A large family of proteins that have been traditionally classified as the light-harvesting proteins of the photosynthetic reaction complex. Chlorophyll binding proteins are also found in non-photosynthetic settings where they may play a photoprotective role in response to light stress.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.
A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.
Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.
Products of the hydrolysis of chlorophylls in which the phytic acid side chain has been removed and the carboxylic acids saponified.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
A large multisubunit protein complex that is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to drive electron transfer reactions that result in either the reduction of NADP to NADPH or the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.
A photo-active pigment localized in prolamellar bodies occurring within the proplastids of dark-grown bean leaves. In the process of photoconversion, the highly fluorescent protochlorophyllide is converted to chlorophyll.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Proteins that bind to the 3' polyadenylated region of MRNA. When complexed with RNA the proteins serve an array of functions such as stabilizing the 3' end of RNA, promoting poly(A) synthesis and stimulating mRNA translation.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.
Membranous cisternae of the CHLOROPLAST containing photosynthetic pigments, reaction centers, and the electron-transport chain. Each thylakoid consists of a flattened sac of membrane enclosing a narrow intra-thylakoid space (Lackie and Dow, Dictionary of Cell Biology, 2nd ed). Individual thylakoids are interconnected and tend to stack to form aggregates called grana. They are found in cyanobacteria and all plants.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Chlorophylls from which the magnesium has been removed by treatment with weak acid.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The absence of light.
A form-genus of unicellular CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. None of the strains fix NITROGEN, there are no gas vacuoles, and sheath layers are never produced.
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
Four PYRROLES joined by one-carbon units linking position 2 of one to position 5 of the next. The conjugated bond system results in PIGMENTATION.
A family of immunophilin proteins that bind to the immunosuppressive drugs TACROLIMUS (also known as FK506) and SIROLIMUS. EC 5.2.1.-
A widely cultivated plant, native to Asia, having succulent, edible leaves eaten as a vegetable. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A poly(A) binding protein that has a variety of functions such as mRNA stabilization and protection of RNA from nuclease activity. Although poly(A) binding protein I is considered a major cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein it is also found in the CELL NUCLEUS and may be involved in transport of mRNP particles.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.

Spectroscopic and molecular characterization of a long wavelength absorbing antenna of Ostreobium sp. (1/69)

One of the strains of the marine green alga Ostreobium sp. possesses an exceptionally large number of long wavelength absorbing chlorophylls (P. Haldall, Biol. Bull. 134, 1968, 411-424) as evident from a distinct shoulder in the absorption spectrum at around 710 nm while in the other strain this shoulder is absent. Therefore, Ostreobium offers a unique possibility to explore the origin of these red-shifted chlorophylls, because strains with and without these spectral forms can be compared. Here, we characterize these red forms spectroscopically by absorption, fluorescence and CD spectroscopy. In the CD spectra at least three spectroscopic red forms are identified which lead to an unusual room temperature fluorescence spectrum that peaks at 715 nm. The gel electrophoretic pattern from thylakoids of Ostreobium sp. shows an intense band at 22 kDa which correlates with the presence or absence of long wavelength absorbing pigments. By protein sequencing of the N-terminus of the 22-kDa polypeptide and sequence alignments, this was identified as an Lhca1-type light-harvesting complex. The abundance of this polypeptide - and a possibly co-migrating one - in Ostreobium sp. indicates an antenna size of approximately 340 chlorophyll molecules (Chl a and Chl b) per PS IIalpha reaction center, which is significantly larger than in higher plants ( approximately 240). The red forms are more abundant in the interior of the thalli where a 'shade-light' light field is expected than in the white-light exposed surface. This demonstrates that algae exist which may be able to up-regulate the synthesis of large amounts of LHCI and associated red forms under appropriate illumination conditions.  (+info)

Supramolecular organization of photosystem II and its light-harvesting antenna in partially solubilized photosystem II membranes. (2/69)

We present an extended analysis of the organization of green plant photosystem II and its associated light-harvesting antenna using electron microscopy and image analysis. The analysis is based on a large dataset of 16 600 projections of negatively stained PSII-LHCII supercomplexes and megacomplexes prepared by means of three different pretreatments. In addition to our previous work on this system [Boekema, E.J., van Roon, H., Calkoen, F., Bassi, R. and Dekker, J.P. (1999) Biochemistry 38, 2233-2239], the following results were obtained. The rotational orientation of trimeric LHCII at the S, M and L binding positions was determined. It was found that compared to the S trimer, the M and L trimers are rotationally shifted by about -20 degrees and -50 degrees, respectively. The number of projections with empty CP29, CP26 and CP24 binding sites was found to be about 0, 18 and 4%, respectively. We suggest that CP26 and CP24 are not required for the binding of trimeric LHCII at any of the three binding positions. A new type of megacomplex was observed with a characteristic windmill-like shape. This type III megacomplex consists of two C2S2 supercomplexes connected at their CP26 tips. Structural variation in the region of the central dimeric photosystem II complex was found to occur at one specific position near the periphery of the complex. We attribute this variation to the partial absence of an extrinsic polypeptide or one or more small intrinsic membrane proteins.  (+info)

Ultrafast excitation dynamics of low energy pigments in reconstituted peripheral light-harvesting complexes of photosystem I. (3/69)

Ultrafast dynamics of a reconstituted Lhca4 subunit from the peripheral LHCI-730 antenna of photosystem I of higher plants were probed by femtosecond absorption spectroscopy at 77 K. Intramonomeric energy transfer from chlorophyll (Chl) b to Chl a and energy equilibration between Chl a molecules observed on the subpicosecond time scale are largely similar to subpicosecond energy equilibration processes within LHCII monomers. However, a 5 ps equilibration process in Lhca4 involves unique low energy Chls in LHCI absorbing at 705 nm. These pigments localize the excitation both in the Lhca4 subunit and in LHCI-730 heterodimers. An additional 30-50 ps equilibration process involving red pigments of Lhca4 in the heterodimer, observed by transient absorption and picosecond fluorescence spectroscopy, was ascribed to intersubunit energy transfer.  (+info)

A potential role of chlorophylls b and c in assembly of light-harvesting complexes. (4/69)

Chlorophyll (Chl)-containing light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) in chloroplasts of plant and algal cells usually include an oxidized Chl (Chl b or c) in addition to Chl a. Oxidation of peripheral groups on the tetrapyrrole structure increases the Lewis acid strength of the central Mg atom. We propose that the resulting stronger coordination bonds between oxidized Chls and ligands in LHC apoproteins (LHCPs) stabilize the initial intermediates and thus promote assembly of LHCs within the chloroplast envelope.  (+info)

Antisense inhibition of the photosynthetic antenna proteins CP29 and CP26: implications for the mechanism of protective energy dissipation. (5/69)

The specific roles of the chlorophyll a/b binding proteins CP29 and CP26 in light harvesting and energy dissipation within the photosynthetic apparatus have been investigated. Arabidopsis was transformed with antisense constructs against the genes encoding the CP29 or CP26 apoprotein, which gave rise to several transgenic lines with remarkably low amounts of the antisense target proteins. The decrease in the level of CP24 protein in the CP29 antisense lines indicates a physical interaction between these complexes. Analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence showed that removal of the proteins affected photosystem II function, probably as a result of changes in the organization of the light-harvesting antenna. However, whole plant measurements showed that overall photosynthetic rates were similar to those in the wild type. Both antisense lines were capable of the qE type of nonphotochemical fluorescence quenching, although there were minor changes in the capacity for quenching and in its induction kinetics. High-light-induced violaxanthin deepoxidation to zeaxanthin was not affected, although the pool size of these pigments was decreased slightly. We conclude that CP29 and CP26 are unlikely to be sites for nonphotochemical quenching.  (+info)

The properties of the chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins Lhca2 and Lhca3 studied in vivo using antisense inhibition. (6/69)

The specific functions of the light-harvesting proteins Lhca2 and Lhca3 were studied in Arabidopsis ecotype Colombia antisense plants in which the proteins were individually repressed. The antisense effect was specific in each plant, but levels of Lhca proteins other than the targeted products were also affected. The contents of Lhca1 and Lhca4 were unaffected, but Lhca3 (in Lhca2-repressed plants) was almost completely depleted, and Lhca2 decreased to about 30% of wild-type levels in Lhca3-repressed plants. This suggests that the Lhca2 and Lhca3 proteins are in physical contact with each other and that they require each other for stability. Photosystem I fluorescence at 730 nm is thought to emanate from pigments bound to Lhca1 and Lhca4. However, fluorescence emission and excitation spectra suggest that Lhca2 and Lhca3, which fluoresce in vitro at 680 nm, also could contribute to far-red fluorescence in vivo. Spectral forms with absorption maxima at 695 and 715 nm, apparently with emission maxima at 702 and 735 nm, respectively, might be associated with Lhca2 and Lhca3.  (+info)

Biochemical properties of the PsbS subunit of photosystem II either purified from chloroplast or recombinant. (7/69)

The biochemical properties of PsbS protein, a nuclear-encoded Photosystem II subunit involved in the high energy quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence, have been studied using preparations purified from chloroplasts or obtained by overexpression in bacteria. Despite the homology with chlorophyll a/b/xanthophyll-binding proteins of the Lhc family, native PsbS protein does not show any detectable ability to bind chlorophylls or carotenoids in conditions in which Lhc proteins maintain full pigment binding. The recombinant protein, when refolded in vitro in the presence of purified pigments, neither binds chlorophylls nor xanthophylls, differently from the homologous proteins LHCII, CP26, and CP29 that refold into stable pigment-binding complexes. Thus, it is concluded that if PsbS is a pigment-binding protein in vivo, the binding mechanism must be different from that present in other Lhc proteins. Primary sequence analysis provides evidence for homology of PsbS helices I and III with the central 2-fold symmetric core of chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins. Moreover, a structural homology owed to the presence of acidic residues in each of the two lumen-exposed loops is found with the dicyclohexylcarbodiimide/Ca(2+)-binding domain of CP29. Consistently, both native and recombinant PsbS proteins showed [(14)C]dicyclohexylcarbodiimide binding, thus supporting a functional basis for its homology with CP29 on the lumen-exposed loops. This domain is suggested to be involved in sensing low luminal pH.  (+info)

Mutation analysis of Lhca1 antenna complex. Low energy absorption forms originate from pigment-pigment interactions. (8/69)

The light harvesting complex Lhca1, one of the four gene products comprising the photosystem I antenna system, has been analyzed by site-directed mutagenesis with the aim of determining the chromophore(s) responsible for its long wavelength chlorophyll spectral form, a specific characteristic of the LHCI antenna complex. A family of mutant proteins, each carrying a mutation at a single chlorophyll-binding residue, was obtained and characterized by biochemical and spectroscopic methods. A map of the chromophores bound to each of the 10 chlorophyll-binding sites was drawn, and the energy levels of the Q(y) transition were determined in most cases. When compared with Lhcb proteins previously analyzed, Lhca1 is characterized by stronger interactions between individual chromophores as detected by both biochemical and spectroscopic methods; most mutations, although targeted to a single residue, lead to the loss of more than one chromophore and of conservative CD signals typical of chlorophyll-chlorophyll interactions. The lower energy absorption form (686 nm at 100K, 688 nm at room temperature), which is responsible for the red-shifted emission components at 690 and 701 nm, typical of Lhca1, is associated with a chlorophyll a/chlorophyll a excitonic interaction originating from a pigment cluster localized in the protein domain situated between helix C and the helix A/helix B cross. This cluster includes chlorophylls bound to sites A5-B5-B6 and a xanthophyll bound to site L2.  (+info)

