few per node, elongate, to 4 mm diam., light brown, smooth, weakly glossy, the epidermis cracking free upon drying; cataphylls thick, 18--32 cm long, sharply 2-ribbed (ribs 4 mm high), pale green, glaucous, dark short-lineate, deciduous. LEAVES erect-spreading, clustered at or near stem apex; petioles 49--70 cm long, 1.2--2.5 cm diam., more or less D-shaped, becoming flattened and much broader than thick toward apex, medium green, rounded to flattened abaxially, with adaxial margins prominently winged (to 3 mm diam.), undulate to broadly flattened, surface dark short-lineate, ...
Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae which conduct photosynthesis. Chloroplasts are similar to mitochondria but are found only in plants. Both organelles are surrounded by a double membrane with an intermembrane space; both have their own DNA and are involved in energy metabolism; and both have reticulations, or many foldings, filling their inner spaces. Chloroplasts convert light energy from the sun into ATP through a process called photosynthesis. Chloroplasts are one of the forms a plastid may take, and are generally considered to have originated as endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. In green plants chloroplasts are surrounded by two lipid bilayer membranes, now thought to correspond to the outer and inner membranes of the ancestral cyanobacterium. The genome is considerably reduced compared to that of free-living cyanobacteria, but the parts that are still present show clear similarities. It is interesting to note that in some algae, chloroplasts seem to have ...
Moss chloroplasts should prove useful for studying the cyanobacteria-derived system in chloroplasts. To determine the effects of antibiotics that inhibit bacterial peptidoglycan synthesis, the numbers of chloroplasts in treated Physcomitrella patens cells were counted. Ampicillin and d-cycloserine caused a rapid decrease in the number of chloroplasts per cell. Fosfomycin affected half of the cells, while vancomycin affected a few cells. Conversely, bacitracin had no effect. With the decrease in chloroplast number, macrochloroplasts appeared in antibiotic-treated cells. Removal of the antibiotics resulted in the recovery of chloroplast number, suggesting that the decrease in number was directly dependent on the antibiotic treatment. Microscopic observations showed that the decrease in the number of chloroplasts resulted from cell division without chloroplast division. These results suggest that enzymes derived from the bacterial peptidoglycan synthesis pathway are related to moss chloroplast ...
Environmental concerns over the cultivation of Genetically Modified (GM) crops largely centre on the ecological consequences following gene flow to wild relatives. One attractive solution is to deploy biocontainment measures that prevent hybridization. Chloroplast transformation is the most advanced biocontainment method but is compromised by chloroplast capture (hybridization through the maternal lineage). To date, however, there is a paucity of information on the frequency of chloroplast capture in the wild. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus, AACC) frequently hybridises with wild Brassica rapa (AA, as paternal parent) and yields B. rapa-like introgressed individuals after only two generations. In this study we used chloroplast CAPS markers that differentiate between the two species to survey wild and weedy populations of B. rapa for the capture of B. napus chloroplasts. A total of 464 B. rapa plants belonging to 14 populations growing either in close proximity to B. napus (i.e. sympatric 1 km) were ...
Based on our phylogeny and character state reconstructions, there was one probable origin of short-term chloroplast retention in the last common ancestor of the Plakobranchoidea, and four independent origins of long-term retention. No species in the Oxynoacea and Limapontioidea were able to maintain photosynthetic activity, based on PAM measurements. Functional chloroplast retention was not detected in five oxynoacean species representing the basal shelled sacoglossans (Table 3). In species with no functional retention, chloroplasts are phagocytosed by digestive glandular cells and rapidly disintegrate [62, 63]. Clark and Busacca [64] concluded that Oxynoe retains chloroplasts because they were able to isolate chlorophyll from slugs, but they did not detect net fixation of CO2. We measured high ground fluorescence in oxynoaceans but very low yield values, indicating free chlorophyll but no functional chloroplasts.. Similarly, all limapontioidean species except Costasiella cf. kuroshimae had ...
Post-translational protein methylation was investigated in Pisum sativum chloroplasts. Intact pea chloroplasts were incubated with ({sup 3}H-methyl)-S-adenosylmethionine under various conditions. The chloroplasts were then separated into stromal and thylakoid fractions and analyzed for radioactivity transferred to protein. Light enhanced the magnitude of labeling in both fractions. One thylakoid polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 43 kDa was labeled only in the light. Several other thylakoid and stromal proteins were labeled in both light and dark-labeling conditions. Both base-labile methylation, carboxy-methylesters and base-stable groups, N-methylations were found. Further characterization of the methyl-transfer reactions will be presented. ...
Deshaies, R.J., Fish, L.E., and Jagendorf, A.T. (1984). Permeability of chloroplast envelopes to Mg2+. Effects on protein ... to tether cellular proteins to a ubiquitin ligase, resulting in ubiquitination and degradation of the tethered protein.[23] ... Protein translocation mutants defective in the insertion of integral membrane proteins into the endoplasmic reticulum. Mol. ... Protein translocation: As a graduate student and postdoctoral fellow working with Dr. Randy Schekman at the University of ...
"Motif analysis unveils the possible co-regulation of chloroplast genes and nuclear genes encoding chloroplast proteins". Plant ... Pfalz, Jeaneete; Thomas Pfannschmidt (April 2013). "Essential nucleoid proteins in early chloroplast development". Trends in ... Eukaryotic chloroplasts, as well as the other plant plastids, also contain extrachromosomal DNA molecules. Most chloroplasts ... For example, cpDNA content in the chloroplasts of young cells, during the early stages of development where the chloroplasts ...
"Protein synthesis in chloroplasts. I. Light-driven synthesis of the large subunit of Fraction I protein by isolated pea ... Barraclough, R.; Ellis, R. J. (1980). "Protein synthesis in chloroplasts IX. Assembly of newly-synthesised large subunits into ... 1973: First identification of a product of protein synthesis by chloroplast ribosomes. 1978: First demonstration of in vitro ... "Homologous plant and bacterial proteins chaperone oligomeric protein assembly". Nature. 333 (6171): 330-334. doi:10.1038/ ...
