Products of the hydrolysis of chlorophylls in which the phytic acid side chain has been removed and the carboxylic acids saponified.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
An excited state of molecular oxygen generated photochemically or chemically. Singlet oxygen reacts with a variety of biological molecules such as NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS; causing oxidative damages.
A photo-active pigment localized in prolamellar bodies occurring within the proplastids of dark-grown bean leaves. In the process of photoconversion, the highly fluorescent protochlorophyllide is converted to chlorophyll.
A group of ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS characterized by a chromophoric naphthohydroquinone group spanned by an aliphatic bridge not previously found in other known ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS. They have been isolated from fermentation broths of Streptomyces mediterranei.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Camellia sinensis L. (formerly Thea sinensis) is an evergreen Asiatic shrub of the THEACEAE family. The infusion of leaves of this plant is used as Oriental TEA which contains CAFFEINE; THEOPHYLLINE; and epigallocatechin gallate.
A plant genus in the family THEACEAE, order THEALES best known for CAMELLIA SINENSIS which is the source of Oriental TEA.
A plant genus of the family ERICACEAE.
The infusion of leaves of CAMELLIA SINENSIS (formerly Thea sinensis) as a beverage, the familiar Asian tea, which contains CATECHIN (especially epigallocatechin gallate) and CAFFEINE.
A species of trematode flukes of the family Opisthorchidae. Many authorities consider this genus belonging to Opisthorchis. It is common in China and other Asiatic countries. Snails and fish are the intermediate hosts.
An antioxidant flavonoid, occurring especially in woody plants as both (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin (cis) forms.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
A federal area located between Maryland and Virginia on the Potomac river; it is coextensive with Washington, D.C., which is the capital of the United States.
A rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by the deposition of copper in the BRAIN; LIVER; CORNEA; and other organs. It is caused by defects in the ATP7B gene encoding copper-transporting ATPase 2 (EC 3.6.3.4), also known as the Wilson disease protein. The overload of copper inevitably leads to progressive liver and neurological dysfunction such as LIVER CIRRHOSIS; TREMOR; ATAXIA and intellectual deterioration. Hepatic dysfunction may precede neurologic dysfunction by several years.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
Occasions to commemorate an event or occasions designated for a specific purpose.
Anastomosis of splenic vein to renal vein to relieve portal hypertension.
Sets of structured vocabularies used for describing and categorizing genes, and gene products by their molecular function, involvement in biological processes, and cellular location. These vocabularies and their associations to genes and gene products (Gene Ontology annotations) are generated and curated by the Gene Ontology Consortium.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.
A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.
A subtype of thioredoxins found primarily in CHLOROPLASTS.
Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.

Inhibition of dibenzo[a,l]pyrene-induced multi-organ carcinogenesis by dietary chlorophyllin in rainbow trout. (1/63)

Cancer chemoprevention by dietary chlorophyllin (CHL) was investigated in a rainbow trout multi-organ tumor model. In study 1, duplicate groups of 130 juvenile trout were treated for 2 weeks with control diet, 500 p.p.m. dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P) or 500 p.p.m. DB[a,l]P + 2052 p.p.m. CHL, then returned to control diet. DB[a,l]P alone proved somewhat toxic but induced high tumor incidences in liver (61%), stomach (91%) and swimbladder (53%) 11 months after initiation. CHL co-feeding abrogated DB[a,l]P acute toxicity and reduced tumor incidences to 18% in liver, 34% in stomach and 3% in swimbladder (P +info)

Chlorophyllin as an effective antioxidant against membrane damage in vitro and ex vivo. (2/63)

Chlorophyllin (CHL), the sodium-copper salt and the water-soluble analogue of the ubiquitous green pigment chlorophyll, has been attributed to have several beneficial properties. Its antioxidant ability, however, has not been examined in detail. Using rat liver mitochondria as model system and various sources for the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) we have examined the membrane-protective properties of CHL both under in vitro and ex vivo conditions. Oxidative damage to proteins was assessed as inactivation of the enzymes, cytochrome c oxidase and succinic dehydrogenase besides formation of protein carbonyls. Damage to membrane lipids was measured by formation of lipid hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The effect of this compound on the antioxidant defense system was studied by estimating the level of glutathione and superoxide dismutase. ROS were generated by gamma-radiation, photosensitization, ascorbate-Fe(2+), NADPH-ADP-Fe(3+) and the peroxyl radical generating agent, azobis-amidopropane hydrochloride. Our results show that CHL is highly effective in protecting mitochondria, even at a low concentration of 10 microM. The antioxidant ability, at equimolar concentration, was more than that observed with ascorbic acid, glutathione, mannitol and tert-butanol. When CHL was fed to mice at a dose of 1% in drinking water, there was a significant reduction in the potential for oxidative damage in cell suspensions from liver, brain and testis. To examine the possible mechanisms responsible for the observed antioxidant ability we have studied the reaction of CHL with the potent ROS in the form of hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen. The compound shows a fairly high rate constant with singlet oxygen, in the order of 1.3x10(8) M(-1) s(-1). In conclusion, our studies showed that CHL is a highly effective antioxidant, capable of protecting mitochondria against oxidative damage induced by various ROS.  (+info)

NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase from Synechocystis: overexpression, purification and preliminary characterisation. (3/63)

NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) catalyses the light-dependent reduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide, a key regulatory reaction in the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. POR from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis has been overproduced in Escherichia coli with a hexahistidine tag at the N-terminus. This enzyme (His(6)-POR) has been purified to homogeneity and a preliminary characterisation of its kinetic and substrate binding properties is presented. Chemical modification experiments have been used to demonstrate inhibition of POR activity by the thiol-specific reagent N-ethyl maleimide. Substrate protection experiments reveal that the modified Cys residues are involved in either substrate binding or catalysis.  (+info)

The formation of chlorophyll from chlorophyllide in leaves containing proplastids is a four-step process. (4/63)

The time course of the different esters of chlorophyllide (Chlide) during the formation of chlorophyll a (Chl) in embryonic bean leaves containing proplastids was investigated by HPLC. After the reduction of photoactive Pchlide (Pchlide) to Chlide, three intermediates, i.e. Chlide geranylgeraniol, Chlide dihydrogeranylgeraniol and Chlide tetrahydrogeranylgeraniol were detected before the formation of Chlide phytol, i.e. authentic Chl. The transformation of Chlide to Chl was found to be much faster in leaves containing proplastids than in etiolated leaves with etioplasts.  (+info)

Post-initiation effects of chlorophyllin and indole-3-carbinol in rats given 1,2-dimethylhydrazine or 2-amino-3-methyl- imidazo. (5/63)

Chlorophyllin (CHL) is a water-soluble derivative of chlorophyll, the ubiquitous pigment in green and leafy vegetables, whereas indole-3-carbinol (I3C) is present in cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage, broccoli and cauliflower. In rats initiated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), CHL and I3C reportedly promoted or enhanced the incidence of colon tumors when they were administered after, or during and after the carcinogen exposure, respectively. The same compounds given post-initiation inhibited the formation of colonic aberrant crypts induced by heterocyclic amines, such as 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), but tumor suppression was not examined in the latter studies. In the present investigation, male F344 rats were treated with IQ or DMH during the first 5 weeks of a 1 year study; IQ was given in the diet (0.03%), whereas DMH was administered once a week by s.c. injection (20 mg/kg body wt). Beginning 1 week after the last dose of IQ or DMH until sacrifice, rats received 0.001, 0.01 or 0.1% (w/v) CHL in the drinking water or 0.001, 0.01 or 0.1% I3C in the diet. Compared with controls given carcinogen alone, 0.1% I3C treatment suppressed the multiplicity of IQ-induced colon tumors, and CHL inhibited in a dose-related manner the incidence of IQ-induced liver tumors. However, 0.001% CHL increased significantly the multiplicity of DMH-induced colon tumors while having no effect on the colon tumors induced by IQ. These results indicate that both the choice of carcinogen as well as the dose of the tumor modulator can be important determinants of the events that occur during post-initiation exposure to CHL or I3C. Based on the present findings and data in the literature, it is possible for CHL and I3C to act as tumor promoters or anticarcinogens, depending upon the test species, initiating agent and exposure protocol.  (+info)

beta-Catenin mutation in rat colon tumors initiated by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, and the effect of post-initiation treatment with chlorophyllin and indole-3-carbinol. (6/63)