The chloroplast Deg1 protein performs proteolytic cleavage of the photodamaged D1 protein of the photosystem II (PSII) reaction center, PSII extrinsic subunit PsbO and the soluble electron carrier plastocyanin. Using biochemical, immunological and mass spectrometry approaches we showed that the hete …
Principal nameLHCB4 antibodyAlternative names for LHCB4 antibodyChlorophyll a-b binding protein CP29, Lhcbm4SwissProt IDP27497 (Maize),…
A correlation plot is included for each stream. The index on the axis of the correlation plot can be directly matched to the Index label in the table for each stream. Red ...
One could envisage a split into a mDST line and a DST line. Part of the use case is to study GECs. For that the Rec summary is enough ...
Quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations were employed so as to determine the most stable structures of protonated forms of Pheophytin-a (Pheo) dianion in DMF. The protonated forms include PheoH and PheoH(2). Electrostatic potential-derived charges (ESP charges) employing the CHelpG scheme were obtained for Pheo(2-) and for possible blue and red forms of PheoH(-) by ROB3LYP methodology using 6-31 G(d) basis. The ESP charges and the most stable structures obtained by QM/MM calculations provide a clue to the probable site of protonation in Pheo(2-) and PheoH(-). A total of 18 different possible structures were investigated. From these calculations, we identify the structures of the blue and red forms of PheoH and PheoH(2). Furthermore, density functional treatment (DFT) along with dielectric ;polarizable continuum model (DPCM) calculations using 6-311+G(2d,2p) basis were done to determine the absolute free energy of reduction of Pheo to PheoH and PheoH2 in DMF. The calculated ...
by Pei 21, 22, 23 June, 13h - 15h Oneliner:Hands on to the interplay of time and temperture, prepare the ground for some bacteria to do the work, we make Kimchi. Description: Kimchi is a very popular fermented pickle in Asian societies nowadays. In the western world, Kimchi is commonly refers to baechu kimchi - napa cabbage pickle known in Korea. The intricacy of flavour of Kimchi is done by the act of good bateria (meaning that we human like it). Fermented foods are the everyday diy bio art which have been practicing in many different societies in the world. The rather modern red form of Korean Kimchi processed with chilli flake was only came about some 500 yrs ago when chilli first traded to Korea. In this open workshop, anyone, the participants are invited to join one or all of three blocks of Kimchi making in different stages, getting to know and/or experiment various of available vegetable (to replace Chinese Cabbage), fruit (to replace apple & pear), herbs (to replace ginger). But yes, ...
Dendra2 is an ideal tool for real-time tracking protein dynamics (movement, degradation, etc.) and monitoring selective cell fate. Once it is irreversibly switched to its red form, Dendra2 is highly photostable.
Dendra2 is an ideal tool for real-time tracking protein dynamics (movement, degradation, etc.) and monitoring selective cell fate. Once it is irreversibly switched to its red form, Dendra2 is highly photostable.
Photosystem I light harvesting complex gene 5; The light-harvesting complex (LHC) functions as a light receptor, it captures and delivers excitation energy to photosystems with which it is closely associated (PubMed-15563470, PubMed-21806943). Seems involved in the function of the photosystem I in low light conditions, when other LHCA proteins are less abundant (PubMed-15356385). Required, together with LHCA6, for the formation of a full-size NAD(P)H dehydrogenase- photosystem I supercomplex (NDH-PSI) that triggers cyclic and chlororespiratory electron transport in chloroplast thylakoi [...] (256 aa ...
It is normally a blue-black solid. It can be red but the red form is more unstable. It burns in air with a green flame to make tin(IV) oxide. It is a reducing agent. It is rarer than tin(IV) oxide. It dissolves in acids to make a colorless solution. ...
2. If this is your first time logging on you will find your initial password at the top of your reporting form otherwise use your established password. 2. For qualitative results do not enter anything in the result fields other than the numeric codes listed on the forms. Characters such as + - n p pos neg will not be recognized and results will not be processed.. 3. Most method codes do not have to be entered if we have your codes on file from the previous reporting period. If you did not submit results for the previous shipment then you will have to reenter your method codes. Please see the Method Data Sheet for the codes we have on file for your lab.. 4. Please enter the less than (,) and greater than (,) signs when necessary in the result field along with your lowest or highest reportable range.. 5. Decimal points should be entered in the same place shown on the red reporting form. For example: If the field for reporting results on the red form has a box, a decimal point and three more ...
The researchers discovered that the low-oxygen conditions activate a transcription factor called hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha. This factor is sufficient to drive mouse embryonic stem cells to rely exclusively on glucose metabolism for their energy. The next challenge is to reveal whether the metabolic switch is deterministic for the fate of these stem cells, in normal as well as in cancer development ...
New research from the Weizmann Institute of Science published in Cell Reports and recently reported in The Times of Israel, indicates that oxygen starvation could toughen up immune T cells for cancer immunotherapy.. So it is not just mountain climbers and endurance athletes that can benefit from altitude training by learning to perform well under low-oxygen conditions. These cancer-fighting cells of the immune system can also improve their performance through a cellular version of such a regimen.. Harnessing the immune system to battle malignancy - an approach known as cancer immunotherapy - has already started saving the lives of cancer patients in the past few years. In one major version of this approach, killer T cells are removed from the patients blood, grown in a laboratory dish and adapted to identifying and destroying cancerous cells; they are then returned to the patients bloodstream. This method has so far worked best against certain leukemias and lymphomas, but not against solid ...
A method and system are provided for testing antenna systems using position determination, orientation determination, test pattern analysis using a variety of factors and equipment including positions and orientation of antenna(s) under test at specific points and signal processing systems.
gbrumfiel writes The Large Hadron Collider is just getting ready for its next big science run. One thing researchers hope it will find is evidence for supersymmetry, a theory that could help to unify fundamental forces and explain mysterious dark matter. But as Nature reports this week, the LHC has...
If a patient is having a LHC with coronary angio and LV gram, would you code any different than 93458/26 for a hand injected LV gram to conserve contr
The Bradford assay, a colorimetric protein assay, is based on an absorbance shift of the dye Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250. The Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 dye exists in three forms: anionic (blue), neutral (green), and cationic (red).[3] Under acidic conditions, the red form of the dye is converted into its blue form, binding to the protein being assayed. If theres no protein to bind, then the solution will remain brown. The dye forms a strong, noncovalent complex with the proteins carboxyl group by van der Waals force and amino group through electrostatic interactions.[1] During the formation of this complex, the red form of Coomassie dye first donates its free electron to the ionizable groups on the protein, which causes a disruption of the proteins native state, consequently exposing its hydrophobic pockets. These pockets in the proteins tertiary structure bind non-covalently to the non-polar region of the dye via the first bond interaction (van der Waals forces) which position the ...
The chlorophyll-binding subunits of photosystems I and II are internal antenna light-harvesting proteins of oxygenic photosynthesis. The antenna proteins that exist in phycobilisomes in cyanobacteria and light-harvesting chlorophyll protein complexes in green plants act as peripheral antenna systems, enabling more efficient absorption of light energy ...
The principal mineral reds owe their colour to oxides of iron and to compounds of mercury. The reds due to iron are closely allied to the yellow ochres and other ferruginous pigments. As already explained in connexion with these yellows, tints passing through orange to deep purple reds are obtained by calcination of yellow hydrated ferric oxide, and in this way a great variety of ruddy and red tints are prepared. The proportion of ferric oxide in these compounds ranges from pure oxide to combinations in natural ochres containing not more than 2 or 3 per cent, of iron. Rouge or Mars Red, Crocus, Indian Red, and Turkey Red are all pure ferric oxide, varying in depth of tint from having undergone different degrees of calcination, or from being made from different artificial or natural sources. The other iron reds are all of the nature of ochres some of them, such as Venetian Red, being artificial compounds. These reds form exceedingly useful durable colours which do not injuri-ously affect the ...
An extendable and retractable antenna installed on a body housing of a portable radio apparatus includes a helical antenna having an antenna cap protruding from a top portion of the body housing, a helical winding disposed within the antenna cap, a rod antenna extending through the antenna cap, and a feeder disposed at a bottom portion of the helical antenna. The helical antenna is operated when the antenna is retracted. The rod antenna is insulated from the helical antenna when retracted, and passes through the helical antenna to protrude from the body housing when extended. The feeder operates the rod antenna when the rod antenna is extended and operates the helical antenna when the rod antenna is retracted.
Oxygen-its a basic necessity for animal life. But marine biologists recently discovered large schools of fishes living in the dark depths of the Gulf of California where there is virtually no oxygen. Using an underwater robot, the scientists observed these fishes thriving in low-oxygen conditions that would be deadly to most other fish. This discovery could help scientists understand how other marine animals might cope with ongoing changes in the chemistry of the ocean.
Reduces the stability of FtsZ polymers in the presence of ATP. Required for cell division under low-oxygen conditions. Hydrolyzes ATP but not GTP.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Overcome wireless concerns such as coverage and capacity with the right system (DAS) products and correct placement within your building.
Painting material and products for restoration. Basic of Chemistry. Pigments Binding Media Solvents Solutions Cleaning Agents Varnishes Adhesives and more
AAP - Automated Antenna Positioning. Looking for abbreviations of AAP? It is Automated Antenna Positioning. Automated Antenna Positioning listed as AAP
MILLITECH PROPOSES TO DESIGN A COMPACT OFFSET CASSEGRAIN ANTENNA SYSTEM TO BE USED AT A WAVELENGTH OF 8 MM FOR CLOUD RESEARCH. THE SYSTEM WILL BE DESIGNED TO GIVE THE LOWSIDELOBE LEVELS CHARACTERISTIC OF AN OFFSET REFLECTOR WHILE GIVING POLARIZATION ISOLATION BETTER THAN 20 DB. THE TRADE-OFF BETWEEN HIGH POLARIZATION ISOLATION AND COMPACT SIZE WILL BE RESOLVED BY USING A GAUSSIAN OPTICS LENS ANTEN .... ...
MILLITECH PROPOSES TO DESIGN A COMPACT OFFSET CASSEGRAIN ANTENNA SYSTEM TO BE USED AT A WAVELENGTH OF 8 MM FOR CLOUD RESEARCH. THE SYSTEM WILL BE DESIGNED TO GIVE THE LOWSIDELOBE LEVELS CHARACTERISTIC OF AN OFFSET REFLECTOR WHILE GIVING POLARIZATION ISOLATION BETTER THAN 20 DB. THE TRADE-OFF BETWEEN HIGH POLARIZATION ISOLATION AND COMPACT SIZE WILL BE RESOLVED BY USING A GAUSSIAN OPTICS LENS ANTEN .... ...
