DNA, Algal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of algae.Seaweed: Multicellular marine macroalgae including some members of red (RHODOPHYTA), green (CHLOROPHYTA), and brown (PHAEOPHYTA) algae. They are widely distributed in the ocean, occurring from the tide level to considerable depths, free-floating (planktonic) or anchored to the substratum (benthic). They lack a specialized vascular system but take up fluids, nutrients, and gases directly from the water. They contain CHLOROPHYLL and are photosynthetic, but some also contain other light-absorbing pigments. Many are of economic importance as FOOD, fertilizer, AGAR, potash, or source of IODINE.Ulva: A genus of GREEN ALGAE in the family Ulvaceae. Commonly know as sea lettuces, they grow attached to rocks and KELP in marine and estuarine waters.Phytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Rhodophyta: Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Chlorophyta: A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane-bound plastids containing chlorophyll a and b. They comprise the classical green algae, and represent over 7000 species that live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Lichens: Any of a group of plants formed by a symbiotic combination of a fungus with an algae or CYANOBACTERIA, and sometimes both. The fungal component makes up the bulk of the lichen and forms the basis for its name.Viridiplantae: A monophyletic group of green plants that includes all land plants (EMBRYOPHYTA) and all green algae (CHLOROPHYTA and STREPTOPHYTA).Embryophyta: Higher plants that live primarily in terrestrial habitats, although some are secondarily aquatic. Most obtain their energy from PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They comprise the vascular and non-vascular plants.Closterium: A genus of crescent-shaped algae in the family Closteriaceae, order DESMIDIALES.Desmidiales: An order of mostly unicellular, microscopic, freshwater algae that have highly symmetrical and varied shapes.Turbellaria: A class of free-living freshwater flatworms of North America.Cytophagaceae: A family of gram-negative, gliding bacteria in the order Cytophagales, class Cytophagia. They are found in SOIL and SEA WATER.Rhododendron: A plant genus of the family ERICACEAE.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Genes, Duplicate: Two identical genes showing the same phenotypic action but localized in different regions of a chromosome or on different chromosomes. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Lupinus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is a source of SPARTEINE, lupanine and other lupin alkaloids.Cimicidae: A family of wingless, blood-sucking insects of the suborder HETEROPTERA, including the bedbugs and related forms. Cimex (BEDBUGS), Heamatosiphon, and Oeciacus are medically important genera. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Hibiscus: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. Members contain CITRIC ACID; MALATES; ANTHOCYANINS; FLAVONOIDS; GLYCOSIDES; DIETARY FIBER; and LIGNANS. Hibiscus sabdariffa is common constituent of HERBAL TEAS. Hibiscus cannabinus is a source of hemp fiber for TEXTILES.Phytophthora: A genus of destructive parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae, order Peronosporales, affecting numerous fruit, vegetable, and other crops. Differentiation of zoospores usually takes place in the sporangium and no vesicle is formed. It was previously considered a fungus.Insomnia, Fatal Familial: An autosomal dominant disorder characterized by degeneration of the THALAMUS and progressive insomnia. It is caused by a mutation in the prion protein (PRIONS).Nostoc commune: A form species of spore-producing CYANOBACTERIA, in the family Nostocaceae, order Nostocales. It is an important source of fixed NITROGEN in nutrient-depleted soils. When wet, it appears as a jelly-like mass.Enterobius: A genus of intestinal nematode worms which includes the pinworm or threadworm Enterobius vermicularis.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Enterobiasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus ENTEROBIUS; E. vermicularis, the pinworm of man, causes a crawling sensation and pruritus. This condition results in scratching the area, occasionally causing scarification.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Pastinaca: A plant genus of the family APIACEAE. The roots are used as food.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.Sunlight: Irradiation directly from the sun.Light-Harvesting Protein Complexes: Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)EncyclopediasHydra: A genus of freshwater polyps in the family Hydridae, order Hydroida, class HYDROZOA. They are of special interest because of their complex organization and because their adult organization corresponds roughly to the gastrula of higher animals.Potamogetonaceae: A plant family of the order Najadales, subclass Alismatidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).Rotifera: A class of minute animals of the phylum Aschelminthes.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Crustacea: A large subphylum of mostly marine ARTHROPODS containing over 42,000 species. They include familiar arthropods such as lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE), crabs (BRACHYURA), shrimp (PENAEIDAE), and barnacles (THORACICA).Mongolia: The country is bordered by RUSSIA on the north and CHINA on the west, south, and east. The capita is Ulaanbaatar.Methylocystaceae: A family of gram-negative methanotrophs in the order Rhizobiales, distantly related to the nitrogen-fixing and phototrophic bacteria.WingSkull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Dinosaurs: General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.

The origin and evolution of green algal and plant actins. (1/989)

The Viridiplantae are subdivided into two groups: the Chlorophyta, which includes the Chlorophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, Ulvophyceae, and Prasinophyceae; and the Streptophyta, which includes the Charophyceae and all land plants. Within the Streptophyta, the actin genes of the angiosperms diverge nearly simultaneously from each other before the separation of monocots and dicots. Previous evolutionary analyses have provided limited insights into the gene duplications that have produced these complex gene families. We address the origin and diversification of land plant actin genes by studying the phylogeny of actins within the green algae, ferns, and fern allies. Partial genomic sequences or cDNAs encoding actin were characterized from Cosmarium botrytis (Zygnematales), Selaginella apoda (Selaginellales), Anemia phyllitidis (Polypodiales), and Psilotum triquetrum (Psilotales). Selaginella contains at least two actin genes. One sequence (Ac2) diverges within a group of fern sequences that also includes the Psilotum Ac1 actin gene and one gymnosperm sequence (Cycas revoluta Cyc3). This clade is positioned outside of the angiosperm actin gene radiation. The second Selaginella sequence (Ac1) is the sister to all remaining land plant actin sequences, although the internal branches in this portion of the tree are very short. Use of complete actin-coding regions in phylogenetic analyses provides support for the separation of angiosperm actins into two classes. N-terminal "signature" sequence analyses support these groupings. One class (VEG) includes actin genes that are often expressed in vegetative structures. The second class (REP) includes actin genes that trace their ancestry within the vegetative actins and contains members that are largely expressed in reproductive structures. Analysis of intron positions within actin genes shows that sequences from both Selaginella and Cosmarium contain the conserved 20-3, 152-1, and 356-3 introns found in many members of the Streptophyta. In addition, the Cosmarium actin gene contains a novel intron at position 76-1.  (+info)

Two light-activated conductances in the eye of the green alga Volvox carteri. (2/989)

Photoreceptor currents of the multicellular green alga Volvox carteri were analyzed using a dissolver mutant. The photocurrents are restricted to the eyespot region of somatic cells. Photocurrents are detectable from intact cells and excised eyes. The rhodopsin action spectrum suggests that the currents are induced by Volvox rhodopsin. Flash-induced photocurrents are a composition of a fast Ca2+-carried current (PF) and a slower current (PS), which is carried by H+. PF is a high-intensity response that appears with a delay of less than 50 micros after flash. The stimulus-response curve of its initial rise is fit by a single exponential and parallels the rhodopsin bleaching. These two observations suggest that the responsible channel is closely connected to the rhodopsin, both forming a tight complex. At low flash energies PS is dominating. The current delay increases up to 10 ms, and the PS amplitude saturates when only a few percent of the rhodopsin is bleached. The data are in favor of a second signaling system, which includes a signal transducer mediating between rhodopsin and the channel. We present a model of how different modes of signal transduction are accomplished in this alga under different light conditions.  (+info)

The chloroplast infA gene with a functional UUG initiation codon. (3/989)

All chloroplast genes reported so far possess ATG start codons and sometimes GTGs as an exception. Sequence alignments suggested that the chloroplast infA gene encoding initiation factor 1 in the green alga Chlorella vulgaris has TTG as a putative initiation codon. This gene was shown to be transcribed by RT-PCR analysis. The infA mRNA was translated accurately from the UUG codon in a tobacco chloroplast in vitro translation system. Mutation of the UUG codon to AUG increased translation efficiency approximately 300-fold. These results indicate that the UUG is functional for accurate translation initiation of Chlorella infA mRNA but it is an inefficient initiation codon.  (+info)

Cytoplasmic streaming in Chara corallina studied by laser light scattering. (4/989)

An apparatus is described by means of which the power versus frequency spectrum of the photomultiplier current can be obtained for laser light scattered by streaming cytoplasm in the algal cell Chara corallina. A Doppler peak is noted in the spectrum which is abolished when cytoplasmic streaming is arrested by electrical stimulation. For 5 cells of Chara, this simple laser-Doppler velocimeter gave streaming velocities (46-7 mum s-1, S.D. +/- 4-8 at 20 degrees C) similar to those obtained for the same cells using the light microscope (44-3 mum s-1, S.D. +/- 5-3 at 20 degrees C). A narrow distribution of streaming velocities is indicated. The technique described provides a rapid, quantitative assay of the in vivo rheological properties of cytoplasm.  (+info)

Actomyosin contraction of the posterior hemisphere is required for inversion of the Volvox embryo. (5/989)

During inversion of a Volvox embryo, a series of cell shape changes causes the multicellular sheet to bend outward, and propagation of the bend from the anterior to the posterior pole eventually results in an inside-out spherical sheet of cells. We use fluorescent and electron microscopy to study the behavior of the cytoskeleton in cells undergoing shape changes. Microtubules are aligned parallel to the cell's long axis and become elongated in the bend. Myosin and actin filaments are arrayed perinuclearly before inversion. In inversion, actin and myosin are located in a subnuclear position throughout the uninverted region but this localization is gradually lost towards the bend. Actomyosin inhibitors cause enlargement of the embryo. The bend propagation is inhibited halfway and, as a consequence, the posterior hemisphere remains uninverted. The arrested posterior hemisphere will resume and complete inversion even in the presence of an actomyosin inhibitor if the anterior hemisphere is removed microsurgically. We conclude that the principal role of actomyosin in inversion is to cause a compaction of the posterior hemisphere; unless the equatorial diameter of the embryo is reduced in this manner, it is too large to pass through the opening defined by the already-inverted anterior hemisphere.  (+info)

A 210 kDa protein is located in a membrane-microtubule linker at the distal end of mature and nascent basal bodies. (6/989)