Carcinogens 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) induce colon tumors in the rat that contain mutations in beta-catenin, but the pattern of mutation differs from that found in human colon cancers. In both species, mutations affect the glycogen synthase kinase-3beta consensus region of beta-catenin, but whereas they directly substitute critical Ser/Thr phosphorylation sites in human colon cancers, the majority of mutations cluster around Ser33 in the rat tumors. Two dietary phytochemicals, chlorophyllin and indole-3-carbinol, given post-initiation, shifted the pattern of beta-catenin mutations in rat colon tumors induced by IQ and DMH. Specifically, 17/39 (44%) of the beta-catenin mutations in groups given carcinogen plus modulator were in codons 37, 41 and 45, and substituted critical Ser/Thr residues directly, as seen in human colon cancers. None of the tumors from groups given carcinogen alone had mutations in these codons. Interestingly, many of the mutations that substituted critical Ser/Thr residues in beta-catenin were from a single group given DMH and 0.001% chlorophyllin, in which a statistically significant increase in colon tumor multiplicity was observed compared with the group given DMH only. These tumors had marked over-expression of cyclin D1, c-myc and c-jun mRNA and c-Myc and c-Jun proteins were strongly elevated compared with tumors containing wild-type beta-catenin. The results indicate that the pattern of beta-catenin mutations in rat colon tumors can be influenced by exposure to dietary phytochemicals administered post-initiation, and that the mechanism might involve the altered expression of beta-catenin/Tcf/Lef target genes.  (+info)

Spectroscopic analysis of desiccation-induced alterations of the chlorophyllide transformation pathway in etiolated barley leaves. (7/63)

Effects of water deficit on the chlorophyllide (Chlide) transformation pathway were studied in etiolated barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaves by analyzing absorption spectra and 77-K fluorescence spectra deconvoluted in components. Chlide transformations were examined in dehydrated leaves exposed to a 35-ms saturating flash triggering protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) and Chlide transformation processes. During the 90 min following the flash, we found that dehydration induced modifications of Chlide transformations, but no effect on Pchlide phototransformation into Chlide was observed. During this time, content of NADPH-Pchlide oxydoreductase in leaves did not change. Chlide transformation process in dehydrated leaves was characterized by the alteration of the Shibata shift process, by the appearance of a new Chlide species emitting at 692 nm, and by the favored formation of Chl(ide) A(668)F(676). The formation of Chl(ide) A(668)F(676), so-called "free Chlide," was probably induced by disaggregation of highly aggregated Chlide complexes. Here, we offer evidence for the alteration of photoactive Pchlide regeneration process, which may be caused by the desiccation-induced inhibition of Pchlide synthesis.  (+info)

Chlorophyllin intervention reduces aflatoxin-DNA adducts in individuals at high risk for liver cancer. (8/63)

Residents of Qidong, People's Republic of China, are at high risk for development of hepatocellular carcinoma, in part from consumption of foods contaminated with aflatoxins. Chlorophyllin, a mixture of semisynthetic, water-soluble derivatives of chlorophyll that is used as a food colorant and over-the-counter medicine, has been shown to be an effective inhibitor of aflatoxin hepatocarcinogenesis in animal models by blocking carcinogen bioavailability. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled chemoprevention trial, we tested whether chlorophyllin could alter the disposition of aflatoxin. One hundred and eighty healthy adults from Qidong were randomly assigned to ingest 100 mg of chlorophyllin or a placebo three times a day for 4 months. The primary endpoint was modulation of levels of aflatoxin-N(7)-guanine adducts in urine samples collected 3 months into the intervention measured by using sequential immunoaffinity chromatography and liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry. This aflatoxin-DNA adduct excretion product serves as a biomarker of the biologically effective dose of aflatoxin, and elevated levels are associated with increased risk of liver cancer. Adherence to the study protocol was outstanding, and no adverse events were reported. Aflatoxin-N(7)-guanine could be detected in 105 of 169 available samples. Chlorophyllin consumption at each meal led to an overall 55% reduction (P = 0.036) in median urinary levels of this aflatoxin biomarker compared with those taking placebo. Thus, prophylactic interventions with chlorophyllin or supplementation of diets with foods rich in chlorophylls may represent practical means to prevent the development of hepatocellular carcinoma or other environmentally induced cancers.  (+info)

Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin,complete details about Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin provided by Qingdao Pengyuan Kanghua Natural Source Co., Ltd. in China. You may also find other Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin related selling and buying leads on 21FOOD.COM.
Chlorophyll is a pigment found in green plants, which is vital for photosynthesis allowing plants to absorb energy from light. Chlorophyll, or more specifically the natural derivative, Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin offers many promising skin benefits.. Sodium Chlorophyllin Copper Complex can be found in topical enzymatic medications used for healing-debriding wounds. Chlorophyllin Copper Complex Sodium, expedites the healing of wounds by slowing the growth of certain bacteria on the skin, controls local inflammation and aids in the promotion of healthy granulations. It works to inhibit the inflammatory properties of protein degradation products in the wound, including the products of enzymatic digestion.. Hyaluronic acid is naturally occurring in the human body. It has the ability to bind to and hold about a thousand times its weight in water. In the dermal layers of the skin it provides moisture, plumpness, firmness and suppleness to the skin. With age, the production of hyaluronic acid in the ...
Chlorophyllin is the name for a group of chemicals similar to chlorophyll, well-known for photosynthesis and the green in leaves. The most common variety has a structure made of sodium and copper. Chlorophyllin can be used for reducing internal and external body odors, and its value as a health supplement comes from the fact that chlorophyllin binds to mutagens like cancer and possibly help in removing them. It does so on a level of magnitude higher than other cancer-preventative chemicals like resveratrol.. ...
Sodium Magnesium Chlorophyllin is a dark green powder that is easily soluble in water and slightly soluble in alcohol. Sodium Magnesium Chlorophyllin is...
This study evaluated the antioxidative and antiapoptotic effects of chlorophyllin (CHL) on a rat spleen exposed to localized gastric radiotherapy. The stomach region of f..
Chlorophyllin (CHL), a water-soluble derivative of the green plant pigment, chlorophyll, is an effective antimutagen and anticarcinogen in various model systems when used as a modulator against a class of carcinogens that, in general, have a structure consisting of at least three fused rings. Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP), an extremely potent environmental carcinogen, has been isolated from urban air samples, tobacco smoke, and coal smoke condensate. A study was conducted to evaluate the complex interrelationships among dietary DBP doses with co-exposure to a range of CHL doses. In order to achieve adequate statistical power in the generation of multiple dose-response curves, this dose-dose matrix experiment utilized over 12,000 rainbow trout. The resulting DNA adducts were assessed and evaluated as biomarkers of exposure to discern their relationship with the final tumor outcome. CHL was highly effective in reducing DBP-initiated DNA adduct formation in the liver and stomach and strongly inhibited ...
MW 724.15, Purity | 98%. Antioxidant, antimutagenic agent. Shows antimutagenic effects against a range of mutagenic agents but potentiates the mutagenic effects of alkylating agents. Shows…
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibitory effect of chlorophyllin derivatives on genotoxicities of various carcinogens in Drosophila.(共著). AU - Negishi, Tomoe. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. M3 - Article. VL - 253. SP - 265. EP - 266. JO - Mutation Res.. JF - Mutation Res.. ER - ...
#123 - CLR - CHLOROPHYLLIN PLUS - This formula is often used as a bacteriostat and soothing agent for relief of inflamed mucus membranes. It provides photosynthetic pigment for mucus membrane balance. High in natural magnesium, it is effective for blood b
TY - JOUR. T1 - N-confused porphyrin possessing glucamine-appendants. T2 - Aggregation and acid/base properties in aqueous media. AU - Ikawa, Yoshiya. AU - Ogawa, Hiroaki. AU - Harada, Hiroyuki. AU - Furuta, Hiroyuki. PY - 2008/12/15. Y1 - 2008/12/15. N2 - A water-soluble derivative of N-confused porphyrin (NCP: 5,10,15,20-tetraaryl-2-aza-21-carbaporphyrin) was synthesized by introducing glucamine groups at the para-position of meso-aryl groups. The tetraglucamine-appended NCP (TG-NCP) exists as monocation in aqueous solution containing 6 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) but exists as freebase to form aggregates in pure water. These properties are distinct from those of corresponding regular porphyrin, which exists as freebase in the micellar solution and practically insoluble in water.. AB - A water-soluble derivative of N-confused porphyrin (NCP: 5,10,15,20-tetraaryl-2-aza-21-carbaporphyrin) was synthesized by introducing glucamine groups at the para-position of meso-aryl groups. The ...
Chlorophyll is extracted from plants and chemically stabilized, displacing the magnesium from the core of the molecule and substituting it with copper.
Specification: 1) Dark green powder or crystal 2) Easily soluble in water, slightly soluble in alcohol and chloroform 3) Insoluble in ethyl ether 4) Water solution: yellow green, without sediment Application: As a pharmaceutical material, it can treat iron deficiency anemia.
A free platform for explaining your research in plain language, and managing how you communicate around it - so you can understand how best to increase its impact.
KITCHIN K. T. Ornithine Decarboxylase Induction and DNA Damage as Predictive Assay for Potential Carcinogenicity, 137-144, 1991 被引用文献2件 ...
The removal of Mg,Superscript,2+,/Superscript, is an important step in the chlorophyll degradation pathway and extracts from senescent and presenescent ,Emphasis Type=Italic,Arabidopsis thaliana,/Emphasis, leaves were analyzed for Mg-dechelatase activity, using chlorophyllin, an artificial derivative of the natural substrate, chlorophyllide. The optimum temperature and pH for this reaction were determined to be at approximately 50 °C and 7.2, respectively. Mg-dechelatase activity was enhanced by addition of EDTA and inhibited by MgCl,Subscript,2,/Subscript,, HgCl,Subscript,2,/Subscript, and reduced glutathione, indicating phenomenons such as retroinhibition by reaction products and dependence on the redox state of the mixture. Size exclusion chromatography was performed on ,Emphasis Type=Italic,Arabidopsis,/Emphasis, leaf extracts, and Mg-dechelatase activity was found in the fraction corresponding to molecular mass of about 42 kDa, which indicates that the Mg-dechelating compound in ...
Manufacturer: El Granero Integral.Presentation: Bottle of 45 capsules.Composition per capsule:325 mg of magnesium, sodium chlorophyllin. 75 mg standardize
Greenies Weight Management Canine Dental Chews, formerly Greenies Lite, are nutritious and calorie friendly specifically formulated to help promote dental care while providing essential vitamins, antioxidants and minerals in dogs 5-15 lbs. Greenies Weight Management Dental Chews are naturally made with added vitamins, minerals, taurine, and chlorophyll (sodium copper chlorophyllin) to provide a complete oral care, and offer a nutritionally complete and balanced blend of highly soluble and digestible proteins for adult dogs based on AAFCO recommendations. Greenies Weight Management Dental Chews are clinically proven to clean dogs teeth by fighting both plaque and tartar buildup, freshening breath and maintaining healthier teeth and gums. Greenies Weight Management Dental Chews are specifically formulated to help clean dogs teeth while also allowing you to keep an eye on his weight. The blend of high-quality proteins fortified with vitamins and minerals make
Loadsa Lollies Plus 40 Percent - Many of us will be out and about trick-or-treating with our little monsters this year; emerging from the darkness to frighten friends and family alike! Make sure youre prepared this year with this handy pack of Swizzels Matlow Loadsa Lollies - now with 40% extra free! The 189g pack contains an assortment of childrens favourite lollies such as Double Lollies, Fruity Pops and Drumsticks! Contains no artificial colours. Ingredients: Sugar, Glucose Syrup, Vegetable Oils (Palm, Palm Kernel), Acidity Regulator: Citric Acid, Malic Acid, Stearic Acid, Modified Starch, Cornflour, Flavourings, Gelling Agent: Gelatine, Emulsifier: Glycerol Mono Stearate, Magnesium Stearate, Anti-Caking Agent: Magnesium Carbonate, Colours: Anthocyanin, Copper Chlorophyllin, Lutein, Paprika. Nutritional values average per 100g: Energy - 1726kJ/407kcal Fat - 3.9g of which Saturates - 2.9g Carbohydrate - 91.5g of which Sugars - 90.5g Protein - 0.2g
Product Name: 5H-pyridoindoleFormula: C11H8N2Weight: 168.19462SMILES: C1=CC2=C(C=C1)C3=C(C=CC=N3)N2CAS NO: 11006-34-1 Product: Chlorophyllin (sodium copper
SAN DIEGO, Sept. 21, 2015 /PRNewswire/ -- MDRejuvena, Inc. announces in vitro study demonstrates inhibition of hyaluronidase by sodium copper chlorophyllin...
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Chlorophyllin - What Can It Do For You?. I emphasized in the past that what we eat, how it is cooked, and what we eat out of may be very important in prevention of disease. It is estimated that 90% of cancers are caused by our lifestyle and environmental factors. This then suggests that cancer is a preventable disease and now we know how to neutralize the sea of carcinogens we all live in.. Simply said, stop charring and blackening your food, as this produces carcinogens. Stop drinking and eating out of plastics, they are carcinogenic. For all the rest, you can neutralize the carcinogen with chlorophyllin, a compound from chlorophyll, the molecule that make our plants green.. The science behind this protective molecule is amazingly abundant and would refer you to the 80 references found in Life Extensions December 2014 issue on pages 35-42.. To summarize the major points of this topic, consider the following:. ...
