A large family of proteins that have been traditionally classified as the light-harvesting proteins of the photosynthetic reaction complex. Chlorophyll binding proteins are also found in non-photosynthetic settings where they may play a photoprotective role in response to light stress.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.
A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.
Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.
Products of the hydrolysis of chlorophylls in which the phytic acid side chain has been removed and the carboxylic acids saponified.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
A large multisubunit protein complex that is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to drive electron transfer reactions that result in either the reduction of NADP to NADPH or the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.
A photo-active pigment localized in prolamellar bodies occurring within the proplastids of dark-grown bean leaves. In the process of photoconversion, the highly fluorescent protochlorophyllide is converted to chlorophyll.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Proteins that bind to the 3' polyadenylated region of MRNA. When complexed with RNA the proteins serve an array of functions such as stabilizing the 3' end of RNA, promoting poly(A) synthesis and stimulating mRNA translation.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.
Membranous cisternae of the CHLOROPLAST containing photosynthetic pigments, reaction centers, and the electron-transport chain. Each thylakoid consists of a flattened sac of membrane enclosing a narrow intra-thylakoid space (Lackie and Dow, Dictionary of Cell Biology, 2nd ed). Individual thylakoids are interconnected and tend to stack to form aggregates called grana. They are found in cyanobacteria and all plants.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Chlorophylls from which the magnesium has been removed by treatment with weak acid.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The absence of light.
A form-genus of unicellular CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. None of the strains fix NITROGEN, there are no gas vacuoles, and sheath layers are never produced.
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
Four PYRROLES joined by one-carbon units linking position 2 of one to position 5 of the next. The conjugated bond system results in PIGMENTATION.
A family of immunophilin proteins that bind to the immunosuppressive drugs TACROLIMUS (also known as FK506) and SIROLIMUS. EC 5.2.1.-
A widely cultivated plant, native to Asia, having succulent, edible leaves eaten as a vegetable. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A poly(A) binding protein that has a variety of functions such as mRNA stabilization and protection of RNA from nuclease activity. Although poly(A) binding protein I is considered a major cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein it is also found in the CELL NUCLEUS and may be involved in transport of mRNP particles.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.

Spectroscopic and molecular characterization of a long wavelength absorbing antenna of Ostreobium sp. (1/69)

One of the strains of the marine green alga Ostreobium sp. possesses an exceptionally large number of long wavelength absorbing chlorophylls (P. Haldall, Biol. Bull. 134, 1968, 411-424) as evident from a distinct shoulder in the absorption spectrum at around 710 nm while in the other strain this shoulder is absent. Therefore, Ostreobium offers a unique possibility to explore the origin of these red-shifted chlorophylls, because strains with and without these spectral forms can be compared. Here, we characterize these red forms spectroscopically by absorption, fluorescence and CD spectroscopy. In the CD spectra at least three spectroscopic red forms are identified which lead to an unusual room temperature fluorescence spectrum that peaks at 715 nm. The gel electrophoretic pattern from thylakoids of Ostreobium sp. shows an intense band at 22 kDa which correlates with the presence or absence of long wavelength absorbing pigments. By protein sequencing of the N-terminus of the 22-kDa polypeptide and sequence alignments, this was identified as an Lhca1-type light-harvesting complex. The abundance of this polypeptide - and a possibly co-migrating one - in Ostreobium sp. indicates an antenna size of approximately 340 chlorophyll molecules (Chl a and Chl b) per PS IIalpha reaction center, which is significantly larger than in higher plants ( approximately 240). The red forms are more abundant in the interior of the thalli where a 'shade-light' light field is expected than in the white-light exposed surface. This demonstrates that algae exist which may be able to up-regulate the synthesis of large amounts of LHCI and associated red forms under appropriate illumination conditions.  (+info)

Supramolecular organization of photosystem II and its light-harvesting antenna in partially solubilized photosystem II membranes. (2/69)

We present an extended analysis of the organization of green plant photosystem II and its associated light-harvesting antenna using electron microscopy and image analysis. The analysis is based on a large dataset of 16 600 projections of negatively stained PSII-LHCII supercomplexes and megacomplexes prepared by means of three different pretreatments. In addition to our previous work on this system [Boekema, E.J., van Roon, H., Calkoen, F., Bassi, R. and Dekker, J.P. (1999) Biochemistry 38, 2233-2239], the following results were obtained. The rotational orientation of trimeric LHCII at the S, M and L binding positions was determined. It was found that compared to the S trimer, the M and L trimers are rotationally shifted by about -20 degrees and -50 degrees, respectively. The number of projections with empty CP29, CP26 and CP24 binding sites was found to be about 0, 18 and 4%, respectively. We suggest that CP26 and CP24 are not required for the binding of trimeric LHCII at any of the three binding positions. A new type of megacomplex was observed with a characteristic windmill-like shape. This type III megacomplex consists of two C2S2 supercomplexes connected at their CP26 tips. Structural variation in the region of the central dimeric photosystem II complex was found to occur at one specific position near the periphery of the complex. We attribute this variation to the partial absence of an extrinsic polypeptide or one or more small intrinsic membrane proteins.  (+info)

Ultrafast excitation dynamics of low energy pigments in reconstituted peripheral light-harvesting complexes of photosystem I. (3/69)

Ultrafast dynamics of a reconstituted Lhca4 subunit from the peripheral LHCI-730 antenna of photosystem I of higher plants were probed by femtosecond absorption spectroscopy at 77 K. Intramonomeric energy transfer from chlorophyll (Chl) b to Chl a and energy equilibration between Chl a molecules observed on the subpicosecond time scale are largely similar to subpicosecond energy equilibration processes within LHCII monomers. However, a 5 ps equilibration process in Lhca4 involves unique low energy Chls in LHCI absorbing at 705 nm. These pigments localize the excitation both in the Lhca4 subunit and in LHCI-730 heterodimers. An additional 30-50 ps equilibration process involving red pigments of Lhca4 in the heterodimer, observed by transient absorption and picosecond fluorescence spectroscopy, was ascribed to intersubunit energy transfer.  (+info)

A potential role of chlorophylls b and c in assembly of light-harvesting complexes. (4/69)

Chlorophyll (Chl)-containing light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) in chloroplasts of plant and algal cells usually include an oxidized Chl (Chl b or c) in addition to Chl a. Oxidation of peripheral groups on the tetrapyrrole structure increases the Lewis acid strength of the central Mg atom. We propose that the resulting stronger coordination bonds between oxidized Chls and ligands in LHC apoproteins (LHCPs) stabilize the initial intermediates and thus promote assembly of LHCs within the chloroplast envelope.  (+info)

Antisense inhibition of the photosynthetic antenna proteins CP29 and CP26: implications for the mechanism of protective energy dissipation. (5/69)

The specific roles of the chlorophyll a/b binding proteins CP29 and CP26 in light harvesting and energy dissipation within the photosynthetic apparatus have been investigated. Arabidopsis was transformed with antisense constructs against the genes encoding the CP29 or CP26 apoprotein, which gave rise to several transgenic lines with remarkably low amounts of the antisense target proteins. The decrease in the level of CP24 protein in the CP29 antisense lines indicates a physical interaction between these complexes. Analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence showed that removal of the proteins affected photosystem II function, probably as a result of changes in the organization of the light-harvesting antenna. However, whole plant measurements showed that overall photosynthetic rates were similar to those in the wild type. Both antisense lines were capable of the qE type of nonphotochemical fluorescence quenching, although there were minor changes in the capacity for quenching and in its induction kinetics. High-light-induced violaxanthin deepoxidation to zeaxanthin was not affected, although the pool size of these pigments was decreased slightly. We conclude that CP29 and CP26 are unlikely to be sites for nonphotochemical quenching.  (+info)

The properties of the chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins Lhca2 and Lhca3 studied in vivo using antisense inhibition. (6/69)

The specific functions of the light-harvesting proteins Lhca2 and Lhca3 were studied in Arabidopsis ecotype Colombia antisense plants in which the proteins were individually repressed. The antisense effect was specific in each plant, but levels of Lhca proteins other than the targeted products were also affected. The contents of Lhca1 and Lhca4 were unaffected, but Lhca3 (in Lhca2-repressed plants) was almost completely depleted, and Lhca2 decreased to about 30% of wild-type levels in Lhca3-repressed plants. This suggests that the Lhca2 and Lhca3 proteins are in physical contact with each other and that they require each other for stability. Photosystem I fluorescence at 730 nm is thought to emanate from pigments bound to Lhca1 and Lhca4. However, fluorescence emission and excitation spectra suggest that Lhca2 and Lhca3, which fluoresce in vitro at 680 nm, also could contribute to far-red fluorescence in vivo. Spectral forms with absorption maxima at 695 and 715 nm, apparently with emission maxima at 702 and 735 nm, respectively, might be associated with Lhca2 and Lhca3.  (+info)

Biochemical properties of the PsbS subunit of photosystem II either purified from chloroplast or recombinant. (7/69)

The biochemical properties of PsbS protein, a nuclear-encoded Photosystem II subunit involved in the high energy quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence, have been studied using preparations purified from chloroplasts or obtained by overexpression in bacteria. Despite the homology with chlorophyll a/b/xanthophyll-binding proteins of the Lhc family, native PsbS protein does not show any detectable ability to bind chlorophylls or carotenoids in conditions in which Lhc proteins maintain full pigment binding. The recombinant protein, when refolded in vitro in the presence of purified pigments, neither binds chlorophylls nor xanthophylls, differently from the homologous proteins LHCII, CP26, and CP29 that refold into stable pigment-binding complexes. Thus, it is concluded that if PsbS is a pigment-binding protein in vivo, the binding mechanism must be different from that present in other Lhc proteins. Primary sequence analysis provides evidence for homology of PsbS helices I and III with the central 2-fold symmetric core of chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins. Moreover, a structural homology owed to the presence of acidic residues in each of the two lumen-exposed loops is found with the dicyclohexylcarbodiimide/Ca(2+)-binding domain of CP29. Consistently, both native and recombinant PsbS proteins showed [(14)C]dicyclohexylcarbodiimide binding, thus supporting a functional basis for its homology with CP29 on the lumen-exposed loops. This domain is suggested to be involved in sensing low luminal pH.  (+info)

Mutation analysis of Lhca1 antenna complex. Low energy absorption forms originate from pigment-pigment interactions. (8/69)

