Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
Proteins encoded by the CHLOROPLAST GENOME or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the CHOROPLASTS.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.
Ribonucleic acid in chloroplasts having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.
Membranous cisternae of the CHLOROPLAST containing photosynthetic pigments, reaction centers, and the electron-transport chain. Each thylakoid consists of a flattened sac of membrane enclosing a narrow intra-thylakoid space (Lackie and Dow, Dictionary of Cell Biology, 2nd ed). Individual thylakoids are interconnected and tend to stack to form aggregates called grana. They are found in cyanobacteria and all plants.
The genetic complement of CHLOROPLASTS as represented in their DNA.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A genus GREEN ALGAE in the order VOLVOCIDA. It consists of solitary biflagellated organisms common in fresh water and damp soil.
A species of GREEN ALGAE. Delicate, hairlike appendages arise from the flagellar surface in these organisms.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A species of fresh-water, flagellated EUKARYOTES in the phylum EUGLENIDA.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
A subtype of thioredoxins found primarily in CHLOROPLASTS.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A genus of EUKARYOTES, in the phylum EUGLENIDA, found mostly in stagnant water. Characteristics include a pellicle usually marked by spiral or longitudinal striations.
A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.
Proteins found in any species of algae.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A widely cultivated plant, native to Asia, having succulent, edible leaves eaten as a vegetable. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Those nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity which are located within the CHLOROPLAST DNA.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The absence of light.
Proton-translocating ATPases which produce ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE in plants. They derive energy from light-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the membranous cisternae (THYLAKOIDS) of the CHLOROPLASTS.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A large multisubunit protein complex that is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to drive electron transfer reactions that result in either the reduction of NADP to NADPH or the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane-bound plastids containing chlorophyll a and b. They comprise the classical green algae, and represent over 7000 species that live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
The use of light to convert ADP to ATP without the concomitant reduction of dioxygen to water as occurs during OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION in MITOCHONDRIA.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A group of GLYCOLIPIDS in which the sugar group is GALACTOSE. They are distinguished from GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS in lacking nitrogen. They constitute the majority of MEMBRANE LIPIDS in PLANTS.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
A protein complex that includes CYTOCHROME B6 and CYTOCHROME F. It is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE and plays an important role in process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS by transferring electrons from PLASTOQUINONE to PLASTOCYANIN or CYTOCHROME C6. The transfer of electrons is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
Cytochromes f are found as components of the CYTOCHROME B6F COMPLEX. They play important role in the transfer of electrons from PHOTOSYSTEM I to PHOTOSYSTEM II.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.
A pre-emergent herbicide.
An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.
A genus of green algae found in the Mediterranean and other warm seas.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).
Polyunsaturated side-chain quinone derivative which is an important link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
Ribonucleic acid in algae having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and water to D-fructose 6-phosphate and orthophosphate. EC
A copper-containing plant protein that is a fundamental link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds.
A subcategory of chaperonins found in MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and BACTERIA. Group I chaperonins form into a barrel-shaped macromolecular structure that is enclosed by a separate lid-like protein component.

Solute pores, ion channels, and metabolite transporters in the outer and inner envelope membranes of higher plant plastids. (1/207)

All plant cells contain plastids. Various reactions are located exclusively within these unique organelles, requiring the controlled exchange of a wide range of solutes, ions, and metabolites. In recent years, several proteins involved in import and/or export of these compounds have been characterized using biochemical and electrophysiological approaches, and in addition have been identified at the molecular level. Several solute channels have been identified in the outer envelope membrane. These porin-like proteins in the outer envelope membrane were formerly thought to be quite unspecific, but have now been shown to exhibit significant substrate specificity and to be highly regulated. Therefore, the inter-envelope membrane space is not as freely accessible as previously thought. Transport proteins in the inner envelope membrane have been characterized in more detail. It has been proved unequivocally that a family of proteins (including triose phosphate-/phosphoenolpyruvate-, and glucose 6-phosphate-specific transporters) permit the exchange of inorganic phosphate and phosphorylated intermediates. A new type of plastidic 2-oxoglutarate/malate transporter has been identified and represents the first carrier with 12 putative transmembrane domains, to be located in the inner envelope membrane. The plastidic ATP/ADP transporter also contains 12 putative transmembrane domains and possesses striking structural similarity to ATP/ADP transporters found in intracellular, human pathogenic bacteria.  (+info)

Identification of the pore-forming region of the outer chloroplast envelope protein OEP16. (2/207)

The chloroplast outer envelope protein OEP16 forms a cation-selective high conductance channel with permeability to amines and amino acids. The region of OEP16 directly involved in channel formation has been identified by electrophysiological analysis of a selection of reconstituted OEP16 mutants. Because analysis of these mutants depended on the use of recombinant protein, we evaluated the electrophysiological properties of OEP16 isolated directly from pea chloroplasts and of the recombinant protein produced in Escherichia coli. The results show that the basic properties like conductance, selectivity, and open probability of the channel formed by native pea OEP16 are comparable with the channel activity formed by the recombinant source of the protein. Following electrophysiological analysis of OEP16 mutants we found that point mutations and insertion of additional amino acid residues in the region of the putative helix 1 (Glu(73) to Val(91)) did not change the properties of the OEP16 channel. The only exception was a Cys(71)-->Ser mutation, which led to a loss of the CuCl(2) sensitivity of the channel. Analysis of N- and C-terminal deletion mutants of OEP16 and mutants containing defined shuffled domains indicated that the minimal continuous region of OEP16, which is able to form a channel in liposomes, lies in the first half of the protein between amino acid residues 21 and 93.  (+info)

Ontogenetic changes of potato plants during acclimation to elevated carbon dioxide. (3/207)

