Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
Proteins encoded by the CHLOROPLAST GENOME or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the CHOROPLASTS.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.
Ribonucleic acid in chloroplasts having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.
Membranous cisternae of the CHLOROPLAST containing photosynthetic pigments, reaction centers, and the electron-transport chain. Each thylakoid consists of a flattened sac of membrane enclosing a narrow intra-thylakoid space (Lackie and Dow, Dictionary of Cell Biology, 2nd ed). Individual thylakoids are interconnected and tend to stack to form aggregates called grana. They are found in cyanobacteria and all plants.
The genetic complement of CHLOROPLASTS as represented in their DNA.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A genus GREEN ALGAE in the order VOLVOCIDA. It consists of solitary biflagellated organisms common in fresh water and damp soil.
A species of GREEN ALGAE. Delicate, hairlike appendages arise from the flagellar surface in these organisms.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A species of fresh-water, flagellated EUKARYOTES in the phylum EUGLENIDA.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
A subtype of thioredoxins found primarily in CHLOROPLASTS.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A genus of EUKARYOTES, in the phylum EUGLENIDA, found mostly in stagnant water. Characteristics include a pellicle usually marked by spiral or longitudinal striations.
A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.
Proteins found in any species of algae.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A widely cultivated plant, native to Asia, having succulent, edible leaves eaten as a vegetable. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Those nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity which are located within the CHLOROPLAST DNA.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The absence of light.
Proton-translocating ATPases which produce ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE in plants. They derive energy from light-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the membranous cisternae (THYLAKOIDS) of the CHLOROPLASTS.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A large multisubunit protein complex that is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to drive electron transfer reactions that result in either the reduction of NADP to NADPH or the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane-bound plastids containing chlorophyll a and b. They comprise the classical green algae, and represent over 7000 species that live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
The use of light to convert ADP to ATP without the concomitant reduction of dioxygen to water as occurs during OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION in MITOCHONDRIA.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A group of GLYCOLIPIDS in which the sugar group is GALACTOSE. They are distinguished from GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS in lacking nitrogen. They constitute the majority of MEMBRANE LIPIDS in PLANTS.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
A protein complex that includes CYTOCHROME B6 and CYTOCHROME F. It is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE and plays an important role in process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS by transferring electrons from PLASTOQUINONE to PLASTOCYANIN or CYTOCHROME C6. The transfer of electrons is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
Cytochromes f are found as components of the CYTOCHROME B6F COMPLEX. They play important role in the transfer of electrons from PHOTOSYSTEM I to PHOTOSYSTEM II.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.
A pre-emergent herbicide.
An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.
A genus of green algae found in the Mediterranean and other warm seas.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).
Polyunsaturated side-chain quinone derivative which is an important link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
Ribonucleic acid in algae having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and water to D-fructose 6-phosphate and orthophosphate. EC
A copper-containing plant protein that is a fundamental link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds.
A subcategory of chaperonins found in MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and BACTERIA. Group I chaperonins form into a barrel-shaped macromolecular structure that is enclosed by a separate lid-like protein component.

Solute pores, ion channels, and metabolite transporters in the outer and inner envelope membranes of higher plant plastids. (1/207)

All plant cells contain plastids. Various reactions are located exclusively within these unique organelles, requiring the controlled exchange of a wide range of solutes, ions, and metabolites. In recent years, several proteins involved in import and/or export of these compounds have been characterized using biochemical and electrophysiological approaches, and in addition have been identified at the molecular level. Several solute channels have been identified in the outer envelope membrane. These porin-like proteins in the outer envelope membrane were formerly thought to be quite unspecific, but have now been shown to exhibit significant substrate specificity and to be highly regulated. Therefore, the inter-envelope membrane space is not as freely accessible as previously thought. Transport proteins in the inner envelope membrane have been characterized in more detail. It has been proved unequivocally that a family of proteins (including triose phosphate-/phosphoenolpyruvate-, and glucose 6-phosphate-specific transporters) permit the exchange of inorganic phosphate and phosphorylated intermediates. A new type of plastidic 2-oxoglutarate/malate transporter has been identified and represents the first carrier with 12 putative transmembrane domains, to be located in the inner envelope membrane. The plastidic ATP/ADP transporter also contains 12 putative transmembrane domains and possesses striking structural similarity to ATP/ADP transporters found in intracellular, human pathogenic bacteria.  (+info)

Identification of the pore-forming region of the outer chloroplast envelope protein OEP16. (2/207)

The chloroplast outer envelope protein OEP16 forms a cation-selective high conductance channel with permeability to amines and amino acids. The region of OEP16 directly involved in channel formation has been identified by electrophysiological analysis of a selection of reconstituted OEP16 mutants. Because analysis of these mutants depended on the use of recombinant protein, we evaluated the electrophysiological properties of OEP16 isolated directly from pea chloroplasts and of the recombinant protein produced in Escherichia coli. The results show that the basic properties like conductance, selectivity, and open probability of the channel formed by native pea OEP16 are comparable with the channel activity formed by the recombinant source of the protein. Following electrophysiological analysis of OEP16 mutants we found that point mutations and insertion of additional amino acid residues in the region of the putative helix 1 (Glu(73) to Val(91)) did not change the properties of the OEP16 channel. The only exception was a Cys(71)-->Ser mutation, which led to a loss of the CuCl(2) sensitivity of the channel. Analysis of N- and C-terminal deletion mutants of OEP16 and mutants containing defined shuffled domains indicated that the minimal continuous region of OEP16, which is able to form a channel in liposomes, lies in the first half of the protein between amino acid residues 21 and 93.  (+info)

Ontogenetic changes of potato plants during acclimation to elevated carbon dioxide. (3/207)

Transgenic potato plants (Solanum tuberosum cv. Desiree) with an antisense repression of the chloroplastic triosephosphate translocator were compared with wild-type plants. Plants were grown in chambers with either an atmosphere with ambient (400 mu bar) or elevated (1000 mu bar) CO2. After 7 weeks, the rate of CO2 assimilation between wild-type and transgenic plants in both CO2 concentrations was identical, but the tuber yield of both plant lines was increased by about 30%, when grown in elevated CO2. One explanation is that plants respond to the elevated CO2 only at a certain growth stage. Therefore, growth of wild-type plants was analysed between the second and the seventh week. Relative growth rate and CO2 assimilation were stimulated in elevated CO2 only in the second and the third weeks. During this period, the carbohydrate content of leaves grown with elevated CO2 was lower than that of leaves grown with ambient CO2. In plants grown in elevated CO2, the rate of CO2 assimilation started to decline after 5 weeks, and accumulation of carbohydrates began after 7 weeks. From this observation it was concluded that acclimation of potato plants to elevated CO2 is the result of accelerated development rather than of carbohydrate accumulation causing down-regulation of photosynthesis. For a detailed analysis for the cause of the stimulation of growth after 2 weeks, the contents of phosphorylated intermediates of wild-type plants and transgenics were measured. Stimulation of CO2 assimilation was accompanied by changes in the contents of phosphorylated intermediates, resulting in an increase in the amount of dihydroxyacetone phosphate, the metabolite which is exported from the chloroplast into the cytosol. An increase of dihydroxyacetone phosphate was found in wild-type plants in elevated CO2 when compared with ambient CO2 and in triosephosphate translocator antisense plants in ambient CO2, but not in the transgenic plants when grown in elevated CO2. These plants were not able to increase dihydroxyacetone phosphate further to cope with the increased CO2 supply. From these changes in phosphorylated intermediates in wild-type and transgenic plants it was concluded that starch and sucrose synthesis pathways can replace each other only at moderate carbon flux rates.  (+info)

Chloroplast precursor proteins compete to form early import intermediates in isolated pea chloroplasts. (4/207)

In order to ascertain whether there is one site for the import of precursor proteins into chloroplasts or whether different precursor proteins are imported via different import machineries, chloroplasts were incubated with large quantities of the precursor of the 33 kDa subunit of the oxygen-evolving complex (pOE33) or the precursor of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding protein (pLHCP) and tested for their ability to import a wide range of other chloroplast precursor proteins. Both pOE33 and pLHCP competed for import into chloroplasts with precursors of the stromally-targeted small subunit of Rubisco (pSSu), ferredoxin NADP(+) reductase (pFNR) and porphobilinogen deaminase; the thylakoid membrane proteins LHCP and the Rieske iron-sulphur protein (pRieske protein); ferrochelatase and the gamma subunit of the ATP synthase (which are both associated with the thylakoid membrane); the thylakoid lumenal protein plastocyanin and the phosphate translocator, an integral membrane protein of the inner envelope. The concentrations of pOE33 or pLHCP required to cause half-maximal inhibition of import ranged between 0.2 and 4.9 microM. These results indicate that all of these proteins are imported into the chloroplast by a common import machinery. Incubation of chloroplasts with pOE33 inhibited the formation of early import intermediates of pSSu, pFNR and pRieske protein.  (+info)

The effect of amino acid-modifying reagents on chloroplast protein import and the formation of early import intermediates. (5/207)

In order to identify functionally important amino acid residues in the chloroplast protein import machinery, chloroplasts were preincubated with amino-acid-modifying reagents and then allowed to import or form early import intermediates with precursor proteins. Incubation of chloroplasts with N-ethyl maleimide, diethyl pyrocarbonate, phenylglyoxal, 4,4'-di-isothiocyanatostilbene 2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS), dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), and 1-ethyl- 3-dimethylaminopropylcarbodiimide (EDC) inhibited both import and formation of early import intermediates with precursor proteins by chloroplasts. This suggests that one or more of the binding components of the chloroplast protein import machinery contains functionally important solvent-exposed cysteine, histidine, arginine, and aspartate/glutamate residues, as well as functionally important lysine and aspartate/ glutamate residues in a hydrophobic environment.  (+info)

Involvement of a site-specific trans-acting factor and a common RNA-binding protein in the editing of chloroplast mRNAs: development of a chloroplast in vitro RNA editing system. (6/207)

RNA editing in higher plant chloroplasts involves C-->U conversion at approximately 30 specific sites. An in vitro system supporting accurate editing has been developed from tobacco chloroplasts. Mutational analysis of substrate mRNAs derived from tobacco chloroplast psbL and ndhB mRNAs confirmed the participation of cis-acting elements that had previously been identified in vivo. Competition analysis revealed the existence of site-specific trans-acting factors interacting with the corresponding upstream cis-elements. A chloroplast protein of 25 kDa was found to be specifically associated with the cis-element involved in psbL mRNA editing. Immunological analyses revealed that an additional factor, the chloroplast RNA-binding protein cp31, is also required for RNA editing at multiple sites. This combination of site-specific and common RNA-binding proteins recognizes editing sites in chloroplasts.  (+info)

Transcriptional repression and developmental functions of the atypical vertebrate GATA protein TRPS1. (7/207)

Known vertebrate GATA proteins contain two zinc fingers and are required in development, whereas invertebrates express a class of essential proteins containing one GATA-type zinc finger. We isolated the gene encoding TRPS1, a vertebrate protein with a single GATA-type zinc finger. TRPS1 is highly conserved between Xenopus and mammals, and the human gene is implicated in dominantly inherited tricho-rhino-phalangeal (TRP) syndromes. TRPS1 is a nuclear protein that binds GATA sequences but fails to transactivate a GATA-dependent reporter. Instead, TRPS1 potently and specifically represses transcriptional activation mediated by other GATA factors. Repression does not occur from competition for DNA binding and depends on a C-terminal region related to repressive domains found in Ikaros proteins. During mouse development, TRPS1 expression is prominent in sites showing pathology in TRP syndromes, which are thought to result from TRPS1 haploinsufficiency. We show instead that truncating mutations identified in patients encode dominant inhibitors of wild-type TRPS1 function, suggesting an alternative mechanism for the disease. TRPS1 is the first example of a GATA protein with intrinsic transcriptional repression activity and possibly a negative regulator of GATA-dependent processes in vertebrate development.  (+info)

Identification of an RNA-protein complex involved in chloroplast group II intron trans-splicing in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (8/207)

In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the psaA mRNA is assembled by a process involving trans-splicing of separate transcripts, encoded at three separate loci of the chloroplast genome. At least 14 nuclear loci and one chloroplast gene, tscA, are needed for this process. We have cloned Raa3, the first nuclear gene implicated in the splicing of intron 1. The predicted sequence of Raa3 consists of 1783 amino acids and shares a small region of homology with pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate oxidases. Raa3 is present in the soluble fraction of the chloroplast and is part of a large 1700 kDa complex, which also contains tscA RNA and the first psaA exon transcript. These partners, in association with other factors, form a chloroplast RNP particle that is required for the splicing of the first intron of psaA and which may be the counterpart of eukaryotic snRNPs involved in nuclear splicing.  (+info)