Research has shown that some bacteria, including P. aeruginosa, have evolved different strategies to respond to and cope with the low-oxygen conditions in biofilms. Communities of bacteria can, for example, change the overall structure of the biofilm so that its surface area-to-volume ratio is higher and a larger proportion of the cells inside are able to access the oxygen on the outside. P. aeruginosa can also make molecules called phenazines, which help to shuttle electrons from the inside to the outside of the cell and ultimately to oxygen available at a distance ...
One of the first signs that the visceral fat of an obese person is startng to cause disruptions in the abdominal organs, is inflammation. Long-term, excessive visceral fats create a low-oxygen condition that triggers inflammation. An example of how an inflamed, low-level oxygen condition will cause further disruptions is its impact on the insulin hormone produced by the pancreas. It is well understood that insulin performs the function of controlling glucose levels.. If the normal amount of insulin produced fails to control glucose levels, the pancreas will produce more in order to prevent high levels of glucose that could lead to Type 2 diabetes. In the meantime, the excess insulin will trigger the production of more cells, which subsequently results in more damaged cells that could form into a cancerous tumor.. Basically, that is how visceral fat affects the vital organs, to which the end results are damaged cells. If the health disease caused by visceral fats is left unchecked and treated, ...
An ablation treatment apparatus has a multiple antenna device with a primary antenna and a secondary antenna. The secondary antenna is positioned in a lumen of the primary antenna as the primary antenna is introduced through tissue to a selected tissue site. At the tissue site the secondary antenna is deployed from the primary antenna in a lateral direction relative to a longitudinal axis of the primary antenna. At least a portion of a distal end of the secondary antenna is structurally less rigid than the primary antenna. The primary antenna is constructed to be rigid enough to be introduced and advanced through tissue. A cable couples the energy source to one or more of the antennas.
low energy - MedHelps low energy Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for low energy. Find low energy information, treatments for low energy and low energy symptoms.
We advise Users to compare the results obtained after correcting the MSs antenna tables with those with wrong information in order to estimate the impact of this issue on their scientific goals. The software requirements to run this script on your systems are: 1. TaQL (so casacore) 2. pyrap 3. LofIm (in particular, it uses makebeamtables and addfailedtileinfo) Usage: tar xvf fixinfo.tar cd fixinfo #running the program with full path is needed at some systems, you can use `pwd` to get the path name #on most systems. full/path/to/fixinfo/fixbeaminfo path/to/my_ms/my_ms.MS The updated number of flagged elements can be listed, e.g., taql select ANTENNA_ID, ntrue(ELEMENT_FLAG), [select NAME from my_ms.MS::ANTENNA][ANTENNA_ID] from my_ms.MS::LOFAR_ANTENNA_FIELD This will give something like: 0 48 CS001HBA0 1 48 CS001HBA1 2 48 CS002HBA0 3 56 CS002HBA1 ... 55 0 RS407HBA 56 0 RS409HBA 57 6 RS503HBA 58 0 RS508HBA Note that in this case, it concerns the HBA dual mode, so half the tiles (24=48 ...
The inert two-Higgs-doublet model (i2HDM) is a theoretically well-motivated example of a minimal consistent dark matter (DM) model which provides monojet, mono-Z, mono-Higgs, and vector-boson-fusion+ETmiss signatures at the LHC, complemented by signals in direct and indirect DM search experiments. In this paper we have performed a detailed analysis of the constraints in the full five-dimensional parameter space of the i2HDM, coming from perturbativity, unitarity, electroweak precision data, Higgs data from the LHC, DM relic density, direct/indirect DM detection, and LHC monojet analysis, as well as implications of experimental LHC studies on disappearing charged tracks relevant to a high DM mass region. We demonstrate the complementarity of the above constraints and present projections for future LHC data and direct DM detection experiments to probe further i2HDM parameter space. The model is implemented into the CalcHEP and micrOMEGAs packages, which are publicly available at the HEPMDB ...
The LoRa high gain antenna is one of RAK high-performance, omnidirectional monopole antennas. It has a frequency range of up to 930 MHz. This long range antenna, manufactured by RAKwireless is the solution to your connectivity problems and offers a myriad of features. It also supports all LoRa bands. To know more about IoT solutions and latest RAK products, check here.
The elevation chart, labeled E-plane, shows the side view of the radiation pattern of the antenna. The outer ring of the chart usually represents the strongest signal of the antenna. The chart does not represent distance or any level of power or strength.
The Karkina Antenna is a Resource extracted from Karkina, oceanic crustaceans found near coastlines around Cetus. Karkina Antennae are acquired by cutting up Karkina caught through Fishing. Go to Fisher Hai-Luk in Cetus, select the desired amount of Karkina available, and select the "Cut Bait...
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LHC commissioning progress, Sudden beam losses, QFB feed forward, Status of the beam dumping system, Luminosity optimisation, Updates on magnetic model and snapback at 10A/s, LHC 2010 schedule towards 1e32 ...
I sort of remember my electronics theroy on SWR and the importance of having an antenna length in specific divisions of the wavelength, from eons ago....
Photosynthesis in higher plants relies upon collection of light by chlorophyll molecules associated with light harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding (LHC) proteins. The two most abundant of these are Lhcb1 and Lhcb2, which make up light harvesting complex (LHC) II trimers. They are also involved in facilitating state transitions, a process during which energy balancing between photosystem (PS) II and I is achieved. Overexcitation of PSII reduces the plastoquinone pool which activates STN7, a kinase, that phosphorylates a threonine residue on Lhcb1 and Lhcb2. In order to studythe kinetics of this we developed antibodies capable of recognizingphosphorylated forms of each of these proteins. This showed that Lhcb2 is more rapidly phosphorylated than Lhcb1, that there are no differences in the migration of phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms of Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 and that the majority of phosphorylated LHCII (P-Lhcb1 and PLhcb2) are associated with super- and megacomplexes. Furthermore, a state ...
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Writer: Steve Byrns, 325-653-4576, [email protected] SAN ANTONIO - Theyre baack! And after a two-year hiatus, red katydids have returned by the millions to torment Central Texans with their incessant racket and voracious appetite for oak leaves and other desirable plants.. This is the worst outbreak Ive ever seen, said Molly Keck, Texas AgriLife Extension Service integrated pest management specialist for Bexar County. Our office is being inundated with calls from folks wanting to know if the insects will kill their trees, what can be done to stop them and how long this will last.. Keck said red katydids, Paracyrtophyllus robustus or Central Texas leaf katydid, can damage landscape and pasture plants through defoliation when numbers are as high as they are now, though the damage they inflict is usually not long-term. Most of the time the katydids are green, but during outbreak years, the red form is predominant.. They are a tree-dwelling insect that prefer oaks, Keck said. They have ...
Under relatively low-oxygen conditions, biomass is typically heated in a gasification chamber; critically, there is no combustion involved in the process. This allows the decomposition of biomass into its various compounds, and the subsequent formation of syngas.. The produced syngas is then rapidly cooled, preventing the formation of dioxins and furans; it is also filtered, in order to separate fine particles, including char.. Our solutions can integrate a biomass conditioning phase, in order to grind and dewater the feedstock upstream of the gasification chamber. Depending on the initial moisture content, this configuration will substantially improve the thermal efficiency of the overall process and vastly reduce the proportion of un-reacted feedstock in the gasification chamber.. ...
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AutomotiveNL bevordert een bloeiende Nederlandse automotive sector door zowel nationaal als internationaal de sector te profileren en te representeren bij OEMs, automotive toeleveranciers, koepelorganisaties, clusterorganisaties en overheden. Missie De inhoudelijke focusgebieden zijn Smart Mobility, Green Mobility, Manufacturing en Materials. AutomotiveNL richt zich op innovatie, onderwijs en kennistransfer, validatie en internationalisering. Daarnaast stimuleert ze op de Automotive Campus de komst van nieuwe bedrijven én onderwijsactiviteiten.
Telcos hope to deploy tens of thousands of small cell and DAS antenna systems to support next-generation 5G wireless broadband connectivity.
Complete information for CYP2S1 gene (Protein Coding), Cytochrome P450 Family 2 Subfamily S Member 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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© Matt Strassler [Dec. 4, 2014] In this article, well see how things can go wrong with the trigger system at experiments like ATLAS and CMS at the Large Hadron Collider [LHC], and also how one can work around the associated challenges. Specifically, well look at Higgs particles decaying to unknown long-lived particles, and how…
© Matt Strassler [Dec. 4, 2014] In this article, well see how things can go wrong with the trigger system at experiments like ATLAS and CMS at the Large Hadron Collider [LHC], and also how one can work around the associated challenges. Specifically, well look at Higgs particles decaying to unknown long-lived particles, and how…
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... is bound to proteins. Protochlorophyllide, one of the biosynthetic intermediates, occurs mostly in the free form ... Structures of chlorophylls chlorophyll a chlorophyll b chlorophyll c1 chlorophyll c2 chlorophyll d chlorophyll f Chlorophylls ... Unlike hemes, which contain iron bound to the N4 center, most chlorophylls bind magnesium. The axial ligands attached to the ... Two types of chlorophyll exist in the photosystems of green plants: chlorophyll a and b. Chlorophyll was first isolated and ...
October 2021). "Structural basis of bilin binding by the chlorophyll biosynthesis regulator GUN4". Protein Science. 30 (10): ... Bilins noncovalently bind to CrGUN4, an algal GUN4 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which has been shown to participate in ... In plants, bilins also serve as the photopigments of the photoreceptor protein phytochrome. An example of an invertebrate bilin ... Most photosynthetic, oxygen-producing organisms contain the positive chlorophyll biosynthesis regulator GENOMES UNCOUPLED 4 ( ...
This family also includes the iron-stress induced chlorophyll-binding protein CP43', encoded by the IsiA gene, which evolved in ... v t e (Photosynthesis, Protein domains, Protein families, Transmembrane proteins, All stub articles, Membrane protein stubs). ... "Supramolecular organization and dual function of the IsiA chlorophyll-binding protein in cyanobacteria". Biochemistry. 43 (32 ... Photosystem II light-harvesting proteins are the intrinsic transmembrane proteins CP43 (PsbC) and CP47 (PsbB) occurring in the ...
Universal protein resource accession number Q55274 for "Iron stress-induced chlorophyll-binding protein" at UniProt. (Protein ... is a photosynthesis-related chlorophyll-containing protein found in cyanobacteria. It belongs to the chlorophyll-a/b-binding ... Havaux M, Guedeney G, Hagemann M, Yeremenko N, Matthijs HC, Jeanjean R (April 2005). "The chlorophyll-binding protein IsiA is ... "Aggregates of the chlorophyll-binding protein IsiA (CP43') dissipate energy in cyanobacteria" (PDF). Biochemistry. 44 (32): ...