Transgenic potato plants (Solanum tuberosum cv. Desiree) with an antisense repression of the chloroplastic triosephosphate translocator were compared with wild-type plants. Plants were grown in chambers with either an atmosphere with ambient (400 mu bar) or elevated (1000 mu bar) CO2. After 7 weeks, the rate of CO2 assimilation between wild-type and transgenic plants in both CO2 concentrations was identical, but the tuber yield of both plant lines was increased by about 30%, when grown in elevated CO2. One explanation is that plants respond to the elevated CO2 only at a certain growth stage. Therefore, growth of wild-type plants was analysed between the second and the seventh week. Relative growth rate and CO2 assimilation were stimulated in elevated CO2 only in the second and the third weeks. During this period, the carbohydrate content of leaves grown with elevated CO2 was lower than that of leaves grown with ambient CO2. In plants grown in elevated CO2, the rate of CO2 assimilation started to decline after 5 weeks, and accumulation of carbohydrates began after 7 weeks. From this observation it was concluded that acclimation of potato plants to elevated CO2 is the result of accelerated development rather than of carbohydrate accumulation causing down-regulation of photosynthesis. For a detailed analysis for the cause of the stimulation of growth after 2 weeks, the contents of phosphorylated intermediates of wild-type plants and transgenics were measured. Stimulation of CO2 assimilation was accompanied by changes in the contents of phosphorylated intermediates, resulting in an increase in the amount of dihydroxyacetone phosphate, the metabolite which is exported from the chloroplast into the cytosol. An increase of dihydroxyacetone phosphate was found in wild-type plants in elevated CO2 when compared with ambient CO2 and in triosephosphate translocator antisense plants in ambient CO2, but not in the transgenic plants when grown in elevated CO2. These plants were not able to increase dihydroxyacetone phosphate further to cope with the increased CO2 supply. From these changes in phosphorylated intermediates in wild-type and transgenic plants it was concluded that starch and sucrose synthesis pathways can replace each other only at moderate carbon flux rates.  (+info)

Chloroplast precursor proteins compete to form early import intermediates in isolated pea chloroplasts. (4/207)

In order to ascertain whether there is one site for the import of precursor proteins into chloroplasts or whether different precursor proteins are imported via different import machineries, chloroplasts were incubated with large quantities of the precursor of the 33 kDa subunit of the oxygen-evolving complex (pOE33) or the precursor of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding protein (pLHCP) and tested for their ability to import a wide range of other chloroplast precursor proteins. Both pOE33 and pLHCP competed for import into chloroplasts with precursors of the stromally-targeted small subunit of Rubisco (pSSu), ferredoxin NADP(+) reductase (pFNR) and porphobilinogen deaminase; the thylakoid membrane proteins LHCP and the Rieske iron-sulphur protein (pRieske protein); ferrochelatase and the gamma subunit of the ATP synthase (which are both associated with the thylakoid membrane); the thylakoid lumenal protein plastocyanin and the phosphate translocator, an integral membrane protein of the inner envelope. The concentrations of pOE33 or pLHCP required to cause half-maximal inhibition of import ranged between 0.2 and 4.9 microM. These results indicate that all of these proteins are imported into the chloroplast by a common import machinery. Incubation of chloroplasts with pOE33 inhibited the formation of early import intermediates of pSSu, pFNR and pRieske protein.  (+info)

The effect of amino acid-modifying reagents on chloroplast protein import and the formation of early import intermediates. (5/207)

In order to identify functionally important amino acid residues in the chloroplast protein import machinery, chloroplasts were preincubated with amino-acid-modifying reagents and then allowed to import or form early import intermediates with precursor proteins. Incubation of chloroplasts with N-ethyl maleimide, diethyl pyrocarbonate, phenylglyoxal, 4,4'-di-isothiocyanatostilbene 2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS), dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), and 1-ethyl- 3-dimethylaminopropylcarbodiimide (EDC) inhibited both import and formation of early import intermediates with precursor proteins by chloroplasts. This suggests that one or more of the binding components of the chloroplast protein import machinery contains functionally important solvent-exposed cysteine, histidine, arginine, and aspartate/glutamate residues, as well as functionally important lysine and aspartate/ glutamate residues in a hydrophobic environment.  (+info)

Involvement of a site-specific trans-acting factor and a common RNA-binding protein in the editing of chloroplast mRNAs: development of a chloroplast in vitro RNA editing system. (6/207)

RNA editing in higher plant chloroplasts involves C-->U conversion at approximately 30 specific sites. An in vitro system supporting accurate editing has been developed from tobacco chloroplasts. Mutational analysis of substrate mRNAs derived from tobacco chloroplast psbL and ndhB mRNAs confirmed the participation of cis-acting elements that had previously been identified in vivo. Competition analysis revealed the existence of site-specific trans-acting factors interacting with the corresponding upstream cis-elements. A chloroplast protein of 25 kDa was found to be specifically associated with the cis-element involved in psbL mRNA editing. Immunological analyses revealed that an additional factor, the chloroplast RNA-binding protein cp31, is also required for RNA editing at multiple sites. This combination of site-specific and common RNA-binding proteins recognizes editing sites in chloroplasts.  (+info)

Transcriptional repression and developmental functions of the atypical vertebrate GATA protein TRPS1. (7/207)

Known vertebrate GATA proteins contain two zinc fingers and are required in development, whereas invertebrates express a class of essential proteins containing one GATA-type zinc finger. We isolated the gene encoding TRPS1, a vertebrate protein with a single GATA-type zinc finger. TRPS1 is highly conserved between Xenopus and mammals, and the human gene is implicated in dominantly inherited tricho-rhino-phalangeal (TRP) syndromes. TRPS1 is a nuclear protein that binds GATA sequences but fails to transactivate a GATA-dependent reporter. Instead, TRPS1 potently and specifically represses transcriptional activation mediated by other GATA factors. Repression does not occur from competition for DNA binding and depends on a C-terminal region related to repressive domains found in Ikaros proteins. During mouse development, TRPS1 expression is prominent in sites showing pathology in TRP syndromes, which are thought to result from TRPS1 haploinsufficiency. We show instead that truncating mutations identified in patients encode dominant inhibitors of wild-type TRPS1 function, suggesting an alternative mechanism for the disease. TRPS1 is the first example of a GATA protein with intrinsic transcriptional repression activity and possibly a negative regulator of GATA-dependent processes in vertebrate development.  (+info)