|p|Pale Green Square 70mm Spare Tiles.|br /||span|An unglazed, fully vitrified, pale green square tile that is frost resistant and has a very low porosity. Suitable for both interior and exterior use.|br /|Check out our |a href=/victorian-tile-creat
Make an impact with this stunning violet orchid design, pale green leaves and a soft blue background - perfect for feature walls. Available in other colours - please ask for a sample for a true colour match. Paste-the-wall product.
Accessories Pale Green Stripe Sheep Stripe Reversible Beanie by Janie and Jack. 100% Cotton Jersey, Machine Washable, Imported and Signature Layette
Solitary medium-sized palm. TRUNK 1.5-8 m, 13-30 cm diam., widened at the very base; distal half of trunk (or in smaller trees the entire trunk) covered in densely packed sheath remnants; near crown c. 10 cm diam.; bark brown; internodes 2.5-8 cm; nodal scars 0.5-1 cm, occasionally with tattered sheath remnants appearing as threads; wood hard; trunk sometimes producing a yellow latex-like substance when slashed. LEAVES (11-) 18-22 per crown, glaucous, gracefully arching, with stiff segments, the old leaves marcescent; sheath 36-55 x 13-20 cm, white- to dark brown tomentose, the tomentum quickly deciduous, the distal part waxy-white; petiole 22-60 cm long, proximally 2.8-6 x 2.0-3.5 cm, distally 1.4-3.0 x 1.4-2 cm, slightly channelled adaxially, with rather sharp edges, proximally red-brown tomentose, distally glabrous and yellow or with whitish bloom when dry, abaxially strongly convex; rachis 1-2.1 m long, in mid-leaf 0.9-2 x 0.8-1.6 cm, pale green with white bloom; leaflets pale green, stiff, ...
We use cookies to customize your experience and perform analytics on our website. By clicking I Agree below, you consent to the use by us of cookies and data gathered from your use of our platform. See our Privacy Policy to learn more about how we use this data and your rights.I AgreePrivacy policy ...
For Sale on 1stdibs - Pair of Mid-Century Murano glass lamps with gored bodies and bullicante pattern. The blown glass has gold dust throughout and sit on onyx and brushed
Plants medium-sized, pale green or yellowish brown, in dense tufts. Stems prostrate, irregularly branched, branches ascending; in stem cross section epidermal cells large, thin-walled. Leaves dense, erect-spreading, radially arranged, rarely complanate, 1.2-1.8 mm long, concave, ovate at base, gradually acuminate, distinctly decurrent at base, sometimes slightly plicate when dry; margins serrulate above the midleaf; costae double, short, or indistinct; leaf cells narrowly rhomboidal, 2-4 rows of cells at decurrent bases, hyaline or reddish, thin-walled, rectangular. Autoicous. Perichaetial leaves erect. Setae 12-17 mm long; capsules 1.5-2.0 mm long, nearly erect or suberect; peristome pale yellowish brown; cilia 1-2. Spores 11-15 µm in diameter, minutely papillose or nearly smooth. ...
Flowers: Bell-shaped to funnelform, erect, 4-5 cm long, 4 cm in diameter, on lateral areoles close to the stem apex, and the segments of the perianth are pale mauve, pink or white. Pericarpel and floral tube green, with dense, narrow, spine-tipped brownish scales approximatively 1 cm long , sparsely hairy in their axils. Stamens in several rows, incurred, with no separate throat-circle. Stigmas 6 mm long, pale green. Flower-buds very hairy ...
The colors of the cozy cabin even add to the winter interest. I might have lost track of the flow at some point. It isnt jarring enough to spin me to action though. Painting is a tedious process. The front porch may appear patriotic, but beneath it all my queer flag is flying. I have all the colors of the rainbow in there. Blue doors and decks, a haint aint blue spruce pine pale green basement patio ceiling, a pale yellow window and eave trim, red columns and girders, white windows and purple wire baskets with shiny silver balls ...
Woody climbers, occasionally suberect shrubs, to 3 m tall, deciduous. Young branches green, with dense brownish hairs; old branches purple-brown, glabrous, waxy, armed with short spines 4-6 mm, spines at apices shallowly bifurcate; bud scales glabrous, ciliolate. Petiole 0.5-1 cm; leaf blade abaxially pale green, adaxially dark green, ovate-elliptic, ovate, or broadly ovate, 3.5-9 × 2-5 cm, papery, glabrous or sparsely pubescent on midvein, lateral veins 3-5 pairs, base acute, cuneate, or rounded, apex acute or acuminate. Pedicel 2-4 mm, 2-2.5 cm at fruiting; bracts 4, 2-4 mm. Flowers appearing before leaves, solitary. Sepals 5, suborbicular or broadly ovate, ca. 0.5 mm, ciliolate or not. Petals 5, light yellowish green, obovate or oblong-ovate, 3-4 mm. Stamens 5; anthers narrowly elliptic, extrorse. Disk cup-shaped, shallowly 5-lobed. Ovary ovoid, pubescent or glabrous. Schizocarp green to red, purple, or bluish black, suborbicular or subreniform, ca. 5 mm in diam.; endocarp with prominent ...
Description: Erect shrub or small tree to 6 m high; new growth pinkish brown. Leaves narrow-oblanceolate, often with one side straighter than the other, 5-10 cm long, 6-11 mm wide, apex ± acute, margins often recurved, pale green; midrib, intramarginal vein and lateral veins distinct. Spikes 3-5 cm long, c. 60 mm diam. Petals densely hairy on the undersurface. Filaments crimson, c. 25 mm long; anthers red-brown. Capsules 7-8 mm diam., often deflexed, orifice sunken. ...
Theres a whore on the bed. Shes sleeping right now and the light from the corner window just traces her shoulder across the pale green plaster of the...
This rectangular pale green glass bottle has a hand finished cork top and is embossed on the front with the words Dr. Porter/ New York ...
This Egyptian amulet takes the form of a rabbit with longish ears, and its body in profile. A small hole has been drilled from one side of the head to the other below the ears. The image appears to have been carved out of a pale green stone, possibly ...
As autumns rusty fingers start painting their way, Across the pale green landscape of a dying summers day, My lengthening shadow, grows impatient to be free, Looking over my shoulder, and theres nobody, following me, And theres nobody, following me Doesnt quite scan as a poem, but these were the opening words of a song…
LM-400 is a preserved, 30% BSA solution free of caprylate with added albumin polymers for increased avidity. LM-400 is a clear, pale green to amber brown, sterile- filtered solution processed under condition to minimize microbial contamination and sodium and chloride concentrations. LM-400 undergoes additional testing to demonstrate each lot is free of viral contamination ...
Hi! This morning I found myself on my back a lil bit (sleeping) Im coming to the end of my 25 weeks. Once I realized I was on my back I quickly changed positions to my side and I started to feel my baby kick. Do you think I hurt him in anyway? 1st time mom
Bouquets of lovely flowers provide a lovely decorative theme to this pale green and seaweed color ceramic dish. Made in Japan, this medium-size piece is a stylish way to serve and enjoy a variety of dipping sauces, dressings and flavor-infused oils. It also provides a welcome display for Asian-inspired |b||a href=11264.html|appetizers|/a||/b| like edamame and eggrolls, or Western-style snacks like sliced vegetables, crackers, cheeses and chips. |br||br| The outside of each glossy ceramic piece features a smooth pale green solid glaze. Its darker seaweed green interior is enhanced by several bunches of beautifully detailed flowers of numerous shapes and sizes; small clusters of light and dark-colored blossoms are arranged alongside big blooms with slender elongated petals. A delicate layer of black lines its outer rim-a perfect complement to its elegant motif. |br||br| |b||a href=nlnov04.html|Flowers|/a||/b| are a beloved and classic theme used to decorate many Japanese ceramic wares, textiles,
Author: Hristou, Athina et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2019; Title: Ribosome-associated chloroplast SRP54 enables efficient co-translational membrane insertion of key photosynthetic proteins
Chloroplasts originated from an endosymbiotic event in which a free-living cyanobacterium was engulfed by an ancestral eukaryotic host. During evolution the majority of the chloroplast genetic information was transferred to the host cell nucleus. As a consequence, proteins formerly encoded by the chloroplast genome are now translated in the cytosol and must be subsequently imported into the chloroplast. This process involves three steps: (i) cytosolic sorting procedures, (ii) binding to the designated receptor-equipped target organelle and (iii) the consecutive translocation process. During import, proteins have to overcome the two barriers of the chloroplast envelope, namely the outer envelope membrane (OEM) and the inner envelope membrane (IEM). In the majority of cases, this is facilitated by two distinct multiprotein complexes, located in the OEM and IEM, respectively, designated TOC and TIC. Plants are constantly exposed to fluctuating environmental conditions such as temperature and light ...
These larvae, which are not usually attended by ants, seem to prefer several species in the family Acanthaceae, such as Hygrophila angustifolia and Ruellia tuberosa, but they have also been observed on the legume Desmodium scorpiurus (Fabaceae). They feed initially on the flowers and then on the young fruits. Mature larvae 7 mm long, body colour tends to match the host food, usually pale green with a conspicuous dark red line as well as some other markings: head pale yellow brown. Adult male lilac, outer margin a broad brown band, narrow on hind wing; female dull brown may have a bluish tinge; lower surface pale green with some rings and small brown-black spots.. ...
Description from Flora of China. Rhizome long, ligneous. Culms densely tufted, usually 1 or 2 borne in a leaf axil, 3-15 cm tall, subfiliform, rather soft, compressed triquetrous, smooth. Leaves equaling or longer than culm, flat, 1-5.5 mm wide, soft, glabrous, with dark brown persistent leaf sheaths. Involucral bracts sheathlike, blade setiform. Spikes 1-5, androgynous, remote, ovate or ovate-oblong, 2-5 mm, ca. 3.5 mm thick, densely many flowered; male part of spike shorter than or nearly equaling female part, slightly thin. Female glumes white or pale green, ovate, 1.2-1.5 mm, papery, 1-costate and laterally few veined, margins narrowly membranous, apex rounded or obtuse. Utricles pale green, longer than glume, ovate-elliptic, compressed trigonous, 2-2.5 mm, papery, loosely pubescent and ciliate, distinctly 2-veined laterally and thinly few veined, base cuneate, nearly estipitate, apex attenuate into an indistinct short beak, orifice obliquely truncate. Nutlets dark brown at maturity, ...
Cane sugar; glucose; water; maize starch; cellulose gum; free range EGG albumen; acetic acid E330; quinoline yellow E104; ponceau 4R E124; brilliant blue E133.. E104 & E124 may have adverse effect on activity and attention in children.. Allergy Advice:. Suitable for vegetarians. Gluten free.. Contains Egg. May contain traces of nuts.. Nutritional Information: Typical values per 100g. Energy: 1537kJ/ ...
Protein import into plant chloroplasts is a fascinating topic that is being investigated by many research groups. Since the majority of chloroplast proteins are synthesised as precursor proteins in the cytosol, they have to be posttranslationally imported into the organelle. For this purpose, most preproteins are synthesised with an N-terminal presequence, which is both necessary and sufficient for organelle recognition and translocation initiation. The import of preproteins is facilitated by two translocation machineries in the outer and inner envelope of chloroplasts, the Toc and Tic complexes, respectively. Translocation of precursor proteins across the envelope membrane has to be highly regulated to react to the metabolic requirements of the organelle. The aim of this review is to summarise the events that take place at the translocation machineries that are known so far. In addition, we focus in particular on alternative import pathways and the aspect of regulation of protein transport at ...
Immature scutella of barley were transformed with cDNA coding for a 13-li-poxygenase of barley (LOX-100) via particle bombardment. Regenerated plants were tested by PAT-assay, Western-analysis and PCR-screening. Immunocytochemical assay of T0 plants showed expression of the LOX cDNA both in the chloroplasts and in the cytosol, depending on the presence of the chloroplast signal peptide sequences in the cDNA. A few transgenic plants containing higher amounts of LOX-derived products have been found. These are the candidates for further analysis concerning pathogen resistance ...
Immature scutella of barley were transformed with cDNA coding for a 13-li-poxygenase of barley (LOX-100) via particle bombardment. Regenerated plants were tested by PAT-assay, Western-analysis and PCR-screening. Immunocytochemical assay of T0 plants showed expression of the LOX cDNA both in the chloroplasts and in the cytosol, depending on the presence of the chloroplast signal peptide sequences in the cDNA. A few transgenic plants containing higher amounts of LOX-derived products have been found. These are the candidates for further analysis concerning pathogen resistance ...
In actuality, because chard is grown in temperate zones, is widespread worldwide, and can be found several varieties, including the crisp chard, sporting dark green leaves, white stalk and a taste that resembles the spinach, chard stalks that features large white and green leaves, Japanese and Swiss chard leaves and closed juxtaposed with yellowish at the base and core and pale green on the edges.In Portugal the chard is available for consumption between October and June. ...
Stems usually unbranched, usually pale green, depressed-spheric, spheric or short cylindric, (1-)4-8(-11) × 4-8 cm; ribs 13-16, tubercles often evident on ribs. Spines slightly or not obscuring stem; radial spines 5-10(-14) per areole, pale to white, 6-17(-20) mm; central spines (3-)4 per areole, terete to angled; abaxial central spine 1 per areole, white to tan with tan to black tips, hooked, 10-30(-44) × 0.5-1 mm; lateral adaxial spines 2 per areole, white or brown to reddish brown or black, 10-21(-35) × 0.8-1.5 mm; adaxial central spine white, flat to angled, 6-27(-35) × 5-15 mm. Flowers fragrant, funnelform to campanulate, sometimes narrowly so, (2-)3-4 × 2-4 cm; outer tepals with reddish brown midstripes and white to cream or pinkish margins, oblanceolate, 13-23 × 3-7 mm; inner tepals white to cream or pink, oblanceolate, 25-30 × 5-7 mm; filaments magenta; anthers yellow. Fruits irregularly dehiscent, ovoid, barrel-shaped, 9-15 × 7-12 mm, scales few or absent; ovary papillate, ...
Vroma produces large, 6 1/2–7" pods with 4–5 large seeds. Cook like a shell bean when the seeds are pale green. Strong, heat tolerant plants resist ...
15. Dicranoloma (Ren.) Ren., Rev. Bryol. Lichenol. 28: 85. 1901; Leucoloma subg. Dicranoloma Ren., Prodr. Fl. Bryol. Madagascar 61. 1898. 锦叶藓属 Plants small to robust, pale green to yellowish green or golden brown, in dense tufts. Stems simple or branched, often tomentose; central strand present or absent. Leaves often falcate-secund, ovate-lanceolate, often gradually narrowed from a broader, somewhat auriculate base to nearly setaceous apex; margins plane, bordered by one to several rows of thick-walled, elongate, linear cells, often serrulate to serrate in the upper half; costa slender, percurrent to excurrent, often with lamellae or dentate wings at back in the upper part of leaves; upper cells irregularly rhomboidal to linear, smooth; lower cells elongate, frequently with a few rows of hyaline, very narrow cells at the basal margins; alar cells conspicuous, brownish. Dioicous. Setae erect, short to elongate, smooth, solitary or clustered; capsules cylindric, erect or arcuate, smooth ...
Courgettes, one of the prettiest of vegetables, are not to everyones taste, although they may develop added allure due to their cost after recent shortages. Even if you do like them, you can get heartily sick of them in a glut.. After 2013s three varieties, I cut it back to one in 2014, just two plants, then none after that, at the request of my family, who are not courgette fans. Two plants are quite enough to supply an average household.. Im a fan of Cavili (pale green with a creamy flesh) because it is parthenocarpic - it has the ability to set fruit without pollination.. It manages to perform even when weather conditions are dull and chilly - more often than not in NE England.. ...
1a larhe brown blorch: Agromyza abiens. 1b pale green corridor: Chromatomyia horticola. 1c gallen etc =, Tabellen voor alle parasieten per soort ...
|div id=full-description| |p class=description| Boasting magnificent, savoyed, purple-red leaves edged and veined pale green, Mustard Red Giant is a vigorous growing broad leaf variety. Commonly found in mesclun mixes, the leaves are slightly te
Escarole, or broad-leaved endive (var latifolia), has broad, pale green leaves and is less bitter than the other varieties. Varieties or names include broad-leaved endive, Bavarian endive, Batavian endive, grumolo, scarola, and scarole. It is eaten like other greens, sauteed, chopped into soups and stews, or as part of a green salad ...
im 38+3 with bubba number 2. several weeks ago i think i started to loose my plug, it was pinky/brown and i lost a little bit over a couple of days, then nothing. but for the past few days i have lost some snotty looking stuff that is pale green (sorry tmi) when i wipe after going loo, does this sound like more plug coming away? its only a small amount and i dont get it every time i go to the loo ...
Many bacterial species have a capacity to respond to antimicrobial processes and assaults by the production of any number of virulence factors (above; blue circles). Pathology that is due to bacterial infection is generally the result of the interaction between these factors and the host cells. There is also a very clear understanding that within a clonal population of bacterial cells there are a variety of cell types (phenotypic variants). This may include the Small Colony Variants (SCVs - above; pale green circles), persister cells (above; dark green circles) and biofilm cells (above; gold circles). These cell types are quasi-dormant, they have limited expression of virulence factors and immune mediators and they have low metabolic activity and growth. There are inherently tolerant of antibiotics. They are very hard to clear from the site of infection and are the basis for chronic and relapsing infections. Compounded with this is that often within the body there are pre-existing bacteria or ...
Leaf:Alternate, simple, deciduous, elliptical, ovate, or obovate, 1/2 to 1 1/2 inches long, margins finely toothed; pale green and slightly glaucous above and paler below, red to purple in the fall ...
The triad and dyad ions in the case of these metals exhibit remarkable differences of colour. Thus chromous ions are blue, chromic, green ; basic ferric ions are orange-yellow, ferrous, pale green; ma...
Add a traditional twist to your holiday celebration with this gorgeous centerpiece! Feature beautiful pale green Jade roses, red mini carnations, lime green Athos novelty poms, and more, Unity & Tradition is a bright holiday mix. Send this vibrant bouquet to someone you love today! Order UNITY & TRADITION CENTERPIECE from Holidays Floral LLC - Johnson City, TN Florist & Flower Shop.
Avon Meadow Dew perfume comes in a simple pale green color packaging with no frills or fancy attached. Its just a clean, transparent 30 mL glass bottle
LM-150 is a preserved, 30% nominal BSA solution produced with a low salt content and processed with high monomer content by inhibiting albumin polymer formation. LM-150 is a pale green to amber, sterile- filtered solution processed under aseptic conditions to minimize microbial contamination ...
ACTIVITY LEVEL: Steady VOCAL: Quiet CHARACTER TYPE: Shy, Independent MEDICAL BEHAVIOR: 6/5/17- Observed Behavior - tense/nervous ENRICHMENT NOTES: 6/6/17 Crouched in den, no response to voice or door opening. Moved slowly within den to avoid being touched. Stuck nose out to sniff treats after door closed, didnt eat. 6/7/17 In den, no response to voice or door opening. Held still when den was rotated to front. Flinched briefly when first touched, then held completely immobile, no other response. EVALUATION: Cage Condition: No change Reaction to assessor: Lil Debbie remains tense posture during the approach. Reaction to cage door opening: Lil Debbie remains alert with normal shape eyes, ears erect and forward with body flat down on the bedding. Reaction to touch: Lil Debbie allows the touch, while she stiffen up in place with no interest during the interaction. BEHAVIOR SUMMARY: Lil Debbie tolerates attention and petting, but may be fearful or stressed in the shelter. We recommend that this cat ...