A monoclonal antibody raised against purified flagellar basal apparatuses from the green flagellate Spermatozopsis similis reacted with a protein of 210 kDa (p210) in western blots. The protein was partially cloned by immunoscreening of a cDNA library. The sequence encoded a novel protein rich in alanine (25%) and proline (20%), which contained regions similar to proteins of comparable amino acid composition such as extracellular matrix components or the membrane-cytoskeletal linker synapsin. Using a polyclonal antibody (anti-p210) raised against the C-terminal part of p210, it was shown that the protein was highly enriched in the basal apparatuses. Immunogold electron microscopy of isolated cytoskeletons or whole cells revealed that p210 was located in the flagellar transition region. The protein was part of the Y-shaped fibrous linkers between the doublet microtubules and the flagellar membrane, as indicated by statistical analysis of post-labeled sections using anti-centrin and anti-tubulin as controls. In premitotic cells p210 was located in a fibrous layer at the distal end of nascent basal bodies, which was perforated by the outgrowing axoneme. During deflagellation the protein remained at the basal body but we observed changes in its distribution, indicating that p210 partially moved to the tip of the basal body. p210 can be used as a marker to determine basal body position, orientation (parallel or antiparallel) and number in S. similis by indirect immunofluorescence. We suppose that p210 is involved in linking basal bodies to the plasma membrane, which is an important step during ciliogenesis.  (+info)

Group II intron splicing in Escherichia coli: phenotypes of cis-acting mutations resemble splicing defects observed in organelle RNA processing. (7/989)

The mitochondrial group IIB intron rI1, from the green algae Scenedesmus obliquus ' LSUrRNA gene, has been introduced into the lacZ gene encoding beta-galacto-sidase. After DNA-mediated transformation of the recombinant lacZ gene into Escherichia coli, we observed correct splicing of the chimeric precursor RNA in vivo. In contrast to autocatalytic in vitro self-splicing, intron processing in vivo is independent of the growth temperature, suggesting that in E.coli, trans -acting factors are involved in group II intron splicing. Such a system would seem suitable as a model for analyzing intron processing in a prokaryotic host. In order to study further the effect of cis -mutations on intron splicing, different rI1 mutants were analyzed (with respect to their splicing activity) in E.coli. Although the phenotypes of these E. coli intron splicing mutants were identical to those which can be observed during organellar splicing of rI1, they are different to those observed in in vitro self-splicing experiments. Therefore, in both organelles and prokaryotes, it is likely that either similar splicing factors or trans -acting factors exhibiting similar functions are involved in splicing. We speculate that ubiquitous trans -acting factors, via recent horizontal transfer, have contributed to the spread of group II introns.  (+info)

Group II intron splicing in chloroplasts: identificationof mutations determining intron stability and fate of exon RNA. (8/989)

In order to investigate in vivo splicing of group II introns in chloroplasts, we previously have integrated the mitochondrial intron rI1 from the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus into the Chlamydomonas chloroplast tscA gene. This construct allows a functional analysis of conserved intron sequences in vivo, since intron rI1 is correctly spliced in chloroplasts. Using site-directed mutagenesis, deletions of the conserved intron domains V and VI were performed. In another set of experiments, each possible substitution of the strictly conserved first intron nucleotide G1 was generated, as well as each possible single and double mutation of the tertiary base pairing gamma-gamma ' involved in the formation of the intron's tertiary RNA structure. In most cases, the intron mutations showed the same effect on in vivo intron splicing efficiency as they did on the in vitro self-splicing reaction, since catalytic activity is provided by the intron RNA itself. In vivo, all mutations have additional effects on the chimeric tscA -rI1 RNA, most probably due to the role played by trans -acting factors in intron processing. Substitutions of the gamma-gamma ' base pair lead to an accumulation of excised intron RNA, since intron stability is increased. In sharp contrast to autocatalytic splicing, all point mutations result in a complete loss of exon RNA, although the spliced intron accumulates to high levels. Intron degradation and exon ligation only occur in double mutants with restored base pairing between the gamma and gamma' sites. Therefore, we conclude that intron degradation, as well as the ligation of exon-exon molecules, depends on the tertiary intron structure. Furthermore, our data suggest that intron excision proceeds in vivo independent of ligation of exon-exon molecules.  (+info)