Chlorophyll itself is bound to proteins and can transfer the absorbed energy in the required direction. Protochlorophyllide, ... It is currently not known which other proteins interact through this linker. The regulatory protein is a transmembrane protein ... Flu (first described in ) is a nuclear-encoded, chloroplast-located protein that appears containing only protein-protein ... The FLP proteins act as regulators of chlorophyll synthesis in response to light and plastid signals in Chlamydomonas. Genes & ...
... is a soluble molecular complex consisting of the peridinin-chlorophyll a-protein bound to peridinin, chlorophyll, and lipids. ... "The unique photophysical properties of the Peridinin-Chlorophyll-α-Protein". Current Protein & Peptide Science. 15 (4): 332-50 ... Jiang J, Zhang H, Kang Y, Bina D, Lo CS, Blankenship RE (July 2012). "Characterization of the peridinin-chlorophyll a-protein ... Each eight-helix segment typically binds four peridinin molecules, one chlorophyll a molecule, and one lipid molecule such as ...
... binds to a protein of the photosystem II complex, which blocks the electron transport. The result are multiple ... First triplet-state chlorophyll reacts with oxygen to form singlet oxygen. Both chlorophyll and singlet oxygen then remove ... Triazines like hexazinone can bind to the D-1 quinone protein of the electron transport chain in photosystem II to inhibit the ... This will result in a loss of chlorophyll, leakage of cellular contents, cell death, and eventually death of the plant. Woody ...
... and a membrane-bound chlorophyll a-chlorophyll c2-peridinin-protein-complex (acpPC), along with typical photosynthetic electron ... "Isolation and Characterization of Three Membrane-Bound Chlorophyll-Protein Complexes from Four Dinoflagellate Species". ... The Unique Photophysical Properties of the Peridinin-Chlorophyll-a-Protein. In: Current Protein & Peptide Science, volume 15, ... Spectroscopic properties of the Chlorophyll a-Chlorophyll c2-Peridinin-Protein-Complex (acpPC) from the coral symbiotic ...
They bind to the Qb site on the D1 protein, and prevent quinone from binding to this site. Therefore, this group of compounds ... If this happens, the plants turn white due to complete loss of chlorophyll, and the plants die. Mesotrione and sulcotrione are ... ability of the herbicide to bind to its target protein. The effect usually relates to an enzyme with a crucial function in a ... The term target-site cross-resistance is used when the herbicides bind to the same target site, whereas non-target-site cross- ...
The D1 protein forms the reaction center of photosystem II and is important as it binds chlorophyll. By mutating and thus ... Instead, Crocosphaera watsonii uses pstS, a protein that has a high affinity to bind to phosphorus. During times of phosphorus ... These include genes encoding the proteins nifH, nifX, glutamate synthetase, ntcA, glnB-like proteins and glgP, all of which ... Furthermore, genes encoding for photosynthetic proteins such as photosystem I subunit VII (psaC), the photosystem II D1 protein ...
"Differential expression of six light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding protein genes in maize leaf cell types". Proceedings of ... Sheen, Jen; Hwang, Seongbin; Niwa, Yasuo; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Galbraith, David W. (1995). "Green-fluorescent protein as a new ... and Sheen has developed the use of green fluorescent protein in higher plant research. Sheen has used the plant protoplast ... "Functional analysis of oxidative stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in plants". Proceedings of the ...
... s are formed of a complex between proteins and covalently bound phycobilins that act as chromophores (the light ... which is then passed on to chlorophylls during photosynthesis. ... RCSB Protein Data Bank (PDB). doi:10.2210/pdb1eyx/pdb. PDB ID: ... Phycobiliproteins are water-soluble proteins present in cyanobacteria and certain algae (rhodophytes, cryptomonads, ... RCSB Protein Data Bank (PDB). doi:10.2210/pdb3v57/pdb. PDB ID: 3V57. Retrieved 12 October 2012. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal ...
mRNAs that encode chlorophyll binding proteins and the enzyme protoporphyrin IX magnesium chelatase involved in chlorophyll ... allowing for timely synthesis of light-harvesting complex proteins and chlorophyll. Therefore, the competitive advantage in A. ...
... fucoxanthin is protein-bound along with chlorophyll to form a light harvesting protein complex. Fucoxanthin is the dominant ... of the energy transfer to chlorophyll a in diatoms When bound to protein, the absorption spectrum of fucoxanthin expands from ... "The charge-transfer properties of the S2 state of fucoxanthin in solution and in fucoxanthin chlorophyll-a/c2 protein (FCP) ... "Spectroscopic characterization of the excitation energy transfer in the fucoxanthin-chlorophyll protein of diatoms". ...
It is made up of four proteins: Lhca1, Lhca2, Lhca3, and Lhca4, all of which belong to the LHC or chlorophyll a/b-binding ... The N-terminus of the chlorophyll a-b binding protein extends into the stroma where it is involved with adhesion of granal ... Light-harvesting complexes (Protein domains, Protein families, Transmembrane proteins, Plant physiology, Photosynthesis). ... "The N-terminal domain of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding protein complex (LHCII) is essential for its acclimative ...
... cyanobacteria that contain both chlorophyll a and b bound to a special light-harvesting protein. Surprisingly, unlike most ... and chlorophyll-protein composition of Prochloron sp., a prokaryotic green alga". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... "Independent evolution of the prochlorophyte and green plant chlorophyll a/b light-harvesting proteins". Proceedings of the ... "Microenvironmental Ecology of the chlorophyll b-containing Symbiotic Cyanabacterium Prochloron in the Didemnid Ascidian ...
The amount of vitamin A leaving the liver, bound to retinol binding protein (RBP), is under tight control as long as there are ... Carotenoid pigments may be masked by chlorophylls in dark green leaf vegetables, such as spinach. The relatively low ... Within the cell, retinol is there bound to retinol binding protein 2 (RBP2). It is then enzymatically reesterified by the ... bind retinol to retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), and transfer the retinol-RBP4 to HSCs for storage in lipid droplets as ...
"Molecular mechanism of Thioflavin-T binding to amyloid fibrils". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Proteins and Proteomics ... Fluorometers are widely used in oceanography to measure chlorophyll concentrations based on chlorophyll fluorescence by ... Chlorophyll fluorescence is a widely-used proxy for the quantity (biomass) of microscopic algae in the water. In the lab after ... Ocean chlorophyll fluorescence is measured on research vessels, small boats, buoys, docks, and piers all over the world. ...
It occurs in proteins that are part of signal transduction processes and functions as a receiver of phosphate groups that are ... In chloroplasts (photosystem II), it acts as an electron donor in the reduction of oxidized chlorophyll. In this process, it ... or may form part of a signaling cascade via SH2 domain binding. A tyrosine residue also plays an important role in ... Some of the tyrosine residues can be tagged (at the hydroxyl group) with a phosphate group (phosphorylated) by protein kinases ...
Light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding (LHCB) protein sequences from Lemna gibba were low in darkness but could be rapidly ... Using a DNA fragment, they screened the Arabidopsis expression library, and cloned a protein with relevant binding activity, ... In a series of experiments beginning in 1993, Tobin's lab described DNA-binding activity with an affinity for LHCB in plant ... Tobin's group also demonstrated phytochrome regulation of LHCB proteins (also known as cab genes) in Arabidopsis. By growing ...
Most metal complexes in the environment and in nature are bound in some form of chelate ring (e.g., with a humic acid or a ... Fe3+ chelation with the Dopa residues in mussel foot protein-1 to improve the strength of the threads that they use to secure ... Such chelating agents include the porphyrin rings in hemoglobin and chlorophyll. Many microbial species produce water-soluble ... EDTA, which binds to calcium, is used to alleviate the hypercalcemia that often results from band keratopathy. The calcium may ...
Ions diffusing outwards across the gradient through proton pumps are then bound to ATP synthase proteins on the cell's surface ... However, unlike all photoautotrophs, retinalophototrophs do not use chlorophyll or an electron transport chain to power their ... and are named for retinal-binding proteins they utilize for cell signaling and converting light into energy. Like all ... one gene for retinal-binding protein synthesis (bop) and one for retinal chromophore synthesis (blh). Despite their apparent ...
Non-specific binding to the plates is reduced through the use of buffers containing proteins such as casein and non-ionic ... lower chlorophyll levels and differential activity of soluble and ionically-bound peroxidases were detected. At later stages of ... P3 Protein), 6K1 (6-kDa Protein 1), CI (Cylindrical Inclusion), 6K2 (6-kDa Protein 2), VPg (Viral Protein genome-linked), ... Nonspecifically bound components are less strongly bound than the specific bound ones. Detection is achieved either through the ...
Synthetic coordination compounds are also used to bind to proteins and especially nucleic acids (e.g. anticancer drug cisplatin ... Example: hemoglobin contains heme, a porphyrin complex of iron Example: chlorophyll contains a porphyrin complex of magnesium ... the ions would bind via the ammonia chains Blomstrand had described or the ions would bind directly to the metal. It was not ... Some metal complexes are formed virtually irreversibly and many are bound together by bonds that are quite strong. The number ...
Fa and Fb are bound to protein subunits of the PSI complex and Fx is tied to the PSI complex. Various experiments have shown ... The antenna complex is composed of molecules of chlorophyll and carotenoids mounted on two proteins. These pigment molecules ... Two main subunits of PSI, PsaA and PsaB, are closely related proteins involved in the binding of the vital electron transfer ... The Ycf4 protein domain found on the thylakoid membrane is vital to photosystem I. This thylakoid transmembrane protein helps ...
... give rise to electron transfer reactions along the path of a series of protein-bound co-factors. These co-factors are light- ... The pair of chlorophyll molecules at the reaction center are often referred to as P680. When the photon has been absorbed, the ... The tightly bound molecule is shown above the pheophytin molecule and is colored red. The loosely bound molecule is to the left ... This pair of chlorophyll molecules, often called the "special pair", absorbs photons at 870 nm or 960 nm, depending on the ...
Within the core of the complex, the chlorophyll and beta-carotene pigments are mainly bound to the antenna proteins CP43 (PsbC ... which pass the excitation energy on to chlorophylls in the reaction centre proteins D1 (Qb, PsbA) and D2 (Qa, PsbD) that bind ... Although cytochrome b559 is a redox-active protein, it is unlikely to be involved in the primary electron transport in PSII due ... Wikipedia articles that are too technical from May 2016, All articles that are too technical, Photosynthesis, Protein families) ...
It is an anionic dye, which non-specifically binds to proteins. Proteins in the gel are fixed by acetic acid and simultaneously ... or fluorescence of proteins with prosthetic groups (e.g. heme or chlorophyll) or labelled with fluorescent dyes.[citation ... In most proteins, the binding of SDS to the polypeptide chain imparts an even distribution of charge per unit mass, thereby ... The disadvantage of Coomassie is that in binding to proteins it can act like a detergent causing complexes to dissociate. ...
... chlorophyll-a,b binding protein-see Light-harvesting complexes of green plants) in Arabidopsis. By measuring bioluminescence ... In the highly phosphorylated state, TOC1 has a higher binding affinity to the F-box protein ZEITLUPE (ZTL). In addition to ... The binding pattern of TOC1's CCT domain exhibits circadian oscillations, with maximum binding to G-box and EE motifs-promoter ... TOC1 protein has been found to be stabilized and TOC1 cycling largely eliminated. While phosphorylation of TOC1 protein ...