Evolution of Chloroplast J Proteins. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Chloroplast outer membrane proteins with β-barrel-shaped transmembrane domains are sorted to the chloroplasts by amino-terminal transit peptides and/or intrinsic targeting information, but in both cases the proteins use the general import apparatus that also serves proteins destined for the interior compartments of the chloroplast. ...
I am a general contractor and have done numerous thru-the-wall installations of window units over the years. I am wanting to install a ptac unit in my office--with heat pump and resistance heat. I have been reading thru the forum on ptac units and I find a lot of the pros with differing and often conflicting recommendations over issues with noise levels and reliability. I dont seem to find any consensus on what would be the best brand to recommend. In my research I found the Hybrid ACW
Notre site web utilise des cookies pour offrir ses lecteurs la meilleure exp rience du site web. Dans certains cas, les cookies sont galement mis en place par des services tiers. Vous trouverez de plus amples informations dans notre d claration de protection des donn es. ...
Lil Uzi, Yeah yeah You know Im savage 40 Glock posted on the block My shorty pop when that forty stop You a cold rat informing cops And all we do is
Vlastn strach se stal osudn m australsk mu nudistovi, kter se sna il podp lit n co, o em si myslel, e je hn zdo ivotu nebezpe n ho pavouka. Z chran i ho odvezli do nemocnice s pop leninami na skoro dvaceti procentech t la.
shop_name }} replied: data-widget-read-more-text-setting=Read more data-widget-reviewer-name-as-initial-setting= data-widget-rating-filter-color-setting=#fbcd0a data-widget-rating-filter-see-all-text-setting=See all reviews data-widget-sorting-most-recent-text-setting=Most Recent data-widget-sorting-highest-rating-text-setting=Highest Rating data-widget-sorting-lowest-rating-text-setting=Lowest Rating data-widget-sorting-with-pictures-text-setting=Only Pictures data-widget-sorting-most-helpful-text-setting=Most Helpful data-widget-open-question-form-text-setting=Ask a question data-widget-reviews-subtab-text-setting=Reviews data-widget-questions-subtab-text-setting=Questions data-widget-question-label-text-setting=Question data-widget-answer-label-text-setting=Answer data-widget-question-placeholder-text-setting=Write your question here data-widget-submit-question-text-setting=Submit Question data-widget-question-submit-success-text-setting=Thank you for your ...
Ok I need help yet again....sorry :( My lil versicolor is hanging around the bottom of her habitat. Its warm when I stick my hand in there, the...
Manifatturi ta Materjali Hi-Tech, Fabbrika, Fornituri Miċ-Ċina, Il-ħafna ħsibijiet u suġġerimenti se jiġu apprezzati drastikament! Il-kooperazzjoni kbira tista tagħti spinta lil kull wieħed minna fi żvilupp aħjar!
Join and connect with BlackPlanets Baby is Bad group. To make it easier for everybody to get to know you please introduce yourselves You can give us a short introduction or tell us a lil more bout
Quality fresh flowers by Interflora florists in Default. Hand Delivering beautiful flowers and bouquets across Default and the UK with same day delivery.
Quality fresh flowers by Interflora florists in Default. Hand Delivering beautiful flowers and bouquets across Default and the UK with same day delivery.
DeBlasio SL, Luesse DL, Hangarter RP (September 2005). "A plant-specific protein essential for blue-light-induced chloroplast ... Phototropins are photoreceptor proteins (more specifically, flavoproteins) that mediate phototropism responses in higher plants ... Phototropins may also be important for the opening of stomata[citation needed] and the movement of chloroplasts. Phototropins ... "Chloroplast movement". Annu Rev Plant Biol. 54: 455-68. doi:10.1146/annurev.arplant.54.031902.135023. PMID 14502999. ...
"Motif analysis unveils the possible co-regulation of chloroplast genes and nuclear genes encoding chloroplast proteins". Plant ... Pfalz J, Pfannschmidt T (April 2013). "Essential nucleoid proteins in early chloroplast development". Trends in Plant Science. ... Eukaryotic chloroplasts, as well as the other plant plastids, also contain extrachromosomal DNA molecules. Most chloroplasts ... For example, cpDNA content in the chloroplasts of young cells, during the early stages of development where the chloroplasts ...
"Protein synthesis in chloroplasts. I. Light-driven synthesis of the large subunit of Fraction I protein by isolated pea ... Barraclough, R.; Ellis, R. J. (1980). "Protein synthesis in chloroplasts IX. Assembly of newly-synthesised large subunits into ... 1973: First identification of a product of protein synthesis by chloroplast ribosomes. 1978: First demonstration of in vitro ... "Homologous plant and bacterial proteins chaperone oligomeric protein assembly". Nature. 333 (6171): 330-334. doi:10.1038/ ...
Permeability of chloroplast envelopes to Mg2+. Effects on protein synthesis. Plant Physiol. 74, 956-961 Stirling, C.J., ... to tether cellular proteins to a ubiquitin ligase, resulting in ubiquitination and degradation of the tethered protein. This ... Protein translocation mutants defective in the insertion of integral membrane proteins into the endoplasmic reticulum. Mol. ... Protein translocation: As a graduate student and postdoctoral fellow working with Dr. Randy Schekman at the University of ...
Chloroplasts genomes encode 50-200 proteins, compared to the thousands in cyanobacterium. Furthermore, in Arabidopsis, nearly ... Chloroplasts contain 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA. 16S and 23S rRNA is found only in prokaryotes by definition. Chloroplasts and ... Harris EH, Boynton JE, Gillham NW (December 1994). "Chloroplast ribosomes and protein synthesis". Microbiological Reviews. 58 ( ... Pollen cannot transfer chloroplast DNA, thus leading to believe that the genes were incorporated into the tobaccos genome. ...
Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Jarvis P, Soll J (December 2001). "Toc, Tic, and chloroplast protein import". Biochimica ... Channel proteins called porins in the outer membrane allow free diffusion of ions and small proteins about 5000 daltons or less ... mainly assist the translocation of chloroplast precursor proteins Chaperone involvement in the IMS has been proposed but still ... The IMS is involved in the mitochondrial protein translocation. The precursor proteins called small TIM chaperones which are ...
Steiner JM, Yusa F, Pompe JA, Loffelhardt W. Homologous protein import machineries in chloroplasts and cyanelles. Plant J. 2005 ... Distribution and nomenclature of protein-coding genes in 12 sequenced chloroplast genomes. Plant Mol Biol Rep. 1998 ... Jarvis P, Soll M. Toc, Tic, and chloroplast protein import. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001 ... The Chloroplasts of some algal groups may have evolved from endosymbiotic eukaryotic algae. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1981 ...
"Functional analysis of the Chloroplast GrpE (CGE) proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana". Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 139: ... Once DnaJ, a co-chaperone, brings an unfolded protein to DnaK ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP to facilitate folding of the protein. At ... GrpE (Gro-P like protein E) is a bacterial nucleotide exchange factor that is important for regulation of protein folding ... The thermal regulation of DnaK slows protein folding and prevents unfolded proteins from accumulating in the cytoplasm at high ...
... large subunit ribosomal proteins (rpl, orange), hypothetical chloroplast open reading frame proteins (ycf, lemon), proteins ... Secondary databases: UniProt, database of protein sequences grouping together Swiss-Prot, TrEMBL and Protein Information ... Chloroplast genome[edit]. The plastome of Arabidopsis thaliana is a 154,478 bp long DNA molecule,[31] a size typically ... Chloroplast genome map of Arabidopsis thaliana.[31][32] Introns are in grey. Some genes consist of 5′ and 3′ portions. Strand 1 ...
Chloroplast targeting peptide[edit]. The N-terminal chloroplast targeting peptide (cpTP) allows for the protein to be imported ... In prokaryotic cells, the proteins are exported across the cell membrane. In chloroplasts, signal peptides target proteins to ... Normally the amine group is bonded to another carboxylic group in a protein to make it a chain, but since the end of a protein ... The N-terminus is the first part of the protein that exits the ribosome during protein biosynthesis. It often contains signal ...
Instead, chloroplast genes encoded in chloroplast DNA are found on numerous 2-3 kbp minicircles, analogous to plasmids. Most ... minicircles have only a few protein-coding genes; many have just a single gene. There are reports of minicircles that do not ... have chloroplasts. The Amphidinium chloroplast genome is unusual in not having a single contiguous circular genome. ... Clade C3 chloroplast genome. Minicircle-derived transcripts can be processed in ways not typical of eukaryotes, including the ...
Some other proteins are inserted into the membrane via the SRP (signal recognition particle) pathway. The chloroplast SRP can ... which binds to the imported protein and a Sec membrane complex to shuttle the protein across. Proteins with a twin arginine ... Chloroplasts have their own genome, which encodes a number of thylakoid proteins. However, during the course of plastid ... After entering the chloroplast, the first targeting peptide is cleaved off by a protease processing imported proteins. This ...
... chloroplast RNA splicing and ribosome maturation) domain, which is found in nucleus-encoded proteins required for chloroplast ... She is known for her work on chloroplast gene regulation and protein synthesis. Alice Barkan received her B.S. from ... Barkan's research is focused on how nucleus-encoded proteins affect chloroplast gene expression. Experiments from her lab use ... Barkan, A. (1988-09-01). "Proteins encoded by a complex chloroplast transcription unit are each translated from both ...
In Amphidinium, the chloroplast genome is made of minicircles that encode chloroplast proteins. Minicircles are small (~4kb) ... Barbrook, Adrian C.; Voolstra, Christian R.; Howe, Christopher J. (2014). "The Chloroplast Genome of a Symbiodinium sp. Clade ...
Formation of disulfide bonds in signaling chloroplast proteins". Plant Science. 175 (4): 459-466. doi:10.1016/j.plantsci. ... The native form of a protein is usually a single disulfide species, although some proteins may cycle between a few disulfide ... The in vivo oxidation and reduction of protein disulfide bonds by thiol-disulfide exchange is facilitated by a protein called ... The rearrangement of disulfide bonds within a protein generally occurs via intra-protein thiol-disulfide exchange reactions; a ...
... ) is the most prevalent enzyme on this planet, accounting for 30-50% of total soluble protein in the chloroplast; Feller ... Sjuts I, Soll J, Bölter B (2017). "Import of Soluble Proteins into Chloroplasts and Potential Regulatory Mechanisms". Frontiers ... Reflecting its importance, RuBisCO is the most abundant protein in leaves, accounting for 50% of soluble leaf protein in C3 ... which are typically imported into chloroplasts as unfolded proteins. Furthermore, sufficient expression and interaction with ...
Deshaies, R. J.; Fish, L. E.; Jagendorf, A. T. (1984). "Permeability of Chloroplast Envelopes to Mg2+: Effects on Protein ... The metabolic state of the chloroplast changes considerably between night and day. During the day, the chloroplast is actively ... "Effect of divalent cations on cation fluxes across the chloroplast envelope and on photosynthesis of intact chloroplasts". ... To date, only the ZntA protein of Paramecium has been shown to be a Mg2+ channel. The mechanisms of Mg2+ transport by the ...
Protein synthesis. Main article: Protein biosynthesis. Cells are capable of synthesizing new proteins, which are essential for ... Chloroplasts none in algae and plants Organization usually single cells single cells, colonies, higher multicellular organisms ... linear molecules (chromosomes) with histone proteins RNA/protein synthesis coupled in the cytoplasm RNA synthesis in the ... The subunit protein of microfilaments is a small, monomeric protein called actin. The subunit of microtubules is a dimeric ...
A. R., Ogren W.L.. A soluble chloroplast protein catalyzes ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activation in vivo. „ ... Graciet E., Lebreton S., Gontero B. Emergence of new regulatory mechanisms in the Benson-Calvin pathway via protein-protein ... Evolutionary transfer of the chloroplast tufA gene to the nucleus.. „Nature". 6263 (344), s. 262-5, marzec 1990. DOI: 10.1038/ ... Activase region on chloroplast ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Nonconservative substitution in the large ...
20 August 2002). "Integral Membrane Proteins of the Chloroplast Envelope: Identification and Subcellular Localization of New ... ISBN 978-0-00-220212-1. Possingham, J.V.; Rose, R.J. (May 18, 1976). "Chloroplast Replication and Chloroplast DNA Synthesis in ... a Novel GTPase of the Chloroplast Protein Translocon". Nature Structural Biology. 9 (2): 95-100. doi:10.1038/nsb744. PMID ... have unique organelles known as chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are thought to be descended from cyanobacteria that formed ...
"Volvox germline-specific genes that are putative targets of RegA repression encode chloroplast proteins". Current Genetics. 36 ... The V. carteri genome consists of 138 million base pairs and contains ~14,520 protein-coding genes. Like many other ... regA acts to prevent division by inhibiting cell growth via downregulation of chloroplast biosynthesis, and represses ... acid-soluble spore proteins of the alpha/beta-type protect spores against this DNA damage". J. Appl. Microbiol. 87 (1): 8-14. ...
Carrie, Christopher; Small, Ian (February 2013). "A reevaluation of dual-targeting of proteins to mitochondria and chloroplasts ... Some target peptides are cleaved from the protein by signal peptidases after the proteins are transported. Almost all proteins ... Protein targeting Signal peptide Rapoport T. (Nov 2007). "Protein translocation across the eukaryotic endoplasmic reticulum and ... In prokaryotes, signal peptides direct the newly synthesized protein to the SecYEG protein-conducting channel, which is present ...
... "β-Carboxysomal proteins assemble into highly organized structures in Nicotiana chloroplasts". The Plant Journal. 79 (1): 1-12. ... "A Zinc Finger Motif-Containing Protein Is Essential for Chloroplast RNA Editing". PLOS Genetics. 11 (3): e1005028. doi:10.1371/ ... a member of an Arabidopsis protein family, interacts with the protein RARE1 and broadly affects RNA editing". Proceedings of ... Most of the Rf genes cloned from other species have been found to be PPR proteins. Hanson's group was the first to utilize GFP ...
A similar protein structure exists in the chloroplast of certain plants. This protein presence provides evidence for the ... Mitochondrial matrix protein P1, P60 lymphocyte protein, HSPD1 Heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) is a mitochondrial chaperonin that ... The role of the phage encoded gp31 protein appears be to interact with the E. coli host encoded GroEL protein to assist in the ... Heat shock proteins are primarily responsible for maintaining the integrity of cellular proteins particularly in response to ...
Kotera E, Tasaka M, Shikanai T (January 2005). "A pentatricopeptide repeat protein is essential for RNA editing in chloroplasts ... However many trans proteins are required for this editing to occur and research continues to look at which proteins are needed ... Pentatricopeptide-repeat-containing proteins are a family of proteins commonly found in the plant kingdom. They are ... Approximately 450 such proteins have been identified in the Arabidopsis genome, and another 477 in the rice genome. Despite the ...
Another redox protein, isolated from spinach chloroplasts, was termed "chloroplast ferredoxin". The chloroplast ferredoxin is ... FDX-1 has the capability to bind to metals and proteins. Ferredoxin-2 participates in heme A and iron-sulphur protein synthesis ... originally found in chloroplast membranes, has been termed "chloroplast-type" or "plant-type" (InterPro: IPR010241). Its active ... They are proteins of around one hundred amino acids with four conserved cysteine residues to which the 2Fe-2S cluster is ...
The Chloroplast Envelope Anion Channel-forming Tic110 (Tic110) Family (TC#1.A.18) consists of proteins of the inner chloroplast ... van den Wijngaard, P. W.; Vredenberg, W. J. (1999-09-03). "The envelope anion channel involved in chloroplast protein import is ... Kessler, F.; Blobel, G. (1996-07-23). "Interaction of the protein import and folding machineries of the chloroplast". ... The structure is most similar to the HEAT-repeat motif that functions as scaffolds for protein-protein interactions. The pore ...
Sedimentation Velocity Analysis of Heterogeneous Protein-Protein Interactions: Lamm Equation Modeling and Sedimentation ... The supernatant (suspension containing remaining organelles) is spun at a higher speed - chloroplasts settle out ... By 1900, it had been generally accepted that proteins were composed of amino acids; however, whether proteins were colloids or ... Howlett, G.J., Minton, A.P., Rivas, G. Analytical Ultracentrifugation for the Study of Protein Association and Assembly. ...
Its cells contain many more chloroplasts than the spongy layer. Cylindrical cells, with the chloroplasts close to the walls of ... The concentration of photosynthetic structures in leaves requires that they be richer in protein, minerals, and sugars than, ... Chloroplasts are generally absent in epidermal cells, the exception being the guard cells of the stomata. The stomatal pores ... The lamina is the expanded, flat component of the leaf and containing the chloroplasts. The sheath is a structure, typically at ...
See also: Protein targeting. The movement of so many chloroplast genes to the nucleus means that many chloroplast proteins that ... Proteins encoded by the chloroplastEdit. Of the approximately three-thousand proteins found in chloroplasts, some 95% of them ... the new chloroplast host had to develop a unique protein targeting system to avoid having chloroplast proteins being sent to ... a histone-like chloroplast protein (HC) coded by the chloroplast DNA that tightly packs each chloroplast DNA ring into a ...
Kurstaki Insect Control Protein". Nature Biotechnology. 7 (12): 1265-1269. doi:10.1038/nbt1289-1265.. ... Genetic material can also be inserted into a tomato cell's chloroplast and chromoplast plastomes using biolistics. Tomatoes ... "Fruit Cell Wall Proteins Help Fungus Turn Tomatoes From Ripe To Rotten". Science Daily. Jan 31, 2008. Retrieved 29 August 2010. ... This tomato gained the moniker "fish tomato".[16] The antifreeze protein was found to inhibit ice recrystallization in the ...
Anything with a chloroplast is photosynthetic. Maybe that will do for now. [email protected] 06:05, 7 April 2007 (UTC). ... This form of motility has been shown to be regulated by the cAMP receptor protein. Hedger 11:30, 14 2007. The mechanism for ... They are also considerad the ancestors of chloroplasts in plants and algae.. Narayanese 16:47, 30 November 2007 (UTC). Sadly, I ... the nitrogen-fixing protein complex may be packaged into specialized cells called heterocysts." Aren't bacteria single-celled? ...
The B. natans genome contains 293 genes that code for proteins as compared to the 465 genes in G. theta. B. natans also only ... Diagram of a four membraned chloroplast containing a nucleomorph.. Nucleomorphs are small, vestigial eukaryotic nuclei found ... Most of the genes that moved to the host cell involved protein synthesis, leaving behind a compact genome with mostly single- ... The genome contains 513 genes, 465 of which code for protein. Thirty genes are considered "plastid" genes, coding for plastid ...