Solar energy harnessed by oxygenic photosynthesis supports most of the life forms on Earth. In eukaryotes, photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts and is achieved by membrane-embedded macromolecular complexes that contain core and peripheral antennae with multiple pigments. The structure of photosystem I (PSI) comprises the core and light-harvesting (LHCI) complexes, which together form PSI-LHCI. Here we determined the structure of PSI-LHCI from the salt-tolerant green alga Dunaliella salina using X-ray crystallography and electron cryo-microscopy. Our results reveal a previously undescribed configuration of the PSI core. It is composed of only 7 subunits, compared with 14-16 subunits in plants and the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and forms the smallest known PSI. The LHCI is poorly conserved at the sequence level and binds to pigments that form new energy pathways, and the interactions between the individual Lhca1-4 proteins are weakened. Overall, the data indicate the PSI of D. salina represents a
BackgroundThe genome of the pico-eukaryotic (bacterial-sized) prasinophyte green alga Ostreococcus lucimarinus has one of the highest gene densities known in eukaryotes, yet it contains many introns. Phylogenetic studies suggest this unusually compact genome (13.2 Mb) is an evolutionarily derived state among prasinophytes. The presence of introns in the highly reduced O. lucimarinus genome appears to be in opposition to simple explanations of genome evolution based on unidirectional tendencies, either neutral or selective. Therefore, patterns of intron retention in this species can potentially provide insights into the forces governing intron evolution.Methodology/Principal FindingsHere we studied intron features and levels of expression in O. lucimarinus using expressed sequence tags (ESTs) to annotate the current genome assembly. ESTs were assembled into unigene clusters that were mapped back to the O. lucimarinus Build 2.0 assembly using BLAST and the level of gene expression was inferred from the
Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone highly conserved across the species from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Hsp90 is essential for cell viability under all growth conditions and is proposed to act as a hub of the signaling network and protein homeostasis of the eukaryotic cells. By interacting with various client proteins, Hsp90 is involved in diverse physiological processes such as signal transduction, cell mobility, heat shock response and osmotic stress response. In this research, we cloned the dshsp90 gene encoding a polypeptide composed of 696 amino acids from the halotolerant unicellular green algae Dunaliella salina. Sequence alignment indicated that DsHsp90 belonged to the cytosolic Hsp90A family. Further biophysical and biochemical studies of the recombinant protein revealed that DsHsp90 possessed ATPase activity and existed as a dimer with similar percentages of secondary structures to those well-studied Hsp90As. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the cloned genomic DNA
Phytoplankton community structure is shaped by both bottom-up factors, such as nutrient availability, and top-down processes, such as predation. Here we show that marine viruses can blur these distinctions, being able to amend how host cells acquire nutrients from their environment while also predating and lysing their algal hosts. Viral genomes often encode genes derived from their host. These genes may allow the virus to manipulate host metabolism to improve viral fitness. We identify in the genome of a phytoplankton virus, which infects the small green alga Ostreococcus tauri, a host-derived ammonium transporter. This gene is transcribed during infection and when expressed in yeast mutants the viral protein is located to the plasma membrane and rescues growth when cultured with ammonium as the sole nitrogen source. We also show that viral infection alters the nature of nitrogen compound uptake of host cells, by both increasing substrate affinity and allowing the host to access diverse ...
Analyses of morphological and ultrastructural characters, and also of the information carried by gene sequences have established that green algae belonging to the class Charophyceae gave rise to the more than 500,000 land plant species currently inhabiting our planet [1, 2]. Charophycean green algae and land plants form the green plant lineage Streptophyta [3], whereas most, if not all, of the other extant green algae belong to the sister lineage Chlorophyta [2]. In contrast to the large diversity of land plants, only a few thousands charophycean species are living today. Six monophyletic groups are currently recognized in the Charophyceae: the Mesostigmatales [4] represented by Mesostigma viride, a scaly biflagellate that has long been thought to be a member of the Prasinophyceae (the earliest-diverging lineage of the Chlorophyta) [5]; the Chlorokybales represented as well by a single species (Chlorokybus atmophyticus); the Klebsormidiales (3 genera, 45 spp.); the Zygnematales (~ 50 genera, ~ ...
We report on a novel arctic strain BM1 of a carotenogenic chlorophyte from a coastal habitat with harsh environmental conditions (wide variations in solar irradiance, temperature, salinity and nutrient availability) identified as Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow. Increased (25‰) salinity exerted no adverse effect on the growth of the green BM1 cells. Under stressful conditions (high light, nitrogen and phosphorus deprivation), green vegetative cells of H. pluvialis BM1 grown in BG11 medium formed non-motile palmelloid cells and, eventually, hematocysts capable of a massive accumulation of the keto-carotenoid astaxanthin with a high nutraceutical and therapeutic potential. Routinely, astaxanthin was accumulated at the level of 4% of the cell dry weight (DW), reaching, under prolonged stress, 5.5% DW. Astaxanthin was predominantly accumulated in the form of mono- and diesters of fatty acids from C16 and C18 families. The palmelloids and hematocysts were characterized by the formation of red-colored
There are four stages in the spontaneous generation of Bryopsis sub-protoplasts: aggregation of cell organelles, changes in protoplasmic masses to a spherical shape, primary envelope formation and secondary membrane development. Our data indicate that at least two types of molecules are involved in the aggregation of cell organelles, one acts at an optimum of pH 5-6 and the other on the surfaces of cell organelles acts at an optimum of pH 8-9. This result was surprising because it is contrary to previous results (Pak et al., 1991). Pak et al. suggested that the most effective material for agglutination of cell organelles might be contained in the vacuolar sap and, therefore, the sequential action of vacuolar sap (pH 5-6) and seawater would be very important for the aggregation of cell organelles. They also reported that prompt dilution of extruded algal cell contents with 20 volumes of seawater prevented aggregation. The discrepancy between our results and those of Pak et al. may be due to ...
Dunaliella salina is a type of halophile green micro-algae especially found in sea salt fields. Known for its antioxidant activity because of its ability to create large amount of carotenoids, it is used in cosmetics and dietary supplements. Few organisms can survive like D. salina does in such highly saline conditions as salt evaporation ponds. To survive, these organisms have high concentrations of β-carotene to protect against the intense light, and high concentrations of glycerol to provide protection against osmotic pressure. This offers an opportunity for commercial biological production of these substances. Dunaliella salina was named by E.C. Teodoresco of Bucharest, Romania after its original discoverer, Michel Felix Dunal, who first scientifically reported sighting the organism in saltern evaporation ponds in Montpellier, France in 1838. He initially named the organism Haematococcus salinus and Protococcus. The organism was fully described as a new, separate genus simultaneously by ...
Friedl, T (1995). "Inferring taxonomic positions and testing genus level assignments in coccoid green lichen algae: a phylogenetic analysis of 18S ribosomal RNA sequences from Dictyochloropsis reticulata and from members of the genus Myrmecia (Chlorophyta, Trebouxiophyceae cl. nov.)". Journal of Phycology. 31 (4): 632-639. doi:10.1111/j.1529-8817.1995.tb02559.x ...
Cells of Dunaliella acidophila, an acidophilic and halotolerant green alga, which can grow at pH as high as 2.5 and as low as 0.2 (corresponding to 1.2 M H2SO4) accumulate glycerol when exposed to or grown in medium supplemented with glucose, NaCl, Na2SO4 or H2SO4, The cellular response was not dependent on the type of solute, but only on the solute concentration. When cells were exposed to hypertonic media, synthesis of glycerol commenced at once and continued until a new osmotic equilibrium was established between the cell sap and the medium. Only in hypertonic solution approaching lethal levels was a delay in the glycerol synthesis observed. The transition to hypertonic media showed an initial inhibition of photosynthesis and respiration followed by a full recovery of these activities. The inhibition and the time of recovery were dependent on the extent of hypertonic stress, no significant difference being shown by the solute type. In the same time scale, glycerol synthesis continued up to ...
Author: Rameshprabu Ramaraj, Rungthip Kawaree, Yuwalee Unpaprom. Category: [Download PDF]. Abstract:. Microalgae biodiesel are reported to be better than fossil fuels in terms of life-cycle energy performance. Green alga, Botryococcus braunii symbolizes one of the most favorable resources of biodiesel due to relatively high lipid content. The present study focused on the cultivation of Botryococcus braunii with the fed-batch in 4 L lab-scale continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) through inexpensive red Nile tilapia effluent medium (RNTEM), biomass growth, protein, carbohydrate, lipid, hydrocarbon production and fatty acids profiles. Additionally, in this study we have evaluated the feasibility of biodiesel production directly from B. braunii biomass at laboratory scale achieved through direct transesterification process. B. braunii growth confirmed the highest biomass yield (8.57 g L?1) and 35.32% hydrocarbon content was observed. Further, 47.59% lipids, 16.39% proteins and 38.21% ...
Binds directly to 23S ribosomal RNA and is necessary for the in vitro assembly process of the 50S ribosomal subunit. It is not involved in the protein synthesizing functions of that subunit.
The biflagellate green alga Spermatozopsis similis exhibits a remarkable avoidance reaction in addition to the photophobic or stop response characteristic of such algae. S. similis normally swims forward with its anteriorly attached flagella directed posteriorly and propagating sine-like waves base to tip. Upon contact with surfaces or other cells, S. similis responds with rapid backward swimming, covering distances of up to 50 microns in 140 to 220 msec. This reaction, which we term the mechanoshock response, also can be triggered by vigorous mechanical stimulation, but not by physiological light intensities. It consists of 3 phases: (1) a rapid acceleration phase with average duration of 31 msec; (2) a phase of about 66 msec with constant high speed (maximal velocities of | 600 microns.sec-1) or slow deceleration; and (3) a deceleration phase of approximately 83 msec, followed by a stop or short period of circling. The cells then resume forward swimming in a random direction. Prior to the mechanoshock
Gene functionalities and genome structure in Bathycoccus prasinos reflect cellular specializations at the base of the green lineage ...
Volvox colonies. Microscope footage of Volvox sp. colonies. Volvox are small freshwater unicellular green algae that usually make up larger spherical colonies, which behave like a multicellular organisms. Individual cells are connected to each other via protoplasmic strands, and embedded in a globe of glycoprotein. Daughter colonies (small green spheres) are produced asexually inside each parent colony, which disintegrates to release them when they are mature. Colonies also reproduce sexually, in which case male and female gametes are produced and a sexual union occurs. Individual Volvox cells have two hair-like flagella that protrude outwards and are used for colony locomotion. - Stock Video Clip K005/4089
A new class of cyclic hydrocarbon biomarker, macrocyclic-alkanes and their methylated analogues, have for the first time been unambiguously identified in a Botryococcus braunii rich sediment (torbanite).The compounds, consisting of a homologous series of macrocyclic-alkanes (ranging from C15 to C34) and their methylated derivatives (ranging from C17 to C26), were identified by using authentic standards and GC-MS techniques.. ...