... lab was studying promoter fragments that contribute to light regulation of light-harvesting Chlorophyll A/B Binding Protein ( ... The protein motif CCA1 uses to bind to its target DNA sequences is its Myb-like domain. CCA1 only has one Myb domain, whereas ... CCA1 acts to suppress the expression of the DNA sequence it binds to. The stability of CCA1 protein is not affected by light or ... This DNA-binding activity was designated as CA-1 because the binding is mostly to cytosine and adenine-rich sequences. They ...
... a mammalian-type single-stranded DNA-binding protein, in a halophilic archaeon". Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 98 (4 ... DasSarma proposed that retinal pigments originally discovered in halophilic Archaea may have predated chlorophyll pigments in ... NRC-1. This work showed that its proteins are highly acidic, providing an understanding of how proteins may function in high ... Post-genomic research in his laboratory established the core and signature proteins in halophilic Archaea, and the function of ...
The oxygen binds to the iron in the heme via affinity-based binding or liganding and dissociates from the protein once it has ... Magnesium is the most abundant free cation in plant cytosol, is the central atom in chlorophyll and offers itself as a bridging ... Calcium usually binds with other proteins and molecules in order to perform other functions in the body. The calcium bound ... Both proteins are tetramer complexes with iron protein complexes called hemes built into each subunit of the tetramer. ...
If they are bonded to a metal in the center, then they are bound. A porphyrin with an iron atom of the type found in myoglobin ... One of the best-known families of porphyrin complexes is heme, the pigment in red blood cells, a cofactor of the protein ... chlorophyll The one-carbon-shorter analogues: corroles, including vitamin B12, which is coordinated to a cobalt Corphins, the ... When there is no metal ion (or atom) bound to the nitrogens in the center, then the compounds are called free porphine or free ...
... ribosomal protein - ribosomal protein S6 kinase - ribosome - RNA - RNA virus - RNA-binding protein - RNA-directed DNA ... protein) - chimeric protein - chirality - chloride channel - chlorophyll - chloroplast - chloroplast membrane - cholecystokinin ... protein - protein biosynthesis - Protein Data Bank - protein design - protein expression - protein folding - protein isoform - ... protein P16 - protein P34cdc2 - protein precursor - protein structure prediction - protein subunit - protein synthesis - ...
This protein model was developed based on the oscillations of the PER and TIM proteins in the Drosophila. It is based on its ... PER/TIM dimer enters the nucleus several at night, and binds to CLK/CYC dimers. Bound PER completely stops the transcriptional ... In this study, it was also found that the genes that help to control chlorophyll peaked a few hours after dawn. This appears to ... But their proteins levels remain low until dusk, because during daylight also activates the doubletime (dbt) gene. DBT protein ...
This protein-bound inorganic complex contains four manganese ions, plus calcium and chloride ions as cofactors. Two water ... Chlorophylls absorb light in the violet-blue and red parts of the spectrum, while accessory pigments capture other wavelengths ... The energy of the exciton is transferred to a chlorophyll molecule (P680, where P stands for pigment and 680 for its absorption ...
... the addition of long hydrophobic groups can cause a protein to bind to a phospholipid membrane. Carboxyglutamic acid. Whereas ... δ-Aminolevulinic acid: an intermediate in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis (haem, chlorophyll, cobalamin etc.). 4-Aminobenzoic acid ( ... In proteins a cysteine residue can form a disulfide bond with another cysteine residue, thus crosslinking the protein. Two ... are misincorporated translationally into proteins due to infidelity of the protein-synthesis process. Many amino acids, such as ...
The proteins use a flavin as a chromophore. The cryptochromes have evolved from microbial DNA-photolyase, an enzyme that ... Upon binding the chromophore, the holoprotein, an apoprotein combined with its prosthetic group, becomes sensitive to light. If ... No leaf growth No chlorophyll Rapid stem elongation Limited radial expansion of stem Limited root elongation Limited production ... Phytochromes are signaling proteins that promote photomorphogenesis in response to red light and far-red light. Phytochrome is ...
... and used it to separate and examine the plant proteins that make up chlorophyll. The ability to separate mixtures into their ... Forensic chemists are ethically bound to present testimony in a neutral manner and to be open to reconsidering their statements ...
... having a protein backbone to which 1-2 linear tetrapyrrole chromophores are covalently bound. C-phycocyanin is often found in ... Normally chlorophyll a is used to indicate cyanobacteria numbers, however since it is present in a large number of ... Its purified protein is composed of alpha and beta subunits in equal quantities. R-PC II has PCB at beta-84 and the ... Stability of this protein invitro at these temperatures has been shown to be substantially lower. Photo-spectral analysis of ...
Further work using advanced Pulse EPR techniques, such as EDNMR, has led to information on the binding of water and a proposal ... He and his group studied light-induced chlorophyll donor and quinone acceptor radical ions of the primary electron-transfer ... Using artificial maturation, the protein could be generated without the co-factor (apoprotein) using E. coli mutagenesis and a ... Ogata, H.; Nishikawa, K.; Lubitz, W. (2015). "Hydrogens detected by subatomic resolution protein crystallography in a [NiFe] ...
Chlorophylls are composed of four pyrroles as well, but there the pyrroles are arranged in a ring and contain a metal atom in ... They are unique among the photosynthetic pigments in that they are bonded to certain water-soluble proteins, known as ... by binding phycobiliproteins to antibodies in a technique known as immunofluorescence. There are four types of phycobilins: ... Phycobiliproteins then pass the light energy to chlorophylls for photosynthesis. The phycobilins are especially efficient at ...
These are integral membrane protein complexes consisting of monomers of α- and β-apoproteins, each one binding molecules of ... exciting chlorophyll pigments P870 or P960 located in the RC. Excited electrons are cycled from P870 to quinones QA and QB, ... Comparisons of their protein structure suggests that there is a common ancestor. Bryant DA, Frigaard NU (November 2006). " ...
Assembly of RuBisCO into a pyrenoid was shown to require the intrinsically disordered RuBisCO-binding repeat protein EPYC1, ... "unification of a colourless organism with one uniformly tinged with chlorophyll". From these pioneering observations, ... and the localizations and protein-protein interactions of dozens of pyrenoid-associated proteins were systematically determined ... Proteins localized to the pyrenoid include RuBisCO activase, nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase. In Chlamydomonas, a high- ...
... chlorophyll, bacteriochlorophyll, and retinal. Retinal is the chromophore found in rhodopsins. The significance of chlorophyll ... These proteins found in the cell membranes are capable of converting light energy to biochemical energy due to a change in ... Twitching is mediated by the activity of hair-like filaments called type IV pili which extend from the cell's exterior, bind to ... Gas vacuoles are made up of a shell of protein that has a highly hydrophobic inner surface, making it impermeable to water (and ...
It has shown to modulate several protein functions including the expression of cytokine proteins NFkβ and IFNγ. "Duranat Cu ... In vitro, it binds to some environmental mutagens such as the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons benzo[a]pyrene and dibenzo[a,i] ... S2CID 225189893.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Chlorophyll and Chlorophyllin, Linus Pauling ... Chlorophyllin also binds to acridine orange. Chlorophyllin has been validated to exhibit ameliorative effects against food ...
Each different copy of the genes is able to bind and present a different set of potential peptides to T-lymphocytes. These ... The mechanism involves acetylation and/or methylation of specific amino acids in histone H3, a protein closely associated with ... which caused major downstream alteration in chlorophyll and starch accumulation. ... and means that more antigenic proteins on any pathogen are likely to be recognised, giving a greater range of T-cell activation ...
Chloroplasts and cyanobacteria contain the blue-green pigment chlorophyll a. Chlorophyll a (as well as its plant and green ... Gene expression can also be controlled by repressor proteins that attach to silencer regions of the DNA and prevent that region ... In addition, they are influential in the global carbon and water cycles and plant roots bind and stabilise soils, preventing ... some of which can be seen here through paper chromatography Xanthophylls Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Plants and various other ...
... the modifications do not cause new proteins to be made, but rather prevent proteins from being made via RNA interference. ... Light exposure causes greening from chlorophyll synthesis, giving a visual clue as to which areas of the tuber may have become ... BASF developed the Amflora potato, which was modified to express antisense RNA to inactivate the gene for granule bound starch ... protein, and contains negligible fat (see table). In a 100-gram (3+1⁄2 oz) portion, raw potato provides 322 kilojoules (77 ...
... the process always begins when energy from light is absorbed by proteins called reaction centers that contain green chlorophyll ... Photosynthesis is vital for climate processes, as it captures carbon dioxide from the air and then binds carbon in plants and ... PSI contains only chlorophyll "a", PSII contains primarily chlorophyll "a" with most of the available chlorophyll "b", among ... In such proteins, the pigments are arranged to work together. Such a combination of proteins is also called a light-harvesting ...
... a protein that binds soil particles and stores both carbon and nitrogen. These glomalin-related soil proteins are an important ... Fungi have no chlorophyll, and are not able to photosynthesise. They cannot use atmospheric carbon dioxide as a source of ... and once again converted to proteins. In another part of the cycle, the process of nitrogen fixation constantly puts additional ... which is produced by the decomposition of proteins, into nitrates, which are available to growing plants, ...
... for a somewhat different and more compact structure exemplified by the peridinin-chlorophyll binding protein. Alpha solenoid ... extended protein-protein interaction surfaces or to form deep concave areas for binding globular proteins. Because they are ... and in regulatory proteins that form extensive protein-protein interactions with their binding partners. Examples of alpha ... The protein-protein interaction capacity of alpha solenoid proteins also makes them well suited to function as regulatory ...
... two of which were bound to a beta subunit and one of which was bound to an alpha subunit. Furthermore, in experiments with blue ... This was significant because it showed that it was possible to produce these proteins in situ where they could be used as ... This excitation energy is transferred from one chromophore to another and ends at a pair of chlorophyll molecules in a ... His master's thesis at the University of Sydney was based on the physiochemical studies of proteins. At the University of ...
They are bound to the protein scaffold via chelation of their central magnesium atom either to amino acids of the protein ( ... Fenna, R. E.; Matthews, B. W. (1975). "Chlorophyll arrangement in a bacteriochlorophyll protein from Chlorobium limicola". ... Renger, Thomas; Marcus, R. A. (2002). "On the relation of protein dynamics and exciton relaxation in pigment-protein complexes ... The Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex is a water-soluble complex and was the first pigment-protein complex (PPC) to be ...