The Czech researchers sought to determine the anticancer effects of spirulina when they realized that it contained large numbers of tetrapyrrolic compounds, a class of chemical compounds that are closely related to the cancer-fighting antioxidant bilirubin. Consequently, they decided to test the effects of these compounds - specifically, phycocyanobilin and chlorophyllin - on both human pancreatic cancer cell lines and mice that were suffering from pancreatic cancer. All test subjects were treated with one of the following doses in vitro: 0.16 g•L-1 of spirulina, 60 μM of phycocyanobilin, or 125 μM of chlorophyllin. The researchers also monitored a control group comprised of untreated cells.. After the test period was over, the results were undeniable: Compared to the control group, all subjects that were treated with the spirulina or its tetrapyrrolic compounds demonstrated significant anti-proliferative activity, with phycocyanobilin proving to be the most effective of the compounds. In ...
We carry out research for the practical application of carbon nanomaterials, develop strategies and technological solutions related to the problems of: - production of fullerenes C60 and C70; - production of water-soluble derivatives of C60 fullerene. At your request, we will: - research of fullerene derivatives for specific and biological activity and safety; - develop methods for analysis of fullerenes and their derivatives; - perform work on the synthesis of fullerene derivatives (C60 (OH)n). ...
in Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B : Biology (2003), 69(1), 31-39. The steps of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) photoreduction and subsequent chlorophyllide (Chlide) transformations which occur in the seconds to minutes time-scale were studied using a diode array ... [more ▼]. The steps of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) photoreduction and subsequent chlorophyllide (Chlide) transformations which occur in the seconds to minutes time-scale were studied using a diode array spectrofluorometer in dark-grown barley leaves. The intensity of the excitation light was varied between 3 and 2500 mumol m(-2) s(-1) and a series of fluorescence spectra were recorded at room temperature in the seconds and minutes time scales. In certain experiments, 77-K emission spectra were measured with the same equipment. The high quality of the spectra allowed us to run spectral resolution studies which proved the occurrence, at room temperature, of multiple Pchlide and Chlide forms found previously in 77-K ...
Health benefits of liquid chlorophyll at skeleton. Chlorophyll encouraged to our website, on this moment Im going to teach you about Chlorophyll.. And today, this is actually the very first image, chlorophyll, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll supplements, chlorophyll water, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll definition, chlorophyll function, chlorophyll in algae, chlorophyll a structure, chlorophyllin :. ...
Human Serum Albumin (HSA) is a principal extracellular protein with a high concentration in blood plasma and a carrier of many drugs to different molecular targets. Drug binding to HSA can alter the protein biophysical and biochemical properties of protein. The structural analysis of human serum albumin complexes, with naturally occurring flavonoids quercetin(antioxidant), kaempferol (antioxidant), delphinidin (antioxidant), AZT (3-azido-3-deoxythymidine) (anti-AIDS), aspirin (anti inflammatory), taxol (anticancer), cisplatin (anticancer), atrazine (herbicide), 2,4-D (herbicide), polyamines (biogenic), chlorophyll (antimutagenic), chlorophyllin (antitumor), poly(ethylene glycol) (polymer), vandyl cation and vanadate anion in aqueous solution are reported. Using capillary electrophoresis, FTIR (Fourier transform infrared), UV-Visible and CD (Circular dichroism) spectroscopic methods, the drug binding mode, the binding constant and the effects of drug complexation on protein secondary structure ...
INGREDIENTS: Sugar, Glucose Syrup, Dextrose, Vegetable Oils (Palm, Palm Kernel), Acidity Regulators: Malic Acid, Citric Acid; Stearic Acid, Modified Starch, Sodium Bicarbonate, Flavourings, Gelling Agent: Gelatine; Magnesium Stearate, Anti-Caking Agent: Magnesium Carbonate; Cornflour, Emulsifier: Glycerol Mono Stearate; Colours: Ammonia Caramel, Anthocyanin, Beetroot Red, Copper Chlorophyllin, Curcumin, Lutein, Paprika Extract. Nutritional Information - Typical values per 100g; Energy: 1713kJ/404kcal; Fat: 4.0g; of which Saturates: 3.1g; Carbohydrate: 90.8g; of which Sugars: 74.6g; Protein: 0.2g; Salt: 0.5g. Made in UK. Swizzles Matlow Limited, New Mills, High Peak, Derbyshire. SK22 3HA.. ALLERGY ADVICE: For allergens see ingredients in bold.. *Ingredients are subject to change, always check the packaging ...
On March 20, 2018 brentuximab vedotin (Adcetris ) was approved for the treatment of individuals with previously untreated stage III or IV classical Hodgkin lymphoma in combination with chemotherapy. The approval for adult individuals with previously untreated stage III or IV cHL was based on a clinical trial comparing Adcetris plus chemotherapy, AVD regimen (Adriamycin [doxorubicin], vinblastine and dacarbazine) to a chemotherapy-only regimen common for cHL treatment (AVD plus bleomycin, also known as ABVD). The trial measured modified progression-free survival (mPFS), which considers the length of time it took for the disease to progress, death to occur, or new therapy to be initiated in individuals who did not achieve a complete response. In the trial of 1,334 individuals, after individuals received an average of six 28-day cycles of treatment, those treated with Adcetris plus AVD were 23 percent less likely to experience progression, death, or initiation of new therapy compared with those ...
Chlrorophylls and their Degradation Products using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), with Data from Suspended and Sinking Particulate Matter in Prydz Bay, Antarctica - chlorophyll;chlorophyllide;phaeophorbide;sediment trap;HPLC;Prydz Bay;flux;
CHL1兔多克隆抗体(ab93197)可与小鼠样本反应并经WB实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) catalyses the light-dependent reduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide, a key regulatory reaction in the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. Sequence comparisons have revealed that POR is a member of the short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase family of enzymes. A tyrosine and a lysine residue are conserved throughout all members of this family, and are proposed to be within the active site. This present study describes how site-directed mutagenesis has been used to change Tyr-189 to Phe and Lys-193 to Arg in the Synechocystis POR enzyme. The mutant enzymes were produced with a His tag in Escherichia coli and subsequently purified on a Ni2+-affinity column. The two mutations resulted in inactive enzymes, indicating that both residues are crucial for activity. The Kd value for NADPH binding to the K193R mutant was significantly higher than for the wild-type enzyme, suggesting that the affinity for NADPH has also been reduced. ...
The Linus Pauling Institute published a study summary in their newsletter in the fall of 2006 illustrating the capacity of chlorophyll to detoxify carcinogenic environmental toxins. Scientists in our laboratory have studied the chemoprotective effects of chlorophyllin and have recently discovered that natural chlorophyll itself is a potent anticancer agent. (3). Chlorella is another substance that has been studied extensively in Japan and has demonstrated unique ability to detoxify heavy metals. The fermented soy paste called miso (used in the popular miso soup) was also studied in Japan and was discovered to bind and detoxify radioactive elements. (1). ALGIN. Canadian researchers from McGill University, as far back as 1968, have shown that a fiber component of seaweeds called alginate (or algin) helped detoxify radioactive strontium. (1) What is so significant about this discovery is that the strontium isotope, unlike the short lived radioactive iodine, retains radioactivity for years. ...
The biomarkers used in this study provide measures of carcinogen exposure in the residents of Qidong, Peoples Republic of China, an area of high risk for development of hepatocellular carcinoma (6, 7). Urinary levels of aflatoxin-N7-guanine adducts (median = 1.90 fmol/mg creatinine) measured from the placebo arm of this winter 2003 study were comparable with those found in the placebo arm during a summer 1997 intervention trial with chlorophyllin in a nearby township, Daxin (median = 0.96 fmol/mg creatinine; ref. 6). The modest difference may reflect the influence of seasonality on aflatoxin exposure: A 2-fold winter versus summer difference was seen with aflatoxin biomarkers in an ecological study in Daxin in 1993 (40). Similar analytic approaches of immunoaffinity chromatography followed by liquid chromatrography-mass spectrometry were used in the two intervention studies. Thus, aflatoxin exposures have not changed appreciably over the past decade in the rural areas of Qidong despite ...
Fresh Breath Mint Foam - . Ingredients purified water, glycerin, natural mint, baking soda, polysorbate 20, grain alcohol, aloe vera leaf juice, chlorophyllin, green tea leaf extract. 5 oz. Item specifications size 4. A. The minty, herbal formula eliminates bad breath fast and has a refreshing flavor dogs love. S. Tropiclean fresh breath foaming dog breath freshner canine dental health made easy use tropiclean fresh breath foam regularly to keep your best friends teeth and gums clean and healthy, no brushing required. Features fast-acting formula convenient, easy-to-use applicator tip kills germs that cause bad breath keeps plaque and tartar at bay when used regularly natural ingredients promote periodontal health and overall wellness in your pet vet-recommended formula is safe and effective for dogs and cats made in u.. ...
EL HAMOURI B, OLIVER RP & GRIFFITHS WT (1983) Complexes of NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase. Photobiochemistry Photobiophysics 6 305- ...
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This Pen is an example of how to globally catch requests, responses and errors by Axios interceptor. Libraries used: * [Axios](https://github.com/axi...