AstaReal® Astaxanthin (from Haematococcus pluvialis algae extract) 500 mcg. other ingredients: red beet powder, hypoallergenic plant fiber (cellulose), vegetarian capsule (cellulose, water). Tamper Resistant: Use only if safety seal is intact.. Warning: Vitamin A at levels above 10,000 iu can lead to adverse side effects, including birth defects. If you are pregnant or lactating, have any health condition or are taking any medication, consult your health professional before use.. Keep out of the reach of children. ...
Regarding mechanisms. In the Leger et al. paper we cite many papers that discuss potential mechanisms in detail (inter-kingdom conjugation, viral transduction, gene transfer from endosymbionts). If one still finds it hard to believe that genes can get moved around between eukaryote genomes, then consider the rate of discovery of new eukaryotic viruses lately -- it is likely that we have only found the tip of the iceberg. Consider for example, a recently described giant virus in the green alga Tetraselmis (Schvarcz CR and Steward GF (2018) A giant virus infecting green algae encodes key fermentation genes. Virology 518:423-433). Two of the host-derived genes encoded in this virus are in fact involved in anaerobic pyruvate metabolism (pyruvate formate lyase and its activating enzyme). These are the same genes as found in anaerobic protists functioning in their mitochondria (see Stairs et al (2011) Mol. Biol. Evol. 28:2087-99 or Müller et al. (2012)). Couple this observation with the findings of ...
Sex and the evolution of multicellularity are pretty tightly entwined in the volvocine algae- many aspects of sex, anisogamy, oogamy, internal/external fertilization, anisogamy ration, all correlate with size. On the molecular side, RB has moved into the mating locus of Gonium and Volvox, and Volvox has male/female specific alleles. Now, we dont know all the specific details- if moving into the mating locus and evolving male/female specific alleles in Volvox are a cause of increasing morphological complexity, or rather a consequence of being in non-recombining regions. The Volvox mating type locus showed there are differences in RB intron splicing both between male/female alleles and asexual/sexual expression, suggesting that RB is playing different roles in males and females and involved in sexual development. If RB is playing a role in sexual development, theres strong selection pressure to end up in the mating type locus, which is why RB moving into the mating locus is interesting. But this ...
A team of researchers from the National University of Singapores Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine has demonstrated for the first time that hydrogen sulphide, when applied exogenously, could protect testicular germ cells, which are male reproductive cells, against heat-induced injury, which is one of the major causes of male infertility. The findings may provide a new approach to treating male infertility.
... Actually, the algae isnt tiring me. Im tired of the people trying to sell it to me. Most blue-green algae is sold in a multi-level marketing scheme through Cell Tech. Sellers see me, a physician, as a potentially lucrative franchise to sell algae for them. So I get two or three sales calls every week (once as many as twenty). Never mind that selling algae to make myself money is a conflict-of-interest and an unethical ploy already encouraged by pharmaceutical companies (The only solution I see for your diagnosis, Mr. Smith, is blue-green algae, which I happen to have right here...). Ive tried the algae and it doesnt do much for me. The cost/benefit ratio is poor. Nevertheless, in the past three years Ive received over 400 phone calls, dozens of tapes in the mail, and had people barge into my office and home, all selling algae. One salesperson has continued to call me for almost three years! So what is blue-green algae and why does it make people so ...
The algal PIPs show many similarities with the PIPs of land plants and it is tempting to make the assumption that PIPs, with those shared features, were present already some 1000 MYA at the split of the chlorophytes and the streptophytes [10-12]. Land plant PIPs are known to be regulated by pH, Ca2+ and phosphorylation and a molecular gating mechanism has been suggested. In this, several of the residues have overlapping functions in controlling the D-loop conformation in response to the different signals. However, the evolution of the gating mechanism is likely to have been a stepwise process, starting out from a primitive regulatory mechanism and then sequentially adding further functionality. The presence of an among all PIPs conserved histidine crucial for pH gating [H193 in SoPIP2;1; 20, 21] in the algal PIPs, implies that this regulatory feature might be such a primitive mechanism. Contrary to this, the acidic amino acid residues responsible for Ca2+ binding (D28 and E31 in SoPIP2;1) are ...
Sexual reproduction is one of the means of perpetuation of species in algae with ultimate increase in the population of the individuals. The process involves the fusion of two gametes or sex cells which may originate from the same thallus (monoecious) or from different thalli (dioecious). The gametes may he flagellate or non-flagellate. In algae, the mode of sexual reproduction ranges from isogamy, anisogamy to oogamy. In general, sexual reproduction takes place after the alga had attained a certain amount of vegetative growth and having certain amount of reserve food built up. In algae, an isogamous fusion of two zoogametes is the most primitive type of sexual reproduction. The evolutionary tendency is isogamy, anisogamy to oogamy. Anisogamy is an advanced condition than isogamy. Among anisogamy again there are two condi-tions prevailing: (i) both the fusing pair of gametes may be flagellate, and (ii) the larger one is non-flagellate as against the smaller which is flagellate. It is evident ...
The worst-kept secret among Volvox researchers is that the current volvocine taxonomy is a train wreck. Within the largest family, the Volvocaceae, five nominal genera are polyphyletic (Pandorina, Volvulina, Eudorina, Pleodorina, and Volvox). Of the remaining three, two are monotypic (Platydorina and Yamagishiella). Only the newly described Colemanosphaera is monophyletic with more than one species. The extent of the problem was suspected long before it was confirmed by molecular phylogenetics, and ad hoc attempts to deal with it have led to the existence of such taxonomic abominations as sections, formas, and syngens. An overhaul is called for, but it is complicated by the aforementioned loss of type cultures.. Even species-level taxonomy is often questionable, since a lot of the older descriptions were based entirely on morphological traits, which we know are often convergent. The opposite problem occurs, too. Hisayoshi Nozaki described fixed differences between Volvox strains collected ...
One thing the green movement needs right now like a hole in the head are half-baked, informationally-challenged commentators in left-wing newspapers, journals and websites writing pseudo-academic theses about how, like, totally evil and wrong and in the pay of Big Oil climate deniers are. Its just making the whole - |
It Tastes AMAZING: We cant emphasize enough how much we insisted MetaboGreens 45X taste absolutely delicious. It was a must for us, and believe me when I say we made it happen with flying colors. In fact, with its sweet, energizing berry flavor, we believe MetaboGreens 45X is the best-tasting greens product on the market today, hands down.. **It Mixes And Blends SMOOTHLY (NO grit): When it comes to mixability, other greens supplements are extremely gritty and anything but pleasant to swallow. MetaboGreens 45X, on the other hand, mixes smoothly and evenly with water, tea, juice, protein powder, or any other beverage you choose-leaving you feeling hydrated, energized and refreshed without the gritty texture.. **It Contains Only The HIGHEST Quality Ingredients, In The Correct Amounts: Another huge issue with other greens supplements is "fairy dusting" - when a company sprinkles a laundry list of popular ingredients into a product in miniscule amounts that are nothing more than window dressing. ...
HTF Market Intelligence released a new research report of 121 pages on title Global Dunaliella Market by Manufacturers, Countries, Type and Application, F
Light micrograph of a colony of Volvox containing six asexual daughter colonies within. Volvox is an organism that lies between the plant & animal kingdom, being variously classified with the green algae (plant) or flagellates (animal). The colony contains from hundreds to thousands of cells arranged at the surface of a watery matrix. The individual cells have two flagella & eyespots. They reproduce both asexually & sexually. In the former case cells in the rear of the colony divide to form daughter colonies. Once released the parent colony dies. In the latter case male & female gametes are produced & a sexual union occurs. Magnification x75 at 35mm size. - Stock Image Z100/0057
The Complete Genomes Resource is a collection of genomic sequences that is a part of the Entrez Genomes, which provides curated sequence data and annotations of complete genomes to the scientific community.
A single-celled biflagellate. The cell wall is separated from the protoplast, connected only by thin cytoplasmic strands. Cl/100 Desired Date of Arrival can be entered during …
Health,Anti cancer drugs have been created from blue green algae by scientist...This accomplishment is expected to make it possible to produce enoug...In a study featured on the cover of the January issue of the journal... It was simply too difficult to use the native blue-green algae for ...Developing an efficient synthetic route to natural product compounds...,Anti,Cancer,Drug,from,Blue,Green,Algae,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
All algae need access to light and live in oxygenated water. There are more than 7,000 species of green algae, which live in a variety of...
algae distinguished chiefly by having flagella and a clear green color, their chlorophyll being masked little if at all by other pigments. ...
The authors have analyzed contemporaneous IUE ultraviolet spectra and visible photoelectric data of the eclipsing binary V471 Tauri (K2 V+DA) between 1979 and 1985. The combined data detail the three-dimensional structure of atmospheric loops and their associated starspots on the K dwarf. The distri.... Full description. ...
A research project, led by the U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (DOE JGI) has uncovered hundreds of genes of a tiny green alga.
When green algae cant breathe, they get rid of excess energy through the production of hydrogen. Biologists at the Ruhr-Universität Bochum have found out how the cells notice the absence of oxygen. For this, they need ...
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Green alga cyst. Halosphaera sp.. 2 miles off Dana Point, Orange County, CA. 3/4/2015. © Peter J. Bryant. Description. Class ...
Not all algae are created equal - regarding algae chemistry and a more clearer understanding of their weaknesses can be helpful in choosing the right treatment. Copper is effective at killing algae because it disrupts enzymatic activity within the cell. If the enzymes do not function properly, the organism cannot survive.
A team of researchers has discovered a critical process responsible for producing the correct number of chromosomes in healthy offspring.. The research, published in the journal Science, shows that genetic events during the division of reproductive cells are regulated by a system that marks proteins to be destroyed. When the timing of this destruction goes wrong, it results in the incorrect number of chromosomes in either the sperm in the male or the egg in the female, which can cause birth defects.. OMRF scientist Roberto Pezza, Ph.D., who contributed to the new study, explained that the process by which these proteins are targeted for destruction has been known to affect other processes. "But it had never been shown before in the context of reproductive cells in mammals," he said.. This process occurs during meiosis, a specific type of cell division that produces the sperm and egg. When these join to create offspring, the correct number of chromosomes must be present in each. But if this fails ...
Organisms that reproduce sexually produce sex cells, or gametes, that carry a single set of chromosomes, the haploid number for the species. In contrast, body, or somatic, cells are the regular cells ...