The light harvesting complex Lhca1, one of the four gene products comprising the photosystem I antenna system, has been analyzed by site-directed mutagenesis with the aim of determining the chromophore(s) responsible for its long wavelength chlorophyll spectral form, a specific characteristic of the LHCI antenna complex. A family of mutant proteins, each carrying a mutation at a single chlorophyll-binding residue, was obtained and characterized by biochemical and spectroscopic methods. A map of the chromophores bound to each of the 10 chlorophyll-binding sites was drawn, and the energy levels of the Q(y) transition were determined in most cases. When compared with Lhcb proteins previously analyzed, Lhca1 is characterized by stronger interactions between individual chromophores as detected by both biochemical and spectroscopic methods; most mutations, although targeted to a single residue, lead to the loss of more than one chromophore and of conservative CD signals typical of chlorophyll-chlorophyll interactions. The lower energy absorption form (686 nm at 100K, 688 nm at room temperature), which is responsible for the red-shifted emission components at 690 and 701 nm, typical of Lhca1, is associated with a chlorophyll a/chlorophyll a excitonic interaction originating from a pigment cluster localized in the protein domain situated between helix C and the helix A/helix B cross. This cluster includes chlorophylls bound to sites A5-B5-B6 and a xanthophyll bound to site L2.  (+info)