... and then use receptor binding proteins to recognize cell surface proteins, which leads to adherence. Viruses with contractile ... Schimper, AF (1883). "Über die Entwicklung der Chlorophyllkörner und Farbkörper" [About the development of the chlorophyll ... A more obvious answer would be that pili help to build the aggregates by binding the cells with each other or with the ... It is thought that specific protein fibres known as pili (represented as lines radiating from the cells) may act as an ...
Porphyrin Binding to Gun4 protein, Facilitated by a Flexible Loop, Controls Metabolite Flow through the Chlorophyll ... Porphyrin Binding to Gun4 protein, Facilitated by a Flexible Loop, Controls Metabolite Flow through the Chlorophyll ... Gun4 is a porphyrin-binding protein known to stimulate in vitro the Mg-chelatase activity but how the Gun4-porphyrin complex ... We also identified the basis for stronger binding in the Gun4-1 variant and for weaker binding in the W192A mutant. The W192A- ...
chlorophyll a/b-binding protein Cab-3C [Solanum lycopersicum]. arabidopsis. blastx. No significant hits ( or none blast was ... Protein prediction analysis (1) Protein prediction analysis (1) Prediction based on ESTScan [ Show ESTScan Detail] >SGN-P45330 ...
Symbols: AB140, CAB140, LHCB1.3, CAB1 , CAB1 (CHLOROPHYLL A/B BINDING PROTEIN 1); chlorophyll …. ... chlorophyll a/b-binding protein Cab-3C [Solanum lycopersicum]. arabidopsis. blastx. At1G29930.1. 319. 9e-88. 81.82. 591 bp ( ... Chlorophyll A-B binding protein. - Biological Process: photosynthesis. light harvesting (GO:0009765). - Cellular Component: ... Chlorophyll A-B binding protein. - Biological Process: photosynthesis. light harvesting (GO:0009765). - Cellular Component: ...
... nucleotide sequence of a region of wheat chloroplast DNA containing the psbB gene for the 47 kDa chlorophyll a-binding protein ... nucleotide sequence of a region of wheat chloroplast DNA containing the psbB gene for the 47 kDa chlorophyll a-binding protein ... nucleotide sequence of a region of wheat chloroplast DNA containing the psbB gene for the 47 kDa chlorophyll a-binding protein ... nucleotide sequence of a region of wheat chloroplast DNA containing the psbB gene for the 47 kDa chlorophyll a-binding protein ...
... and the remaining NPQ resembles that of mutant plants lacking chlorophyll (Chl) b, which lack all PSII peripheral antenna ... It is triggered by the pH gradient across the thylakoid membrane and requires the protein PsbS and the xanthophyll zeaxanthin. ... The light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding proteins Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 play complementary roles during state transitions in ... The multiple roles of light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-protein complexes define structure and optimize function of Arabidopsis ...
Properties of a chloroplast enzyme that cleaves the chlorophyll a/b binding protein precursor. Optimization of an organelle- ... binding proteins Remove constraint Topic: binding proteins Topic plasmids Remove constraint Topic: plasmids Format Article ... A G-box-binding protein from soybean binds to the E1 auxin-response element in the soybean GH3 promoter and contains a proline- ... Spatial and temporal pattern of expression of the cellular retinoic acid-binding protein and the cellular retinol-binding ...
Milk proteins bind to antioxidants, neutralize their effects and have other negative properties ". Its similar with coffee, by ... "Matcha is packed with antioxidants, amino acids, chlorophyll, vitamins, and minerals," says Marina Becker. However, there is ...
Relative binding affinities of chlorophylls in peridinin-chlorophyll-protein reconstituted with heterochlorophyllous mixtures. ... Peridinin-chlorophyll-protein (PCP), containing differently absorbing chlorophyll derivatives, are good models with which to ... They can be obtained by reconstituting the N-terminal domain of the protein (N-PCP) with peridinin and chlorophyll mixtures. ... Ensemble and single-molecule spectroscopy demonstrates that both emission and absorption of peridinin-chlorophyll-protein ...
membrane all-alpha fold; 6-helical "barrel" with internal binding cavity. *. f.43: Chlorophyll a-b binding protein [103510] (1 ... f.21: Heme-binding four-helical bundle [81344] (3 superfamilies). core: four transmembrane helices, up-and-down bundle, binds ... membrane-associated alpha-helical protein; no transmembrane helices. *. f.28: Non-heme 11 kDa protein of cytochrome bc1 complex ... Timeline for Class f: Membrane and cell surface proteins and peptides: *Class f: Membrane and cell surface proteins and ...
CHLOROPHYLL A/B-BINDING PROTEINS, PIGMENT CONVERSIONS, AND EARLY LIGHT-INDUCED PROTEINS IN A CHLOROPHYLL B-LESS BARLEY MUTANT ... EVOLUTIONARY CONSERVATION OF THE CHLOROPHYLL A/B-BINDING PROTEINS - CDNAS ENCODING TYPE-I, TYPE-II, AND TYPE-III LHC-I ... Chlorophyll fluorescence analysis of cyanobacterial photosynthesis and acclimation Microbiology and molecular biology reviews, ... Antenna protein composition of PS I and PS II in thylakoid sub-domains ...
Reappearance of NADPH-protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase and light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding protein ... Chlorophyllase activities and chlorophyll degradation during leaf senescence in non-yellowing mutant and wild type of Phaseolus ... The activities of chlorophyllase, contents of pigments including chlorophyll a and b, chlorophyllide a and b, and phaeophorbide ...
Application to Water-Soluble Chlorophyll-Binding Protein,. Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 178104 (2012). [11]. ...
... and their LHC proteins are also called fucoxanthin-chlorophyll a/c-binding proteins or FCPs, as they bind pigments "fucoxanthin ... Scientists reveals the structural details of proteins involved in the photosynthetic process of an aquatic microorganism ... consist of special assemblies of proteins and pigments that capture the light energy efficiently. These assemblies are known as ... it is imperative to reveal the structural details of the proteins involved." ...
Control Mechanisms of Chlorophyll Biosynthesis and Analysis of Chlorophyll-Binding Proteins (Vol. 91, pp. 225-246). (Advances ... Therefore, most of the proteins needed for chloroplast function are now nuclear-encoded and must be transported into the ... focuses on the signalling mechanism employed by the chloroplast to target the nucleus and enable the production of proteins ...
... and Co-Translational Membrane Engagement of Plastid-Encoded Chlorophyll-Binding Proteins are not Influenced by Chlorophyll ...
Chlorophyll Binding Proteins D12.776.183.750.750.490.500 Chlorophyllides D23.767.727.220.180 Chloroplast Proteins D12.776.183 ... Retinoblastoma-Binding Protein 4 D12.776.930.700.890.200.500 D12.776.930.780.890.200.500 Retinoblastoma-Binding Protein 7 ... GTP-Binding Protein Regulators D12.776.402 GTPase-Activating Proteins D12.776.402.150 Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation ... Son of Sevenless Protein, Drosophila D12.776.402.300.700.700.600 Son of Sevenless Proteins D12.776.402.300.700.700 SOS1 Protein ...
Synthesis of Chlorophyll-Binding Proteins in a Fully Segregated Δycf54 Strain of the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803. ... Biosynthesis of Chlorophyll a in a Purple Bacterial Phototroph and Assembly into a Plant Chlorophyll-Protein Complex. ACS ... Using these analytical approaches we are interested in identifying and characterising protein complexes, protein-RNA/DNA ... A cyanobacterial chlorophyll synthase-HliD complex associates with the Ycf39 protein and the YidC/Alb3 insertase.. Plant Cell. ...
... two chlorophyll and eight peridinin molecules (Freiberg), and Trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (York) in which the presence ... the photosynthetic light-harvesting peridinin-chlorophyll-protein with 313 amino acids, ...
... chlorophyll a/b binding family proteins (ELIP1 and ELIP2), dentin sialophosphoprotein-related protein, cycling CDF factor 2 ( ... Kojima K, Yamamoto N, Sasaki S: Structure of the pine (Pinus thunbergii) chlorophyll a/b-binding protein gene expressed in the ... Green B, Pichersky E, Kloppstech K: Chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins: an extended family. Trends Biochem Sci. 1991, 16: 181-186 ... Circadian expression of the PpLhcb2 gene encoding a major light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding protein in the moss ...
"If you go back to biology days, you may recall that Mg is the central ion in chlorophyll, so plants need it to make food. Its ... also needed in RNA and DNA synthesis, binds with lots of important enzymes, and assimilates phosphorus, which is another vital ... macronutrient." The sulfur in Epsom salt is also beneficial, helping plants form important enzymes and proteins. ...
ROLE OF PROTOCHLOROPHYLLIDE REDUCTASE IN REGULATING LEVELS OF 5 CHLOROPHYLL-BINDING PROTEINS. BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA, ... 1987) EFFECT OF MG-2+ ON EXCITATION-ENERGY TRANSFER BETWEEN LHC-II AND LHC-I IN A CHLOROPHYLL-PROTEIN COMPLEX. FEBS LETTERS, ... Williams, Richard Stephen (1987) Studies on the peripheral light-harvesting chlorophyll-protein complex of photosystem I in " ... 1987) DISSOCIATION OF THE RIBULOSEBISPHOSPHATE-CARBOXYLASE LARGE-SUBUNIT BINDING-PROTEIN INTO DISSIMILAR SUBUNITS. EUROPEAN ...
It was reported that the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors play vital roles in the process of chlorophyll ... In addition, the weighted gene co-expression network analysis confirmed four RsbHLH genes closely related to chlorophyll ... Finally, four bHLH genes closely involved in chlorophyll content were identified, which may be associated with the ... The basic region is relevant to the DNA binding that allows the bHLH proteins binding to the cis-acting elements in the ...
... a fucoxanthin binding protein transcript, two chlorophyll binding proteins and a predicted membrane protein were shown to be up ... Two dimensional SDS PAGE revealed 11 differentially expressed proteins in iron limited cells and 1 highly expressed protein ... Iron limited cells were characterised by slower specific growth rates, lower chlorophyll a concentrations per unit biomass and ... Addition of iron to iron limited cultures resulted in increased specific growth rates and increased chlorophyll a concentration ...
Dunsmuir P, Smith SM, Bedbrook J, The major chlorophyll a/b binding protein of petunia is composed of several polypeptides ... Kim D-J, Smith SM, Leaver CJ, A cDNA encoding a putative SPF1-type DNA-binding protein from cucumber, Gene, 185, (2) pp. 265- ... Catalytically-inactive β-amylase BAM4 required for starch breakdown in Arabidopsis leaves is a starch-binding-protein, ... Peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporter COMATOSE and the multifunctional protein ABNORMAL INFLORESCENCE MERISTEM are ...
"Thermally Activated Superradiance and Intersystem Crossing in the Water-Soluble Chlorophyll Binding Protein". J. Phys. Chem. B ... Application to Water-Soluble Chlorophyll-Binding Protein",. Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 178104 (2012).. ... "Refinement of a Structural Model of a Pigment-Protein Complex by Accurate Optical Line Shape Theory and Experiments",. J. Phys ... "On the Distance Dependent Electron Transfer Rate of Immobilized Redox Proteins - A Statistical Physics Approach",. Phys. Rev. E ...
A Ca2+-binding protein called the Ca2+ Sensor EF-hand (CSE) is found almost exclusively in filamentous cyanobacteria. ... Expression of asr1131 encoding the CSE protein in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 was strongly induced by low CO2 conditions, and rapidly ... Growth curves a-d of wild-type (WT) and Δcse cultures monitored using total proteins (a and c) and chlorophyll concentrations ( ... CSE is a small Ca2+-binding EF-hand protein, which undergoes a conformational change upon binding of Ca2+ [7]. This is a ...
The Lhc gene encodes chlorophyll a-b binding protein, which takes part in regulating photosynthesis and chlorophyll synthesis. ... Effects of active compounds on the expression of chlorophyll a-b binding protein (Lhc). As shown in Fig. 4, the expression of ... CP encodes a viral coat protein and P1 encodes plasma membrane cation-binding protein 1 (PCaP1), which is shown to be important ... The NIa protein is also responsible for the release of the VPg protein involved in viral RNA replication (Gargouri-Bouzid et al ...