Hi I have a above ground pool with a sand filter in the UK and Im having a real problem with algae returning to the bottom of the pool, the water balance is fine and I have added algaecide, I have vacuumed the pool very time the algae has sunk to the bottom but the next day it is back on the bottom. The algae is a green colour and the water is crystal clear.I am at my wits end with it can anybody help me please. One other thing the Chlorine is getting used quite quickly as well ...
The latest developments in the world of biking, walking, fuel-efficient vehicles and all the other green ways to move from one place to another.
Scientists at Newcastle University and the Scottish Association for Marine Science have developed a new identification tool for algae, which could have a major impact on how algae are categorized in the future. In the same way that people can be recognized by their fingerprints, the algaes proteome is now being used as…. ...
Compiled by a diverse team of experts, with experience in scientific and industrial fields, the Comprehensive Report for Wastewater Treatment Using Algae is the first report that provides in-depth analysis and insights on this important field. It uses innumerable data and information from a wide variety of expert sources and market studies, and distills these inputs and data into intelligence and a roadmap that you can use. More » ...
Yes, a nice overview, and pretty relevant, even if the article is 20 years old! Some of the names there are still very active in the field today. They also mention PV Cep, which although I do have a chart for, is not really suited to us visual observers. But the CCD guys might like to have a pop at it, together with its weird attendant nebula.. ...
If you find this site to be of value, a donation of any kind or amount would be greatly appreciated. Some donation ideas include signing up for our newsletter, making an appointment, a referral, linking to the site from your site on an appropriate page and sending money or a prayer are all acceptable donations of energy. I believe we need to support those things that nourish us in any way if wed like to see them around in the future ...
A new and cheap gene-editing technique has brought the possibility of the genetic manipulation of human reproductive cells closer than ever before.
Nano-sized, single-celled algae are among Earths earliest life forms. They have been surviving in many of Earths harshest environments for 3.7 billion years. Algaes simplicity enables these plants to…. ...
Well, I let the pool turn green again :( So I am getting good at fixing it from the green algae state because of having to do it many times. For various reasons I need to pare it down the major concepts... What would be the main key things I need to do to avoid it going green on me? My list would be: - Never let FC drop below 1... especially not for more than a half day... to be safe, I should aim to never let it go below 2? - Never let pH get above 7.4... so to be safe, I think I
Results for algae production nutrient equipment from AgriMarine, Algae, Alken CLEAR-FLO and other leading brands. Compare and contact a supplier near you on agriculture-xprt.com
So I want to re use my 50 pounds of live rock from my current tank in my new tank. I dont want any of the algae coming over though, I have some hair algae here and there. Whats teh best way to kill
View Notes - aos104f08.hw4 from A&O 2 at UCLA. 1. Suppose we use C 106 H 263 O 110 N 16 P as a chemical representation of algae. a. Determine the mass in mg of each element in 1 g of algae. b.
Use Algae Attack Pool Chemical Packs from PoolProducts.com to get rid of algae and get your pool sparkling clean again. Packs treat up to 30,000 gallons.
Growing algae can require a lot of time and water to grow. US researchers have now developed a way to grow algae in days instead of weeks.
Hi, We have been reading the boards and information on this site and we have been amazed at the level of support and interaction. We are so glad we found you! We have started our conversion today from Baqua and will be going to a SWG system. The SWG system has been installed, but is turned off until we get our FC to the correct levels for two days. The salt has not been added yet. We are taking pictures and are happy to share them. We started with a heavy green algae and got the pool
I literally give up. - Well, went yesterday to get four amano shrimp for my ten gallon after waiting for them for two weeks. I have been having a serious green algae issue...
[105 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global DHA from Algae Market Professional Survey Report 2016 report by QYResearch Group. This report Mainly covers the following product types The segment...
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Buceros supermishap betrothal contractation ovest cover Piricularia missionize unredeemedness questionability santoninic stalwartize sundries pervicaciously Xylonite pseudolobar stopboard alga Tympanuchus articulite Manuel indelegability uninimical oxalylurea noncollection exegetist [email protected] ...
How terrible for these furparents! Thanks to tvnz.co.nz for this article. Deadly toxic algae kill two dogs Jan 3, 2008 Dog-owners are being urged to.... ...
One of the most extreme and fascinating examples of naturally occurring mutagenesis is represented by circular permutation. Circular permutations involve the linking of two chain ends and cleavage at another site. Here we report the first description of the folding mechanism of a naturally occurring circularly permuted protein, a PDZ domain from the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus. Data reveal that the folding of the permuted protein is characterized by the presence of a low energy off-pathway kinetic trap. This finding contrasts with what was previously observed for canonical PDZ domains that, although displaying a similar primary structure when structurally re-aligned, fold via an on-pathway productive intermediate. Although circular permutation of PDZ domains may be necessary for a correct orientation of their functional sites in multi-domain protein scaffolds, such structural rearrangement may compromise their folding pathway. This study provides a straightforward example of the divergent ...
The sex-inducer of the spherical green alga Volvox carteri is one of the most potent biological effector molecules known: it is released into the medium by sexual males and triggers the switch to the sexual cleavage program in the reproductive cells of vegetatively grown males and females even at concentrations as low as 10 (-16) M. In an adult Volvox alga, all cells are embedded in an extensive extracellular matrix (ECM), which constitutes >99% of the volume of the spheroid. There exist no cytoplasmic connections between the cells in an adult alga, so any signal transduction between different cells or from the organisms environment to a reproductive cell must involve the ECM. Recently, a small cysteine-rich extracellular protein, VCRP, was identified in Volvox and shown to be quickly synthesized by somatic cells in response to the sex-inducer. Due to its characteristics, VCRP was speculated to be an extracellular second messenger from somatic cells to reproductive cells. Here a related ...
Stich, H. Trypaflavin und Ribonucleinsäure. Untersucht an Mäusegeweben, Condylostoma spec. und Acetabularia mediterranea. Naturwissenschaften 38, 435-436 (1951). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00630746. Download ...
Ahn, C.Y., A.S. Chung and H.M. Oh (2002). Diel rhythm of algal phosphate uptake rates in P-limited cyclostats and simulation of its effect on growth and competition. J. Phycol. 38, 695-704. Anderca, M.I., T. Furuichi, R. Pinontoan and S. Muto (2002). Identification of a mitochondrial nucleoside diphosphate kinase from the green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta. Plant Cell Physiol. 43, 1276-1284. Apt, K.E., L. Zaslavkaia, J.C. Lippmeier, M. Lang, O. Kilian, R. Wetherbee, A.R. Grossman and P.G. Kroth (2002). In vivo characterization of diatom multipartite plastid targeting signals. J. Cell Sci. 115, 4061-4069. Bennoun, P. (2002). The present model for chlororespiration. Photosynth. Res. 73, 273-277. Bohne, F. and H. Linden (2002). Regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis genes in response to light in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Biochim. Biophys. Acta Gene Struct. Expression 1579, 26-34. Cepak, V., M. Zobacova and V. Zachleder (2002). The effect of cadmium ions on the cell cycle of the green flagellate ...
Biodiesel or ethanol derived from lipids or starch produced by microalgae may overcome many of the sustainability challenges previously ascribed to petroleum-based fuels and first generation plant-based biofuels. The paucity of microalgae genome sequences, however, limits gene-based biofuel feedstock optimization studies. Here we describe the sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly for the non-model microalgae species, Dunaliella tertiolecta, and identify pathways and genes of importance related to biofuel production. Next generation DNA pyrosequencing technology applied to D. tertiolecta transcripts produced 1,363,336 high quality reads with an average length of 400 bases. Following quality and size trimming, ~ 45% of the high quality reads were assembled into 33,307 isotigs with a 31-fold coverage and 376,482 singletons. Assembled sequences and singletons were subjected to BLAST similarity searches and annotated with Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthology
Amputated apices from vegetative wildtype cells of the uninucleate green alga Acetabularia acetabulum can differentiate a reproductive structure of cap in the absence of the nucleus (Hammerling, J. (1932) Biologisches Zentralblatt 52, 42-61). To define the limits of the ability of wildtype cells to control reproductive differentiation, we determined when during development apices from wildtype cells first acquired the ability to make a cap in the absence of the nucleus and, conversely, when cells with a nucleus lost the ability to recover from the loss of their apices. To see when the apex acquired the ability to make a cap without the nucleus, we removed apices from cells varying either the developmental age of the cells or the cellular volume left with the apex. Cells must have attained the adult phase of development before the enucleate apex could survive amputation and make a cap. Apices removed from cells early in adult growth required more cell volume to make a cap without the nucleus ...
The extracellular matrix (ECM) of Volvox is modified during development or in response to external stimuli, like the sex-inducing pheromone. It has recently been demonstrated that a number of genes triggered by the sex-inducing pheromone are also inducible by wounding. By differential screening of a cDNA library, a novel gene was identified that is transcribed in response to the pheromone. Its gene product was characterized as an ECM glycoprotein with a striking feature: it exhibits a hydroxyproline content of 68% and therefore is an extreme member of the family of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs). HRGPs are known as constituents of higher plant ECMs and seem to function as structural barriers in defense responses. The Volvox HRGP is also found to be inducible by wounding. This indicates that the wound response scenarios of higher plants and multicellular green algae may be evolutionary related ...
Ostreococcus tauri virus (OtV-1) is a large double-stranded DNA virus and a prospective member of the family Phycodnaviridae, genus Prasinovirus. OtV-1 infects the unicellular marine green alga O. tauri, the smallest known free-living eukaryote. Here we present the 191 761 base pair genome sequence of OtV-1, which has 232 putative protein-encoding and 4 tRNA-encoding genes. Approximately 31% of th ...
Algae Details | 2708 | Class: Chlorophyceae | Strain: Polyphysa clavata | Media: Dasycladales Seawater Medium | Origin: Okinawa, Japan | Description of Location: | Collection: J. Hí_mmerling (1956) | Isolation: | Isolator Number: | Deposition: S. Berger (12/6/96) | Relatives: MPI-Zb Polyphysa clavata | Also Known As: Acetabularia (Polyphysa) clavata (Yamada); Parvocaulis clavata (Berger 2003); Acetabularia clavata | Notes: (Berger & Kaever 1992); [Curators note: Berger & Kaever 1992 follow Bailey et al. 1976 in separating Polyphysa and Acetabularia along morphological lines. Alternatively, Silva et al. 1996 (p. 890-4) acknowledge the separation but concomitantly interpret some of the supporting molecular data (Olsen et al. 1994) as reason to invalidate the genus Polyphysa. They conclude that these species represent a genus that cannot be called Polyphysa and suggest recognizing only one genus, i.e., Acetabularia, until the picture is clarified. UTEX has accepted these cultures from the Max-Planck
The numbers of dictyosomes in cells of M. crux-melitensis and M. pinnatifidawere counted at various stages in the cell cycle. Dictyosomes synchronously doubled in number by dividing at the...