The chloroplast Deg1 protein performs proteolytic cleavage of the photodamaged D1 protein of the photosystem II (PSII) reaction center, PSII extrinsic subunit PsbO and the soluble electron carrier plastocyanin. Using biochemical, immunological and mass spectrometry approaches we showed that the hete …
Principal nameLHCB4 antibodyAlternative names for LHCB4 antibodyChlorophyll a-b binding protein CP29, Lhcbm4SwissProt IDP27497 (Maize),…
A correlation plot is included for each stream. The index on the axis of the correlation plot can be directly matched to the Index label in the table for each stream. Red ...
One could envisage a split into a mDST line and a DST line. Part of the use case is to study GECs. For that the Rec summary is enough ...
Quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations were employed so as to determine the most stable structures of protonated forms of Pheophytin-a (Pheo) dianion in DMF. The protonated forms include PheoH and PheoH(2). Electrostatic potential-derived charges (ESP charges) employing the CHelpG scheme were obtained for Pheo(2-) and for possible blue and red forms of PheoH(-) by ROB3LYP methodology using 6-31 G(d) basis. The ESP charges and the most stable structures obtained by QM/MM calculations provide a clue to the probable site of protonation in Pheo(2-) and PheoH(-). A total of 18 different possible structures were investigated. From these calculations, we identify the structures of the blue and red forms of PheoH and PheoH(2). Furthermore, density functional treatment (DFT) along with dielectric ;polarizable continuum model (DPCM) calculations using 6-311+G(2d,2p) basis were done to determine the absolute free energy of reduction of Pheo to PheoH and PheoH2 in DMF. The calculated ...
by Pei 21, 22, 23 June, 13h - 15h Oneliner:Hands on to the interplay of time and temperture, prepare the ground for some bacteria to do the work, we make Kimchi. Description: Kimchi is a very popular fermented pickle in Asian societies nowadays. In the western world, Kimchi is commonly refers to baechu kimchi - napa cabbage pickle known in Korea. The intricacy of flavour of Kimchi is done by the act of good bateria (meaning that we human like it). Fermented foods are the everyday diy bio art which have been practicing in many different societies in the world. The rather modern red form of Korean Kimchi processed with chilli flake was only came about some 500 yrs ago when chilli first traded to Korea. In this open workshop, anyone, the participants are invited to join one or all of three blocks of Kimchi making in different stages, getting to know and/or experiment various of available vegetable (to replace Chinese Cabbage), fruit (to replace apple & pear), herbs (to replace ginger). But yes, ...
Dendra2 is an ideal tool for real-time tracking protein dynamics (movement, degradation, etc.) and monitoring selective cell fate. Once it is irreversibly switched to its red form, Dendra2 is highly photostable.
Dendra2 is an ideal tool for real-time tracking protein dynamics (movement, degradation, etc.) and monitoring selective cell fate. Once it is irreversibly switched to its red form, Dendra2 is highly photostable.
Photosystem I light harvesting complex gene 5; The light-harvesting complex (LHC) functions as a light receptor, it captures and delivers excitation energy to photosystems with which it is closely associated (PubMed-15563470, PubMed-21806943). Seems involved in the function of the photosystem I in low light conditions, when other LHCA proteins are less abundant (PubMed-15356385). Required, together with LHCA6, for the formation of a full-size NAD(P)H dehydrogenase- photosystem I supercomplex (NDH-PSI) that triggers cyclic and chlororespiratory electron transport in chloroplast thylakoi [...] (256 aa ...
It is normally a blue-black solid. It can be red but the red form is more unstable. It burns in air with a green flame to make tin(IV) oxide. It is a reducing agent. It is rarer than tin(IV) oxide. It dissolves in acids to make a colorless solution. ...
2. If this is your first time logging on you will find your initial password at the top of your reporting form otherwise use your established password. 2. For qualitative results do not enter anything in the result fields other than the numeric codes listed on the forms. Characters such as + - n p pos neg will not be recognized and results will not be processed.. 3. Most method codes do not have to be entered if we have your codes on file from the previous reporting period. If you did not submit results for the previous shipment then you will have to reenter your method codes. Please see the Method Data Sheet for the codes we have on file for your lab.. 4. Please enter the less than (,) and greater than (,) signs when necessary in the result field along with your lowest or highest reportable range.. 5. Decimal points should be entered in the same place shown on the red reporting form. For example: If the field for reporting results on the red form has a box, a decimal point and three more ...
The researchers discovered that the low-oxygen conditions activate a transcription factor called hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha. This factor is sufficient to drive mouse embryonic stem cells to rely exclusively on glucose metabolism for their energy. The next challenge is to reveal whether the metabolic switch is deterministic for the fate of these stem cells, in normal as well as in cancer development ...
New research from the Weizmann Institute of Science published in Cell Reports and recently reported in The Times of Israel, indicates that oxygen starvation could toughen up immune T cells for cancer immunotherapy.. So it is not just mountain climbers and endurance athletes that can benefit from altitude training by learning to perform well under low-oxygen conditions. These cancer-fighting cells of the immune system can also improve their performance through a cellular version of such a regimen.. Harnessing the immune system to battle malignancy - an approach known as cancer immunotherapy - has already started saving the lives of cancer patients in the past few years. In one major version of this approach, killer T cells are removed from the patients blood, grown in a laboratory dish and adapted to identifying and destroying cancerous cells; they are then returned to the patients bloodstream. This method has so far worked best against certain leukemias and lymphomas, but not against solid ...
A method and system are provided for testing antenna systems using position determination, orientation determination, test pattern analysis using a variety of factors and equipment including positions and orientation of antenna(s) under test at specific points and signal processing systems.
gbrumfiel writes The Large Hadron Collider is just getting ready for its next big science run. One thing researchers hope it will find is evidence for supersymmetry, a theory that could help to unify fundamental forces and explain mysterious dark matter. But as Nature reports this week, the LHC has...
If a patient is having a LHC with coronary angio and LV gram, would you code any different than 93458/26 for a hand injected LV gram to conserve contr
The Bradford assay, a colorimetric protein assay, is based on an absorbance shift of the dye Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250. The Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 dye exists in three forms: anionic (blue), neutral (green), and cationic (red).[3] Under acidic conditions, the red form of the dye is converted into its blue form, binding to the protein being assayed. If theres no protein to bind, then the solution will remain brown. The dye forms a strong, noncovalent complex with the proteins carboxyl group by van der Waals force and amino group through electrostatic interactions.[1] During the formation of this complex, the red form of Coomassie dye first donates its free electron to the ionizable groups on the protein, which causes a disruption of the proteins native state, consequently exposing its hydrophobic pockets. These pockets in the proteins tertiary structure bind non-covalently to the non-polar region of the dye via the first bond interaction (van der Waals forces) which position the ...
The chlorophyll-binding subunits of photosystems I and II are internal antenna light-harvesting proteins of oxygenic photosynthesis. The antenna proteins that exist in phycobilisomes in cyanobacteria and light-harvesting chlorophyll protein complexes in green plants act as peripheral antenna systems, enabling more efficient absorption of light energy ...
The principal mineral reds owe their colour to oxides of iron and to compounds of mercury. The reds due to iron are closely allied to the yellow ochres and other ferruginous pigments. As already explained in connexion with these yellows, tints passing through orange to deep purple reds are obtained by calcination of yellow hydrated ferric oxide, and in this way a great variety of ruddy and red tints are prepared. The proportion of ferric oxide in these compounds ranges from pure oxide to combinations in natural ochres containing not more than 2 or 3 per cent, of iron. Rouge or Mars Red, Crocus, Indian Red, and Turkey Red are all pure ferric oxide, varying in depth of tint from having undergone different degrees of calcination, or from being made from different artificial or natural sources. The other iron reds are all of the nature of ochres some of them, such as Venetian Red, being artificial compounds. These reds form exceedingly useful durable colours which do not injuri-ously affect the ...
An extendable and retractable antenna installed on a body housing of a portable radio apparatus includes a helical antenna having an antenna cap protruding from a top portion of the body housing, a helical winding disposed within the antenna cap, a rod antenna extending through the antenna cap, and a feeder disposed at a bottom portion of the helical antenna. The helical antenna is operated when the antenna is retracted. The rod antenna is insulated from the helical antenna when retracted, and passes through the helical antenna to protrude from the body housing when extended. The feeder operates the rod antenna when the rod antenna is extended and operates the helical antenna when the rod antenna is retracted.
Oxygen-its a basic necessity for animal life. But marine biologists recently discovered large schools of fishes living in the dark depths of the Gulf of California where there is virtually no oxygen. Using an underwater robot, the scientists observed these fishes thriving in low-oxygen conditions that would be deadly to most other fish. This discovery could help scientists understand how other marine animals might cope with ongoing changes in the chemistry of the ocean.
Reduces the stability of FtsZ polymers in the presence of ATP. Required for cell division under low-oxygen conditions. Hydrolyzes ATP but not GTP.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Overcome wireless concerns such as coverage and capacity with the right system (DAS) products and correct placement within your building.
Painting material and products for restoration. Basic of Chemistry. Pigments Binding Media Solvents Solutions Cleaning Agents Varnishes Adhesives and more
AAP - Automated Antenna Positioning. Looking for abbreviations of AAP? It is Automated Antenna Positioning. Automated Antenna Positioning listed as AAP
Research has shown that some bacteria, including P. aeruginosa, have evolved different strategies to respond to and cope with the low-oxygen conditions in biofilms. Communities of bacteria can, for example, change the overall structure of the biofilm so that its surface area-to-volume ratio is higher and a larger proportion of the cells inside are able to access the oxygen on the outside. P. aeruginosa can also make molecules called phenazines, which help to shuttle electrons from the inside to the outside of the cell and ultimately to oxygen available at a distance ...
One of the first signs that the visceral fat of an obese person is startng to cause disruptions in the abdominal organs, is inflammation. Long-term, excessive visceral fats create a low-oxygen condition that triggers inflammation. An example of how an inflamed, low-level oxygen condition will cause further disruptions is its impact on the insulin hormone produced by the pancreas. It is well understood that insulin performs the function of controlling glucose levels.. If the normal amount of insulin produced fails to control glucose levels, the pancreas will produce more in order to prevent high levels of glucose that could lead to Type 2 diabetes. In the meantime, the excess insulin will trigger the production of more cells, which subsequently results in more damaged cells that could form into a cancerous tumor.. Basically, that is how visceral fat affects the vital organs, to which the end results are damaged cells. If the health disease caused by visceral fats is left unchecked and treated, ...
An ablation treatment apparatus has a multiple antenna device with a primary antenna and a secondary antenna. The secondary antenna is positioned in a lumen of the primary antenna as the primary antenna is introduced through tissue to a selected tissue site. At the tissue site the secondary antenna is deployed from the primary antenna in a lateral direction relative to a longitudinal axis of the primary antenna. At least a portion of a distal end of the secondary antenna is structurally less rigid than the primary antenna. The primary antenna is constructed to be rigid enough to be introduced and advanced through tissue. A cable couples the energy source to one or more of the antennas.
low energy - MedHelps low energy Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for low energy. Find low energy information, treatments for low energy and low energy symptoms.