Identification of an RNA-protein complex involved in chloroplast group II intron trans-splicing in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (8/207)

In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the psaA mRNA is assembled by a process involving trans-splicing of separate transcripts, encoded at three separate loci of the chloroplast genome. At least 14 nuclear loci and one chloroplast gene, tscA, are needed for this process. We have cloned Raa3, the first nuclear gene implicated in the splicing of intron 1. The predicted sequence of Raa3 consists of 1783 amino acids and shares a small region of homology with pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate oxidases. Raa3 is present in the soluble fraction of the chloroplast and is part of a large 1700 kDa complex, which also contains tscA RNA and the first psaA exon transcript. These partners, in association with other factors, form a chloroplast RNP particle that is required for the splicing of the first intron of psaA and which may be the counterpart of eukaryotic snRNPs involved in nuclear splicing.  (+info)

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Solitary medium-sized palm. TRUNK 1.5-8 m, 13-30 cm diam., widened at the very base; distal half of trunk (or in smaller trees the entire trunk) covered in densely packed sheath remnants; near crown c. 10 cm diam.; bark brown; internodes 2.5-8 cm; nodal scars 0.5-1 cm, occasionally with tattered sheath remnants appearing as threads; wood hard; trunk sometimes producing a yellow latex-like substance when slashed. LEAVES (11-) 18-22 per crown, glaucous, gracefully arching, with stiff segments, the old leaves marcescent; sheath 36-55 x 13-20 cm, white- to dark brown tomentose, the tomentum quickly deciduous, the distal part waxy-white; petiole 22-60 cm long, proximally 2.8-6 x 2.0-3.5 cm, distally 1.4-3.0 x 1.4-2 cm, slightly channelled adaxially, with rather sharp edges, proximally red-brown tomentose, distally glabrous and yellow or with whitish bloom when dry, abaxially strongly convex; rachis 1-2.1 m long, in mid-leaf 0.9-2 x 0.8-1.6 cm, pale green with white bloom; leaflets pale green, stiff, ...
For Sale on 1stdibs - Pair of Mid-Century Murano glass lamps with gored bodies and bullicante pattern. The blown glass has gold dust throughout and sit on onyx and brushed
Plants medium-sized, pale green or yellowish brown, in dense tufts. Stems prostrate, irregularly branched, branches ascending; in stem cross section epidermal cells large, thin-walled. Leaves dense, erect-spreading, radially arranged, rarely complanate, 1.2-1.8 mm long, concave, ovate at base, gradually acuminate, distinctly decurrent at base, sometimes slightly plicate when dry; margins serrulate above the midleaf; costae double, short, or indistinct; leaf cells narrowly rhomboidal, 2-4 rows of cells at decurrent bases, hyaline or reddish, thin-walled, rectangular. Autoicous. Perichaetial leaves erect. Setae 12-17 mm long; capsules 1.5-2.0 mm long, nearly erect or suberect; peristome pale yellowish brown; cilia 1-2. Spores 11-15 µm in diameter, minutely papillose or nearly smooth. ...
Flowers: Bell-shaped to funnelform, erect, 4-5 cm long, 4 cm in diameter, on lateral areoles close to the stem apex, and the segments of the perianth are pale mauve, pink or white. Pericarpel and floral tube green, with dense, narrow, spine-tipped brownish scales approximatively 1 cm long , sparsely hairy in their axils. Stamens in several rows, incurred, with no separate throat-circle. Stigmas 6 mm long, pale green. Flower-buds very hairy ...
The colors of the cozy cabin even add to the winter interest. I might have lost track of the flow at some point. It isnt jarring enough to spin me to action though. Painting is a tedious process. The front porch may appear patriotic, but beneath it all my queer flag is flying. I have all the colors of the rainbow in there. Blue doors and decks, a haint aint blue spruce pine pale green basement patio ceiling, a pale yellow window and eave trim, red columns and girders, white windows and purple wire baskets with shiny silver balls ...
Woody climbers, occasionally suberect shrubs, to 3 m tall, deciduous. Young branches green, with dense brownish hairs; old branches purple-brown, glabrous, waxy, armed with short spines 4-6 mm, spines at apices shallowly bifurcate; bud scales glabrous, ciliolate. Petiole 0.5-1 cm; leaf blade abaxially pale green, adaxially dark green, ovate-elliptic, ovate, or broadly ovate, 3.5-9 × 2-5 cm, papery, glabrous or sparsely pubescent on midvein, lateral veins 3-5 pairs, base acute, cuneate, or rounded, apex acute or acuminate. Pedicel 2-4 mm, 2-2.5 cm at fruiting; bracts 4, 2-4 mm. Flowers appearing before leaves, solitary. Sepals 5, suborbicular or broadly ovate, ca. 0.5 mm, ciliolate or not. Petals 5, light yellowish green, obovate or oblong-ovate, 3-4 mm. Stamens 5; anthers narrowly elliptic, extrorse. Disk cup-shaped, shallowly 5-lobed. Ovary ovoid, pubescent or glabrous. Schizocarp green to red, purple, or bluish black, suborbicular or subreniform, ca. 5 mm in diam.; endocarp with prominent ...
Description: Erect shrub or small tree to 6 m high; new growth pinkish brown. Leaves narrow-oblanceolate, often with one side straighter than the other, 5-10 cm long, 6-11 mm wide, apex ± acute, margins often recurved, pale green; midrib, intramarginal vein and lateral veins distinct. Spikes 3-5 cm long, c. 60 mm diam. Petals densely hairy on the undersurface. Filaments crimson, c. 25 mm long; anthers red-brown. Capsules 7-8 mm diam., often deflexed, orifice sunken. ...
Theres a whore on the bed. Shes sleeping right now and the light from the corner window just traces her shoulder across the pale green plaster of the...
This rectangular pale green glass bottle has a hand finished cork top and is embossed on the front with the words Dr. Porter/ New York ...
This Egyptian amulet takes the form of a rabbit with longish ears, and its body in profile. A small hole has been drilled from one side of the head to the other below the ears. The image appears to have been carved out of a pale green stone, possibly ...
LM-400 is a preserved, 30% BSA solution free of caprylate with added albumin polymers for increased avidity. LM-400 is a clear, pale green to amber brown, sterile- filtered solution processed under condition to minimize microbial contamination and sodium and chloride concentrations. LM-400 undergoes additional testing to demonstrate each lot is free of viral contamination ...