Chlorophyll A vs B Chlorophyll A and Chlorophyll B are two types of chlorophyll. Chlorophyll is the substance that is present in the leaves of plants and is
The interceptor chain manages the flow of a message through a chain of interceptors and ultimately to the message handler. Interceptors may continue processing via this chain by calling the ...
contains contextual information. Any information gathered by interceptors may be attached to the unitOfWork. Interceptors are highly recommended not to change the type of the message handling result, as the dispatching component might expect a result of a specific type ...
CARBINÓL, carbinoli, s.m. Denumire veche a alcoolului metilic. - Din fr. carbinol. Trimis de valeriu, 11.02.2003. Sursa: DEX 98  CARBINÓL s. v. alcool metilic, metanol. Trimis de siveco, 05.08.2004. Sursa: Sinonime  carbinól s. m., pl.…
Fospropofol (INN), often used as the disodium salt (trade name Lusedra) is an intravenous sedative-hypnotic agent. It is currently approved for use in sedation of adult patients undergoing diagnostic or therapeutic procedures such as endoscopy. Several water-soluble derivatives and prodrugs of the widely used intravenous anesthetic agent propofol have been developed, of which fospropofol has been found to be the most suitable for clinical development thus far. Purported advantages of this water-soluble chemical compound include less pain at the site of intravenous administration, less potential for hyperlipidemia with long-term administration, and less chance for bacteremia.[citation needed] Often, fospropofol is administered in conjunction with an opioid such as fentanyl.[citation needed] Fospropofol is a prodrug of propofol; it is metabolized by alkaline phosphatases to an active metabolite, propofol. Initial trial results on fospropofol pharmacokinetics were retracted by the investigators. As ...
Chitosan (CS) and its water-soluble derivatives, hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan (HACC) and sulfated chitosan (SCS), were used as adjuvants of inactivated Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine. First, NDV-loaded and blank CS, HACC/CS and SCS nanoparticles were prepared. The particle sizes were respectively 343.43 +/- 4.12, 320.03 +/- 0.84, 156.2 +/- 9.29 nm and the zeta potentials were respectively +19.67 +/- 0.58, +18.3 +/- 0.5, -17.8 +/- 2.65 mV under the optimal conditions. Then chickens were immunized with nanoparticles or commercial inactivated oil emulsion vaccine. After immunization, the humoral immunity levels of the chickens were evaluated. The cellular immunity levels were determined by the quantification of cytokines, lymphocyte proliferation assay, the percentages of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes. Finally, the chickens were challenged with highly virulent virus. The results demonstrated that the humoral immunity levels in NDV-loaded CS and HACC/CS nanoparticles groups ...
The effects of N-5-dimethyl-9-(2-methoxy-4-methylsulfonylamino)-phenylamino-4-acridinecarboxamide (CI-921; NSC 343499), a lipophilic and water-soluble derivative of amsacrine (NSC 249992), on cell viability, growth, clonogenicity, and progression through the cell cycle were investigated in suspension cultures of Friend erythroleukemic cells and in adherent cultures of Chinese hamster ovary cells. CI-921 was less toxic toward stationary than toward exponentially growing Chinese hamster ovary cells; colony formation was inhibited by 50% following a 1-h pulse of 190 versus 80 nm CI-921, respectively. Cell viability was unaffected in Friend erythroleukemic cell cultures at concentrations up to 50 nm, although growth was inhibited by 50% following 24 h of continuous exposure to 9.5 nm or a 1 h pulse of 67.5 nm CI-921. Constant exposure of Friend erythroleukemic cells to 10 nm CI-921 slowed proliferation and resulted in prolongation of cell transit through late S and G2 phases. Higher drug ...
A procedure for the purification of the enzyme NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase is described. This involves fractionation of sonicated oat etioplast membranes by discontinuous-sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation, which gives membranes in which the enzyme is present at a high specific activity. The enzyme is solubilized from the membranes with Triton X-100, followed by gel filtration of the extract; enzyme activity is eluted in fractions corresponding to a mol.wt of approx. 35000. Sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of the enzyme-containing fractions from gel filtration shows two peptides, of mol.wts. approx. 35000 and 37000. ...
In this study, we found that overexpression of AtCAO in tobacco plants affected the chlorophyll biosynthetic flux by modulating the gene and protein expression of several other chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway enzymes. A similar observation was also reported previously: that overexpression of other chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway genes (i.e. CHLM, PORC, and CHLG) comodulates the gene expression of several other chlorophyll biosynthetic genes (Alawady and Grimm, 2005; Shalygo et al., 2009; Pattanayak and Tripathy, 2011; for singlet oxygen-induced stress effects, see Tripathy and Pattanayak, 2010). In addition, Sakuraba et al. (2012) have demonstrated that increased Chl b synthesis delays senescence; thus, it retains the gene expression of several chlorophyll biosynthetic enzymes. These findings demonstrate the existence of a regulatory network among genes coding for enzymes involved in the greening process. Increased gene and protein expression of ALA biosynthetic enzymes led to augmented ...
Introduction. The relation between diet and health has been widely recognized by many people throughout the centuries. However, the relationship between diet and cancer has been pointed out only in the last decades (De Marini, 1998). As a consequence, diet in general is considered to be the largest source of mutagenic and carcinogenic substances for human beings. Various studies, including those using short-term assays, have helped to identify a great number of antimutagenic properties found in some foods such as: b-carotene, ascorbic acid, linoleic acid, a-tocopherol, vanillin, chlorophyllin, polyphenols and components found in black and green teas and mushrooms (Brockman et al., 1992; Lohman et al., 2001). For this reason, the finding of these substances in natural foods is extremely important not only due to their nutritional value but also as a prophylactic agent against diseases such as cancer (Ferguson, 1994).. Although various mushrooms are used nowadays as a medicine or food in some ...
Ingredients: Purified water, sodium myreth sulfate, cocamidopropyl hydroxysultaine, organic aloe vera leaf juice, cocamide MEA, vegetable glycerin, glycol stearate, marigold flower extract, sage extract, spirulina maxima, wheat germ oil, organic sunflower seed oil, allantoin, natural Vitamin E, Vitamin B5, NaPCA, decyl glucoside, citric acid, benzyl alcohol, sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, sodium copper chlorophyllin (natural color), fragrance oil blend. ...
Gingkgo biloba, marigold extract and other herbal extract supplies, posted free of cost for reference, please contact [email protected] for free advertising. R&AW/cbi employees especially goan bhandari fraud sunaina chodan, asmita patel are not associated with the website in any way, since they do not pay domain renewal fees,. Product Name Marigold extract Lutein/lutein ester/zeaxanthin 10%~20% Gingkgo biloba Extract 24%/6% HPLC,ginkgolic acid =5ppm Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin Echinacea extract 4% polyphenol Hawthorn extract 30% flavones Rhodioal Rosea Extract Rosavins3% Salidroside1% HPLC Elderberry Extract 10:1, 5% Anthocyanidin ...
Read NADK2, an Arabidopsis Chloroplastic NAD Kinase, Plays a Vital Role in Both Chlorophyll Synthesis and Chloroplast Protection, Plant Molecular Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Intermediates of tetrapyrrole biosynthetic pathway are low-abundant compounds, and their quantification is usually difficult, time consuming and requires large amounts of input material. Here, we describe a method allowing fast and accurate quantification of almost all intermediates of the heme and chlorophyll biosynthesis, including mono-vinyl and di-vinyl forms of (proto) chlorophyllide, using just a few millilitres of the cyanobacterial culture. Extracted precursors are separated by High Performance Liquid Chromatography system (HPLC) and detected by two ultra-sensitive fluorescence detectors set to different wavelengths.
en] Protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) reductases are key enzymes in the process of chlorophyll biosynthesis. In this review, current knowledge on the molecular organization, substrate specificity and assembly of the light-dependent reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate:Pchlide oxidoreductases are discussed. Characteristics of light-independent enzymes are also described briefly, and the possible reasons for the selection of light-dependent enzymes during the course of evolution are discussed ...
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INTERCEPTOR PLUS may be offered to the dog by hand or added to a small amount of dog food. The chewables should be administered in a manner that encourages the dog to chew, rather than to swallow without chewing. Chewables may be broken into pieces and fed to dogs that normally swallow treats whole. Care should be taken that the dog consumes the complete dose, and treated animals should be observed for a few minutes after administration to ensure that no part of the dose is lost or rejected. If it is suspected that any of the dose has been lost, redosing is recommended ...
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When a paper shows that a control plant and a treated one have different content of chlorophyll a, b and the sum of both, what does that means? I mean, what is the physiological explanation for those differences? What kind of info can I get if I know, for example, that two plants have different amount of chlorophyll b? Thanks!!. ...