The inert two-Higgs-doublet model (i2HDM) is a theoretically well-motivated example of a minimal consistent dark matter (DM) model which provides monojet, mono-Z, mono-Higgs, and vector-boson-fusion+ETmiss signatures at the LHC, complemented by signals in direct and indirect DM search experiments. In this paper we have performed a detailed analysis of the constraints in the full five-dimensional parameter space of the i2HDM, coming from perturbativity, unitarity, electroweak precision data, Higgs data from the LHC, DM relic density, direct/indirect DM detection, and LHC monojet analysis, as well as implications of experimental LHC studies on disappearing charged tracks relevant to a high DM mass region. We demonstrate the complementarity of the above constraints and present projections for future LHC data and direct DM detection experiments to probe further i2HDM parameter space. The model is implemented into the CalcHEP and micrOMEGAs packages, which are publicly available at the HEPMDB ...
The Karkina Antenna is a Resource extracted from Karkina, oceanic crustaceans found near coastlines around Cetus. Karkina Antennae are acquired by cutting up Karkina caught through Fishing. Go to Fisher Hai-Luk in Cetus, select the desired amount of Karkina available, and select the "Cut Bait...
The robot-based antenna calibration service provide absolute calibration of GNSS ground and satellite antenna for the complete 0-90° elevation and 0-360°
LHC commissioning progress, Sudden beam losses, QFB feed forward, Status of the beam dumping system, Luminosity optimisation, Updates on magnetic model and snapback at 10A/s, LHC 2010 schedule towards 1e32 ...
I sort of remember my electronics theroy on SWR and the importance of having an antenna length in specific divisions of the wavelength, from eons ago....
Photosynthesis in higher plants relies upon collection of light by chlorophyll molecules associated with light harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding (LHC) proteins. The two most abundant of these are Lhcb1 and Lhcb2, which make up light harvesting complex (LHC) II trimers. They are also involved in facilitating state transitions, a process during which energy balancing between photosystem (PS) II and I is achieved. Overexcitation of PSII reduces the plastoquinone pool which activates STN7, a kinase, that phosphorylates a threonine residue on Lhcb1 and Lhcb2. In order to studythe kinetics of this we developed antibodies capable of recognizingphosphorylated forms of each of these proteins. This showed that Lhcb2 is more rapidly phosphorylated than Lhcb1, that there are no differences in the migration of phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms of Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 and that the majority of phosphorylated LHCII (P-Lhcb1 and PLhcb2) are associated with super- and megacomplexes. Furthermore, a state ...
Writer: Steve Byrns, 325-653-4576, [email protected] SAN ANTONIO - Theyre baack! And after a two-year hiatus, red katydids have returned by the millions to torment Central Texans with their incessant racket and voracious appetite for oak leaves and other desirable plants.. This is the worst outbreak Ive ever seen, said Molly Keck, Texas AgriLife Extension Service integrated pest management specialist for Bexar County. Our office is being inundated with calls from folks wanting to know if the insects will kill their trees, what can be done to stop them and how long this will last.. Keck said red katydids, Paracyrtophyllus robustus or Central Texas leaf katydid, can damage landscape and pasture plants through defoliation when numbers are as high as they are now, though the damage they inflict is usually not long-term. Most of the time the katydids are green, but during outbreak years, the red form is predominant.. They are a tree-dwelling insect that prefer oaks, Keck said. They have ...
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© Matt Strassler [Dec. 4, 2014] In this article, well see how things can go wrong with the trigger system at experiments like ATLAS and CMS at the Large Hadron Collider [LHC], and also how one can work around the associated challenges. Specifically, well look at Higgs particles decaying to unknown long-lived particles, and how…
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5 untranslated leader of chlorophyll a/b-binding protein. #101901. 0.06 Kb ... ALS gene (SuRB), coding for a mutant acetolactate synthase protein (ALS), derived from Nicotiana tabacum. Expression of the ...
... including the first accurate retrievals of chlorophyll fluorescence from space as an indicator of photosynthetic activity. ... Figure 1. Arrays of chlorophyll molecules bound to protein absorb and process solar photons in plant leaves. A variable ... Chlorophyll fluorescence has been used in laboratory-scale studies of photosynthesis for several decades.1 Chlorophyll ... A phenomenon known as quantum coherence delocalizes the absorbed photon (exciton) among all the chlorophyll molecules2 in the ...
A Pigment-binding Protein Essential for Regulation of Photosynthetic Light Harvesting." Nature 403 ; (January 2000): 391-395. ... Halobacteria are unique in that they perform photosynthesis without chlorophyll. Instead, their photosynthetic pigments are ... bound to a protein. Irradiation of these pigments causes a structural change in their retinal, referred to as ... Biological molecule, usually a protein, which promotes a biochemical reaction but is not consumed by the reaction. ...
The transcript also contains a wheat 5 untranslated leader from chlorophyll a/b-binding protein and Oryza sativa actin 1 ... untranslated region of the chlorophyll a/b-binding protein (cab) and a rice actin 1 intron before transcribing cry1A.105. ... Two insecticidal protein expression cassettes were inserted into the genome. Bacillus thuringiensis cry1A.105 expression is ... Transcription of the cry3Bb1 is under control of the Z. mays physical impedance induced protein promoter and Triticum aestivum ...
Chlorophyll has been used as a form for medicinal purposes. [citation needed], Chlorophyll itself is bound to proteins and can ... The Chemical Structure of Chlorophyll a. * Chlorophyll pigments are bound by proteins that hold them in the right position. ... Gitelson also developed a formula for direct readout of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll itself is bound proteins. Transfer chain ) ... 1] Two types of chlorophyll exist in the photosystems of green plants: chlorophyll a and b. Bernhard Grimm. Four binding sites ...
"Thermally Activated Superradiance and Intersystem Crossing in the Water-Soluble Chlorophyll Binding Protein". J. Phys. Chem. B ... Application to Water-Soluble Chlorophyll-Binding Protein",. Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 178104 (2012).. ... "Refinement of a Structural Model of a Pigment-Protein Complex by Accurate Optical Line Shape Theory and Experiments",. J. Phys ... "On the Distance Dependent Electron Transfer Rate of Immobilized Redox Proteins - A Statistical Physics Approach",. Phys. Rev. E ...
... light-harvesting chlorophyll-binding proteins) through the chloroplasts and their integration into the thylakoid membranes. In ... The fact that so-called chlorophyll biosynthesis works smoothly even in the presence of heat is due to a certain helper protein ... Photosynthesis even at high temperatures: helper protein ensures the formation of chlorophyll. ... Photosynthesis even at high temperatures: helper protein ensures the formation of chlorophyll. ...
These genes were those involved in calcium signalling and the important calcium-binding protein calmodulin , calcium being an ... Magnesium is found at the centre of each chlorophyll molecule like iron is found at the centre of haemoglobin in the blood. ... Taste operates like smell with chemicals locking onto particular proteins - like sodium binding to the salt receptor and ... proteins on the outside of the cell that bind and transport each of the macro- and micronutrients into the roots. In humans ...
... articles to which chlorophyll-binding first Cookies are presented together delivered). & regulating clinical ads contain ... If you use at an measure or Other lack, you can be the protein method to run a albumin across the protein improving for ... protein To the fully rapid the Countess Of Shaftesbury, With a Prologue and Epilogue On Shakespeare and His markers. bottom To ... A cholesterol sieving protein sample( 50 000 Da) and MgCl2 at studies introduced to be decrease as applied by comparison of ...
What is the timbre of the song dandansoy? The binding protein for PSII is much smaller than that … The photosynthetic pigments ... PS 1 contains chlorophyll B, chlorophyll A-670, Chlorophyll A-680, chlorophyll A-695, chlorophyll A-700 and carotenoids. In ... A wireless router the moon last of chlorophyll molecules ) chlorophyll A-695, chlorophyll A-695, chlorophyll A-700 and.! Bonds ... chlorophyll A-670, chlorophyll A-670, chlorophyll,! More complex happens when layers of rocks-Whats the correct statement ...
the conserved binding sites (upstream/downstream,intron). Create. *...a custom phylogenetic tree using this gene as seed. ... chlorophyll catabolic process. GO:0042742. IEA. PLAZA Integrative Orthology. defense response to bacterium. AT1G19670 ... BLAST hits against NCBIs protein database.. *...all colinear gene pairs.. Browse. *...the gene in IGV.js, a genome browser ...
Dephosphorylation of a major sperm membrane protein is induced by egg jelly during sea urchin fertilization Gary E. Ward and ... Mn2+ and Co2+ toxicity in chlorophyll biosynthesis K. Csatorday, Z. Gombos, and B. Szalontai ... Tubulins from different higher plant species are immunologically nonidentical and bind colchicine differentially Louis C. ...
The protein expression levels of tight junction-related proteins including zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1) and occludin, adheren ... A yeast one-hybrid assay indicated that FtWRKY46 could bind to a W-box and activate reporter gene expression. Similarly, ... More specifically, the seed germination rate, root length, chlorophyll content and proline content were significantly higher in ... Minichromosome maintenance protein 5 (MCM5), a member of the microchromosomal maintenance protein family, plays an important ...
Metabolism Transport and binding proteins Carbohydrates, organic alcohols, and acids tricarboxylate carrier (TIGR00798; HMM- ... Metabolism Biosynthesis of cofactors, prosthetic groups, and carriers Chlorophyll and bacteriochlorphyll light-dependent ... 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase (3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + NADP+ = 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein ... NAD_binding_10; NAD(P)H-binding (PF13460; HMM-score: 13.3) no clan defined SPOR; Sporulation related domain (PF05036; HMM-score ...
Binding of drugs to plasma proteins of swine during the perinatal period. Short, C. R. & Tumbleson, M. E., Apr 1973, In: ... Assignments in the Natural-Abundance Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrum of Chlorophyll a and a Study of Segmental ... CARBON‐13 FOURIER TRANSFORM NMR STUDIES IN 20 mm SAMPLE TUBES: OBSERVATION OF INDIVIDUAL CARBON SITES IN PROTEINS. Allerhand, A ...
High in protein and fibre, one serving also packs in over a third of your recommended daily intake of iron. International ... It is rich in chlorophyll, vitamin C as well as minerals like calcium and manganese. USDA ORGANIC, RAW, VEGAN, NON-GMO: Iyasa ... Organic wheatgrass powder is all natural whole leaf organic wheatgrass bound into a perfect powder. Wheatgrass & Seed Fusion ... As easy as mixing 1/4 tsp of the highest quality most plants, Wheatgrass contains chlorophyll, vitamin as... Soy, Corn free its ...
Examples of CDOM include tannins (polyphenols that bind to proteins and other large molecules) or lignins (polymers of phenolic ... fluorometric_chlorophyll_a (µg L-1) != =~ ,= ,= = , , != =~ ,= ,= = , , 0.26. 11.336. measurement_wavelength_cdom (nm) != =~ ... fluorometric_chlorophyll_a_qc_results != =~ ,= ,= = , , != =~ ,= ,= = , , 25. 29. fluorometric_cdom (CDOM Concentration, ppb) ... fluorometric_chlorophyll_a_qc_executed != =~ ,= ,= = , , != =~ ,= ,= = , , 29. 29. seawater_scattering_coefficient (m-1) != =~ ...
The equation leaves out the need for chlorophyll in the process, but, as chlorophyll is neither created, nor consumed in the ... The Carbon molecules bind with each other and spare hydrogens from the NADPH to form three carbon chains. The NADPH, upon ... As the electron passes through the proteins, it gradually loses energy. This lost energy is used to create ATP from ADP. ATP is ... When one of these is absorbed by a chlorophyll molecule, it causes the molecule to release an electron. The chlorophyll ...
They trigger numerous chemical reactions that involve chlorophyll, enzymes and other proteins to split water molecules into ... has binding! From the sun is converted into stable chemical energy process as a waste product chemical called chlorophyll ... Chlorophyll gives plants their green colour. We made a jelly model of plant cell to learn about organelles and plant cell ... It is chlorophyll which gives plants their green colour. Photosynthesis is so important to life that almost all living ...
Examples of CDOM include tannins (polyphenols that bind to proteins and other large molecules) or lignins (polymers of phenolic ... Chlorophyll-a Concentration; Int32 precision 6; String standard_name mass_concentration_of_chlorophyll_a_in_sea_water; ... Chlorophyll-a concentrations can be used as a proxy for phytoplankton biomass as it is a dominant photosynthetic pigment.; ... The fluorometer emits light at a specific wavelength that is absorbed by chlorophyll and re-emitted as light at a different ...
Known as a detoxifying supplement, chlorella, like spirulina, is also a rich source of chlorophyll, protein, iron, magnesium, ... Pyrroloquinoline quinone-doped polymeric nanospheres as sensitive tracer for binding assays. Biopqq is an innovative way to ... The most abundant protein found in your body is collagen, which plays a vital role in providing support and elasticity to ... B vitamins support protein, fat, and carbohydrate metabolism, help you stay energized, and supports mental alertness and mood. ...
This hormone binds itself to the follicles and causes them to go into a dormant state. So these ingredients in the supplement ... The first one is a daily supplement that contains amino acids, proteins, nutrients, herbal extracts and enzymes. One of the ... Chlorophyll (30 milligrams).This ingredient is known to be effective in stimulating new hair growth. ... Biotin (40 mcg). This vitamin is beneficial for hair since it helps to increase keratin (protein that makes up hair). ...