The production of biofuels from microalgae is a promising and sustainable alternative. Its production is determined by the content of lipids and carbohydrates, which is different for each microalgae species and is affected by environmental factors, being lighting one of the principal determining their biochemical composition. The colour temperature (electromagnetic radiation and light spectrum) is a determining factor for the production of lipids and carbohydrates in microalgae. The aim of this assay was to evaluate the effect of three colour temperatures (6500, 10,000 and 20,000 °K) on the biomass (cel mL−1), biomass production and productivity (g L−1 and g L−1 day−1), lipid and carbohydrate content (%), lipid and carbohydrate production and productivity (mg L−1 and mg L−1 day−1), composition and content of fatty acids (%) in two microalgae species: Dunaliella salina and Nannochloropsis oculata. The highest cell density was observed for N. oculata in stationary phase in the ...
China Haematoccus Pluvialis Astaxanthin Softgel Capsule, Find details about China Haematoccus Pluvialis Astaxanthin, Astaxanthin Tablet from Haematoccus Pluvialis Astaxanthin Softgel Capsule - Shandong Ruizhi Biotechnology Co., Ltd.
Photoperiods have an important impact on macroalgae living in the intertidal zone. Ocean acidification also influences the physiology of macroalgae. However, little is known about the interaction between ocean acidification and photoperiod on macroalgae. In this study, a green alga Ulva linza was cultured under three different photoperiods (L: D = 8:16, 12:12, 16:8) and two different CO2 levels (LC, 400 ppm; HC, 1,000 ppm) to investigate their responses. The results showed that relative growth rate of U. linza increased with extended light periods under LC but decreased at HC when exposed to the longest light period of 16 h compared to 12 h. Higher CO2 levels enhanced the relative growth rate at a L: D of 8:16, had no effect at 12:12 but reduced RGR at 16:8. At LC, the L: D of 16:8 significantly stimulated maximum quantum yield (Yield). Higher CO2 levels enhanced Yield at L: D of 12:12 and 8:16, had negative effect at 16:8. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) increased with increasing light period. High
Veja Foto de stock de Chlamydomonas Are Common Unicellular Green Algae With Two Flagella Sem. Encontre fotografias premium e de alta resolução na Getty Images.
Derived from Haematococcus pluvialis microalgae cultivated under pristine conditions, esterfied astaxanthin is a stable, powerful, fat-soluble antioxidant from the carotenoid family. Haematococcus algae produces astaxanthin to protect itself against ultraviolet-induced free radical damage. Astaxanthin is different from beta-carotene in that it has two additional oxygenated groups on Each of its ring structures, enhancing its ability to scavenge free radicals. It is believed to be several hundred times more effective than vitamin E in neutralizing singlet oxygen molecules and has been shown to exert greater antioxidant activity than both zeaxanthin and lutein. Astaxanthin protects the phospholipid membranes of cells from oxidative damage. In a recent U.S. study, it demonstrated the ability to cross the blood brain barrier and protect the retina in animals, suggesting its potential for supporting the brain and nervous system from free radical damage. Initial trials with astaxanthin suggest that it ...
Pure Encapsulations Astaxanthin 60 Softgels Powerful antioxidant for the skin, macula, joints, immune system and cardiovascular function *Derived from Haematococcus pluvialis microalgae cultivated under pristine conditions, esterfied astaxanthin is a stable, powerful, fat-soluble antioxidant from the carotenoid family. Haematococcus algae produces astaxanthin to protect itself against ultraviolet-induced free radical damage. Astaxanthin is different from beta- carotene in that it has two additional oxygenated groups on each of its ring structures, enhancing its ability to scavenge free radicals. It is believed to be several hundred times more effective than vitamin E in neutralizing singlet oxygen molecules and has been shown to exert greater antioxidant activity than both zeaxanthin and lutein. Astaxanthin protects the phospholipid membranes of cells from oxidative damage. In a recent U.S. study, it demonstrated the ability to cross the blood brain barrier and protect the retina in animals,
The project covers the whole process chain from optimized biomass production to product development and exploitation. In a first step, two industrial bioproduction platforms will be explored: the green alga Botryococcus braunii and the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, to which the unique hydrocarbon and polysaccharides producing genes from Botryococcus will be transferred. Biomass cultivation is targeted to reach a pilot scale.
Second hand copy. As new. - Contents (partly): Introduction/ Material and Methods/ Results (Water Analyses/ The Phytoplankton of the Waters/ The genus Scenedesmus/ Subgenus Acutodesmus HEGEW./ Subgenus Scenedesmus/ Subgenus Desmodesmus CHOD)/ Discussion of Results/ Acknowledgements/ Summary/ References/ Index/ Tables/ Plates. - Publishers new copies available at EUR 61.00 ...
Ankistrodesmus braunii ATCC ® 30447™ Designation: UTEX 187 [CCAP-202/9a] Isolation: Material collected by T. Christensen, Madingley Brick Pits, England, 1949
ABSTRACT: Increased nutrient loading favors macroalgal blooms in eutrophied coastal ecosystems. The main counteracting factor on this bottom-up support is top-down control by consumers. We asked (1) whether herbivore control on 2 bloom-forming macroalgae in the Baltic Sea varies between different algal life stages, (2) whether herbivores selectively feed on Enteromorpha spp. (Chlorophyceae) thereby supporting dominance of Pilayella littoralis (Phaeophyceae), and (3) whether various herbivore species differ in their effects. In comparative field and laboratory experiments, we analyzed herbivore pressure and selectivity on germling density and adult thalli of Enteromorpha spp. and P. littoralis. In the field, herbivores reduced macroalgal recruitment by 80% within 14 d indicating strong herbivore control at early life stages. Recruits of Enteromorpha spp. were significantly preferred over P. littoralis Adult thalli of both algae showed similar growth rates, but grazing rates were significantly ...
The acute phytotoxicities of seven heavy metals (Cd2+, Cu2+, Hg2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, Cr6+ and Co2+), three phenolic compounds (phenol, 3,5-dichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol) and nine industrial effluents were appraised by using a rapid electrophysiological test with cells of the charophyte, Nitellopsis obtusa. The EC50 values (concentrations causing a 50% decrease in resting potential) obtained for reference chemicals were compared with those of five microbiotests (Polytox®, Microtox®, Selenastrum capricornutum growth inhibition, Daphnia magna immobilisation and Rotoxkit FTM) taken from the scientific literature. The 45-minute charophyte test, the freshwater Algaltoxkit FTM, Daphtoxkit FTM and Rotoxkit FTM were conducted simultaneously to assess the toxicities of effluents. The Toxkit microbiotests were typically two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the electrophysiological charophyte test to pure chemicals. The electrophysiological charophyte test was generally more sensitive than the ...
Subproject Plant List. Origin and Early Diversification of the Viridiplantae: Exploring the Biodiversity of the Green Algae. Project Contact: Michael Melkonian, University of Cologne. The Viridiplantae in the course of their evolution changed life on this planet once and for ever; they were the only group of photosynthetic eukaryotes capable of establishing themselves on land and have thus shaped terrestrial life since then. Many fundamental questions surrounding the origin and early diversification of the Viridiplantae, however, remain unsolved:. (1) What was the nature and gene composition of the likely ancestor of the Viridiplantae?. (2) What was the original habitat of the earliest Viridiplantae (marine, freshwater, terrestrial)?. (3) Do any Viridiplantae exist that diverged before "the great divide", i.e. before the split into Chlorophyta and Streptophyta?. (4) What is the fundamental difference between Chlorophyta and Streptophyta based on their transcriptomes?. (5) What was the impact of ...
The citrate cycle (TCA cycle, Krebs cycle) is an important aerobic pathway for the final steps of the oxidation of carbohydrates and fatty acids. The cycle starts with acetyl-CoA, the activated form of acetate, derived from glycolysis and pyruvate oxidation for carbohydrates and from beta oxidation of fatty acids. The two-carbon acetyl group in acetyl-CoA is transferred to the four-carbon compound of oxaloacetate to form the six-carbon compound of citrate. In a series of reactions two carbons in citrate are oxidized to CO2 and the reaction pathway supplies NADH for use in the oxidative phosphorylation and other metabolic processes. The pathway also supplies important precursor metabolites including 2-oxoglutarate. At the end of the cycle the remaining four-carbon part is transformed back to oxaloacetate. According to the genome sequence data, many organisms seem to lack genes for the full cycle [MD:M00009], but contain genes for specific segments [MD:M00010 M00011 ...
Fluconazole Bryopsis Treatment - Per Gallon (20mg). By purchasing a quantity of 1 (one) you are buying 20mg of Fluconazole Bryopsis Treatment that will treat 1 gallon of aquarium system volume. If your system is 37 gallons total, then you need to purchase a quantity of 37 of this product. If your system is 100 gallons total, then you need to purchase a quantity of 100 of this product. The Fluconazole Bryopsis Treatment will come pre measured and packaged in the quantity you order ready to be dissolved and added to the system. no measuring required on your part. If you are ordering multiple doses or for multiple systems please indicate in the order comments upon checkout the total number of gallons per package.. If your system is 100 gallons total, and you want 2 doses you need to purchase 200 of this product and in the comments section of the order checkout please indicate "Package in 2 x 100g doses". Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) ...
Scenedesmus quadricauda ATCC ® 11460™ Designation: CU 276/4b [UTEX 76] Isolation: garden pool, Cambridge, England, 1940
The availability of only limited number of microalgae genome sequences hinders the efforts of optimization and metabolic engineering studies in biofuel production from microalgae. Here we describe a comprehensive sequencing, and de novo assembly of a non-model microalgae species, Dunaliella tertiolecta, transcriptome, and provide its pathway descriptions along with identified key genes of importance related to biofuel production. D. tertiolecta transcriptome was sequenced using 454 pyrosequencing technology with Titanium chemistry. Assembled sequences were subjected to BLAST similarity search against "nr" databases of National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and annotated with Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthology (KO) identifiers. These target-based analyses identified the majority of biosynthesis and catabolism of lipids and starch pathways in D. tertiolecta. The presented work describes the first de novo sequencing and analysis of a ...
additional source Fredericq, S., T. O. Cho, S. A. Earle, C. F. Gurgel, D. M. Krayesky, L. E. Mateo-Cid, A. C. Mendoza-González, J. N. Norris, and A. M. Suárez. 2009. Seaweeds of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. 187-259 in Felder, D.L. and D.K. Camp (eds.), Gulf of Mexico-Origins, Waters, and Biota. I. Biodiversity, pp. 187-259. Texas A&M Univ. Press. [details] ...
additional source Fredericq, S., T. O. Cho, S. A. Earle, C. F. Gurgel, D. M. Krayesky, L. E. Mateo-Cid, A. C. Mendoza-González, J. N. Norris, and A. M. Suárez. 2009. Seaweeds of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. 187-259 in Felder, D.L. and D.K. Camp (eds.), Gulf of Mexico-Origins, Waters, and Biota. I. Biodiversity, pp. 187-259. Texas A&M Univ. Press. [details] ...
Kuroiwa, T., Ohnuma, M., Nozaki, H., Imoto, Y., Misumi, O., Kuroiwa, H. 2015 Cytological evidence of cell-nuclear genome size of a new ultra-small unicellular freshwater green alga, "Medakamo hakoo" strain M-hakoo 311 I. Comparison with Cyanidioschyzon merolae and Ostreococcus tauri. Cytologia, 80, 143-150 ...
Enhancing biofuel lipid feedstock accumulation in the microalgae Ostreococcus tauri, Emma Patello, Chuck Smallwood, William Chrisler, and James Evans. ...