... similar to chlorophyll a/b-binding protein, CP24; H2B-b, histone H2B-b; Hyp, hypothetical protein; H4-b, histone H4-b. ... All copies have a truncated ORF that is weakly related (BLASTX E-value = 10-5-4 × 10-2) to a putative protein, WSV486, that is ... Very recently, Cunningham et al [33] reported that C. merolae contains perhaps the simplest assortment of chlorophylls and ... Furthermore, because C. merolae inhabits hot springs (45°C) [9], most of its proteins must be unusually heat-stable, and so its ...
Chlorophyll a b Binding Proteins. Chlorophyll a c Binding Proteins. Chlorophyll a-Proteins. Chlorophyll a-b Binding Proteins. ... Chlorophyll a c Binding Proteins Chlorophyll ac Proteins Chlorophyll ac-Proteins Chlorophyll a Binding Proteins - Narrower ... Chlorophyll a-c Binding Proteins. Chlorophyll ab Proteins. Chlorophyll ab-Proteins. Chlorophyll ac Proteins. Chlorophyll ac- ... Chlorophyll a-b Binding Proteins Entry term(s). Chlorophyll a b Binding Proteins Chlorophyll ab Proteins Chlorophyll ab- ...
  • A CRM domain containing protein in plant chloroplasts has been shown to function in group I and II intron splicing ( PUBMED:18065687 ). (embl.de)
  • A CRM domain protein functions dually in group I and group II intronsplicing in land plant chloroplasts. (embl.de)
  • The machineries dedicated to the maturation of Fe-S proteins present in mitochondria and chloroplasts, named ISC (iron-sulfur cluster) and SUF (sulfur mobilization), respectively, are also found in bacteria ( Lill, 2009 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Position 3, which is occupied Present in plants and certain algae, chloroplasts are a type of membrane-bound plastids. (pougetlaw.com)
  • The central atom of chlorophyll is Mg ++. Chloroplasts are present in the form of protoplastids in cotyledon and primordium of stem. (botanystudies.com)
  • Ensemble and single-molecule spectroscopy demonstrates that both emission and absorption of peridinin-chlorophyll-protein photosynthetic antennae can be largely enhanced through plasmonic interactions. (cipsm.de)
  • Peridinin-chlorophyll-protein (PCP), containing differently absorbing chlorophyll derivatives, are good models with which to study energy transfer among monomeric chlorophylls (Chls) by both bulk and singlemolecule spectroscopy. (cipsm.de)
  • The meeting reflected the explosion of new structure deterrminations, including a 673 kDa 20S proteasome (Martinsried), the photosynthetic light-harvesting peridinin-chlorophyll-protein with 313 amino acids, two chlorophyll and eight peridinin molecules (Freiberg), and Trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (York) in which the presence of two octamers with an internal 11 fold symmetry axis in the asymmetric unit permitted improvement of the electron density by 22-fold averaging. (iucr.org)
  • In addition, the weighted gene co-expression network analysis confirmed four RsbHLH genes closely related to chlorophyll content. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Finally, four bHLH genes closely involved in chlorophyll content were identified, which may be associated with the photosynthesis of the green-fleshed radish. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The expression of chlorophyll biosynthesis-related genes contributes to the chlorophyll accumulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The basic region is relevant to the DNA binding that allows the bHLH proteins binding to the cis-acting elements in the promoter regions of the target genes, and the HLH region functions as a dimerization domain that allows the formation of homo- and/or heterodimers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phytochrome interacting factor1(PIF1), as a bHLH protein, negatively controls the chlorophyll biosynthesis in the dark by regulating the expression of genes coding heme oxygenase (HO3), protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR), and ferrochelatase (FeChII), which are involved in the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In order to illustrate the inhibitory mechanisms of active compounds isolated from strain E303035, the effects were determined on total RNA and on genes encoding the functional proteins of PVY. (springeropen.com)
  • A few photosynthesis related genes such as sulfate adenylytransferase ( APS3 ), chlorophyll a/b binding family protein etc. were suggested to be regulated by miRNAs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • By gaining a better understanding of the genetic variation in genes that encode the light harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins (LHCP), plant breeders will be able to use these DNA sequence variations as DNA markers to improve the 'stay green' efficiency of plants. (technologynetworks.com)
  • In yeast species, both proteins modulate the localization and/or activity of transcription factors regulating genes coding for proteins involved in iron uptake and intracellular sequestration in response notably to iron deficiency. (frontiersin.org)
  • Genes encoding plant chlorophyll a/b binding proteins (CAB) are a typical group of light-inducible genes. (chinacrops.org)
  • 3] Dunsmuir P, Smith S M, Bedbrook J. The major chlorophyll a/b binding protein of petunia is composed of several polypeptides encoded by a number of distinct nuclear genes. (chinacrops.org)
  • We find up to 18-fold increase of the chlorophyll fluorescence for complexes placed near a silver metal layer. (cipsm.de)
  • Due to the presence of chlorophyll, chlorophyll fluorescence technology has detected the occurrence of photosynthesis in the flesh of green-fleshed radish [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Organisms capable of photosynthesis--a biochemical process that converts solar energy into chemical energy--consist of special assemblies of proteins and pigments that capture the light energy efficiently. (eurekalert.org)
  • Dr Akita explains, "To gain more insights into the process of photosynthesis, it is imperative to reveal the structural details of the proteins involved. (eurekalert.org)
  • Its flesh is green due to the existence of chlorophyll, which is necessary for photosynthesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • PSI, an abundant photoactive pigment-protein complex is the essential component of photosynthesis. (uni-tuebingen.de)
  • Ethylene-dependent gravitropism-deficient and yellow-green 1 (EGY1) protein is required for chloroplast development and photosynthesis conduction. (springeropen.com)
  • The mutant plant exhibits a reduction in NPQ of about 60% and the remaining NPQ resembles that of mutant plants lacking chlorophyll (Chl) b , which lack all PSII peripheral antenna complexes. (nature.com)
  • Using these analytical approaches we are interested in identifying and characterising protein complexes, protein-RNA/DNA complexes, protein post translational modifications and RNA post transcriptional modifications. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • The latter functions seem intimately connected with the capacity of specific GRXs to form [2Fe-2S] cluster-bridging homodimeric or heterodimeric complexes with BOLA proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • In plants and microorganisms with chlorophyll b, the pigment is located in antenna complexes of PS II (in the light harvesting complexes) where it makes up about 50 percent of chlorophyll. (pougetlaw.com)
  • It binds 300 chlorophyll molecules (Chl a) per trimer within its protein scaffolding to facilitate the conversion of solar energy into chemical energy. (uni-tuebingen.de)
  • Treatment of whole and fractionated plant tissues with hydrophilic and hydrophobic solvent mixtures of varied volume ratio liberates two chlorophyll (Chl) a′ molecules from the photosystem (PS)I core when the solvent hydrophilicity exceeds a critical level, whereas only one molecule is extracted in hydrophobic media. (elsevier.com)
  • Chemical environment heterogeneity around the two chlorophyll a′ molecules in photosystem I . Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology, B: Biology , 20 (2-3), 139-143. (elsevier.com)
  • Chemical environment heterogeneity around the two chlorophyll a′ molecules in photosystem I. / Maeda, H. (elsevier.com)
  • The chlorophyll molecules are present in the form of clusters. (botanystudies.com)
  • Diatoms are one of the major groups of the red lineage organisms, and their LHC proteins are also called fucoxanthin-chlorophyll a/c-binding proteins or FCPs, as they bind pigments "fucoxanthin" and chlorophyll a/c. (eurekalert.org)
  • Depending on the organism, this chlorophyll co-occurs with other pigments (e.g. (pougetlaw.com)
  • The plastids containing colored pigments other than chlorophyll are called chromoplast. (botanystudies.com)
  • Finally, we introduced the W192A mutation into Synechocystis 6803 cells and show that the Gun4-porphyrin complex is important for the accumulation of ChlH and for channeling metabolites into the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. (upc.edu)
  • To obtain structural information, we synthesized single and double zinc finger peptides from the yeast transcription activator ADR1, and assessed the metal-binding and DNA-binding properties of these peptides, as well as the solution structure of the metal-stabilized domains, with the use of a variety of spectroscopic techniques. (embl.de)
  • Ectopic overexpression of a bHLH gene from Populus euphratica enhances tolerance to water-deficit stress and results in a higher chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate in Arabidopsis [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A large family of proteins that have been traditionally classified as the light-harvesting proteins of the photosynthetic reaction complex. (bvsalud.org)
  • The nucleotide sequence of a region of wheat chloroplast DNA containing the psbB gene for the 47 kDa chlorophyll a-binding protein of photosystem II has been determined. (elsevier.com)
  • Therefore, most of the proteins needed for chloroplast function are now nuclear-encoded and must be transported into the chloroplast, often across several different membranes. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • My research focuses on the signalling mechanism employed by the chloroplast to target the nucleus and enable the production of proteins associated with chloroplast function, biogenesis, and acclimation to abiotic stress. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • The membrane bound structure, containing green pigment chlorophyll is called chloroplast. (botanystudies.com)
  • It contains about 50% of the chloroplast proteins. (botanystudies.com)
  • In B. Grimm (Ed.), Metabolism, Structure and Function of Plant Tetrapyrroles: Control Mechanisms of Chlorophyll Biosynthesis and Analysis of Chlorophyll-Binding Proteins (Vol. 91, pp. 225-246). (southampton.ac.uk)
  • The researches show that the bHLH proteins can positively or negatively regulate the process of chlorophyll biosynthesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The PsaA/B heterodimer binds the P700 chlorophyll special pair and subsequent electron acceptors. (icr.ac.uk)
  • The PSI core proteins, PSI-A and PSI-B, which form a heterodimer, appear to bind one Chl a′ molecule each, in local environments significantly different regarding their hydrophilicity or hydrophobicity. (elsevier.com)
  • It's also needed in RNA and DNA synthesis, binds with lots of important enzymes, and assimilates phosphorus, which is another vital macronutrient. (mindbodygreen.com)
  • chlorophyll synthesis pathway protein BchC;Zinc-binding. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • By 1960, when most of the stereochemistry of chlorophyll a was known, Robert Burns Woodward published a total synthesis of the molecule. (pougetlaw.com)
  • 1] Magnesium is required for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and protein synthesis. (medscape.com)
  • The basic structure of a chlorophyll molecule is a porphyrin ring, coordinated to a central atom. (pougetlaw.com)
  • Here, the electron is transferred to an organic molecule (plastoquinone), a cytochrome complex and ultimately a protein known as plastocyanin (which contains copper). (pougetlaw.com)