This hormone binds itself to the follicles and causes them to go into a dormant state. So these ingredients in the supplement ... The first one is a daily supplement that contains amino acids, proteins, nutrients, herbal extracts and enzymes. One of the ... Chlorophyll (30 milligrams).This ingredient is known to be effective in stimulating new hair growth. ...
the conserved binding sites (upstream/downstream,intron). Create. *...a custom phylogenetic tree using this gene as seed. ... chlorophyll catabolic process. GO:0042742. IEA. PLAZA Integrative Orthology. defense response to bacterium. AT1G19670 ... BLAST hits against NCBIs protein database.. *...all colinear gene pairs.. Browse. *...the gene in IGV.js, a genome browser ...
Recovery Warmax Protein Power Protein LIV Raw Incredible Isolate Incredible Whey MiCasein HerbFast Wheylo Power Active Renuris ... Chlorella has been shown to aid in detoxification by binding to heavy metals like lead and cadmium in our body. ... Chlorella is rich in carotenoids, chlorophyll, vitamins, minerals and omega 3 fatty acids. The most abundant carotenoids ... Spirulina is one of the richest sources of plant-based proteins. It is a complete protein containing all nine essential amino ...
The very first advantage of chlorophyll is sugar, produced via the procedure for ATP thats driven by chlorophyll. ... The molecule it binds is called the ligand.. Within this lesson, youll get to find out more about these compounds and gain a ... The set of proteins that transfer energy from light and channel it in the synthesis of sugars are called photosystems. From ... The instance of binding occurs over an infinitesimal array of time and space, or so the rate constant is normally a tiny number ...
Brix+ contains a blend of compounds that bind to a series of enzymes to speed up the plant metabolism and to allow the ... These are the building blocks of protein, they enhance the levels of terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids and essential oils. ... Triacontanol has been proven to stimulate photosynthesis, increase chlorophyll content, increase cell density and increase ...
When a ligand binds to its cognate receptor, a conformational change occurs ("activation") that changes the protein-protein ... Phytanic acid, a branched chain fatty acid derived from chlorophyll has also been reported to activate RXR albeit weakly. ... What makes the protein druggable is the fact that a domain on this protein responds to small chemicals including intracellular ... In particular, PPARα regulates fatty acid transport, fatty acid binding proteins, fatty acyl CoA synthesis, microsomal, ...
... therefore it is unable to bind and gets inserted into the layers of clay particles disrupting their binding forces and leading ... For some C4 plants Na+ has also been reported to take part in the chlorophyll formation and involved in the nitrate reductase ... Low leakage of Na+ from the vacuole is attributed to the high phospholipid to protein ratio of the tonoplast (Leach et al., ... Na exists as a monovalent cation in the soil solution and have less tendency than the divalent cations to bind to the exchange ...
Legumes, grains, nuts and seeds contain various levels of phytic acid which binds to minerals and reduces their absorption into ... Contains an array of Phytonutrients, Carotenoids and Chlorophyll *Sugar Free. *Sweetened with organic Stevia Extract and Lo Han ... Pea Protein, Rice Protein, Hemp Protein, Sacha Inchi Powder, Ground Chia Seed, Quinoa Flour (Kosher), Arabic Gum Powder (Kosher ... Protein is a critical macronutrient that should be consumed regularly as part of a healthy diet. There are protein molecules in ...
  • The first committed step of chlorophyll a biosynthesis is the insertion of a Mg 2+ ion into the tetrapyrrole intermediate protoporphyrin IX, catalyzed by Mg-chelatase. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although a large proportion of newly synthesized chlorophyll a is associated with PS I, the assembly of PS II and chlorophyll biosynthesis are synchronized ( He and Vermaas, 1998 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Protochlorophyllide reductase catalyzes the reductive formation of chlorophyllide from protochlorophyllide during biosynthesis of chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Chlorophyllide, the last precursor of chlorophyll biosynthesis, is most likely not an intermediate of breakdown. (plantcell.org)
  • Billions of tons of chlorophylls are synthesized annually, yet full understanding of chlorophyll biosynthesis has been hindered by the lack of characterization of the Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester oxidative cyclase step, which confers the distinctive green color of these pigments. (sciencemag.org)
  • The transcript levels of genes expressing proteins of chlorophyll biosynthesis and chlorophyll-binding proteins were down-regulated in response to reduced CHLG expression. (springer.com)
  • Beale SI (1999) Enzymes of chlorophyll biosynthesis. (springer.com)
  • To investigate this hypothesis we have developed an in-vitro biosynthesis of 14C Aminolevulinate from 14C Glycine, allowing sufficiently strong in-vivo radiolabeling of chlorophyll for visualization of chlorophyll/protein complexes in native green gels. (usda.gov)
  • In our recent study, we demonstrated that the RNA-binding protein, FCA, is critical for sustaining chlorophyll biosynthesis during early seedling development, which is a prerequisite for autotrophic transition at warm temperatures. (nih.gov)
  • It inhibits the rapid degradation of protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases (PORs) that mediate chlorophyll biosynthesis. (nih.gov)
  • Our findings provide molecular basis for the thermal adaptation of chlorophyll biosynthesis during the early stages of seedling development in nature. (nih.gov)
  • POR abundance is maintained by FCA at warm temperatures, which leads to light-induced chlorophyll biosynthesis, while suppressing ROS production. (nih.gov)
  • Developing a basic understanding of membrane protein biosynthesis, trafficking, insertion, folding, and assembly continues to attract considerable attention [ 2 - 7 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • This project will investigate the molecular mechanisms of biosynthesis of red-shifted chlorophylls, which includes the biochemical steps leading to the formation of red-shifted chlorophylls (Chl d and Chl f), including the enzymes and genetic structures and the regulation of these steps. (edu.au)
  • Pheophorbide a and protoporphyrin are structurally related and belong to the porphyrins, a broad class of molecules that include the "pigments of life": chlorophyll, heme, and cobalamin ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • The antenna complex is a light-harvesting membrane-associated aggregate of proteins and photosensitive pigments such as chlorophyll and carotenoids. (nature.com)
  • LHC-II is the most abundant of these complexes in thylakoid membranes, and consists of pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids) which are bound to chlorophyll-binding proteins (CBPs). (beds.ac.uk)
  • The different pigments in a leaf are bound to different proteins. (bio-medicine.org)
  • This review introduces to the method of in vitro reconstitution of pigment-protein complexes of higher plants, a technique which allows for the assembly of functional antenna proteins starting from free pigments and bacterially-expressed apoprotein. (springer.com)
  • The hydrophobic parts of proteins and lipid-soluble cofactors and pigments are dissolved or embedded in the lipid bilayer. (britannica.com)
  • Most of these chlorophyll-proteins are "light-harvesting" pigments. (britannica.com)
  • The distribution of xanthophyll cycle pigments (violaxanthin plus antheraxanthin plus zeaxanthin [VAZ]) among photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes was examined in Vinca major before, during, and subsequent to a photoinhibitory treatment at low temperature. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The data suggest that the photoinhibitory treatment caused an enrichment in VAZ bound to the minor CPs caused by de novo synthesis of the pigments and/or a redistribution of VAZ from the major LHCII complex. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Although several studies have been conducted to examine the distribution of the xanthophyll cycle pigments among pigment-protein complexes isolated from unstressed leaves, very little is know about their distribution under photoinhibitory conditions when the rate of Z epoxidation is severely slowed following leaf darkening. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Both pigments fulfill different jobs during photosynthesis and are therefore bound very selectively by the proteins of the photosynthesis apparatus in plants. (phys.org)
  • Heme is a cofactor for respiratory proteins, and it is also converted into bilins, linear tetrapyrroles that are used as light-harvesting pigments in cyanobacteria. (sciencemag.org)
  • Chlorophylls are the essential pigments for photosynthesis. (edu.au)
  • Both tasks require pigments-chlorophylls and carotenoids-which absorb light energy and either transfer it to photosystems or disperse it as heat. (sciencemag.org)
  • The structure reveals the arrangement of the specialized photosynthetic pigments in this light-harvesting protein. (sciencemag.org)
  • The grana contain the chlorophyll pigments & are the sites of light reactions during photosynthesis. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Although these antenna proteins have differentiated sequences and bind different pigments, results suggest that in all members of the LHC superfamily there is a protein core with a conserved structural organization, represented by two central carotenoids surrounded by five chlorophyll a molecules, which plays a fundamental photoprotective role in Chl triplet quenching through carotenoid triplet formation. (chemweb.com)
  • Binds at least 14 chlorophylls (8 Chl-a and 6 Chl-b) and carotenoids such as lutein and neoxanthin. (uniprot.org)
  • In order to find out the concentration I put a pigment mixture (chlorophyll a and b, and carotenoids) into a UV/Vis spectrophotometer. (thescienceforum.com)
  • Contains chlorophyll, phylloquinones, carotenoids and [4Fe-4S] clusters. (cathdb.info)
  • FCPs are related to the light-harvesting complexes of plants but have more binding sites for carotenoids and fewer for chlorophylls, which may help transfer and disperse light energy. (sciencemag.org)
  • Each monomeric LHC-II protein binds 14 chlorophyll molecules. (thescienceforum.com)
  • It should be possible to work out the overall copy number of chlorophyll molecules in the solution using Avogadro's constant. (thescienceforum.com)
  • Photosynthesis in higher plants relies upon collection of light by chlorophyll molecules associated with light harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding (LHC) proteins. (diva-portal.org)
  • The availability of these mutants is of particular importance for determining the precise position of absorption bands for the different chlorophyll molecules, as well as the sequence of energy transfer events that occur within LHC complexes, provided that the structural impact of each mutation is precisely evaluated. (univr.it)
  • Using resonance Raman spectroscopy, we have characterized the pigment-protein interactions in the minor photosystem II antenna protein, Lhcb4 (CP29), in which each of three of the four central chlorophyll a molecules has been removed by such mutations. (univr.it)
  • The chlorophyll molecules are specifically bound to small protein molecules. (britannica.com)
  • These absorb light and pass its energy on to special chlorophyll a molecules that are directly involved in the conversion of light energy to chemical energy. (britannica.com)
  • When one of these special chlorophyll a molecules is excited by light energy (as described later), it gives up an electron. (britannica.com)
  • Light harvesting is the collection of solar energy by protein-bound chlorophyll molecules. (eurekalert.org)
  • This cause electrons to accumulate on chlorophyll molecules. (toxipedia.org)
  • In this work, isolated VCP proteins have been studied by means of advanced EPR techniques in order to prove the presence of the photoprotective mechanism based on the triplet-triplet energy transfer (TTET), occurring between chlorophyll and carotenoid molecules. (chemweb.com)
  • Arabidopsis thaliana plants lacking only Lhcb2 contain thylakoid protein complexes similar to wild-type plants, where Lhcb2 has been replaced by Lhcb1. (diva-portal.org)
  • Moreover, the biogenesis of chlorophyll-protein complexes with a 77K chlorophyll fluorescence emission maximum at 685 mm was delayed by several hours in this mutant whereas the rate of biogenesis of photosystem II was not significantly affected. (ovid.com)
  • Factors determining the fluorescence yield of fucoxanthin-chlorophyll complexes (FCP) involved in non-photochemical quenching in diatoms. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The monomeric photosystem I-complex of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum binds specific fucoxanthin chlorophyll proteins (FCPs) as light-harvesting complexes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Chlorophylls, ligands and assembly of light-harvesting complexes in chloroplasts. (nih.gov)
  • Mutant proteins from light-harvesting complexes of higher plants may be obtained by expressing modified apoproteins in Escherichia coli, and reconstituting them in the presence of chlorophyll and carotenoid cofactors. (univr.it)
  • Site-directed mutagenesis of chlorophyll-binding residues of recombinant complexes provided an important contribution to the field of photosynthesis by allowing the identification of the transition energy levels of individual chromophores. (springer.com)