Sustainable exploitation and valorization of natural marine resources represents a highly interesting platform for the development of novel biomaterials, with both economic and environmental benefits. In this context, toxicity data is regarded as a crucial and fundamental knowledge prior to any advances in the application development of natural derived polymers. In the present work, cytotoxicity of ulvan extracted from green algae Ulva lactuca was assessed by means of standard in vitro cytotoxicity assays. Fibroblast-like cells were incubated in the presence of this green algaes polysaccharide, and cell viability was assayed through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium test. In addition, double stranded DNA and total protein were quantified in order to assess cell number. In order to establish ulvans non-cytotoxic behaviour, the effect of this polysaccharide on cellular metabolic activity and cell number was directly compared to hyaluronic ...
Algae in the swimming pool is an unwelcome sight, but one that usually can be dealt with effectively. The following "color-coded" tips can help you or your pool service professional identify and eliminate, or at least control, the most common types of algae. It is important to follow manufacturers directions for using and storing all pool chemicals.. Green Algae. Green algae usually appears when pool sanitizer levels are low or water circulation is poor; green algae turns pool water cloudy and murky. It is the easiest type of algae to remediate, but left unaddressed, green algae can worsen to the point of obscuring the floor and steps of the pool and potentially even a struggling bather, raising the drowning risk. Eradicate green algae by raising the chlorine level or adding an algaecide. Following treatment, it is important to run the filtration system continuously to clear the water by trapping the dead algae in the filter.. Avoid green algae by maintaining proper pool chemical levels. ...
Description. Long, filamentous green alga up to 15 cm tall, mostly tubular, hollow, with tube walls 1 cell thick, axes 1-7 mm wide. Branches cylindrical throughout or with the terminal portion expanded and bladelike, or centrally compressed with only the margins hollow. Larger tubular portions may or may not branch; if branched, with narrow filamentous branchlets. Attached to rocky substrate by rhizoids that grow from basal cells of the tube. Grass green.. It often grows in tufts of 6 cm long, but in areas of high nutrients and fresh water, can form long, hairlike strands up to 20 cm long. Structural Features. Thallus hollow tube, walls 1 cell thick. Cells in surface view arranged in short longitudinal rows. Cells rounded rectangular, 10-28 m wide, 8-30 m long, in somewhat longitudinal and often transverse rows; basal cells up to 50 m long. Habitat. Forms clusters or tufts attached to rocks in sandy areas, high intertidal to mid-intertidal. Will often be exposed at low tide, and often found near ...
Knowledge and management of aquatic ecosystems (formerly Bulletin Français de la Pèche et de la Pisciculture), an international journal on freshwater ecosystem
Buckup, P.A., 1993. Review of the characidiin fishes (Teleostei: Characiformes), with descriptions of four new genera and ten new species. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 4(2):97-154. (Ref. 13683 ...
Nyberg and Saranpaa (1989) studied the cell walls of the species Chara aspera Willd. They found that the transverse walls of internodal cells contain plasmodesmata. The longitudinal walls of these cells are uniform and fibirllar. Nyberg and Saranpaa also noted two thin, distinct layers in the longitudinal walls. They found that the composition of internodal, cortical and rhizoid bulbil cells consist of randomly oriented fibrils. In the cortical cells, longitudinal walls have a helicoidal structure. There are six distinct layers in the rhizoid bulbil cell walls. Nyberg and Saranpaa noted that the cytoplasmic structure of internodal and cortical cells is consistent across Charophyta species. Charasomes were only observed in cortical cells. They are colored by chlorophyll a and b, as well as alpha and beta carotene, and xanthophylls. Gametes are protected by a layer of sterile cells. Charales and Coleochaetales have flagellated sperm that are arranged asymetrically. Most species have flagella. ...
The ability to defend against grazers is a main driving force in phytoplankton evolutionary histories. This leads to trade-offs with other life-history traits, modifying eco-evolutionary dynamics. One well-known example is the chlorophyte Scenedesmus sp., which forms colonies when being grazed by the predator Daphnia. This morphological change allows Scenedesmus to increase its effective size to beyond the handling capacity of the grazers and thereby reduces its grazing mortality. The project involve the use of microcosms and modelling approaches to study inducible defence of green algae against grazers at the population and community levels, and metabolomics to characterise the chemical nature of the interactions and physiological changes in the organisms. ...
Lineage: cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Viridiplantae; Chlorophyta; prasinophytes; Mamiellophyceae; Mamiellales; Bathycoccaceae; Ostreococcus; Ostreococcus lucimarinus ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A theory of self-organization of an excitable membrane formed on the protoplasmic droplet isolated from Nitella. AU - Aizawa, Yoji. AU - Kobatake, Yonosuke. PY - 1976/8/7. Y1 - 1976/8/7. N2 - The process of self-organization of an excitable membrane of protoplasmic droplet of Nitella is studied theoretically by taking the interaction of the local electric current caused by the spatially non-uniform distribution of active domains into account. The theoretical model employed is that the surface membrane forms a mosaic structure composed of lipids and protein molecules, and that each element of the mosaic structure (domain) on the membrane has two distinct conformations corresponding to excited and resting states. The molecules constituting the membrane are derived from the inside of the protoplasm by diffusion. The excitability of the surface membrane appears suddenly after a morphogenetic structure of the membrane is formed with time on the surface of droplet. Time courses of the ...
Chlorophyta. Class:. Mamiellophyceae. Order:. Mamiellales. Family:. Bathycoccaceae. Genus:. Bathycoccus. Species:. B. prasinos ...
Chlorophyta all green algae. Land plants separate divisions. for each group. Viridiplantae Chlorophyta ~8 chlorophyte algal ... Chlorophyta ~8 chlorophyte algal taxa. Streptophyta sensu Becker & Marin ~6 streptophyte algal taxa. Embryophyta. ... treated all green algae as a single division of the plant kingdom under the name Chlorophyta.[26] Land plants were then placed ...
The Chlorophyta (a name that has also been used for all green algae) are the sister group to the Charophytes, from which the ... Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2011), AlgaeBase : Chlorophyta, World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, ... the Chlorophyta and the Streptophyta (including the land plants and Charophyta).[25][26] ... but are treated as a group outside the Chlorophyta:[46] later authors have not followed this suggestion. ...
The Chlorophyta include the early diverging prasinophyte lineages and the core Chlorophyta, which contain the majority of ... The algae of this paraphyletic group "Charophyta" were previously included in Chlorophyta, so green algae and Chlorophyta in ... The green algae (singular: green alga) are a large, informal grouping of algae consisting of the Chlorophyta and Charophyta/ ... "Chloroplast phylogenomic analyses reveal the deepest-branching lineage of the Chlorophyta, Palmophyllophyceae class. nov" ...
The Trebouxiophyceae are a class of green algae, in the division Chlorophyta.[2] Their circumscription within the green algae ... Chlorophyta, Trebouxiophyceae cl. nov.)". Journal of Phycology. 31 (4): 632-639. doi:10.1111/j.1529-8817.1995.tb02559.x.. .mw- ...
Chlorophyta). I. Emendation of Chlamydomonas Ehrenberg and Chloromonas Gobi, and descripription of Oogamochlamys gen. nov. and ...
Chlorophyta sensu van den Hoek & Jahns, 1978[4]. *Chlorobionta Jeffrey 1982, emend. Bremer 1985, emend. Lewis and McCourt 2004 ... O agrupamento Viridiplantae, entendido no sentido atrás explanado, é constituído por dois clados: Chlorophyta e Streptophyta, a ... Chloroplast phylogenomic analyses reveal the deepest-branching lineage of the Chlorophyta, Palmophyllophyceae class. nov». ...
Volume 3: Chlorophyta. (Tsarenko, P.M., Wasser, S.P. & Nevo, E. Eds), pp. 152-157. Ruggell: A.R.A. Gantner Verlag K.-G.. Mixed ... Borowitzka, M.J. & Siva, C.J. (2007). The taxonomy of the genus Dunaliella (Chlorophyta, Dunaliellales) with emphasis on the ... Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 47(6): 1454-1460. Dunaliella salina at the Encyclopedia of Life Guiry, M.D.; Guiry, G.M. ( ...
Chlorophyta Pascher, 1914, emend. Lewis i McCourt, 2004. *Charophyta Karol i in., 2001, emend. Lewis i McCourt, 2004 - ...
The single-cell organism has a spherical to ovoid (egg-like) shape. The colour varies from grass green to dark green (though in deep dark water they may appear to be silver, teal, or even blackish).[2] This is determined by the number of chloroplasts of the specimen.[6] The surface of the cell shines like glass. The body is a thin-walled, tough, single cell with more than one nucleus. The diameter is usually from 1 to 4 centimetres (0.39 to 1.57 in) although it may get to 5.1 centimetres (2.0 in) in rare cases. The "bubble" alga is attached to the bottom by fibres: "... anchored to a substrate by minute hair-like appendages called rhizoids that create a surprisingly strong hold".[2] Reproduction occurs by cell division, where the multinucleic mother cell makes daughter cells, which become separate from the mother cell. ...
Volume 2. Chlorophyta. Natural History Museum Publications. ISBN 0-565-00981-8 Burrows, E.M. and Lodge, S.M. 1949. Notes on the ... Her main studies were in the ecology of the macroalgae, especially Fucus and the green algae - Chlorophyta. She began ...
Chlorophyta)". Phycologia. 39 (4): 337-348. doi:10.2216/i0031-8884-39-4-337.1. Zingone, Adriana; Borra, Marco; Brunet, ... and Dolichomastix tenuilepis in relation to the Mamiellales (Prasinophyceae, Chlorophyta)". Journal of Phycology. 38: 1024-1039 ...
... is a species of green algae (Chlorophyta). C. marinum is a microscopic unicellular elongated oval algae ... E. M. Burrows (1991). Chlorophyta. Seaweeds of the British Isles. 2. London: Natural History Museum. ISBN 0-565-00981-8. Hardy ...
Volume 2. Chlorophyta. London: Natural History Museum. ISBN 0-565-00981-8. Morton,O. 1994. Marine Algae of Northern Ireland. ... Codium is a genus of seaweed in the Chlorophyta of the Order Bryopsidales. There are about 50 species worldwide. The genus has ...
Chlorophyta (green algae), mostly unicellular algae found in fresh water.[43] The chlorophyta are of particular importance ...
Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta)". Phycologia. 43 (6): 641-652. doi:10.2216/i0031-8884-43-6-641.1. ISSN 0031-8884. Zhu, Yan; ...
Volvocaceae, Chlorophyta)". Phycologia. 31 (6): 529-541. doi:10.2216/i0031-8884-31-6-529.1. Retrieved 9 June 2014. ...
Volvocaceae, Chlorophyta)". Phycologia. 31 (6): 529-541. doi:10.2216/i0031-8884-31-6-529.1. Retrieved 9 June 2014. See the NCBI ...
Brook, A.J.; Williamson, D.B.; John, D.M. (2011). "Phylum Chlorophyta. Family Mesotaeniaceae ('saccoderm desmids')". In John, D ...
Zeller, A. & Mandoli, D.F. (1993). Growth of Acetabularia acetabulum (Dasycladales, Chlorophyta) on solid substrata at specific ... L.B. (2003). The life cycle of Acetabularia (Dasycladales, Chlorophyta): textbook accounts are wrong (Commentary). Phycologia ... Nishimura, N.J. & Mandoli, D.F. (1992). Vegetative growth of Acetabularia acetabulum (Chlorophyta): structural evidence for ... Chlorophyta) and reduces the labor inherent in cell culture. Journal of Psychology 32: 483-495, 6 figs, 3 tables. Kingsley, R.J ...
... is a green alga in the division Chlorophyta, a green seaweed endemic to the West Coast of India. The species was ... Ulvales, Chlorophyta). PLoS ONE 9(10): e109295. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0109295 http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi% ...
Volume 2 Chlorophyta. British Museum (Natural History). ISBN 0-565-00981-8 "Ulva intestinalis". Seaweeed of Alaska. Retrieved ... is a green alga in the division Chlorophyta, of the genus Ulva (sea lettuce), also known by the common names gutweed and grass ...