These chloroplasts are surrounded by three membranes and contain chlorophylls A and C, along with other pigments,[1] so are ... A Kingdom-level phylogeny of Eukaryotes based on combined protein data. Science 290 (5493): 972-977. [1] ... Some other euglenozoa feed through the absorption, and many euglenids possess chloroplasts and so obtain energy through ...
Eukaryotic chloroplasts have an RNAP very similar to bacterial RNAP ("plastid-encoded polymerase"). Eukaryotic chloroplasts ... Non-coding RNA or "RNA genes". These are a broad class of genes that encode RNA which is not translated into protein. The most ... Transfer RNA (tRNA)-transfers specific amino acids to growing polypeptide chains at the ribosomal site of protein synthesis ... Messenger RNA (mRNA). These are templates for the synthesis of proteins by ribosomes. ...
Chung-Shien Wu, Ya-Nan Wang, Shu-Mei Liu and Shu-Miaw Chaw (2007). "Chloroplast Genome (cpDNA) of Cycas taitungensis and 56 cp ... Protein-Coding Genes of Gnetum parvifolium: Insights into cpDNA Evolution and Phylogeny of Extant Seed Plants". Molecular ...
Proteins do not have to unfold to be imported into the peroxisome. The protein receptors, the peroxins PEX5 and PEX7, accompany ... The protein content of peroxisomes varies across species or organism, but the presence of proteins common to many species has ... of peroxisomal matrix proteins signals them to be imported into the organelle. There are at least 32 known peroxisomal proteins ... Genes that encode peroxin proteins include: PEX1, PEX2 (PXMP3), PEX3, PEX5, PEX6, PEX7, PEX10, PEX11A, PEX11B, PEX11G, PEX12, ...
... identified a protein that later became known as superoxide dismutase as an indophenol oxidase by protein analysis of starch ... Note that Cu-Zn SODs provide less protection than Fe SODs when localized in the chloroplast.[18][19][20] ... Iron or manganese - used by prokaryotes and protists, and in mitochondria and chloroplasts *Iron - Many bacteria contain a form ... SOD1 is an extremely stable protein. In the holo form (both copper and zinc bound) the melting point is , 90 °C. In the apo ...
DNA and proteins seemed the dominant macromolecules in the living cell, with RNA only aiding in creating proteins from the DNA ... where a nucleotide-based molecule is needed to synthesize protein, and a peptide-based (protein) molecule is needed to make ... The ability to catalyse the formation of peptide bonds between amino acids to produce short peptides or longer proteins. This ... Like DNA, RNA can store and replicate genetic information; like protein enzymes, RNA enzymes (ribozymes) can catalyze (start or ...
WIPI2, a PtdIns(3)P binding protein of the WIPI (WD-repeat protein interacting with phosphoinositides) protein family, was ... Without efficient autophagy, neurons gather ubiquitinated protein aggregates and degrade. Ubiquitinated proteins are proteins ... This allows unneeded proteins to be degraded and the amino acids recycled for the synthesis of proteins that are essential for ... Combinational Soluble N-Ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Factor Attachment Protein Receptor Proteins Vamp8 and Vti1b Mediate Fusion of ...
G protein. A family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are implicated in transmitting signals from a ... chloroplast. A type of highly specialized organelle in the cells of plants and algae, the main role of which is to conduct ... A biochemical assembly that contains both proteins and lipids, bound to the proteins, which allow fats to move through the ... protein. A polypeptide chain of amino acids. It is a body-building nutrient.. protist. psychobiology. Also called behavioral ...
Yeast cells are normally protected by a thick cell wall which makes extraction of cellular proteins difficult. Enzymatic ... Molecular and electrophysiological characterization of a mechanosensitive channel expressed in the chloroplasts of ...
The potent chloroplasts in the dark-green shoulders of the U phenotype are beneficial here, but have the disadvantage of ... A tomato is 95% water, contains 4% carbohydrates and less than 1% each of fat and protein (table). In a 100 gram amount, raw ... The hormone was first identified in tomatoes, but similar proteins have been identified in other species since.[54] ... The u genetic mutation encodes a factor that produces defective chloroplasts with lower density in developing fruit, resulting ...
Felix Rey, of the Pasteur Institute in Paris has constructed the 3D structure of the EFF1 protein[39] and shown it does the ... Although such symbiosis is theorized to have occurred (e.g. mitochondria and chloroplasts in animal and plant cells- ... About 800 million years ago,[37] a minor genetic change in a single molecule called guanylate kinase protein-interaction domain ... part of a whole family of FF proteins. ...
... proteins and their genes must be co-located for redox regulation according to the CoRR hypothesis for the function of DNA ... in mitochondria and chloroplasts. Redox cycling[edit]. A wide variety of aromatic compounds are enzymatically reduced to form ...
... chloroplasts, plasma membrane, etc. With the use of fluorescently tagged versions of these markers or of antibodies to known ... Main article: Protein domain. Many proteins are composed of several protein domains, i.e. segments of a protein that fold into ... globular proteins, fibrous proteins, and membrane proteins. Almost all globular proteins are soluble and many are enzymes. ... Protein purification. Main article: Protein purification. To perform in vitro analysis, a protein must be purified away from ...
"Plants: the potentials for extracting protein, medicines, and other useful chemicals (workshop proceedings). DIANE Publishing. ... In fact, chloroplasts are thought to have evolved from cyanobacteria that were once symbiotic partners with the progenitors of ... This class of compounds includes the heme proteins hemoglobin and myoglobin.[115] An exotic and unusual reaction occurs with ... Thylakoid membranes are part of chloroplasts in algae and plants while they simply are one of many membrane structures in ...
... s are typically low in calories and fat, and high in protein per calorie, dietary fiber, vitamin C, pro-vitamin A ... Kessler, F.; Glauser, G. (2014). "Prenylquinone Profiling in Whole Leaves and Chloroplast Subfractions". Plant Isoprenoids. ...
A. R., Ogren W.L.. A soluble chloroplast protein catalyzes ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activation in vivo. „ ... Graciet E., Lebreton S., Gontero B. Emergence of new regulatory mechanisms in the Benson-Calvin pathway via protein-protein ... Evolutionary transfer of the chloroplast tufA gene to the nucleus.. „Nature". 6263 (344), s. 262-5, marzec 1990. DOI: 10.1038/ ... Activase region on chloroplast ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Nonconservative substitution in the large ...
The orange is a hybrid between pomelo (Citrus maxima) and mandarin (Citrus reticulata).[2][6] The chloroplast genome, and ... Since its chloroplast DNA is that of pomelo, it was likely the hybrid pomelo, perhaps a BC1 pomelo backcross, that was the ...
A proton pump is an integral membrane protein pump that builds up a proton gradient across a biological membrane. Proton pumps ... CF1 ATP ligase of chloroplasts correspond to the human FOF1 ATP synthase in plants. ... Complex I (EC (also referred to as NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase or, especially in the context of the human protein, ... Light is absorbed by a retinal pigment covalently linked to the protein, that result in a conformational change of the molecule ...
For example, the apicoplast (a nonphotosynthetic chloroplast but essential to carry out important functions other than ... "Evolutionary cell biology of proteins from protists to humans and plants". J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 65 (2): 255-289. doi ... Some protists that do not have / lost chloroplasts/mitochondria have entered into endosymbiontic relationship with other ... and a cyanobacterium respectively that act as replacements for chloroplast. Meanwhile, a protist, Mixotricha paradoxa that has ...
The thioredoxin system contains the 12-kDa protein thioredoxin and its companion thioredoxin reductase.[149] Proteins related ... Ascorbic acid is present at high levels in all parts of plants and can reach concentrations of 20 millimolar in chloroplasts.[ ... while damage to proteins causes enzyme inhibition, denaturation and protein degradation.[60] ... Jönsson TJ, Lowther WT (2007). The peroxiredoxin repair proteins. Sub-Cellular Biochemistry. Subcellular Biochemistry. 44. pp. ...
CDCA-like proteinsEdit. Other phytoplankton from different water sources have been tested for the presence of CDCA. It was ... Most prokaryotic and plant chloroplast CAs belong to the beta family. Two signature patterns for this family have been ... The toxicity of the metal is reduced by the transcription and translation of phytochelatin, which are proteins that can bind ... In all species tested, CDCA-like proteins showed high levels of expression even in high concentrations of zinc and in the ...
This is similar to the action of other biological enzymes, such as proteins or ribozymes (enzymes composed of RNA).[1] However ... This is due to the limited number of functional groups of the nucleic acid monomers: while proteins are built from up to twenty ... In contrast, nucleic acid molecules are more limited in their catalytic ability, in comparison to protein enzymes, to just ... both proteins and ribozymes) also exhibit single-turnover behavior,[5] and so the exclusion of deoxyribozymes from the rank of ...
In plants, these proteins are held inside organelles called chloroplasts, which are most abundant in leaf cells, while in ... In such proteins, the pigments are arranged to work together. Such a combination of proteins is also called a light-harvesting ... Therefore, chloroplasts may be photosynthetic bacteria that adapted to life inside plant cells. Like mitochondria, chloroplasts ... A typical plant cell contains about 10 to 100 chloroplasts. The chloroplast is enclosed by a membrane. This membrane is ...
"Melatonin receptors , G protein-coupled receptors , IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology". Retrieved 7 ... It has been hypothesized that melatonin is made in the mitochondria and chloroplasts.[54] ... The membrane transport proteins that move melatonin across a membrane include, but are not limited to, glucose transporters, ... both of which belong to the class of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs).[42][66] Melatonin receptors 1 and 2 are both Gi/o- ...
cytochrome f (chloroplast) [Goodenia filiformis] cytochrome f (chloroplast) [Goodenia filiformis]. gi,917545576,gb,AKZ30916.1, ... The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in ... The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in ...
The majority of these proteins are encoded in the nucleus... ... Chloroplasts are double membraned organelles which require a ... lot of proteins to maintain their structure and to perform different functions. ... Chloroplasts are double membraned organelles which require a lot of proteins to maintain their structure and to perform ... These observations indicate that a regulation mechanism exists for protein import into chloroplasts. In the present study, we ...
Antonius Koller On Using Proteomics to Study Chloroplast Proteins. Jan 13, 2003 ... In Proteomics & Protein Research *. Quanterix Acquires Aushon With Eye Toward Improved Multiplexing, Point-of-Care Tech. ... Studied protein import into peroxisomes in yeast. Recently published a paper in PNAS entitled "Proteomics gives insight into ...
Two kinesin-like proteins mediate actin-based chloroplast movement in Arabidopsis thaliana Noriyuki Suetsugu, Noboru Yamada, ... Here, we report that two kinesin-like proteins, KAC1 and KAC2, are essential for chloroplasts to move and anchor to the plasma ... Two kinesin-like proteins mediate actin-based chloroplast movement in Arabidopsis thaliana ... Two kinesin-like proteins mediate actin-based chloroplast movement in Arabidopsis thaliana ...
Chloroplast twin arginine transport cpTat Thylakoid protein routing This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check ... Protein-specific energy requirements for protein transport across or into thylakoid membranes. Two lumenal proteins are ... Robinson C, Bolhuis A (2004) Tat-dependent protein targeting in prokaryotes and chloroplasts. Biochim Biophys Acta 1694(1-3): ... Routing of thylakoid lumen proteins by the chloroplast twin arginine transport pathway. ...
... chloroplast protein-importing). Cline K, Ettinger WF, Theg SM (1992). "Protein-specific energy requirements for protein ... "Identification of the SecA protein homolog in pea chloroplasts and its possible involvement in thylakoidal protein transport". ... In enzymology, a chloroplast protein-transporting ATPase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + ... Scott SV, Theg SM (1996). "A new chloroplast protein import intermediate reveals distinct translocation machineries in the two ...
... a haustorium-specific protein that is translocated into chloroplasts and affects chloroplast function by interacting with a ... tritici (Pst), that is translocated into chloroplasts and affects chloroplast function. Transient expression of Pst_12806 ... Chloroplasts are important for plant immunity against microbial pathogens. Here Xu et al. identify, in the wheat stripe rust ... Pst_12806 interacts with the C-terminal Rieske domain of the wheat TaISP protein (a putative component of the cytochrome b6-f ...
Most chloroplast proteins (cp proteins) are nucleus-encoded, synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes as precursor proteins ... Four proteins, including embryo defective 1211, glycolate oxidase 2, protein disulfide isomerase-like protein (PDII), and a ... Chloroplast Proteins without Cleavable Transit Peptides. Rare Exceptions or a Major Constituent of the Chloroplast Proteome? In ... Several others (potential cp proteins) were found to be imported into chloroplasts in vitro, but failed to localize to the ...
... the inner-envelope protein Tic110, the soluble stromal protein FtsZ1, or the thylakoid membrane protein LHCb. cp, chloroplast ... 15 chloroplasts each for WT, fzl, and FZL complemented and overexpression lines: one chloroplast per cell, five chloroplasts ... C) Isolated chloroplasts were lysed osmotically and separated into thylakoid and envelope fractions. In A-C, crude proteins ... FZL, an FZO-like protein in plants, is a determinant of thylakoid and chloroplast morphology. Hongbo Gao, Tammy L. Sage, and ...
During this chloroplast biogenesis, the photosynthetic apparatus is rapidly assembled, mostly from nuclear-encoded imported ... Light triggers the developmental programme in plants that leads to the production of photosynthetically active chloroplasts ... The major protein import receptor of plastids is essential for chloroplast biogenesis Nature. 2000 Jan 13;403(6766):203-7. doi ... Two proteins that are related to atToc159 (atToc120 and atToc132) probably help to maintain basal protein import in ppi2, and ...
Thus, nearly 500 proteins (about 1323 proteins identified in the chloroplast) were identified in the envelope while they ... is localized a chloroplast protein. It is therefore possible to specify the role of each compartment in the chloroplast ... The AT_Chloro database, which contains a large amount of information on the proteins of the chloroplast envelope, is a unique ... You are here : Home , Scientific news , AT_Chloro: The first AMT database of chloroplast proteins ...
Kleine, Tatjana und Leister, Dario (1. Mai 2007): Evolutionary tinkering: birth of a novel chloroplast protein. In: The ... Kodama and Sano now show that two steps are necessary for the establishment of the novel plastid protein: the acquisition of an ... and includes the creation of novel proteins from pre-existing modules. A novel instance of evolutionary tinkering was recently ... the conversion of a nuclear transcription factor into the plastid-resident protein WIN4 (wound-induced clone 4) involved in ...
Isolation of the Chloroplast Membrane Proteins FINBAR A. McEVOY; FINBAR A. McEVOY * ... FINBAR A. McEVOY, WILLIAM S. LYNN; Isolation of the Chloroplast Membrane Proteins. Biochem Soc Trans 1 July 1973; 1 (4): 894- ... Solubilization of the Membrane-Bound Deoxyribonucleic Acid-Dependent Ribonucleic Acid Polymerase of Pea Chloroplasts Biochem ... Current understanding of plant Polycomb group proteins and the repressive histone H3 Lysine 27 trimethylation ...
... a gene that is required for editing of two distinct chloroplast … ... CLB19, a pentatricopeptide repeat protein required for editing of rpoA and clpP chloroplast transcripts Plant J. 2008 Nov;56(4 ... CLB19 encodes a pentatricopeptide repeat protein similar to the editing specificity factors CRR4 and CRR21, but, unlike them, ... Loss-of-function clb19 mutants present a yellow phenotype with impaired chloroplast development and early seedling lethality ...
Further reports about: , Osaka , Photosynthesis , chloroplasts , evolution of life , green algae , living plants , proteins ... This article, "A Ycf2-FtsHi heteromeric AAA-ATPase complex is required for chloroplast protein import" was published in The ... Thus, in modern plant and algal cells, many nuclear-encoded chloroplast proteins synthesized in the cytosol of the cell must be ... "These findings revolutionize the molecular model of chloroplast protein import, and help us understand the evolution of plant ...
Characterization of the 32,000 Dalton Chloroplast Membrane Protein. Steven A. Weinbaum, Jonathan Gressel, Avi Reisfeld, Marvin ... Characterization of the 32,000 Dalton Chloroplast Membrane Protein. Steven A. Weinbaum, Jonathan Gressel, Avi Reisfeld, Marvin ... Characterization of the 32,000 Dalton Chloroplast Membrane Protein Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Characterization of the 32,000 Dalton Chloroplast Membrane Protein. III. Probing Its Biological Function in Spirodela. Steven A ...
... and several S-nitrosylated proteins have been identified in chloroplasts. Many of the S-nitrosylated chloroplast proteins ... and more than 20 chloroplast proteins, including two chloroplast-encoded proteins (RBCL and ATP SYNTHASE β SUBUNIT), have been ... Despite the importance of chloroplast metabolism in the growth and development of the plant, PTMs of chloroplast proteins, ... S-Nitrosylation has been shown to affect protein activities, localization, and protein-protein interactions in mammalian ...
Chloroplast RNA-binding proteins are involved in stabilizing stored chloroplast mRNAs and in recruiting site-specific factors ... In the present study, we characterized two major chloroplast RNA-binding proteins, cp29A and cp29B, by MALDI-TOF MS, N-terminal ... Identification of post-translational modifications in major chloroplast RNA-binding proteins may help elucidate their roles in ... Post-translational modifications, but not transcriptional regulation, of major chloroplast RNA-binding proteins are related to ...
Yruela I, Contreras-Moreira B. Protein disorder in plants: a view from the chloroplast. BMC Plant Biology 12: 165 (2012). ... We further investigate this trend by reviewing the set of chloroplast ribosomal proteins, one of the most representative ... chloroplast- and mitochondria- encoded proteins conserve the patterns of Archaea and Bacteria, in agreement with their ... In this field the available information from plants is limited but it has been reached a point where these proteins can be ...
Within the chloroplast FtsH11 was found to be located exclusively in the envelope. Two chloroplast-located proteins of unknown ... All proteins studied within this thesis are localized in the chloroplast, the organelle that originated from cyanobacteria, in ... Characterization of auxiliary membrane proteins in the chloroplast of Arabidopsis thaliana. von Sydow, Lotta Umeå University, ... Arabidopsis, chaperone, chloroplast, Cytochrome b559, FtsH, membrane proteins, photosynthesis, Photosystem II, protease, PsbY. ...
Particularly the development of their specific organelles, chloroplasts and other plastid-types, is finely tuned in accordance ... The normal development and functioning of plastids require import of particular subsets of nuclear encoded proteins. Most ... The normal development and functioning of plastids require import of particular subsets of nuclear encoded proteins. Most ... Particularly the development of their specific organelles, chloroplasts and other plastid-types, is finely tuned in accordance ...