DeBlasio SL, Luesse DL, Hangarter RP (September 2005). "A plant-specific protein essential for blue-light-induced chloroplast ... Phototropins are photoreceptor proteins (more specifically, flavoproteins) that mediate phototropism responses in higher plants ... Phototropins may also be important for the opening of stomata[citation needed] and the movement of chloroplasts. Phototropins ... "Chloroplast movement". Annu Rev Plant Biol. 54: 455-68. doi:10.1146/annurev.arplant.54.031902.135023. PMID 14502999. ...
A. R., Ogren W.L.. A soluble chloroplast protein catalyzes ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activation in vivo. „ ... Graciet E., Lebreton S., Gontero B. Emergence of new regulatory mechanisms in the Benson-Calvin pathway via protein-protein ... Evolutionary transfer of the chloroplast tufA gene to the nucleus.. „Nature". 6263 (344), s. 262-5, marzec 1990. DOI: 10.1038/ ... Activase region on chloroplast ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Nonconservative substitution in the large ...
Steiner JM, Yusa F, Pompe JA, Loffelhardt W. Homologous protein import machineries in chloroplasts and cyanelles. Plant J. 2005 ... Distribution and nomenclature of protein-coding genes in 12 sequenced chloroplast genomes. Plant Mol Biol Rep. 1998 ... Jarvis P, Soll M. Toc, Tic, and chloroplast protein import. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001 ... The Chloroplasts of some algal groups may have evolved from endosymbiotic eukaryotic algae. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1981 ...
Formation of disulfide bonds in signaling chloroplast proteins". Plant Science. 175 (4): 459-466. doi:10.1016/j.plantsci. ... The in vivo oxidation and reduction of protein disulfide bonds by thiol-disulfide exchange is facilitated by a protein called ... The disulfide bond stabilizes the folded form of a protein in several ways: *It holds two portions of the protein together, ... The native form of a protein is usually a single disulfide species, although some proteins may cycle between a few disulfide ...
... a Novel GTPase of the Chloroplast Protein Translocon". Nature Structural Biology. 9 (2): 95-100. doi:10.1038/nsb744. PMID ... "Chloroplast Replication and Chloroplast DNA Synthesis in Spinach Leaves" (PDF). Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological ... "Integral Membrane Proteins of the Chloroplast Envelope: Identification and Subcellular Localization of New Transporters". ... Chloroplasts and cyanobacteria contain the blue-green pigment chlorophyll a.[77] Chlorophyll a (as well as its plant and green ...
The Chloroplast Envelope Anion Channel-forming Tic110 (Tic110) Family (TC#1.A.18) consists of proteins of the inner chloroplast ... van den Wijngaard, P. W.; Vredenberg, W. J. (1999-09-03). "The envelope anion channel involved in chloroplast protein import is ... Kessler, F.; Blobel, G. (1996-07-23). "Interaction of the protein import and folding machineries of the chloroplast". ... The structure is most similar to the HEAT-repeat motif that functions as scaffolds for protein-protein interactions. The pore ...
The N-terminal chloroplast targeting peptide (cpTP) allows for the protein to be imported into the chloroplast. Protein N- ... In prokaryotic cells, the proteins are exported across the cell membrane. In chloroplasts, signal peptides target proteins to ... Normally the amine group is bonded to another carboxylic group in a protein to make it a chain, but since the end of a protein ... The N-terminus is the first part of the protein that exits the ribosome during protein biosynthesis. It often contains signal ...
Bacterial DNA is packed with the help of polyamines and proteins. Protein-associated DNA occupies about 1/4 of the ... Similar DNA packaging exists also in chloroplasts and mitochondria. Bacterial DNA is sometimes referred to as the bacterial ... In viruses and bacteriophages, the DNA or RNA is surrounded by a protein capsid, sometimes further enveloped by a lipid ... Further differences from dilute solutions arise due to the different binding affinities of proteins to condensed and ...
Some other proteins are inserted into the membrane via the SRP (signal recognition particle) pathway. The chloroplast SRP can ... which binds to the imported protein and a Sec membrane complex to shuttle the protein across. Proteins with a twin arginine ... Chloroplasts have their own genome, which encodes a number of thylakoid proteins. However, during the course of plastid ... After entering the chloroplast, the first targeting peptide is cleaved off by a protease processing imported proteins. This ...
In plants, these proteins are held inside organelles called chloroplasts, which are most abundant in leaf cells, while in ... Main articles: Chloroplast and Thylakoid. In photosynthetic bacteria, the proteins that gather light for photosynthesis are ... In such proteins, the pigments are arranged to work together. Such a combination of proteins is also called a light-harvesting ... Therefore, chloroplasts may be photosynthetic bacteria that adapted to life inside plant cells. Like mitochondria, chloroplasts ...
P3 Protein), 6K1 (6-kDa Protein 1), CI (Cylindrical Inclusion), 6K2 (6-kDa Protein 2), VPg (Viral Protein genome-linked), ... Ulrastructure of chloroplasts in leaves of potato plants infeceted by potato virus YNTN. Phyton, 41: 215-226 Milavec M., ... NIaPro (Nuclear Inclusion Protein a, Proteinase domain), NIb (Nuclear Inclusion Protein b) and the CP (Coat Protein). In the ... These proteins, along with host proteins, assemble to form a replication complex. This complex performs negative-strand RNA ...