  • Four pigment-protein complexes were isolated: the core of photosystem (PS) II, the major light-harvesting complex (LHC) protein of PSII (LHCII), the minor light-harvesting proteins (CPs) of PSII (CP29, CP26, and CP24), and PSI with its LHC proteins (PSI-LHCI). (plantphysiol.org)
  • In isolated thylakoids 80% of VAZ was bound to protein independently of the de-epoxidation state and was found in all complexes. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The extent of de-epoxidation of VAZ in high light and the rate of reconversion of Z plus A to V following 2.5 h of recovery were greatest in the free-pigment fraction and varied among the pigment-protein complexes. (plantphysiol.org)
  • To influence Chl fluorescence yield xanthophylls must be localized in close proximity to the pigment-protein complexes of the thylakoid membrane, and knowledge of their precise organization is important to understand the mechanism of (Z plus A)-dependent energy dissipation. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The major goal of this study was to assess whether changes occur in the levels or distribution of VAZ in the pigment-protein complexes when plants are treated with such photoinhibitory high light, as well as whether differences exist in the rate at which Z and A are reconverted to V on the different pigment-proteins during the slow recovery from photoinhibition. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Exposure of plants with LHC complexes containing labeled chlorophyll to high light conditions results in redistribution of some of this label to other thylakoid complexes, and may result in the formation of high molecular weight complexes. (usda.gov)
  • We exploit the relative simplicity of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacteria) or unicellular algae to study the light-harvesting systems, natural variation of the light-harvesting strategy, energy transfer and the function/structure of the pigment-protein complexes involved in these processes. (edu.au)
  • The photosynthetic reactions take place within the membrane-bound pigment-protein complexes, light harvesting systems and reaction centre systems. (edu.au)
  • The approaches for this proposed project will include - methods for isolation of photosynthetic membranes and pigment-protein complexes by centrifugation, spectroscopic methods for probing the energy transfer pathways and liquid chromatographic methods for determining pigment compositions. (edu.au)
  • The approaches for this proposal will include - setting-up cyanobacterial cultures under different environments, pigmentation analysis (spectrophotometer and HPLC), pigment-protein complexes isolation technology and physical and biochemical characterisation. (edu.au)
  • Chromatographic anaylsis such as HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography), FPLC (Fast protein liquid chromatography), gel filtration and ion-exchanging columns for proteins and protein-complexes purification. (edu.au)
  • It has been proposed that the appearance of a PCP-specific 77 K fluorescence emission band around 672-675 nm indicates that high light treatment results in PCP dissociation from intrinsic membrane antenna complexes, blocking excitation transfer to the intrinsic membrane-bound antenna complexes, chlorophyll a -chlorophyll c 2 -peridinin-protein-complex (acpPC) and associated photosystems (Reynolds et al. (chemweb.com)
  • Structural Mechanism Underlying the Specific Recognition between the Arabidopsis State-Transition Phosphatase TAP38/PPH1 and Phosphorylated Light-Harvesting Complex Protein Lhcb1. (expasy.org)
  • Using biochemical, immunological and mass spectrometry approaches we showed that the heterogeneously expressed Deg1 protease from Arabidopsis thaliana can be responsible for the degradation of the monomeric light-harvesting complex antenna subunits of PSII (LHCII), CP26 and CP29, as well as PSII-associated PsbS (CP22/NPQ4) protein. (nih.gov)
  • The composition of LHCII trimers as well as excitation energy transfer and charge separation in grana cores of Arabidopsis thaliana mutant lacking chlorophyll a/b binding protein Lhcb3 have been investigated and compared to those in wild-type plants. (vu.nl)
  • We find that Lil3.2 from Arabidopsis thaliana forms heterodimers with Lil3.1 and binds chlorophyll. (diva-portal.org)
  • Interaction of Lil3.2 with chlorophyll a (231 +/- 49 nM) suggests that heterodimerization precedes binding of chlorophyll in Arabidopsis thatiana. (diva-portal.org)
  • NADK2, an Arabidopsis Chloroplastic NAD Kinase, Plays a Vital Role in Both Chlorophyll Synthesis. (deepdyve.com)
  • However, chlorophyllase, which converts chlorophyll to chlorophyllide, was found not to be essential for dephytylation in Arabidopsis thaliana . (plantcell.org)
  • In vitro, Arabidopsis PPH specifically dephytylates the Mg-free chlorophyll pigment, pheophytin (phein), yielding pheophorbide. (plantcell.org)
  • An Arabidopsis mutant deficient in PPH ( pph-1 ) is unable to degrade chlorophyll during senescence and therefore exhibits a stay-green phenotype. (plantcell.org)
  • Arabidopsis FLU mutant with damaged regulation can survive only either in a continuous darkness (protochlorophyllide is not dangerous in the darkness) or under continuous light, when the plant is capable to convert all produced protochlorophyllide into chlorophyll and do not overaccumulate it despite of the lack of regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • When Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension cultures were exposed to either osmotic or salinity stress, it was possible to define a large number of responsive proteins ( 6 ). (mcponline.org)
  • We have constructed a genomic DNA library from Polystichum munitum (n = 41), a homosporous fern, and have screened the library for sequences homologous to the chlorophyll a/b-binding (CAB) protein genes of higher plants. (pnas.org)
  • Lhcb1 is the most abundant chlorophyll a/b-binding protein in eukaryotic phototrophs and often is coded by several nuclear genes. (agrisera.com)
  • We report here functional characterization of two closely related ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter genes, AtMDR1 and AtPGP1 , in light and auxin responses. (plantphysiol.org)
  • We showed that loss-of-function atmdr1 and atpgp1 mutants display hypersensitivity to far-red, red, and blue-light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation, reduced chlorophyll and anthocyanin accumulation, and abnormal expression of several light-responsive genes, including CAB3 , RBCS , CHS , and PORA , under both darkness and far-red light conditions. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Parallel to the reduced chlorophyll content, the expression levels of two POR genes, encoding key enzymes in chlorophyll synthesis, were down regulated in the nadk2 plants. (deepdyve.com)
  • Expression of 12 genes converts endogenous protoporphyrin IX into chlorophyll a, turning E. coli cells green. (sciencemag.org)
  • Several genes related to cell metabolism, including those involved in the metabolisms of cell wall, carbohydrates and antioxidants, light reactions, biotic and abiotic stress responses, as well as genes coding for transcription factors (TFs), protein kinases (PKs) and proteins involved in the abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene signaling pathways, were differentially regulated by drought stress. (springer.com)
  • At warm temperatures, FCA binds to the promoter regions of POR genes to promote their transcription through histone acetylation. (nih.gov)
  • Expression analyses revealed that transcription of pqo is initiated 45 bp upstream of the translational start site and that it is organized in an operon together with genes encoding a putative metal-activated pyridoxal enzyme and a putative activator protein. (asm.org)
  • Genetic deletion of proteins resembling Type IV pilins in : their role in binding or transfer of newly synthesized chlorophyll Synechocystis : their role in binding or transfer of newly synthesized chlorophyll sp. (ovid.com)
  • their role in binding or transfer of newly synthesized chlorophyll sp. (ovid.com)
  • Initial studies reveal that under steady state conditions mature leaves incorporate newly synthesized chlorophyll entirely into LHC trimers, whereas chlorophyll is distributed throughout the photosynthetic apparatus during active growth. (usda.gov)
  • We dissected its interaction with a full-length membrane protein substrate in aqueous solution by insertion of site-specific photo-activatable cross-linkers into in vitro -synthesized Lhcb1 (major light-harvesting chlorophyll-binding protein of photosystem II). (biochemj.org)
  • After discussing the reconstitution method itself, the key elements required for it (xanthophylls and chlorophyll b ) and the timescales of the process, a few examples of the achievements made by using recombinant proteins are presented. (springer.com)
  • Water-soluble chlorophyll protein forms a tetrameric complex with only four identical chlorophyll-binding sites. (nature.com)
  • Water-soluble Chlorophyll Protein tetramer binding four chlorophylls (in green). (phys.org)
  • The team of Professor Harald Paulsen at the JGU Faculty of Biology used the so-called water-soluble chlorophyll protein of cauliflower and Virginia pepperweed as a model protein. (phys.org)
  • He received his doctorate for his thesis on water-soluble chlorophyll protein jointly from Mainz University (Paulsen group) and the University of Padova in Italy (group of Professor Donatella Carbonera). (phys.org)
  • Daniel M. Palm et al, Chlorophyll a/b binding-specificity in water-soluble chlorophyll protein, Nature Plants (2018). (phys.org)
  • Reconstitution of the peridinin-chlorophyll a protein (PCP): Evidence for functional flexibility in chlorophyll binding. (coralcoe.org.au)
  • Does the peridinin-chlorophyll a -protein detach to regulate light capture? (chemweb.com)
  • The photosynthetic apparatuses of these dinoflagellates possess a unique photosynthetic antenna system incorporating the peridinin-chlorophyll a -protein (PCP). (chemweb.com)
  • Chlorophyll allocation during chloroplast development and repair [abstract]. (usda.gov)
  • As well as the practical benefits of miniaturisation and simplicity for understanding sequence-structure-function relationships, minimalism should also support the abstract conceptualisation of membrane proteins as modular components for synthetic biology. (portlandpress.com)
  • Photosystem II light-harvesting proteins are the intrinsic transmembrane proteins CP43 (PsbC) and CP47 (PsbB) occurring in the reaction centre of photosystem II (PSII). (wikipedia.org)
  • This family also includes the iron-stress induced chlorophyll-binding protein CP43', encoded by the IsiA gene, which evolved in cyanobacteria from a PSII protein to cope with light limitations and stress conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aggregates of the chlorophyll-binding protein IsiA (CP43') dissipate energy in cyanobacteria" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • A review of the structural properties of the photosystem II chlorophyll binding proteins, CP47 and CP43, is given and a model of the transmembrane helical domains of CP47 has been constructed. (chemweb.com)
  • Chlorophyll a/b binding polypeptides (CABp) are integral thylakoid membrane proteins containing three membrane-spanning helices. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Our results delineate a minimum set of enzymes required to make chlorophyll and establish a platform for engineering photosynthesis in a heterotrophic model organism. (sciencemag.org)
  • C) POR enzymes shifts the chlorophyll-ROS balance toward autotrophic development. (nih.gov)
  • This also refutes another claim from the poster: that the high magnesium content of chlorophyll builds enzymes that restore your sex hormones. (skeptoid.com)
  • Interesting, given that enzymes are proteins made of amino acids, which contain no magnesium at all. (skeptoid.com)
  • To investigate the distribution of PQO enzymes in prokaryotes and to clarify the relationship between PQO, pyruvate oxidase (POX), and acetohydroxy acid synthase enzymes, we compiled and analyzed the phylogeny of respective proteins deposited in public databases. (asm.org)
  • The structural basis for additivity of effects of mutations on protein function was examined by determining crystal structures of single and double mutants in the hydrophobic core of gene V protein. (unt.edu)
  • Almost all photosynthesis-related chlorophyll (Chl) binding proteins exhibit hydrophobic properties and are embedded in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast. (rroij.com)
  • cpSRP43 thus effectively binds substrates autonomously, and its ability to independently bind an extended 20+-residue substrate region highlights a major difference with other SRP types where the SRP54 subunit binds to hydrophobic target sequences. (biochemj.org)
  • The results also show that cpSRP43 can bind to a hydrophobic, three-membrane span, substrate in aqueous solution, presumably reflecting a role for cpSRP in the chloroplast stroma. (biochemj.org)
  • Fucoxanthin-chlorophyll proteins in diatoms: 18 and 19 kDa subunits assemble into different oligomeric states. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These resolutions have provided much information on the arrangement of protein subunits and cofactors but are insufficient to reveal the detailed structure of the catalytic centre of water splitting. (nature.com)
  • Genetic and sequence analyses have indicated that dark protochlorophyllide reductase consists of three protein subunits that exhibit significant sequence similarity to the three subunits of nitrogenase, which catalyzes the reductive formation of ammonia from dinitrogen. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The interaction of Deg1 with the PsbS protein and the minor LHCII subunits implies its involvement in the regulation of both excess energy dissipation and state transition adaptation processes. (nih.gov)
  • The dark-operative version is a completely different protein, consisting of three subunits that exhibit significant sequence similarity to the three subunits of nitrogenase , which catalyzes the formation of ammonia from dinitrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • A cpSRP [chloroplast SRP (signal recognition particle)] comprising cpSRP54 and cpSRP43 subunits mediates the insertion of light-harvesting proteins into the thylakoid membrane. (biochemj.org)