As autumns rusty fingers start painting their way, Across the pale green landscape of a dying summers day, My lengthening shadow, grows impatient to be free, Looking over my shoulder, and theres nobody, following me, And theres nobody, following me Doesnt quite scan as a poem, but these were the opening words of a song…
Hi! This morning I found myself on my back a lil bit (sleeping) Im coming to the end of my 25 weeks. Once I realized I was on my back I quickly changed positions to my side and I started to feel my baby kick. Do you think I hurt him in anyway? 1st time mom
Bouquets of lovely flowers provide a lovely decorative theme to this pale green and seaweed color ceramic dish. Made in Japan, this medium-size piece is a stylish way to serve and enjoy a variety of dipping sauces, dressings and flavor-infused oils. It also provides a welcome display for Asian-inspired |b||a href=11264.html|appetizers|/a||/b| like edamame and eggrolls, or Western-style snacks like sliced vegetables, crackers, cheeses and chips. |br||br| The outside of each glossy ceramic piece features a smooth pale green solid glaze. Its darker seaweed green interior is enhanced by several bunches of beautifully detailed flowers of numerous shapes and sizes; small clusters of light and dark-colored blossoms are arranged alongside big blooms with slender elongated petals. A delicate layer of black lines its outer rim-a perfect complement to its elegant motif. |br||br| |b||a href=nlnov04.html|Flowers|/a||/b| are a beloved and classic theme used to decorate many Japanese ceramic wares, textiles,
Author: Hristou, Athina et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2019; Title: Ribosome-associated chloroplast SRP54 enables efficient co-translational membrane insertion of key photosynthetic proteins
Chloroplasts originated from an endosymbiotic event in which a free-living cyanobacterium was engulfed by an ancestral eukaryotic host. During evolution the majority of the chloroplast genetic information was transferred to the host cell nucleus. As a consequence, proteins formerly encoded by the chloroplast genome are now translated in the cytosol and must be subsequently imported into the chloroplast. This process involves three steps: (i) cytosolic sorting procedures, (ii) binding to the designated receptor-equipped target organelle and (iii) the consecutive translocation process. During import, proteins have to overcome the two barriers of the chloroplast envelope, namely the outer envelope membrane (OEM) and the inner envelope membrane (IEM). In the majority of cases, this is facilitated by two distinct multiprotein complexes, located in the OEM and IEM, respectively, designated TOC and TIC. Plants are constantly exposed to fluctuating environmental conditions such as temperature and light ...
These larvae, which are not usually attended by ants, seem to prefer several species in the family Acanthaceae, such as Hygrophila angustifolia and Ruellia tuberosa, but they have also been observed on the legume Desmodium scorpiurus (Fabaceae). They feed initially on the flowers and then on the young fruits. Mature larvae 7 mm long, body colour tends to match the host food, usually pale green with a conspicuous dark red line as well as some other markings: head pale yellow brown. Adult male lilac, outer margin a broad brown band, narrow on hind wing; female dull brown may have a bluish tinge; lower surface pale green with some rings and small brown-black spots.. ...
Description from Flora of China. Rhizome long, ligneous. Culms densely tufted, usually 1 or 2 borne in a leaf axil, 3-15 cm tall, subfiliform, rather soft, compressed triquetrous, smooth. Leaves equaling or longer than culm, flat, 1-5.5 mm wide, soft, glabrous, with dark brown persistent leaf sheaths. Involucral bracts sheathlike, blade setiform. Spikes 1-5, androgynous, remote, ovate or ovate-oblong, 2-5 mm, ca. 3.5 mm thick, densely many flowered; male part of spike shorter than or nearly equaling female part, slightly thin. Female glumes white or pale green, ovate, 1.2-1.5 mm, papery, 1-costate and laterally few veined, margins narrowly membranous, apex rounded or obtuse. Utricles pale green, longer than glume, ovate-elliptic, compressed trigonous, 2-2.5 mm, papery, loosely pubescent and ciliate, distinctly 2-veined laterally and thinly few veined, base cuneate, nearly estipitate, apex attenuate into an indistinct short beak, orifice obliquely truncate. Nutlets dark brown at maturity, ...
Immature scutella of barley were transformed with cDNA coding for a 13-li-poxygenase of barley (LOX-100) via particle bombardment. Regenerated plants were tested by PAT-assay, Western-analysis and PCR-screening. Immunocytochemical assay of T0 plants showed expression of the LOX cDNA both in the chloroplasts and in the cytosol, depending on the presence of the chloroplast signal peptide sequences in the cDNA. A few transgenic plants containing higher amounts of LOX-derived products have been found. These are the candidates for further analysis concerning pathogen resistance ...
Immature scutella of barley were transformed with cDNA coding for a 13-li-poxygenase of barley (LOX-100) via particle bombardment. Regenerated plants were tested by PAT-assay, Western-analysis and PCR-screening. Immunocytochemical assay of T0 plants showed expression of the LOX cDNA both in the chloroplasts and in the cytosol, depending on the presence of the chloroplast signal peptide sequences in the cDNA. A few transgenic plants containing higher amounts of LOX-derived products have been found. These are the candidates for further analysis concerning pathogen resistance ...
In actuality, because chard is grown in temperate zones, is widespread worldwide, and can be found several varieties, including the crisp chard, sporting dark green leaves, white stalk and a taste that resembles the spinach, chard stalks that features large white and green leaves, Japanese and Swiss chard leaves and closed juxtaposed with yellowish at the base and core and pale green on the edges.In Portugal the chard is available for consumption between October and June. ...