A few weeks ago, I made an attempt at making an objective ranking of all of the Rebel ships in X-Wing. It went through a […]. ...
Field:rxMedicinePetName,FieldGroup:RX_MyPet,IsRequired:Y,Label:Pet Name,Order:1,IsRequiredInCart:Y,uniqueNumber:1} , {Field:rxMedicinePetType,FieldGroup:RX_MyPet,IsRequired:Y,Label:Pet Type,Order:2,IsRequiredInCart:Y,uniqueNumber:2} , {Field:rxMedicinePetBreed,FieldGroup:RX_MyPet,IsRequired:Y,Label:Breed,Order:3,IsRequiredInCart:N,uniqueNumber:3} , {Field:rxMedicinePetDateOfBirth,FieldGroup:RX_MyPet,IsRequired:Y,Label:Pet DOB,Order:4,IsRequiredInCart:N,uniqueNumber:6} , {Field:rxMedicinePetWeight,FieldGroup:RX_MyPet,IsRequired:Y,Label:Weight,Order:5,IsRequiredInCart:N,uniqueNumber:5} , {Field:rxMedicinePetGender,FieldGroup:RX_MyPet,IsRequired:Y,Label:Gender,Order:6,IsRequiredInCart:N,uniqueNumber:4} , {Field:rxMedicinePetAllergic,FieldGroup:RX_MyPet,IsRequired:Y,Label:Is Pet Alergic to ...
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Feel The Difference Super Concentrated Chlorophyll from Green FoodspH Miracle ChloropHeal is a highly concentrated source of chlorophyll - derived directly from
A member of the Legion of Substitute Heroes. Ral Benem is the real name of Chlorophyll Kid. As an child, Ral fell into a vat of plant-growing solution. ...
The objective of this program is to develop and produce a prototype SM-3, Block IIB nosecone that can achieve all of the performance requirements specified for the IIB interceptor, but at a considerab ... ...
അസെറ്റോയിൻ 3-hydroxybutanone or acetyl methyl carbinol, C4H8O2 എന്ന തന്മാത്രാസൂത്രമുള്ള നിറമില്ലാത്ത അല്ലെങ്കിൽ ഇളം മഞ്ഞ അല്ലെങ്കിൽ പച്ച കലർന്ന മഞ്ഞ നിറമുള്ള ആസ്വാദ്യമായ വെണ്ണയുടെ മണമുള്ള ദ്രാവകമാണ്. ബാക്ടീരിയ ഇത് ഉത്പാദിപ്പിക്കുന്നുണ്ട്. [1] ...
This product is chlorophyllide. Chlorophyllide is then broken down to Pheophorbide A. After Pheophorbide a is formed, the ... Chlorophyllide, the product of the reaction catalyzed by chlorophyllase, spontaneously combines with plant lipids such as ... Chlase is the catalyst for the hydrolysis of chlorophyll to produce chlorophyllide (also called Chlide) and phytol. It is also ... The double bond of the attacked carbonyl reforms and the serine is then esterified to chlorophyllide. The phytol group ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is chlorophyllide-a :NADP+ 7,8-oxidoreductase. Other names in common use include ... Griffiths WT (1978). "Reconstitution of chlorophyllide formation by isolated etioplast membranes". Biochem. J. 174 (3): 681-92 ... chlorophyllide a + NADP+ The three substrates of this enzyme are protochlorophyllide, NADPH, and H+; its two products are ... chlorophyllide a and NADP+ . This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases. ...
The enzyme that converts protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide a, the next intermediate on the biosynthetic pathway, is ... R. Caspi (2007-07-18). "3,8-divinyl-chlorophyllide a biosynthesis I (aerobic, light-dependent)". MetaCyc Metabolic Pathway ...
The same enzyme can act on chlorophyllide b to form chlorophyll b. Structures of the main substrate and product of the enzyme ... In enzymology, chlorophyll synthase (EC 2.5.1.62) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction chlorophyllide a + phytyl ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is chlorophyllide-a:phytyl-diphosphate phytyltransferase. This reaction is the final ... diphosphate The two substrates of this enzyme are chlorophyllide a and phytyl diphosphate; its two products are chlorophyll a ...
Since chlorophyllide a can be converted to chlorophyllide b and the latter can be re-esterified to chlorophyll b, these ... Chlorophyll b is made by the same enzyme acting on chlorophyllide b. In Angiosperm plants, the later steps in the biosynthetic ... In later stages of senescence, chlorophyllides are converted to a group of colourless tetrapyrroles known as nonfluorescent ... diphosphate This forms an ester of the carboxylic acid group in chlorophyllide a with the 20-carbon diterpene alcohol phytol. ...
... chlorophyllides MeSH D03.383.129.578.840.500.640.220.725 - protochlorophyllide MeSH D03.383.129.578.840.500.640.587 - heme MeSH ... chlorophyllides MeSH D03.549.909.500.640.220.725 - protochlorophyllide MeSH D03.549.909.500.640.587 - heme MeSH D03.549.909.500 ... chlorophyllides MeSH D03.383.129.578.840.374.700 - pheophytins MeSH D03.383.129.578.840.374.725 - protochlorophyllide MeSH ... chlorophyllides MeSH D03.549.909.374.700 - pheophytins MeSH D03.549.909.374.725 - protochlorophyllide MeSH D03.549.909.437 - ...
... chlorophyllides MeSH D23.767.727.640.220.725 - protochlorophyllide MeSH D23.767.727.640.587 - heme MeSH D23.767.727.640.587.462 ... chlorophyllides MeSH D23.767.727.220.700 - pheophytins MeSH D23.767.727.220.725 - protochlorophyllide MeSH D23.767.727.250 - ...
... chlorophyllides MeSH D04.345.783.500.640.220.725 - protochlorophyllide MeSH D04.345.783.500.640.587 - heme MeSH D04.345.783.500 ... chlorophyllides MeSH D04.345.783.374.700 - pheophytins MeSH D04.345.783.374.725 - protochlorophyllide MeSH D04.345.783.437 - ...
... reduction Regeneration of substrates Photosynthesis Photosystem Chlorophyll Reaction center P680 Biosynthesis of chlorophyllide ...
... diphosphate This forms an ester of the carboxylic acid group in chlorophyllide b with the 20-carbon diterpene alcohol phytol. ... synthase is the enzyme that completes the biosynthesis of chlorophyll b by catalysing the reaction EC 2.5.1.62 chlorophyllide b ...
... chlorophyllide a + oxidized ferredoxin + 2 ADP + 2 phosphate Structure of the substrate and product of the enzyme ... Protochlorophyllide Chlorophyllide a It can alternatively take as its substrate the compound with a second vinyl group (instead ...
... a Spanish sport club a Child Arrangement Order under English family law Chlorophyllide-a oxygenase, an enzyme Cold air outbreak ...
... number of known bacteriochlorophylls but all have features in common since the biosynthetic pathway involves chlorophyllide a ...
... chlorophyllide a reductase EC 1.3.8.1: short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase EC 1.3.8.2: 4,4'-diapophytoene desaturase EC 1.3.8.3 ... chlorophyll(ide) b reductase EC 1.1.1.295: momilactone-A synthase EC 1.1.1.296: dihydrocarveol dehydrogenase EC 1.1.1.297: ... divinyl chlorophyllide a 8-vinyl-reductase EC 1.3.1.76: precorrin-2 dehydrogenase EC 1.3.1.77: anthocyanidin reductase EC 1.3. ... chlorophyllide-a oxygenase EC 1.14.13.123: germacrene A hydroxylase EC 1.14.13.124: phenylalanine N-monooxygenase EC 1.14. ...
2 oxidized ferredoxin Chlorophyllide a oxygenase is the enzyme that converts chlorophyllide a to chlorophyllide b by catalysing ... Chlorophyllide a, is a carboxylic acid (R=H). In chlorophyllide b, the methyl group at position 13 (IUPAC numbering for ... Chlorophyllide a and Chlorophyllide b are the biosynthetic precursors of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b respectively. Their ... This is carried out by the enzyme chlorophyllide a reductase, which catalyses the reaction EC 1.3.7.15. chlorophyllide a + 2 ...
... (EC 1.14.13.122), chlorophyllide a oxygenase, chlorophyll-b synthase, CAO) is an enzyme with ... Chlorophyllide-a+oxygenase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Biology portal. ... This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactions (1) chlorophyllide a + O2 + NADPH + H+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \ ... chlorophyllide b + 2 H2O + NADP+ This enzyme contains a mononuclear iron centre and is part of the biosynthetic pathway to ...
... (EC 1.3.7.15), also known as COR, is an enzyme with systematic name bacteriochlorophyllide-a: ... It catalyses the following chemical reaction chlorophyllide a + 2 reduced ferredoxin + ATP + H2O + 2 H+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \ ... "Chlorophyllide a Oxidoreductase Works as One of the Divinyl Reductases Specifically Involved in Bacteriochlorophyll a ... phosphate Structure of the substrate and product of the enzyme Chlorophyllide a Bacteriochlorophyllide a (R=H). The product of ...
... (EC 1.1.1.294), chlorophyll b reductase, Chl b reductase) is an enzyme with systematic name 71- ... Chlorophyll(ide)+b+reductase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Biology portal. ... Scheumann V, Ito H, Tanaka A, Schoch S, Rüdiger W (November 1996). "Substrate specificity of chlorophyll(ide) b reductase in ... chlorophyllide b + NAD(P)H + H+ This enzyme carries out the first step in the conversion of chlorophyll b to chlorophyll a. It ...
Parham R, Rebeiz CA (1992). "Chloroplast biogenesis: [4-vinyl] chlorophyllide a reductase is a divinyl chlorophyllide a- ... chlorophyllide a reductase assay using divinyl chlorophyllide a as an exogenous substrate". Anal. Biochem. 231 (1): 164-9. doi: ... In enzymology, divinyl chlorophyllide a 8-vinyl-reductase (EC 1.3.1.75) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 3,8- ... This enzyme can also convert alternative substrates, for example 3,8-divinyl chlorophyllide a and in all cases reduces a single ...
Its biosynthesis is mediated by the enzyme protoporphyrinogen oxidase. The simplified biosynthetic sequence is acyclic precursors → mono-pyrrole (porphobilinogen) → tetrapyrrole, also known as a porphyrinogen (uroporphyrinogen III) → porphyrin (protoporphyrin IX).[1] Protoporphyrin IX is an important precursor to biologically essential prosthetic groups such as heme, cytochrome c, and chlorophylls. As a result, a number of organisms are able to synthesize these tetrapyrrole from basic precursors such as glycine and succinyl CoA, or glutamate. Despite the wide range of organisms that synthesize protoporphyrin IX the process is largely conserved from bacteria to mammals with a few distinct exceptions in higher plants.[3][4][5] ...
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... (or sirohaem) is a heme-like prosthetic group at the active sites of some enzymes to accomplish the six-electron reduction of sulfur and nitrogen.[1] It is a cofactor at the active site of sulfite dehydrogenase, which plays a major role in sulfur assimilation pathway, converting sulfite into sulfide, which can be incorporated into the organic compound homocysteine.[2] ...