... large subunit ribosomal proteins (rpl, orange), hypothetical chloroplast open reading frame proteins (ycf, lemon), proteins ... Secondary databases: UniProt, database of protein sequences grouping together Swiss-Prot, TrEMBL and Protein Information ... Chloroplast genome[edit]. The plastome of Arabidopsis thaliana is a 154,478 bp long DNA molecule,[31] a size typically ... Chloroplast genome map of Arabidopsis thaliana.[31][32] Introns are in grey. Some genes consist of 5′ and 3′ portions. Strand 1 ...
It transports proteins that are synthesized in the cytoplasm across the chloroplast's membrane. This protein complex is ... Chloroplast DNA Chloroplast "Preprotein Import into Chloroplasts via the Toc and Tic Complexes Is Regulated by Redox Signals in ... protein complexes that facilitate the transfer of proteins in and out through the chloroplast's membrane. The TIC complex ( ... In the cytosol, a transit peptide that signals for transit of the protein to the chloroplast is exposed. This initiates ...
Formation of disulfide bonds in signaling chloroplast proteins". Plant Science. 175 (4): 459-466. doi:10.1016/j.plantsci. ... The native form of a protein is usually a single disulfide species, although some proteins may cycle between a few disulfide ... The in vivo oxidation and reduction of protein disulfide bonds by thiol-disulfide exchange is facilitated by a protein called ... The rearrangement of disulfide bonds within a protein generally occurs via intra-protein thiol-disulfide exchange reactions; a ...
Deshaies, R. J.; Fish, L. E.; Jagendorf, A. T. (1984). "Permeability of Chloroplast Envelopes to Mg2+: Effects on Protein ... The metabolic state of the chloroplast changes considerably between night and day. During the day, the chloroplast is actively ... "Effect of divalent cations on cation fluxes across the chloroplast envelope and on photosynthesis of intact chloroplasts". ... To date, only the ZntA protein of Paramecium has been shown to be a Mg2+ channel. The mechanisms of Mg2+ transport by the ...
Protein expressionEdit. Chloroplasts have their own genome, which encodes a number of thylakoid proteins. However, during the ... Components of a typical chloroplast 1 Granum. 2 Chloroplast envelope. 2.1 Outer membrane. 2.2 Intermembrane space. 2.3 Inner ... which binds to the imported protein and a Sec membrane complex to shuttle the protein across. Proteins with a twin arginine ... Some other proteins are inserted into the membrane via the SRP (signal recognition particle) pathway. The chloroplast SRP can ...
20 August 2002). "Integral Membrane Proteins of the Chloroplast Envelope: Identification and Subcellular Localization of New ... ISBN 978-0-00-220212-1. Possingham, J. V.; Rose, R. J. (May 18, 1976). "Chloroplast Replication and Chloroplast DNA Synthesis ... a Novel GTPase of the Chloroplast Protein Translocon". Nature Structural Biology. 9 (2): 95-100. doi:10.1038/nsb744. PMID ... have unique organelles known as chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are thought to be descended from cyanobacteria that formed ...
Kotera E, Tasaka M, Shikanai T (January 2005). "A pentatricopeptide repeat protein is essential for RNA editing in chloroplasts ... However many trans proteins are required for this editing to occur and research continues to look at which proteins are needed ... Pentatricopeptide-repeat-containing proteins are a family of proteins commonly found in the plant kingdom. They are ... Approximately 450 such proteins have been identified in the Arabidopsis genome, and another 477 in the rice genome. Despite the ...
Another redox protein, isolated from spinach chloroplasts, was termed "chloroplast ferredoxin". The chloroplast ferredoxin is ... originally found in chloroplast membranes, has been termed "chloroplast-type" or "plant-type". Its active center is a [Fe2S2] ... They are proteins of around one hundred amino acids with four conserved cysteine residues to which the 2Fe-2S cluster is ... As in other bacterial ferredoxins, the [Fe4S4] unit forms a cubane-type cluster and is ligated to the protein via four Cys ...
Protein import into chloroplasts. - Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 5(6): 529-535 ... From nuclear genes to chloroplast localized proteins. - Plant Science, 161(3):379-389 ... Signaling between Chloroplasts and the Nucleus: Can a Systems Biology Approach Bring Clarity to a Complex and Highly Regulated ... Second-hand chloroplasts and the case of the disappearing nucleus. - PNAS , 93: 7432 - 7435 ...
Protein synthesis. Main article: Protein biosynthesis. Cells are capable of synthesizing new proteins, which are essential for ... Chloroplasts none in algae and plants Organization usually single cells single cells, colonies, higher multicellular organisms ... linear molecules (chromosomes) with histone proteins RNA/protein synthesis coupled in the cytoplasm RNA synthesis in the ... The subunit protein of microfilaments is a small, monomeric protein called actin. The subunit of microtubules is a dimeric ...
The site of replication is unknown but it is thought to be in the chloroplast and in the presence of Mg2+ ions. Predictions of ... Key features of replication include no helper virus required and no proteins are encoded for. Unlike the other family of ... Replication occurs in the chloroplasts of plant cells. ...
In endosymbiont theory, chloroplasts (plastids) are descended from cyanobacteria. Their DNA profile is evidence for this.[3][4] ... Molecular signatures in protein sequences that are characteristic of cyanobacteria and plastidhomologues. International Journal ... Evolutionary relationships among cyanobacteria and green chloroplasts. J Bacteriol. 170: 3584-3592. ...
Sedimentation Velocity Analysis of Heterogeneous Protein-Protein Interactions: Lamm Equation Modeling and Sedimentation ... The supernatant (suspension containing remaining organelles) is spun at a higher speed - chloroplasts settle out ... By 1900, it had been generally accepted that proteins were composed of amino acids; however, whether proteins were colloids or ... Howlett, G.J., Minton, A.P., Rivas, G. Analytical Ultracentrifugation for the Study of Protein Association and Assembly. ...