Stems usually unbranched, usually pale green, depressed-spheric, spheric or short cylindric, (1-)4-8(-11) × 4-8 cm; ribs 13-16, tubercles often evident on ribs. Spines slightly or not obscuring stem; radial spines 5-10(-14) per areole, pale to white, 6-17(-20) mm; central spines (3-)4 per areole, terete to angled; abaxial central spine 1 per areole, white to tan with tan to black tips, hooked, 10-30(-44) × 0.5-1 mm; lateral adaxial spines 2 per areole, white or brown to reddish brown or black, 10-21(-35) × 0.8-1.5 mm; adaxial central spine white, flat to angled, 6-27(-35) × 5-15 mm. Flowers fragrant, funnelform to campanulate, sometimes narrowly so, (2-)3-4 × 2-4 cm; outer tepals with reddish brown midstripes and white to cream or pinkish margins, oblanceolate, 13-23 × 3-7 mm; inner tepals white to cream or pink, oblanceolate, 25-30 × 5-7 mm; filaments magenta; anthers yellow. Fruits irregularly dehiscent, ovoid, barrel-shaped, 9-15 × 7-12 mm, scales few or absent; ovary papillate, ...
Vroma produces large, 6 1/2–7" pods with 4–5 large seeds. Cook like a shell bean when the seeds are pale green. Strong, heat tolerant plants resist ...
15. Dicranoloma (Ren.) Ren., Rev. Bryol. Lichenol. 28: 85. 1901; Leucoloma subg. Dicranoloma Ren., Prodr. Fl. Bryol. Madagascar 61. 1898. 锦叶藓属 Plants small to robust, pale green to yellowish green or golden brown, in dense tufts. Stems simple or branched, often tomentose; central strand present or absent. Leaves often falcate-secund, ovate-lanceolate, often gradually narrowed from a broader, somewhat auriculate base to nearly setaceous apex; margins plane, bordered by one to several rows of thick-walled, elongate, linear cells, often serrulate to serrate in the upper half; costa slender, percurrent to excurrent, often with lamellae or dentate wings at back in the upper part of leaves; upper cells irregularly rhomboidal to linear, smooth; lower cells elongate, frequently with a few rows of hyaline, very narrow cells at the basal margins; alar cells conspicuous, brownish. Dioicous. Setae erect, short to elongate, smooth, solitary or clustered; capsules cylindric, erect or arcuate, smooth ...
Courgettes, one of the prettiest of vegetables, are not to everyones taste, although they may develop added allure due to their cost after recent shortages. Even if you do like them, you can get heartily sick of them in a glut.. After 2013s three varieties, I cut it back to one in 2014, just two plants, then none after that, at the request of my family, who are not courgette fans. Two plants are quite enough to supply an average household.. Im a fan of Cavili (pale green with a creamy flesh) because it is parthenocarpic - it has the ability to set fruit without pollination.. It manages to perform even when weather conditions are dull and chilly - more often than not in NE England.. ...
1a larhe brown blorch: Agromyza abiens. 1b pale green corridor: Chromatomyia horticola. 1c gallen etc =, Tabellen voor alle parasieten per soort ...
|div id=full-description| |p class=description| Boasting magnificent, savoyed, purple-red leaves edged and veined pale green, Mustard Red Giant is a vigorous growing broad leaf variety. Commonly found in mesclun mixes, the leaves are slightly te
Escarole, or broad-leaved endive (var latifolia), has broad, pale green leaves and is less bitter than the other varieties. Varieties or names include broad-leaved endive, Bavarian endive, Batavian endive, grumolo, scarola, and scarole. It is eaten like other greens, sauteed, chopped into soups and stews, or as part of a green salad ...
im 38+3 with bubba number 2. several weeks ago i think i started to loose my plug, it was pinky/brown and i lost a little bit over a couple of days, then nothing. but for the past few days i have lost some snotty looking stuff that is pale green (sorry tmi) when i wipe after going loo, does this sound like more plug coming away? its only a small amount and i dont get it every time i go to the loo ...
Many bacterial species have a capacity to respond to antimicrobial processes and assaults by the production of any number of virulence factors (above; blue circles). Pathology that is due to bacterial infection is generally the result of the interaction between these factors and the host cells. There is also a very clear understanding that within a clonal population of bacterial cells there are a variety of cell types (phenotypic variants). This may include the Small Colony Variants (SCVs - above; pale green circles), persister cells (above; dark green circles) and biofilm cells (above; gold circles). These cell types are quasi-dormant, they have limited expression of virulence factors and immune mediators and they have low metabolic activity and growth. There are inherently tolerant of antibiotics. They are very hard to clear from the site of infection and are the basis for chronic and relapsing infections. Compounded with this is that often within the body there are pre-existing bacteria or ...
Leaf:Alternate, simple, deciduous, elliptical, ovate, or obovate, 1/2 to 1 1/2 inches long, margins finely toothed; pale green and slightly glaucous above and paler below, red to purple in the fall ...
The triad and dyad ions in the case of these metals exhibit remarkable differences of colour. Thus chromous ions are blue, chromic, green ; basic ferric ions are orange-yellow, ferrous, pale green; ma...
LM-150 is a preserved, 30% nominal BSA solution produced with a low salt content and processed with high monomer content by inhibiting albumin polymer formation. LM-150 is a pale green to amber, sterile- filtered solution processed under aseptic conditions to minimize microbial contamination ...
ACTIVITY LEVEL: Steady VOCAL: Quiet CHARACTER TYPE: Shy, Independent MEDICAL BEHAVIOR: 6/5/17- Observed Behavior - tense/nervous ENRICHMENT NOTES: 6/6/17 Crouched in den, no response to voice or door opening. Moved slowly within den to avoid being touched. Stuck nose out to sniff treats after door closed, didnt eat. 6/7/17 In den, no response to voice or door opening. Held still when den was rotated to front. Flinched briefly when first touched, then held completely immobile, no other response. EVALUATION: Cage Condition: No change Reaction to assessor: Lil Debbie remains tense posture during the approach. Reaction to cage door opening: Lil Debbie remains alert with normal shape eyes, ears erect and forward with body flat down on the bedding. Reaction to touch: Lil Debbie allows the touch, while she stiffen up in place with no interest during the interaction. BEHAVIOR SUMMARY: Lil Debbie tolerates attention and petting, but may be fearful or stressed in the shelter. We recommend that this cat ...