Hemoproteins have diverse biological functions including the transportation of diatomic gases, chemical catalysis, diatomic gas detection, and electron transfer. The heme iron serves as a source or sink of electrons during electron transfer or redox chemistry. In peroxidase reactions, the porphyrin molecule also serves as an electron source. In the transportation or detection of diatomic gases, the gas binds to the heme iron. During the detection of diatomic gases, the binding of the gas ligand to the heme iron induces conformational changes in the surrounding protein.[5] In general, diatomic gases only bind to the reduced heme, as ferrous Fe(II) while most peroxidases cycle between Fe(III) and Fe(IV) and hemeproteins involved in mitochondrial redox, oxidation-reduction, cycle between Fe(II) and Fe(III). It has been speculated that the original evolutionary function of hemoproteins was electron transfer in primitive sulfur-based photosynthesis pathways in ancestral cyanobacteria-like organisms ...
Biosynthesis of chlorophyllide a (precursor to pheophytin). ReferencesEdit. *. Klimov VV (2003). "Discovery of pheophytin ...
2 oxidized ferredoxin Chlorophyllide a oxygenase is the enzyme that converts chlorophyllide a to chlorophyllide b by catalysing ... Chlorophyllide a, is a carboxylic acid (R=H). In chlorophyllide b, the methyl group at position 13 (IUPAC numbering for ... Chlorophyllide a and Chlorophyllide b are the biosynthetic precursors of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b respectively. Their ... This is carried out by the enzyme chlorophyllide a reductase, which catalyses the reaction EC 1.3.7.15. chlorophyllide a + 2 ...
Chlorophyllide-a oxygenase (EC 1.14.13.122), chlorophyllide a oxygenase, chlorophyll-b synthase, CAO) is an enzyme with ... Chlorophyllide-a+oxygenase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Biology portal. ... This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactions (1) chlorophyllide a + O2 + NADPH + H+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \ ... chlorophyllide b + 2 H2O + NADP+ This enzyme contains a mononuclear iron centre and is part of the biosynthetic pathway to ...
chlorophyllide. Proto IX. protoporphyrin IX. MPE. Mg-protoporphyrin IX monoester. Pchlide. protochlorophyllide. GSA. glutamate ... 2004) Chlorophyllide a oxygenase mRNA and protein levels correlate with the chlorophyll a/b ratio in Arabidopsis thaliana. ... 2007) Clp protease controls chlorophyll b synthesis by regulating the level of chlorophyllide a oxygenase. Plant J 49: 800-809 ... 2009) Determination of a chloroplast degron in the regulatory domain of chlorophyllide a oxygenase. J Biol Chem 284: 36689- ...
... forming chlorophyllide, which affects chlorophyll measurement using HPLC. We evaluated the artifactual chlorophyllide ... Chlorophyllide production in leaf extracts is predominantly an artifact. All three methods evaluated in this study reduce the ... When compared, the first two methods eliminated almost all chlorophyllide-forming activity in Arabidopsis thaliana, Glebionis ... However, this solvent cannot completely block the formation of chlorophyllide in thicker leaves. ...
Esterification of Chlorophyllide in Prolamellar Body (PLB) and Prothylakoid (PT) Fractions from Avena sativa Etioplasts. Lütz, ... Chlorophyll Biosynthesis: Various Chlorophyllides as Exogenous Substrates for Chlorophyll Synthetase. Benz, Jürgen / Rüdiger, ...
Room temperature fluorescence spectra of protochlorophyllide and chlorophyllide forms in etiolated bean leaves. / Bod̈di, Beĺla ... Bod̈di B, Franck F. Room temperature fluorescence spectra of protochlorophyllide and chlorophyllide forms in etiolated bean ... Room temperature fluorescence spectra of protochlorophyllide and chlorophyllide forms in etiolated bean leaves. In: Journal of ... Bod̈di, B., & Franck, F. (1997). Room temperature fluorescence spectra of protochlorophyllide and chlorophyllide forms in ...
Chlorophyllides / pharmacology* * In Vitro Techniques * Lymphocytes / drug effects* * Lymphocytes / metabolism * Mice * Mice, ...
Catalyzes the hydrolysis of ester bond in chlorophyll to yield chlorophyllide and phytol. ... Catalyzes the hydrolysis of ester bond in chlorophyll to yield chlorophyllide and phytol. ...
Chlorophyll(ide) b reductase NOL. 183. A. T. No. TCTTCTGTTGTCTGGCGCTT. TCGATTCCTCCTAGCAACCAA. UN047188. KT427370. KT427362. ...
Chlorophyllides. *Xanthophyll. *Carotene. They are all slightly different colours. You do not need to worry about this for your ...
Deery E, Schroeder S, Lawrence AD, Taylor SL, Seyedarabi A, Waterman J, Wilson KS, Brown D, Geeves MA, Howard MJ, Pickersgill RW, Warren ...
... divinyl-chlorophyllide; MV-Chlide = monovinyl-chlorophyllide. Error bars represent the standard deviation from the mean of five ... divinyl-chlorophyllide; MV-Chlide = monovinyl-chlorophyllide. Error bars represent the standard deviation from the mean of five ... A) ChlG esterifies C17 on ring D of chlorophyllide a with geranylgeranyl-pyrophosphate (GGPP) or phytyl pyrophosphate (PPP) to ... A) ChlG esterifies C17 on ring D of chlorophyllide a with geranylgeranyl-pyrophosphate (GGPP) or phytyl pyrophosphate (PPP) to ...
Cytotoxic Effects of Chlorophyllides in Ethanol Crude Extracts from Plant Leaves.. Wang YT, Yang CH, Huang TY, Tai MH, Sie RH, ...
... showing the spectral quantitation results separately for chlorophyllide a/chlorophyll a (black columns) and chlorophyllide b/ ... The chlorophyllide b:chlorophyll b ratio in these leaves was ∼20-fold that of leaves expressing full-length Chlase or the ... The ratio of chlorophyllide to chlorophyll is displayed visually (phase separations at bottom) and as a histogram (top) ... Determination of Chlorophyll:Chlorophyllide Ratios in Squash Leaves. Chlorophylls were extracted from squash leaves by ...
... chlorophyllide a oxygenase; FC, ferrochelatase; HO, heme oxygenase; HY2, phytochromobilin synthase. ...
chlorophyllide b [CPD:C16541];. NADH [CPD:C00004];. NADPH [CPD:C00005];. H+ [CPD:C00080]. ... Substrate specificity of chlorophyll(ide) b reductase in etioplasts of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). ... 71-hydroxychlorophyllide a + NAD(P)+ = chlorophyllide b + NAD(P)H + H+ [RN:R08914 R08915]. ...
Isolated leucoplasts were unable to esterify chlorophyllides into chlorophylls and to synthesize carotenoids. In addition, the ...
1972) Yellow-green algae with chlorophyllide C. J Phycol 8:10-14. ...
Presentation] Chlorophyllide a oxygenase(CAO)の negative feedback 制御における A ドメインの機能解析2013. *. Author(s). 森恭一郎、高林厚史、田中歩 ... Presentation] Chlorophyllide a oxygenase(CAO)のnegative feedback制御におけるAドメインの機能解析2013. *. Author(s). 森恭一郎、高林厚史、田中歩 ... Presentation] Divinyl Chlorophyllide Reductaseの性質2012. *. Author(s). 伊藤寿、田中歩
chlorophyllide. TRX. thioredoxin. 2-CysPrx. 2-Cys peroxiredoxin. ROS. reactive oxygen species. AGP. ADP-Glc pyrophosphorylase. ... NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) synthesizes chlorophyllide (Chlide). PChlide and Chlide are most likely the main ...
Protochlorophyllide , Chlorophyllide Corrinoids: Cyanocobalamin Phycobilins: Phycoerythrobilin , Phycocyanobilin , ...
... esterifies chlorophyllide a and b with phytyl or geranyl-geranyl pyrophosphate in chloroplasts. Transgenic tobacco... ... Wu Z, Zhang X, He B, Diao L et al (2007) A chlorophyll-deficient rice mutant with impaired chlorophyllide estererification in ... At the last step of the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway chlorophyll synthase (CHLG) esterifies chlorophyllide a and b with ... Reduced chlorophyll synthase activity does not result in accumulation of chlorophyllide and caused reduced ALA formation and Mg ...
A role for chlorophyllide a oxygenase in the regulated import and stabilization of light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b proteins. ... Biosynthesis of a chlorophyllide b-like pigment in phenanthroline-treated Chlamydomonas reinhardtii y-1. ... Synthesis of chlorophyll b: localization of chlorophyllide a oxygenase and discovery of a stable radical in the catalytic ...
Correlations with chlorophyllide a and chlorophyll b with total tocopherols gradually decreased to r = 0.48 and r = 0.36, ... Instead, chlorophylls a and b and chlorophyllide a, late-stage intermediates in chlorophyll biosynthesis, were strongly and ... 1985). Prenylation of chlorophyllide a in Capsicum plastids. Methods Enzymol. 110: 274-281. ... Compound abbreviations: ƩT, total tocopherols = αT+δT+γT; Chlide: chlorophyllide; Chl, chlorophyll; Pheo, pheophytin; ...
1972 Yellow-green algae with chlorophyllide c. J. Phycol. 8, 10-14. ...
The main degraded products were pheophorbides in sea urchins, and chlorophyllides in parrotfishes. These results provided ...
The enzyme that converts protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide is protochlorophyllide reductase,[4] EC 1.3.1.33. There are two ...
Accepted name: chlorophyllide a reductase. Reaction: (1) 3-deacetyl-3-vinylbacteriochlorophyllide a + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [ ... Comments: The enzyme, together with EC 1.1.1.396, bacteriochlorophyllide-a dehydrogenase, and EC 4.2.1.165, chlorophyllide-a 31 ... 4. Harada, J., Mizoguchi, T., Tsukatani, Y., Yokono, M., Tanaka, A. and Tamiaki, H. Chlorophyllide a oxidoreductase works as ... chlorophyllide a + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + ATP + H2O + 2 H+. For diagram of reaction click here.. Other ...
EC 1.13.12.14 Transferred entry: chlorophyllide-a oxygenase. Now EC 1.14.13.122, chlorophyllide-a oxygenase (EC 1.13.12.14 ...
... chlorophyllide a oxygenase and geranylgeranyl reductase. In this context, it was of particular interest to observe the up- ...
  • Chlorophyllide a is also an intermediate in the biosynthesis of bacteriochlorophylls. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorophyll synthase (ChlG) catalyses a terminal reaction in the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway, attachment of phytol or geranylgeraniol to the C17 propionate of chlorophyllide. (portlandpress.com)