Most genes for proteins of chloroplasts and mitochondria are, however, now located on chromosomes in the nuclei of eukaryotic ... Different products of protein synthesis in isolated chloroplasts and mitochondria are obtained in the presence of redox ... We cannot think of compelling reasons why the proteins made in mitochondria and chloroplasts should be made there rather than ... These genetic systems enable chloroplasts and mitochondria to make some of their own proteins. Both the genetic and energy- ...
INFLUENCE OF UTILIZABLE SUBSTRATES AND INHIBITORS OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS, Photochemistry and Photobiology, 1983, 38, 6, 687. ... EVENTS SURROUNDING THE EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF EUGLENA CHLOROPLASTS-XI PROTOCHLOROPHYLL(IDE) AND ITS PHOTOCONVERSION†. Authors. * ... Al Numan Adra, Constantin A. Rebeiz, Chloroplast Biogenesis 81: Transient Formation of Divinyl Chlorophyll a Following a 2.5 ms ... H.G. Ruppel, J. Kesselmeier, C. Lütz, Biochemical and Cytological Observations on Chloroplast Development V. Reaggregations of ...
SDS-PAGE, antibodies, mass spectrometry and chloroplast isolation were used to evaluate protein expression from both constructs ... In addition a protein activity assay was developed in order to confirm that the Chlamydomonas RppH homolog has RNA ... Accumulation of RppH-6xHN and 5RppH-GFP-6xHN proteins in transformants has been detected but the results need to be further ... RppH was not possible in the time frame of the project because of problems with antibody specificity and with the chloroplast ...
The difference may be caused by different chloroplast structure and posttranscriptional control in mesophyll and BS cells. When ... The expression of message for Rubisco small subunit (RbcS), chlorophyll a/b-binding protein (Cab), sucrose (Suc):fructan-6- ... Rubisco small subunit, chlorophyll a/b-binding protein and sucrose : fructan-6-fructosyl transferase gene expression and sugar ... chlorophyll a/b-binding protein and sucrose : fructan-6-fructosyl transferase gene expression and sugar status in single barley ...
... plastid genomes and how proteins are imported into plastids; photosynthesis and core aspects of plastid biochemistry; plastid ... The development of the chloroplast; 7. Plastid metabolism; 8. Plastids and cellular function; 9. Plastid transformation and ...
In contrast, chloroplast phylogenies inferred from gene order [36] as well as mitochondrial phylogenies inferred from proteins ... This model of amino acid substitution was derived from 45 proteins encoded in the chloroplast genomes of Cyanophora, a diatom, ... In contrast, our phylogenetic analyses of more than 50 genes and proteins derived from complete charophycean chloroplast genome ... A data set of 45 concatenated protein sequences was derived as described previously [66] from all protein-coding genes common ...
cytochrome f (chloroplast) [Goodenia filiformis] cytochrome f (chloroplast) [Goodenia filiformis]. gi,917545576,gb,AKZ30916.1, ... The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in ... The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in ...
The majority of these proteins are encoded in the nucleus... ... Chloroplasts are double membraned organelles which require a ... lot of proteins to maintain their structure and to perform different functions. ... Chloroplasts are double membraned organelles which require a lot of proteins to maintain their structure and to perform ... These observations indicate that a regulation mechanism exists for protein import into chloroplasts. In the present study, we ...
Antonius Koller On Using Proteomics to Study Chloroplast Proteins. Jan 13, 2003 ... In Proteomics & Protein Research *. Quanterix Acquires Aushon With Eye Toward Improved Multiplexing, Point-of-Care Tech. ... Studied protein import into peroxisomes in yeast. Recently published a paper in PNAS entitled "Proteomics gives insight into ...
... chloroplast protein-importing). Cline K, Ettinger WF, Theg SM (1992). "Protein-specific energy requirements for protein ... "Identification of the SecA protein homolog in pea chloroplasts and its possible involvement in thylakoidal protein transport". ... In enzymology, a chloroplast protein-transporting ATPase (EC 3.6.3.52) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + ... Scott SV, Theg SM (1996). "A new chloroplast protein import intermediate reveals distinct translocation machineries in the two ...
Chloroplast twin arginine transport cpTat Thylakoid protein routing This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check ... Protein-specific energy requirements for protein transport across or into thylakoid membranes. Two lumenal proteins are ... Robinson C, Bolhuis A (2004) Tat-dependent protein targeting in prokaryotes and chloroplasts. Biochim Biophys Acta 1694(1-3): ... Routing of thylakoid lumen proteins by the chloroplast twin arginine transport pathway. ...
Most chloroplast proteins (cp proteins) are nucleus-encoded, synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes as precursor proteins ... Four proteins, including embryo defective 1211, glycolate oxidase 2, protein disulfide isomerase-like protein (PDII), and a ... Chloroplast Proteins without Cleavable Transit Peptides. Rare Exceptions or a Major Constituent of the Chloroplast Proteome? In ... Several others (potential cp proteins) were found to be imported into chloroplasts in vitro, but failed to localize to the ...
Post-translational protein methylation was investigated in Pisum sativum chloroplasts. Intact pea chloroplasts were incubated ... 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; PEAS; PHYSIOLOGY; PROTEINS; METHYLATION; CHLOROPLASTS; LABELLING; TRACER TECHNIQUES; TRITIUM ... The chloroplasts were then separated into stromal and thylakoid fractions and analyzed for radioactivity transferred to protein ... Several other thylakoid and stromal proteins were labeled in both light and dark-labeling conditions. Both base-labile ...
Protoplast and Chloroplast Isolation, Chloroplast Fractionation, Protein Precipitation, and Total Protein Extracts.. ... we searched the Arabidopsis protein database for chloroplast-localized lipid-binding proteins. Out of 3,009 proteins with ... CPSFL1 is a plastid-localized Sec14-like protein. (A) Protein model of CPSFL1. Chloroplast targeting is encoded by an N- ... C) Quantification of chloroplast marker proteins. Total protein extracts of 4-wk-old WT, cpsfl1 mutants, and complemented lines ...