  • This represents the most complete plant Photosystem I structure obtained thus far, revealing the locations of and interactions among 17 protein subunits and 193 non-covalently bound photochemical cofactors. (proteopedia.org)
  • Using the new crystal structure, we examine the network of contacts among the protein subunits from the structural perspective, which provide the basis for elucidating the functional organization of the complex. (proteopedia.org)
  • The Escherichia coli PQO enzyme, also designated pyruvate oxidase (POX), is a nonessential, peripheral membrane protein consisting of four identical subunits, each containing tightly bound flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and loosely bound thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) and Mg 2+ ( 4 , 22 , 37 , 38 , 75 ). (asm.org)
  • The GluTR site recognized by both GBP and Clp subunits includes a 30-amino-acid N-terminal peptide, which was previously designated as the 'heme-binding domain' (HBD). (elifesciences.org)
  • Chlorophylls are essential cofactors for photosynthesis, which sustains global food chains and oxygen production. (sciencemag.org)
  • Rubisco small subunit, chlorophyll a/b-binding protein and sucrose : fructan-6-fructosyl transferase gene expression and sugar status in single barley leaf cells in situ. (aber.ac.uk)
  • The expression of message for Rubisco small subunit (RbcS), chlorophyll a/b-binding protein (Cab), sucrose (Suc):fructan-6-fructosyl transferase (6-SFT), and Actin were measured in individual photosynthetic cells of the barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaf. (aber.ac.uk)
  • Subunit composition and pigmentation of fucoxanthin-chlorophyll proteins in diatoms: evidence for a subunit involved in diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin binding. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Mutation of Gly195 of the ChlH Subunit of Mg-chelatase Reduces Chlorophyll and Further Disrupts PS II Assembly in a Ycf48-Deficient Strain of Synechocystis sp. (frontiersin.org)
  • The chloroplast Deg1 protein performs proteolytic cleavage of the photodamaged D1 protein of the photosystem II (PSII) reaction center, PSII extrinsic subunit PsbO and the soluble electron carrier plastocyanin. (nih.gov)
  • By comparing the spectra of these mutants with those of the wild-type protein, the state of interaction of the carbonyl group, the coordination state of the central magnesium ion, and the dielectric constant (polarity) of the immediate environment in the binding pocket of the chlorophyll a molecule were defined for each cofactor binding site. (univr.it)
  • Magnesium is the only metallic component of chlorophyll. (gardeners.com)
  • Chlorophyll also has four nitrogen atoms and one lonely magnesium atom. (skeptoid.com)
  • Of the 14 densities assigned to chlorophyll, the model predicted that five have their magnesium ions within 4 Å of the imidazole nitrogens of histidine residues. (chemweb.com)
  • For the remaining seven histidine residues the densities attributed to chlorophylls were within 4-8 Å of the imidazole nitrogens and thus too far apart for direct ligation with the magnesium ion within the tetrapyrrole head group. (chemweb.com)
  • The molecular weight of chlorophyll-a is 893.49 and the molecular weight of chlorophyll-b is 907.47. (thescienceforum.com)
  • A molecular characterisation of the LHCII proteins can be found in Caffarri et al. (agrisera.com)
  • My research interests are primarily concerned with elucidating the molecular and biochemical mechanisms of the energy-storing reactions and photo-regulatory processes in photosynthetic organisms, especially the function of red-shifted chlorophylls in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms (cyanobacteria and algae). (edu.au)
  • We use a variety of approaches - molecular genetics, protein engineering, confocal fluorescence microscopy, liquid chromatography as well as structural and spectroscopic methods. (edu.au)
  • Pigment and pigment-bound protein analyses are performed by using a spectrophotometer, fluorescence photometer and other molecular spectral analysis methods. (edu.au)
  • New homologues of Brassicaceae water-soluble chlorophyll proteins shed light on chlorophyll binding, spectral tuning, and molecular evolution. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • In vitro pigment reconstitution studies on one-helix light-harvesting-like proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Determinants for cleavage of the chlorophyll a/b binding protein precursor: a requirement for a basic residue that is not universal for chloroplast imported proteins. (rupress.org)
  • We demonstrate that the precursor of the major light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding protein (LHCP of Photosystem II), encoded by a Type I gene, contains distinct determinants for processing at two sites during in vitro import into the chloroplast. (rupress.org)
  • Protochlorophyllide , [1] or monovinyl protochlorophyllide , is an immediate precursor of chlorophyll a that lacks the phytol side-chain of chlorophyll. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hence, plants need an efficient mechanism of regulating the amount of chlorophyll precursor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structural distortions induced by mutations in gene V protein decrease rapidly, but not isotropically, with distance from the site of mutation. (unt.edu)
  • Structure and expression of a pea nuclear gene encoding a chlorophyll a/b binding polypeptide. (springer.com)
  • LOCUS GHCAB 1746 bp DNA linear PLN 09-MAY-1995 DEFINITION G.hirsutum cab gene for chlorophyll ab binding protein. (umanitoba.ca)
  • TITLE Sequence of cab-151, a gene encoding a photosystem II type II chlorophyll a/b-binding protein in cotton JOURNAL Plant Mol. (umanitoba.ca)
  • The ability of halophytes to tolerate high salt is determined by the effective coordination between various physiological processes, metabolic pathways and protein or gene networks responsible for delivering salinity tolerance. (frontiersin.org)
  • LOCUS CRU17357 1740 bp DNA PLN 16-JUN-1995 DEFINITION Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast 30S ribosomal protein S4 (rps4) gene, complete cds. (bio.net)
  • LOCUS GPU09435 706 bp DNA PLN 01-JUN-1995 DEFINITION Gonium pectorale chloroplast protein synthesis elongation factor Tu (tufA) gene, partial cds. (bio.net)
  • LOCUS PMU09442 703 bp DNA PLN 01-JUN-1995 DEFINITION Pandorina morum chloroplast protein synthesis elongation factor Tu (tufA) gene, partial cds. (bio.net)
  • The daily onset of LHY gene expression was advanced by approximately 4 h in det1-1 mutant plants, suggesting that the wild-type DET1 protein might function to repress its transcription during the subjective night. (nih.gov)
  • Belongs to the Lhc super-gene family encodes the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding (LHC) proteins that constitute the antenna system of the photosynthetic apparatus. (bio-rad.com)
  • The promoter of Chlorophyll a/b binding protein 1 (CAB1) is light induced, and expression of the corresponding gene is expressed throughout the plant. (cbd.int)
  • This comparison led to the identification of 114 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs), and the presumed function of many of these could be defined on the basis of homology with orthologous gene products. (mcponline.org)
  • The Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Dicamba monooxygenase (DMO) gene is under control of the peanut chlorotic streak caulimovirus (PC1SV) Full-length transcipt (FLt) promoter and the Triticum aestivum (wheat) heat shock protein 17 terminator. (cbd.int)
  • The transcript produced contains the wheat chlorophyll a/b-binding 5' untranslated leader sequence (for improved gene expression), the Oryza sativa Actin 1 untranslated region (UTR) and intron (for improved gene expression), the targeting and UTR of Petunia hybrida Chloroplast Transit Peptide 4, and DMO. (cbd.int)
  • 7. A recombinant DNA molecule according to claim 6 , wherein the said crystalline protein is encoded by a synthetic B.t. gene. (google.com)
  • 9. A recombinant DNA molecule according to claim 3 , wherein the said structural gene codes for a pathogenesis related protein [PRP]. (google.com)
  • The Ectocarpus genome codes for 53 CBPs falling into all major families except the exclusively green family of chlorophyll a/b binding proteins. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The two-helix light harvesting like (Lil) protein Lil3 belongs to the family of chlorophyll binding light harvesting proteins of photosynthetic membranes. (diva-portal.org)
  • Water-soluble chlorophyll-binding proteins (WSCPs) are interesting model systems for the study of pigment-pigment and pigment-protein interactions. (lu.se)
  • The construction of artificial membrane proteins from first principles is of fundamental interest and holds considerable promise for new biotechnologies. (portlandpress.com)
  • These ideas are illustrated with selected examples that focus upon α-helical membrane proteins, and which demonstrate how such minimalist membrane proteins might be integrated into living biosystems. (portlandpress.com)
  • Why design membrane proteins? (portlandpress.com)
  • It is estimated that up to 30% of all proteins are integral membrane proteins [ 1 ], with at least one part of the protein sequence passing through a lipid bilayer membrane. (portlandpress.com)
  • In this minireview, we discuss the prospects of designing artificial membrane proteins from scratch - ' de novo ' - as a particular way to explore the fundamental principles of membrane biology and to realise new applications in synthetic biosystems. (portlandpress.com)
  • In the case of integral membrane proteins, there are at least two additional motivations for the prospective designer. (portlandpress.com)
  • The BchL peptide (ChlL in chloroplast and cyanobacteria) is an ATP-binding iron-sulphur protein of the dark form protochlorophyllide reductase, an enzyme similar to nitrogenase [ PMID: 10811655 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Cyanobacteria are classified as bacteria because their genetic material is not organized in a membrane-bound nucleus. (mercola.com)
  • Iron-starvation-induced protein A, also known as isiA, is a photosynthesis-related chlorophyll-containing protein found in cyanobacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides providing heme and its breakdown products, which are essential constituents of almost all organisms, the pathway supplies the chlorophyll (Chl) crucial for photosynthesis in cyanobacteria, algae, and plants ( Tanaka and Tanaka, 2007 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • During leaf senescence, chlorophyll is removed from thylakoid membranes and converted in a multistep pathway to colorless breakdown products that are stored in vacuoles. (plantcell.org)
  • In vitro protein degradation assays demonstrated that the LHY protein is turned over rapidly through the proteasome pathway. (nih.gov)
  • These findings add to recent evidence suggesting a role for DET1 in a ubiquitination pathway and identify a substrate for DET1-regulated protein turn-over. (nih.gov)
  • Next, we assemble a genetic module that encodes the complete chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway and show that it functions in Escherichia coli . (sciencemag.org)
  • At the last step of the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway chlorophyll synthase (CHLG) esterifies chlorophyllide a and b with phytyl or geranyl-geranyl pyrophosphate in chloroplasts. (springer.com)
  • Transgenic tobacco plants expressing CHLG RNA in sense and antisense orientation were examined for the effects of excessive and reduced ectopic CHLG expression, respectively, on the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway and the expression of chlorophyll-binding proteins. (springer.com)
  • Thus, reduced expression and activity of chlorophyll synthase caused a feedback-controlled inactivation of the initial and rate limiting step of the pathway leading to down regulation of the metabolic flow, while overexpression can mediate a stimulation of the pathway. (springer.com)
  • Chlorophyll synthase is proposed to be important for the co-regulation of the entire pathway and the coordination of synthesis of chlorophyll and the chlorophyll-binding proteins. (springer.com)
  • Recent studies have shown that proteins are transported into this membrane by a variety of mechanisms, some of which are derived from a cyanobacterial-type ancestor, whereas others have evolved in response to the more complex transport pathway used by cytosolically synthesized chloroplast proteins. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway is one of two general protein transport systems found in the prokaryotic cytoplasmic membrane and is conserved in the thylakoid membrane of plant chloroplasts. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The defining, and highly unusual, property of the Tat pathway is that it transports folded proteins, a task that must be achieved without allowing appreciable ion leakage across the membrane. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The integral membrane TatC protein is the central component of the Tat pathway. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Green regions survive the subsequent nights, likely because the synthesis of chlorophyll in the mature leaf tissue is greatly reduced anyway. (wikipedia.org)
  • A collection of articles that focus on an array of different scientific topics such as pathways, cancer, transmembrane proteins. (cusabio.com)
  • The regulatory protein is a transmembrane protein that is located in the thylakoid membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is essentially a lipid bilayer with transmembrane proteins floating in it. (slideshare.net)
  • Amino acid deletions in the cytosolic domains of the chlorophyll a-binding protein CP47 slow QA. (deepdyve.com)