  • Chlorophyll The chlorophyll molecule has a porphyrin-ring like structures (head) with a magnesium atom in the center and a long hydrophobic hydrocarbon tail that anchors it in photosynthetic membrane. (pougetlaw.com)
  • Zinc finger (Znf) domains are relatively small protein motifs which contain multiple finger-like protrusions that make tandem contacts with their target molecule. (embl.de)
  • The W192A-Gun4 was further characterized in Mg-chelatase assay showing that tight porphyrin-binding in Gun4 facilitates its interaction with the Mg-chelatase ChlH subunit. (upc.edu)
  • 2] Coruzzi G, Broglie R, Cashmore A R, Chua N H. Nucleotide sequences of two pea cDNA clones encoding the small subunit of ribulose 1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase and the major chlorophyll a/b binding thylakoid polypeptide. (chinacrops.org)
  • protein_coding" "AAC73969","clpA","Escherichia coli","ATPase and specificity subunit of ClpA-ClpP ATP-dependent serine protease, chaperone activity [Ensembl]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Being a eukaryote, it contains a nuclear membrane, membrane-bound genetic material, and membrane-bound cell organelles. (risingacademy.org)
  • If you go back to biology days, you may recall that Mg is the central ion in chlorophyll, so plants need it to make food. (mindbodygreen.com)
  • The sulfur in Epsom salt is also beneficial, helping plants form important enzymes and proteins. (mindbodygreen.com)
  • GFP fused to a single-domain CRM protein from maize localises to the nucleolus, suggesting that an analogous activity may have been retained in plants ( PUBMED:17105995 ). (embl.de)
  • The CRM domain is represented as a stand-alone protein in archaea and bacteria, and in single- and multi-domain proteins in plants. (embl.de)
  • In accompany with this phenotype, leaf survival, chlorophyll content, Fv/Fm and soluble protein content decreased, and ion leakage increased significantly in egy1 mutants compared to WT plants. (springeropen.com)
  • We perform here a critical evaluation of the results supporting the implication of both protein families in similar signaling pathways in plants and provide ideas and experimental strategies to delineate further their functions. (frontiersin.org)
  • In later stages of senescence, chlorophyllides are converted to a group of colourless tetrapyrroles known as nonfluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCC's) with the general structure: These compounds have also been identified in ripening fruits and they give characteristic autumn colours to deciduous plants. (pougetlaw.com)
  • The different forms of chlorophyll are essential for life given that they are responsible for the autotrophic nature of plants and some microorganisms. (pougetlaw.com)
  • lLhCIInSinmtLHCII chlorootyIl protein complc*MHM LHCII V LhcII umcn SGR 10,0 Figure _ Molecular effects of SGR to the Figure 1: Location of LHOl in Photosystem II LCHII chlrophyll protein complex Albinism in Camellia sinensis tea plants is attributed to deficiency in chlorophyll Albino plants will have distinct white color in their leaves and stems. (solvedlib.com)
  • this amount is easily obtainable with a normal daily intake of fruits, seeds, and vegetables because magnesium is a component of chlorophyll and is present in high concentrations in all green plants. (medscape.com)
  • But for other veggies, cooking actually boosts the nutritional content since the heat helps to break down the plants' thick cell walls to release the nutrients bound to those walls. (justjuice.org)
  • Proctor MS, Pazderník M, Jackson PJ, Pilný J, Martin EC, Dickman MJ, Canniffe DP, Johnson MP, Hunter CN, Sobotka R & Hitchcock A (2020) Xanthophyll carotenoids stabilise the association of cyanobacterial chlorophyll synthase with the LHC-like protein HliD . (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • Chlorophyllase activities and chlorophyll degradation during leaf senescence in non-yellowing mutant and wild type of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 2004 ). Protein degradation is the most significant breakdown process that takes place during senescence (Buchanan-Wollaston et al. (springeropen.com)
  • It is triggered by the pH gradient across the thylakoid membrane and requires the protein PsbS and the xanthophyll zeaxanthin. (nature.com)
  • Chlorophyll a-b binding protein P4, chloroplastic. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Given the phototoxic nature of tetrapyrroles, this pathway must be tightly regulated and an important regulatory role is attributed to Mgchelatase enzyme at the branching between the heme and chlorophyll pathway. (upc.edu)
  • The structure of chlorophyll … * In nature, tetrapyrroles possess a structure that is essential for important biological processes. (pougetlaw.com)
  • Unlike heme groups, which contain iron at their core, the metal ion found in chlorophyll is … Lars Olof Björn. (pougetlaw.com)
  • Bacterial extracellular solute-binding proteins [Interproscan]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • 1. FIBROBLASTS: secrete proteins of extracellular fibers, like collagen. (scienceoutlined.com)
  • Translation and Co-Translational Membrane Engagement of Plastid-Encoded Chlorophyll-Binding Proteins are not Influenced by Chlorophyll Availability in Maize. (mpg.de)
  • In vitro experiments with an isolated maize CRM domain have shown it to have RNA binding activity. (embl.de)
  • They can be obtained by reconstituting the N-terminal domain of the protein (N-PCP) with peridinin and chlorophyll mixtures. (cipsm.de)
  • The membranous bound and pigment containing bodies present in the cell are called plastids. (botanystudies.com)
  • It was reported that the basic helix-loop-helix ( bHLH ) transcription factors play vital roles in the process of chlorophyll metabolism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The small Ca2+-binding protein CSE links Ca2+ signalling with nitrogen metabolism and filament integrity in Anabaena sp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1977. Metabolism of halogenated methanes and macromolecular binding. (cdc.gov)
  • We present two-dimensional electronic-vibrational spectra of the chlorophyll (Chl) binding protein light harvesting complex II (LHCII) from spinach and of isolated Chl a and Chl b. (bris.ac.uk)
  • This developmental process occurs in about every tenth cell of a filament under N-deprived conditions, due to the action of heterocyst pattern formation proteins such as the small peptide PatS, which is expressed mainly in heterocysts [ 20 , 21 ] and diffuses into adjacent cells where it inhibits the activity of HetR [ 22 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It has been suggested that prokaryotic CRM proteins existed as ribosome-associated proteins prior to the divergence of archaea and bacteria, and that they were co-opted in the plant lineage as RNA binding modules by incorporation into diverse protein contexts. (embl.de)
  • The all-natural shape of algae healthy proteins, an elaborate of B vitamins and minerals, herbal antioxidants, and various nutrition. (reviewsgoal.com)
  • As such, it serves as the accessory pigment to chlorophyll a. (pougetlaw.com)
  • Chlorophyll is perhaps the most important naturally occurring pigment on the planet. (pougetlaw.com)
  • As a complement pigment, Chlorophyll b (Chl b) serves to harvest light at the ratio of 1:3 (to Chl a). (pougetlaw.com)
  • The green pigment is an organic compound called chlorophyll . (botanystudies.com)
  • Encodes an early light-inducible protein. (or.jp)
  • In apoforms, they exhibit oxidoreductase activity controlling notably protein glutathionylation/deglutathionylation. (frontiersin.org)
  • PSI is a plastocyanin/cytochrome c6-ferredoxin oxidoreductase, converting photonic excitation into a charge separation, which transfers an electron from the donor P700 chlorophyll pair to the spectroscopically characterized acceptors A0, A1, FX, FA and FB in turn. (icr.ac.uk)
  • Since chlorophyllide a can be converted to chlorophyllide b and the latter can be re-esterified to chlorophyll b, these processes allow cycling between chlorophylls a and b. (pougetlaw.com)
  • The cell consists of a permeable cell membrane, DNA, protein factories called ribosomes, and a protective outer cell wall. (si.edu)
  • It contains proteins, some ribosomes and small circular DNA. (botanystudies.com)
  • The charged reaction center of chlorophyll (P680+) is then reduced back to its ground state by accepting an electron stripped from water. (pougetlaw.com)
  • In holoforms, i.e., iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster-bridging forms, they act as maturation factors for the biogenesis of Fe-S proteins or as regulators of iron homeostasis contributing directly or indirectly to the sensing of cellular iron status and/or distribution. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the proposed "zinc finger" DNA-binding motif, each repeat unit binds a zinc metal ion through invariant Cys and His residues and this drives the folding of each 30-residue unit into an independent nucleic acid-binding domain. (embl.de)
  • Znf domains are often found in clusters, where fingers can have different binding specificities. (embl.de)
  • Gun4 is a porphyrin-binding protein known to stimulate in vitro the Mg-chelatase activity but how the Gun4-porphyrin complex acts in the cell was unknown. (upc.edu)
  • It revealed that the orientation of 6/7 loop is critical for the binding and the magnesium ion held within the porphyrin is coordinated by Asn211 residue. (upc.edu)
  • In N-limiting conditions, CcbP was reportedly strongly downregulated, both at the expression level by the transcriptional regulator NtcA, and at the protein level through HetR-mediated proteolysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Iron limited cells were characterised by slower specific growth rates, lower chlorophyll a concentrations per unit biomass and less extensive calcification relative to iron replete cells. (bl.uk)
  • L-iditol 2-dehydrogenase;Zinc-binding. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Zinc-binding motifs are stable structures, and they rarely undergo conformational changes upon binding their target. (embl.de)
  • A single zinc finger can exist as an independent structure sufficient for zinc-dependent DNA binding. (embl.de)
  • miRNAs are about 21-nt long non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding to complementary sequences within their target mRNAs [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • PsaA and PsaB bind P700, the primary electron donor of photosystem I (PSI), as well as the electron acceptors A0, A1 and FX. (icr.ac.uk)
  • however, electron transfer seems to proceed preferentially down the path including the phylloquinone bound by PsaA. (icr.ac.uk)
  • Thirdly, animal miRNAs tend to bind to 3′UTR regions of target transcripts while plant miRNAs follow more strict reverse complementary match with targets thus possessing limited number of targets compared with animal miRNAs [ 15 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These and other results suggest that the CRM domain evolved in the context of ribosome function prior to the divergence of Archaea and Bacteria, that this function has been maintained in extant prokaryotes, and that the domain was recruited to serve as an RNA binding module during the evolution of plant genomes ( PUBMED:17105995 ). (embl.de)
  • It is almost exclusively of exogenous origin and is delivered mainly from dietary plant chlorophyll and, to a lesser extent, from animal sources. (medscape.com)
  • We also identified the basis for stronger binding in the Gun4-1 variant and for weaker binding in the W192A mutant. (upc.edu)
  • To analyze the effectiveness of different lengths of the Gacab promoter, GUS expression under the control of the Gacab promoter deletion constructs was examined by fluorometric assays of transgenic tobacco leaf protein extracts. (chinacrops.org)
  • Structural investigation of disordered stress proteins. (umu.se)
  • The observed decrease of the large CD signal is ascribed to a partial loss of macrohelicity in the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b protein complex, in response to a proton gradient and/or surface electrical field generated most effectively by photosystem I. (elsevier.com)