Evolution of Chloroplast J Proteins. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Chloroplast outer membrane proteins with β-barrel-shaped transmembrane domains are sorted to the chloroplasts by amino-terminal transit peptides and/or intrinsic targeting information, but in both cases the proteins use the general import apparatus that also serves proteins destined for the interior compartments of the chloroplast. ...
I am a general contractor and have done numerous thru-the-wall installations of window units over the years. I am wanting to install a ptac unit in my office--with heat pump and resistance heat. I have been reading thru the forum on ptac units and I find a lot of the pros with differing and often conflicting recommendations over issues with noise levels and reliability. I dont seem to find any consensus on what would be the best brand to recommend. In my research I found the Hybrid ACW
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Lil Uzi, Yeah yeah You know Im savage 40 Glock posted on the block My shorty pop when that forty stop You a cold rat informing cops And all we do is
Vlastn strach se stal osudn m australsk mu nudistovi, kter se sna il podp lit n co, o em si myslel, e je hn zdo ivotu nebezpe n ho pavouka. Z chran i ho odvezli do nemocnice s pop leninami na skoro dvaceti procentech t la.
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Quality fresh flowers by Interflora florists in Default. Hand Delivering beautiful flowers and bouquets across Default and the UK with same day delivery.
Quality fresh flowers by Interflora florists in Default. Hand Delivering beautiful flowers and bouquets across Default and the UK with same day delivery.
AS07 239, anti-Toc159, translocon at the outer envelope membrane of chloroplasts, Toc-complex, TOC-complex, GTPase, Chloroplast protein import component Toc159, Toc 159 antibody, Q9LKR1Toc159 is located in the outer chloroplast membrane and part of of the
We present a neural network based method (ChloroP) for identifying chloroplast transit peptides and their cleavage sites. Using cross-validation, 88% of the sequences in our homology reduced training set were correctly classified as transit peptides or nontransit peptides. This performance level is well above that of the publicly available chloroplast localization predictor PSORT. Cleavage sites are predicted using a scoring matrix derived by an automatic motif-finding algorithm. Approximately 60% of the known cleavage sites in our sequence collection were predicted to within +/-2 residues from the cleavage sites given in SWISS-PROT. An analysis of 715 Arabidopsis thaliana sequences from SWISS-PROT suggests that the ChloroP method should be useful for the identification of putative transit peptides in genome-wide sequence data. The ChloroP predictor is available as a web-server at ...
Most chloroplast proteins (cp proteins) are nucleus-encoded, synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes as precursor proteins containing a presequence (cTP), and post-translationally imported via the Tic/Toc complex into the organelle, where the cTP is removed. Only a few unambiguous instances of cp proteins that do not require cTPs (non-canonical cp proteins) have been reported so far. However, the survey of data from large-scale proteomic studies presented here suggests that the fraction of such proteins in the total cp proteome might be as large as approximately 30%. To explore this discrepancy, we chose a representative set of 28 putative non-canonical cp proteins, and used in vitro import and Red Fluorescent Protein (RFP)-fusion assays to determine their sub-cellular destinations. Four proteins, including embryo defective 1211, glycolate oxidase 2, protein disulfide isomerase-like protein (PDII), and a putative glutathione S-transferase, could be unambiguously assigned to the chloroplast. Several ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Hellebores are widely grown in gardens for decorative purposes. They are particularly valued by gardeners for their winter and early spring flowering period; the plants are surprisingly frost-resistant and many are evergreen. Also of value is their shade tolerance. Many species of hellebore have green or greenish-purple flowers and are of limited garden value, although Corsican hellebore (H. argutifolius), a robust plant with pale green, cup-shaped flowers and attractive leathery foliage, is widely grown. So is the stinking hellebore or setterwort (H. foetidus), which has drooping clusters of small, pale green, bell-shaped flowers, often edged with maroon, which contrasts with its dark evergreen foliage ...
Plants solitary or forming small colonies of rosettes, caulescent or rarely acaulescent, distinctly arborescent, mostly few-branched, 1.2-4.5 m; rosettes usually large, symmetrical or asymmetrical. Stems 1-7 per colony, erect, thick, 1-1.5(-2.5) m. Leaf blade pale green, linear, widest near middle, 25-95 × 0.2-1.3 cm, flexible, margins entire, curled, filiferous, whitish, apex tapering to short spine. Inflorescences mostly paniculate, sometimes distally racemose, arising beyond rosettes, mostly narrowly ovoid to ovoid, 7-15 × 2.5-6.5 dm; branches 0.7-3.5 dm; bracts erect; peduncle sometimes scapelike, 1-2 m, 2.5-5.5 cm diam. Flowers pendent; perianth campanulate or globose; tepals distinct, creamy white, often tinged green or pink, narrow to broadly elliptic or ovate, 3.2-5.7 × 1.3-3.2 cm; filaments 1.5-2.5(-3.2) cm, pubescent; anthers (2-)2.5-4.8 mm; pistil 2-3.2 × 0.6-1 cm; style white or pale green, 6-11 mm; stigmas lobed. Fruits erect, capsular, dehiscent, oblong-cylindric, symmetrical ...
Bacteria. I would consider a visit to your primary md. This sounds like bacterial tonsillitis, you should be checked for strep ...
Studte, Carsten (2012): Characterization of the membrane protein Prat1 in the inner envelope of chloroplasts. Dissertation, LMU München: Faculty of Biology ...