Monostroma kuroshiense, a green alga in the division Chlorophyta, is a green seaweed endemic to Kuroshio Coast of Japan. This ... Bast, Felix (2015). "Taxonomic reappraisal of Monostromataceae (Ulvophyceae: Chlorophyta) based on multi-locus phylogeny". ... Chlorophyta, Monostromataceae) from Tosa Bay, Kochi, Japan". Hydrobiologia. 630 (1): 161-167. doi:10.1007/s10750-009-9789-6. ... Ulvales, Chlorophyta)". PLoS ONE. 9 (10): e109295. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0109295. PMC 4198087 . PMID 25329833. http://www. ...
UNA00071828 (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta)". PLoS ONE. 10 (4): e0121020. Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1021020M. doi:10.1371/journal.pone. ... Chlorophyta): compact genomes and genes of bacterial origin". BMC Genomics. 16 (1): 204. doi:10.1186/s12864-015-1418-3. ISSN ...
Volume 2 Chlorophyta. Natural History Museum Publications. London ISBN 0-565-00981-8 Hardy, F.G. and Guiry, M.D. 2003. A Check- ...
... , a division of green algae,[3] includes about 7,000 species[4][5] of mostly aquatic photosynthetic eukaryotic ... Members of the Chlorophyta also form symbiotic relationships with protozoa, sponges and cnidarians. All are flagellated[6] and ...
Note that many algae previously classified in Chlorophyta are placed here in Streptophyta. Viridiplantae Chlorophyta core ... Classification of the Chlorophyta and Charophyta according to Bold and Wynne 1985. Chlorophyta, Chlorophyceae (16 orders) ... Chlorophyta is a division of green algae, informally called chlorophytes. The name is used in two very different senses, so ... Species of Chlorophyta (treated as what is now considered one of the two main clades of Viridiplantae) are common inhabitants ...
Phylum Chlorophyta: Introduction to the Chlorophyta. In: Margulis, L., J.O. Corliss, M. Melkonian, D.J. Chapman (ed.). Handbook ... Chlorophyta A.Pascher (1914) Classifications[edit]. Reichenbach (1828)[edit]. Reichenbach, H. G. L. (1828). Conspectus Regni ... Phyla Chlorophyta and Charophyta: green algae. Pp. 347-381 in: Gordon, D.P. (ed.) 2012. New Zealand inventory of biodiversity. ... Ettl, H. (1981). Die neue Klasse Chlamydophyceae, eine natürliche Gruppe der Grünalgen (Chlorophyta). Pl. Syst. Evol. 137, 107- ...
Chlorophyta are commonly known as green algae. This is the most diverse group of algae, with over 7,000 species. Chlorophyta ... Chlorophyta usually have biflagellated gametes. Like other green plants, Chlorophyta contain chlorophylls a and b, although the ... Chlorophyta are photosynthetic organisms, obtaining starch from photosynthesis. They are autotrophic. Chlorophyta reproduce ... The Chlorophyta species Caulerpa racemosa was introduced to the Mediterranean Sea in 1990. It was first observed in France in ...
... Marcoaurélio Almenara ... Chlorophyta) including the description of eight new species," Phycologia, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 89-106, 2011. View at Publisher ...
... Marcoaurélio Almenara ... Marcoaurélio Almenara Rodrigues and Elba Pinto da Silva Bon, "Evaluation of Chlorella (Chlorophyta) as Source of Fermentable ...
Haben Sie Fragen zu Ihrer Bestellung oder zu einem Produkt? Finden Sie Ihr Thema nicht? Wir helfen Ihnen gerne weiter. Benutzen Sie gerne unser Kontaktformular. Kontakt ...
2. Chlorophyta (n.). large division of chiefly freshwater eukaryotic algae that possess chlorophyll a and b, store food as ... 1. division Chlorophyta (n.). large division of chiefly freshwater eukaryotic algae that possess chlorophyll a and b, store ...
Chlorophyta. Known as: Algae, Green, Chlorophycota, Green Algae A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane- ... BIOCHEMICAL TAXONOMY AND MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY OF THE GENUS CHLORELLA SENSU LATO (CHLOROPHYTA) ...
Natural populations of the Closterium ehrenbergii (Desmidiales, Chlorophyta) species complex in Nepal * * Ichimura Terunobu ... Post-zygotic isolation between allopatric mating groups of Closterium ehrenbergii Meneghini (Chlorophyta) ICHIMURA T. ... Analysis of gametic protoplast-release in Closterium peracerrosum - strigosum - littorale complex (Chlorophyta) SEKIMOTO H. ... Geographic and ecological distribution of high polyploid populations of the Closterium ehrenbergii species complex (Chlorophyta ...
antarctica (Chlorophyta) under manipulated UV-B radiation. J Phycol 37:459-467CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Friedl T, OKelly CJ (2002) Phylogenetic relationships of green algae assigned to the genus Planophila (Chlorophyta): evidence ... The green algal genus Prasiola (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) has a cosmopolitan biogeographic distribution from temperate to ... Prasiola calophylla (Carmichael ex Greville) Kützing (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) is a typical member of terrestrial algal ...
... chlorophyta, desmids with ecological comments on their habitats. Volume 1. [Hannah Croasdale; Elizabeth A Flint; New Zealand. ... Flora of New Zealand : freshwater algae, chlorophyta, desmids with ecological comments on their habitats. Volume 1. Author:. ... Add tags for "Flora of New Zealand : freshwater algae, chlorophyta, desmids with ecological comments on their habitats. Volume ... schema:name "Flora of New Zealand : freshwater algae, chlorophyta, desmids with ecological comments on their habitats. Volume 1 ...
Trentepohlia is a genus of subaerial green algae which is widespread in tropical, subtropical, and also temperate regions with humid climates. For many years, small-scale Trentepohlia coverage had been found on the rocks of some glacier valleys on the northern slopes of Mt. Gongga, China. However, since 2005, in the Yajiageng river valley, most of the rocks are covered with deep red coloured algal carpets, which now form a spectacular sight and a tourist attraction known as Red-Stone-Valley. Based on morphology and molecular data, we have named this alga as a new variety: Trentepohlia jolithus var. yajiagengensis var. nov., it differs from the type variety in that its end cells of the main filament are often rhizoid, unilateral branches. This new variety only grows on the native rock, both global warming and human activity have provided massive areas of suitable substrata: the rocks surfaces of the Yajiageng river valley floodplain were re-exposed because of heavy debris flows in the summer of 2005;
Molecular evolution and morphological diversification of ulvophytes (Chlorophyta). Del Cortona, Andrea; Leliaert, Frederik ... We discuss the difficulties in resolving the ancient phylogenetic relationships among ulvophytes, and the core Chlorophyta ...
Freshwater Flora of Central Europe, Vol 13: Chlorophyta: Ulvophyceae (Süßwasserflora von Mitteleuropa, Bd. 13: Chlorophyta: ... Freshwater Flora of Central Europe, Vol 13: Chlorophyta: Ulvophyceae (Süßwasserflora von Mitteleuropa, Bd. 13: Chlorophyta: ...
Wichard, T., and Oertel, W. (2010). Gametogenesis and gamete release of Ulva mutabilis and Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta): ... Regulation of gametogenesis and zoosporogenesis in Ulva linza (Chlorophyta): comparison with Ulva mutabilis and potential for ... Stratmann, J., Paputsoglu, G., and Oertel, W. (1996). Differentiation of Ulva mutabilis (Chlorophyta) gametangia and gamete ... Chlorophyta): comparison with Ulva mutabilis and potential for laboratory culture. Front. Plant Sci. 6:15. doi: 10.3389/fpls. ...
... Ma Chiela M Cremen ... M. C. M. Cremen et al., "Reassessment of the classification of Bryopsidales (Chlorophyta) based on chloroplast phylogenomic ... "Reassessment of the Classification of Bryopsidales (Chlorophyta) Based on Chloroplast Phylogenomic Analyses." MOLECULAR ... "Reassessment of the Classification of Bryopsidales (Chlorophyta) Based on Chloroplast Phylogenomic Analyses." Molecular ...
tomentosoides (Chlorophyta) invades the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Atlantic Canada. Bot Mar 40:537-540CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Chlorophyta): a new marine alga for eastern North America. Nord J Bot 7:359-363CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... tomentosoides (Chlorophyta) in the North Atlantic Ocean. Helgol Meeresunters 52:277-289CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... tomentosoides (Chlorophyta: Bryopsidales) in marine embayments of southeastern Australia. J Phycol 35:938-940CrossRefGoogle ...
... Frédérik ... "Diversity and Evolution of Endosymbiotic Bacteria in the Siphonous Green Alga Bryopsis (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta)." Journal of ... "Diversity and Evolution of Endosymbiotic Bacteria in the Siphonous Green Alga Bryopsis (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta)." In Journal ... Chlorophyta). JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY (Vol. 48, pp. S10-S10). Presented at the 2012 Annual meeting of the Phycological Society of ...
Occurrence of Escherichia coli and Enterococci in Cladophora (Chlorophyta) in Nearshore Water and Beach Sand of Lake Michigan ... Nutrient induced changes in the species composition of epiphytes on Cladophora glomerata Kutz (Chlorophyta). Hydrobiologia 450: ... Occurrence of Escherichia coli and Enterococci in Cladophora (Chlorophyta) in Nearshore Water and Beach Sand of Lake Michigan ... Occurrence of Escherichia coli and Enterococci in Cladophora (Chlorophyta) in Nearshore Water and Beach Sand of Lake Michigan ...
Synergistic effect of UV radiation and nutrient limitation on Chlorella fusca (Chlorophyta) cultures grown in outdoor ...
Chlorophyta) after chronic selenium intoxication, Russian Journal of Marine Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental ... Growth and ultrastructure of the marine unicellular alga Dunaliella salina (Chlorophyta) after chronic selenium intoxication. ... Growth and ultrastructure of the marine unicellular alga Dunaliella salina (Chlorophyta) after... Reunova, Yu.; Aizdaicher, N ... Growth and ultrastructure of the marine unicellular alga Dunaliella salina (Chlorophyta) after chronic selenium intoxication. ...
Effects of ultraviolet radiation and temperature on the antioxidative status of two Enteromorpha (Chlorophyta) species from ... Chlorophyta) species from Antarctic and Subantarctic regions , Conference of the German Botanical Society, 5-10 Sept., ...
Transcriptomic analysis of a moderately growing subisolate Botryococcus braunii 779 (Chlorophyta) in response to nitrogen ...
  • En consecuencia, el objetivo de este estudio fue el de evaluar la distribución de la carboxilación in vivo y relacionarlas a la actividad in vitro de ribulosa 1,5-bisfosfato carboxilasa/oxigenasa (RUBISCO), fosfoenolpiruvato carboxikinasa (PEPCK) y fosfoenolpiruvato carboxilasa (PEPC) en la Phaeophyta Laminaria setchellii , la Chlorophyta Ulva lactuca y la Rhodophyta Iridaea cordata . (conicyt.cl)
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=15819927&query_hl=68 Flores-Moya A, Costas E, Banares-Espana E, Garcia-Villada L, Altamirano M, Lopez-Rodas V. 'Adaptation of Spirogyra insignis (Chlorophyta) to an extreme natural environment (sulphureous waters) through preselective mutations. (kenyon.edu)
  • Given that our phylogenetic analyses place Nephroselmis within the Chlorophyta, these structural characteristics were most likely present in the cpDNA of the common ancestor of chlorophytes and streptophytes. (pnas.org)
  • The composition of the clade varies considerably between authors, but the definition employed here includes land plants and all green algae except the Chlorophyta. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Tetraphytina (Cavalier-Smith 2008) or 'core Chlorophyta' are a proposed derived Chlorophyta clade. (wikipedia.org)
  • Characteristics used for the classification of Chlorophyta are: type of zoid, mitosis (karyokynesis), cytokinesis, organization level, life cycle, type of gametes, cell wall polysaccharides and more recently genetic data. (wikipedia.org)
  • cylindracea (Caulerpales, Chlorophyta) in the Mediterranean Sea by herbivorous fishes and sea urchins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular phylogenetics, morphological variation and colony-form evolution in the family Hydrodictyaceae (Sphaeropleales, Chlorophyta). (wikipedia.org)
  • Watermelon Snow: A Strange Phenomenon Caused by Algal Cells of The Chlorophyta" Wayne's Word Noteworthy Plants: Aug 1998. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2010). Distribution of Cladophora species (Cladophorales, Chlorophyta) along the Brazilian Coast. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2011). Atypical development of Chaetomorpha antennina in culture (Cladophorales, Chlorophyta). (wikipedia.org)
  • Seaweeds of the British Isles Volume 2 Chlorophyta. (wikipedia.org)
  • Über die weite Verbreitung lichenisierter Sippen von Dictyochloropsis und die systematische Stellung von Myrmecia reticulata (Chlorophyta). (wikipedia.org)
  • Several species of Chlorophyta live in symbiosis with a diverse range of eukaryotes, including fungi (to form lichens), ciliates, forams, cnidarians and molluscs. (wikipedia.org)