Since chloroplasts lack N-glycosylation machinery, we propose that a route for chloroplast proteins that require endomembrane- ... proteins) back to the organelle. The majority of these proteins are translated in the cytosol as pre-proteins containing ... Most chloroplast proteins are encoded by the nuclear genome and imported with the help of sorting signals that are intrinsic ... Chloroplasts are believed to have originated from an endosymbiotic event and contain DNA that codes for some of their proteins ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): Q9FIG9 - Arabidopsis thaliana 3 * Q7XAS0 - Arabidopsis thaliana no matching PDB ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ... The Protein Feature View requires a browser that supports SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics). Mouse over tracks and labels for more ...
Molecular Topology of the Transit Peptide during Chloroplast Protein Import. Lynn G.L. Richardson, Eliana L. Small, Hitoshi ... Molecular Topology of the Transit Peptide during Chloroplast Protein Import. Lynn G.L. Richardson, Eliana L. Small, Hitoshi ... Molecular Topology of the Transit Peptide during Chloroplast Protein Import Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... Molecular Topology of the Transit Peptide during Chloroplast Protein Import. Lynn G.L. Richardson, Eliana L. Small, Hitoshi ...
Nuclear-encoded proteins must be imported into the chloroplast through different membrane transport complexes, and the orderly ... Nuclear-encoded proteins must be imported into the chloroplast through different membrane transport complexes, and the orderly ... In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanism of protein import and degradation in the chloroplast. Specifically, quality ... In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanism of protein import and degradation in the chloroplast. Specifically, quality ...
The chloroplast outer envelope protein OEP86 functions as a receptor in precursor protein translocation into chloroplasts. ... A receptor component of the chloroplast protein translocation machinery. By S Hirsch, E Muckel, F Heemeyer, G von Heijne, J ... A receptor component of the chloroplast protein translocation machinery. By S Hirsch, E Muckel, F Heemeyer, G von Heijne, J ... A receptor component of the chloroplast protein translocation machinery Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ...
The Biogenesis of Chloroplasts: Protein Synthesis by Isolated Chloroplasts R. JOHN ELLIS R. JOHN ELLIS ... R. JOHN ELLIS; The Biogenesis of Chloroplasts: Protein Synthesis by Isolated Chloroplasts. Biochem Soc Trans 1 April 1974; 2 (2 ... Protein import into chloroplasts and its regulation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system Biochem Soc Trans (January,2020) ... Redox signalling in chloroplasts and mitochondria: genomic and biochemical evidence for two-component regulatory systems in ...
MS has been extensively applied in this thesis to study chloroplast protein complexes and to quantify protein expression levels ... Mass Spectrometry-Based Characterization Of Chloroplast Protein Complexes And Clp Protease Function. ... This showed a general up-regulation of proteins involved in chloroplast proteome homeostasis and gene expression, but down- ... Large-scale, label-free quantification was used to characterize large (,800 kDa) soluble, chloroplast-localized protein and ...
Structure, mechanism and evolution of chloroplasts protein import systems. Jürgen Soll. Biochemical Society Transactions Oct ... Structure, mechanism and evolution of chloroplasts protein import systems Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ...
Role of Chloroplast Protein Kinase Stt7 in LHCII Phosphorylation and State Transition in Chlamydomonas ... Role of Chloroplast Protein Kinase Stt7 in LHCII Phosphorylation and State Transition in Chlamydomonas ... Role of Chloroplast Protein Kinase Stt7 in LHCII Phosphorylation and State Transition in Chlamydomonas ... Role of Chloroplast Protein Kinase Stt7 in LHCII Phosphorylation and State Transition in Chlamydomonas ...
  • During evolution, several chloroplast-encoded genes transferred to the host's nuclear genome. (
  • The vast majority of proteins are encoded by the nuclear genome. (
  • During the transition from endosymbiont to organelle most of the cyanobacterial genes were transferred to the nuclear genome of the host cell, resulting in a chloroplast with a much reduced genome that requires massive import of gene products (proteins) back to the organelle. (
  • The genome of Arabidopsis thaliana encodes for ten individual peroxiredoxins, of which four are located in the chloroplast. (
  • In this paper, we investigated 82 protein-coding genes in the chloroplast genome of G. biloba and identified 255 editing sites, which is the highest number of RNA editing events reported in a gymnosperm. (
  • The G. biloba chloroplast genome possesses the highest number of RNA editing events reported so far in a seed plant. (
  • Clemetson, JM, A Boschetti, KJ Clemetson(1992) Chloroplast envelope proteins are encoded by the chloroplast genome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (
  • Key proteins of the photosynthetic complexes are encoded on the chloroplast genome and co-translationally inserted into the thylakoid membrane. (
  • A fusion between the plastid psbA promoter and the green fluorescent protein gene (gfp) was introduced into the tobacco chloroplast genome by stable plastid transformation. (
  • These features were used to mine the complete Arabidopsis genome and allowed us to establish a virtual plastid envelope integral protein database. (
  • Chloroplasts, like other types of plastid , contain a genome separate from that in the cell nucleus . (
  • The first complete chloroplast genome sequences were published in 1986, Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) by Sugiura and colleagues and Marchantia polymorpha (liverwort) by Ozeki et al. (
  • Most chloroplasts have their entire chloroplast genome combined into a single large ring, though those of dinophyte algae are a notable exception-their genome is broken up into about forty small plasmids , each 2,000-10,000 base pairs long. (
  • [11] It is possible that the inverted repeats help stabilize the rest of the chloroplast genome, as chloroplast DNAs which have lost some of the inverted repeat segments tend to get rearranged more. (
  • More than 5000 chloroplast genomes have been sequenced and are accessible via the NCBI organelle genome database. (
  • [20] Comparison of the gene sequences of the cyanobacteria Synechocystis to those of the chloroplast genome of Arabidopsis provided confirmation of the endosymbiotic origin of the chloroplast. (
  • Gardeners might end up never planting the wrong bulb again after the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) and Reading University successfully mapped a daffodil's chloroplast genome for the first time. (
  • Introduction of exogenous genes expression into the chloroplast genome requires a host promoter, either constitutive or inducible. (
  • Expression of transgenes from the plastid genome offers a number of attractions to biotechnologists, with the potential to attain very high protein accumulation levels arguably being the most attractive one. (
  • Daniell H (2006) Production of biopharmaceuticals and vaccines in plants via the chloroplast genome. (
  • The chloroplast genome of Gracilaria firma was sequenced in view of its role as an economically important marine crop with wide industrial applications. (
  • Apart from presenting the complete chloroplast genome of G. firma , this study also assessed the utility of genome-scale data to address the phylogenetic relationships within the subclass Rhodymeniophycidae. (
  • The synteny and genome structure of the chloroplast genomes across the taxa of Eurhodophytina was also examined. (
  • The chloroplast genome of Gracilaria firma maps as a circular molecule of 187,001 bp and contains 252 genes, which are distributed on both strands and consist of 35 RNA genes (3 rRNAs, 30 tRNAs, tmRNA and a ribonuclease P RNA component) and 217 protein-coding genes, including the unidentified open reading frames. (
  • The chloroplast genome of G. firma is by far the largest reported for Gracilariaceae, featuring a unique intergenic region of about 7000 bp with discontinuous vestiges of red algal plasmid DNA sequences interspersed between the nblA and cpeB genes. (
  • This chloroplast genome shows similar gene content and order to other Florideophycean taxa. (
  • The present study shows that chloroplast genome of G. firma could serve as a key link to the full resolution of Gracilaria sensu lato complex and recognition of Hydropuntia as a genus distinct from Gracilaria sensu stricto . (
  • We infer that rps13 was lost from the mitochondrial genome and substituted by a duplicated nuclear gene of chloroplast origin early in rosid evolution, whereas rps8 loss and substitution by a gene of nuclear/cytosolic origin occurred much earlier, in a common ancestor of angiosperms and gymnosperms. (
  • The transgenic plant of the present invention comprises within its genome a foreign MinD or MinE gene or a foreign gene which expresses a protein which has the same functional activity as the Arabidopsis thaliana MinD or MinE protein. (
  • Finally, the present invention concerns a method of transforming the chloroplasts genome of the transgenic plants of the present invention which contain large chloroplasts. (
  • Mutations in FZO, a member of the dynamin superfamily of membrane-remodeling proteins ( 1 - 5 ), block mitochondrial fusion, tipping the balance toward fission and causing mitochondria to fragment and lose DNA ( 6 - 9 ). (
  • however, chloroplast- and mitochondria- encoded proteins conserve the patterns of Archaea and Bacteria, in agreement with their phylogenetic origin. (
  • Ribosomes are essential for protein synthesis, and in plants the ribosomes catalyze protein synthesis in the cytoplasm, plastids, and mitochondria (Zhang et al. (
  • In higher plants, RNA editing mainly occurs in the protein-encoding genes of mitochondria and chloroplasts and it mostly converts C to U, although hornwort and fern have abundant U to C editing. (
  • Plant cell contains two major cell organelles, chloroplast and mitochondria, which play key roles in energy metabolism as well as in regulating a number of prominent processes. (
  • Also, proteins that are located in both chloroplast and mitochondria presumably function distinctly in both locations, and therefore the knowledge about the localization of protein is vital. (
  • Hence, a webserver (DualPred) is designed to predict the plant dual-targeted proteins (chloroplast and mitochondria) using novel split protein-relatedness-measure feature and AdaBoost-J48 as a classifier. (
  • DualPred adopts two-layer prediction for distinguishing plant proteins dual-targeted to chloroplast and mitochondria from other localized proteins. (
  • Hence, based on the results of various validation tests it is evident that the novel feature representation was effective in distinguishing the plant proteins dual-targeted to chloroplast and mitochondria from other localized proteins. (
  • Chloroplasts, like mitochondria , contain their own DNA , which is thought to be inherited from their ancestor-a photosynthetic cyanobacterium that was engulfed by an early eukaryotic cell. (
  • This Delta pH-dependent pathway might be an ancient conserved mechanism for protein translocation that evolved before the endosymbiotic origin of plastids and mitochondria. (
  • Most of the proteins that function inside of mitochondria or chloroplasts are encoded in the nucleus, translated in the cytosol, and imported through one or two membrane-localized translocons. (
  • In mitochondria the outer- and inner-membrane translocons are called TOM and TIM, and in chloroplasts they are TOC and TIC). (
  • 2005). Proline residues of transmembrane domains determine the sorting of inner membrane proteins in mitochondria. (
  • 2007). Translocation of proteins into mitochondria. (
  • The product of this gene from all three rosids was shown to be imported into isolated mitochondria but not into chloroplasts. (
  • Mitochondria and chloroplasts differ from other cellular compartments by their endosymbiotic origin, their semiautonomous genetic systems, their role in energy transduction, and their complex biology. (
  • The 2020 Gordon Research Conference on Mitochondria and Chloroplasts will bring together established scientists and young researchers to present and discuss emerging aspects of organelle biology. (
  • Each session of the GRC on Mitochondria and Chloroplasts will be introduced by an expert Discussion Leader who will provide a general overview to integrate the research communities and stimulate conceptual discussions. (
  • This GRC will be held in conjunction with the "Mitochondria and Chloroplasts (GRS)" Gordon Research Seminar (GRS). (
  • Protein-specific energy requirements for protein transport across or into thylakoid membranes. (
  • Alder NN, Theg SM (2003) Energetics of protein transport across biological membranes. (
  • FZO is a dynamin-related membrane-remodeling protein that mediates fusion between mitochondrial outer membranes in animals and fungi. (
  • FZL is targeted to chloroplasts and associated with thylakoid and envelope membranes as punctate structures. (
  • Chloroplasts in plant cells are also surrounded by two membranes. (
  • Protein translocon complexes at the outer (Toc complex) and inner (Tic complex) envelope membranes recognize these transit sequences, leading to the precursors being imported. (
  • Thus, in modern plant and algal cells, many nuclear-encoded chloroplast proteins synthesized in the cytosol of the cell must be imported across both the outer and inner chloroplast membranes in a process that requires energy. (
  • Chloroplast protein import is directed by the interaction of the targeting signal (transit peptide) of nucleus-encoded preproteins with translocons at the outer (TOC) and inner (TIC) chloroplast envelope membranes. (
  • The chloroplasts of the plants had an unusual morphology and contain few or no tylakoid membranes. (
  • We describe how Hsp21 can also interact with the chloroplast thylakoid membranes, both when isolated thylakoid membranes are incubated with Hsp21 protein and when plants are heat-stressed. (
  • The amount of Hsp21 associated with the thylakoid membranes was precisely determined by quantitative mass spectrometry after metabolic 15 N-isotope labeling of either recombinantly expressed and purified Hsp21 protein or intact Arabidopsis thaliana plants. (
  • We found that Hsp21 is among few proteins that become associated with the thylakoid membranes in heat-stressed plants, and that approximately two thirds of the pool of chloroplast Hsp21 is affected. (
  • Deletion Mutants of Chlorophyll a/b Binding Proteins Are Efficiently Imported into Chloroplasts but Do Not Integrate into Thylakoid Membranes. (
  • We have created a series of mutations in tomato CABp to test whether individual membrane helices with hydrophilic flanking sequences, when fused to a transit peptide, can be imported into chloroplasts and correctly targeted to thylakoid membranes. (
  • 2001), and includes mechanical breakage of cell wall and membranes, the removal of unbroken tissue by filtration and the separation of intact chloroplasts by centrifugation through a Percoll layer. (
  • To get insight in the biological function of the Prx Q protein of Arabidopsis, the protein levels of the Prx Q protein in thylakoid membranes were studied under different light conditions and oxidative stress. (
  • These analyses revealed that RNA-binding proteins of 30-32, 46, 47, 60, and 80 kD are associated with chloroplast membranes. (
  • The buoyant density and the acyl lipid composition of these membranes are compatible with their origin being the inner chloroplast envelope membrane. (
  • 1983. Preparation and characterization of membrane fractions enriched in outer and inner envelope membranes from spinach chloroplasts. (
  • While previous analyses of overall chloroplast membranes have yielded significant insight, our comparative proteomics approach using enriched BS and M chloroplast envelopes of Zea mays allowed us to identify 37 proteins of unknown function that have not been seen in these earlier studies. (
  • A chloroplast is a type of organelle known as a plastid , characterized by its two membranes and a high concentration of chlorophyll . (
  • [13] On the thylakoid membranes are photosynthetic pigments , including chlorophyll a . [14] Phycobilins are also common cyanobacterial pigments, usually organized into hemispherical phycobilisomes attached to the outside of the thylakoid membranes (phycobilins are not shared with all chloroplasts though). (
  • Equally important is the proper distribution of proteins within cells and their insertion into the destined compartments [ 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 ], which is either mediated by specialized translocon components within membranes or by vesicle transport [ 9 , 10 ]. (
  • A chloroplast has two membranes, separated by a thin inter-membrane space. (
  • A group of scientists headed by Professor Dirk Schneider of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) has now discovered a protective mechanism in cyanobacteria as well as in chloroplasts of plant cells: Complex ring structures formed by a protein attach to cell membranes and dissociate. (
  • Via formation of such a shield, bacteria and chloroplasts protect their membranes under certain stress conditions," stated Professor Dirk Schneider, head of the Membrane Biochemistry section at the JGU Department of Chemistry. (
  • Previous studies have already shown that the IM30 protein is involved in the formation and preservation of membranes in photosynthetic cells. (
  • Although division of bacteria requires cell wall peptidoglycan synthesis at the division septum as well as constriction of the cytoplasmic membrane, division of chloroplasts, which lack the peptidoglycan wall, requires the constriction and severing of two envelope membranes. (
  • Translocation complexes exist in the organelle's outer and inner envelope membranes (termed TOC and TIC, respectively) to facilitate protein import. (
  • During this chloroplast biogenesis, the photosynthetic apparatus is rapidly assembled, mostly from nuclear-encoded imported proteins, which are synthesized in the cytosol as precursors with cleavable amino-terminal targeting sequences called transit sequences. (
  • Here we show that Arabidopsis thaliana Toc159 (atToc159) is essential for the biogenesis of chloroplasts. (
  • here we review recent progress in our understanding of the biogenesis of this important class of protein. (
  • Successful import of hundreds of nucleus-encoded proteins is essential for chloroplast biogenesis. (
  • Several lines of evidence including proteome profiling demonstrate the import and accumulation of proteins essential for chloroplast biogenesis and functionality. (
  • To investigate the roles played by these proteins in vivo, we conducted a comparative study of T-DNA knockout mutants for each Tic gene, and for the most abundantly expressed Hsp93 gene, atHSP93-V. In the homozygous state, the tic110 mutation caused embryo lethality, implying an essential role for atTic110 during plastid biogenesis. (
  • Heterozygous tic110 plants, and plants homozygous for the tic40 and hsp93-V mutations, exhibited chlorosis, aberrant chloroplast biogenesis, and inefficient chloroplast-import of both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic preproteins. (
  • There are no readily apparent changes to chloroplast biology, such as transcription or assembly that explain the disruption to chloroplast biogenesis. (
  • Significantly, there are changes to the cytoskeleton in sco3-1, and microtubule inhibitors have similar effects on chloroplast biogenesis as sco3-1 does. (
  • Therefore, the microtubule and peroxisome-associated SCO3 protein is required for chloroplast development, and sco3-1, along with microtubule inhibitors, demonstrates an unexpected role for the cytoskeleton and peroxisomes in chloroplast biogenesis. (
  • Berks BC (2015) The twin-arginine protein translocation pathway. (
  • Berks BC, Palmer T, Sargent F (2003) The Tat protein translocation pathway and its role in microbial physiology. (