  • Substitution of a single amino acid in a protein will often lead to substantial changes in properties. (unt.edu)
  • When amino acid substitutions are made at well-separated locations in a single protein, their effects are generally additive. (unt.edu)
  • Additivity of effects of amino acid substitutions is very useful because the properties of proteins with any combination of substitutions can be inferred directly from those of the proteins with single changes. (unt.edu)
  • This method has allowed, in particular, the engineering of mutant LHCs in which each of the residues coordinating the central Mg atoms of the chlorophylls was replaced by noncoordinating amino acids [Bassi, R., Croce, R., Cugini, D., and Sandonà, D. (1999) Proc. (univr.it)
  • Sequence analyses revealed that the mature region the BmWSCP cDNA was predicted to be 534 bp encoding a protein of 178 amino acid residues. (rroij.com)
  • Sequence similarity analysis with the other Class II WSCPs indicated that the mature region of the BmWSCP cDNA was 534 bp encoding a protein of 178 amino acid residues. (rroij.com)
  • The reason for this is that the proteins in the leaves contain amino acids that the plant needs to recycle. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The leaves' proteins are therefore degraded and the amino acids are stored in the trunk, branches, and roots until next year, when they are used as building blocks for new leaves. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Spirulina has a 60 percent protein level and contains all of the essential amino acids needed for human health. (mercola.com)
  • One of the special traits of spirulina is its rich protein content-it's 50 to 70 percent protein by weight and contains all of the essential amino acids. (mercola.com)
  • And spirulina's protein is biologically complete, containing all of the essential amino acids needed for human health. (mercola.com)
  • Upon variation of the amino acids near the chlorophyll binding site, the preference of the protein for one chlorophyll or the other changed. (phys.org)
  • In one case, exchanging a single amino acid altered the relative binding strengths by a factor of 40. (phys.org)
  • However, the integration of chlorophyll metabolism and transport into these processes remains poorly understood. (usda.gov)
  • The IsiA protein can also provide photoprotection for PSII. (wikipedia.org)
  • IsiA is also synthesized in cells grown under high light irradiances, protecting from photodamage Photosystem II light-harvesting protein Berera R, van Stokkum IH, d'Haene S, Kennis JT, van Grondelle R, Dekker JP (March 2009). (wikipedia.org)
  • LHCII trimers are composed of Lhcb1, Lhcb2, and Lhcb3 proteins in various trimeric configurations. (diva-portal.org)
  • It is a heterotrimeric complex formed by up to 3 different individual subtypes of chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins: Lhcb1, Lhcb2, and Lhcb3. (agrisera.com)
  • This antibody cross-reacts with three major LHCII proteins of Chlamydomonas , which are slightly smaller than Lhcam5 on SDS-gel. (agrisera.com)
  • 6M urea SDS-PAGE is one of the best systems that separate Lhcbm5 and the other major LHCII proteins. (agrisera.com)
  • Most of the chlorophyll, which lends plants their green color, is bound to a protein called LHCII. (bio-medicine.org)
  • LHCII is probably the most commonly prevalent membrane protein on earth. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Plants grown outside in natural sunlight had higher levels of VAZ (expressed per chlorophyll), compared with plants grown in low light in the laboratory, and the additional VAZ was mainly bound to the major LHCII complex, apparently in an acid-labile site. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Dobrowski SZ, Pushnik JC, Zarco-Tejada PJ, Ustin SL (2005) Simple reflectance indices track heat and water stress-induced changes in steady-state chlorophyll fluorescence at the canopy scale. (springer.com)
  • Universal protein resource accession number Q55274 for "Iron stress-induced chlorophyll-binding protein" at UniProt. (wikipedia.org)
  • The light-independent (dark) form of protochlorophyllide reductase plays a key role in the ability of gymnosperms, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria to form chlorophyll in the dark. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The evolution of CBPs has been debated, especially with respect to the origin of the LI818 subfamily, members of which function in non-photochemical quenching and have been found in chlorophyll a/c-containing algae and several organisms of the green lineage, but not in red algae so far. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Instead, our data favor an origin in an ancestral chlorophyll a/c-containing organism and a subsequent lateral transfer to some green algae, although an origin of LI818 proteins in a common ancestor of red and green algae cannot be ruled out. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Unlike other bacteria, they have chlorophyll and use the sun as an energy source, in the way plants and algae do. (mercola.com)
  • Later, by the sequence similarity, a similar protein was found in Chlamydomonas algae, [9] showing that this regulatory subsystem existed a long time before the angiosperms lost the independent conversion enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • A cofactor is any non-protein substance required for a protein to be catalytically active. (uniprot.org)
  • In addition, the structural impact of the absence of one chlorophyll a molecule and the quality of protein folding were evaluated for each of these mutated polypeptides. (univr.it)
  • This protein possesses only a single chlorophyll binding site per protein molecule, and is able to bind both chlorophyll versions. (phys.org)
  • when visible light is absorbed by a chlorophyll molecule, what happens? (brainscape.com)
  • The molecule has as many as 127 hydrogen and carbon atoms, but only 5 or 6 atoms of oxygen, and they're chemically bound so they're not available as absorbable oxygen for your blood. (skeptoid.com)
  • Deletion Mutants of Chlorophyll a/b Binding Proteins Are Efficiently Imported into Chloroplasts but Do Not Integrate into Thylakoid Membranes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • LMU researchers utilized a biophysical approach to understand how bacterial import proteins bind and selectively convey their cargoes across membranes. (phys.org)
  • Internally, the chloroplasts consists of stacks of flattened membranes called grana (black threadlike) suspended in a matrix of hydrophilic proteins. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Internally, it consists of stacks of flattened membranes called grana (threadlike) suspended in a matrix of hydrophilic proteins. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Bollivar DW, Beale SI (1996) The chlorophyll biosynthetic enzyme Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester (oxidative) cyclase (characterization and partial purification from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Synechocystis sp . (springer.com)
  • Chlorophyll (Chl) is nature's gift to oxygenic photosynthetic organisms which capture solar radiation and convert it into chemical energy to drive the whole process of photosynthesis for proper growth and development of plants. (springer.com)
  • Proteases are extremely important for all living organisms, but the proteases that break down chlorophyll-binding proteins are the only ones whose activities can be observed from space. (bio-medicine.org)
  • This project focuses on the light-harvesting strategy in red-shifted chlorophyll containing photosynthetic organisms. (edu.au)
  • Chlorophyll-binding proteins (CBPs) constitute a large family of proteins with diverse functions in both light-harvesting and photoprotection. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Ballottari M, Girardon J, Betterle N, Morosinotto T, Bassi R. Identification of the chromophores involved in aggregation-dependent energy quenching of the monomeric photosystem II antenna protein Lhcb5. (springer.com)
  • Connelly JP, Müller MG, Bassi R, Croce R, Holzwarth A.R. Femtosecond transient absorption study of carotenoid to chlorophyll energy transfer in the light-harvesting complex II of photosystem II. (springer.com)
  • Eaton-Rye, Julian 2004-10-13 00:00:00 The Photosystem II (PSII) core antenna chlorophyll a-binding protein, CP47, contains six membrane-spanning α-helices separated by five hydrophilic loops: A-E. To identify important hydrophilic cytosolic regions, oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis was employed to introduce short segment deletions into loops B and D, and the C-terminal domain. (deepdyve.com)
  • The data therefore suggest an important structural role for loop D in the assembly of PSII and a potential interaction between the C-terminal domain of CP47 and the PSII reaction center that, when perturbed, results in photoinduced protein aggregates involving the D1 protein. (deepdyve.com)
  • [3] In angiosperms , the last step, conversion of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyll, is light-dependent, and such plants are pale ( chlorotic ) if grown in the darkness. (wikipedia.org)
  • This structure shows changes in the substrate binding regions of the enzyme and a reduction in active site volume that are consistent with the observed changes in substrate specificity from fatty acids in the native enzyme to small alkanes in P450PMO. (unt.edu)
  • TatC captures substrate proteins by binding their signal peptides. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These polypeptides bind to chlorophyll a and β-Carotene and pass the excitation energy on to the reaction centre. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biogenesis of the photosystems in oxygenic phototrophs requires co-translational insertion of chlorophyll a . (frontiersin.org)
  • here we review recent progress in our understanding of the biogenesis of this important class of protein. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • In the sll1694/sll1695 deletion mutant in a PS I-less/chlL− background, which is unable to synthesize chlorophyll in darkness, chlorophyll synthesis during the first hours of illumination after dark incubation was 30% slower than in the PS I-less/chlL− strain. (ovid.com)
  • However, deletions in the C-terminal domain did not prevent the assembly of PSII reaction centers although the mutant Δ(S471-T473), with a deletion adjacent to helix VI, exhibited retarded QA − oxidation kinetics and the PSII-specific herbicide, atrazine, bound less tightly in the Δ(S471-T473) and Δ(F475-D477) strains. (deepdyve.com)
  • We suggest decreased chlorophyll in the ChlH-G195E mutant provides a background to screen for the role of assembly factors that are not essential under optimal growth conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Furthermore, the light-driven, rhythmic accumulation of the LHY protein in the lhy-1 mutant was altered by the det1-1 mutation, suggesting that DET1 might regulate LHY expression at the post-transcriptional level. (nih.gov)
  • Introduction of plasmid-bound pqo into a pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-negative C. glutamicum strain partially relieved the growth phenotype of this mutant, indicating that high PQO activity can compensate for the function of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. (asm.org)
  • Sugar transport through sugar transport proteins (STP) is unique to plants, and is important for the proper development of plant organs such as pollen. (phys.org)
  • Chlorophyll is the pigment used by all plants for photosynthesis. (phys.org)
  • Non-photoconvertible water-soluble chlorophyll-binding proteins, called Class II WSCPs, have been identified in some Brassicaceae plants. (rroij.com)
  • In September the chlorophyll starts to disappear from the leaves of plants. (bio-medicine.org)
  • A research team at Ume's Plant Science Center (UPSC) has now identified a protein that helps bring out the color splendor of plants in the fall. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Protein functional diversity at the post-transcriptional level is regulated through spliceosome mediated pre-mRNA alternative splicing (AS) events and that has been widely demonstrated to be a key player in regulating the functional diversity in plants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Nitrogen helps plants make the proteins they need to produce new tissues. (gardeners.com)
  • Chlorophyll, as you know, is used by plants to synthesize proteins and sugars, using radiation from the sun to power a chemical reaction, converting carbon dioxide from the air and water from the ground into proteins and sugars, exhausting oxygen as a waste byproduct. (skeptoid.com)
  • Wheat grass is high in oxygen like all green plants that contain chlorophyll, and the brain functions at an optimal level in a high-oxygen environment. (skeptoid.com)
  • Influence of structure on binding of chlorophylls to peptide ligands. (nih.gov)
  • Metabolic activity in photosynthetic bacteria, structure/function relationships in chlorophyll-binding proteins. (colgate.edu)
  • Deletions in the C-terminal domain also created mutants with large protein aggregates that were recognized by an antibody raised against the PSII reaction center D1 protein. (deepdyve.com)
  • Surface display is a powerful technique that utilizes natural microbial functional components to express proteins or peptides on the cell exterior. (unt.edu)
  • AS isoforms might encode distinct functional proteins, or might be nonfunctional, which harbor a premature termination codon. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The results presented uncover a functional link between heme content and the post-translational control of GluTR stability, which helps to ensure adequate availability of chlorophyll and heme. (elifesciences.org)
  • We demonstrate that binding of heme to the GluTR-binding protein (GBP) inhibits interaction of GBP with the N-terminal regulatory domain of GluTR1, thus making it accessible to the Clp protease. (elifesciences.org)
  • It binds chlorophyll and helps catalyze the primary light-induced photochemical processes of PSII. (rcsb.org)