Med sit nasale flow er Atlanta-rapperen, Lil Yachty - selvudnævnt King of Teens - blevet et viralt hit, som kun breder sig længere og længere ud. Nu er det også nået til Danmark, og den 4. marts rammer han Rust med en natkoncert.. Lil Yachty kalder sin musik bubblegum trap med sin blanding af autotune og 808 beats, der ofte er spillet på klaver. Lil Yachtys karriere er gået ligeså stærkt, som antallet af afspilninger på SoundCloud, og den 19 årige rapper har vakt musikbranchens interesse.. Det hele startede, da Lil Yachty gik i highschool, gruppen The Yacht Club blev en realitet, og som senere skulle blive til hiphopgruppen Sailing Team. Herefter startede Lil Yachty på universitetet, hvor han endte med at låse sig inde og kun bruge tiden på musik. Hans inspiration var musikere som Andre 3000, Soulja Boy og Lil B, der brød med normerne. Han fandt hurtigt ud af, at musikken var vejen frem og universitet var en saga blot. Han gik sammen med produceren Burberry Perry og rapperen ...
The most noticeable difference between green and red cabbage is the color of the leaves. Green cabbage leaves are broad and pale green in color, and red cabbage leaves are fan-like and deep... Chicory Green Grumolo - Chicory that produces abundant broad leaves, ruffled and wavy, pale green coloured, forming a ball like head lettuce, quite compact, very heavy. Sow at different intervals to extend the harvest season. Prized for being easily preserved and its delightful texture and flavour. Seeds/ package 2000-2500 Untreated Sowing instructions: Sow
Valeriana sylvestris.. Also see: Garden Valerian - Wild Valerian.. A tall and handsome plant, frequent in our woods and upon heaths, not unlike the garden valerian in its form and manner of growth, and of greater virtues. It is a yard high. The stalks are round, striated, upright, hollow, and of a pale green. The leaves are large end beautiful; they are each composed of several pairs of smaller set on a common rib, and with an odd one at the end. These are long, narrow, dentated at the edges, of a faint green colour, and a little hairy. The flowers stand in large tufts like umbels at the tops of the stalks, and are small and white with a blush of reddish. The root is of a whitish colour, and is composed of a great many thick fibres. It is of a very strong and disagreeable smell.. The root is used; it is best dried and given in powder, or in infusion. It is an excellent medicine in nervous disorders. It is said that it will cure the falling sickness, but its good effects against head-achs, ...
A big lush green non-spiky thistle from the mountain woods of central Europe. The flowers appear on tall upright stems in late summer/autumn and are relatively small and white but held among pale green bracts which makes them rather striking ...
Lyall Watson - Supernature. Sensitivity to an annual cycle has obvious advantages. It helps an organism predict seasonal changes in its environment and to make the necessary allowances for them. A bird that spends its winters in the constant conditions of the tropics could use this sense to tell it when the time had come to return north for nesting.......... The tiny pale green plant lice, or aphids, that spend their summers busily plunging their mouth parts into plants and sucking out the juices, reproduce during the long days by a process of virgin birth in which no males are involved. But when there is less than 14 hours of daylight, as autumn approaches, they start reproducing sexually and lay eggs that last the winter. Many other animals change their appearance, rather than their habits, and adopt winter plumage. Dull brown summer weasels turn in to resplendent white winter ones that can find concealment in the snow. …..... In constant darkness fruit flies emerge from their pupae shortly ...
A herbaceous plant that grows wild in Europe, North America and Australia, closely related to the curly endive. It is grown for its curly, bitter-tasing, pale green leaves, that can be eaten raw in salads or cooked like vegetables. Chicory leaves are also commonly used individually as boats to hold dips or salsas.. ...
Plump, pale green pods avg. three seeds per pod. Eating quality is as good as Butterbeans. Compact plants avg. 2 and have a concentrated set which allows for hand ...
A perennial glabrous tendril climber grows over large trees. Leaves simple, alternate, broad, ovate, acute, and pale green colored. Tendrils arises form leaf axils. Flowers small whitish arises from axils. Fruits large, oblong, and yellowish green colored ...
She didnt like me to have the tv on those nights. No matter how low I had the volume, she heard it from the next room and it frightened her. She would hear it as people murmuring threatening things. But I needed the tv, the rhythm of the voices, to fall asleep. One night she spent two hours, until well after midnight, with her apartment door open, sitting in the doorway trying to sort her laundry to leave it for pick-up.. Another night, I sat helplessly while she obsessed over her keys. She was trying to identify them, making incomprehensible marks on a piece of paper. Nothing distracted her from this task. I had a knitting project with me and I remember working on it those nights, I have a lot of knitting projects that carry the memory and energies of traumatic events. That one was a kind of fine, fuzzy pale green yarn - I think it was an alpaca lace shawl. I never finished it, it was such a painful reminder of those nights. I bound it off, unfinished. Its a big swatch, a gauge sample of ...
I enjoyed yesterdays moth macros, as well. Interesting to see that this particular guy was resting with his wings up, a pose that is usually ( but not always) exhibited by butterflies and helps tell the two species apart. I have learned long ago that there are no hard fast rules in nature. I have only one moth in my collection and that is a luna moth- its HUGE with a wingspan of 4.5 and beautiful pale green in color. I found it one day laying in the field where I walk. It was perfect, like it had just died in mid flight. Of course I had to take it home; OK, maybe I am just a little nutty ...
Description: Annual with trailing, angular stems with stiff bristly hairs on the ridges. Leaves with lamina broad-ovate to ± triangular, 3-6 cm long, 2-5 cm wide, cordate at base, margins toothed, upper surface scabrous and on veins below; petiole 8-12 cm long, with spreading hairs. Flowers 1-4, on stalks 7-12 mm long. Fruit ellipsoid, 4-6 cm long, pale green to yellow when ripe, densely covered with soft bristles; stalk 10-20 mm long. ...