2008) Chloroplast outer envelope protein CHUP1 is essential for chloroplast anchorage to the plasma membrane and chloroplast ... 2008) AKR2A-mediated import of chloroplast outer membrane proteins is essential for chloroplast biogenesis. Nat Cell Biol 10: ... protein-protein interaction. Chloroplasts capture sunlight for energy production through photosynthesis. To optimize ... In the present study, we showed a possible pathway via protein-protein interactions for chloroplast velocity maintenance by cp- ...
Thus, nearly 500 proteins (about 1323 proteins identified in the chloroplast) were identified in the envelope while they ... is localized a chloroplast protein. It is therefore possible to specify the role of each compartment in the chloroplast ... The AT_Chloro database, which contains a large amount of information on the proteins of the chloroplast envelope, is a unique ... You are here : Home , Scientific news , AT_Chloro: The first AMT database of chloroplast proteins ...
Kleine, Tatjana und Leister, Dario (1. Mai 2007): Evolutionary tinkering: birth of a novel chloroplast protein. In: The ... Kodama and Sano now show that two steps are necessary for the establishment of the novel plastid protein: the acquisition of an ... and includes the creation of novel proteins from pre-existing modules. A novel instance of evolutionary tinkering was recently ... the conversion of a nuclear transcription factor into the plastid-resident protein WIN4 (wound-induced clone 4) involved in ...
Further reports about: , Osaka , Photosynthesis , chloroplasts , evolution of life , green algae , living plants , proteins ... This article, "A Ycf2-FtsHi heteromeric AAA-ATPase complex is required for chloroplast protein import" was published in The ... Thus, in modern plant and algal cells, many nuclear-encoded chloroplast proteins synthesized in the cytosol of the cell must be ... "These findings revolutionize the molecular model of chloroplast protein import, and help us understand the evolution of plant ...
Chloroplast RNA-binding proteins are involved in stabilizing stored chloroplast mRNAs and in recruiting site-specific factors ... In the present study, we characterized two major chloroplast RNA-binding proteins, cp29A and cp29B, by MALDI-TOF MS, N-terminal ... Identification of post-translational modifications in major chloroplast RNA-binding proteins may help elucidate their roles in ... Post-translational modifications, but not transcriptional regulation, of major chloroplast RNA-binding proteins are related to ...
Yruela I, Contreras-Moreira B. Protein disorder in plants: a view from the chloroplast. BMC Plant Biology 12: 165 (2012). ... We further investigate this trend by reviewing the set of chloroplast ribosomal proteins, one of the most representative ... chloroplast- and mitochondria- encoded proteins conserve the patterns of Archaea and Bacteria, in agreement with their ... In this field the available information from plants is limited but it has been reached a point where these proteins can be ...
Within the chloroplast FtsH11 was found to be located exclusively in the envelope. Two chloroplast-located proteins of unknown ... All proteins studied within this thesis are localized in the chloroplast, the organelle that originated from cyanobacteria, in ... Characterization of auxiliary membrane proteins in the chloroplast of Arabidopsis thaliana. von Sydow, Lotta Umeå University, ... Arabidopsis, chaperone, chloroplast, Cytochrome b559, FtsH, membrane proteins, photosynthesis, Photosystem II, protease, PsbY. ...
Particularly the development of their specific organelles, chloroplasts and other plastid-types, is finely tuned in accordance ... The normal development and functioning of plastids require import of particular subsets of nuclear encoded proteins. Most ... The normal development and functioning of plastids require import of particular subsets of nuclear encoded proteins. Most ... Particularly the development of their specific organelles, chloroplasts and other plastid-types, is finely tuned in accordance ...
Since chloroplasts lack N-glycosylation machinery, we propose that a route for chloroplast proteins that require endomembrane- ... proteins) back to the organelle. The majority of these proteins are translated in the cytosol as pre-proteins containing ... Most chloroplast proteins are encoded by the nuclear genome and imported with the help of sorting signals that are intrinsic ... Chloroplasts are believed to have originated from an endosymbiotic event and contain DNA that codes for some of their proteins ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): Q9FIG9 - Arabidopsis thaliana 3 * Q7XAS0 - Arabidopsis thaliana no matching PDB ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ... The Protein Feature View requires a browser that supports SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics). Mouse over tracks and labels for more ...
Molecular Topology of the Transit Peptide during Chloroplast Protein Import. Lynn G.L. Richardson, Eliana L. Small, Hitoshi ... Molecular Topology of the Transit Peptide during Chloroplast Protein Import. Lynn G.L. Richardson, Eliana L. Small, Hitoshi ... Molecular Topology of the Transit Peptide during Chloroplast Protein Import Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... Molecular Topology of the Transit Peptide during Chloroplast Protein Import. Lynn G.L. Richardson, Eliana L. Small, Hitoshi ...
Nuclear-encoded proteins must be imported into the chloroplast through different membrane transport complexes, and the orderly ... Nuclear-encoded proteins must be imported into the chloroplast through different membrane transport complexes, and the orderly ... In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanism of protein import and degradation in the chloroplast. Specifically, quality ... In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanism of protein import and degradation in the chloroplast. Specifically, quality ...