  • We succeeded in altering the pigment arrangement inthe light-harvesting systems by introducing N-terminal truncated chlorophyllide aoxygenase, which catalyzes chlorophyll b biosynthesis, into Arabidopsis thaliana.Interestingly, thistransgenicplant showed the stay green phenotype and exhibited severephotodamage. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Protochlorophyllide reductase catalyzes the reductive formation of chlorophyllide from protochlorophyllide during biosynthesis of chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Lack of phosphatidylglycerol inhibits chlorophyll biosynthesis at multiple sites and limits chlorophyllide reutilization in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803. (doktori.hu)
  • Phylogeny of anoxygenic photosynthesis based on sequences of photosynthetic reaction center proteins and a key enzyme in bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis, the chlorophyllide reductase. (mpg.de)
  • Dark operative protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (DPOR) catalyzes the light-independent two-electron reduction of protochlorophyllide a to form chlorophyllide a, the last common precursor of chlorophyll a and bacteriochlorophyll a biosynthesis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 1. The reconstitution of chlorophyllide biosynthesis by barley etioplast membranes is described. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Here, we describe a method allowing fast and accurate quantification of almost all intermediates of the heme and chlorophyll biosynthesis, including mono-vinyl and di-vinyl forms of (proto) chlorophyllide, using just a few millilitres of the cyanobacterial culture. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Chlorophyllide-a oxygenase (EC 1.14.13.122), chlorophyllide a oxygenase, chlorophyll-b synthase, CAO) is an enzyme with systematic name chlorophyllide-a:oxygen 7-oxidoreductase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorophyll b is synthesized by the oxidation of a methyl group on the B ring of a tetrapyrrole molecule to a formyl group by chlorophyllide a oxygenase ( CAO ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • A role for chlorophyllide a oxygenase in the regulated import and stabilization of light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b proteins. (nih.gov)
  • A similar expression pattern was found in pigment regulation, including genes for coding chlorophyllide a oxygenase (CAO), β-carotene hydroxylase (β-OHase), zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP) and 9- cis -epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Dmitrieva V. A., Ivanova A. N., Tyutereva E. V., Evkaikina A .I., Klimova E. A., Voitsekhovskaja O. V. Chlorophyllide-a-Oxygenase (CAO) deficiency affects the levels of singlet oxygen and formation of plasmodesmata in leaves and shoot apical meristems of barley. (binran.ru)
  • Chlide a , chlorophyllide a . (biomedcentral.com)
  • NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase ( POR ) synthesizes chlorophyllide ( Chlide ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • A ) Chlorophyllase catalyzes the hydrolysis of chlorophyll a (Chl a), chlorophyllide (Chlide a) and phytol. (mdpi.com)
  • Two additional steps convert the catalytic product Mg protoporphyrin IX (MgP) into protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) which, in angiosperms, is reduced to chlorophyllide (Chlide) by the light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR). (elifesciences.org)
  • NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) catalyses the light-dependent reduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide, a key regulatory reaction in the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Journal Article] Stoichiometry of ATP hydrolysis and chlorophyllide formation of dark-operative protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase from Rhodobacter capsulatus. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Light-dependent NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR), a nuclear-encoded plastid-localized enzyme, catalyzes the photoreduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide in higher plants, algae and cyanobacteria. (nih.gov)
  • This is carried out by the enzyme chlorophyllide a reductase, which catalyses the reaction EC 1.3.7.15. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme that converts protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide is protochlorophyllide reductase , [4] EC 1.3.1.33. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, a protochlorophyllide reductase associated with chlorophyllide synthesis was down-regulated from basal to top internodes. (springer.com)
  • This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactions (1) chlorophyllide a + O2 + NADPH + H+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 7-hydroxychlorophyllide a + H2O + NADP+ (2) 7-hydroxychlorophyllide a + O2 + NADPH + H+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } chlorophyllide b + 2 H2O + NADP+ This enzyme contains a mononuclear iron centre and is part of the biosynthetic pathway to chlorophylls. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isolated leucoplasts were unable to esterify chlorophyllides into chlorophylls and to synthesize carotenoids. (springer.com)
  • In addition to chlorophyll a , the remaining algae also use various combinations of other chlorophylls, chlorophyllides, carotenoids, and phycobiliproteins to collect additional light from wavelengths of the spectrum not absorbed by chlorophyll a or b . (britannica.com)
  • Chlorophyllides, often incorrectly called chlorophylls, differ from true chlorophylls in that they lack the long, fat-soluble phytol tail that is characteristic of chlorophylls. (britannica.com)
  • Pheophytin a and chlorophyllide a concentrations were quite low. (int-res.com)
  • Naturally occurring a and b derivatives of chlorophyll, such as pheophytin, chlorophyllide, and pheophorbide, are present in plants as breakdown products [3], and in animals as the products of chlorophyll digestion [4]. (scirp.org)
  • During the autumn coloration period, preceding leaf desiccation and fall, chlorophyll decays rapidly, producing low levels of pheophytin with only occasional faint traces of pheophorbide and chlorophyllide during the period of most rapid chlorophyll breakdown. (umn.edu)
  • ChlaseΔN-expressing squash leaves displayed a dramatic chlorotic phenotype in plants grown under low-intensity light, whereas under natural light a lesion-mimic phenotype occurred, which was demonstrated to follow the accumulation of chlorophyllide, a photodynamic chlorophyll breakdown product. (plantcell.org)
  • Reduced chlorophyll synthase activity does not result in accumulation of chlorophyllide and caused reduced ALA formation and Mg and ferrochelatase activity, while CHLG overexpression correlated with enhanced ALA synthesizing capacity and more chelatase activities. (springer.com)
  • Reconstitution of chlorophyllide formation by isolated etioplast membranes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Also the ratio of chlorophyll to chlorophyllide and porphyrin contents were significantly higher in plants treated with melatonin, which may indicate that this indoleamine both retards chlorophyll breakdown and stimulates its de novo synthesis during extended stress. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Chlorophyll b is made by the same enzyme acting on chlorophyllide b. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme, together with EC 1.1.1.396 , bacteriochlorophyllide- a dehydrogenase, and EC 4.2.1.165 , chlorophyllide- a 3 1 -hydratase, is involved in the conversion of chlorophyllide a to bacteriochlorophyllide a . (qmul.ac.uk)
  • Catalyzes the hydrolysis of ester bond in chlorophyll to yield chlorophyllide and phytol. (uniprot.org)
  • This validates the hypothesis that chlorophyllide, considered for many years, as a first intermediate of chlorophyll breakdown is not. (uthscsa.edu)
  • At the last step of the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway chlorophyll synthase (CHLG) esterifies chlorophyllide a and b with phytyl or geranyl-geranyl pyrophosphate in chloroplasts. (springer.com)
  • Chlorophyllide a and Chlorophyllide b are the biosynthetic precursors of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • chlorophyllide a + 2 reduced ferredoxin + ATP + H2O + 2 H+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 3-deacetyl 3-vinylbacteriochlorophyllide a + 2 oxidized ferredoxin + ADP + phosphate The next two steps convert the vinyl group first into a 1-hydroxyethyl group and then into the acetyl group of bacteriochlorophyllide a. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the oils, water-soluble pigments such as the chlorophyllides and anthocyanins were not detected because they were not extracted into hexane. (separationsnow.com)
  • Using heated cells before and chilled solvents after illumination to preclude enzymatic modification of pigments, chlorophyll and very small amounts of chlorophyllide are found as products of the photo-conversion of the protopigments suggesting that both protochlorophyll and, to a much smaller extent, protochlorophyllide are photoconvertible in these organisms. (wiley.com)
  • This is indicated by the almost unchanged chlorophyll to chlorophyllide ratio after 24 h of PQ treatment. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Chlorophyllide a, is a carboxylic acid (R=H). In chlorophyllide b, the methyl group at position 13 (IUPAC numbering for chlorophyllide a) and highlighted in the green box, is replaced with a formyl group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bod̈di, B & Franck, F 1997, ' Room temperature fluorescence spectra of protochlorophyllide and chlorophyllide forms in etiolated bean leaves ', Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology , vol. 41, no. 1-2, pp. 73-82. (elsevier.com)
  • A , C and E . Levels of chlorophyll a and chlorophyllide a per gram FW of leaves. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The main degraded products were pheophorbides in sea urchins, and chlorophyllides in parrotfishes. (mendeley.com)