Excerpt. From our side of the pool we Bluegills watch the boys from the Coast Guard saunter out of the visitors locker room to a complicated group clap that resounds in layered echoes all across the natatorium; over the sloshing pale green of the pool water, out onto the lacquered deck tiles, bang against the concrete ceiling and back down again, and from the roar in the stands it seems they must have brought their own fans, or else turned ours instantly against us. The Coasties all look, to a man, all of them, like bachelorette strip-tease dancers, or gigolos even, each one of them shaved and tanned and buffed to a shine with a crew cut in a black Speedo, each emerging from the tunnel out into the fluorescent light one by one by one, from the shortest man to the tallest, in perfectly timed increments, each stopping to pose for a beat at the edge of the entranceway with his hands upon his hips before strolling on toward the visitors bench, the whole line of them eventually laid out before us ...
Andy Bettancourt leaned his elbows back on the top step of the porch and straightened out his long legs, his heels idly scraping the concrete path that ran up to the three front steps of his pale green painted duplex. It was early evening and he should have been getting ready for his usual Saturday night poker game with his buddies. He didnt mind missing though, in fact hed been thinking of dipping out before his daughter had called to say she was dropping by.. Dropping by. Hmm hed grunted to himself as he replaced the receiver in the cradle. It was a fair way to drop by at short notice. Mind you, he thought, that was Jersey for you, you could get out but it would always keep calling you back. He knew his girl though and she had sounded a little off. He shrugged to himself; maybe he was imagining it, hed soon see. Shed never been any good at hiding things from him, from her mother yes, much to Carlas annoyance. He smiled at the memory of his wife being indignant that she didnt have a ...
For a sumptuous visual feast of pale green, cream, and pastel pink, mix equal quantities of Double Tulips Angelique and Mount Tacoma in a sunny bed or border with well-drained soil.
Cahill McCrea arrived at the table just then with their drinks and a fresh mug of beer for himself. Eleanors smile lingered as she looked up to thank him, and found his eyes on her. He held the look as he dropped into a chair. The shadows cast across his face lifted for the first time, and she stared into eyes of pale green framed by thick black lashes. Lashes that dark and that dense should have overwhelmed the soft color, but Eleanor felt certain nothing could overwhelm the vibrancy of those eyes.. With a slight smile fanning lines at their corners, his eyes seemed friendly and calm, like the ocean on a peaceful day. And like the ocean, she thought with unaccustomed fancifulness, these eyes could change in an instant to something powerful, intense and frightening.. She shook her head free of such thoughts.. I think that wonderful rose sweater-dress from the boutique would have been perfect for tonight, Valerie continued.. Eleanor pulled her attention back to the topic Val had pursued while ...
When you are diagnosed schizophrenic, its like being told you are officially evil. That is the idea we have of schizophrenia. When you sit across the table from the psychiatrist - in the low chair, in the pale green room; both to make you feel more relaxed - and he says those words, your heart stops for a minute, in the way it does when the car goes over the cliff, or a child goes missing. It is the worst of all possible words; the worst of all possible worlds. You hang, for a moment, in silence. And when the ringing in your ears stops, and you tune in, again, to the man, he is saying, …and Im afraid your symptoms will be pushing people…. ...
ˈklɔəriːn/ KLOHR-een; lati Èdè Grííkì Ayéijọ́un: χλωρóς [khlôros] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) pale green) je elimenti kemika to ni nomba atomu 17 ati ami-idamo Cl. Ohun ni halojínì keji to fuyejulo, leyin fluorini to je eyi to fuyejulo. Klorini wa ninu tabili alakoko ninu adipo 17. Apilese yi le di horo oniatomumeji labe awon isele opagun, ti a n pe ni klorinimeji (dichlorine). O ni ibasepo elektroni to gajulo ati ijealodionina keta to gajulo larin gbogbo awon apilese; fun idi eyi klorini je oxidizing agent to lagbara. ...
Colorless with very pale green tinge.|br/|Rounded rim folded out and down; straight side to body, tapering downwards then curving slightly outward; tall, integral, tubular foot ring, made by folding with deep creease on interior; almost flat bottom with thickened dome and pontil scar at center
This analysis shows rainfall totals across southern India from September 29 to October 5, 2009. The heaviest rainfall appears in blue and the lightest rainfall appears in pale green. Rain extends from the Arabian Sea to the Bay of Bengal.
Evergreen, coniferous shrub. This dwarf cultivar has foliage that appears both mature and juvenile. It is pale green in color. Foliage in winter is often b
Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Lil Champs 13 September Full Episode Written Updates Watch Here Sa Re Ga Ma Pa lil Chaps Winner Name, Lil Champs 13 Sep Epi
Atlanta police have issued an arrest warrant for Lil Scrappy in regards to an unacceptable urine sample he provided. Lil Scrappy is once again in trouble wit...
Chloroplast - Cellular components are the complex biomolecules and structures of which cells, and thus living organisms, are composed.
Fresh off the release of Nuthin 2 Prove, Lil Yachty teases two new collaborative projects with Juice WRLD and Trippie Redd, which he says are done.
After introducing the world to the Futsal Shuffle dance, Lil Uzi Vert has finally dropped the corresponding single,Futsal Shuffle 2020.
He has seemed depressed, his skin in his backlooks tight and wrinkly. His hair is falling out and limps a lil bit. His - Answered by a verified Dog Specialist
Hi everyone, Im thread crashing! I just wanted to say a big congrats and best of luck to everyone for their BFP!! I was an ivfer due March but my lil boy was born 15/2. i hope everyone stays safe and enjoys this marvelous time!!

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