  • Using various methods of phylogenetic inference, we analyzed amino acid and nucleotide data sets that were derived from 45 protein-coding genes common to the cpDNAs of 37 green algal/land plant taxa and eight non-green algae. (biomedcentral.com)
  • SDS-PAGE, antibodies, mass spectrometry and chloroplast isolation were used to evaluate protein expression from both constructs. (uio.no)
  • Accumulation of RppH-6xHN and 5'RppH-GFP-6xHN proteins in transformants has been detected but the results need to be further substantiated. (uio.no)
  • 1992). Information for targeting tothe chloroplastic inner envelope membrane iscontained in the mature region of the maize Bt1-encoded protein. (core.ac.uk)
  • Kuroda, H , Inagaki, N & Satoh, K 1992, ' The level of stromal ATP regulates translation of the D1 protein in isolated chloroplasts ', Plant and Cell Physiology , vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 33-39. (elsevier.com)
  • Our data also support the idea that cytosolic proteins that associate with the cp outer membrane might account for false positive cp proteins obtained in earlier studies. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Our findings suggest that a cytosolic WEB1-PMI2 complex maintains the velocity of chloroplast photorelocation movement via cp-actin filament regulation. (pnas.org)
  • Imported proteins are synthesized as cytosolic precursors containing N-terminal uptake-targeting sequences that direct each protein to its correct subcompartment and are subsequently cleaved. (systemsbiology.net)
  • Figure 1: Peptide mass map of ions (peptides) detected by LC-MS in the chloroplast. (cea.fr)
  • A protease is a helper protein that is able to break peptide bonds in a process termed proteolysis. (diva-portal.org)
  • This N-terminal targeting sequence, named transit peptide in the context of chloroplast protein import, faithfully guides the preprotein to the chloroplast surface where it engages the import machinery. (frontiersin.org)
  • Studies of the energetics and determinants of transit peptide binding have led to the hypothesis that import occurs through sequential recognition of transit peptides by components of TOC and TIC during protein import. (plantcell.org)
  • We demonstrate that the transit peptide is in contact with Tic20 at the inner envelope in addition to TOC complex components at the earliest stages of chloroplast binding. (plantcell.org)
  • It is also sufficient to direct import of a nonplastid protein and can be replaced functionally by the transit peptide of an imported stromal protein. (plantcell.org)
  • The fact that C1 is functionally equivalent to a stromal-targeting transit peptide shows that plastocyanin is imported into the chloroplast by way of the same mechanism as stromal proteins, and that import into and routing inside the chloroplasts are independent processes. (plantcell.org)
  • A chimeric protein which contained only the transit peptide fused to the coat protein was imported into chloroplasts. (mysciencework.com)
  • A chimeric protein which contained the transit peptide and most of the mature peptide fused to the coat protein was not imported. (mysciencework.com)
  • While the crucial activities of decoding and peptide transfer are RNA based, proteins play an active role in functions that may have evolved to streamline the process of protein synthesis. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Thus this cleavage site is confirmed by intact protein mass and amino-terminal CNBr peptide mass as well as positive identification of PsbS by microliquid chromatography-MSMS (data not shown). (mcponline.org)
  • Researchers at the Cell & Plant Physiology Laboratory and at the EDyP team developed an innovative proteomics strategy targeting various highly-purified chloroplast compartments. (cea.fr)
  • Deepening knowledge of the chloroplast metabolic pathways and their regulation is considered as essential in the prospect of a better use of plant biomass. (cea.fr)
  • Among the strategies of quantitative proteomic analyzes that have been developed, the AMT (Accurate Mass Tags and time) method (see the thematic letter on the Analyse protéomique ) and the so-called Spectral count method allowed these researchers to establish the first AMT database for a specific organelle of the plant cell, the chloroplast. (cea.fr)
  • Now, in The Plant Cell , this same team has collaborated with other Japanese researchers to report the identification of the elusive protein transport motor that is essential for chloroplast formation. (innovations-report.com)
  • The National Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Plant Genetic Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, PR China. (nih.gov)
  • Identification of post-translational modifications in major chloroplast RNA-binding proteins may help elucidate their roles in seedling development and in plant RNA stabilization during the greening process. (nih.gov)
  • The chloroplast is the organelle within a plant cell where photosynthesis takes place. (diva-portal.org)
  • Further study of CAH1 will not only be important to reveal its role in photosynthesis, but characterization of this novel protein pathway to the chloroplast can also shed light on how the plant cell evolved and clarify the purpose of keeping several chloroplast import pathways working in parallel. (diva-portal.org)
  • The chloroplast is an important energy-producing organelle acting as an environmental sensor for the plant cell. (frontiersin.org)
  • Specifically, quality control of chloroplast from protein import to degradation and associated regulatory pathways are discussed to better understand how plant adapt to environmental stress by fine-tuning chloroplast homeostasis, which will benefit breeding approaches to improve crop yield. (frontiersin.org)
  • proteins in normal plant development. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Since PRPs are crucial for plant growth and development, the lack of PRPs can affect protein synthesis and result in diverse phenotypes. (springer.com)
  • Odintsova, M. 2004-10-10 00:00:00 A comparative analysis of proteins from chloroplast nucleoids was performed in two higher-plant species (Pisum sativumL. (deepdyve.com)
  • Because of the integration of chloroplast metabolism within the plant cell, the envelope is the site of many specific transport activities. (harvard.edu)
  • To process the large amount of MS/MS data, a blast-based program was developed for searching in protein, expressed sequence tag, and genomic plant databases. (harvard.edu)
  • Feeding barley seedlings with [14C]-biotin revealed that the vitamin is not degraded into respiratory substrates by the plant, but is specifically incorporated into biotin carboxyl carrier protein. (forskningsdatabasen.dk)
  • Chloroplasts are highly dynamic-they circulate and are moved around within plant cells, and occasionally pinch in two to reproduce. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloroplasts cannot be made by the plant cell and must be inherited by each daughter cell during cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloroplasts are one of many types of organelles in the plant cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both the chloroplast and cyanobacterium depicted are idealized versions (the chloroplast is that of a higher plant )-a lot of diversity exists among chloroplasts and cyanobacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a pathogen attacks a plant, chloroplasts stop making food from sunlight and rush to the site of infection to help fend off the invader. (sciencenews.org)