  • Solely translocation of a single preprotein across the chloroplast envelope through the TOC-TIC machinery requires the hydrolysis of 650 ATP molecules on average, representing about 0.6% of the total light-saturated energy output of the organelles ( Shi and Theg, 2013 ). (
  • Our results demonstrate the close cooperativity of the TOC and TIC machinery at each stage of transit peptide recognition and membrane translocation during protein import. (
  • The chloroplast outer envelope protein OEP86 functions as a receptor in precursor protein translocation into chloroplasts. (
  • The assembly of the photosynthetic apparatus requires the translocation of numerous proteins from the cytosol, initially into the stroma and thereafter into or across the thylakoid membrane. (
  • The outer plastid envelope protein OEP16-1 was previously identified as an amino acid-selective channel protein and translocation pore for NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A (PORA). (
  • The LHCP translocation defect (LTD) protein is essential for the delivery of imported LHCPs to the CpSRP pathway in Arabidopsis. (
  • Moreover, the physiological capacity and its adjustment are dependent on the efficiency of the protein translocation process as judged from the analysis of mutants of the two receptor units of the chloroplast translocon, TOC64, and TOC33. (
  • 2007). Requirements for a conservative protein translocation pathway in chloroplasts. (
  • 1998). The hydrophilic domain of Tic110, an inner envelope membrane component of the chloroplastic protein translocation apparatus, faces the stromal compartment. (
  • 2006). Tic21 is an essential translocon component for protein translocation across the chloroplast inner envelope membrane. (
  • The elongation cycle of protein synthesis is characterized by tRNA movement between pre-translocation (PRE) and post-translocation (POST) complexes. (
  • After synthesis in the cytosol accurate protein sorting and export toward their destination organelles rely on intrinsic topogenic sequences ( Blobel, 1980 ). (
  • Plant chloroplasts import impressive quantities as well as an enormous diversity of proteins from the cytosol. (
  • In the cytosol, chloroplast proteins are generally synthesized as preproteins with a N-terminal targeting sequence that is cleaved to produce the mature chloroplast protein upon import. (
  • The majority of these proteins are translated in the cytosol as pre-proteins containing targeting information that directs them to a translocon complex in the chloroplast envelope, the Toc-Tic system, through which these proteins are transported. (
  • Chloroplast inner-membrane proteins Tic40 and Tic110 are first imported from the cytosol into the chloroplast stroma, and subsequently reinserted from the stroma into the inner membrane. (
  • The vast majority of chloroplast proteins are synthesized in the cytosol and then imported into the chloroplast post-translationally. (
  • Most chloroplast proteins (cp proteins) are nucleus-encoded, synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes as precursor proteins containing a presequence (cTP), and post-translationally imported via the Tic/Toc complex into the organelle, where the cTP is removed. (
  • This combined experimental and bioinformatics analyses resolved chloroplast chromatin, numerous novel proteins, as well as chloroplast ribosomes in different assembly and functional states, with ribosome assembly factors and proteins involved in cotranslational modifications, targeting and folding. (
  • Stern, David 2008-12-09 00:00:00 The chloroplast protein CSP41a both binds and cleaves RNA, particularly in stem-loops, and has been found associated with ribosomes. (
  • Both chloroplasts and cyanobacteria have a double membrane, DNA , ribosomes , and thylakoids . (
  • They have the own DNA and ribosomes, and produce their own proteins-the Chloroplast knows what needs to be done, and does it! (
  • Ribosomes are the particles that catalyse mRNA-directed protein synthesis in all organisms. (
  • Evidence suggests that, in prokaryotes, the peptidyl transferase reaction is performed by the large subunit 23S rRNA, whereas proteins probably have a greater role in eukaryotic ribosomes. (
  • WGL2 is preferentially expressed in the leaf, and mutating WGL2 led to obvious changes in the expression of genes related to chlorophyll biosynthesis, photosynthesis, chloroplast development, and ribosome development compared with wild-type. (
  • Chlorophyll a/b binding polypeptides (CABp) are integral thylakoid membrane proteins containing three membrane-spanning helices. (
  • We dissected its interaction with a full-length membrane protein substrate in aqueous solution by insertion of site-specific photo-activatable cross-linkers into in vitro -synthesized Lhcb1 (major light-harvesting chlorophyll-binding protein of photosystem II). (
  • The first definitive description of a chloroplast ( Chlorophyllkörnen , "grain of chlorophyll") was given by Hugo von Mohl in 1837 as discrete bodies within the green plant cell. (
  • Nuclear-encoded light-harvesting chlorophyll- and carotenoid-binding proteins (LHCPs) are imported into the chloroplast and transported across the stroma to thylakoid membrane assembly sites by the chloroplast signal recognition particle (CpSRP) pathway. (
  • Profiling of thylakoid membrane proteins in the Crltd1 mutant showed a more severe reduction in the levels of photosystem I (PSI) core proteins and absence of functional LHCI compared with those of photosystem II, resulting in a much smaller PSI pool size and diminished chlorophyll antenna size. (
  • Chloroplasts are green because they contain the chlorophyll pigment. (
  • The success of the complementation was confirmed by PCR, immunoblot and chlorophyll fluorescence analysis.Chloroplast UltrastructureWild type and mutant leaves from 3-week-old plants grown on soil were used for transmission electron microscopy analysis. (
  • The sco3-1 mutation alters chloroplast morphology and development, reduces chlorophyll accumulation, impairs thylakoid formation and photosynthesis in seedlings, and results in photoinhibition under extreme CO(2) concentrations in mature leaves. (
  • In this study, we have characterized CLB19 (also known as PDE247), a gene that is required for editing of two distinct chloroplast transcripts, rpoA and clpP. (
  • Environmental fluctuations affect gene expression by relaying signals that adjust the accumulation of proteins in various cell compartments according to ambient requirements. (
  • Based on current knowledge about gene transference from the chloroplast to the nucleus, we report a strong correlation between the rate of disorder of transferred and nuclear-encoded proteins, even for polypeptides that play functional roles back in the chloroplast. (
  • We also show that mutant plants with disrupted CAH1 gene expression have reduced rates of CO 2 uptake and accumulate lower amounts of starch compared to wild-type plants, indicating an important function of the CAH1 protein for the photosynthetic capacity of Arabidopsis. (
  • The absolute amount of each subunit and the corresponding stoichiometry within the heptameric rings was determined by MS analysis using stable isotope-labeled versions of peptides that uniquely represent each Clp protein, expressed from a synthetic gene. (
  • This showed a general up-regulation of proteins involved in chloroplast proteome homeostasis and gene expression, but down-regulation of the photosynthetic machinery and specific responses of secondary metabolism. (
  • The psbD promoter upstream of the psbD gene encoding photosystem II D2 protein is reversibly activated by light and regulated by endogenous circadian rhythm, too. (
  • Publications] Ozawa,S.: 'Role of L protein(psbL gene product) in regulation of electron transfer at the reducing side of photosystem II.I.Over production of L protein and functional reconstitution into the PSII core complex. (
  • Danon, A, SP Mayfield(1991) Light regulated translational activators: identification of chloroplatic gene specific mRNA binding proteins. (
  • Chloroplast DNA Interactive gene map of chloroplast DNA from Nicotiana tabacum . (
  • Gene expression analyses indicate that most land plant-specific J proteins show highly variable expression in different tissues and are down regulated by low temperatures. (
  • In experiments, when researchers silenced the gene for CHUP1, chloroplasts mostly didn't respond to an infection. (
  • But when the gene was active, chloroplasts shut off their photosynthetic machinery and formed a defensive onslaught , the researchers report January 9 at (
  • Genes for a PIC-like protein and an ER-AP-like protein show an early transient increase in gene expression during the transition to light. (
  • In addition, PIC gene expression is increased in the immature part of the leaf and was lower in the fully developed parts of the leaf, suggesting a need for/incorporation of the protein during chloroplast development. (
  • However, chloroplasts also use a Delta pH-dependent pathway to target thylakoid proteins, at least some of which are folded before transport Previously, this pathway seemed to have no cognate in bacteria, but recent results have shown that the HCF106 gene in maize encodes a component of this pathway and has bacterial homologues. (
  • Photosynthetic electron transport regulates chloroplast gene transcription through the action of a bacterial-type sensor kinase known as chloroplast sensor kinase (CSK). (
  • Chloroplast genes retain prokaryotic genetic organization, and are transcribed from bacterial-type gene promoters by a eubacterial multisubunit RNA polymerase known as the plastid-encoded polymerase (PEP) [ 10 - 12 ]. (
  • The sigma factor subunit of the PEP recognizes the bacterial-type gene promoters of chloroplast genes. (
  • Even though chloroplasts contain an elaborate transcriptional machinery capable of regulatory control, the principal mode of gene regulation in chloroplasts has long been considered to be post-transcriptional [ 17 , 18 ]. (
  • Suppression of yeast RNA polymerase III mutations by the URP2 gene encoding a protein homologous to the mammalian ribosomal protein S20. (
  • Here, we show that substitution by a duplicated, divergent gene originally encoding the chloroplast or cytosolic ribosomal protein counterpart accounts for two missing mitochondrial genes in diverse angiosperms. (
  • Instead, these rosids contain a divergent nuclear copy of an rps13 gene of chloroplast origin. (
  • 1. A vector comprising an exogenous gene which encodes a protein which has the same functional activity as a protein encoded by the Arabidopsis thaliana MinE or MinD gene and which when expressed in a plant cell causes the plant cell to have enlarged and/or a reduced number of chloroplasts. (
  • Specific sessions will be dedicated to organelle evolution, their gene expression systems, the import of proteins and their assembly into functioning complexes, signaling pathways and stress response, disintegration of organelles during aging and senescence, and how all these are being translated to agriculture and medicine. (
  • Plasmid DNA vaccines are genetically engineered to contain a gene which encodes for an antigen or a protein produced by a pathogenic virus, bacterium or other parasites. (
  • Chloroplast photorelocation movement is important for plant survival as well as for efficient photosynthesis. (
  • Chloroplasts are important for photosynthesis and for plant immunity against microbial pathogens. (
  • However, ROS, as byproducts in chloroplasts, are also critical and effective components for plant immunity. (
  • We identified a single FZO-like protein in Arabidopsis , FZL, a new plant-specific member of the dynamin superfamily. (
  • Researchers at the Cell & Plant Physiology Laboratory and at the EDyP team developed an innovative proteomics strategy targeting various highly-purified chloroplast compartments. (
  • Deepening knowledge of the chloroplast metabolic pathways and their regulation is considered as essential in the prospect of a better use of plant biomass. (
  • For several years, researchers in Plant Cell & Physiology laboratory and Étude de la Dynamique des Protéomes team contribute significantly to the establishment of directories for various protein cell compartments of Arabidopsis thaliana . (
  • Among the strategies of quantitative proteomic analyzes that have been developed, the AMT (Accurate Mass Tags and time) method (see the thematic letter on the Analyse protéomique ) and the so-called Spectral count method allowed these researchers to establish the first AMT database for a specific organelle of the plant cell, the chloroplast. (
  • A novel instance of evolutionary tinkering was recently discovered in the flowering plant genus Nicotiana: the conversion of a nuclear transcription factor into the plastid-resident protein WIN4 (wound-induced clone 4) involved in environmental stress responses. (
  • Now, in The Plant Cell , this same team has collaborated with other Japanese researchers to report the identification of the elusive protein transport motor that is essential for chloroplast formation. (
  • These findings revolutionize the molecular model of chloroplast protein import, and help us understand the evolution of plant and algal chloroplasts," explains Nakai. (
  • Despite the importance of chloroplast metabolism in the growth and development of the plant, PTM s of chloroplast proteins, apart from phosphorylation, have been poorly studied. (
  • The National Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Plant Genetic Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, PR China. (
  • Identification of post-translational modifications in major chloroplast RNA-binding proteins may help elucidate their roles in seedling development and in plant RNA stabilization during the greening process. (
  • The chloroplast is the organelle within a plant cell where photosynthesis takes place. (
  • We have identified a protein in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana , CAH1, that is trafficked via the endomembrane system (ER/Golgi apparatus) to the chloroplast instead of using the Toc-Tic machinery. (
  • Further study of CAH1 will not only be important to reveal its role in photosynthesis, but characterization of this novel protein pathway to the chloroplast can also shed light on how the plant cell evolved and clarify the purpose of keeping several chloroplast import pathways working in parallel. (
  • The chloroplast is an important energy-producing organelle acting as an environmental sensor for the plant cell. (
  • Nuclear-encoded proteins must be imported into the chloroplast through different membrane transport complexes, and the orderly protein import plays an important role in plant adaptive regulation. (
  • Specifically, quality control of chloroplast from protein import to degradation and associated regulatory pathways are discussed to better understand how plant adapt to environmental stress by fine-tuning chloroplast homeostasis, which will benefit breeding approaches to improve crop yield. (
  • MS has been extensively applied in this thesis to study chloroplast protein complexes and to quantify protein expression levels in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. (
  • proteins in normal plant development. (
  • 2005 ). Plastid and chloroplast development are affected by NEP and PEP throughout plant growth (Qiu et al. (
  • Since PRPs are crucial for plant growth and development, the lack of PRPs can affect protein synthesis and result in diverse phenotypes. (
  • Odintsova, M. 2004-10-10 00:00:00 A comparative analysis of proteins from chloroplast nucleoids was performed in two higher-plant species (Pisum sativumL. (
  • Because of the integration of chloroplast metabolism within the plant cell, the envelope is the site of many specific transport activities. (
  • To process the large amount of MS/MS data, a blast-based program was developed for searching in protein, expressed sequence tag, and genomic plant databases. (
  • Feeding barley seedlings with [14C]-biotin revealed that the vitamin is not degraded into respiratory substrates by the plant, but is specifically incorporated into biotin carboxyl carrier protein. (
  • A chloroplast-localized sHsp, Hsp21, provides protection to client proteins to increase plant stress resistance. (
  • When a pathogen attacks a plant, chloroplasts stop making food from sunlight and rush to the site of infection to help fend off the invader. (
  • TO THE RESCUE Chloroplasts (blue) squeeze between the plant cell membrane (magenta, line) and one of the Irish potato famine microbe's invading fingerlike haustorium (magenta, circles). (
  • Chloroplasts are highly dynamic-they circulate and are moved around within plant cells, and occasionally pinch in two to reproduce. (
  • Chloroplasts cannot be made by the plant cell and must be inherited by each daughter cell during cell division. (
  • Chloroplasts are one of many types of organelles in the plant cell. (
  • Both the chloroplast and cyanobacterium depicted are idealized versions (the chloroplast is that of a higher plant )-a lot of diversity exists among chloroplasts and cyanobacteria. (
  • For instance, chloroplast function is central for plant growth and survival, and the performance of chloroplasts is tightly linked to the general status of the cell and vice versa. (
  • The Benning lab has identified a rhomboid-like protein that may help plant chloroplasts tune their lipid production. (
  • Without light, photosynthesis, the reaction by which the plant chloroplasts convert atmospheric CO2 and water into sugars and oxygen, cannot take place. (
  • Chloroplasts (English pronunciation: /ˈklɒrəplæsts/) are organelles found in plant cells and other eukaryotic organisms that conduct photosynthesis. (
  • Proteins act as regulators to the flow of molecules between plant cells. (
  • More is being learned about the these proteins, which ones are available to the plant cell and exactly how they work to prohibit some molecules from passing through plasmodesmata while allowing access to others. (
  • Dr. Chory worked with a team of scientists that made strides toward discovering how chloroplasts, the plant cells responsible for photosynthesis, communicate with the plant structure in times of distress. (
  • This plant cell communication discovery was important because it demonstrated how outlying cells (chloroplasts) fed information to a nucleus about stressful conditions and the nucleus communicated that a slowdown in activity was required. (
  • SCO3 is a member of a largely uncharacterized protein family unique to the plant kingdom. (
  • As plant cells mature, they enlarge and differentiate, and during this process the chloroplasts in the mesophyll cells of the leaf undergo several additional rounds of replication. (
  • In chloroplasts of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana , as many as six sigma factors are found [ 13 - 15 ]. (
  • Transcriptional regulation in plant chloroplasts was thought to occur only during their early development, when there is a global increase in transcription of chloroplast genes. (
  • This view, however, has to be abandoned in the light of a series of experiments showing robust transcriptional regulation of genes in mature plant chloroplasts [ 19 - 21 ]. (
  • Often during flowering plant evolution, ribosomal protein genes have been lost from the mitochondrion and transferred to the nucleus. (
  • The present invention concerns transgenic plant which contain large chloroplasts. (
  • Chloroplasts are photosynthetic plant organelles descended from a bacterial ancestor. (
  • The normal development and functioning of plastids require import of particular subsets of nuclear encoded proteins. (
  • Plastocyanin is a nuclear-encoded chloroplast thylakoid lumen protein that is synthesized in the cytoplasm with a large N-terminal extension (66 amino acids). (
  • 1995). Sorting of nuclear-encoded chloroplast membrane proteins to the envelope and the thylakoid membrane. (
  • In higher plants, two nuclear-encoded forms of FtsZ, FtsZ1 and FtsZ2, play essential and functionally distinct roles in chloroplast division, but whether this involves ring formation at the division site has not been determined previously. (
  • Some chloroplasts also contain a second, phage-type single-subunit RNA polymerase known as the nuclear encoded polymerase (NEP), which transcribes DNA from distinct promoter elements found in some chloroplast genes [ 10 , 16 ]. (
  • fzl knockout mutants have abnormalities in chloroplast and thylakoid morphology, including disorganized grana stacks and alterations in the relative proportions of grana and stroma thylakoids. (
  • The AT_Chloro database was established achieving nearly 500 analyzes of highly purified fractions of the three major subcompartments of the chloroplast (envelope, stroma and thylakoids). (
  • Proteomic analysis using 'spectral count' shows that the first steps (methylerythritol phosphate pathways, the shikimate or protoporphyrinogen IX, for example) take place in the stroma (the proteins are indicated by orange circles) and then, as soon as molecules become hydrophobic, metabolic pathways involve membrane proteins: either from the thylakoids (green circles) or the envelope (yellow circles). (
  • The transit sequence is cleaved upon arrival in the stroma yielding the mature form of the protein followed by folding in the stroma, targeting to the inner membrane via the conservative sorting pathway, or transport to the thylakoid membrane system. (
  • Transport of plastocyanin involves two steps: import across the chloroplast envelope into the stroma, followed by transfer across the thylakoid membrane into the lumen. (
  • When incubated with thylakoids in the absence of stroma and/or ATP, a significant amount of wild-type protein assumes a form that is resistant to alkali extraction but is protease sensitive, like the imported deletion proteins. (
  • This form of the wild-type protein is not chased into a protease-resistant form by adding stroma and/or ATP. (
  • The results also show that cpSRP43 can bind to a hydrophobic, three-membrane span, substrate in aqueous solution, presumably reflecting a role for cpSRP in the chloroplast stroma. (
  • The best-characterized member of the chloroplast peroxiredoxins is 2-Cys Prx that is associated with the stroma side of the thylakoid membrane and is considered to participate in antioxidant defense and protection of photosynthesis. (
  • In primitive red algae , the chloroplast DNA nucleoids are clustered in the center of a chloroplast, while in green plants and green algae , the nucleoids are dispersed throughout the stroma . (
  • Inside, a chloroplast is filled with a fluid called stroma. (
  • When precursors of either Tic40 or a Tic110 C-terminal truncate, tpTic110-Tic110N, were imported into chloroplasts isolated from a tic40-null mutant, soluble Tic40 and Tic110N intermediates accumulated in the stroma of tic40-mutant chloroplasts, due to a slower rate of reinsertion. (
  • We further show that a larger quantity of soluble Tic21 intermediates also accumulated in the stroma of tic40-mutant chloroplasts. (
  • Plastid ribosomal proteins (PRPs) play important roles in the translation of key proteins involved in chloroplast development and photosynthesis. (
  • 2016 ). Plastid ribosomal proteins (PRPs) play important roles in the build-up step of chloroplast differentiation. (
  • Many ribosomal proteins, particularly those of the large subunit, are composed of a globular, surfaced-exposed domain with long finger-like projections that extend into the rRNA core to stabilise its structure. (
  • In addition to their function in the ribosome, many ribosomal proteins have some function 'outside' the ribosome [ PMID: 11290319 , PMID: 11114498 ]. (
  • Chandra Sanyal S, Liljas A. The end of the beginning: structural studies of ribosomal proteins. (
  • The import process starts with binding of precursor proteins to the envelope membrane via the interaction of the transit sequence with proteinaceous receptors at the surface of the outer membrane. (
  • The inhibition of this precursor import into chloroplasts by phosphatase inhibitor suggests that protein import into chloroplast may be regulated by phosphorylation. (
  • Sequence analysis suggests that the precursor of OEP86 is directed to the chloroplast outer envelope by a cleavable, negatively charged, and unusually long amino-terminal peptide. (
  • Insertion of precursor OEP86 required the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate and the existence of surface exposed chloroplast membrane components, and it was not competed by another precursor protein destined for the internal plastid compartments. (
  • The import of cytosolic precursor proteins relies on the Toc- (translocon at the outer chloroplast membrane) and Tic- (translocon at the inner chloroplast membrane) complexes. (
  • We have examined the import of a series of chimeric precursor proteins into chloroplasts. (
  • These results suggest that secondary or tertiary structural features of precursor proteins are important for protein import, and that the presence of a transit peptide in a protein does not necessarily ensure import of that protein into chloroplasts. (
  • 2001). A method for isolating a high yield of Arabidopsis chloroplasts capable of efficient import of precursor proteins. (
  • These systems recognize chloroplast precursor proteins and mediate their import in an energy-dependent manner. (
  • Here, we demonstrate by ribosome profiling that the conserved chloroplast signal recognition particle subunit, cpSRP54, is required for efficient co-translational targeting of several central photosynthetic proteins, like the photosystem II PsbA (D1) subunit. (
  • It was first described as a resistance factor in Enterobacteriaceaea and its enzymatic activity is to facilitate catalysis deactivation of chloramphenicol by formation of 3-acetoxy chloramphenicol, a derivative incapable of binding with the 50S bacterial or chloroplast ribosome unit. (
  • Chloramphenicol blocks protein chain elongation by inhibiting the peptidyl transferase activity of the bacterial ribosome in the 23S rRNA of the 50S subunit. (
  • About 2/3 of the mass of the ribosome consists of RNA and 1/3 of protein. (
  • The proteins are named in accordance with the subunit of the ribosome which they belong to - the small (S1 to S31) and the large (L1 to L44). (
  • Proteins on ribosome surface: measurements of protein exposure by hot tritium bombardment technique. (
  • Our data also support the idea that cytosolic proteins that associate with the cp outer membrane might account for false positive cp proteins obtained in earlier studies. (
  • Imported proteins are synthesized as cytosolic precursors containing N-terminal uptake-targeting sequences that direct each protein to its correct subcompartment and are subsequently cleaved. (
  • for example, the cytosolic events that mediate protein delivery to chloroplasts, the composition of the TIC apparatus, and the nature of the protein import motor all require resolution. (
  • A cpSRP [chloroplast SRP (signal recognition particle)] comprising cpSRP54 and cpSRP43 subunits mediates the insertion of light-harvesting proteins into the thylakoid membrane. (
  • In an Arabidopsis mutant (ppi2) that lacks atToc159, photosynthetic proteins that are normally abundant are transcriptionally repressed, and are found in much smaller amounts in the plastids, although ppi2 does not affect either the expression or the import of less abundant non-photosynthetic plastid proteins. (
  • In this study, a main effort was specifically made for the annotation of proteins from the chloroplast envelope, the site of interaction between plastids and the rest of the cell. (
  • The proteomes of plastids, and in particular of chloroplasts, have received significant amounts of attention in recent years. (
  • Chloroplasts are members of a class of organelles known as plastids. (
  • 2005). Arabidopsis Tic110 is essential for the assembly and function of the protein import machinery of plastids. (
  • 2008). Protein trafficking to plastids: one theme, many variations. (
  • The majority of these proteins are encoded in the nucleus and synthesized in the cytoplasm as higher molecular weight precursors carrying an NH 2 -terminal domain called a transit sequence. (
  • Photosystem II (PSII), one of the major protein complexes involved in photosynthesis, consists of more than 30 protein subunits, where around half of them are termed low molecular weight (LMW) proteins with a molecular size less than 10 kDa. (
  • Analysis of point mutated variants of CAH1 showed that both N-linked glycans and an intra-molecular disulphide bridge are required for correct folding, trafficking and function of the protein. (
  • In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanism of protein import and degradation in the chloroplast. (
  • These results facilitate research that will further uncover the molecular mechanism of chloroplast development. (
  • However, only a few proteins involved in the processes of transport across the chloroplast envelope have been identified already at the molecular level. (
  • Biotin localized in barley chloroplast lamellae is covalently bound to a single protein with an approximate molecular weight of 21000. (
  • Invasion triggered a cascade of molecular signals that prompted CHUP1 to mobilize chloroplasts. (
  • However, we did not know how exactly these proteins manage to protect the cells on a molecular level", explained Schneider. (
  • According to Professor Maule, "We are sure that plasmodesmata will contain many important proteins but our identification of this new class already means that we know now how we might regulate molecular flow from cell to cell. (
  • High-level transgene expression is of particular importance in resistance engineering (e.g., via expression of insecticidal proteins) and molecular farming. (
  • Toc159 is located in the outer chloroplast membrane and part of of the Toc/TOC (translocon of the outer envelope membrane of chloroplasts) complex. (
  • Thylakoids require the coordinated expression of both nuclear- and plastid-encoded proteins to allow rapid response to changing environmental conditions. (
  • It is known that posttranslational N α -acetylation occurs in both nuclear- and plastid-encoded chloroplast proteins, but the physiological significance of this acetylation is not yet understood. (
  • Transcription of chloroplast genes depends on the nucleus-encoded RNA polymerase (NEP) and the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP) (He et al. (
  • A multisubunit translocon of the inner envelope membrane, termed Tic, mediates the late stages of protein import into chloroplasts. (
  • 2007). Functional similarity between the chloroplast translocon component, Tic40, and the human co-chaperone, Hsp70-interacting protein (Hip). (
  • 2003). Tic40, a membrane-anchored co-chaperone homologue in the chloroplast protein translocon. (
  • Being the place where photosynthesis occurs, chloroplasts perform many other functions such as the synthesis of fatty acids, lipids, amino acids, vitamins, etc. (
  • As to the protein itself, synthesis occurred in both types of tissue but was considerably enhanced in the fully mature state. (
  • Protein synthesis and targeting involve a large variety of cellular activities that are energy-requiring. (
  • The development of chloroplasts from proplastids involves plastid replication and activation of plastid DNA synthesis, chloroplast genetic system "build-up", and synthesis and assembly of the photosynthetic apparatus. (
  • Chloroplasts carry out a number of other functions, including fatty acid synthesis , much amino acid synthesis, and the immune response in plants. (
  • Among others, the balancing and reprogramming of protein levels and composition is essential, which includes protein synthesis, folding, turnover and maintenance [ 2 , 3 , 4 ]. (
  • The ability to transform the chloroplast of Cyanidioschyzon merolae was limited by lack of confirmed and reliable promoter sequences (among other reasons), capable of delivering stable or modulated DNA transcription followed by protein synthesis. (
  • 2002). An Arabidopsis thaliana knock-out mutant of the chloroplast triose phosphate/phosphate translocator is severely compromised only when starch synthesis, but not starch mobilisation is abolished. (
  • Showed a moderately decreased synthesis rate for the chloroplast-encoded proteins, which may account for the accumulation of photosynthetic proteins (Figure 4B). (
  • A high Mg2+concentration could stabilize the I3 complex by inhibiting the conversion of I3 to a PRE complex, which explains why LEPA accelerates protein synthesis at 3PO manufacturer increased Mg2+concentrations [6,10]. (
  • Our study is consistent with the proposed function of LEPA as a translation factor that contributes to the efficiency of protein synthesis. (
  • In addition, we have presented evidence highlighting the importance of this protein for chloroplast translation, which provides further 23388095 insights into the conserved function of LEPA in chloroplast protein synthesis.maintained at 22uC throughout the 1480666 photoinhibitory treatments. (
  • The synthesis of chloroplast-encoded proteins was blocked by incubating detached leaves with 1 mM lincomycin at low light (20 mmol m22 s21) for 3 h before photoinhibition treatment. (
  • The sections were stained with 2 uranyl acetate, pH 5.0, followed by 10 mM lead citrate, pH 12, and observed with a transmission elect.Showed a moderately decreased synthesis rate for the chloroplast-encoded proteins, which may account for the accumulation of photosynthetic proteins (Figure 4B). (
  • While the crucial activities of decoding and peptide transfer are RNA based, proteins play an active role in functions that may have evolved to streamline the process of protein synthesis. (
  • Rare Exceptions or a Major Constituent of the Chloroplast Proteome? (
  • Extrapolations suggest that the fraction of cp proteins that enter the inner compartments of the organelle, although they lack a cTP, might be as large as 11.4% of the total cp proteome. (
  • These two proteome maps showed good correlation and the same protein groups were represented in the two proteomes. (
  • Thirty eight proteins were identified and in combination with an in silico prediction for the proteome it was estimated that at least 80 different proteins are lumen located. (
  • Important changes to the proteome were observed in response to the stress treatment, including abundance changes of proteins related to photosynthesis, as well as proteins not previously identified in relation to stress. (
  • A plastid protein database-integrates data from large scale proteome analyses of different plastid types. (
  • Various fractionation and mass spectrometry (MS) techniques have been applied to catalogue the chloroplast proteome and its membrane compartments. (
  • RNA editing mainly occurs in chloroplasts and mitochondrial genomes, and the number of editing sites varies in terrestrial plants. (
  • [18] The first chloroplast genomes were sequenced in 1986, from tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum ) [19] and liverwort ( Marchantia polymorpha ). (
  • To date, there are only 15 chloroplast genomes published for the Florideophyceae. (
  • Chloroplast genomes hold substantial information that can be tapped for resolving the phylogenetic relationships of difficult regions in the Rhodymeniophycidae, which are perceived to have experienced rapid radiation and thus received low nodal support, as exemplified in this study. (
  • The Florideophyceae which accommodates more than 6700 species of red algae [ 3 ] has only chloroplast genomes of 15 species published to date. (
  • As evidence of their bacterial origin, chloroplasts contain functional genomes, which are nevertheless greatly reduced in coding capacity when compared with the genomes of free-living cyanobacteria [ 3 - 5 ]. (
  • Although chloroplast genomes are miniscule by eukaryotic standards, they encode some of the core proteins of the photosynthetic machinery [ 6 , 7 ]. (
  • The large subunit consists of three rRNAs (23S, 5S, and 4.5S) and 33 PRPs, including 8 proteins encoded by plastid genes and 25 encoded by nuclear genes (Yamaguchi et al. (
  • These fusion proteins contained the transit peptide, and various amounts of the amino-terminal region of the mature peptide, from the small subunit of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, linked to the coat protein of brome mosaic virus. (
  • Subunit arrangement in the dodecameric chloroplast small heat shock protein Hsp21. (
  • Home Research Outputs Subunit arrangement in the dodecameric chloroplast small hea. (
  • Over the past years, the production of many commercially valuable proteins in chloroplast-transgenic (transplastomic) plants has been attempted, including pharmaceutical proteins (such as subunit vaccines and protein antibiotics) and industrial enzymes. (
  • As its name indicates, all subunits of the PEP, except its sigma factor subunit, are products of chloroplast genes. (
  • In the large subunit, about 1/3 of the 23S rRNA nucleotides are at least in van der Waal's contact with protein, and L22 interacts with all six domains of the 23S rRNA. (
  • Most of the proteins lie close to, or on the surface of, the 30S subunit, arranged peripherally around the rRNA [ PMID: 9281425 ]. (
  • The small ribosomal subunit protein S10 consists of about 100 amino acid residues. (
  • Targeting of chloroplast proteins to the thylakoid membrane is analogous to bacterial secretion, and much of what we know has been learned from secretory mechanisms in Escherichia coli. (
  • The formation of the FtsZ ring is the first known step in division and is essential for the recruitment of all other bacterial cell division proteins to the division site to form a functional division apparatus. (
  • indicating that bacterial cell and chloroplast division are evolutionarily and mechanistically related. (
  • To explore this discrepancy, we chose a representative set of 28 putative non-canonical cp proteins, and used in vitro import and Red Fluorescent Protein (RFP)-fusion assays to determine their sub-cellular destinations. (
  • Several others ('potential cp proteins') were found to be imported into chloroplasts in vitro, but failed to localize to the organelle when RFP was fused to their C-terminal ends. (
  • Chimeric genes were cloned into SP6 plasmids and in vitro transcription/translation was used to produce fusion proteins, which were examined in a quantitative in vitro import assay. (
  • Addition of the 68 kDa protein to an in vitro chloroplast DNA replication system resulted in complete inhibition of nucleotide incorporation at concentrations above 300 ng of 68 kDa protein per mu g of template DNA. (
  • At the Department of Biochemistry we conduct high-quality research that focuses on structure and function of proteins, photosynthesis and bioenergetics, in vitro diagnostics, and food sciences. (
  • 1991). In vitro reconstitution of protein transport into chloroplasts. (
  • 2003 ). The essential and non-essential PRPs are partially conserved between bacteria and chloroplasts. (
  • Figure 1: Peptide mass map of ions (peptides) detected by LC-MS in the chloroplast. (
  • A protease is a helper protein that is able to break peptide bonds in a process termed proteolysis. (
  • This N-terminal targeting sequence, named transit peptide in the context of chloroplast protein import, faithfully guides the preprotein to the chloroplast surface where it engages the import machinery. (
  • Studies of the energetics and determinants of transit peptide binding have led to the hypothesis that import occurs through sequential recognition of transit peptides by components of TOC and TIC during protein import. (
  • We demonstrate that the transit peptide is in contact with Tic20 at the inner envelope in addition to TOC complex components at the earliest stages of chloroplast binding. (
  • It is also sufficient to direct import of a nonplastid protein and can be replaced functionally by the transit peptide of an imported stromal protein. (
  • The fact that C1 is functionally equivalent to a stromal-targeting transit peptide shows that plastocyanin is imported into the chloroplast by way of the same mechanism as stromal proteins, and that import into and routing inside the chloroplasts are independent processes. (
  • A chimeric protein which contained only the transit peptide fused to the coat protein was imported into chloroplasts. (
  • A chimeric protein which contained the transit peptide and most of the mature peptide fused to the coat protein was not imported. (
  • 2006). Stimulation of transit-peptide release and ATP hydrolysis by a cochaperone during protein import into chloroplasts. (