  • TO THE RESCUE Chloroplasts (blue) squeeze between the plant cell membrane (magenta, line) and one of the Irish potato famine microbe's invading fingerlike haustorium (magenta, circles). (sciencenews.org)
  • Proteins act as regulators to the flow of molecules between plant cells. (gardenguides.com)
  • More is being learned about the these proteins, which ones are available to the plant cell and exactly how they work to prohibit some molecules from passing through plasmodesmata while allowing access to others. (gardenguides.com)
  • Dr. Chory worked with a team of scientists that made strides toward discovering how chloroplasts, the plant cells responsible for photosynthesis, communicate with the plant structure in times of distress. (gardenguides.com)
  • This plant cell communication discovery was important because it demonstrated how outlying cells (chloroplasts) fed information to a nucleus about stressful conditions and the nucleus communicated that a slowdown in activity was required. (gardenguides.com)
  • The Benning lab has identified a rhomboid-like protein that may help plant chloroplasts tune their lipid production. (phys.org)
  • Without light, photosynthesis, the reaction by which the plant chloroplasts convert atmospheric CO2 and water into sugars and oxygen, cannot take place. (phys.org)
  • Chloroplasts (English pronunciation: /ˈklɒrəplæsts/) are organelles found in plant cells and other eukaryotic organisms that conduct photosynthesis. (phys.org)
  • SCO3 is a member of a largely uncharacterized protein family unique to the plant kingdom. (edu.au)
  • As plant cells mature, they enlarge and differentiate, and during this process the chloroplasts in the mesophyll cells of the leaf undergo several additional rounds of replication. (rupress.org)
  • Table 3: Test set of effectors and effector candidates that have been experimentally shown to localize to the plant chloroplast and the predictions by several classifiers. (nature.com)
  • Plant Cell Wall Proteins: A Large Body of Data, but What about Runaways? (mdpi.com)
  • Plant cell wall proteomics is a tricky field of research, since proteins are not only minor components of plant cell walls, but are also trapped in complex networks of polysaccharides with which they can interact. (mdpi.com)
  • Transcriptional regulation in plant chloroplasts was thought to occur only during their early development, when there is a global increase in transcription of chloroplast genes. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • This view, however, has to be abandoned in the light of a series of experiments showing robust transcriptional regulation of genes in mature plant chloroplasts [ 19 - 21 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • This strategy implemented for the first time has allowed identifying the of subplastidial localization of identified proteins to build the AT_Chloro dabase. (cea.fr)
  • The blue circles correspond to proteins whose localization was not possible. (cea.fr)
  • Thus, it can serve as a tool to study the chloroplastidic localization of the protein of interest when it is combined with western-blot analysis. (bio-protocol.org)
  • The appearance of a yellow color in transgenic cross sections, while absent in the control, through phase contrast microscopy indicated chloroplast localization of the target protein. (conicyt.cl)
  • A database dedicated to sub-plastidial localization of A. thaliana chloroplast proteins. (omictools.com)
  • In addition to current knowledge regarding sub-plastidial localization, AT_CHLORO provides experimental data that allowed curated information regarding subcellular localizations of chloroplast proteins to be given. (omictools.com)
  • Eukaryotic cells are composed of multiple compartments that acquire specialized sets of proteins for function. (frontiersin.org)
  • Typically 22 proteins are found in bacterial 30S subunits and 32 in yeast, human and most likely most other eukaryotic species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloroplasts originated from free-living cyanobacteria, which established an endosymbiotic relationship with a eukaryotic host cell around 1.2 billion years ago [ 1 , 2 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The cpsfl1 mutants are seedling lethal, show a defect in thylakoid structure, and lack chloroplast vesicles. (pnas.org)
  • Non-additive interactions amongst the mutations occurred in double mutants, suggesting that the three components may cooperate during chloroplast protein import. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In tcm5 mutants grown at high temperatures, the transcript levels of certain genes associated with chloroplast development especially PSII-associated genes were severely affected, but recovered to normal levels at low temperatures. (springeropen.com)
  • However, it is still unclear whether rice Deg proteases are required for chloroplast development under high temperatures. (springeropen.com)
  • In 2013, Osaka University researchers headed by Masato Nakai discovered and characterized a huge novel transport channel (TIC) in the inner chloroplast membrane through which proteins were transported ( Science , 339, 571--574. (innovations-report.com)
  • The fast and accurate movement of chloroplasts in response to ambient light conditions is essential for efficient photosynthesis and photodamage prevention in chloroplasts. (pnas.org)
  • More recently, we identified two proteins, Kinesin-like Protein for Actin-Based Chloroplast Movement 1 (KAC1) and KAC2, that are essential for chloroplast photorelocation movement and attachment to the plasma membrane ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Finally, understanding the metabolic processes of the chloroplast is essential if one wants to analyze the impact of environmental change on plants. (cea.fr)
  • The intrinsically unstructured state of some proteins, observed in all living organisms, is essential for basic cellular functions. (csic.es)
  • WGL2 is essential for early chloroplast development in rice. (springer.com)
  • These proteins could represent additional candidates of proteins essential for development or metabolite transport processes in C4 plants. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • This is also reflected by the fact that several ribosomal proteins do not appear to be essential when deleted. (wikipedia.org)
  • The formation of the FtsZ ring is the first known step in division and is essential for the recruitment of all other bacterial cell division proteins to the division site to form a functional division apparatus. (rupress.org)
  • The results definitely support the hypothesis that the light-induced level of ATP is an essential determinant in the regulation of the synthesis of the D1 protein in isolated chloroplasts. (elsevier.com)
  • Protein Import into and Sorting inside the Chloroplast Are Independent Processes. (plantcell.org)