  • These observations indicate that a regulation mechanism exists for protein import into chloroplasts. (
  • However, other factors involved in cp-actin filament regulation during chloroplast movement remain to be determined. (
  • This review summarizes the progress in the research field of posttranslational modifications of chloroplast proteins and points out the importance of these modifications in the regulation of chloroplast metabolism. (
  • It appears from recent progress that the numerous recently identified PTM s of chloroplast proteins provide additional regulation and signaling in chloroplasts. (
  • Changes in internal and external conditions (yellow stars) require rapid regulation of many processes inside the chloroplast. (
  • Post-translational modifications, but not transcriptional regulation, of major chloroplast RNA-binding proteins are related to Arabidopsis seedling. (
  • This requires differential regulation of mesophyll (M) and bundle sheath (BS) chloroplast development as well as higher metabolic fluxes of photosynthetic intermediates between cells and particularly across chloroplast envelopes. (
  • Eukaryotic cells are composed of multiple compartments that acquire specialized sets of proteins for function. (
  • The cyanobacterial Z-ring positioning system (MinCDE proteins) is also conserved in chloroplasts, except that MinC was lost and replaced by the eukaryotic ARC3 (accumulation and replication of chloroplasts). (
  • Chloroplast DNA ( cpDNA ) is the DNA located in chloroplasts, which are photosynthetic organelles located within the cells of some eukaryotic organisms. (
  • Chloroplasts originated from free-living cyanobacteria, which established an endosymbiotic relationship with a eukaryotic host cell around 1.2 billion years ago [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • In this issue of the Biochemical Journal, Kodama and Sano now show that two steps are necessary for the establishment of the novel plastid protein: the acquisition of an internal translation initiation site and the use of multiple transcription starts to produce short mRNA variants that encode the plastid-targeted protein form. (
  • Transcription of cp29A and cp29B did not vary significantly under light or dark conditions, although production of the acetylated and N-terminally cleaved protein isoforms exhibited light dependence. (
  • RNA gel blot analyses revealed up to four-fold decreases in accumulation for some chloroplast RNAs, which run-on experiments suggested could tentatively be ascribed to decreased transcription. (
  • In conclusion, our data suggest that CSP41a and CSP41b stimulate both transcription and translation in the chloroplast. (
  • Publications] Satoh,J.: 'Characterization of dynamics of the psbD light-induced transcription in mature wheat chloroplasts. (
  • Publications] Nakahira,Y.: 'Circadian clock-regulated transcription of the psbD light-responsive promoter (psbD LRP) in wheat chloroplasts. (
  • The first such experiment was a demonstration that chloroplast genes respond to increasing light intensity by increasing their rate of transcription [ 19 , 22 ]. (
  • Increased global transcription of chloroplast genes in high light enables chloroplasts to keep up with an increased demand for components of the photosynthetic machinery as the rate of photosynthesis increases. (
  • Has anyone ever worked with tagetitoxin, a selective transcription inhibitor of chloroplast with arabidopsis? (
  • Chloroplasts are found in many parts of plants, but are mainly found in the mesophyll tissue of leaves, where photosynthesis takes place. (
  • In plants and algae, photosynthesis takes place in cytoplasmic organelles known as chloroplasts. (
  • Photosystem II repair protein PSB27-H1 Probably involved in repair of photodamaged photosystem II. (
  • This strategy implemented for the first time has allowed identifying the of subplastidial localization of identified proteins to build the AT_Chloro dabase. (
  • The blue circles correspond to proteins whose localization was not possible. (
  • Lysine acetylation affects the localization and activity of key metabolic enzymes, and it may work antagonistically or cooperatively with lysine methylation, which also occurs in chloroplasts. (
  • Thus, it can serve as a tool to study the chloroplastidic localization of the protein of interest when it is combined with western-blot analysis. (
  • The appearance of a yellow color in transgenic cross sections, while absent in the control, through phase contrast microscopy indicated chloroplast localization of the target protein. (
  • A database dedicated to sub-plastidial localization of A. thaliana chloroplast proteins. (
  • In addition to current knowledge regarding sub-plastidial localization, AT_CHLORO provides experimental data that allowed curated information regarding subcellular localizations of chloroplast proteins to be given. (
  • The results show that C1 mediates import into the chloroplast. (
  • It mediates the GTP-dependent initial stages of preprotein import into chloroplasts. (
  • 2007). PIC1, an ancient permease in Arabidopsis chloroplasts, mediates iron transport. (
  • The chloroplast import motor was derived from the membrane-bound protease of an endosymbiotic cyanobacterial-like ancestor. (
  • Chloroplasts evolved from cyanobacterial endosymbiotic ancestors and their division is a complex process initiated by the assembly of cytoskeletal FtsZ ( F ilamentous t emperature s ensitive Z ) proteins into a ring structure at the division site (Z-ring). (
  • With one exception (the amoeboid Paulinella chromatophora ), all chloroplasts can probably be traced back to a single endosymbiotic event , when a cyanobacterium was engulfed by the eukaryote. (
  • Despite this, chloroplasts can be found in an extremely wide set of organisms, some not even directly related to each other-a consequence of many secondary and even tertiary endosymbiotic events . (
  • Among the events that accompanied the evolution of chloroplasts from their endosymbiotic ancestors was the host cell recruitment of the prokaryotic cell division protein FtsZ to function in chloroplast division. (
  • Hierarchical clustering using MS-derived spectral counts for each chromatography fraction effectively grouped the identified proteins into functional complexes. (
  • These findings indicate that atToc159 is required for the quantitative import of photosynthetic proteins. (
  • Figure 2: : Subcellular metabolism of terpene compounds in the chloroplast deduced from the semi-quantitative proteomic data. (
  • This review will introduce and summarize current developments in this emerging research field and will emphasize the importance of PTM s in chloroplast metabolism ( Fig. 1 ). (
  • Chloroplast RNA-binding proteins are involved in stabilizing stored chloroplast mRNAs and in recruiting site-specific factors that mediate RNA metabolism. (
  • The predictable function of some of these proteins opens up areas of investigation that may lead to a better understanding of the chloroplast metabolism. (
  • The complex contains nine different proteins in one or more copies, namely five serine-type ClpP peptidases (ClpP1,3-6) and four non-proteolytic ClpR subunits (ClpR1-4). (
  • Unfolding proteins are prevented from irreversible aggregation by small heat shock proteins (sHsps) through interactions that depend on a dynamic equilibrium between sHsp subunits and sHsp oligomers. (
  • The α2/β subunits form part of voltage-dependent calcium channels and as such are considered accessory proteins. (
  • In addition to mediating therapeutical mechanisms, the involvement of α2/β subunits in diseases has been demonstrated in mouse models with mutations of the protein or alterations in expression levels. (
  • The photosystems are the functional units of photosynthesis where the initial light-driven electron transfer reactions take place [ 8 , 9 ], and their major protein subunits are always chloroplast-encoded [ 6 , 7 ]. (
  • Experimental evidence [ PMID: 9371771 ] has revealed that S10 has virtually no groups exposed on the ribosomal surface, and is one of the "split proteins": these are a discrete group that are selectively removed from 30S subunits under low salt conditions and are required for the formation of activated 30S reconstitution intermediate (RI*) particles. (
  • We conclude that plants have evolved a unique mechanism to regulate actin-based organelle movement using kinesin-like proteins. (
  • All proteins studied within this thesis are localized in the chloroplast, the organelle that originated from cyanobacteria, in which plants and algae convert the energy from sunlight into carbohydrates in the process called photosynthesis. (
  • We show that Arabidopsis chloroplasts have at least 19 J proteins, the highest number of confirmed J proteins for any organelle. (
  • 1997). A nuclear-coded chloroplastic inner envelope membrane protein uses a soluble sorting intermediate upon import into the organelle. (
  • Cline, K, R Henry(1996) Import and routing of nucleus-encoded chloroplast proteins. (
  • Our data show that FtsH11 has an influence on the structure and function of chloroplasts of Arabidopsis plants grown under continuous light along with protein import into the same. (
  • Upon disruption of the nucleoids with high concentrations of NaCl, a subset of these proteins and the majority of chloroplast DNA were recovered in the supernatant after centrifugation. (
  • Here, we have investigated the practical applicability of three selected chloroplast promoters for stable and highly efficient overexpression of recombinant proteins in C. merolae chloroplasts. (
  • Thioredoxins (Trxs) are small ubiquitous disulphide proteins widely known to enhance expression and solubility of recombinant proteins in microbial expression systems. (
  • Two proteins that are related to atToc159 (atToc120 and atToc132) probably help to maintain basal protein import in ppi2, and so constitute components of alternative, atToc159-independent import pathways. (
  • 2004). Import pathways of chloroplast interior proteins and the outer-membrane protein OEP14 converge at Toc75. (
  • These 19 J proteins are classified into 11 clades, for which cyanobacteria and glaucophytes only have homologs for one clade, green algae have an additional three clades, and all the other 7 clades are specific to land plants. (
  • [9] This origin of chloroplasts was first suggested by the Russian biologist Konstantin Mereschkowski in 1905 [10] after Andreas Schimper observed in 1883 that chloroplasts closely resemble cyanobacteria . (
  • Cyanobacteria are considered the ancestors of chloroplasts. (
  • 1992). Information for targeting tothe chloroplastic inner envelope membrane iscontained in the mature region of the maize Bt1-encoded protein. (
  • In Arabidopsis thaliana , leaf mesophyll cells ultimately contain over 100 chloroplasts, compared with 14 proplastids in meristematic cells ( Pyke and Leech 1992 ). (
  • 2006). Reconstitution of protein targeting to the inner envelope membrane of chloroplasts. (
  • Most renewable carbon is fixed by photosynthetic organisms through their chloroplasts. (
  • The intrinsically unstructured state of some proteins, observed in all living organisms, is essential for basic cellular functions. (
  • Chloroplasts are the site of photosynthesis, the process which most organisms, including humans, rely on directly or indirectly for their source of organic compounds and energy. (
  • This review focuses on the evolutionarily conserved chloroplast twin arginine transport (cpTat) pathway. (
  • Berks BC, Sargent F, Palmer T (2000) The Tat protein export pathway. (
  • Recent studies have shown that proteins are transported into this membrane by a variety of mechanisms, some of which are derived from a cyanobacterial-type ancestor, whereas others have evolved in response to the more complex transport pathway used by cytosolically synthesized chloroplast proteins. (
  • 2017 ). During chloroplast development, NEP preferentially transcribes plastid housekeeping genes, such as those encoding the PEP apparatus, rRNA, and tRNA, and the overall transcriptional and translational activities in the chloroplast dramatically increase (Hajdukiewicz et al. (
  • This rapid protocol allows the extraction of chloroplast enriched proteins from Nicotiana benthamiana ( N. benthamiana ) leaves that were transiently transformed to express an epitope tagged protein of interest. (
  • These results indicate that the functional pore size of the chloroplast translocons is larger than previously assumed. (
  • The recombinant NtDSK1 underwent autophosphorylation of serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues, indicating that NtDSK1 encodes a functional dual-specificity protein kinase. (
  • Expression of Pst_12806 in plants reduces electron transport rate, photosynthesis, and production of chloroplast-derived ROS. (
  • FZL defines a new protein class within the dynamin superfamily of membrane-remodeling GTPases that regulates organization of the thylakoid network in plants. (
  • FZL is an FZO-like protein in plants. (
  • Light triggers the developmental programme in plants that leads to the production of photosynthetically active chloroplasts from non-photosynthetic proplastids. (
  • Finally, understanding the metabolic processes of the chloroplast is essential if one wants to analyze the impact of environmental change on plants. (
  • This understanding could aid biotechnological improvements in the efficiency of crop photosynthesis, or the development of plants and algae as factories that manufacture or store proteins in their chloroplasts. (
  • Posttranslational modifications of proteins are key effectors of enzyme activity, protein interactions, targeting, and turnover rate, but despite their importance, they are still poorly understood in plants. (
  • Knock-out plants of the inactive members are embryo lethal, and knock-down plants grow slower than wild type, probably because of an affected level of plastid proteins at the translational level. (
  • Here we have investigated Hsp21, a non-metazoan sHsp expressed in the chloroplasts in green plants which experience huge environmental fluctuations not least in temperature. (
  • N-isotope labeling of either recombinantly expressed and purified Hsp21 protein or intact Arabidopsis thaliana plants. (
  • In the nucleoids of the higher plants and the alga, 26-27 proteins were detected with their mol wts ranging from 10 to more than 94 kD. (
  • During evolution of land plants, a specific motif occurred in the N-terminal domain of the chloroplast-localized small heat shock protein, Hsp21: a sequence with highly conserved methionines, which is predicted to form an amphipathic -helix with the methionines situated along one side. (
  • In higher plants, chloroplasts are the site for the photosynthetic reactions, converting solar energy to chemical energy. (
  • Chloroplast tubules visualized in transplastomic plants expressing green fluorescent protein. (
  • One such approach is to use fusion protein genes to increase resistance in plants by introducing more Bt genes in combination. (
  • It will not mean that the non-green parts of the plants are free of toxic proteins, but it will inflict more damage on the insects because they are at maximum activity in the green parts of plants. (
  • Locating the target protein at the point of insect attack increases insect mortality when compared with that of other transgenic plants. (
  • Transformation of these crystal protein (Bt) genes in plants, especially cotton, has been carried out for many years [4]. (
  • CALL TO ARMS When attacked by a funguslike microbe (magenta), plants activate a protein that marshals chloroplasts (yellow) as a defensive army. (
  • They look as if they're going back to their ancestral origins when they were free-living microbes," Bozkurt says, referring to the theory that chloroplasts were once photosynthetic bacteria that were captured millions of years ago by the common ancestor of plants and algae. (
  • It's possible, he says, that these responses are vestiges of chloroplasts' primitive defense system that plants have co-opted for their own immunity. (
  • These proteins could represent additional candidates of proteins essential for development or metabolite transport processes in C4 plants. (
  • The number of chloroplasts per cell varies from one, in unicellular algae, up to 100 in plants like Arabidopsis and wheat . (
  • [5] Chloroplasts are only found in plants , algae , [11] and the amoeboid Paulinella chromatophora . (
  • In response to repetitive heat stress, plants without TOC33 accumulate Hsp70 proteins and plants without TOC64 have a higher content of proteins involved in thylakoid structure determination when compared to wild-type plants. (
  • Antibodies specific for recognition of FtsZ1 or FtsZ2 proteins in Arabidopsis also recognize related polypeptides and detect midplastid rings in pea and tobacco, suggesting that midplastid ring formation by FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 is universal among flowering plants. (
  • Perturbation in the level of either protein in transgenic plants is accompanied by plastid division defects and assembly of FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 into filaments and filament networks not observed in wild-type, suggesting that previously described FtsZ-containing cytoskeletal-like networks in chloroplasts may be artifacts of FtsZ overexpression. (
  • They Chloroplast is the cell that conduct photosynthesis in plants. (
  • The present invention further concerns a method of producing the transgenic plants of the present invention which contain large chloroplasts. (
  • Studied protein import into peroxisomes in yeast. (
  • Although the protein breakdown role has since been lost during evolution, the extraction function has been retained to be utilized as an import motor. (
  • The team believes that simultaneous increases in the size of components of TIC and the newly identified motor occurred early in the evolution of the green algae, perhaps to improve protein import efficiency. (
  • Protein Import into and Sorting inside the Chloroplast Are Independent Processes. (
  • C1 is sufficient to direct chloroplast import of mutant proteins that lack C2. (
  • C2 is a prerequisite for intraorganellar routing but is not required for chloroplast import. (
  • All of the mutated precursors, including those with large C-terminal and internal deletions, were imported successfully, showing that these regions of the mature CABp are not required for import into chloroplasts. (
  • Here, we report the ability of Toc90 to support the import of Toc159 client proteins. (
  • Chloroplast import characteristics of chimeric proteins. (
  • In vivo studies on the roles of Tic110, Tic40 and Hsp93 during chloroplast protein import. (
  • Non-additive interactions amongst the mutations occurred in double mutants, suggesting that the three components may cooperate during chloroplast protein import. (
  • To understand the evolution and functions of chloroplast Hsp70s and J proteins, we identified the Arabidopsis chloroplast J protein constituency using a combination of genomic and proteomic database searches and individual protein import assays. (
  • Deletion of the chloroplast LTD protein impedes LHCI import an. (
  • Deletion of the chloroplast LTD protein impedes LHCI import and PSI-LHCI assembly in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (
  • 2003). atTic110 functions as a scaffold for coordinating the stromal events of protein import into chloroplasts. (
  • 1996). Interaction of the protein import and folding machineries in the chloroplast. (
  • 2004). Mechanisms of protein import and routing in chloroplasts. (
  • 2004). Protein import into chloroplasts. (
  • 1996). Topology of IEP110, a component of the chloroplastic protein import machinery present in the inner envelope membrane. (
  • In this review, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of protein import into chloroplasts and how this process is regulated by the UPS. (
  • Loss-of-function clb19 mutants present a yellow phenotype with impaired chloroplast development and early seedling lethality under greenhouse conditions. (
  • However, impaired chloroplast development cannot be attributed to perturbed peroxisomal metabolic processes involving germination, fatty acid β-oxidation or photorespiration, though there are so far undescribed changes in low and high CO(2) sensitivity in seedlings and young true leaves. (