  • Hsp70 chaperones are involved in multiple biological processes and are recruited to specific processes by designated J domain-containing cochaperones, or J proteins. (duhnnae.com)
  • Chloroplasts capture light energy to conserve free energy in the form of ATP and reduce NADP to NADPH through a complex set of processes called photosynthesis. (phys.org)
  • However, impaired chloroplast development cannot be attributed to perturbed peroxisomal metabolic processes involving germination, fatty acid β-oxidation or photorespiration, though there are so far undescribed changes in low and high CO(2) sensitivity in seedlings and young true leaves. (edu.au)
  • This review focuses on the evolutionarily conserved chloroplast twin arginine transport (cpTat) pathway. (springer.com)
  • Berks BC, Sargent F, Palmer T (2000) The Tat protein export pathway. (springer.com)
  • Recent studies have shown that proteins are transported into this membrane by a variety of mechanisms, some of which are derived from a cyanobacterial-type ancestor, whereas others have evolved in response to the more complex transport pathway used by cytosolically synthesized chloroplast proteins. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Research has shown us that the functions of proteins, including metabolic pathway enzymes, are highly regulated through compartmentalization, covalent modifications and specific protein-protein or protein-small molecule interactions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The CSK-SIG1 system represents a novel, rewired chloroplast-signalling pathway created by evolutionary tinkering. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Being the place where photosynthesis occurs, chloroplasts perform many other functions such as the synthesis of fatty acids, lipids, amino acids, vitamins, etc. (cea.fr)
  • Protein synthesis and targeting involve a large variety of cellular activities that are energy-requiring. (frontiersin.org)
  • Chloroplasts carry out a number of other functions, including fatty acid synthesis , much amino acid synthesis, and the immune response in plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • A high Mg2+concentration could stabilize the I3 complex by inhibiting the conversion of I3 to a PRE complex, which explains why LEPA accelerates protein synthesis at 3PO manufacturer increased Mg2+concentrations [6, (caspase1inhibitor.com)
  • Our study is consistent with the proposed function of LEPA as a translation factor that contributes to the efficiency of protein synthesis. (caspase1inhibitor.com)
  • In addition, we have presented evidence highlighting the importance of this protein for chloroplast translation, which provides further 23388095 insights into the conserved function of LEPA in chloroplast protein synthesis.maintained at 22uC throughout the 1480666 photoinhibitory treatments. (caspase1inhibitor.com)
  • The synthesis of chloroplast-encoded proteins was blocked by incubating detached leaves with 1 mM lincomycin at low light (20 mmol m22 s21) for 3 h before photoinhibition treatment. (caspase1inhibitor.com)
  • Determination of the levels of ATP in chloroplasts and the rates of synthesis of D1 protein under the various degrees of inhibition caused by these reagents suggested that the level of ATP in the soluble, stromal fraction can control the synthesis of the D1 protein. (elsevier.com)
  • In contrast to QUA1, another Golgi-localized protein required for HG-synthesis, QUA2 does not show sequence similarity to glycosyltransferases, but instead contains a putative methyltransferase (MT) domain. (wiley.com)
  • Cline, K, R Henry(1996) Import and routing of nucleus-encoded chloroplast proteins. (concordia.ca)
  • The chloroplast import motor was derived from the membrane-bound protease of an endosymbiotic cyanobacterial-like ancestor. (innovations-report.com)
  • Chloroplasts evolved from cyanobacterial endosymbiotic ancestors and their division is a complex process initiated by the assembly of cytoskeletal FtsZ ( F ilamentous t emperature s ensitive Z ) proteins into a ring structure at the division site (Z-ring). (biochemj.org)
  • With one exception (the amoeboid Paulinella chromatophora ), all chloroplasts can probably be traced back to a single endosymbiotic event , when a cyanobacterium was engulfed by the eukaryote. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite this, chloroplasts can be found in an extremely wide set of organisms, some not even directly related to each other-a consequence of many secondary and even tertiary endosymbiotic events . (wikipedia.org)
  • Among the events that accompanied the evolution of chloroplasts from their endosymbiotic ancestors was the host cell recruitment of the prokaryotic cell division protein FtsZ to function in chloroplast division. (rupress.org)
  • With respect to the PrxQ protein we were able to show that it is a lumenal protein that seems to exist as a soluble pool in the lumen as no interaction with the thylakoid membrane could be detected. (diva-portal.org)
  • We have also noted that At5g39790 has a well-conserved predicted coiled-coil domain, like a number of the coordinately expressed starch metabolic enzymes and may function as protein interaction scaffold on the starch granule. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Some of the many protein-protein interaction, as well as post-translational modifications have been characterized. (omictools.com)
  • 1996). Interaction of the protein import and folding machineries in the chloroplast. (core.ac.uk)
  • The RNA-protein interaction data. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • We demonstrate that binding of heme to the GluTR-binding protein (GBP) inhibits interaction of GBP with the N-terminal regulatory domain of GluTR1, thus making it accessible to the Clp protease. (elifesciences.org)
  • Yeast two-hybrid analysis has revealed interaction of CSK with sigma factor 1 (SIG1) of chloroplast RNA polymerase. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Most Deg members contain one to four PDZ protein-protein interaction domains (Clausen et al. (springeropen.com)
  • Most of the RNA editing sites can restore amino acid conservation, increase hydrophobicity, and even influence protein structures. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phylogenomic analyses based on the concatenated amino acid sequences of 146 protein-coding genes confirmed the monophyly of the classes Bangiophyceae and Florideophyceae with full nodal support. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chen, Q, CC Adams, L Usack, J Yang, R-A Monde, DB Stern(1995) An AU-rich element in the 3′ untranslated region of the spinach chloroplast petDgene participates in sequence-specific RNA-protein complex formation. (concordia.ca)
  • Douce, R, RB Holtz, AA Benson(1973) Isolation and properties of the envelope of Spinach chloroplasts. (concordia.ca)
  • The relative electron-scattering power of chromidia and interchromidia in protein structures of the spinach chloroplast was examined with the aid of the electron microscope. (uu.nl)
  • These new J proteins likely recruit chloroplast Hsp70 to perform tissue specific functions related to biosynthesis rather than to stress resistance. (duhnnae.com)